Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum
Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity…
Ya-Ju Chang; Laura Schneider; Matthias Finkbeiner
Children are an important stakeholder group for sustainable development, as they represent the interface between current and future generations. A comprehensive assessment of child development (CD) in the context of sustainable development is still missing. In this paper, as a first step, a literature review is conducted to identify relevant aspects and gaps related to the assessment of CD. The main issues of CD are categorized into seven themes: health, education, safety, economic status, re...
Full Text Available Children are an important stakeholder group for sustainable development, as they represent the interface between current and future generations. A comprehensive assessment of child development (CD in the context of sustainable development is still missing. In this paper, as a first step, a literature review is conducted to identify relevant aspects and gaps related to the assessment of CD. The main issues of CD are categorized into seven themes: health, education, safety, economic status, relationships, participation, and newly proposed environmental aspects. The corresponding subthemes and criteria are classified accordingly (e.g., nutrition, child mortality, immunization, etc., are assigned to the theme health. However, gaps in current studies, such as the heterogeneous classification of relevant aspects, regional and societal bias in addressing certain aspects, the limited number of subthemes, and criteria and the missing inclusion of environmental aspects impede the assessment of sustainable child development. To address the existing gaps, a comprehensive framework, the Sustainable Child Development Index (SCDI, is proposed. The SCDI is based on sustainable development as the core value, considers relevant aspects of CD with regard to newly-proposed environmental aspects and includes 26 aspects on an outcome and 37 indicators on a context level to tackle the heterogeneous classifications and interdependencies of relevant aspects. The proposed index intends to strengthen the stakeholder perspective of children in sustainability assessment.
Assessment is integral to preschool curriculum. Within contemporary preschool pedagogy, the assessment of child development and learning, which represents a basis for curriculum planning, is considered one of preschool standards of quality. In this paper, we present the difference between scientific observation which is based on developmental psychology, and the pedagogical assessment of child development and learning. We outline the purpose of assessing child development and learning in earl...
Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko
Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.
Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal
Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the implications of child care subsidies for child development. In this paper, we provide a systematic assessment of the impact of subsidy receipt on a wide ran...
The US Department of Energy Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL), through the DOE Pinellas Area Office (PAO) and GE Neutron Devices (GEND), is proposing a joint venture to operate a Partnership School and Child Development Center at the Pinellas Plant. The Child Development Center/Partnership School proposal has been developed. The building has been constructed, teachers and staff selected, and the building made ready for immediate occupancy. The proposed action addressed by this environmental assessment is the operation and utilization of the school as a Partnership School, a preschool Child Development Center, and a before- and after-hours child care facility. In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970, the potential impacts from the operation of the proposed action are assessed. Additionally, since the proposed school is located next to an industrial facility, impacts on the school population from routine plant operations, as well as abnormal events, are analyzed, and changes in plant operation that may be prudent are considered. 25 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.
... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... Excellent June 7, 2016 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...
Many of the challenges facing children now are a function of the changing times, including increases in urbanization, political violence, changing family forms, and, in some a cases, decreased supplies of adequate food. This paper reviews the evolving nature of these risks. In addition, the paper analyzes the development of formal and informal strategies to ameliorate the vulnerability and promote the resilience of young children to these risks. The paper identifies four stages in the researc...
Wild, Ellen L; Fehrenbach, S Nicole
The Tool for Assessment and Planning (the Tool) assists public health teams in designing child health information integration projects from planning through early implementation. The tool is a companion to Integration of Newborn Screening and Genetic Services Systems with Other Maternal and Child Health Systems: A Sourcebook for Planning and Development (the Sourcebook). The Tool and the Sourcebook focus on 9 key elements considered critical to supporting information systems integration. The 9 key elements are: leadership, project governance, project management, stakeholder involvement, organizational and technical strategies, technical support and coordination, financial support and management, policy support, and evaluation. Project teams can use the Tool to assess their organizational readiness and capacity by examining the critical components and strategies required to support success based on the 9 key elements. The questions are intended to promote discussion among project team members and to identify specific action steps. The Tool includes a planning matrix to track those action steps and to identify accountable personnel. Strategically examining the critical elements and documenting next steps increases the likelihood of a successful integration project. PMID:15643358
J. Piotrowski; H.G.M. Vossen; P.M. Valkenburg
Decades of research have shown that the relationship between media and childhood is not unidirectional but reciprocal. In this article, both directions of the media-child development relationship are presented. We discuss how child development predisposes children's media use and preferences by revi
Gordon, Rachel A.; Fujimoto, Ken; Kaestner, Robert; Korenman, Sanders; Abner, Kristin
The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) is widely used to associate child care quality with child development, but its validity for this purpose is not well established. We examined the validity of the ECERS-R using the multidimensional Rasch partial credit model (PCM), factor analyses, and regression analyses with data from…
The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child abuse and some theoretically or empirically tested factors associated with child abuse. Using the split-half validation procedure, the 5-factor, 64-it...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Sri Lanka, behavioural problems have grown to epidemic proportions accounting second highest category of mental health problems among children. Early identification of behavioural problems in children is an important pre-requisite of the implementation of interventions to prevent long term psychiatric outcomes. The objectives of the study were to develop and validate a screening instrument for use in the community setting to identify behavioural problems in children aged 4-6 years. Methods An initial 54 item questionnaire was developed following an extensive review of the literature. A three round Delphi process involving a panel of experts from six relevant fields was then undertaken to refine the nature and number of items and created the 15 item community screening instrument, Child Behaviour Assessment Instrument (CBAI. Validation study was conducted in the Medical Officer of Health area Kaduwela, Sri Lanka and a community sample of 332 children aged 4-6 years were recruited by two stage randomization process. The behaviour status of the participants was assessed by an interviewer using the CBAI and a clinical psychologist following clinical assessment concurrently. Criterion validity was appraised by assessing the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values at the optimum screen cut off value. Construct validity of the instrument was quantified by testing whether the data of validation study fits to a hypothetical model. Face and content validity of the CBAI were qualitatively assessed by a panel of experts. The reliability of the instrument was assessed by internal consistency analysis and test-retest methods in a 15% subset of the community sample. Results Using the Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis the CBAI score of >16 was identified as the cut off point that optimally differentiated children having behavioural problems, with a sensitivity of 0.88 (95% CI = 0.80-0.96 and specificity of 0.81 (95% CI = 0
Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it is actually the parental behaviour that influences child's development or, on the contrary, parental behaviour represents mainly a reaction to child's characteristics. Behaviour genetic studies have provided evidence that many traditional measures of family environment, including measures of parental behaviour, show genetic influence, thus reflecting genetically influenced child characteristics. Behaviour geneticists also suggest that environmental influences on child (personality development include predominantly non-shared environment, i.e. individual child's specific experiences, his/her own perceptions and interpretations of objectively same events. Based on empirically determined significant genetic effects on most behavioural traits and inconclusive results of studies on effects of family environment on child development some authors believe that it is not the parents, but rather genetic factor and/or peers who have the key role in child development. With respect to findings of behaviour genetics numerous recent studies of relations between family environment and child development involve child specific measures of (extrafamilial environment and examine the interactions between characteristics of an individual and those of his/her environment.
Harpham, Trudy; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Long, Tran Thap; Tuan, Tran
There are increasing calls for more child specific measures of poverty in developing countries and the need for such measures to be multi-dimensional (that is not just based on income) has been recognised. Participatory Poverty Assessments (PPAs) are now common in international development research. Most PPAs have been undertaken with adults and…
Blau, David M.
The effect of group size, staff-child ratio, training, and other characteristics of child care on child development is estimated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. In contrast to most previous research, the sample is large and nationally representative, the data contain good measures of the home environment, and there are repeated measures of child development. Child care characteristics have little association with child development on average. Associations are found ...
Leonardo Arregoces, MSc; Felicity Daly, DrPH; Catherine Pitt, MSc; Justine Hsu, MSc; Melisa Martinez-Alvarez, PhD; Giulia Greco, PhD; Prof. Anne Mills, PhD; Prof. Peter Berman, PhD; Dr. Josephine Borghi, PhD
Background: Tracking of aid resources to reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) provides timely and crucial information to hold donors accountable. For the first time, we examine flows in official development assistance (ODA) and grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (collectively termed ODA+) in relation to the continuum of care for RMNCH and assess progress since 2003. Methods: We coded and analysed financial disbursements for maternal, newborn, and child hea...
Larkin, Fionnuala; Guerin, Suzanne; Hobson, Jessica A; Gutstein, Steven E
The aim of this project was to replicate and extend findings from two recent studies on parent-child relatedness in autism (Beurkens, Hobson, & Hobson, 2013; Hobson, Tarver, Beurkens, & Hobson, 2013, under review) by adapting an observational assessment and coding schemes of parent-child relatedness for the clinical context and examining their validity and reliability. The coding schemes focussed on three aspects of relatedness: joint attentional focus (Adamson, Bakeman, & Deckner, 2004), the capacity to co-regulate an interaction and the capacity to share emotional experiences. The participants were 40 children (20 with autism, 20 without autism) aged 6-14, and their parents. Parent-child dyads took part in the observational assessment and were coded on these schemes. Comparisons were made with standardised measures of autism severity (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS: Lord, Rutter, DiLavore, & Risi, 2001; Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS: Constantino & Gruber, 2005), relationship quality (Parent Child Relationship Inventory, PCRI: Gerard, 1994) and quality of parent-child interaction (Dyadic Coding Scales, DCS: Humber & Moss, 2005). Inter-rater reliability was very good and, as predicted, codes both diverged from the measure of parent-child relationship and converged with a separate measure of parent-child interaction quality. A detailed profile review revealed nuanced areas of group and individual differences which may be specific to verbally-able school-age children. The results support the utility of the Relationship Development Assessment - Research Version for clinical practice. PMID:24366957
Chan, Ko Ling
The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child…
Theresa S Betancourt
Full Text Available The child protection community is increasingly focused on developing tools to assess threats to child protection and the basic security needs and rights of children and families living in adverse circumstances. Although tremendous advances have been made to improve measurement of individual child health status or household functioning for use in low-resource settings, little attention has been paid to a more diverse array of settings in which many children in adversity spend time and how context contributes to threats to child protection. The SAFE model posits that insecurity in any of the following fundamental domains threatens security in the others: Safety/freedom from harm; Access to basic physiological needs and healthcare; Family and connection to others; Education and economic security. Site-level tools are needed in order to monitor the conditions that can dramatically undermine or support healthy child growth, development and emotional and behavioral health. From refugee camps and orphanages to schools and housing complexes, site-level threats exist that are not well captured by commonly used measures of child health and well-being or assessments of single households (e.g., SDQ, HOME.The present study presents a methodology and the development of a scale for assessing site-level child protection threats in various settings of adversity. A modified Delphi panel process was enhanced with two stages of expert review in core content areas as well as review by experts in instrument development, and field pilot testing.Field testing in two diverse sites in India-a construction site and a railway station-revealed that the resulting SAFE instrument was sensitive to the differences between the sites from the standpoint of core child protection issues.
This paper estimates production functions of child cognitive and social development using a panel data of nine-year old children each with over two hundred home and school inputs as well as family background variables. A tree regression method is used to conduct estimation under various specifications. A small subset of inputs is found consistently important in explaining variances of child development results, including the number of books a child has at various ages and how often a mother r...
The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it ...
Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.
Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael O'Hara);…
Hodges, Eric A.; Johnson, Susan L.; Hughes, Sheryl O.; Hopkinson, Judy M.; Butte, Nancy F; Fisher, Jennifer O
Parent-child feeding interactions during the first two years of life are thought to shape child appetite and obesity risk, but remain poorly studied. This research was designed to develop and assess the Responsiveness to Child Feeding Cues Scale (RCFCS), an observational measure of caregiver responsiveness to child feeding cues relevant to obesity. General responsiveness during feeding as well as maternal responsiveness to child hunger and fullness were rated during mid-morning feeding occasi...
The paper presents a model where the interplay between fertility, child labour, and education can explain economic stagnation when parents live in an environment of high child mortality. If in contrast child mortality is low, the solution of the parental decision problem leads to perpetual economic growth. The two long-run states are connected by a path of demographic transition and economic take-off along which the incidence of child labour disappears. The paper also discusses alternative po...
Nadine F. Santos
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between parental tobacco consumption and the prevalence of psychomotor development disorders in children between 6 and 22 months of age.METHOD: One hundred and nine mothers, fathers, and their babies participated in the study. The sociodemographic and clinical conditions were assessed using questionnaires. Tobacco consumption was assessed using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND. Child development was evaluated using the Scale of Psychomotor Development in Early Childhood.RESULTS: There was a significant negative correlation between the father's morning smoking (FTND and the child's language development quotient; r = -0.41, p = 0.005, r2 =0.15. The children of mothers without nicotine dependence had a higher mean language development quotient than children of mothers with nicotine dependence; F(1, 107 = 5.51, p = 0.021, ?p2 = 0.05.CONCLUSION: Parental smoking appears to have a detrimental effect on child development.
Donohue, Brad; Pitts, Michelle; Chow, Graig M; Benning, Stephen D; Soto-Nevarez, Arturo; Plant, Christopher P; Allen, Daniel N
Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death among children, with approximately 45% of injuries occurring in and around the home. Rates of home injury are particularly high in the homes of caregivers who are referred for intervention services by child welfare agents. However, there are few validated methods of home safety assessment available. The Home Safety and Beautification Assessment (HSBA) was developed to assist intervention planning specific to home safety and appearance in a sample of 77 mothers who were referred to treatment by Child Welfare Services. Exploratory factor analysis of HSBA items indicated that safety and appearance factors emerged across rooms in the home, and internal consistencies were good. For each room, the sums of assessors' safety and appearance intervention priority item scores were correlated with the assessors' global safety and appearance ratings of the entire home, respectively. The participants' overall room attractiveness scores were correlated with the assessors' overall room appearance intervention priority scores, whereas the participants' ratings of overall room safety were not correlated with the assessors' overall room safety intervention priority scores. Participants' scores on the Abuse subscale of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, personal income, and education level were not associated with the assessors' home safety and appearance intervention priority ratings, suggesting the HSBA is assessing constructs that are distinct from child abuse potential and socioeconomic status. The results support the HSBA in a sample referred to treatment by child welfare agents. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26322799
Tadeja Zupančič; Tomaž Novljan; Matevž Juvančič; Špela Verovšek; Maruška Šubic Kovač; Andreja Istenič Starčič; Matija Svetina
The following article is targeted at the comprehensive co-shaping of the conditions required for the active education on the effective and concrete contributions to sustainable development, with the emphasis based on the built environment or architecture. It defines the role of education on the built environment or architecture within the concept of sustainable development, determines the grounds for adjusting the methods of delivering architectural contents and defines the educational conten...
Woolley, Michael E.; Bowen, Gary L.; Bowen, Natasha K.
Cognitive pretesting (CP) is an interview methodology for pretesting the validity of items during the development of self-report instruments. The present research evaluates a systematic approach to the analysis of CP data. Materials and procedures were developed to rate self-report item performance with CP interview text data. Five raters were trained in the application of that system. Estimates of inter-rater reliability found acceptable to substantial levels of inter-rater agreement. Result...
... Past Emails CDC Features Interactive Tools to Track Child Development Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Watch for ... Do if I Suspect a Problem with My Child's Development? Talk with your child's doctor. If you or ...
Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal
Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…
Hawkinson, Laura E.
Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…
Mª Ignacia Arruabarrena
Full Text Available Psychological maltreatment is one of the main and potentially more destructive forms of child maltreatment. It is difficult to identify, assess and treat. Compared to other forms of child maltreatment such as sexual abuse, physical abuse and neglect, attention received from researchers, child protection service managers and practitioners has been scarce. A review of available knowledge about psychological maltreatment reveals challenges to define the concept in ways useful to policy makers and practitioners. This paper presents a review of definitions of child psychological maltreatment and several measures available for assessing its severity. The review has been used in the Comunidad Autónoma Vasca (Spain to develop more specific criteria for the identification and severity assessment of child psychological maltreatment in Spanish children services. This paper develops these criteria.
Thompson, Ross A.
Children's early social experiences shape their developing neurological and biological systems for good or for ill, writes Ross Thompson, and the kinds of stressful experiences that are endemic to families living in poverty can alter children's neurobiology in ways that undermine their health, their social competence, and their ability…
Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.
This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…
Violence against children has many faces. Child physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse and interparental violence can cause acute and permanent damage and affect children's development and their life plans in the long term. In industrialized nations almost 1 child in 10 is affected. Up to 10% of child physical abuse cases involve the central nervous system with 80% of these cases occurring during the first year of life. Worldwide more than 50,000 children die as a result of violence, abuse and neglect every year, according to the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF. In Germany, there are about 120 cases of non-accidental head injury per year. In addition to the officially known cases there is a large grey area for all forms of violence. Recognition of these cases and the provision of help for the victims require an appropriate suspicion and understanding of the pertinent pathophysiology. Suspicion must be based on a well-documented medical history and multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Medical confidentiality prevents the disclosure of such information making early detection networks and guidelines for collaboration absolutely indispensable. (orig.)
Christina Felfe; Michael Lechner; Andreas Steinmayr
Despite the relevance of cognitive and non-cognitive skills for professional success, their formation is not yet fully understood. This study fills part of this gap by analyzing the effect of sports club participation, one of the most popular extra-curricular activities, on children’s skill development. Our results indicate positive effects: both cognitive skills, measured by school performance, and overall non-cognitive skills improve by 0.13 standard deviations. The results are robust when ...
Being the signatory of UNCRC (1992), India globally recognized the significance of child rights. The Constitutions of India also guarantees certain child rights covering basic issues, like ‘health’, ‘education’ and protection from ‘hazardous employment’ and ‘exploitation’. However, despite the existence of many legal provisions, the vulnerability of Indian children in different dimensions cannot be undermined. This paper attempts to locate the status of child in development ladder of Indian e...
Del Boca, Daniela; Flinn, Christopher; Wiswall, Matthew
The growth in labor market participation among women with young children has raised concerns about the potential negative impact of the mother's absence from home on child outcomes. Recent data show that mother's time spent with children has declined in the last decade, while the indicators of children’s cognitive and noncognitive outcomes have worsened. The objective of our research is to estimate a model of the cognitive development process of children nested within an otherwise standard mo...
Angold, A; Prendergast, M; Cox, A; Harrington, R; Simonoff, E; Rutter, M
Great advances have been made during the last 20 years in the development of structured and semi-structured interviews for use with psychiatric patients. However, in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry there have been weaknesses in the specification and definition of both symptoms and the psychosocial impairments resulting from psychiatric disorder. Furthermore, most of the available interviews for use with children have been tied to a single diagnostic system (DSM-III, DSM-III-R, or ICD-9). This has meant that symptom coverage has been limited and nosological comparisons have been inhibited. The Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) represents an attempt to remedy some of these shortcomings. This paper outlines the principles adopted in the CAPA to improve the standardization, reliability and meaningfulness of symptom and diagnostic ratings. The CAPA is an interviewer-based diagnostic interview with versions for use with children and their parents, focused on symptoms occurring during the preceding 3 month period, adapted for assessments in both clinical and epidemiological research. PMID:7480451
Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz
Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background as...
Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa
Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…
Das Gupta, Monica; Lokshin, Michael; Gragnolati, Michele; Ivaschenko, Oleksiy
Levels of child malnutrition in India fell only slowly during the 1990s, despite significant economic growth and large public spending on the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program, of which the major component is supplementary feeding for malnourished children. To unravel this puzzle, the authors assess the program's placement and its outcomes using National Family Health Survey data from 1992 and 1998. They find that program placement is clearly regressive across states. The s...
Das Gupta, Monica; Lokshin, Michael; Gragnolati, Michele; Ivaschenko, Oleksiy
Levels of child malnutrition in India fell only slowly during the 1990s, despite significant economic growth and large public spending on the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program, of which the major component is supplementary feeding for malnourished children. To unravel this puzzle, the authors assess the program's placement and its outcomes using National Family Health Survey data from 1992 and 1998. They find that program placement is clearly regressive across states. The s...
@@ Together with two US psychologists, Prof. JING Qicheng from the CAS Institute of Psychology (IP) has been honored with the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions to Child Development in 2007 by the US-based Society for Research in Child Development(SRCD).
... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem KidsHealth > For Parents > Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem ... response might be "I can't." What Is Self-Esteem? Self-esteem is similar to self-worth (how ...
I.I.E. Staal; J.M.A. Hermanns; A.J.P. Schrijvers; H.F. van Stel
Objective: As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents’ concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional j
Hendricks, Alison; Conradi, Lisa; Wilson, Charles
This article describes a community assessment process designed to evaluate a specific child welfare jurisdiction based on the current definition of trauma-informed child welfare and its essential elements. This process has recently been developed and pilot tested within three diverse child welfare systems in the United States. The purpose of the…
de Jager, K.; VAN RATINGEN,M; Lesire, P.; Guillemot, H.; Pastor, C.; SCHNOTTALE,B; TEJERA,G; LEPRETRE,J P
The European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee wants to promote the use of more biofidelic child dummies and biomechanical based tolerance limits in regulatory and consumer testing. This study has investigated the feasibility and potential impact of Q-dummies and new injury criteria for child restraint system assessment in frontal impact. European accident statistics have been reviewed for all ECE-R44 CRS groups. For frontal impact, injury measures are recommended for the head, neck, chest an...
... Resources & Services Parenting Resource 18–24 Months: Your Child’s Development Download Files Feb 10, 2016 This is a ... home language in the same sentence. Downloads Your Child's Development: 18–24 Months PDF 464 KB Read more ...
Staal, I.I.E.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Schrijvers, A.J.P.; Stel, van, H.F.
Objective: As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents’ concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional judgment on the risk level of future parenting and developmental problems: the Structured Problem Analysis of Raising Kids (SPARK). Previous results have shown that the risk assessment of the SPARK ...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child development centers. 55.9... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES General § 55.9 Child development centers. (a) The Commandant may make child development services available at child development centers located at Coast Guard installations. (b) Regular...
The impact of early attachment relationships and child-adult attachment relationships to children’s social and emotional development has been recognised for a long time. Since the pioneering attachment theories of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth highlighting the importance of secure child-adult attachments, many other theories from various perspectives have risen to fill in the gaps. These theories are examined with the framework of foster care in mind. In Finland, the primary solution fo...
Ruhm, Christopher J.
This study investigates the relationship between parental employment and child cognitive development using data from multiple years of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Maternal labor supply during the first three years of the child's life is predicted to have a small negative effect on the verbal ability of 3 and 4 year olds and a substantial detrimental impact on the reading and math achievement of 5 and 6 year olds. Working during the second and third years appears to have less fa...
Evans, I M
Argues that behavioral principles have been translated into practice with children too literally and that a more integrative framework is required to guide assessment and treatment. The framework advocated is Staats's (1996) psychological behaviorism. This is a consistently behavioristic, positivist paradigm, using multilevel theory to emphasize the integration of social learning, developmental, and personality principles. Psychological behaviorism thus allows for a much more expansive approach than has typically been the case within child behavior therapy. Given the complexity of this perspective, I selected four broad tenets of the theory and suggested their implications for clinical contexts. The further translation from clinical models to specific clinical practices is quite difficult but may yield more flexible and substitutable practices than do unidimensional treatment outcome studies. Of special importance, the principles demonstrate how children themselves can retain the central focus of child behavioral assessment and modification. Specific practices still need to be constructed according to an understanding of the multiple sources of influence on children as well as the culture of childhood itself. PMID:10587900
Rajesh K Chudasama
Full Text Available Background: The Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS program aims at enhancing survival and development of children from the vulnerable sections of the society. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess various nutritional activities at anganwadi centers (AWCs in different districts of Gujarat state. Settings and Design: AWCs, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A total of 130 AWCs were selected including 95 from rural and 35 from urban area from April 2012 to March 2015 including 12 districts of Gujarat and union territory, Diu. Five AWCs were selected from one district randomly. Detailed information about various nutritional activities including growth monitoring, preschool education (PSE and nutrition and health education (NHED, coverage for supplementary nutrition (SN, type of food provided under SN, and its issues at AWCs was collected. Statistical Analysis: Percentages, proportions, Chi-square/Fischer's exact test. Results: Growth chart was available in 96.9% AWCs. The malnutrition was reported among 14.9% children. PSE received by all children was only in 14.6% AWCs. NHED meeting was conducted in 73.8% AWCs. High coverage of receiving SN among enrolled was reported in pregnant and lactating mothers (84.6% and adolescents (79.2%. SN was fully acceptable in 91.5% AWCs. Interruption in SN supply during last 6 months was reported in 55.4% AWCs. Conclusion: Regular workshops should be conducted for ICDS staff to sensitize them about the importance of and practices on PSE. Interruption in supply of SN should be corrected by regular and adequate provision of SN foods to the beneficiaries.
Robert Kaestner; Hope Corman
In this paper we extensively analyze the impact of child health and other family characteristics on the cognitive achievement of children between the ages of five and nine. We estimate both cross sectional and fixed effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Several of our results challenge the conclusions found in the existing literature. First, we find only a weak relationship between several measures of child health and child cognitive development. Second, we...
Bergmeier, Heidi; Aksan, Nazan; McPhie, Skye; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Baur, Louise; Milgrom, Jeannette; Campbell, Karen; Demir, Defne; Skouteris, Helen
Mother-child mealtime interactions during preschool years is an important but overlooked factor when evaluating the influence of parent-child relationships on child eating and weight. This paper describes the validation of the Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) coding system adapted for assessing parent-child interactions during food preparation and consumption situations. Home-based mealtimes of 94 mothers and their children (3.03 ± 0.75 years) were filmed at two time points, 12-months apart. Filmed dimensions of mutual mother-child responsiveness, shared positive affect, maternal control relating to food and child compliance were assessed. Objective BMI and maternal reports of parenting, feeding, child eating, diet and child temperament were also collected. Correlations, repeated measures ANOVAs and regressions were performed to examine the validity of MRO variables and their stability across both time points. Validation analysis showed the MRO coding system performed as expected: dyads with higher MRO scores expressed lower control/power assertion, lower child non-compliance, and greater committed compliance. The measure demonstrated sensitivity to specific contexts: maternal responsiveness, mother and child positive affect were higher during food consumption compared to food preparation. Coded dimensions were stable across time points, with the exception of decreases in maternal responsiveness in food consumption and child non-compliance in food preparation. MRO and maternal dimensions were correlated with maternally reported parenting and feeding measures. Maternal responsiveness (inversely) and child responsiveness (positively) were concurrently associated with child fussy eating, and child refusal was prospectively and inversely associated with child fussy eating. Findings suggest the adapted MRO coding system is a useful measure for examining observed parent-child mealtime interactions potentially implicated in preschoolers' eating and weight
Wood, F; Reinhold, A J
Community-based groups are organized around particular aspects of early childhood development (ECD), such as literacy, parent education, and early childhood activities. In the Colombian national program, community households call upon women to devote a portion of their home to organized child care for minimal material reward. The Indian Child Development Service subsidizes the payment of organizers; and Kenyan parents construct basic preschool facilities, provide school lunches, and subsidize a teacher. In such cases the government plays a subordinate role, while the burden of program maintenance is carried by the community. These programs share the characteristics that children and adults learn side by side; adult learning ranges from women's literacy, to health, organizational issues, or small-scale economic development; a strong cultural component emphasizes mother tongue language learning, indigenous child-rearing practices, and local working models; physical structures are in homes; capacity-building for the adults is central which will be transferred to other spheres of community life. In the remote coastal villages of Colombia, an organization called Promesa works with mothers on designing their preschool children's educational activities. Promesa began to confront other priority needs in the villages, especially in environmental health and malaria control. A 1990 assessment related that participants' pride, self-confidence, and ability to solve problems regarding the healthy development of their children increased; groups learned to make use of the physical, human, and institutional resources from their environments; and participants' children remained in school and performed better. Conclusions from a decade of loose experimentation suggest that through communication community women can be organized to provide basic early education and early childhood activities can help rural children over the cultural barrier of school. PMID:12317893
Felfe, Christina; Hsin, Amy
How do maternal work conditions, such as psychological stress and physical hazards, affect children's development? Combining data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network allows us to shed some light on this question. We employ various techniques including OLS with…
Watson, Mark; Nota, Laura; McMahon, Mary
Herein, the contributions to this special issue and positions the field of child career development in terms of its past, present, and future are considered. There is an initial brief overview of past developments in the field, specifically as described in seminal reviews. The article then considers the present status of and future agenda for the…
... Resources & Services Parenting Resource 30–36 Months: Your Child’s Development Download Files Feb 10, 2016 Older toddlers are ... go?” Then you two can switch. Downloads Your Child's Development: 30–36 Months PDF 373 KB Read more ...
Pressley, Michael; McCormick, Christine B.
Filling a tremendous need, this is the first graduate-level child development text written specifically for future educators. The volume provides a solid understanding of major theories of development, focusing on how each has informed research and practice in educational contexts. Topics include the impact of biology and early experiences on the…
Addresses the problems of child survival and development in developing countries by discussing the biomedical causes and the concomitant social determinants of high infant mortality rates. Describes four intervention strategies recommended by UNICEF: growth monitoring, oral rehydration therapy, breast feeding, and immunization. (HOD)
Adegbehingbe Stella M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, occurring during pregnancy, delivery/labour and breastfeeding, still remains high in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The World Health Organization recommends HIV infected mothers exclusively breastfeed their infants, unless replacement feeding is Acceptable, Feasible, Affordable, Sustainable and Safe (AFASS. Health care workers are responsible for providing counselling to mothers on the risks and benefits of infant feeding options allowing mothers to make an ‘informed choice’, but this role is challenging and mostly subjective. The aim of this study was to develop and content validate an AFASS assessment tool that could be used for infant feeding counselling in SSA. Methods An AFASS assessment tool was developed based on the evidence and tools available regarding why replacement feeding is not AFASS in SSA (15 questions. Fifty seven experts involved in PMTCT programmes in five SSA countries were approached to participate as members of the Delphi expert panel (purposive sampling and snowballing. A web-based survey, utilising a 4-point Likert scale, was employed to gain consensus (>75% agreement from the expert panel following the Delphi technique. Results A final panel of 15 experts was obtained. Thirteen of the 15 questions in the tool achieved consensus agreement. Experts suggested some additional questions, and that double-barrelled questions were split. Consensus was achieved regarding the applicability and appropriateness of the tool within a SSA context. Experts all agreed that the tool will be useful for the purpose for which it was designed. Suggestions made by the expert panel were incorporated into the revised tool. Conclusions The findings of this study confirm that this AFASS counselling tool may be appropriate and useful for SSA. Ideally the revised tool should be tested by providers of infant feeding advice with the aim of adoption into routine PMTCT programmes in SSA
Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz
Earlier research suggests that children's development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children's cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments...
Juliana Martins de Souza
Full Text Available Objectives: to perform concept analysis of the term child development (CD and submit it to review by experts. Method: analysis of concept according to the hybrid model, in three phases: theoretical phase, with literature review; field phase of qualitative research with professionals who care for children; and analytical phase, of articulation of data from previous steps, based on the bioecological theory of development. The new definition was analyzed by experts in a focus group. Project approved by the Research Ethics Committee. Results: we reviewed 256 articles, from 12 databases and books, and interviewed 10 professionals, identifying that: The CD concept has as antecedents aspects of pregnancy, factors of the child, factors of context, highlighting the relationships and child care, and social aspects; its consequences can be positive or negative, impacting on society; its attributes are behaviors and abilities of the child; its definitions are based on maturation, contextual perspectives or both. The new definition elaborated in concept analysis was validated by nine experts in focus group. It expresses the magnitude of the phenomenon and factors not presented in other definitions. Conclusion: the research produced a new definition of CD that can improve nursing classifications for the comprehensive care of the child.
Forbes, P.A.; Rooij, L. van; Rodarius, C.; Crandall, J.
The current study presents a development and validation approach of a child human body model that will help understand child impact injuries and improve the biofidelity of child anthropometric test devices. Due to the lack of fundamental child biomechanical data needed to fully develop such models a
Mirna Albuquerque Frota
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the perception of mothers regarding the care and development of their children. Methods: This was a descriptive and qualitative study, conducted in a Basic Health Unit (UBS in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, in the period from July to October, 2008. The subjects were twenty mothers who accompanied their children in childcare consultation and met with favorable clinical conditions. Data collection techniques used free observation and semistructured interview consisting of questions involving the perception of child development and care. Results: By means of data analysis the following categories emerged: “Smile and play: mother’s perception regarding the development of the child”; “Take care: emphasis on breastfeeding and body hygiene”. The main source of nonverbal communication that the child has to convey affection and love is the smile, being an essential activity to child development. We verified that the care with breastfeeding and body hygiene suggest behavioral indicators of maternal sensitivity. Final considerations: The childcare consultation held in UBS is essential, because it allows integration of ideas and actions shared with the professional-parent dyad, thus providing the arousal of new experiences in care and the influence on child development.
Rodriguez, Christina M.; Russa, Mary Bower; Harmon, Nancy
Objectives: The present investigation reports on the development and initial validation of a new analog task, the Parent-Child Aggression Acceptability Movie Task (P-CAAM), intended to assess respondents' acceptance of parent-child aggression, including both physical discipline and physical abuse. Methods: Two independent samples were utilized to…
A basic assumption in psychotherapy with children is that the parent-child relationship is central to the child's development. This article describes the Joint Painting Procedure, an art-based assessment for evaluating relationships with respect to the two main developmental tasks of middle childhood: (a) the parent's ability to monitor and…
Protecting children’s development is a key principle of international children’s rights law. However, while the meanings of children’s development are a central concern of disciplines such as psychology, sociology, neurology and pedagogy, so far there has been no systematic analysis of the meaning of the child’s legal right to development. This thesis remedies this significant gap in our knowledge by establishing the foundations for analysing the child’s right to development, as protected by ...
Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce
Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…
Duncan, Greg J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Examines consequences of family poverty for child development, noting evidence that deep or persistent poverty early in childhood adversely affects children's ability and achievement. Argues that although the 1996 welfare reforms spurred many welfare-to-work transitions, their time limits and sanctions are likely to deepen poverty among some…
Denholm, R. E.
Recent evidence suggests adverse childhood experiences (maltreatment and household dysfunction) may have long-term effects on adult health. One possible pathway is through physical development. This thesis investigated the prevalence of child maltreatment and household dysfunction in a population sample, and assessed their association with child-to-adult height and pubertal development. The 1958 British birth cohort includes all children (≈17,000) born in one week, March 1958, followed-up to ...
Syed Sadat Ali; Dhaded; Shivprasad Goudar
Background: In India, child malnutrition is mostly the result of high levels of exposure to infection and inappropriate infant and young child feeding and caring practices and has its origins almost entirely during the first 2 to 3 years of life. This study aims in assessing the impact of breast feeding on child development of children at 3 years. Methods: About 530 children at 3 years were assessed for developmental delay by Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). Growth measurements and he...
Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon
The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. Based on preliminary state-reported data from the federal Office of Child Care, this fact sheet provides a snapshot of CCDBG program participation in 2012, noting…
Snyder, Howard N.; Espiritu, Rachele C.; Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Petechuk, David
The number of child delinquents entering the juvenile justice system is increasing, as evidenced by rising arrest rates and court caseloads. Compared with adolescents who become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents between the ages of 7 and 12 have a two- to threefold greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic…
To date, the study of gene-environment interactions in the human population has been dominated by epidemiology. However, recent research in the neuroscience field is now advancing clinical studies by addressing specifically the mechanisms by which gene-environment interactions can predispose individuals towards psychopathology. To this end, appropriate animal models are being developed in which early environmental factors can be manipulated in a controlled manner. Here we will review recent studies performed with the common aim of understanding the effects of the early environment in shaping brain development and discuss the newly developing role of epigenetic mechanisms in translating early life conditions into long-lasting changes in gene expression underpinning brain functions. Particularly, we argue that epigenetic mechanisms can mediate the gene-environment dialogue in early life and give rise to persistent epigenetic programming of adult physiology and dysfunction eventually resulting in disease. Understanding how early life experiences can give raise to lasting epigenetic memories conferring increased risk for mental disorders, how they are maintained and how they could be reversed, is increasingly becoming a focus of modern psychiatry and should pave new guidelines for timely therapeutic interventions.
Bech-Larsen, Tino; Jensen, Birger Boutrup
hall-test of children’s and parents’ quality formation and to the latter’s willingness to pay for such products. The findings show poor congruence between parent and child quality evaluations due to the two parties emphasising different quality aspects. Results also indicate, however, that improved...... parental knowledge of their children’s quality assessments significantly affect the willingness to pay. Accordingly, interaction between parents and children should be promoted when developing, testing and marketing new and healthier food products for children....
Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W
In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation. PMID:25844514
... NICHD Science Advances Supported Networks, Programs & Initiatives NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) ... Sunsetted/For Reference Only The NICHD started the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), ...
Frijters, Paul; Johnston, David W.; Shah, Manisha; Shields, Michael A.
We estimate the effect of early child development on maternal labor force participation using data from teacher assessments. Mothers might react to having a poorly developing child by dropping out of the formal labor force in order to spend more time with their child, or they could potentially increase their labor supply to be able to provide the funds for better education and health resources. Which action dominates is therefore the empirical question we seek to answer in this paper. Importa...
Romich, Jennifer L.
Randomized social policy experiments (SPEs) are an important methodology for investigating topics in child development. This article provides a framework for understanding how evidence from SPEs can add to knowledge about child development. The use of SPEs for child development questions to date is summarized and lessons from the applied economics…
Foundation for Child Development, 2009
The Foundation for Child Development Child and Youth Well-Being Index Project at Duke University issues an annual comprehensive measure of how children are faring in the United States. The Child Well-Being Index (CWI) is based on a composite of 28 "Key Indicators" of wellbeing that are grouped into seven "Quality-of-Life/Well-Being Domains,"…
Gangrade, K D
This article discusses the social development of female children in India. Social development is "not merely an effort to provide ad hoc growth targets in each of the sectors of planning," but an integrative concept. Sustainable human development, according to Gus Speth (1994), is development that not only generates economic growth, it distributes its benefits equitably, regenerates the environment, and empowers people. India is ranked as 5th out of 132 countries in the 1994 World Bank Report, but 135th out of 173 in the Human Development Report. In India, there were 9000 dowry-related deaths in 1993. Son preference occurs regardless of social class. The sex ratio declined as low as 811 females per 1000 males in Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan. The government of India developed a National Action Plan that is committed to the survival, protection, and development of female children. The Integrated Child Development Scheme, in 2696 blocks with a coverage of 250,000 villages and 224 urban slum areas, has demonstrated its effectiveness in increased child nutrition. Survival of girl children is 50% less than male survival in the first 30 days of life. Under 50% of girls are enrolled in schools. Bihar state is particularly backward in enhancing girls' status through modernization and increased female enrollments. Child labor may contribute about 25-29% of gross national product. Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh, with 40% of the total population, have over 60% of their females marrying below the age of 20 years. Recommended are universal enrollment of all children from scheduled caste and tribes; nonformal educational options for school drop outs, working children, and girls who cannot attend school; and increasing upper school education of girls. A variety of other recommendations are made on improving the status of women for working women, unmarried single women, and women in general. PMID:12158018
Full Text Available Many studies show that parental education and child's gender are the factors that influence child's language development. The purpose of the longitudinal study was to examine the effect of parental education and child's gender on language competence of children aged 3 to 4 years. The sample included 80 randomly chosen children, 39 girls and 41 boys, who were included in one of 13 preschool institutions from different regions of Slovenia. The average age of the children was 3;1 years at the first assessment and 4;1 years at the second assessment, one year later. The characteristics of child'slanguage development were assessed by 3 assessors in 3 different social contexts, in test situation by a trained examiner, in child's home environment by his mother and in the preschool institution by his preschool teacher. Results show a positive effect of mother's educational level on some of the measures of child's language development, e.g. achievements on Language development scale; developmental level of storytelling, mother's estimation of child's language competence, while the father's educational level had no significant effect on any of the obtained measures. Child's gender had only a small effect on his achievements on language expression subscale at the age of 3 and 4 as well as on the preschool teacher's estimations of child's language competence at 4 years of age.
Jensen, Sarah K G; Bouhouch, Raschida R; Walson, Judd L; Daelmans, Bernadette; Bahl, Rajiv; Darmstadt, Gary L; Dua, Tarun
High rates of child mortality and lost developmental potential in children under 5 years of age remain important challenges and drivers of inequity in the developing world. Substantive progress has been made toward Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 to improve child survival, but as we move into the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, much more work is needed to ensure that all children can realize their full and holistic physical, cognitive, psychological, and socio-emotional development potential. This article presents child survival and development as a continuous and multifaceted process and suggests that a life-course perspective of child development should be at the core of future policy making, programming, and research. We suggest that increased attention to child development, beyond child survival, is key to operationalize the sustainable development goals (SDGs), address inequities, build on the demographic dividend, and maximize gains in human potential. An important step toward implementation will be to increase integration of existing interventions for child survival and child development. Integrated interventions have numerous potential benefits, including optimization of resource use, potential additive impacts across multiple domains of health and development, and opportunity to realize a more holistic approach to client-centered care. However, a notable challenge to integration is the continued division between the health sector and other sectors that support child development. Despite these barriers, empirical evidence is available to suggest that successful multisectoral coordination is feasible and leads to improved short- and long-term outcomes in human, social, and economic development. PMID:26234921
Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.
The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles…
Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of recent personality trait research in children and early adolescents, with a special focus on studies in Slovenia. In the search for the precursors of the adult Big Five, a free-descriptive strategy to assess personality in non-adult samples is emphasized. Findings suggest that parents describe infants and toddlers in terms that are predominantly categorized in the Five-Factor Model taxonomy. Distributions of descriptors show developmental patterns from infancy to early adolescence and small cultural differences. Based on the parental natural language used to describe children across countries, ecologically valid assessment tools were created. The Inventory of Child Individual Differences (ICID; Halverson et al., 2003 was conceptualized as an age and culturally neutral instrument, and is widely used in Slovenia. Cross-sectional studies on ICID ratings of 3 to 14 year-olds provide information on age, sex, and cultural differences in child/adolescent personality trait expression across observers. Several aspects of trait consistency from early to middle childhood, using a longitudinal and multiple-informant approach, are reviewed, as well as the aspects of consistency across contexts and informants. Concurrent and longitudinal predictive values of the ICID trait assessments are shown in relation to several social and academic outcomes. In addition to the variable-centered method, results based on the child-centered approach suggest several internally replicable personality types. Developmental and cross-observer consistency in the structure of personality types, stability of type membership and its predictive validity versus personality traits is described. Prospects for future research on child personality development are suggested, including new methods of assessment and the investigation of links between early personality and important life outcomes.
Dexter, Casey A.; Stacks, Ann M.
This study examined relations between parenting, shared reading practices, and child development. Participants included 28 children (M = 24.66 months, SD = 8.41 months) and their parents. Measures included naturalistic observations of parenting and shared reading quality, assessments of child cognitive and language development, and home reading…
The article examines the dimensions of and recent developments in child poverty in EU countries as well as the determining factors in the case of Greece. Unlike what has been the case in most EU countries, the percentage of children (up to 15 years old) below the poverty line has increased over recent years in Greece, reaching 22% in 2006 (EU-15: 18%) based on the distribution of disposable income, although it is considerably smaller based on the distribution of consumption expenditure. The m...
Administration for Children & Families, 2014
This catalog provides short descriptions of major Division of Child and Family Development (DCFD) projects from Fiscal Year 2014. Multiple projects are described in the areas of child care, Head Start/Early Head Start, child welfare promotion, and the recognition of cultural diversity. An additional section features projects that fall into more…
Daniel, Jerlean E.
Jerlean Daniel, PhD, executive director of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, describes what quality child care looks like and how parents and child care providers can work together to nurture young children's healthy development. Dr. Daniel shares information about what to look for in a child care provider, how to…
... All Early Learning Child Care Early Literacy Early Math and Science Language and Communication Play School Readiness ... to talk and understand so much more. Choose books about things that interest your child and make ...
Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Magnuson, Katherine; Berger, Lawrence M.
This study examines the effects of nonresident fathers’ provision of formal and informal cash child support on children's cognitive skills and behavior at 5 years of age. Taking advantage of the panel structure of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we control for child outcomes at age 3 and a rich set of child and family sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics. We find that fathers’ provision of informal cash support (but not formal support), particularly at or above th...
Barros, Aluísio JD; Matijasevich, Alícia; Santos, Iná S.; Ricardo HALPERN
Background Child health has improved in many developing countries, bringing new challenges, including realization of the children's full physical and intellectual potential. This study explored child development within a birth cohort, its psychosocial determinants and interactions with maternal schooling and economic position.
Yusof Zamros YM
Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed to develop and test a Malay version of the Child-OIDP index, evaluate its psychometric properties and report on the prevalence of oral impacts on eight daily performances in a sample of 11–12 year old Malaysian schoolchildren. Methods The Child-OIDP index was translated from English into Malay. The Malay version was tested for reliability and validity on a non-random sample of 132, 11–12 year old schoolchildren from two urban schools in Kuala Lumpur. Psychometric analysis of the Malay Child-OIDP involved face, content, criterion and construct validity tests as well as internal and test-retest reliability. Non-parametric statistical methods were used to assess relationships between Child-OIDP scores and other subjective outcome measures. Results The standardised Cronbach’s alpha was 0.80 and the weighted Kappa was 0.84 (intraclass correlation = 0.79. The index showed significant associations with different subjective measures viz. perceived satisfaction with mouth, perceived needs for dental treatment, perceived oral health status and toothache experience in the previous 3 months (p Conclusion This study indicated that the Malay Child-OIDP index is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the oral impacts of daily performances in 11–12 year old urban schoolchildren in Malaysia.
Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.
The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This Introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles in this Special Section. The articles that follow describe the situations of children with successive foci on nutrition, parenting, discipline and vi...
Hakan Acaroglu; Ozcan Dagdemir
This paper inquires the effects of globalization on child labor in developing countries via cross-country analysis by decomposing globalization to its components; foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade. The findings reveal that the relationship between the child labor supply and gross domestic product per capita (PCGDP) can be expressed as a U shape. The study indicates that the child labor increases in the developing countries whose PCGDP levels are above $7500 since the net effect of glo...
Reviews recent studies on child sexual abusers and abuser treatment and their implications for patient assessment and treatment. Reviews recidivism outcome studies from the perspective of their contributions to questions of which sort of treatments appear to be effective with which populations, and suggests that clinicians be aware of the need for…
Freeman, Nancy K.; Brown, Mac H.
Describes the Collaborative Professional Assessment Process (CPAP) to guide the evaluation of the director of early childhood programs. Examines the assumptions upon which the CPAP is based. Lists the management skills and leadership abilities of successful child care directors. Includes the Director Self-Evaluation form and a program evaluation…
Psychoanalytically trained child and adolescent psychotherapists have applied psychodynamic thinking to family work, consultations and brief work for some time. Findings from a research project in which the author investigated the processes involved in generic assessments undertaken by herself and what actually takes place are presented. A description of some skills and techniques used by the author are also described. PMID:25604706
Chilton, Mariana; Chyatte, Michelle; Breaux, Jennifer
This paper addresses the importance of the first three years of life to the developing child, examines the importance of early childhood nutrition and the detrimental effects on child health and development due to poverty and food insecurity. As development experts learn more about the importance of the first three years of life, there is growing recognition that investments in early education, maternal-child attachment and nurturance, and more creative nutrition initiatives are critical to help break the cycle of poverty. Even the slightest forms of food insecurity can affect a young child's development and learning potential. The result is the perpetuation of another generation in poverty. Conceptualizing the poorly developed child as an embodiment of injustice helps ground the two essential frameworks needed to address food insecurity and child development: the capability approach and the human rights framework. The capability approach illuminates the dynamics that exist between poverty and child development through depicting poverty as capability deprivation and hunger as failure in the system of entitlements. The human rights framework frames undernutrition and poor development of young children as intolerable for moral and legal reasons, and provides a structure through which governments and other agencies of the State and others can be held accountable for redressing such injustices. Merging the development approach with human rights can improve and shape the planning, approach, monitoring and evaluation of child development while establishing international accountability in order to enhance the potential of the world's youngest children. PMID:18032801
Full Text Available Background: Children signify eternal optimism in the human being and provide potential for the development. Every nation whether developed or developing, links its future with the status of child. An understanding of the physical, social and behavioral factors is conducive to assess the current situation and vulnerability of any child. To ensure the utmost level of health and safety of a child, we need to have an insight of the violation of child rights. We conducted this study to assess and measure the breaches in child rights. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 200 children between 10 to 18 years of age in one of the field practice areas of Community Medicine department, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad. Results: More than 90% of the children were born in the hospital settings, fully vaccinated and living with their parents. Of these, 60% of the children reported to have some kind of illness in the past one year, and majority of them approached healthcare facility for that the treatment. Of these, 26% of them had low birth weight (LBW and 68% had body mass index (BMI <18.5. About 93% of the children were enrolled in either government or private school and out of them, 54% complained of the burden of either homework or tuition. Of these, 6.5% children were school dropouts and all of them were girls; 4% of them were child labors. Conclusion: The study indicated positive findings in the areas of child survival, development and to some extent, in the domain of right to participation, though there were poor environmental conditions and recreational activities. Prevalence of malnutrition and child labor was also high. Study results highlighted the need for adequate services in these areas.
Crossman, Sharyn M.; Adams, Gerald R.
Investigated whether a preschool intervention program for children from single-parent households could be effective in establishing the conditions appropriate for allowing the child to recover from the harmful consequences of divorce and limited adult-child interaction. (Author/DB)
Childhood obesity has been associated with delays in motor development using weight-for-length z-scores and subcutaneous fat. To study this further, percent body fat and motor development were assessed in children ages 3 to 24 months. Included were 455 children with a total of 1882 longitudinal obse...
Altamira Pereira da Silva Reichert
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of nurses regarding their practice in child care after training in child development surveillance, in the context of the Integrated Care for Childhood Prevalent Diseases. An exploratory study, using a qualitative approach, was developed between June and August 2009, by means of interviews with 11 nurses who participated in training workshops developed in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The thematic analysis helped identify three categories: weaknesses in child development surveillance before training; post-training qualified perspective: professional motivation and empowerment; and a new behavior in child development surveillance. The training was considered to be a powerful strategy for professional qualification and for changing the attitude of primary care nurses, motivating nurses to adopt a new behavior in child development surveillance.
Turner, Daniel; Rettenberger, Martin; Yoon, Dahlnym; Klein, Verena; Eher, Reinhard; Briken, Peer
Child sexual abuse occurring in a child- or youth-serving institution or organization has attracted great public and scientific attention. In light of the particular personal and offense-related characteristics of men who have abused children within such an institution or organization, it is of special importance to evaluate the predictive performance of currently applied risk assessment instruments in this offender population. Therefore, the present study assessed the risk ratings and predictive performance of four risk assessment instruments and one instrument assessing protective factors concerning any, violent and sexual recidivism in child sexual abusers working with children (CSA-W) in comparison with extra-familial child sexual abusers (CSA-E) and intra-familial child sexual abusers (CSA-I). The results indicate that CSA-W mostly recidivate with a sexual offense. Although all included risk measures seem to function with CSA-W, the Static-99 seems to be the instrument that performs best in predicting sexual recidivism in CSA-W. CSA-W had the most protective factors measured with the Structured Assessment of PROtective Factors (SAPROF). While the SAPROF could not predict desistance from recidivism in CSA-W, it predicted desistance from any recidivism in all CSA. As CSA-W frequently hold many indicators for pedophilic sexual interests but only a few for antisocial tendencies, it can be suggested that CSA-W are at an increased risk for sexual recidivism and thus risk measures especially designed for sexual recidivism work best in CSA-W. Nevertheless, CSA-W also hold many protective factors; however, their impact on CSA-W is not clear yet and needs further study. PMID:25527631
Feldman, Maurice A.; Battin, Susan M.; Shaw, Olivia A.; Luckasson, Ruth
This study investigated whether children with disabilities are excluded from mainstream child development research. Fifteen per cent of 533 articles from "Child Development" and "Developmental Psychology" (1996-2010) were randomly selected. The exclusion rate was 89.9% when no mention of participants with disabilities was…
Reid, Pamela Trotman, Ed.
This document consists of the four 2000 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) and providing a forum for important news, research, and information concerning advancements in child growth and development research. Each issue of the newsletter provides announcements and notices of…
Reid, Pamela Trotman, Ed.; Tucker, Thelma, Ed.
This document consists of the four 2002 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) and providing a forum for important news, research, and information concerning advancement in child growth and development research. Each issue of the newsletter includes announcements and notices of…
Reid, Pamela Trotman, Ed.; Ehart, Bridget, Ed.
This document consists of the four 2003 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) and providing a forum for important news, research, and information concerning advancement in child growth and development research. Each issue of the newsletter includes announcements and notices of…
Reid, Pamela Trotman, Ed.
This document consists of the four 2001 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) and providing a forum for important news, research, and information concerning advancements in child growth and development research. Each issue of the newsletter includes announcements and notices of…
Reid, Pamela Trotman, Ed.
This document consists of the three 1999 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the Society for Research in Child Development and providing a forum for important news, research, and information concerning advancements in child growth and development research. Each issue of the newsletter includes announcements and notices of…
Jager, K. de; Waagmeester, C.D.; Ratingen, M.R. van
The Q0 dummy is the newest addition to the multi-directional Q-series of child dnmmies developed in Europe. This dummy represents a 50 percentile six weeks old child. The biomechanical targets, design, materials and instrumentation are in line with the other Q-dummies. The Q0 dummy has been develope
Child Care Law Center, San Francisco, CA.
An in-depth assessment of all aspects of the San Francisco School District's Child Development Program (CDP) was conducted. Assessment measures included: (1) on-site observations of preschool, kindergarten, and school-age child care classroom environments and of teacher behaviors and sensitivity; (2) reviews of physical environments and provisions…
Although the literature on the effectiveness of child care centers in developing countries is thin, most of the studies have concluded that the provision of these services are beneficial to enhance the development of poor children at early ages. Using different matching techniques, the results in this paper contrast with that conclusion as it finds no support of a positive effect of a large scale child care program in Ecuador on any of the dimensions considered of cognitive development. This ...
... All Early Learning Child Care Early Literacy Early Math and Science Language and Communication Play School Readiness ... understand my feelings and others’ feelings too. Read books that talk about feelings. Stay calm during tantrums. ...
Ford, N D; Stein, A D
An estimated 200 million children worldwide fail to meet their development potential due to poverty, poor health and unstimulating environments. Missing developmental milestones has lasting effects on adult human capital. Africa has a large burden of risk factors for poor child development. The objective of this paper is to identify scope for improvement at the country level in three domains--nutrition, environment, and mother-child interactions. We used nationally representative data from large-scale surveys, data repositories and country reports from 2000 to 2014. Overall, there was heterogeneity in performance across domains, suggesting that each country faces distinct challenges in addressing risk factors for poor child development. Data were lacking for many indicators, especially in the mother-child interaction domain. There is a clear need to improve routine collection of high-quality, country-level indicators relevant to child development to assess risk and track progress. PMID:26358240
Dr. Bijendr Pradhan
The future of the Nation, our children turn to be the most vulnerable section of human society. The vulnerability of children could be seen from the prospective of their persistent physical strength, mental maturity and socio-cultural understanding. Considering these, degrading strength and the emerging up bringing needs of the child; The Constitution of India, Directive Principle of state policies, International Commitment such as The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Child (UNCRC),...
Romanelli, Lisa Hunter; Landsverk, John; Levitt, Jessica Mass; Leslie, Laurel K.; Hurley, Maia M.; Bellonci, Christopher; Gries, Leonard T.; Pecora, Peter J.; Jensen, Peter S.
The Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare Consensus Conference focused on developing guidelines in five key areas (screening and assessment, psychosocial interventions, psychopharmacologic treatment, parent engagement, and youth empowerment) related to children's mental health. This paper provides an overview of issues related to the…
Johnson, Genevieve Marie
Ecological systems theory assumes that child development is the consequence of ongoing reciprocal and spiraling interactions between the child and his/her microsystem (immediate home, school, and community environments). The increasing presence of digital technologies in children's immediate environments suggests the need for the proposed…
Uddin, Md. Jamal; Hossain, Md. Zakir; Ullah, Mohammad Ohid
This study uses data from the "Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS] 1999-2000" to investigate the predictors of child (age 1-4 years) mortality in a developing country like Bangladesh. The cross-tabulation and multiple logistic regression techniques have been used to estimate the predictors of child mortality. The cross-tabulation…
Mahoney, Joseph L.; Lord, Heather; Carryl, Erica
This longitudinal study assessed the role of afterschool program (ASP) participation in the development of child obesity and peer acceptance in a sample of 439 children. Most participants lived in poverty and were Hispanic or African American. Measurements of height and weight determined obesity status and peer acceptance was assessed through…
Mariana Alievi Mari
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the child development and evaluate a possible association with the commitment by biopsychosocial factors of children with and without congenital heart disease. Methods: Observational study of case-control with three groups: Group 1 - children with congenital heart disease without surgical correction; Group 2 - children with congenital heart disease who underwent surgery; and Group 3 - healthy children. Children were assessed by socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire and the Denver II Screening Test. Results: One hundred and twenty eight children were evaluated, 29 in Group 1, 43 in Group 2 and 56 in Group 3. Of the total, 51.56% are girls and ages ranged from two months to six years (median 24.5 months. Regarding the Denver II, the children with heart disease had more "suspicious" and "suspect/abnormal" ratings and in the group of healthy children 53.6% were considered with "normal" development (P≤0.0001. The biopsychosocial variables that were related to a possible developmental delay were gender (P=0.042, child's age (P=0.001 and income per capita (P=0.019. Conclusion: The results suggest that children with congenital heart disease are likely to have a developmental delay with significant difference between children who have undergone surgery and those awaiting surgery under clinical follow-up.
Tervo, Raymond C.; Kinney, Cheryl A.
Speech and language disorders are the most common developmental problems among preschool children. Early detection and remediation of delayed language development are important in helping the child establish appropriate social behavior and acquire additional information about the world through the use of language.
Pia S. Schober
The time fathers spend and the activities they perform with children have risen continuously in most Western countries. Increasing father involvement in child care has also been an explicit policy objective with many European countries implementing individual parental leave entitlements for fathers. Whereas these policies mainly aimed at facilitating reconciliation of market work and family care and promoting maternal employment, consequences for child development have received less attention...
S P Suchitra
Full Text Available Background: Ayurveda inventories for prakriti (constitution have been developed and validated for adults. Children, however, require different categories of quarter and questions, for example, to assess the intelligence, the questions can be related to their scholastic performances. Objective: To develop and standardize an inventory to assess the prakriti of the children, and to compare with Child Personality Questionnaire (CPQ. Materials and Methods: A 135-item Ayurveda child personality inventory (ACPI scale was developed on the basis of translation of Sanskrit verses describing vataja (A, pittaja (B, and kaphaja prakriti (C characteristics and by taking the opinions of experts (ten Ayurveda experts and three psychologists. Study was carried out in Maxwell public school, Bangalore. The scale was administered on parents of children of the age group 6-12 years . CPQ was administered on children of the age group 8-12 years. Results: The ACPI was associated with excellent internal consistency. The Cronbach′s alpha for A, B, and C scales were 0.77, 0.55, and 0.84, respectively, and the Split-half reliability scores were 0.66.0.39 and 0.84, respectively. Factor validity coefficient scores on each items was above 0.5. Scores on vataja, pittaja and kaphaja scales were inversely correlated. Items of V, P, and K scales showed significant correlation (values ranging from 0.39 to 0.84 with subscales of CPQ, which indicates that Eastern and Western psychology concept have good correspondence. Conclusions: The prakrti of the children can be measured consistently by this instrument. Scores on V and P scale showed good correlation with the anxiety primary scale of CPQ.
Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Ninos de Edad Pre-escolar: Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Preschool Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).
Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.
This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for preschool teachers or caregivers who work in center-based preschool day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system.…
Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Bebes y "Toddlers": Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Infant/Toddler Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).
Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.
This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for caregivers working in center-based infant and toddler day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system. Part 2 explains…
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Tennessee's Star-Quality Child Care Program prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…
Full Text Available This paper inquires the effects of globalization on child labor in developing countries via crosscountryanalysis by decomposing globalization to its components; foreign direct investment(FDI and trade. The findings reveal that the relationship between the child labor supply andgross domestic product per capita (PCGDP can be expressed as a U shape. The study indicatesthat the child labor increases in the developing countries whose PCGDP levels are above 7 500USD since the net effect of globalization is positive for the positive substitution effect is biggerthan the negative income effect. Data have been collected from UNICEF and World Bank.
Jensen, Lene Arnett; Larson, Reed W.
This volume brings together leading scholars to describe important new directions in research on child and adolescent development. This introductory chapter places their articles in the context of three larger trends in the field.
Del Boca, Daniela; Flinn, Christopher; Wiswall, Matthew
In this paper we utilize a model of household investments in the cognitive development of children to explore the impact of various transfer policies on the distribution of child cognitive outcomes in target populations. We develop a cost criterion that can be used to compare the cost effectiveness of unrestricted, restricted, and conditional cash transfer systems, and ï¬nd that conditional cash transfers are the most cost efficient way to attain any given gain in average child quality in a t...
Comer, James P.
The key to improving student achievement, the author asserts, is to pay attention to child and adolescent development. If this factor is overlooked, new approaches to curriculum, instruction, and assessment will have little chance of succeeding. But even troubled districts that have made development a priority have seen remarkable success. The…
Presumed perinatal ischemic stroke is the term used for cases in which an old stroke is diagnosed by the consequences of it and not by the acute symptoms. Many presumed perinatal ischemic strokes have congenital hemiparesis as the first manifestation, which is usually noticed between the fourth and eighth month of life as early hand preference. That is why the clear and persistent handedness developed before one year of age must be assumed as a warning sign of probable motor sequelae. In this paper we review the medical records of 15 cases of presumed perinatal ischemic stroke to assess the age at which the consultation led to the diagnosis, reason for consultation and age at development of handedness. PMID:27606651
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Leyva, Diana; Snow, Catherine E.; Treviño, Ernesto; Barata, M. Clara; Weiland, Christina; Gomez, Celia J.; Moreno, Lorenzo; Rolla, Andrea; D'Sa, Nikhit; Arbour, Mary Catherine
We assessed impacts on classroom quality and on 5 child language and behavioral outcomes of a 2-year teacher professional-development program for publicly funded prekindergarten and kindergarten in Chile. This cluster-randomized trial included 64 schools (child N = 1,876). The program incorporated workshops and in-classroom coaching. We found…
Anjana P, Dattatreya D Bant
Background: Malnutrition is a serious public health problem affecting the growth and development of children which have detrimental effect in later adolescent and adult life. Although Malnutrition is multifaceted problem, Infant and young child feeding practices by mothers is crucial for optimum growth and development of the children Objectives: 1) To Assess the Infant and Young child feeding practices followed by the Mothers. 2) To study the influence of feeding practices on weight of Under...
Phillips-Hing, Christine Dawn
Sixty families with their eldest child, aged 3 or 4 years, participated in this study of parent-child interactions and the development of social competency. Mother-child and father-child dyads were observed for 10 minutes each, completing either a gross motor or fine motor semi-structured laboratory construction task. Parental directiveness and scaffolding were coded and measures of child temperament, child receptive language, and child social competency in preschool were obtained. As expecte...
Stewart, Chris; Kirisci, Levent; Long, Abigail L; Giancola, Peter R
Neglect poses a significant risk for children throughout their development and is often linked with serious consequences that reach into adulthood. The Child Neglect Questionnaire (CNQ) fills existing gaps by incorporating multiple perspectives from both parents and the child, as well as measuring the complex phenomenon of neglect multidimensionally. Furthermore, this measure addresses the need for an instrument specifically developed for late childhood (ages 10-12), as much of the extant evidence and corresponding measures focus on young children and their mothers. A panel of three psychologists, using Cicchetti's model of child neglect as a theoretical guide, began by selecting items from an existing database. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and item response theory demonstrated the unidimensionality of physical, emotional, educational, and supervision neglect as well as a second-order construct of child neglect. Analyses controlling for risk status due to father's substance use disorder, socioeconomic status, and child's ethnicity demonstrated that father's and mother's (parental) neglect, particularly in the child's versions, had sound concurrent and predictive validity. Concurrently, at age 10-12, the child's version of both parents' neglect correlated with their parenting behaviors evaluated by other available measures. Prospectively, from 10-12 years of age to 11-13 years of age, parental neglect predicted child's drug use frequency with coexisting psychological dysregulation, psychiatric symptoms, antisocial behavior, non-normative sexual behavior, involvement with deviant peers and leisure activities thus demonstrating sound predictive validity. Also, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were excellent. The CNQ, particularly the child's version, may thus be useful for detecting children at high risk for parental neglect. PMID:25535250
Ana Paula Maurilia dos Santos
Full Text Available o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o desenvolvimento motor de uma criança com síndrome de Down e verificar os efeitos de um programa de intervenção motora específica. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva do tipo estudo de caso. Para a avaliação do desenvolvimento motor foram utilizados os testes da Escala de Desenvolvimento Motor - EDM que analisa as áreas da motricidade fina e global, equilíbrio, esquema corporal, organização espacial e temporal/linguagem, e lateralidade. Essa criança participou, respectivamente, de avaliação motora, intervenção motora (32 sessões, 2 vezes semanais e reavaliação motora. As intervenções motoras mostraram avanços positivos nas áreas da motricidade global, equilíbrio e organização espacial. A motricidade fina, esquema corporal e a organização temporal /linguagem não apresentaram avanços. Verificou-se que a linguagem foi a área de maior prejuízo. O quociente motor em todos os itens foi classificado como muito inferior, o que se caracteriza como déficit motor. Esses dados justificam a relevância de programas de intervenção motora para essa população.the objective of this study was to analyze the motor development of a child with Down syndrome and to verify the effect of a specific motor intervention program. This is a descriptive research case study. Motor development was evaluated using the Motor Development Scale - MDS, which analyzes both fine and gross motor skills as well as balance, body schema, spatial and temporal organization, language, and laterality. This child participated, respectively, of the motor assessment, motor intervention (32 sessions, twice weekly and motor reevaluation. Gains were demonstrated in motor intervention in the areas of the gross motor skills, balance and spatial organization. No improvement was shown in fine motor skills, body schema and temporal organization/ language. Language was found to be the area of lowest achievement. The motor
Child labor has been acknowledged as a serious and challenging issue in the civilized societies around the globe. Its continued existence remains a source of concern for all segments of human society. In spite of the threats of trade barriers, in spite of the call of moral understanding of the issue and active participation of government employers, workers and NGO’s, the prevalence of child labor in the developing nations is one proof that practical dependence on working children still has an...
De Paoli, Anna; Mendola, Mariapia
This paper investigates the labor market effect of international migration on child work in countries of origin. We use an original cross-country survey dataset, which combines information on international migration with detailed individual-level data on child labor at age 5-14 in a wide range of developing countries. By exploiting both within- and cross-country variation and controlling for country fixed effects, we find a strong empirical regularity about the role of international mobility ...
Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese
Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries. PMID:25982869
This study was designed to assess the efficacy of an early intervention project focusing on early stimulating experiences through parent-child play interactions, and their impact on young migrant Latino children's mental, motor, social-emotional, and language development. An experimental group of 30 children from 26 families and a control group of 14 children from 14 families participated in this assessment. Dependent measures included the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Preschool...
Full Text Available Documents concerning history of medicine during the Turkish reign (1552-1716 are very rare. However, there is evidence of plague epidemic in 18th century and cholera epidemic in the 19th century. The first medical institutions: The German Communal Hospital, The Serbian Hospital and the Pharmacy were founded in the second half of the 18th century. In the year 1803, children were vaccinated against variola. The first Serbian book about child care – "Čadoljub" was written by Dr. Gavrilo Pekarović (1812-1851 during his studies of medicine in Budapest. In 1927 the city founded a dispensary for the newborn. The Polyclinic for schoolchildren was established as a part of the Health Center in 1934. After World War II, Children's Department was opened in the Health Center, later on it was turned into Mother and Child Center. At the beginning of 1955, a provisional children's ward with 18 beds was established in the former sanatorium, whereas till the end of the year it had 49 beds. In May 1965, it was moved into a new hospital building. After integration of Hospital and the Health Center into a Medical Center in 1967, a department for children was founded and it consisted of the emergency center and a hospital. Parents counseling, dispensary for children and dispensary for schoolchildren were founded in August 1971. .
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are child development center... HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL CHILD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES General § 55.11 How are child development center fees established? (a) Fees for the provision of services at child development centers shall be set...
Bryant, Brenda K.; Zvonkovic, Anisa M.; Reynolds, Paula
Processes of child and adolescent vocational development include acquisition of knowledge, beliefs, and values about work options and requirements, exploration of interests that will be relevant for occupational interest development, development of academic aspirations, self-efficacy, expectations, and attainment. These elements serve to provide…
... investigates development throughout the entire life process, including fetal development and early childhood. This infographic describes what ... in obstetrics, maternal and pediatric infectious diseases, child development, rehabilitation and vaccine research, will deliver lectures and ... Obstetrician/ Gynecologist, Maternal-Fetal Medicine Specialist, Researcher, Mom Enhancing our flexibility to ...
Montano, Zorash; Mahrer, Nicole E.; Nager, Alan L.; Claudius, Ilene; Gold, Jeffrey I.
The objective of this study was to examine the level of agreement between child- and caregiver-reports of the child's psychosocial problems presenting to a Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) using a validated screening tool. This was an anonymous, prospective, cross-sectional, multi-informant (child and caregiver) study assessing cognitive,…
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Violations for which child labor civil money penalties may... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR VIOLATIONS-CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES § 579.3 Violations for which child labor civil money penalties may be assessed. (a) What constitutes the violation....
Fernald, Lia C. H.; Weber, Ann; Galasso, Emanuela; Ratsifandrihamanana, Lisy
Our objectives were to document and examine socioeconomic gradients across a comprehensive set of child development measures in a population living in extreme poverty, and to interpret these gradients in light of findings from the neuroscience literature. We assessed a nationally representative sample of 3-6-year-old children (n = 1332) from 150…
Williams, Nia; Mughal, Sabena; Blair, Mitch
Early detection of developmental problems improves outcomes for parents and children. Parents want to be involved in assessment and need high-quality, accurate, and reliable data on child development to help monitor progress and inform decisions on referral. The aim of this paper is to review which websites are readily accessible to parents on…
Alice Miller's work provides a theoretical framework to assess the effects of child abuse and its relationship to the development of creativity, hatred, and violence in the novel "Ender's Game." Analysis focuses on the extent to which children are manipulated in order to meet the needs of adults, the presence of behaviors such as the repression of…
Karnow, Gerald F.
This paper draws on the nearly 20 years' experiences of a school doctor working with teachers at the Rudolf Steiner School in New York City to describe general principles of assessing child development in relation to educational progress. The paper contrasts the customary role of school doctors (related to conducting physical examinations for…
Gofin, R.; Adler, B
OBJECTIVES: To develop a scale to assess physical disabilities after child or adolescent injuries. SETTING: The three main hospitals of Jerusalem. METHODS: Telephone interviews pertaining to the injury's effect on the functioning of children 4-17 years old (n = 281) were carried out six months after an injury. Disabilities were recalled by the parents for the period immediately after the injury (short term) and at the time of interview (long term). Of 25 questions derived from the Internation...
Lasting effects of child abuse and neglect are well recognised. Apart from physical effects resulting from injuries and neglect, the effects are on behaviour, emotional well-being, interpersonal relationships and cognitive functioning. These psychological aspects are now known to have their counterparts in brain structure, chemistry and function. The growing knowledge of brain development has shed new light on our understanding of the processes by which especially early abuse and neglect may have a profound effect on the child's later adjustment. The brain undergoes its greatest growth and development in the first years of life, (with a second phase in adolescence). While the sequence of development within the brain is genetically determined, the nature of this development is determined to a considerable extent on the young child's experiences. The absence of some experiences, such as extreme deprivation during sensitive periods of development may mean that certain functions will not develop. For most functions, the nature of experience will shape brain development. Negative experiences and certain ways of interaction will be incorporated into the brain's connectivity. While learning and new experiences continue throughout life, and their effects continue to be incorporated into brain structure and functioning, previous patterns cannot be erased, only added on to and more slowly. As we know from our adult experiences, learning is far faster in childhood. A further aspect of child maltreatment which has a profound effect on brain development is the significant neurobiological stress which the young, maltreated, child experiences. It is interesting to learn that secure attachment organisation protects the developing brain from the worst effects of the stress response. The effects of the experiences interact with the child's genetic resilience or vulnerability. PMID:25228749
Banham, Victoria; Hanson, Jane; Higgins, Alice; Jarrett, Michelle
In Australia, an exploratory study was grounded in U. Bronfenbrenner's ecological perspective of human development and his principles of reciprocity, affective tone, and developmental opportunity and developmental risk. It used D. Baumrind's (1979) work on child rearing styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) to explore the effect of…
Sosinsky, Laura Stout; Lord, Heather; Zigler, Edward
In secondary analyses of National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data, multiple indicators of quality (caregiver wages and turnover; child/staff ratio; caregiver education and professionalism; positive caregiving) were compared between child care centers by sector…
Horvath, Miranda A.H.; Davidson, Julia; Grove-Hills, Julie; Gekoski, Anna; Choak, Clare
This Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) was commissioned by the Office of the Children’s Commissioner (OCC) and conducted by Middlesex University. It centres on concerns about the level of child sexual abuse within the family environment (referred to in this report as ‘intrafamilial child sexual abuse or IFCSA) and how such abuse is being addressed by the child protection system and the criminal justice system. The OCC recently completed a two year Inquiry into child sexual exploitation in g...
Maholmes, Valerie, Ed.; Lomonaco, Carmela Gina, Ed.
Developed for an NIH training institute, this volume is organized around the most frequently asked questions by researchers starting their careers in applied research in child and adolescent development. With contributions from the leading scholars in the field, actual research experiences highlight the challenges one faces in conducting such…
Preiss, David Daniel; Calcagni, Elisa; Grau, Valeska
The article reviews recent classroom research developed in South America related to child and adolescent development. We review work about three themes: ethnicity, school climate and violence, and the learning process. The few studies found on ethnicity and classroom experiences told a story of invisibility, if not exclusion and discrimination.…
Full Text Available In our digitally connected world, the law is arguably behind the technological developments of the Internet age. While this causes many issues for law enforcement, it is of particular concern in the area of child pornography in the United States. With the wide availability of technologies such as digital cameras, peer-to-peer file sharing, strong encryption, Internet anonymizers and cloud computing, the creation and distribution of child pornography has become more widespread. Simultaneously, fighting the growth of this crime has become more difficult. This paper explores the development of both the legal and technological environments surrounding digital child pornography. In doing so, we cover the complications that court decisions have given law enforcement who are trying to investigate and prosecute child pornographers. We then provide a review of the technologies used in this crime and the forensic challenges that cloud computing creates for law enforcement. We note that both legal and technological developments since the 1990s seem to be working to the advantage of users and sellers of child pornography. Before concluding, we provide a discussion and offer observations regarding this subject.
White, Kelley Mayer
The current study is one of the first to investigate children's perceptions of quality in teacher-child relationships using a narrative measure. It is also one of the first studies to investigate how the child's report is associated with the teacher's report and with an observer's report of quality in teacher-child interactions. Participants…
Sophie Helena Eickmann
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To review the epidemiology and update the scientific knowledge on the problems of development and behavior in childhood, and the recommendations for the role of the pediatrician in identifying and managing delays and disturbances in child development and mental health. Sources: A search for relevant literature was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases and publications of the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. Summary of the findings: With the decline in the incidence of communicable diseases in children, problems with development, behavior, and emotional regulation are increasingly becoming a part of the work of pediatricians, yet many are not trained and feel uncomfortable about this extension of their role. The available screening tools for child development and behavior are reviewed, and a ‘school readiness’ checklist is presented, together with recommendations on how the pediatrician can incorporate developmental surveillance into routine practice, aware of the need for children to acquire social, emotional, and cognitive skills so that they can develop their full potential. Conclusions: The pediatrician's role in the future will include both physical and mental health, recognizing that social development, resilience, and emotional maturity are as important as physical growth and neuromotor skills in a child's life course.
Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup
Understanding the causal relation between mothers and fathers schooling and child development is important to create polices raising schooling level. We use unique Danish administrative data with information on identical twins and their children to estimate the causal effect of parental schooling...... find that endowments counts for a substantial part of the correlation between parents' schooling on the devel-opment of the child. Father's schooling increases children's length of schooling, but decreases 9th grade academic achievement. Mother's schooling increases short run outcomes and the...... on both short-run and long-run outcomes. By applying within twin fixed effect techniques we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account and as an important reference point to the general population we do a parallel study on a sample of same sex DZ twins. We...
Matthews, Hannah; Schmit, Stephanie
Child care subsidies help make quality child care affordable for low-income parents, allowing them to attend work or school to support their families while ensuring their children's healthy development. The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working…
Nabors, Martha L.; Edwards, Linda C.
Presents three teacher-preschooler scenarios illustrating teacher actions that hinder creativity and social development. Discusses the connection between psychosocial and creative development in light of Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development. Suggests that teachers need to be flexible, consider children's feelings, foster…
Zheng, Yi; Zheng, Xixi
China has a population of 1.3 billion, of which 238 million are children under age 15. The rapid economic development and social reforms that have taken place in recent years all had a great influence on child and adolescent mental health. Though a nationwide prevalence study for child and adolescent mental disorders in China is lacking, several regional studies have shown the prevalence of mental disorders in children to be close to the worldwide prevalence of 20%. This article reviews the c...
Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup
Understanding the causal relationship between parental schooling and child development is important to create polices raising schooling level. We use unique Danish administrative data with information on identical twins to estimate the effect of parental schooling on short-run and long-run outcomes....... By applying within twin fixed effect techniques we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. We find OLS to be consistently upward biased due to endowments. Further, paternal schooling has no causal effect on infant and early childhood health but increases...
Most scholars consider gratitude as a moral emotion, with only few seeing it as a character trait. As a result, no systematic mechanism has ever been attempted to develop gratitude in children. Given the social issue of widespread lack of gratitude in the one-child generations of China, this article attempts to outline a mechanism of parental…
van der Gaag, Jacques; Tan, Jee-Peng
This paper provides a framework for estimating the economic benefits of early child development (ECD) programs and applies the framework to preliminary data from the Bolivian ECD program (known as the PIDI Project). The evaluation quantifies the benefits of increased lifetime productivity as a result of ECD enrollment. The evaluation also takes…
Lasser, Jon; Fite, Kathleen; Wadende, Akinyi P.
This article reviews the traditional and evolving constructions of fatherhood in Kenyan society, with an emphasis on fatherhood's impact on child development outcomes. Western influence and increased access to technology have changed the role of the Kenyan father, and in turn affected his role in the family. Special attention is given to…
McCombie, Sally M.
The current media are laden with reports of the many significant problems facing today's youth. In fact, parenting has become a national topic of discussion. Parenting instruction, a responsibility that had previously rested in the home, has become part of educational curricula. Courses in child development are offered for high school students in…
Dreher, Melanie; Hudgins, Rebekah
Using field-based observations and standardized measures of the home environment and child development, the authors followed 59 rural Jamaican women and their offspring from birth to age 5. The findings suggest that conjugal multiplicity, a female reproductive pattern characterized by multiple unions, maternal unmarried status, and absent father,…
Zimmermann, Laura K.
Interest in the use of technology in the classroom continues to grow. The current study included 100 students who registered for a 200 level child development class at a private university in Northern Virginia. Students were from 4 different sections taught by the same professor in different semesters. Two of the sections used a textbook. The…
Fourteen years ago, the first article on molecular genetics was published in this journal: "Child Development, Molecular Genetics, and What to Do With Genes Once They Are Found" (R. Plomin & M. Rutter, 1998). The goal of the article was to outline what developmentalists can do with genes once they are found. These new directions for developmental…
The National Child Development Study (NCDS) is one of Britain's birth cohort studies, surveying all the children born in U.K. in a week of March 1958 (a complete enumeration, not a sample). They have been re-interviewed several times over the past forty years: first, at the time ...
When two or more languages are part of a child's world, we are presented with a rich opportunity to learn something about language in general and about how the mind works. In this book, Norbert Francis examines the development of bilingual proficiency and the different kinds of competence that come together in making up its component parts. In…
Arabi, Mandana; Frongillo, Edward A.; Avula, Rasmi; Mangasaryan, Nune
Feeding practices are important determinants of growth and development of children. Using infant and young child feeding indicators and complementary feeding guidelines, 7 practices in 28 countries are described, showing substantial variation across countries. Only 25% of 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed, and only half of 6- to…
Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi
We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots.…
Blackwell, Patricia L.
This article outlines historical, socio-cultural, and research information that attests to the fundamental relationship between touch and child development. It describes applications including touch therapies with very low-birthweight infants, with fragile premature infants, and with infants of depressed mothers. (Contains extensive references.)…
Full Text Available Language development is the crucial part of the human cognitive nature, understanding language development is important aspect to understand the base and to recall its various components of linguistics. Language development is a process starting early in human life, when a person begins to acquire language by learning it as it is spoken and by mimicry. Scholars share the conviction that key aspects of personality and ability including linguistic and communication ability, are formulated in the earliest stages of life. But they are divided on the role of human intuition on one hand and heredity or environment has in childhood development of knowledge, aptitude and skill. Equally they are divided on how skills emerge and develop. A number of different theories have been advanced that are meant to explain language acquisition. This paper therefore examines the acquisition and theories based on the language development.
Franck, Julie Grønborg; Sitez, Punah; Sitez, Lalah; Samuelsen, Abigail Bethany May; Lund-Hansen, Søren Kristoffer Koch
This project examines the relationship between the One-child policy and the human development of China. This is carried out by first analysing the actual implementation of the policy, second looking at the population compared with the human development, third examining one of the social consequences of the policy, the unregistered percentage of China. Our theoretical framework consists of a sociological law theory, population theory, sociological theory, and the concept of development. Throug...
Adequate health, nutrition, and education during childhood are essential for human development. Deficits in these realms undermine the capacity to acquire the necessary skills to perform in life. Social policies addressing the causes of disadvantages in child development take up an important place in the social agenda. The Mexican Oportunidades program is such a policy. Investments in children’s health, nutrition, and education by the program are expected to facilitate children’s development....
Anme, Tokie; Segal, Uma A.
With increasing numbers of women joining the workforce, there is a need for quality childcare. This project, conducted in Japan and using a large number of participants, sought to standardize an evaluation scale to measure the development of children. The development of children under six years of age (N = 22,819) who are enrolled in childcare…
Brown, William; Liu, Connie; John, Rita Marie; Ford, Phoebe
Developing gross and fine motor skills and expressing complex emotion is critical for child development. We introduce “StorySense”, an eBook-integrated mobile app prototype that can sense face and sound topologies and identify movement and expression to promote children’s motor skills and emotional developmental. Currently, most interactive eBooks on mobile devices only leverage “low-motor” interaction (i.e. tapping or swiping). Our app senses a greater breath of motion (e.g. clapping, snappi...
Fitzsimons, Emla; Vera-Hernandez, Marcos
We show that children who are born at the weekend or just before are less likely to be breastfed, owing to poorer breastfeeding support services at weekends. We use this variation to estimate the effect of breastfeeding on childrenâ€™s development for a sample of uncomplicated births from low educated mothers. We find that breastfeeding has large effects on childrenâ€™s cognitive development, but not on non-cognitive development or health. Regarding mechanisms, we estimate how breastfeeding a...
Ozcan Dagdemir; Hakan Acaroglu
Child labour widely measured by child labour participation rates in literature is considered by non-attendance rates in primary education in this study. Along with this approach, it is attempted to investigate in what closeness the child labour ratios of countries are also measured by school non-attendance rates. The data is collected from UNICEF and World Bank. 85 developing countries take part in cross-country analysis by ordinary least square technique. The time period interval is 2000-200...
Webbink, E.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Jong, E. de
We study household and context determinants of child labor for 150,000 children in 11 developing countries, with child labor rates ranging from 2 to over 20 percent. Multilevel analysis showed socio-economic factors to be still major determinants of child labor, with less child labor in households w
Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl; Killén, Kari
and challenges of a nonverbal and emotional interactional medium such as music in assessing parent–child interaction and parental capacity are presented and discussed. The assessment model relates to theories of attunement, autonomy, and attachment, and clinical relevance for practice within the field of child......-service professions within the field of child protection, including level of mutual attunement, nonverbal communication skills, emotional parental response, and possibly indications of attachment behavior in the child. APC can thereby help indicate the severity of the situation and the possible therapeutic direction...
Kim, Hyun Sik
In this article, I propose a three-stage estimation model to examine the effect of parental divorce on the development of children's cognitive skills and noncognitive traits. Using a framework that includes pre-, in-, and post-divorce time periods, I disentangle the complex factors affecting children of divorce. I use the Early Childhood…
Christina Felfe; Amy Hsin
This study goes beyond the much-studied impact of mothers' labor force participation on children's development and investigates how mothers' working environment affects children's cognitive and non-cognitive performance. Using data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network and applying a value added plus specification we find a negative impact of the hazards involved in mothers' jobs on their children’s non-cognitive a...
Shanley, Jenelle R.; Niec, Larissa N.
This study evaluated the inclusion of uncoded segments in the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System, an analogue observation of parent-child interactions. The relationships between warm-up and coded segments were assessed, as well as the segments' associations with parent ratings of parent and child behaviors. Sixty-nine non-referred…
Explores outpatient art therapy methodology which integrates D. W. Winnicott's (1971) model of parent consultation, child art therapy theories, and contemporary theories of child and brief psychotherapy. Two case studies that illustrate effective symptom management and structural change with the child and the child-parent bond are presented.…
Gur, Gokce; Cakar, Nilgun; Kiremitci, Saba; Taktak, Aysel; Basaran, Ozge; Uncu, Nermin
Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is the most common vasculitis in children. Vasculitic processes can involve the lung. Although diffuse alveolar hemorrhage may be seen as one of the manifestation of HSP, it is not a frequent presentation. Here we reported the case of a 10-year-old girl with HSP nephritis who developed pulmonary hemorrhage. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous methylprednisolone. A review of the literature revealed that young age may be a good prognostic sign and that immunosuppressive drugs and supportive management are essential in the treatment. PMID:27606665
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 2009
The Child Development & Behavior (CDB) Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) seeks to improve the health and well-being of individuals from infancy through early adulthood by supporting research into healthy growth and development, including all aspects of child development. The study of typical child…
Lim, Kahyun; Lee, Byung Mun
Objectives This study aimed to develop an effective and efficient obesity treatment and management service platform for obese children/teenagers. Methods The integrated smart platform was planned and established through cooperation with service providers such as hospitals and public health centers, obese children/teenagers who constitute the service's user base, and IT development and policy institutions and companies focusing on child-teen obesity management and treatment. Results Based on guidelines on intervention strategies to manage child-teen obesity, we developed two patient/parent mobile applications, one web-monitoring service for medical staff, one mobile application for food-craving endurance, and one mobile application for medical examinations. Conclusions The establishment of the integrated service platform was successfully completed; however, this study was restrictively to the hospital where the pilot program took place. The effectiveness of the proposed platform will be verified in the future in tests involving other organizations. PMID:27525166
Bentley, Margaret E; Johnson, Susan L; Wasser, Heather; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Shroff, Monal; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia; Cunningham, Melissa
Nutritional and developmental insults in the first few years of life have profound public health implications, including substantial contributions to neonatal, infant, and early childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as longer term effects on cognitive development, school achievement, and worker productivity. Optimal development that can lead to the attainment of an individual's fullest potential, therefore, requires a combination of genetic capacity, adequate nutrition, psychosocial stimulation, and safe, clean physical environments. Researchers and policymakers have called for integrated child nutrition and development interventions for more than 20 years, yet there are only a handful of efficacy trials and even fewer examples of integrated interventions that have been taken to scale. While a critical component in the design of such interventions is formative research, there is a dearth of information in both the literature and policy arenas to guide this phase of the process. To move the field forward, this paper first provides an overview of formative research methods with a focus on qualitative inquiry, a description of the critical domains to be assessed (infant and young child feeding, responsive feeding, and child development), and currently available resources. Application of these methods is provided through a real-world case study--the design of an integrated nutrition and child development efficacy trial in Andhra Pradesh, India. Recommendations for next steps are discussed, the most important of which is the need for a comprehensive set of formative guidelines for designing locally tailored, culturally appropriate, integrated interventions. PMID:24673167
The paper is purported to examine the consequences of possible labour market reform in the developing economies on the incidence of child labour and economic well-being of the child labour supplying families. A two-sector, full-employment general equilibrium structure with child labour and imperfection in the market for adult labour has been used for the analytical purpose. Although this policy is likely to lower the incidence of child labour the welfare of the families supplying child labour...
Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola
The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…
Petinou, Kakia; Theodorou, Eleni
The current longitudinal study examined the acquisition of consonantal singleton segments in Cypriot-Greek. The study's aims were: (a) to determine the acquisition of segments for manner and place of articulation as a function of age and word position, (b) to provide preliminary normative data, and (c) to further support the cross-linguistic data pool regarding developmental phonology patterns. Participants were 14 Cypriot-Greek speaking typically developing toddlers, examined at ages 24, 28, 32 and 36 months. Spontaneously produced and elicited glossable utterances were used in constructing each child's inventory. Findings revealed an increase of segmental acquisition across all age levels. Group trend analysis for manner and place of articulation indicated bilabial and alveolar stops and nasals to be among the earlier segments to develop. A word medial position advantage was also evident. The findings are discussed in terms of phonological universals and language-specific factors. Implications for early evidence-based phonetic assessment are discussed. PMID:26597650
Lindauer, Shelley L. Knudsen; Austin, Ann Marie Berghout
Since the first child development laboratory school opened its doors in the 1920s (Wortham, 1992), the fields of child development and early childhood education have looked to child development laboratory programs as essential contributors of knowledge about theory and practice (Osborne, 1991). Traditionally, laboratory programs have operated under a three-pronged mission: 1) training pre-service and inservice early childhood education and child development professionals; 2) conducting and di...
Mikton, Christopher; Power, Mick; Raleva, Marija; Makoae, Mokhantso; Al Eissa, Majid; Cheah, Irene; Cardia, Nancy; Choo, Claire; Almuneef, Maha
This study aimed to systematically assess the readiness of five countries - Brazil, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, and South Africa - to implement evidence-based child maltreatment prevention programs on a large scale. To this end, it applied a recently developed method called Readiness Assessment for the Prevention of Child Maltreatment based on two parallel 100-item instruments. The first measures the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs concerning child maltreatment prevention of key informants; the second, completed by child maltreatment prevention experts using all available data in the country, produces a more objective assessment readiness. The instruments cover all of the main aspects of readiness including, for instance, availability of scientific data on the problem, legislation and policies, will to address the problem, and material resources. Key informant scores ranged from 31.2 (Brazil) to 45.8/100 (the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) and expert scores, from 35.2 (Brazil) to 56/100 (Malaysia). Major gaps identified in almost all countries included a lack of professionals with the skills, knowledge, and expertise to implement evidence-based child maltreatment programs and of institutions to train them; inadequate funding, infrastructure, and equipment; extreme rarity of outcome evaluations of prevention programs; and lack of national prevalence surveys of child maltreatment. In sum, the five countries are in a low to moderate state of readiness to implement evidence-based child maltreatment prevention programs on a large scale. Such an assessment of readiness - the first of its kind - allows gaps to be identified and then addressed to increase the likelihood of program success. PMID:23962585
Dixon-Krauss, Lisbeth; Januszka, Cynthia M.; Chae, Chan-Ho
This study reports the construction of the Dialogic Reading Inventory (DRI), a tool for assessing a parent and child's storybook reading behaviors. Twenty-three parent-child dyads participated in the study. The Adult-Child Interactive Reading Inventory (DeBruin-Parecki, 1999) items were grouped into four categories and revised to reflect current…
growth of sex tourism in Asia during the Vietnam War, government complicity in the industry, and the need to develop political will to end child prostitution. PMID:12288929
Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna
The Duke Endowment launched its Child Abuse Prevention Initiative in 2002 by funding two program sites, the Durham Family Initiative in Durham, North Carolina, and Strong Communities in Greenville, South Carolina. Both sites aimed to reduce rates of child abuse, improve parenting practices and behaviors, strengthen community service systems, and…
Within child language acquisition research, there has been a fair amount of controversy regarding children's knowledge of the grammatical properties associated with verbal inflection (e.g., tense, agreement, and aspect). Some researchers have proposed that the child's early grammar is fundamentally different from the adult grammar, whereas others…
The problem of child labour is immense and has been growing. Wherever poverty exists, child labour there prevails and it is one of the most striking issues in the developing countries. Hence, there is a need to identify the vulnerable children and point out the problems in relation to the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), particularly poverty eradication, education for all, gender equality, combating HIV/AIDS and creation of a global partnership for development. To understand household labo...
The problem of child labour is immense and has been growing. Wherever poverty exists, child labour there prevails and it is one of the most striking issues in the developing countries. Hence, there is a need to identify the vulnerable children and point out the problems in relation to the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), particularly poverty eradication, education for all, gender equality, combating HIV/AIDS and creation of a global partnership for development. To understand household labo...
Dishion, Thomas J.; Tipsord, Jessica M.
In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion ...
Pelletier, D. L.; Frongillo, E. A.; Schroeder, D. G.; Habicht, J. P.
Conventional methods of classifying causes of death suggest that about 70% of the deaths of children (aged 0-4 years) worldwide are due to diarrhoeal illness, acute respiratory infection, malaria, and immunizable diseases. The role of malnutrition in child mortality is not revealed by these conventional methods, despite the long-standing recognition of the synergism between malnutrition and infectious diseases. This paper describes a recently-developed epidemiological method to estimate the p...
Rahman, Tauhidur; Mittelhammer, Ronald C.
This paper contributes to the growing debate on regional economic inequality and polarization in India. The specific objectives of this paper are to: (1) analyze regional development disparities amongst various states in India to determine if they are on a convergent course; (2) analyze the evolution of regional inequalities amongst states with respect to a number of socioeconomic indicators and factors that have been suggested to affect the incidence of child labor; (3) investigate and test ...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is eligible for child development services? 55.5 Section 55.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL CHILD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES General § 55.5 Who is eligible for child development...
... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01... of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel... Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH,...
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Frommer, Eva A.
Originally written for students at St. Thomas' Hospital in London, this guide to child development offers an overview of child development for parents, teachers, and all adults concerned with raising children. Many of the book's ideas come from direct work with children and draw on Rudolf Steiner's approach to child development. The book's…
Plotnick, Robert D.; Deppman, Laurie
Presents a case for using benefit-cost analysis to structure evaluations of child-abuse prevention and intervention programs. Presents the basic concept of benefit-cost analysis, its application in the context of assessing these types of child welfare programs, and limitations on its application to social service programs. (Author)
Lee, Terry; Fouras, George; Brown, Rachel
This Practice Parameter presents principles for the mental health assessment and management of youth involved with the child welfare system. Important definitions, background, history, epidemiology, mental health care use, and functional outcomes are described. Practical guidance regarding child welfare-related considerations for evaluation and management are discussed. PMID:26004666
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Vermont's STep Ahead Recognition System (STARS) prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for All Child Care Programs;…
Gornick, Janet C.; Jäntti, Markus
This paper draws on the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) microdata to paint a portrait of child poverty across a diverse group of countries, as of 2004-2006. We will first synthesize past LIS-based research on child poverty, focusing on studies that aim to explain cross-national variation in child poverty rates. Our empirical sections will focus on child poverty in 20 high- and middle-income countries - including three Latin American countries, newly added to LIS. We will assess poverty among al...
Kraljević, Jelena Kuvač; Cepanec, Maja; Simleša, Sanja
Gesture and language are tightly connected during the development of a child's communication skills. Gestures mostly precede and define the way of language development; even opposite direction has been found. Few recent studies have focused on the relationship between specific gestures and specific word categories, emphasising that the onset of one gesture type predicts the onset of certain word categories or of the earliest word combinations. The aim of this study was to analyse predicative roles of different gesture types on the onset of first word categories in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Our data show that different types of gestures predict different types of word production. Object gestures predict open-class words from the age of 13 months, and gestural routines predict closed-class words and social terms from 8 months. Receptive vocabulary has a strong mediating role for all linguistically defined categories (open- and closed-class words) but not for social terms, which are the largest word category in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Accordingly, main contribution of this study is to define the impact of different gesture types on early expressive vocabulary and to determine the role of receptive vocabulary in gesture-expressive vocabulary relation in the Croatian language. PMID:24583922
Sarbajit Chaudhuri; Jayanta Kumar Dwibedi
This paper is an attempt to analyze the consequence of trade liberalization in agriculture in the developed countries on the incidence of child labour in a developing economy in terms of a three- sector general equilibrium model with informal sectors. Adult labour and child labour are substitutes to each other in the two informal sectors of the economy and are used together apart from capital in producing two exportable commodities. The interesting result that appears from the analysis is tha...
Jutte, Douglas P; Miller, Jennifer L; Erickson, David J
Despite medical advances, childhood health and well-being have not been broadly achieved due to rising chronic diseases and conditions related to child poverty. Family and neighborhood living conditions can have lasting consequences for health, with community adversity affecting health outcomes in significant part through stress response and increased allostatic load. Exposure to this "toxic stress" influences gene expression and brain development with direct and indirect negative consequences for health. Ensuring healthy child development requires improving conditions in distressed, high-poverty neighborhoods by reducing children's exposure to neighborhood stressors and supporting good family and caregiver functioning. The community development industry invests more than $200 billion annually in low-income neighborhoods, with the goal of improving living conditions for residents. The most impactful investments have transformed neighborhoods by integrating across sectors to address both the built environment and the social and service environment. By addressing many facets of the social determinants of health at once, these efforts suggest substantial results for children, but health outcomes generally have not been considered or evaluated. Increased partnership between the health sector and community development can bring health outcomes explicitly into focus for community development investments, help optimize intervention strategies for health, and provide natural experiments to build the evidence base for holistic interventions for disadvantaged children. The problems and potential solutions are beyond the scope of practicing pediatricians, but the community development sector stands ready to engage in shared efforts to improve the health and development of our most at-risk children. PMID:25733725
... Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Review of T32 Applications from the... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...
... Development Special Emphasis Panel; Maternal and Child Health in Poor Countries: Evidence from Randomized... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Building 6100... comment on proposed data collection projects, the National Institute of Child Health and ]...
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... Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Diet, Obesity, and Weight Change in Pregnancy... Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; 68-2 Diet, Obesity, and Weight Change in... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... 1995, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Institutes of....--It is the purpose of this section to authorize the National Institute of Child Health and...
Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T; Johnson, Joy L; Chan, Anna
In this article we explore the micro-social context of parental tobacco use in the first years of a child's life and early childhood. We conducted individual interviews with 28 mothers and fathers during the 4 years following the birth of their child. Using grounded theory methods, we identified the predominant explanatory concept in parents' accounts as the need to reconcile being a parent and smoking. Desires to become smoke-free coexisted with five types of parent-child interactions: (a) protecting the defenseless child, (b) concealing smoking and cigarettes from the mimicking child, (c) reinforcing smoking as bad with the communicative child, (d) making guilt-driven promises to the fearful child, and (e) relinquishing personal responsibility to the autonomous child. We examine the agency of the child in influencing parents' smoking practices, the importance of children's observational learning in the early years, and the reciprocal nature of parent-child interactions related to parents' smoking behavior. PMID:23774626
Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Lausten, Mette; Pozzoli, Dario
We investigate the degree of correspondence between parents’ reports on child behavioral and educational outcomes using the most recent available wave of a rich Danish longitudinal survey of children (the DALSC). All outcomes are measured at age 11 when the children are expected to be in fifth...... explaining child academic performance and diagnosed mental health to investigate whether one parent is systematically a better informant of their child’s outcomes than the other....
This paper analyses the interaction between child labour and schooling in developing countries. A theoretical framework is developed, where fertility and schooling decisions are made in an environment where children contribute through child labour when young and provide old-age security as adults. The model demonstrates that the child wage rate, which is also the opportunity cost of schooling, is a crucial determinant of total fertility. An increase in the child wage rate leads to lower schoo...
Webbink, E.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; E. DE JONG
We study household and context determinants of child labor for 150,000 children in 11 developing countries, with child labor rates ranging from 2 to over 20 percent. Multilevel analysis showed socio-economic factors to be still major determinants of child labor, with less child labor in households with more resources and in districts and countries that are more developed. Demographic factors are also important. First-born children and children with more siblings work more. This is also true i...
Full Text Available Causal attributions are affirmed as a cognitive element able to explain emotional and motivational aspects of behaviour of some categories of adult psychiatric patients, primarily depressive ones. Theoretical and practical success of cognitive ideas in explaining the origination of depressive disorders, and in the monitoring of depressive patient treatment has led to further development of theory, but also to the attempt to apply the learning about causal attributions to various problems. Characteristic attempts are those that the problems of child abuse, children’s depression, upbringing problems, school failure, hyperactivity, enuresis, and long-term effects of different child treatment, too, are analysed from the point of view of causal attributions. By assessing parent causal attributions regarding child night urination, we wanted to establish to what extent specific attributions for child behaviour differentiate the parents of children having this problem from those parents whose children have established control. Parents were assessed in terms of four dimensions of causal attributions for child’s problem. Those are the dimensions of globality, counter-lability, internality, and the stability of the cause of child’s problem. The analysis of parent causal attributions show that mothers and fathers in both assessed groups similarly experience the cause of enuretic problems of their children. Enuresis is seen as caused by specific, internal, and instable causes. Such a system of dimensions could correspond to the belief that the main etiological factor of the enuresis is maturing. For more reliable verification of this attitude, longitudinal strategy in research is necessary, especially to comprehend whether parental attributions have been developed as an effect of persistent enuresis, or whether the enuresis is developed as an effect of parental attributions.
Child abuse and neglect are detrimental to a child’s health, physical and psychosocial development and result from inappropriate behavior or inattention on the part of those responsible for the child’s care and protection. Child abuse/neglect is a serious public problem encompassing medical, ethical and legal aspects. Imaging methods play an important role in investigating and documenting child abuse and neglect. Radiological imaging methods have particular priority. X-rays of the whole skele...
Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Sarri, Katerina; Koutra, Katerina; Kampouri, Mariza; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda
Early-life nutrition is critical for optimal brain development; however, few studies have evaluated the impact of diet as a whole in early childhood on neurological development with inconsistent results. The present analysis is a cross-sectional study nested within an ongoing prospective birth cohort, the Rhea study, and aims to examine the association of dietary patterns with cognitive and psychomotor development in 804 preschool (mean age 4·2 years) children. Parents completed a validated FFQ, and dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Child cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed by the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of dietary patterns with the MSCA scales. After adjustment for a large number of confounding factors, the 'Snacky' pattern (potatoes and other starchy roots, salty snacks, sugar products and eggs) was negatively associated with the scales of verbal ability (β=-1·31; 95 % CI -2·47, -0·16), general cognitive ability (β=-1·13; 95 % CI -2·25, -0·02) and cognitive functions of the posterior cortex (β=-1·20; 95 % CI -2·34, -0·07). Further adjustment for maternal intelligence, folic acid supplementation and alcohol use during pregnancy attenuated the observed associations, but effect estimates remained at the same direction. The 'Western' and the 'Mediterranean' patterns were not associated with child neurodevelopmental scales. The present findings suggest that poorer food choices at preschool age characterised by foods high in fat, salt and sugar are associated with reduced scores in verbal and cognitive ability. PMID:26887648
Eric V. Edmonds; Nina Pavcnik
Few issues in developing countries draw as much popular attention as child labor. This paper begins by quantifying the extent and main characteristics of child labor. It then considers the evidence on a range of issues about child labor. Fundamentally, child labor is a symptom of poverty. Low income and poor institutions are driving forces behind the prevalence of child labor worldwide. This study concludes by assessing the policy options to reduce worldwide child labor.
"It's the Way You Talk to Them." The Child's Environment: Early Years Practitioners' Perceptions of Its Influence on Speech and Language Development, Its Assessment and Environment Targeted Interventions
Marshall, Julie; Lewis, Elizabeth
Speech and language delay occurs in approximately 6% of the child population, and interventions to support this group of children focus on the child and/or the communicative environment. Evidence about the effectiveness of interventions that focus on the environment as well as the (reported) practices of speech and language therapists (SLTs) and…
Full Text Available Child labour widely measured by child labour participation rates in literature is considered by non-attendance rates in primary education in this study. Along with this approach, it is attempted to investigate in what closeness the child labour ratios of countries are also measured by school non-attendance rates. The data is collected from UNICEF and World Bank. 85 developing countries take part in cross-country analysis by ordinary least square technique. The time period interval is 2000-2007 years and the average of those eight years is used. It has been found that non-attendance rates to primary education in developing countries can be a statistically possible proxy variable at the cases of unavailable child labour participation rates data.
Racheal Nduku Ndambuki; Paul Campbell Erwin; Susanna Williams; Bryant, Nancy H.; Bryant, John H.
A principle strategic insight of the Final Report for WHO’s Commission on Social Determinants of Health (SDOH) is that the nurturant qualities of the environments where children grow up, live, and learn matter the most for their development. A key determinant of early childhood development is the establishment of a secure attachment between a caregiver and child. We report initial field-tests of the integration of caregiver-child attachment assessment by community health workers (CHWs) as a r...
Every human being below the age of eighteen years is known as ‘child’ according to the universally accepted definition of United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). The need for special safeguard for the child had been stated in the Geneva Declaration, 1924. It was also proclaimed in that declaration that the child by the reason of his physical and mental immaturity needs this special safeguard including appropriate legal protection. The need to extend particular care to th...
Felfe, Christina; Lalive, Rafael
Many countries are currently expanding access to child care for young children. But are all children equally likely to benefit from such expansions? We address this question by adopting a marginal treatment effects framework. We study the West German setting where high quality center - based care is severely rationed and use within state differences in child care supply as exogenous variation in child care attendance. Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel provides comprehensive informa...
Extensive evidence exist, demonstrating an association between cortisol and child care attendance. Cortisol is regarded as a valid and reliable measure of stress. This review aim to summarize findings regarding child care and cortisol. The results reveal a trend of atypical levels of cortisol seen in children attending non-parental group-based child care, in particular encompassing children below age three. Long-term effects are evident in some children, resulting in a down regulation of the ...