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1

Noninvasive assessment of arterial stiffness should discriminate between systolic and diastolic pressure ranges.  

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Arterial stiffening plays an important role in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The intrinsically nonlinear (ie, pressure-dependent) elastic behavior of arteries may have serious consequences for the accuracy and interpretation of arterial stiffness measurements and, ultimately, for individual patient management. We determined aortic pressure and common carotid artery diameter waveforms in 21 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. The individual pressure-area curves were described using a dual exponential analytic model facilitating noise-free calculation of incremental pulse wave velocity. In addition, compliance coefficients were calculated separately in the diastolic and systolic pressure ranges, only using diastolic, dicrotic notch, and systolic data points, which can be determined noninvasively. Pulse wave velocity at systolic pressure exhibited a much stronger positive correlation with pulse pressure (P140 mm Hg) had a 2.5-times lower compliance coefficient in the systolic pressure range than patients with systolic blood pressures <140 mm Hg (P=0.002). Most importantly, some individuals, with comparable age or pulse pressure, had similar diastolic but discriminately different systolic pulse wave velocities and compliance coefficients. We conclude that noninvasive assessment of arterial stiffness could and should discriminate between systolic and diastolic pressure ranges to more precisely characterize arterial function in individual patients. PMID:19933922

Hermeling, Evelien; Hoeks, Arnold P G; Winkens, Mark H M; Waltenberger, Johannes L; Reneman, Robert S; Kroon, Abraham A; Reesink, Koen D

2010-01-01

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Proportional Relations Between Systolic, Diastolic and Mean Pulmonary Artery Pressure are Explained by Vascular Properties  

OpenAIRE

Recently, it was shown that proportional relationships exist between systolic, diastolic and mean pulmonary artery pressure (Psys, Pdia and Pmean) and that they are maintained under various conditions in both health and disease. An arterial-ventricular interaction model was used to study the contribution of model parameters to the ratios Psys/Pmean, and Pdia/Pmean. The heart was modeled by a time-varying elastance function, and the arterial system by a three-element windkessel model consistin...

Kind, Taco; Faes, Theo J. C.; Vonk-noordegraaf, Anton; Westerhof, Nico

2011-01-01

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Increased response of diastolic blood pressure to exercise in patients with coronary artery disease: an index of latent ventricular dysfunction?  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE--To determine whether an abnormal response of diastolic blood pressure during treadmill exercise stress testing correlated with the number of obstructed vessels and with left ventricular systolic function in patients with coronary artery disease. DESIGN--Diastolic blood pressure was measured invasively during exercise stress testing and coronary angiograms and left ventriculograms were obtained at rest in patients with coronary artery disease. The abnormal (> or = 15 mm Hg) diastoli...

Paraskevaidis, I. A.; Kremastinos, D. T.; Kassimatis, A. S.; Karavolias, G. K.; Kordosis, G. D.; Kyriakides, Z. S.; Toutouzas, P. K.

1993-01-01

4

Measurement of pulmonary artery diastolic pressure from a right ventricular pressure transducer in patients with heart failure.  

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Recent studies have demonstrated that pulmonary artery diastolic (PAD) pressure can be measured from a transducer positioned in the right ventricle (RV) based on the finding that PAD and RV pressures are equal at the time of pulmonary valve opening, which is associated with the time of maximum positive rate of pressure development (dP/dtmax) in the ventricle. The objective of this study was to assess the correlation between estimated PAD (ePAD) pressure, obtained through a RV transducer, and actual PAD (aPAD) pressure in patients with heart failure who have abnormal hemodynamics, reduced systolic function, and variable degrees of mitral regurgitation (MR) and tricuspid regurgitation (TR). Simultaneous measurements of pulmonary artery and RV pressures were obtained with a high-fidelity Millar catheter (Millar Instruments, Houston, TX) in 10 patients with New York Heart Association class III-IV heart failure who were being evaluated for cardiac transplantation. The overall correlation between ePAD and aPAD pressures was .92 (R2 = .878). This was not significantly different during the Valsalva maneuver (r = .96, R2 = .943), submaximal bicycle exercise (r = .87, R2 = .756), or infusions of dobutamine and nitroglycerin (r = .82, R2 = .730). The overall average difference between the average ePAD (24.6 +/- 7.0 mmHg) and aPAD (23.6 +/- 7.0 mmHg) pressures was 1.0 +/- 3.4 mmHg. The average difference between the two pressures in patients with mild to severe MR or TR was not different compared to those patients with no or trace MR or TR. The estimation of PAD pressure from an RV transducer is valid in patients with heart failure who have abnormal hemodynamics, reduced systolic function, and variable degrees of MR and TR. This correlation was observed at rest and during several provocative maneuvers. These data will be important for the development of a chronic, implantable hemodynamic monitor for patients with heart failure. PMID:8798104

Chuang, P P; Wilson, R F; Homans, D C; Stone, K; Bergman, T; Bennett, T D; Kubo, S H

1996-03-01

5

Increased diastolic blood pressure response to exercise testing when coronary artery disease is suspected. An indication of severity.  

OpenAIRE

One hundred and two consecutive patients with a history of chest pain or recent previous myocardial infarction underwent maximal treadmill stress testing and coronary angiography. The diastolic blood pressure response to exercise was evaluated independently of ST segment change and systolic blood pressure. In the presence of a normal systolic blood pressure response an increase in diastolic blood pressure of 15 mm Hg on at least two determinations during the same stage of exercise was conside...

Akhras, F.; Upward, J.; Jackson, G.

1985-01-01

6

Abnormal shortened diastolic time length at increasing heart rates in patients with abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree of pulmonary hypertension is not independently related to the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction but is frequently associated with diastolic filling abnormalities. The aim of this study was to assess diastolic times at increasing heart rates in normal and in patients with and without abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PASP. Methods. We enrolled 109 patients (78 males, age 62 ± 13 years referred for exercise stress echocardiography and 16 controls. The PASP was derived from the tricuspid Doppler tracing. A cut-off value of PASP ? 50 mmHg at peak stress was considered as indicative of abnormal increase in PASP. Diastolic times and the diastolic/systolic time ratio were recorded by a precordial cutaneous force sensor based on a linear accelerometer. Results At baseline, PASP was 30 ± 5 mmHg in patients and 25 ± 4 in controls. At peak stress the PASP was normal in 95 patients (Group 1; 14 patients (Group 2 showed an abnormal increase in PASP (from 35 ± 4 to 62 ± 12 mmHg; P Conclusion The first and second heart sound vibrations non-invasively monitored by a force sensor are useful for continuously assessing diastolic time during exercise. Exercise-induced abnormal PASP was associated with reduced diastolic time at heart rates beyond 100 beats per minute.

Bombardini Tonino

2011-11-01

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THE INFLUENCE OF ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION ON THE LEFT VENTRICLAR DIASTOLIC FUNCTION  

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Full Text Available The changes in the heart diastolic function are early functional disturbances in arterial hypertension and are present before the changes in the systolic function. The aim of this research was to study the influence of arterial hypertension on the left ventricular diastolic function. The research included a group of 126 subjects: 93 patients with arterial hypertension and 33 healthy subjects, who were the control group. The patients with arterial hypertension, compared to the control group, had a significantly higher: BMI (p < 0,001, left ventricular mass (p < 0,001, left ventricular mass index (p < 0,001 and the left atrium (p < 0,001. The parameters of the diastolic function in patients with arterial hypertension compared to the control group have shown statistically significant differences: IVRT (p < 0,001 and DT (p < 0,01 are significantly longer and the ratio E/A (p < 0,01 is significantly lower, which gives the image of delayed relaxation. The quotient of linear correlation of IVRT with the systolic and diastolic blood pressure has shown that IVRT statistically significantly correlates both with the systolic blood pressure (p < 0,005 and the diastolic blood pressure (p < 0,05. DT in correlations did not show the dependence on systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The quotient of the linear correlations of the E/A ratio with the systolic and diastolic blood pressure has shown that the E/A ratio, statistically significantly, negatively correlates with systolic blood pressure (p < 0,005 and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0,05. The changes in the left ventricular diastolic function in arterial hypertension are reversible and the condition for that is a good regulation of the blood pressure with hygienic and dietetic measures and medicaments.

Milan Pavlovic

2006-04-01

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Oscillometric measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressures validated in a physiologic mathematical model  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The oscillometric method of measuring blood pressure with an automated cuff yields valid estimates of mean pressure but questionable estimates of systolic and diastolic pressures. Existing algorithms are sensitive to differences in pulse pressure and artery stiffness. Some are closely guarded trade secrets. Accurate extraction of systolic and diastolic pressures from the envelope of cuff pressure oscillations remains an open problem in biomedical engineering. Methods A new analysis of relevant anatomy, physiology and physics reveals the mechanisms underlying the production of cuff pressure oscillations as well as a way to extract systolic and diastolic pressures from the envelope of oscillations in any individual subject. Stiffness characteristics of the compressed artery segment can be extracted from the envelope shape to create an individualized mathematical model. The model is tested with a matrix of possible systolic and diastolic pressure values, and the minimum least squares difference between observed and predicted envelope functions indicates the best fit choices of systolic and diastolic pressure within the test matrix. Results The model reproduces realistic cuff pressure oscillations. The regression procedure extracts systolic and diastolic pressures accurately in the face of varying pulse pressure and arterial stiffness. The root mean squared error in extracted systolic and diastolic pressures over a range of challenging test scenarios is 0.3 mmHg. Conclusions A new algorithm based on physics and physiology allows accurate extraction of systolic and diastolic pressures from cuff pressure oscillations in a way that can be validated, criticized, and updated in the public domain.

Babbs Charles F

2012-08-01

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Influence of the observer's level of experience on systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure measurements using Doppler ultrasonography in healthy conscious cats.  

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The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the observer's level of experience on within- and between-day variability, and the percentage of successful systolic (SAP) and diastolic arterial blood pressure (DAP) measurements obtained by Doppler ultrasonography (DU) in awake cats. For this purpose, six healthy conscious cats were used and four observers with different levels of training performed 144 SAP and DAP measurements on 4 days using DU. Measurements were recorded five consecutive times, and mean values were used for statistical analysis. Only the two most skilled observers - a PhD student in cardiology and a Dipl ECVIM-CA (cardiology) - had within- and between-day coefficients of variation (CVs) for SAP ?16% (13-16%). Conversely, the two less experienced observers - a fifth-year student and an assistant - had high between-day CVs (61% and 73%). For DAP, only the most experienced observer (Dipl ECVIM-CA) succeeded in 100% of the attempts, with within- and between-day CVs of 11% and 4%, respectively. Conversely, DAP could not be measured by the other three observers in 8%, 19% and 56% of attempts (from the highest to the lowest level of experience); therefore, the corresponding CV values could not be calculated. In conclusion, SAP may be assessed using DU in healthy awake cats with good repeatability and reproducibility by a well-trained observer. Measurement of DAP is more difficult than of SAP, and needs a longer training period, which represents one of the limitations of DU in cats. PMID:24782457

Gouni, Vassiliki; Tissier, Renaud; Misbach, Charlotte; Balouka, David; Bueno, Hanna; Pouchelon, Jean-Louis; Lefebvre, Hervé P; Chetboul, Valérie

2015-02-01

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Diastolic blood pressure influences cerebrovascular reactivity measured by means of 123I-iodoamphetamine brain single photon emission computed tomography in medically treated patients with occlusive carotid or middle cerebral artery disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Impaired cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to vasodilating agents is a predictor of the onset and prognosis of ischemic stroke. It is realized that the CVR improves or worsens when measured periodically during the clinical course in medically treated patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease. In these patients, we investigated the possible relationship between the interval change in CVR and that in systemic blood pressure (BP). Forty-two patients (14 females and 28 males, mean age±SD: 65.3±8.8 years) with severe stenosis or occlusion of the common carotid, internal carotid, or middle cerebral arteries repeatedly underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies using 123I-iodoamphetamine to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) distribution and CVR at a more-than-6-month interval (mean±SD: 18.5±8.8 months). The CVR was separately estimated in cerebral hemispheres ipsilateral and contralateral to the most severe vascular lesion as the % increase in CBF after acetazolamide loading to CBF at rest. Systemic BP was measured four times at enrollment and the follow-up SPECT studies during resting and acetazolamide loading. Average BP at each SPECT study was an average of BP measurements during resting and acetazolamide loading. Interval changes in CVR were correlated with those in average systolic BP, average diastolic BP, and average mean arterial BP. The interval changes in CVR were significantly correlated with those in average diastolicelated with those in average diastolic BP in the ipsilateral hemisphere (y=0.71x+1.43, r2=0.11, p2=0.16, p123I-IMP SPECT was influenced by the diastolic BP at the SPECT studies. Monitoring diastolic BP is important to evaluate interval change in CVR. (author)

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Carotid artery mixing with diastole-phased pulsed drug infusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focal injury to the brain or retina is a frequent complication of drug delivery to the internal carotid artery (ICA) and may be due to poor mixing of the drug with blood at the infusion site. Rhesus monkeys were studied to determine whether phased drug delivery during diastole from a modified pulsatile angiographic injector would improve drug mixing in vivo. A radiolabeled flow tracer, carbon-14-iodoantipyrine (14C-IAP), was injected into the ICA of three monkeys in 80-msec pulses, each ending at least 50 msec before the end of local diastole. Local isotope concentration in the brain was determined by quantitative autoradiography. The ratio of highest to lowest concentration was 1.86 +/- 0.26 (mean +/- standard deviation) in the frontoparietal cortex, 1.65 +/- 0.42 in the frontoparietal white matter, 1.89 +/- 0.28 in the temporal cortex, and 1.39 +/- 0.17 in the basal ganglia. These results were similar to recordings in three control animals that received intravenous 14C-IAP to demonstrate complete drug mixing (1.37 +/- 0.12, 1.41 +/- 0.11, 1.70 +/- 0.08, 1.22 +/- 0.24, respectively), and contrasted to findings in five animals which received continuous intracarotid infusions to demonstrate standard ICA drug delivery (4.54 +/- 2.07, 2.94 +/- 1.45, 5.43 +/- 3.57, 3.60 +/- 2.90, respectively). Pulsed intra-arterial infusion during diastole provides a technically simple method for improving intravascular drug mixing, and results in drug delivery to t mixing, and results in drug delivery to tissue capillaries that is proportional to blood flow

12

Wave potential and the one-dimensional windkessel as a wave-based paradigm of diastolic arterial hemodynamics.  

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Controversy exists about whether one-dimensional wave theory can explain the "self-canceling" waves that accompany the diastolic pressure decay and discharge of the arterial reservoir. Although it has been proposed that reservoir and wave effects be treated as separate phenomena, thus avoiding the issue of self-canceling waves, we have argued that reservoir effects are a phenomenological and mathematical subset of wave effects. However, a complete wave-based explanation of self-canceling diastolic expansion (pressure-decreasing) waves has not yet been advanced. These waves are present in the forward and backward components of arterial pressure and flow (P ± and Q ±, respectively), which are calculated by integrating incremental pressure and flow changes (dP ± and dQ ±, respectively). While the integration constants for this calculation have previously been considered arbitrary, we showed that physiologically meaningful constants can be obtained by identifying "undisturbed pressure" as mean circulatory pressure. Using a series of numeric experiments, absolute P ± and Q ± values were shown to represent "wave potential," gradients of which produce propagating wavefronts. With the aid of a "one-dimensional windkessel," we showed how wave theory predicts discharge of the arterial reservoir. Simulated data, along with hemodynamic recordings in seven sheep, suggested that self-canceling diastolic waves arise from repeated and diffuse reflection of the late systolic forward expansion wave throughout the arterial system and at the closed aortic valve, along with progressive leakage of wave potential from the conduit arteries. The combination of wave and wave potential concepts leads to a comprehensive one-dimensional (i.e., wave-based) explanation of arterial hemodynamics, including the diastolic pressure decay. PMID:24878775

Mynard, Jonathan P; Smolich, Joseph J

2014-08-01

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Invasive and noninvasive assessment of exercise-induced ischemic diastolic response using pressure transducers.  

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Left ventricular (LV) pressure curve shows early high-magnitude changes in the presence of induced ischemia. A dramatic rise in LV and left atrial end-diastolic pressures occurs within seconds to minutes in the presence of ischemia induced by dynamic or handgrip exercise as well as pacing of 38 to 183% and during short coronary balloon occlusion of 32 to 208% of baseline. Changes in relaxation or volumetric filling rate or ejection fraction were significantly less pronounced. Similar end-diastolic abnormalities occurring mainly in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) have been shown in noninvasive recordings obtained by pressure transducer placed over the point of maximal LV beat (pressocardiograms). Specifically, the amplitude of the A wave to total excursion of pressocardiogram showed a similar high-magnitude increase after dynamic or handgrip exercise in average by 60 to 142% of baseline; however, changes in pressocardiographic relaxation time indexes were only slightly abnormal. A well-defined "ischemic pattern" of pressocardiographic diastolic changes with handgrip, showed a high prevalence in CAD patients. The assessment of diastolic changes in the presence of handgrip-inducible ischemia using noninvasive pressure transducers might provide after further studies a simple complementary diagnostic tool to assist in identification of patients with atypical or asymptomatic CAD. PMID:25001193

Manolas, Jan

2015-01-01

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Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity Is the Only Index of Arterial Stiffness That Correlates with a Mitral Valve Indices of Diastolic Dysfunction, but No Index Correlates with Left Atrial Size  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to determine the optimal assessment of arterial stiffness that relates to diastolic dysfunction. Forty-one patients had measurements of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), ankle brachial index (ABI), pulse pressure (PP), and augmentation index (AIx). Diastolic dysfunction was evaluated by echocardiographic indices of the ratio of the peak early diastolic mitral valve velocity and the peak late diastolic veloc...

Bryan Chow; Rabkin, Simon W.

2013-01-01

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Characterization of capacitance-free pressure-flow relations during single diastoles in dogs using an RC model with pressure-dependent parameters.  

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Although previous studies have proposed a variety of models to characterize diastolic pressure-flow relations, the models' ability to predict capacitance-free pressure-flow relations from dynamic information in individual studies has not been determined. This study tested the ability of a lumped RC model with pressure-dependent parameters to predict diastolic capacitance-free flow during maximum vasodilation in anesthetized dogs. Model parameters were characterized by perturbing the circumflex coronary artery with a ramp pressure waveform that caused coronary artery pressure to decline at rates varying from 30-150 mm Hg/sec. Capacitance-free relations constructed from declining and rising ramp pressure-flow data corresponded with capacitance-free pressure-flow points constructed during constant-pressure coronary artery perfusion (which are model-independent). The model parameters derived from analysis of the ramp data indicate that conductance of the coronary bed varies directly with coronary pressure and is independent of the rate of coronary pressure decay. Values of coronary capacitance vary inversely with coronary artery pressure and with the magnitude of dPLC/dt. Thus, a simple, lumped diastolic model with pressure-dependent parameters can predict capacitance-free pressure-flow behavior from dynamic pressure-flow data and characterize model parameters over a wide range of coronary pressure. PMID:3568296

Canty, J M; Klocke, F J; Mates, R E

1987-02-01

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The influence of glycemia on the left ventricular diastolic function in patients with arterial hypertension  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Arterial hypertension is a disease which has influence on the left ventricular diastolic function. It has been suggested that impairment of the left ventricular diastolic function in patients with diabetes mellitus is due to arterial hypertension and diffuse peripherial and coronary atherosclerosis which appear early in diabetic patients. Now, however, it is thought, that other mechanisms are responsable for the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of glycemia on the left ventricular diastolic function in patients with arterial hypertension. Methods. The study included 60 patients with arterial hypertension: 30 (50,00% patients with diabetes mellitus and 30 (50,00% with­out diabetes mellitus. The parameters of diastolic function were measured by the pulsed Doppler echocardiographic technique. Isovolumetric relaxation time, deceleration time, maximum velocity of the early stage of ventricular filling, maximum velocity of the late stage of ventricular filling and the early/late stage of ventricular filling ratio were used to assess the diastolic function. Results. The patients with arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus compared to the patients with arterial hypertension without diabetes mellitus were significantly obese (p 0.001, had significantly higher glycemia (p<0.0001 and left atrial volume (p<0.05. The patients with arterial hypertension and diabetes mellilus compared to the patients with arterial hypertension without diabetes mellitus had significanllly: longer deceleration time (p< 0.05, lower velocity of early stage of ventricular filling (p<0.05 and lower early/late stage oj ventricular filling ratio (p<0.01. Conclusion. Diastolic function parameters of patients with diabetes mellitus are significantly changed: deceleration time is longer, early stage of ventricular filling and early/late ventricular filling ratio are lower.

Milutinovi? Suzana

2008-01-01

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Attempted forced titration of blood pressure to <130/85 mm Hg in type 2 diabetic hypertensive patients in clinical practice: the diastolic cost.  

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The authors assessed the practicality and results of forced titrating of blood pressure to <130/85 mm Hg based on guidelines of the sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in the setting of a clinical practice in 257 diabetic, hypertensive patients. Goal diastolic pressure was achieved in 90% of the patients, but goal systolic pressure was achieved in only 33%. In 57% of the patients, the attained diastolic pressure was < or =70 mm Hg, and in 20% of the cohort diastolic pressure was reduced to <70 mm Hg (mean, 60+/-1 mm Hg). Patients with final diastolic pressure <70 mm Hg were older, had a higher prevalence of coronary artery disease, and higher initial systolic and pulse pressures compared with patients with final diastolic pressure of 71-85 mm Hg. Thus, attempted lowering of blood pressure to <130/85 mm Hg is associated with excessive lowering of diastolic pressure in a significant number of patients. Whether the benefits of tight systolic control outweigh the risks of excessive diastolic reduction requires further prospective assessment. PMID:16407686

Osher, Esther; Greenman, Yona; Tordjman, Karen; Kisch, Eldad; Shenkerman, Galina; Koffler, Michael; Shapira, Itzhak; Stern, Naftali

2006-01-01

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Effect of right ventricular pressure on the end-diastolic left ventricular pressure-volume relationship before and after chronic right ventricular pressure overload in dogs without pericardia.  

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We studied the effect of chronic right ventricular pressure overload on diastolic ventricular interdependence in dogs without pericardia, instrumented to measure left ventricular pressure, right ventricular pressure, and 3 left ventricular dimensions. We studied 12 dogs before (control) and nine dogs after 6 weeks of pulmonary artery constriction producing systolic right ventricular pressure greater than or equal to 70 mm Hg. Compared to control, following pulmonary artery band there was greater (P less than 0.01) interventricular septal mass (53 +/- 15 vs. 35 +/- 7 mg, mean +/- SD), thickness (15 +/- 2 vs. 10 +/- 1 mm), and ratio of the surface area of the interventricular septal to total left ventricular surface area (0.38 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.33 +/- 0.02), but unchanged left ventricular free wall mass (81 +/- 12 vs. 84 +/- 14 mg) and thickness (11 +/- 2 vs. 11 +/- 2 mm). End-diastolic right and left ventricular pressures and left ventricular volume were varied by vena cava and pulmonary artery occlusions and releases. Volume was calculated as an ellipsoid and the data in each dog fit to: left ventricular pressure = a0 + a1V + a2V2 + a3V3 + a4V4 + bPRV, r greater than or equal to 0.91 in each dog. During control, b was similar, whether calculated from both pulmonary artery and vena cava occlusions (0.47 +/- 0.09) or from vena cava occlusions alone (0.43 +/- 0.11), and was greater than the ratio of the interventricular septal surface area to left ventricular surface area (0.33 +/- 0.02, P less than 0.05). Following the pulmonary artery band, b decreased to 0.21 +/- 0.10 (P less than 0.05) and was less than the ratio of interventricular septal surface area to the left ventricular surface area which increased to 0.38 +/- 0.03 (P less than 0.05). We conclude that the effect of alterations in right ventricular pressure on the end-diastolic left ventricular pressure volume relationship, independent of the pericardium, is reduced following the pulmonary artery band that produces interventricular septal hypertrophy. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the effect of alterations of right ventricular pressure on the diastolic left ventricular pressure-volume relationship depends on the relative elastance of the interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall, and not simply on the ratio of the interventricular septal surface area to the left ventricular surface area. PMID:6733867

Little, W C; Badke, F R; O'Rourke, R A

1984-06-01

19

Relationship between occupational exposure to lead and local arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic function in individuals with arterial hypertension  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Relationship between occupational exposure to lead and frequency of complications in persons with arterial hypertension has been poorly investigated. This study aimed at evaluation of the relationship between occupational exposure to lead and manifestation of an increased local arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The studies included 105 men (mean age: 44.47 ± 9.12 years) with arterial hypertension, treated with hypotensive drugs: group I - men occupationally exposed to lead (n = 53), and group II - men not exposed to lead (n = 52). In echocardiographic examination, the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was diagnosed significantly more frequently in group I than in group II. In eTracking examination mean values of stiffness parameter (?), augmentation index (AI) and one-point pulse wave velocity (PWV-?) were significantly higher and mean values of arterial compliance (AC) were significantly lower in group I than in group II. The logistic regression showed that in the group of persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead a more advanced age, higher blood lead concentration and higher mean values of augmentation index represent independent risk factors of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The multifactorial regression showed that amongst persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead higher blood zinc protoporphyrin concentration, a more advanced age and higher value of body mass index (BMInd higher value of body mass index (BMI) represent independent risk factors of an increased local arterial stiffness. In summary, we should note that in the group of persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead the study has demonstrated a significantly more frequent manifestation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and an increase in local arterial stiffness. - Highlights: ? Amongst persons with AH exposed to Pb higher ZnPP represent independent risk factor of increased local arterial stiffness. ? Higher Pb-B represent independent risk factor of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. ? The study has demonstrated a more frequent manifestation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in group exposed to Pb. ? Also, in this group the study has demonstrated a more frequent manifestation of increase in local arterial stiffness.

20

Analysis of left ventricular wall motion during early diastole in patients with coronary artery disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to investigate the left ventricular (LV) wall motion during the early phase of diastole, multigated cardiac blood pool imaging with Tc-99m were performed at rest at anterior and 40- degree left anterior oblique (LAO) positions. Ten normal subjects and 22 patients with CAD with normal LV ejection fraction (>= 55 %) were studied. Mean LV filling rate during the first half of the rapid filling period (FR-in-1/2 RF) was obtained as early diastolic phase index. In LAO images, three regional volume curves (septal, inferoapical and posterolateral) were obtained. For the diastolic wall motion analysis, anterior and LAO LV perimeters were divided into 6 segments, and they were analyzed frame by frame, but final decision was made at the middle of the rapid filling period (1/2 RF). In patients with CAD, FR-in-1/2 RF was significantly (p -1) were found in 77 % of CAD. In normal subjects, expansion of LV during the early phase of the diastole was rapid, and at 1/2 RF LV perimeter moved outward in every segment in comparison with end-systolic (ES) perimeter. But in patients with CAD the following abnormalities were encountered: 1) In 22 segments, LV perimeter at 1/2 RF did not move from ES perimeter (no movement) 2) In 9 segments, LV perimeter at 1/2 RF moved inward in comparison with ES perimeter. These abnormal diastolic wall motions were found in 83 % of CAD and they corresponded tond in 83 % of CAD and they corresponded to the segments which were supplied by stenosed coronary artery except one. In segments with inward movement, delay of regional ES (60 to 90 msec) were obserbed but in segments with no movement only slow filling of LV were observed by regional volume curve analysis. The investigation of abnormal LV diastolic wall motion at 1/2 RF made possible the detection of stenosed coronary artery in 62 %. (author)

21

Coronary flow and left ventricular pressure during diastole in the anaesthetized dog.  

OpenAIRE

There is controversy about the effect of left ventricular pressure on resistance of the intramyocardial coronary vessels. In anaesthetized dogs the effect of left ventricular pressure on coronary flow during diastole was studied using an extracorporeal circulation and allowing the heart to contract and relax isovolumically. At constant coronary perfusion pressure of about 45 mmHg with maximal coronary vasodilatation, produced by dipyridamole, increases in diastolic left ventricular pressure t...

Losano, Giovanni Alberto; Pagliaro, Pasquale

1992-01-01

22

Absence of end-diastolic flow velocity in the umbilical artery: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this review was to find the clinical relevance of the absence of end-diastolic flow velocity in the umbilical artery. Search was conducted through MEDLINE using unabridged MEDLINE Knowledge Finder (Aries System Corp., North Andover, MA). All the manuscripts published in English language within last 10 years (1983-1992) were included in the review process. There has been no report of umbilical artery absent-end diastolic velocity before 1983. It was extremely difficult to draw a conclusion because a majority of the available reports in the literature are either case reports or retrospective analyses. However, for the practical purposes it can be concluded that after viability these pregnancies should be followed by intense (daily) fetal well-being surveillance with conventional antenatal tests. Those who improve their end-diastolic velocity should be allowed to continue the pregnancy as long as antenatal testing is promising. Persistence of absent end-diastolic velocity may be an indication for delivery at a gestational age when there is reasonable chance of survival. Cytogenetic evaluation and anatomical survey of these fetuses by ultrasound is recommended. Long-term follow up of surviving infants needs to be studied. It is impossible for a single institution to accumulate enough cases for adequate outcome evaluation. A randomized prospective trial to assess the management of pregnancies with absent end-diastolic velocity in the umbilical artery would be difficult. Some might even consider such a study unethical. Until such a study is performed, an international registry would be helpful for collecting data about the perinatal outcomes and management of such patients. PMID:7739835

Forouzan, I

1995-03-01

23

Arterial blood pressure analysis based on scattering transform II  

OpenAIRE

"Arterial blood pressure analysis based on scattering transform I" introduces a new method based on the scattering transform for a one dimensional Schrödinger equation to reconstruct the arterial blood pressure waves and separate its systolic and diastolic parts. In this article, we propose to analyse the parameters computed from this technique in different clinical and physiological conditions. Two cases are considered: moderate chronic heart failure and high fit triathlets. The variability...

Laleg, Taous-meriem; Me?digue, Claire; Cottin, Franc?ois; Sorine, Michel

2007-01-01

24

EFFECT OF GENDER DIFFERENCE AND CIRCADIAN RHYTHM ON DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE FOR VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of gender difference and circadian rhythm on diastolic blood pressure for volleyball players. METHODS: To achieve the purpose, a total of thirty volleyball players [men (n = 15) and women (n = 15)] age between 19 years and 22 years from Einstein College of Engineering, Tamil Nadu, India were selected as subjects. The two independent variables of gender and circadian variations and dependent variable of diastolic blood pressure were selected ...

Rajagopal, I.

2011-01-01

25

Separation of arterial pressure into solitary waves and windkessel flow  

OpenAIRE

A simplified model of arterial blood pressure intended for use in model-based signal processing applications is presented. The main idea is to decompose the pressure into two components: a travelling wave describes the fast propagation phenomena predominating during the systolic phase and a windkessel flow represents the slow phenomena during the diastolic phase. Instead of decomposing the blood pressure pulse into a linear superposition of forward and backward harmonic waves, as in the linea...

Laleg, Taous-meriem; Cre?peau, Emmanuelle; Sorine, Michel

2006-01-01

26

Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity is the only index of arterial stiffness that correlates with a mitral valve indices of diastolic dysfunction, but no index correlates with left atrial size.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the optimal assessment of arterial stiffness that relates to diastolic dysfunction. Forty-one patients had measurements of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), ankle brachial index (ABI), pulse pressure (PP), and augmentation index (AIx). Diastolic dysfunction was evaluated by echocardiographic indices of the ratio of the peak early diastolic mitral valve velocity and the peak late diastolic velocity (E/A ratio), left atrial diameter, and left atrial volume indexes. There was a significant (P baPWV and E/A ratio with an inverse relationship indicating that higher arterial stiffness was associated with greater diastolic dysfunction. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between E/A ratio and cfPWV, PP, ABI, or AIx. After multivariate analysis, the relationship between baPWV and E/A ratio remained significant (P baPWV correlates with diastolic dysfunction, independent of a patient's age and BP and is a better indicator of diastolic dysfunction than other indicators of arterial stiffness. baPWV has the utility of infering the presence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. PMID:23533943

Chow, Bryan; Rabkin, Simon W

2013-01-01

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Nucleid-angiographic calculations of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, pulmonary capillary pressure and diastolic pulmonary pressure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proper use of cardiac nucleid-angiography provides parameters which are comparable to those obtained by invasive procedures. Although various methods have been devised for determining left ventricular ejection rate and the geometric analysis of the left ventricle by isotope techniques (Adam 2-5), Ashburn (6,7), Breuel (11,12), Strauss/Bill, Strauss/Pitt (65,66,67), only a few comparative intracavitary pressure measurements are available. Of these, the method developed by de Vernejoul (73 to 76) is of particular importance for measurements during the bolus phase because of the large number of cases studied by simultaneous catheterisation (670 patients). The value of de Vernejoul's formula was confirmed by a study of 350 of our own cases. The disadvantage of the method lies in its susceptibility to variations in the bolus front. We have therefore attempted for some time to obtain pressure measurements by a pooling procedure. (orig.)

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Multivariate Modeling of Body Mass Index, Pulse Pressure, Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in Chinese Twins  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure (PP), and body mass index (BMI) are heritable traits in human metabolic health but their common genetic and environmental backgrounds are not well investigated. The aim of this article was to explore the phenotypic and genetic associations among PP, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and BMI. The studied sample contained 615 twin pairs (17–84 years) collected in the Qingdao municipality. Univariate and multivariate structural equation models were fitted for assessing the genetic and environmental contributions. The AE model combining additive genetic (A) and unique environmental (E) factors produced the best fit for each four phenotypes. Heritability estimated in univariate analysis ranged from 0.42 to 0.74 with the highest for BMI (95% CI 0.70–0.78), and the lowest for PP (95% CI 0.34–0.49). The multivariate model estimated (1) high genetic correlations for DBP with SBP (0.87), PP with SBP (0.75); (2) low–moderate genetic correlations between PP and DBP (0.32), each BP component and BMI (0.24–0.37); (3) moderate unique environmental correlation for PP with SBP (0.68) and SBP with DBP (0.63); (4) there was no significant unique environmental correlation between PP and BMI. Overall, our multivariate analyses revealed common genetic and environmental backgrounds for PP, BP, and BMI in Chinese twins.

Wu, Yili; Zhang, Dongfeng

2014-01-01

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Casein improves brachial and central aortic diastolic blood pressure in overweight adolescents: a randomised, controlled trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Arterial stiffness, blood pressure (BP) and blood lipids may be improved by milk in adults and the effects may be mediated via proteins. However, limited is known about the effects of milk proteins on central aortic BP and no studies have examined the effects in children. Therefore, the present trial examined the effect of milk and milk proteins on brachial and central aortic BP, blood lipids, inflammation and arterial stiffness in overweight adolescents. A randomised controlled trial was conducted in 193 overweight adolescents aged 12–15 years. They were randomly assigned to drink 1 litre of water, skimmed milk, whey or casein for 12 weeks. The milk-based test drinks contained 35 g protein/l. The effects were compared with the water group and a pretest control group consisting of thirty-two of the adolescents followed 12 weeks before the start of the intervention. Outcomes were brachial and central aortic BP, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index, serum C-reactive protein and blood lipids. Brachial and central aortic diastolic BP (DBP) decreased by 2·7% (P= 0·036) and 2·6% (P = 0·048), respectively, within the casein group and the changes were significantly different from those of the pretest control group (P = 0·040 and P = 0·034, respectively). There was a significant increase in central aortic DBP, and in brachial and central systolic BP in the whey group compared with the water group (P = 0·003, P= 0·009 and P = 0·002, respectively). There were no changes in measures of arterial stiffness or blood lipid concentrations. A high intake of casein improves DBP in overweight adolescents. Thus, casein may be beneficial for younger overweight subjects in terms of reducing the longterm risk of CVD. In contrast, whey protein seems to increase BP compared with drinking water; however, water may be considered an active control group.

Arnberg, Karina; Larnkjær, Anni

2013-01-01

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Estimation of left ventricular end diastolic pressure by tissue doppler imaging in patients with acute myocardial infarction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate sensitivity and specificity of E / Ea > 10 for prediction of LVEDP > 15 mmHg in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing left heart catheterization. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients of acute transmural myocardial infarction at Jinnah Hospital Lahore were enrolled in study from December 2008 to December 2009. Patients with sinus rhythm were included in the study. Patients with valvular heart disease, complete right/left bundle branch block, Pacemaker dependence, Atrial fibrillation and Post mitral valve replacement were excluded. All patients were examined by performing trans thoracic Doppler echocardiography. The trans-mitral LV filling signal was traced manually and the following variables were obtained: peak early (E) and late (A) trans-mitral velocities, and E/A ratio. Tissue - Doppler derived indices were recorded at the lateral mitral annulus. These indices included systolic velocities (S'), early diastolic (Ea) velocities and late diastolic (Aa) velocities. Finally, the dimensionless index of E/Ea was calculated. All were averaged from at least three beats. Cardiac catheterization was performed via trans-femoral / trasradial route using six French (6F) sheaths. Left ventricular diastolic pressure was directly measured by fluid filled pigtail catheter attached to a pressure transducer. Results: Mean age of the study population was 56.8 +- 12.7 years. There were 47 (78.3%) males and 13 (21.7%) females. Diabetes mellitus was pres21.7%) females. Diabetes mellitus was present in 12(20%), hypertension in 32 (53.3%), smoking in 35 (58.3%), dyslipidemia in 24 (40%). Anterior wall myocardial infarction occurred in 44 (73.3%) and inferior wall MI in 16 (26.7%). Grade I diastolic dysfunction was present in 22 (36.7%), Grade II in 31 (51.7%) and Grade III in 7 (11.7%) patients. E/E 15 in 9 (15%). Overall 21 patients were true positive, 6 were false positive, 25 were true negative and 8 were false negative. By applying 2 X 2 table sensitivity was 77.7%, specificity was 80.6%, positive predictive value was 77.7% and negative predictive value was 75.7%. Conclusion: Doppler echocardiography provided major insights into the pathophysiology of diastolic LV dysfunction. E/Ea ratio is a reasonably good index for predicting elevated left ventricular filling pressure. E/Ea significantly correlated with LVEDP in the population with high prevalence of coronary artery disease. This method is the standard in measuring pressures in most clinical settings. (author)

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Association of Arterial Stiffness and Electrocardiography-Determined Left Ventricular Hypertrophy with Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives Increased arterial stiffness is associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD), but this association may be influenced by left ventricular (LV) performance. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is not only a significant determinant of LV performance, but is also correlated with LVDD. This study is designed to compare LV diastolic function among patients divided by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and electrocardiography (ECG)-determined LVH and to assess whether increased baPWV and ECG-determined LVH are independently associated with LVDD. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 270 patients and classified them into four groups according to the median value of baPWV and with/without ECG-determined LVH. The baPWV was measured using an ABI-form device. ECG-determined LVH was defined by Sokolow-Lyon criterion. LVDD was defined as impaired relaxation, pseudonormal, and restrictive mitral inflow patterns. Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were patients with lower baPWV and without ECG-determined LVH, lower baPWV but with ECG-determined LVH, higher baPWV but without ECG-determined LVH, and higher baPWV and with ECG-determined LVH respectively. Results Early diastolic mitral velocity (Ea) was gradually decreased from group 1 to group 4 (p?0.027). Patients in group 4 had the highest prevalence of LVDD (all p<0.001). After multivariate analysis, both baPWV and ECG-determined LVH were independent determinants of Ea (??=??0.02, P<0.001; ??=??1.77, P<0.001 respectively) and LVDD (odds ratio?=?1.02, P?=?0.011 and odds ratio?=?3.53, P?=?0.013 respectively). Conclusion Our study showed the group with higher baPWV and ECG-determined LVH had the lowest Ea and highest prevalence of LVDD. In addition, both baPWV and ECG-determined LVH were independently associated with Ea and LVDD. Hence, assessment of arterial stiffness by baPWV and LVH by ECG may be useful in identifying the high risk group of LVDD. PMID:23145083

Hsu, Po-Chao; Tsai, Wei-Chung; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Su, Ho-Ming; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

2012-01-01

32

EFFECT OF GENDER DIFFERENCE AND CIRCADIAN RHYTHM ON DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE FOR VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of gender difference and circadian rhythm on diastolic blood pressure for volleyball players. METHODS: To achieve the purpose, a total of thirty volleyball players [men (n = 15 and women (n = 15] age between 19 years and 22 years from Einstein College of Engineering, Tamil Nadu, India were selected as subjects. The two independent variables of gender and circadian variations and dependent variable of diastolic blood pressure were selected for this study. The experimental design used was static group factorial design. The data were collected at 02:00, 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00 and 22:00 hours on diastolic blood pressure by using Erkameter during the academic year of 2009 – 2010. Collected data were subjected to statistical analysis by using two-way factorial (2 x 6 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Cosinor analysis. RESULTS: There was insignificant difference between genders, significant difference at different times of the day and insignificant circadian rhythmicity exists on diastolic blood pressure for women and significant for men. CONCLUSION: It is recommended to the physical educators to adopt the findings of this study while planning to improve sports skills for the players and athletes.

I. Rajagopal

2011-04-01

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Pressure and tone dependence of coronary diastolic input impedance and capacitance.  

Science.gov (United States)

To quantify reactive elements of the coronary circulation, we have characterized in vivo diastolic coronary input impedance by introducing sinusoidal pressure oscillations of constant amplitude and varying frequency at constant mean pressure levels during prolonged diastoles in heart-blocked dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital. The behavior of coronary input impedance is similar to that observed in other peripheral vascular beds and is a function of both mean distending pressure and vasomotor tone. The behavior of impedance modulus and phase at each pressure level could be described by a lumped resistive-capacitive (RC) parallel model over a frequency range of 1-5 Hz. At higher frequencies the phase angle response could be characterized by adding a Voigt viscoelastic element to the original RC model. Calculated coronary capacitances for both models were similar in magnitude and varied inversely with mean coronary distending pressure. Values for the RC and RC viscoelastic model in the maximally dilated coronary bed were 14.1 and 21.6 X 10(-3) ml X mmHg X 100 g-1 at 30 mmHg and 2.65 and 2.70 X 10(-3) ml X mmHg-1 X 100 g-1 at 110 mmHg. With vasomotor tone intact, calculated coronary capacitance at each pressure level was reduced by a factor of two. These results indicate that an RC parallel model with pressure- and vasomotor tone-dependent capacitance adequately describes diastolic coronary input impedance at frequencies encountered during ordinary diastoles. The addition of a viscoelastic element provides adequate fits up to frequencies of 10 Hz. PMID:3993808

Canty, J M; Klocke, F J; Mates, R E

1985-05-01

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Coronary Flow Reserve Predicts Cardiopulmonary Fitness in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Independently of Systolic and Diastolic Function  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aims Despite revascularization and optimal medical treatment, patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) have reduced exercise capacity. In the absence of coronary artery stenosis, coronary flow reserve (CFR) is a measure of coronary microvascular function, and a marker of future poor outcome in CAD patients. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship among CFR, systolic and diastolic function, peripheral vascular function, and cardiopulmonary fitness in CAD patients. Methods and Results Forty patients with median left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 49 (interquartile 46–55) with documented CAD without significant left anterior descending artery (LAD) stenosis underwent cardiorespiratory exercise test with measurement of VO2peak, digital measurement of endothelial function and arterial stiffness, and an echocardiography with measurement of LVEF using the biplane Simpson model, mitral early (E) and late (A) inflow velocities, and tissue Doppler diastolic (e?) and systolic (s?) velocities. Peak coronary flow velocity (CFV) was measured in the LAD using pulse-wave Doppler. CFR was calculated as the ratio between peak CFV at rest and during vasodilator stress. Median CFR was 2.22 (1.90–2.62) and VO2peak was 21.8 (17.6–25.5). VO2peak correlated significantly with CFR (r = 0.57, P < 0.001), E/e? (r = ?0.35, P = 0.04), and s? (r = 0.41, P = 0.01) and with LVEF (r = 0.35, P = 0.03). CFR remained independently associated with VO2peak after adjustment for systolic and diastolic function. Conclusions Coronary flow reserve measured noninvasively predicts cardiopulmonary fitness independently of resting systolic and diastolic function in CAD patients, indicating that cardiac output during maximal exercise is dependent on the ability of the coronary circulation to adapt to the higher metabolic demands of the myocardium.

Snoer, Martin; Olsen, Rasmus Huan

2014-01-01

35

Arterial pressure measurement: Is the envelope curve of the oscillometric method influenced by arterial stiffness?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurement of peripheral arterial pressure using the oscillometric method is commonly used by professionals as well as by patients in their homes. This non invasive automatic method is fast, efficient and the required equipment is affordable with a low cost. The measurement method consists of obtaining parameters from a calibrated decreasing curve that is modulated by heart beats witch appear when arterial pressure reaches the cuff pressure. Diastolic, mean and systolic pressures are obtained calculating particular instants from the heart beats envelope curve. In this article we analyze the envelope of this amplified curve to find out if its morphology is related to arterial stiffness in patients. We found, in 33 volunteers, that the envelope waveform width correlates to systolic pressure (r=0.4, p<0.05), to pulse pressure (r=0.6, p<0.05) and to pulse pressure normalized to systolic pressure (r=0.6, p<0.05). We believe that the morphology of the heart beats envelope curve obtained with the oscillometric method for peripheral pressure measurement depends on arterial stiffness and can be used to enhance pressure measurements.

Gelido, G [Electronic department, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional FRBA, Bs. As. (Argentina); Angiletta, S [Electronic department, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional FRBA, Bs. As. (Argentina); Pujalte, A [Electronic department, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional FRBA, Bs. As. (Argentina); Quiroga, P [Electronic department, Universidad Favaloro FICEN, Bs. As. (Argentina); Cornes, P [Electronic department, Universidad Favaloro FICEN, Bs. As. (Argentina); Craiem, D [Electronic department, Universidad Favaloro FICEN, Bs. As. (Argentina)

2007-11-15

36

Arterial pressure measurement: Is the envelope curve of the oscillometric method influenced by arterial stiffness?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurement of peripheral arterial pressure using the oscillometric method is commonly used by professionals as well as by patients in their homes. This non invasive automatic method is fast, efficient and the required equipment is affordable with a low cost. The measurement method consists of obtaining parameters from a calibrated decreasing curve that is modulated by heart beats witch appear when arterial pressure reaches the cuff pressure. Diastolic, mean and systolic pressures are obtained calculating particular instants from the heart beats envelope curve. In this article we analyze the envelope of this amplified curve to find out if its morphology is related to arterial stiffness in patients. We found, in 33 volunteers, that the envelope waveform width correlates to systolic pressure (r=0.4, p<0.05), to pulse pressure (r=0.6, p<0.05) and to pulse pressure normalized to systolic pressure (r=0.6, p<0.05). We believe that the morphology of the heart beats envelope curve obtained with the oscillometric method for peripheral pressure measurement depends on arterial stiffness and can be used to enhance pressure measurements

37

Correlation of arterial blood pressure and compliance with left ventricular structure and function in the very elderly  

OpenAIRE

There are very little data on the relationship between systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), arterial compliance and left ventricular structure and function, particularly left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in the very elderly (>75 years). SBP and arterial stiffness increase with age, and the question is: which of the two is the main stimulus to LV hypertrophy? This is a cross-sectional study to compare blood pressure and arterial stiffness measures with regard to thei...

Rosendorff, Clive; Go, Orson; Schmeidler, James; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Beeri, Michal S.

2012-01-01

38

Correlation analysis of the changes in arterial blood pressure in people with acute mountain sickness when exposed to high altitude  

OpenAIRE

Objectives ?To investigate the changes in arterial blood pressure in the healthy lowlanders when they were exposed to different altitudes and duration, and the relationship of the exposure with the prevalence and susceptibility of acute mountain sickness (AMS), in order to evaluate the significance of arterial blood pressure changes in the diagnosis of AMS and its clinical risk. Methods ?Demographic data and blood pressure parameters [systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressur...

Liu, Yang; Zhang, Ji-hang; Wu, Xiao-jing; Gao, Xu-bin; Lu, Wei; Xu, Bai-da; Huang, Lan

2014-01-01

39

Daily Liquorice Consumption for Two Weeks Increases Augmentation Index and Central Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Liquorice ingestion often elevates blood pressure, but the detailed haemodynamic alterations are unknown. We studied haemodynamic changes induced by liquorice consumption in 20 subjects versus 30 controls with average blood pressures of 120/68 and 116/64 mmHg, respectively. Methods Haemodynamic variables were measured in supine position before and after two weeks of liquorice consumption (daily glycyrrhizin dose 290–370 mg) with tonometric recording of radial blood pressure, pulse wave analysis, and whole-body impedance cardiography. Thirty age-matched healthy subjects maintaining their normal diet were studied as controls. Results Two weeks of liquorice ingestion elevated peripheral and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure (by 7/4 and 8/4 mmHg, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2-11/1-8 and 3-13/1-8, respectively, P ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01742702 PMID:25153328

Leskinen, Miia H.; Hautaniemi, Elina J.; Tahvanainen, Anna M.; Koskela, Jenni K.; Päällysaho, Marika; Tikkakoski, Antti J.; Kähönen, Mika; Kööbi, Tiit; Niemelä, Onni; Mustonen, Jukka; Pörsti, Ilkka H.

2014-01-01

40

Left ventricular end-systolic pressure estimated from measurements in a peripheral artery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aortic and radial arterial pressure measurements were compared after cannulation and before cardiopulmonary bypass in 26 patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting. The radial artery blood pressure range was 89 to 147 mm Hg systolic and 44 to 75 mm Hg diastolic. A difference was found between the central and peripheral dicrotic notch pressures, the former being 7.9 +/- 2.7 (SD) mm Hg higher than the latter. When 8 mm Hg was added to the notch pressure measured in the radial artery to construct a calculated end-systolic pressure, there was good agreement with the centrally measured notch pressure. The mean difference was -0.15 mm Hg with a 95% confidence interval of -1.2 to 0.9 mm Hg. It was not possible to calculate peak systolic aortic pressure with the same accuracy from the systolic and diastolic pressure measurements in the radial artery. It is concluded that left ventricular end-systolic pressure measured as the aortic dicrotic notch pressure can be calculated from the dicrotic notch pressure in the radial artery with reasonable accuracy. PMID:1768817

Dahlgren, G; Veintemilla, F; Settergren, G; Liska, J

1991-12-01

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Higher diastolic blood pressure at admission and antiedema therapy is associated with acute kidney injury in acute ischemic stroke patients  

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Full Text Available Hasan Micozkadioglu Department of Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine Hospital of Adana, Baskent University School of Medicine, Adana, Turkey Abstract: Antiedema therapy with mannitol and furosemide is widely used for prevention and management of cerebral edema, elevated intracranial pressure, and cerebral hernia. There are some reports about mannitol and furosemide as risk factors of acute kidney injury (AKI. We investigated the risk factors for AKI including antiedema therapy in acute ischemic stroke patients. The subjects were 129 patients with acute ischemic stroke including 56 females and 73 males with a mean age 68.16±12.29 years. Patients were divided into two groups: patients with AKI and without AKI according to Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. All patients had undergone cranial, carotid, and vertebral artery evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging. The number of patients with AKI was 14 (10.9%. Subjects experiencing atrial fibrillation (P=0.043 and higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP (P=0.032 treated with mannitol (P=0.019 and furosemide (P=0.019 disclosed significant association with AKI. Regression analysis revealed that higher DBP (P=0.029 and management with mannitol (P=0.044 were the risk factors for AKI. Higher DBP at admission is the most important risk factor for AKI. However antiedema therapy should be used carefully in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Serum creatinine levels or estimated glomerular filtration rate should be watched frequently to prevent AKI. Keywords: furosemide, mannitol, renal failure, cerebrovascular disease

Micozkadioglu H

2014-02-01

42

Collagen network remodelling and diastolic stiffness of the rat left ventricle with pressure overload hypertrophy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study had two objectives: (a) to determine the accumulation of collagen and its structural remodelling in the hypertrophied rat left ventricle after 4 and 8 weeks of abdominal aorta banding; and (b) to correlate these findings with the diastolic stress-strain relation of the intact myocardium. In comparison to age and sex matched controls, the collagen volume fraction of the hypertrophied myocardium after 4 and 8 weeks of aortic banding increased significantly from 3.5(SD1.0)% to 7.8(4.2)% and 6.2(2.0)% respectively. This accumulation of collagen, or fibrosis, occurred in the absence of myocyte necrosis. Scanning electron microscopy showed increased density and thickness of the collagen weave and tendons. At 4 weeks, light microscopy showed interstitial oedema and disrupted collagen fibrils. Left ventricular diastolic stress-strain relations of both pressure overload groups were significantly steeper than that of the control group. Thus the response of the interstitium to the hypertrophic process that accompanies abdominal aorta banding is a complex process that includes a structural remodelling of the fibrillar collagen matrix and the early appearance of interstitial oedema, each of which may contribute to a rise in the passive stiffness of the intact myocardium. PMID:2978464

Doering, C W; Jalil, J E; Janicki, J S; Pick, R; Aghili, S; Abrahams, C; Weber, K T

1988-10-01

43

Working tension and arterial pressure  

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Full Text Available The working tension has been pointed out in recent years by its deleterious effects on the health. There are evidences of their interrelationnot only with hypertension, but with the cardiovascular illnesses in general, from there our interest in studying it.To determine the measure of associations between work types and the presence of arterial hypertension. 2 To value the moderator paper ofthe individual disposition in the confrontation of work demands and it’s control over the arterial pressure and their control.A descriptive traverse study was carried out. 256 workers were studied, two groups were conformed: hypertensive (148 and non hypertensive(108. A blood pressure measurement was done and the Questionnaire of Working Tension (based on the perception of the work andthe preferences was applied.The perception of nervous tension at the work position was significantly higher among hypertensive and particularly in non controlled ones(p <0,05. The high tension work behaved as a risk factor of hypertension (OR – 2,25 [1,22 – 4,17] p <0,05 and of not to control the sameone (OR – 2,20 [1,05-4,60] p <0,05. The agreement proportion among perceived and preferred work was low 0,267, evidencing, those interviewed,the necessity of lower levels of demand.The high tension work and the nervous tension acts as factors of psychological risk, influencing the control of the arterial hypertension. Thework of low tension is valued as the favorite one.

Miriam C. Peña Betancourt

2011-01-01

44

Noninvasive estimation of the blood pressure waveform in the carotid artery using continuous finger blood pressure monitoring.  

Science.gov (United States)

To noninvasively estimate the blood pressure continuously in the common carotid artery (CCA), we obtained the distension waveform of the CCA from seven healthy volunteers and 20 hypertensive patients using radio-frequency ultrasound. Consequently, it was calibrated by the mean and diastolic pressure measured in the finger artery and compared with applanation tonometry, calibrated using the systolic and diastolic pressure in the brachial artery. The mean difference in estimating the mean blood pressure was 0.3 mm Hg (limits of agreement: -11.7 to 12.3 mm Hg). In estimating the systolic blood pressure, the mean difference was 8.0 mm Hg (limits of agreement: -29.8 to 45.8 mm Hg) and showed increasing variation with blood pressure. The systolic blood pressure values can be expected between 0.83 and 1.35 times the control method. In this study, we obtained proof-of-principle for noninvasively measuring blood pressure in the CCA using continuous finger blood pressure monitoring. This opens the way to estimating location specific arterial stiffness and intra-plaque elasticity. PMID:22975032

Idzenga, Tim; Reesink, Koen D; van Swelm, Youri; Hansen, Hendrik H G; Holewijn, Suzanne; de Korte, Chris L

2012-11-01

45

Determinantes clínicos de la presión de fin de diástole / Clinical determining factors of the end of diastole's pressure  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: la falla cardiaca sobreviene a los pacientes con múltiples enfermedades cardiovasculares. Se encuentra con frecuencia, que algunos pacientes no empeoran su clase funcional, a pesar de reunir condiciones clínicas que suponen una severa alteración fisiopatológica. Estos hallazgos son con [...] firmados al medir la presión de fin de diástole (PFD) en el laboratorio de hemodinamia. Objetivo: determinar qué factores clínicos inciden en la PFD. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo de 200 pacientes estudiados (muestra aleatoria de 1730 pacientes) durante el año 2005, con análisis de las relaciones entre la variable dependiente PFD y las variables independientes: edad, sexo, peso, superficie corporal, factores de riesgo, cuadro clínico, fracción de eyección (FE), alteraciones estructurales ventriculares (dilatación o hipertrofia), compromiso coronario (uno, dos o tres vasos, angiográficamente sanos, o presencia de flujo lento intracoronario), y la arteria coronaria comprometida. Se aplicó un modelo de regresión lineal simple mediante el paquete estadístico STATA Versión 9. Resultados: las variaciones de aumento de la PFD están relacionadas con: hipertensión arterial (HTA), dilatación ventricular izquierda, mayor compromiso coronario (tres vasos) y presencia de ateromatosis significativa de las arterias descendente anterior y coronaria derecha. Las variaciones decrecientes de la PFD se presentaron ante el aumento de la FE y la presencia de arterias sanas. Conclusiones: se confirman algunos factores conocidos que inciden sobre la PFD, pero sorprende la ausencia de cambios significativos de la PFD ante cuadros clínicos más inestables y ante la presencia de hipertrofia. Este estudio provee elementos significativos para futuras investigaciones clínicas en el campo. Abstract in english Abstract Introduction: many cardiovascular diseases may cause heart failure, because of impairment of systolic or diastolic function, or both. It is frequently observed that regardless of physiopathological processes that were presumed to cause major symptoms, some patients have normal or quite norm [...] al functional class of dyspnea. This observation is sometimes confirmed in the cath lab, when the measured end diastolic pressure (EDP) is normal. Objective: to study which clinical factors are related with changes in EDP. Methods: 200 patients were included in a sample of 1.730 patients studied in the Cath Lab during 2005. This retrospective, descriptive and analytic study seeked for association between EDP and independent variables such as: age, sex gender, weight, clinical risk factor for coronary artery disease, the clinical presentation, ejection fraction (EF) measured, structural changes in left ventricle morphology (dilatation or hypertrophy), extent of coronary disease (one, two or three-vessel disease, normal coronaries, or reduced intracoronary flow), and the coronary artery involved. Statistically, a simple linear regression model was applied in the STATA 9 program. Results: increasing variability in the EDP was found to be significantly related with: hypertension, dilated left ventricle, 3-vessel disease, left coronary descendant and right coronary artery involvement. Decreasing variability of EDP presented with increasing EF and normal coronary arteries. Conclusions: some clinical factors were confirmed as related with altered EDP, but others, such as the more unstable clinical conditions and hypertrophy, surprisingly showed no significant relation with EDP variations. This investigation offers new pathways to future clinical studies in this area.

Luis Miguel, Benítez; José Vicente, Narváez.

2007-09-15

46

Determinantes clínicos de la presión de fin de diástole Clinical determining factors of the end of diastole's pressure  

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Full Text Available Introducción: la falla cardiaca sobreviene a los pacientes con múltiples enfermedades cardiovasculares. Se encuentra con frecuencia, que algunos pacientes no empeoran su clase funcional, a pesar de reunir condiciones clínicas que suponen una severa alteración fisiopatológica. Estos hallazgos son confirmados al medir la presión de fin de diástole (PFD en el laboratorio de hemodinamia. Objetivo: determinar qué factores clínicos inciden en la PFD. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo de 200 pacientes estudiados (muestra aleatoria de 1730 pacientes durante el año 2005, con análisis de las relaciones entre la variable dependiente PFD y las variables independientes: edad, sexo, peso, superficie corporal, factores de riesgo, cuadro clínico, fracción de eyección (FE, alteraciones estructurales ventriculares (dilatación o hipertrofia, compromiso coronario (uno, dos o tres vasos, angiográficamente sanos, o presencia de flujo lento intracoronario, y la arteria coronaria comprometida. Se aplicó un modelo de regresión lineal simple mediante el paquete estadístico STATA Versión 9. Resultados: las variaciones de aumento de la PFD están relacionadas con: hipertensión arterial (HTA, dilatación ventricular izquierda, mayor compromiso coronario (tres vasos y presencia de ateromatosis significativa de las arterias descendente anterior y coronaria derecha. Las variaciones decrecientes de la PFD se presentaron ante el aumento de la FE y la presencia de arterias sanas. Conclusiones: se confirman algunos factores conocidos que inciden sobre la PFD, pero sorprende la ausencia de cambios significativos de la PFD ante cuadros clínicos más inestables y ante la presencia de hipertrofia. Este estudio provee elementos significativos para futuras investigaciones clínicas en el campo.Abstract Introduction: many cardiovascular diseases may cause heart failure, because of impairment of systolic or diastolic function, or both. It is frequently observed that regardless of physiopathological processes that were presumed to cause major symptoms, some patients have normal or quite normal functional class of dyspnea. This observation is sometimes confirmed in the cath lab, when the measured end diastolic pressure (EDP is normal. Objective: to study which clinical factors are related with changes in EDP. Methods: 200 patients were included in a sample of 1.730 patients studied in the Cath Lab during 2005. This retrospective, descriptive and analytic study seeked for association between EDP and independent variables such as: age, sex gender, weight, clinical risk factor for coronary artery disease, the clinical presentation, ejection fraction (EF measured, structural changes in left ventricle morphology (dilatation or hypertrophy, extent of coronary disease (one, two or three-vessel disease, normal coronaries, or reduced intracoronary flow, and the coronary artery involved. Statistically, a simple linear regression model was applied in the STATA 9 program. Results: increasing variability in the EDP was found to be significantly related with: hypertension, dilated left ventricle, 3-vessel disease, left coronary descendant and right coronary artery involvement. Decreasing variability of EDP presented with increasing EF and normal coronary arteries. Conclusions: some clinical factors were confirmed as related with altered EDP, but others, such as the more unstable clinical conditions and hypertrophy, surprisingly showed no significant relation with EDP variations. This investigation offers new pathways to future clinical studies in this area.

Luis Miguel Benítez

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Positive-end Expiratory Pressure Influences Echocardiographic Measures of Diastolic Function: A Randomized, Crossover Study in Cardiac Surgery Patients  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ultrasonography of the cardiovascular system is pivotal for hemodynamic assessment. Diastolic function is evaluated with a combination of tissue Doppler (e' and a') and pulsed Doppler (E and A) measures of transmitral- and mitral valve annuli velocities. However, accurate echocardiographic evaluation in the intensive care unit or perioperative setting is contingent on relative resistance to positive pressure ventilation and changes in preload. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and positioning on echocardiographic measures of diastolic function.

Juhl-Olsen, Peter; Hermansen, Johan Fridolf

2013-01-01

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Noninvasive continuous beat-to-beat radial artery pressure via TL-200 applanation tonometry.  

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The Tensys TL-200(®) noninvasive beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) monitor displays continuous radial artery waveform as well as systolic, mean and diastolic BP from a pressure sensor directly over the radial artery at the wrist. It locates the site of maximal radial pulse signal, determines mean BP from maximal pulse waveform amplitude at optimal artery compression and then derives systolic and diastolic BP. We performed a cross-sectional study of TL-200 BP comparisons with contralateral invasive radial artery (A-Line) BP values in 19 subjects during an average 2.5 h of general anesthesia for a wide range of surgical procedures. Two hundred and fifty random sample pairs/patient resulted in 4,747 systolic, mean and diastolic BP pairs for analysis. A-Line BP ranged from 29 mm Hg diastolic to 211 mm Hg systolic, and heart rate varied between 38 and 210 beats/min. Bland-Altman analysis showed an average 2.3 mm Hg TL-200 versus A-Line systolic BP bias and limits of agreement (1.96 SD) were ± 15.3 mm Hg. Mean BP showed a 2.3 mm Hg TL-200 bias and ± 11.7 mm Hg limits of agreement, while diastolic BP showed a 1.7 mm Hg bias and ± 12.3 mm Hg limits of agreement. Coefficients of determination for TL-200 and A-Line BP regression were r² = 0.86 for systolic, r² = 0.86 for mean, and r² = 80 for diastolic BP, respectively, with no apparent change in correlation at low or high BP. Bland-Altman analysis suggested satisfactory agreement between TL-200 noninvasive beat-to-beat BP and invasive A-Line BP. Paired TL-200/A-Line BP comparisons showed a high coefficient of determination. PMID:22258303

Dueck, Ron; Goedje, Oliver; Clopton, Paul

2012-04-01

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Effect of placental resistance, arterial diameter, and blood pressure on the uterine arterial velocity waveform: a computer modeling approach.  

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A computer model was used to simulate velocity waveforms that can be visualized in the human uterine artery using Doppler ultrasound. It was found that increasing uteroplacental vascular resistance from normal caused an increase in the systolic/diastolic velocity ratio (S/D) and pulsatility index (PI) of the waveform. Increasing uteroplacental resistance also caused the appearance of a dicrotic notch. Reducing the uterine artery radius increased the S/D and PI and this effect was accentuated at high placental resistance. In contrast, increasing mean arterial pressure in the uterine artery had little effect on S/D and PI. Results suggest that waveform shape abnormalities observed in obstetric patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension are primarily caused by high uteroplacental vascular resistance and a reduced uterine arterial diameter. PMID:2675446

Adamson, S L; Morrow, R J; Bascom, P A; Mo, L Y; Ritchie, J W

1989-01-01

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Diastolic function and functional capacity after a single session of continuous positive airway pressure in patients with compensated heart failure  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The effects of acute continuous positive airway pressure therapy on left ventricular diastolic function and functional capacity in patients with compensated systolic heart failure remain unclear. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial included 43 pati [...] ents with heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction

Marjory Fernanda, Bussoni; Gabriel Negretti, Guirado; Luiz Shiguero, Matsubara; Meliza Goi, Roscani; Bertha Furlan, Polegato; Suzana Tanni, Minamoto; Silméia Garcia Zanati, Bazan; Beatriz Bojikian, Matsubara.

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Post-exercise contractility, diastolic function, and pressure: Operator-independent sensor-based intelligent monitoring for heart failure telemedicine  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background New sensors for intelligent remote monitoring of the heart should be developed. Recently, a cutaneous force-frequency relation recording system has been validated based on heart sound amplitude and timing variations at increasing heart rates. Aim To assess sensor-based post-exercise contractility, diastolic function and pressure in normal and diseased hearts as a model of a wireless telemedicine system. Methods We enrolled 150 patients and 22 controls referred for exercise-stress echocardiography, age 55 ± 18 years. The sensor was attached in the precordial region by an ECG electrode. Stress and recovery contractility were derived by first heart sound amplitude vibration changes; diastolic times were acquired continuously. Systemic pressure changes were quantitatively documented by second heart sound recording. Results Interpretable sensor recordings were obtained in all patients (feasibility = 100%. Post-exercise contractility overshoot (defined as increase > 10% of recovery contractility vs exercise value was more frequent in patients than controls (27% vs 8%, p 1 in 20 patients and in none of the controls (p 1 in only 3 patients (p Conclusion Post-exercise contractility, diastolic time and pressure changes can be continuously measured by a cutaneous sensor. Heart disease affects not only exercise systolic performance, but also post-exercise recovery, diastolic time intervals and blood pressure changes – in our study, all of these were monitored by a non-invasive wearable sensor.

Giannoni Massimo

2009-05-01

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Increased reactive oxygen species, metabolic maladaptation, and autophagy contribute to pulmonary arterial hypertension-induced ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic heart failure.  

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Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a debilitating and deadly disease with no known cure. Heart failure is a major comorbidity and a common cause of the premature death of patients with PAH. Increased asymmetrical right ventricular hypertrophy and septal wall thickening compress the left ventricular cavity and elicit diastolic heart failure. In this study, we used the Sugen5416/hypoxia/normoxia-induced PAH rat to determine whether altered pyridine nucleotide signaling in the failing heart contributes to 1) increased oxidative stress, 2) changes in metabolic phenotype, 3) autophagy, and 4) the PAH-induced failure. We found that increased reactive oxygen species, metabolic maladaptation, and autophagy contributed to the pathogenesis of right ventricular remodeling and hypertrophy that lead to left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. In addition, arterial elastance increased in PAH rats. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is a major source of pyridine molecule (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate), which is a substrate for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases in the heart. Dehydroepiandrosterone, a 17-ketosteroid that reduces pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy, inhibited glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, decreased oxidative stress, increased glucose oxidation and acetyl-coA, and reduced autophagy in the hearts of PAH rats. It also decreased arterial stiffness and improved left ventricular diastolic function. These findings demonstrate that pyridine nucleotide signaling, at least partly, mediates PAH-induced diastolic heart failure, and that reduction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-derived nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate is beneficial to improve left ventricle diastolic function. PMID:25267798

Rawat, Dhawjbahadur K; Alzoubi, Abdallah; Gupte, Rakhee; Chettimada, Sukrutha; Watanabe, Makino; Kahn, Andrea G; Okada, Takao; McMurtry, Ivan F; Gupte, Sachin A

2014-12-01

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Association of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with 24-h aortic ambulatory blood pressure: the SAFAR study.  

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Aortic blood pressure (BP) and 24-h ambulatory BP are both better associated with target organ damage than office brachial BP. However, it remains unclear whether a combination of these two techniques would be the optimal methodology to evaluate patients' BP in terms of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) prevention. In 230 participants, office brachial and aortic BPs were measured by a validated BP monitor and a tonometry-based device, respectively. 24-h ambulatory brachial and aortic BPs were measured by a validated ambulatory BP monitor (Mobil-O-Graph, Germany). Systematic assessment of patients' LVDD was performed. After adjustment for age, gender, hypertension and antihypertensive treatment, septum and lateral E/Ea were significantly associated with office aortic systolic BP (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP) and 24-h brachial and aortic SBP and PP (P?0.04), but not with office brachial BP (P?0.09). Similarly, 1 standard deviation in SBP was significantly associated with 97.8±20.9, 86.4±22.9, 74.1±23.3 and 51.3±22.6 in septum E/Ea and 68.6±20.1, 54.2±21.9, 37.9±22.4 and 23.1±21.4 in lateral E/Ea, for office and 24-h aortic and brachial SBP, respectively. In qualitative analysis, except for office brachial BP, office aortic and 24-h brachial and aortic BPs were all significantly associated with LVDD (P?0.03), with the highest odds ratio in 24-h aortic SBP. Furthermore, aortic BP, no matter in the office or 24-h ambulatory setting, showed the largest area under receiver operating characteristic curves (P?0.02). In conclusion, 24-h aortic BP is superior to other BPs in the association with LVDD.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 13 November 2014; doi:10.1038/jhh.2014.101. PMID:25391758

Zhang, Y; Kollias, G; Argyris, A A; Papaioannou, T G; Tountas, C; Konstantonis, G D; Achimastos, A; Blacher, J; Safar, M E; Sfikakis, P P; Protogerou, A D

2014-11-13

54

[Arterial pressure in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis].  

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Hypertension and calcium nephrolithiasis show some common features, such as the high prevalence of hypercalciuria and of elevated urinary sodium excretion. 28 patients with idiopathic calcium stone disease and 17 normals were studied: all the subjects were evaluated for the mean arterial pressure, and for the metabolic risk factors for calcium stone disease. The mean arterial pressure proved to be higher in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis than in normals. In normals the mean arterial pressure showed a direct relationship with the urinary calcium, while in the group of stone patients it had a direct relationship with the urinary sodium excretion. The lack of relationship between the mean arterial pressure and calcium excretion, in patients with calcium stones, suggests an impaired tubular calcium handling in such patients. PMID:8036556

Vagelli, G; Calabrese, G; Mazzotta, A; Pratesi, G; Gonella, M

1994-03-01

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Feasibility of using finger arterial pressure in neonates  

OpenAIRE

The feasibility of using a Finapres device to reproduce the beat to beat signal of arterial blood pressure in eight neonates was assessed and compared with intra-arterial measurement of arterial blood pressure in the umbilical artery, using a catheter. The two methods gave similar results. Continuous recording of arterial blood pressure in neonates using Finapres is feasible and reliable.?? Keywords: blood pressure monitoring; Finapres; umbilical artery

Drouin, E.; Gournay, V.; Calamel, J.; Mouzard, A.; Roze, J.

1997-01-01

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Working tension and arterial pressure  

OpenAIRE

The working tension has been pointed out in recent years by its deleterious effects on the health. There are evidences of their interrelationnot only with hypertension, but with the cardiovascular illnesses in general, from there our interest in studying it.To determine the measure of associations between work types and the presence of arterial hypertension. 2) To value the moderator paper ofthe individual disposition in the confrontation of work demands and it’s control over the arterial p...

Pen?a Betancourt, Miriam C.; Rodri?guez Nande, Lidia M.; Reynaldo de la Noval García; Duen?as Herrera, Alfredo F.; Roma?n Herna?ndez, Jorge J.; Marisol Diaz Vásquez

2011-01-01

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Echocardiographic Measures of Diastolic Function Are Preload Dependent during Triggered Positive Pressure Ventilation : A Controlled Crossover Study in Healthy Subjects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background. The use of echocardiography in intensive care settings impacts decision making. A prerequisite for the use of echocardiography is relative resistance to changes in volume status and levels of positive pressure ventilation (PPV). Studies on indices of diastolic function report conflicting results with regard to dependence on volume status. Evidence is scarce on PPV. Methods. Ten healthy subjects were exposed to 6 levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and pressure support (PS) following a baseline reading. All ventilator settings were performed at three positions: horizontal, reverse-Trendelenburg, and Trendelenburg. Echocardiography was performed throughout. Results. During spontaneous breathing, early diastolic transmitral velocity (E) changed with positioning (P <0.001), whereas early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus (e') was independent (P = 0.263). With PPV, E and e' proved preload dependent (P ??values <0.001). Increases in PEEP, PS, or a combination influenced E and e' in reverse-Trendelenburg- and horizontal positions, but not in the Trendelenburg position. Discussion. The change towards preload dependency of e' with PPV suggests that PPV increases myocardial preload sensitivity. The susceptibility of E and e' to preload changes during PPV discourages their use in settings of volume shifts or during changes in ventilator settings. Conclusion. Positioning and PPV affect E and e'.

Juhl-Olsen, Peter; Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz

2012-01-01

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The N-Terminal Propeptide of Type III Procollagen in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Link between Left Ventricular End-Diastolic Pressure and Cardiovascular Events  

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Background Despite the usefulness of N-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) in detecting enhanced collagen turnover in patients with congestive heart failure, the value added by PIIINP to the use of clinical variables and echocardiography in relation to directly measured left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure (EDP) and the outcome of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has not been clearly defined. Methods and Results This study involved 168 adult patients with ACS, who underwent echocardiography, measurement of serum PIIINP levels, and cardiac catheterization. Pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging (PWTDI), which revealed mean peak systolic (s?), early (e?), and late diastolic (a?) velocities, was carried out and the eas index of LV function was evaluated: e?/(a?×s?). The patients were divided into three study groups based on the degree of LVEDP – normal (30 mmHg) LVEDP. All patients were followed-up to determine cardiac-related death and revascularization. Patients with high LVEDP had significantly more PIIINP than those with intermediate or normal LVEDP (all post hoc p<0.05). The presence of coronary artery disease, the left atrial volume index (LAVI), the ratio of transmitral early and late diastolic flow velocities, a?, and the eas index were significantly correlated with LVEDP. According to multiple stepwise analysis, PIIINP, LAVI and the eas index were the three independent predictors of the level of LVEDP (PIIINP, p <0.001; LAVI, p?=?0.007; eas index, p?=?0.021). During follow-up (median, 24 months), 32 participants suffered from cardiac events, PIIINP and LAVI were significant predictors of cardiac mortality and hospitalization (PIIINP, hazard ratio (HR) 2.589, p?=?0.002; LAVI, HR 1.040, p?=?0.027). Conclusions PIIINP is a highly effective means to evaluate LVEDP in patients with ACS. The PIIINP is also correlated with cardiac mortality and revascularization, providing an additional means of evaluating and managing patients with ACS. PMID:25559610

Lee, Cheng-Hung; Lee, Wen-Chen; Chang, Shang-Hung; Wen, Ming-Shien; Hung, Kuo-Chun

2015-01-01

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Non-Invasive Assessment of Left Ventricular End-Diastolic Pressure in Patients with Chronic Aortic Regurgitation, Comparison of the Sensitivity and Specificity of CW Doppler Echocardiography with Angiography  

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Full Text Available Background: Left ventricular end diastolic pressure could be estimated collectively using various measures of mitral valve and pulmonary venous flow velocities. In patients with aortic regurgitation, the AR velocity reflects the diastolic pressure difference between the aorta and the left ventricle. We sought to predict the left ventricular end diastolic pressure by a new Doppler index as aortic regurgitation peak early to late diastolic pressure gradient ratio.Patients and Methods: Fifty three patients with at least moderate aortic regurgitation were enrolled in this study. Physical examination, electrocardiography and echocardiography were performed one day before cardiac catheterization. The severity of AR was graded according to the recommendations of American society for echocardiography. The pressure half time, aortic regurgitation early diastolic velocity , aortic regurgitation early diastolic pressure gradient , aortic regurgitation end diastolic velocity, aortic regurgitation end diastolic pressure gradient, and early diastolic to end diastolic pressure gradient ratio of averaged three beats were measured and recorded. The results from cardiac catheterization and echocardiography were compared.Result: The early diastolic to end diastolic pressure gradient ratio was very accurate (80% for determining the left ventricular end diastolic pressure (P =0.01. An early diastolic to end diastolic pressure gradient ratio of 1.5 has a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 32% for left ventricular end diastolic pressure ?12 mmHg. The best cutoff value of early diastolic to end diastolic pressure gradient ratio for the prediction of left ventricular end diastolic pressure >12 mmHg was higher than 2.0, with a sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 96% We found no significant correlation between the left ventricular end diastolic pressure with either left ventricular ejection fraction or aortic regurgitation severity in cardiac catheterization (P =0.5.Conclusion: Doppler echocardiography is a viable alternative of cardiac catheterization for determination of the left ventricular end diastolic pressure. The early diastolic to end diastolic pressure gradient ratio is a simple, easy and new method for assessment of the LVEDP in patients with severe chronic aortic regurgitation.

M Esmaeilzadeh

2009-06-01

60

Simultaneous measurement of beat-to-beat carotid diameter and pressure changes to assess arterial mechanical properties.  

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Use of local arterial distensibility measurements by change in carotid artery diameter divided by pulse pressure has limitations because blood pressure is often taken in a vessel distant or at a time different from where and when change in diameter is taken. In 92 subjects (23 to 91 years of age), carotid artery diameter was continuously measured ecographically, whereas blood pressure was continuously measured simultaneously tonometrically on the contralateral artery, the 2 signals being synchronized via 2 EKGs. Within each cardiac cycle, there was a linear relationship between the changes in vessel diameter and the changes in blood pressure during either the protomesosystole or the diastole after the dicrotic notch. The diastolic slope was displaced upward and steeper than the systolic slope, the pressure-diameter loop showing a hysteresis. Both slopes showed a high reproducibility when data were averaged over a several-second period. There were small differences between consecutive cardiac cycles, suggesting that modulation of arterial mechanical response to continuous changes in intravascular pressure may undergo physiological variations. In the 92 subjects, systolic and diastolic slopes correlated significantly with distensibility values obtained by Reneman formula and exhibited a close inverse relationship with each subject's age and systolic blood pressure, thereby showing the ability to reflect age- and pressure-dependent large artery stiffening. This method may allow precise assessment of man's arterial mechanical properties within each cardiac cycle. This highly dynamic assessment may help to collect information on properties of normal and altered large elastic arteries and the mechanisms involved in disease. PMID:18794405

Giannattasio, Cristina; Salvi, Paolo; Valbusa, Filippo; Kearney-Schwartz, Anna; Capra, Anna; Amigoni, Maria; Failla, Monica; Boffi, Lucia; Madotto, Fabiana; Benetos, Athanasios; Mancia, Giuseppe

2008-11-01

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Measurement of Blood Pressure Using an Arterial Pulsimeter Equipped with a Hall Device  

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Full Text Available To measure precise blood pressure (BP and pulse rate without using a cuff, we have developed an arterial pulsimeter consisting of a small, portable apparatus incorporating a Hall device. Regression analysis of the pulse wave measured during testing of the arterial pulsimeter was conducted using two equations of the BP algorithm. The estimated values of BP obtained by the cuffless arterial pulsimeter over 5 s were compared with values obtained using electronic or liquid mercury BP meters. The standard deviation between the estimated values and the measured values for systolic and diastolic BP were 8.3 and 4.9, respectively, which are close to the range of values of the BP International Standard. Detailed analysis of the pulse wave measured by the cuffless radial artery pulsimeter by detecting changes in the magnetic field can be used to develop a new diagnostic algorithm for BP, which can be applied to new medical apparatus such as the radial artery pulsimeter.

Jong-Gu Choi

2011-01-01

62

Ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in patients before and after thyroidectomy  

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Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Increased values of thyroid hormones in the clinical syndrome of hyperthyreosis affect blood pressure values and its circadial variation. The aim of this study was to define the influence of hyperthyreosis on the values and circadial variations of arterial blood pressure, as well as to investigate the effect of thyroid surgery on blood pressure values. Methods. We compared the 24-hour averages of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, their variations and their reduction during the night between 20 female patients with hyperthyroidism and hypertension de novo and 20 healthy females. We compared the values of 24-hour ambulatory monitoring performed before the surgery with the values gathered two weeks after the surgery. Results. The 24-hour average systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were higher in the patients with hyperthyroidism than in the control group (p < 0.001. In the group of patients, the variations in blood pressure were significantly higher than they were in the group of healthy people (p < 0.001. The amplitude of the nocturnal reduction of blood pressure was also significantly lower in the patients with hyperthyroid status and hypertension, in comparison to the healthy persons (p < 0.001. Two weeks after the surgery, a significant reduction of blood pressure values (both for systolic and diastolic appeared. Conclusion. The patients with hyperthyroidism- caused hypertension had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, higher variations in blood pressure and lower nocturnal reduction of blood pressure than healthy subjects. Thyroid surgery, as a control of thyroid function, optimised blood pressure very rapidly.

Ivanovi? Branislava

2008-01-01

63

Abdominal perfusion pressure and coronary arterial perfusion pressure in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery  

OpenAIRE

Abdominal perfusion pressure (APP) is defined as the difference between the mean arterial pressure and the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). IAP elevation results in various side effects, including a decrease in coronary arterial perfusion pressure (CoPP). The present study analyzed the relationship between APP and CoPP in patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation (ECC). The patient population selected for the present study comprised 45 adult patients with a mean (± SD) age of 65.9±7.21 ...

Dabrowski, Wojciech; Wacinski, Piotr; Visconti, Jozef

2009-01-01

64

Noninvasive arterial blood pressure waveforms in patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arterial blood pressure and echocardiography may provide useful physiological information regarding cardiac support in patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (cf-LVADs). We investigated the accuracy and characteristics of noninvasive blood pressure during cf-LVAD support. Noninvasive arterial pressure waveforms were recorded with Nexfin (BMEYE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). First, these measurements were validated simultaneously with invasive arterial pressures in 29 intensive care unit patients. Next, the association between blood pressure responses and measures derived by echocardiography, including left ventricular end-diastolic dimensions (LVEDDs), left ventricular end-systolic dimensions (LVESDs), and left ventricular shortening fraction (LVSF) were determined during pump speed change procedures in 30 outpatients. Noninvasive arterial blood pressure waveforms by the Nexfin monitor slightly underestimated invasive measures during cf-LVAD support. Differences between noninvasive and invasive measures (mean ± SD) of systolic, diastolic, mean, and pulse pressures were -7.6 ± 5.8, -7.0 ± 5.2, -6.9 ± 5.1, and -0.6 ± 4.5 mm Hg, respectively (all dicrotic notch in the pressure waveform was a better predictor of aortic valve opening (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.87) than pulse pressure (AUC = 0.64) and (dP(art)/dt)max (AUC = 0.61). Patients with partial support rather than full support at 9,000 rpm had a significant change in systolic pressure, pulse pressure, and (dP(art)/dt)max during ramp studies, while echocardiographic measures did not change. Blood pressure measurements by Nexfin were reliable and may thereby act as a compliment to the assessment of the cf-LVAD patient. PMID:24399064

Martina, Jerson R; Westerhof, Berend E; de Jonge, Nicolaas; van Goudoever, Jeroen; Westers, Paul; Chamuleau, Steven; van Dijk, Diederik; Rodermans, Ben F M; de Mol, Bas A J M; Lahpor, Jaap R

2014-01-01

65

Noninvasive method for determining blood pressure and contours of arterial and volume pulses  

OpenAIRE

A noninvasive method for monitoring blood pressure, based on the principles established by Riva-Rocci and Korotkoff (K), is described; it furnishes, after a single compression-deflation cycle of the arm-encircling cuff, values of sys-tolic and diastolic blood pressures as well as the contours of the brachial arterial pulse and the corresponding volume pulse. K-sounds are detected by a single microphone situated in the cubital fossa, and the time-varying cuff pressure P(t) is read by a piezore...

Santosh Kumar (Corresponding Author); Vellani, Camer W.; Luca Parigi; Razi Naqvi, K.

2008-01-01

66

Isometric handgrip training reduces arterial pressure at rest without changes in sympathetic nerve activity  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether isometric handgrip (IHG) training reduces arterial pressure and whether reductions in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) mediate this drop in arterial pressure. Normotensive subjects were assigned to training (n = 9), sham training (n = 7), or control (n = 8) groups. The training protocol consisted of four 3-min bouts of IHG exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) separated by 5-min rest periods. Training was performed four times per week for 5 wk. Subjects' resting arterial pressure and heart rate were measured three times on 3 consecutive days before and after training, with resting MSNA (peroneal nerve) recorded on the third day. Additionally, subjects performed IHG exercise at 30% of MVC to fatigue followed by muscle ischemia. In the trained group, resting diastolic (67 +/- 1 to 62 +/- 1 mmHg) and mean arterial pressure (86 +/- 1 to 82 +/- 1 mmHg) significantly decreased, whereas systolic arterial pressure (116 +/- 3 to 113 +/- 2 mmHg), heart rate (67 +/- 4 to 66 +/- 4 beats/min), and MSNA (14 +/- 2 to 15 +/- 2 bursts/min) did not significantly change following training. MSNA and cardiovascular responses to exercise and postexercise muscle ischemia were unchanged by training. There were no significant changes in any variables for the sham training and control groups. The results indicate that IHG training is an effective nonpharmacological intervention in lowering arterial pressure.

Ray, C. A.; Carrasco, D. I.

2000-01-01

67

Does low diastolic blood pressure contribute to the risk of recurrent hypertensive cardiovascular disease events? The framingham heart study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whether low diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is a risk factor for recurrent cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in persons with isolated systolic hypertension is controversial. We studied 791 individuals (mean age 75 years, 47% female, mean follow-up time: 8±6 years) with DBP groupings of pulse pressure (?68 versus group with pulse pressure ?68 and DBP <70 mm Hg (76% versus 46%-54%; P<0.001). Persons with isolated systolic hypertension and prior CVD events have increased risk for recurrent CVD events in the presence of DBP <70 mm Hg versus DBP 70 to 89 mm Hg, whether treated or untreated, supporting wide pulse pressure as an important risk modifier for the adverse effect of low DBP. PMID:25421982

Franklin, Stanley S; Gokhale, Sohum S; Chow, Vincent H; Larson, Martin G; Levy, Daniel; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Mitchell, Gary F; Wong, Nathan D

2015-02-01

68

The Effects of Cola Acuminata on Arterial Blood Pressure  

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Full Text Available Caffeine has been proven to be vasoactive and augments the release of calcium from sarcoplasmic reticulum. Interestingly, caffeine is the most active principle of Cola acuminata-commonly consumed in Nigeria. This study is designed to determine its effects on blood pressure using 20 Sprague dawley rats with an average weight of 150g. The animals were subdivided into 2 groups of 10 rats each (control and test groups. The control rats were fed with rat chow while the test groups were fed with salt diet that was prepared by adding 7.7g of salt to 92.3g of normal rats chow in order to achieve hypertension. Substance extraction was by chloroform extraction. With the extract, different levels of the substance concentration were prepared and subsequently infused in sequence to the test rats. The results showed that diastolic blood pressure was more responsive to changes in concentration of Cola acuminata extract with a significant concentration dependent increase in the arterial blood pressure of both the normotensive and hypertensive rats. Considering the fact that Cola acuminata consumption is part of our culture and the fact that some become addicted, it is our opinion therefore, that the need for efforts towards identifying the cardiovascular implications of caffeine containing consumables, can never be over emphasized.

E.N.S. Igbinovia

2009-01-01

69

Pressão arterial em adolescentes durante teste ergométrico / Arterial blood pressure in adolescents during exercise stress testing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Descrever a resposta da pressão arterial em adolescentes submetidos ao teste de esforço. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo transversal de 218 adolescentes entre 10 e 19 anos (131 do sexo masculino) submetidos a teste ergométrico, e descrita a freqüência cardíaca máxima, tempo de exercício, con [...] sumo máximo de oxigênio, pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) e diastólica (PAD) de repouso, no esforço máximo e aos seis minutos da recuperação. RESULTADOS: No repouso, a PAS teve valores maiores no sexo masculino e a PAD não mostrou diferença entre os sexos, porém ambas aumentaram com a idade. No exercício ocorreu elevação da PAS e queda da PAD em ambos os sexos. A variação da PAS foi maior no sexo masculino, principalmente acima dos 14 anos. CONCLUSÃO: A análise dos resultados demonstrou que a PAS durante o exercício teve relação direta com idade, peso, altura e índice de massa corpórea do indivíduo e a PAD teve relação apenas com a idade. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Describe arterial blood pressure response in adolescents undergoing exercise stress testing. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 218 adolescents (131 of whom were males), aged between 10 to 19 years, undergoing exercise stress testing. Maximum heart rate, total exerci [...] se time, maximum oxygen uptake, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) at rest, during maximal physical exertion and at six minutes of recovery were measured. RESULTS: At rest, SBP values were greater in males and no difference was found in DBP between genders, although both increased with age. During exercise, SBP rose and DBP fell in both genders. SBP variation was greater in men, particularly in those over 14 years of age. CONCLUSION: Analysis of results showed that during physical exercise, SBP had a direct relationship with the individual’s age, weight, height and body mass index, whereas DBP bore a relationship to age only.

Mônica de Moraes Chaves, Becker; Odwaldo Barbosa e, Silva; Isaura Elaine Gonçalves, Moreira; Edgar Guimarães, Victor.

2007-03-01

70

Effect of Citrus paradisi extract and juice on arterial pressure both in vitro and in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) consumption is considered as beneficial and it is popularly used for the treatment of a vast array of diseases, including hypertension. In the present study, the coronary vasodilator and hypotensive effects of Citrus paradisi peel extract were assessed in the Langendorff isolated and perfused heart model and in the heart and lung dog preparation. In both models, Citrus paradisi peel extract decreased coronary vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure when compared with control values (60 +/- 15 x 10(7) dyn s cm(-5) vs 100 +/- 10 x 10(7) dyn s cm(-5) and 90 mmHg vs 130 +/- 15 mmHg, respectively). These decreases in coronary vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure were blocked when isolated and perfused hearts and mongrel dogs were pre-treated with L-NAME. In humans, Citrus paradisi juice decreased diastolic arterial pressure and systolic arterial pressure both in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Citrus paradisi juice produced a greater decrease in mean arterial pressure when compared with Citrus sinensis juice, cow milk and a vitamin C-supplemented beverage. However, more detailed studies are required to isolate, purify and evaluate the chemical compounds responsible for this pharmacological effect and to clarify its possible role for treating hypertension. PMID:19153985

Díaz-Juárez, J A; Tenorio-López, F A; Zarco-Olvera, G; Valle-Mondragón, L Del; Torres-Narváez, J C; Pastelín-Hernández, G

2009-07-01

71

Severity of peripheral arterial disease is associated with aortic pressure augmentation and subendocardial viability ratio.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality that correlates with peripheral perfusion impairment as assessed by the ankle-brachial arterial pressure index (ABI). Furthermore, PAD is associated with arterial stiffness and elevated aortic augmentation index (AIx). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether ABI impairment correlates with AIx and subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), a measure of cardiac perfusion during diastole. AIx and SEVR were assessed by radial applanation tonometry in 65 patients with stable PAD (Rutherford stage I-III) at a tertiary referral center. AIx corrected for heart rate and SEVR were tested in a multivariate linear and logistic regression model to determine the association with ABI. Mean ABI was 0.8±0.2, AIx 31%±7%, and SEVR 141%±26%. Multiple linear regression with AIx as a dependent variable revealed that AIx was significantly negatively associated with ABI (?=-11.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], -18.6 to -4.5; P=.002). Other variables that were associated with AIx were diastolic blood pressure (?=0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.4; Pperfusion impairment is related to central aortic pressure augmentation and to subendocardial viability ratio. This may be a potential pathophysiologic link that impacts cardiac prognosis in patients with PAD. PMID:23205752

Mosimann, Kathrin; Jacomella, Vincenzo; Thalhammer, Christoph; Meier, Thomas O; Kohler, Malcolm; Amann-Vesti, Beatrice; Husmann, Marc

2012-12-01

72

Genome-wide association study identifies six new loci influencing pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous genetic loci influence systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Europeans 1-3. We now report genome-wide association studies of pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In discovery (N=74,064) and follow-up studies (N=48,607), we identified at genome-wide significance (P= 2.7×10-8 to P=2.3×10-13) four novel PP loci (at 4q12 near CHIC2/PDGFRAI, 7q22.3 near PIK3CG, 8q24.12 in NOV, 11q24.3 near ADAMTS-8), two novel MAP loci (3p21.31 in MAP4, 10q25.3 near ADRB1) and one locus associated with both traits (2q24.3 near FIGN) which has recently been associated with SBP in east Asians. For three of the novel PP signals, the estimated effect for SBP was opposite to that for DBP, in contrast to the majority of common SBP- and DBP-associated variants which show concordant effects on both traits. These findings indicate novel genetic mechanisms underlying blood pressure variation, including pathways that may differentially influence SBP and DBP. PMID:21909110

Wain, Louise V; Verwoert, Germaine C; O’Reilly, Paul F; Shi, Gang; Johnson, Toby; Johnson, Andrew D; Bochud, Murielle; Rice, Kenneth M; Henneman, Peter; Smith, Albert V; Ehret, Georg B; Amin, Najaf; Larson, Martin G; Mooser, Vincent; Hadley, David; Dörr, Marcus; Bis, Joshua C; Aspelund, Thor; Esko, Tõnu; Janssens, A Cecile JW; Zhao, Jing Hua; Heath, Simon; Laan, Maris; Fu, Jingyuan; Pistis, Giorgio; Luan, Jian’an; Arora, Pankaj; Lucas, Gavin; Pirastu, Nicola; Pichler, Irene; Jackson, Anne U; Webster, Rebecca J; Zhang, Feng; Peden, John F; Schmidt, Helena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Campbell, Harry; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Hotteng, Jouke-Jan; Vitart, Veronique; Chasman, Daniel I; Trompet, Stella; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Chambers, John C; Guo, Xiuqing; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kühnel, Brigitte; Lopez, Lorna M; Polašek, Ozren; Boban, Mladen; Nelson, Christopher P; Morrison, Alanna C; Pihur, Vasyl; Ganesh, Santhi K; Hofman, Albert; Kundu, Suman; Mattace-Raso, Francesco US; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sijbrands, Eric JG; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Wang, Thomas J; Bergmann, Sven; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Zitting, Paavo; McArdle, Wendy L; Kroemer, Heyo K; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Glazer, Nicole L; Taylor, Kent D; Harris, Tamara B; Alavere, Helene; Haller, Toomas; Keis, Aime; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Aulchenko, Yurii; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Eyheramendy, Susana; Org, Elin; Sõber, Siim; Lu, Xiaowen; Nolte, Ilja M; Penninx, Brenda W; Corre, Tanguy; Masciullo, Corrado; Sala, Cinzia; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F; Melander, Olle; O’Donnell, Christopher J; Salomaa, Veikko; d’Adamo, Adamo Pio; Fabretto, Antonella; Faletra, Flavio; Ulivi, Sheila; Del Greco, M Fabiola; Facheris, Maurizio; Collins, Francis S; Bergman, Richard N; Beilby, John P; Hung, Joseph; Musk, A William; Mangino, Massimo; Shin, So-Youn; Soranzo, Nicole; Watkins, Hugh; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Gider, Pierre; Loitfelder, Marisa; Zeginigg, Marion; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer S; Navarro, Pau; Wild, Sarah H; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; de Geus, Eco JC; Willemsen, Gonneke; Parker, Alex N; Rose, Lynda M; Buckley, Brendan; Stott, David; Orru, Marco; Uda, Manuela; van der Klauw, Melanie M; Zhang, Weihua; Li, Xinzhong; Scott, James; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Burke, Gregory L; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Döring, Angela; Meitinger, Thomas; Davies, Gail; Starr, John M; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Lindeman, Jan H; ’t Hoen, Peter AC; König, Inke R; Felix, Janine F; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C; Ongen, Halit; Breteler, Monique; Debette, Stéphanie; DeStefano, Anita L; Fornage, Myriam; Mitchell, Gary F; Smith, Nicholas L; Holm, Hilma; Stefansson, Kari; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Samani, Nilesh J; Preuss, Michael; Rudan, Igor; Hayward, Caroline; Deary, Ian J; Wichmann, H-Erich; Raitakari, Olli T; Palmas, Walter; Kooner, Jaspal S; Stolk, Ronald P; Jukema, J Wouter; Wright, Alan F; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B; Wilson, James F; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schmidt, Reinhold; Farrall, Martin; Spector, Tim D; Palmer, Lyle J; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pfeufer, Arne; Gasparini, Paolo; Siscovick, David; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth JF; Toniolo, Daniela; Snieder, Harold; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Wareham, Nicholas J; Oostra, Ben A; Metspalu, Andres; Launer, Lenore; Rettig, Rainer; Strachan, David P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Witteman, Jacqueline CM; Erdmann, Jeanette; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boehnke, Michael; Ridker, Paul M; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Munroe, Patricia B; Psaty, Bruce M; Caulfield, Mark J; Rao, Dabeeru C

2012-01-01

73

Genome-wide association study identifies six new loci influencing pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous genetic loci have been associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Europeans. We now report genome-wide association studies of pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In discovery (N = 74,064) and follow-up studies (N = 48,607), we identified at genome-wide significance (P = 2.7 × 10(-8) to P = 2.3 × 10(-13)) four new PP loci (at 4q12 near CHIC2, 7q22.3 near PIK3CG, 8q24.12 in NOV and 11q24.3 near ADAMTS8), two new MAP loci (3p21.31 in MAP4 and 10q25.3 near ADRB1) and one locus associated with both of these traits (2q24.3 near FIGN) that has also recently been associated with SBP in east Asians. For three of the new PP loci, the estimated effect for SBP was opposite of that for DBP, in contrast to the majority of common SBP- and DBP-associated variants, which show concordant effects on both traits. These findings suggest new genetic pathways underlying blood pressure variation, some of which may differentially influence SBP and DBP. PMID:21909110

Wain, Louise V; Verwoert, Germaine C; O'Reilly, Paul F; Shi, Gang; Johnson, Toby; Johnson, Andrew D; Bochud, Murielle; Rice, Kenneth M; Henneman, Peter; Smith, Albert V; Ehret, Georg B; Amin, Najaf; Larson, Martin G; Mooser, Vincent; Hadley, David; Dörr, Marcus; Bis, Joshua C; Aspelund, Thor; Esko, Tõnu; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Zhao, Jing Hua; Heath, Simon; Laan, Maris; Fu, Jingyuan; Pistis, Giorgio; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Lucas, Gavin; Pirastu, Nicola; Pichler, Irene; Jackson, Anne U; Webster, Rebecca J; Zhang, Feng; Peden, John F; Schmidt, Helena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Campbell, Harry; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Vitart, Veronique; Chasman, Daniel I; Trompet, Stella; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Chambers, John C; Guo, Xiuqing; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kühnel, Brigitte; Lopez, Lorna M; Polašek, Ozren; Boban, Mladen; Nelson, Christopher P; Morrison, Alanna C; Pihur, Vasyl; Ganesh, Santhi K; Hofman, Albert; Kundu, Suman; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Wang, Thomas J; Bergmann, Sven; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Zitting, Paavo; McArdle, Wendy L; Kroemer, Heyo K; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Glazer, Nicole L; Taylor, Kent D; Harris, Tamara B; Alavere, Helene; Haller, Toomas; Keis, Aime; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Aulchenko, Yurii; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Eyheramendy, Susana; Org, Elin; Sõber, Siim; Lu, Xiaowen; Nolte, Ilja M; Penninx, Brenda W; Corre, Tanguy; Masciullo, Corrado; Sala, Cinzia; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F; Melander, Olle; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Salomaa, Veikko; d'Adamo, Adamo Pio; Fabretto, Antonella; Faletra, Flavio; Ulivi, Sheila; Del Greco, Fabiola M; Facheris, Maurizio; Collins, Francis S; Bergman, Richard N; Beilby, John P; Hung, Joseph; Musk, A William; Mangino, Massimo; Shin, So-Youn; Soranzo, Nicole; Watkins, Hugh; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Gider, Pierre; Loitfelder, Marisa; Zeginigg, Marion; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer S; Navarro, Pau; Wild, Sarah H; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; de Geus, Eco J C; Willemsen, Gonneke; Parker, Alex N; Rose, Lynda M; Buckley, Brendan; Stott, David; Orru, Marco; Uda, Manuela; van der Klauw, Melanie M; Zhang, Weihua; Li, Xinzhong; Scott, James; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Burke, Gregory L; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Döring, Angela; Meitinger, Thomas; Davies, Gail; Starr, John M; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Lindeman, Jan H; Hoen, Peter A C 't; König, Inke R; Felix, Janine F; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C; Ongen, Halit; Breteler, Monique; Debette, Stéphanie; Destefano, Anita L; Fornage, Myriam; Mitchell, Gary F; Smith, Nicholas L; Holm, Hilma; Stefansson, Kari; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Samani, Nilesh J; Preuss, Michael; Rudan, Igor; Hayward, Caroline; Deary, Ian J; Wichmann, H-Erich; Raitakari, Olli T; Palmas, Walter; Kooner, Jaspal S; Stolk, Ronald P; Jukema, J Wouter; Wright, Alan F; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B; Wilson, James F; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schmidt, Reinhold; Farrall, Martin; Spector, Tim D; Palmer, Lyle J; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pfeufer, Arne; Gasparini, Paolo; Siscovick, David; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J F; Toniolo, Daniela; Snieder, Harold; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Wareham, Nicholas J; Oostra, Ben A; Metspalu, Andres; Launer, Lenore; Rettig, Rainer; Strachan, David P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Erdmann, Jeanette; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boehnke, Michael; Ridker, Paul M; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Munroe, Patricia B; Psaty, Bruce M; Caulfield, Mark J; Rao, Dabeeru C; Tobin, Martin D; Elliott, Paul; van Duijn, Cornelia M

2011-10-01

74

Plasma advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and NF-?B activity are independent determinants of diastolic and pulse pressure  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract Background: High levels of circulating advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can initiate chronic low-grade activation of the immune system (CLAIS) with each of these factors independently associated with cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Therefore, our objective was to characterize the relationship between serum AGEs, CLAIS and other risk factors for CV disease in normotensive non-diabetic individuals. Methods: We measured body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure, lipid and glucose profile in 44 non-diabetic volunteers (17 female, 27 males). Carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) was measured by ELISA as a marker for circulating AGEs and NF-?B p65 activity as an inflammatory marker by DNA-binding in peripheral blood mononuclear cells lysates (PBMC). Results: Plasma CML concentrations were related to diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.51, p

Sourris, Karly C; Lyons, Jasmine G

2013-01-01

75

Prediction of coronary artery stenosis at rest in patients with normal left ventricular wall motion. Segmental analyses using strain imaging diastolic index.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noninvasive detection of coronary artery stenosis usually requires a stress test in patients without left ventricular (LV) regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA). In contrast, abnormal regional LV relaxation caused by ischemia may persist beyond recovery from transient ischemia. The aim of the present study was to determine whether segmental analysis of abnormal regional LV relaxation using the strain imaging diastolic index (SI-DI) at rest could predict coronary artery stenosis in the three major vessels in patients without LV dysfunction or RWMA. We performed 2D speckle tracking echocardiography and coronary angiography in 85 patients without RWMA with suspected coronary artery disease. Patients with LV dysfunction or acute coronary syndrome were excluded. Echocardiographic images of the LV were obtained in the apical 2-, 3-, and 4-chamber views and divided into 6 segments. In each segment, SI-DI derived from transverse strain imaging was determined. Forty-eight patients had significant coronary artery stenosis (? 70%). The optimal cutoff values of SI-DI were 60.5% in the mid anteroseptal segment for detecting left anterior descending artery stenosis (sensitivity, 83.3%; specificity, 81.1%), 60.5% in the basal anterolateral segment for detecting left circumflex artery stenosis (sensitivity, 80.9%; specificity, 90.3%), and 61.5% in the basal inferior segment for detecting right coronary artery stenosis (sensitivity, 74.1%; specificity, 77.8%). A segmental analysis of SI-DI at rest predicted coronary artery stenosis in the three major vessels in patients without RWMA. This noninvasive method may be useful for detecting coronary artery stenosis without a stress test. PMID:24097214

Yang, Bei; Daimon, Masao; Ishii, Katsuhisa; Kawata, Takayuki; Miyazaki, Sakiko; Hirose, Kuniaki; Ichikawa, Ryoko; Chiang, Shuo-Ju; Suzuki, Hiromasa; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Daida, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01

76

Relating external compressing pressure to mean arterial pressure in non-invasive blood pressure measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Arterial volume clamping uses external compression of an artery to provide continuous non-invasive measurement of arterial blood pressure. It has been assumed that mean arterial pressure (MAP) corresponds to the point where unloading leads to the maximum oscillation of the arterial wall as reflected by photoplethysmogram (PPG), an assumption that has been challenged. Five subjects were recruited for the study (three males, mean age (SD) = 32 (15) years). The PPG waveform was analysed to identify the relationship between the external compressing pressure, PPG pulse amplitude and MAP. Two separate tests were carried out at compression step intervals of 10?mmHg and 2?mmHg, respectively. No significant differences were found between the two tests. The bias between the compressing pressure and the MAP was -4.7?±?5.63?mmHg (p?PPG associated with arterial compression. PMID:25429784

Chin, K Y; Panerai, R B

2015-01-01

77

High intensity interior aircraft noise increases the risk of high diastolic blood pressure in Indonesian Air Force pilots  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the effects of aircraft noise, resting pulse rate, and other factors on the risk of high diastolic blood pressure (DBP in Indonesian Air Force pilots.Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted using data extracted from annual medical check-ups indoctrination aerophysiologic training records at the Saryanto Aviation and Aerospace Health Institute (LAKESPRA in Jakarta from January 2003 – September 2008. For analysis of DBP: the case group with DBP ? 90 mmHg were compared with contral group with DBP < 79 mmHG. One case matched to 12 controls.Results: Out of 567 pilots, 544 (95.9% had complete medical records. For this analysis there were 40 cases of high DBP and 480 controls for DBP. Pilots exposed to aircraft noise 90-95 dB rather than 70-80 dB had a 2.7-fold increase for high DBP [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 2.70; 95% confi dence interval (CI = 1.05-6.97]. Pilots with resting pulse rates of ? 81/minute rather than ? 80/minute had a 2.7-fold increase for high DBP (ORa = 2.66; 95% CI = 1.26-5.61. In terms of total fl ight hours, pilots who had 1401-11125 hours rather than 147-1400 hours had a 3.2-fold increase for high DBP (ORa = 3.18; 95% CI = 1.01-10.03.Conclusion: High interior aircraft noise, high total flight hours,  and high resting pulse rate, increased risk for high DBP. Self assessment of resting pulse rate can be used to control the risk of high DBP. (Med J Indones 2009; 276: 276-82Keywords: diastolic blood pressure, aircraft noise, resting pulse rate, military pilots

Minarma Siagian

2009-11-01

78

Impact of Two Types of Sodium and Ultra Filtration Profiles on Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in patients during Hemodialysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & Aim: Intradialytic hypotension is the most frequent complication in patients receiving haemodialysis (HD. This complication not only contributes to the illness of the patients, but also decreases the efficacy of the HD. So, hypotension prevention is a major challenge for medical team, especially for nurses. One of the preventive methods that have recently been presented is the use of sodium profile and ultra filtration (UF profile. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of linear sodium + UF profile (type1 with stepwise sodium + UF profile (type3 on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in HD patients. Methods & Materials: In this crossover design study, 26 HD patients from two dialysis centers at Esfahan University underwent three kinds of treatment: (1 control, constant dialysate sodium concentration of 138 mmol/L with constant UF; (2 linear sodium profile + UF profile (type1, a linearly decreasing dialysate sodium concentration (146-138mmol/L in combination with a linearly decreasing UF rate; and (3 stepwise sodium profile + UF profile (type2, a stepwise decreasing dialysate sodium concentration (146-138 mmol/L in combination with a stepwise decreasing UF rate. Each treatment was applied in three dialysis sessions. Data were analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA test in the SPSS. Results: Twenty six patients participated in the study. A total of 234 dialysis sessions were analyzed. There were no significant differences in the systolic blood pressure between three groups during predialysis and first and the second hours (P>0.05. The mean of systolic blood pressures were higher in the third hour and postdialysis during two types of profiles (1&3 compared with the routine care group (P<0.05. The mean of diastolic blood pressure was also higher in postdialysis during two types of profiles (1&3 compared with the routine group (P<0.05. There was no significant difference between the profiles 1and 3 (P>0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, sodium profile + UF profile is a simple and cost-effective method that modulate the dialysate sodium and ultra filtration rate and preserve the homodynamic status and blood pressure of patients during dialysis. Therefore, using sodium profile + UF profile (type1 & type3 is recommended in order to prevent hypotension and reduce nursing work during hemodialysis process.  

M Ghafourifard

2010-08-01

79

Method specificity of the auscultatory estimates of the inodilatory reduction of diastolic blood pressure based on Korotkoff IV and V criteria.  

OpenAIRE

1. Non-invasive measurements of blood pressure (BP) are method-specific estimates of actual blood pressure. The agreement of the auscultatory Korokoff V ('disappearance' of sound, kv) and Korokoff IV ('sound muffling' kiv) cut-off points in measuring diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was evaluated in healthy subjects in the presence of various controlled inodilatory interventions. 2. Eating (n = 8), 10 min i.v. infusion of 1 microgram min-1 isoprenaline and adrenaline (n = 12), p.o. administrati...

Mey, C.

1995-01-01

80

Measurement of systolic-diastolic ratio in the umbilical artery by continuous-wave and pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasound: comparison at different sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of umbilical artery flow velocity waveforms, especially systolic-diastolic (S-D) ratio, can predict some pregnancy abnormalities. Most of the earlier studies did not specify the exact segment of umbilical artery sampled. We studied 53 normal singleton pregnancies between 18-41 weeks' gestation to compare S-D ratio measurements of the umbilical artery at different sites: 1) abdominal insertion site, 2) placental insertion site, 3) mid-cord, and 4) an undetermined site. The mean S-D ratio was significantly different (P less than .01) at various segments of the umbilical artery--higher near the abdominal insertion site when compared with the mid-cord, near-placental, and undetermined sites. The S-D ratio at mid-cord was higher than at the undetermined site and the placental insertion site. The near-placental-site S-D ratio was not different from the undetermined site. A lower S-D ratio at the undetermined site may not adequately reflect the true physiologic status of the fetus. Specifying the site of measurement should be an integral part of any report, in order to describe accurately the pathophysiology of fetoplacental circulatory diseases. PMID:1988883

Forouzan, I; Cohen, A W; Arger, P

1991-02-01

81

Theoretical treatise: arterial pressure during aortic surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

The optimum arterial perfusion pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) remains uncertain. A correlation in some form with the patients' resting pressure almost certainly exists. Temperature and hematocrit affect blood viscosity. The optimum perfusion pressure during aortic surgery will vary after the initiation of CPB resulting cooling, heating, and hematocrit changes. Poiseuille's Law was used in conjunction with the previously published effects of temperature and hematocrit on blood viscosity to determine the perfusion pressure that would result in the same organ blood flow. Two different scenarios were modeled, constant flow and flow as predicted by Q10 to reflect required oxygen delivery. Temperature, hematocrit, and flow all have a large effect on blood viscosity and, thus, through Poiseuille's Law, blood pressure. As patients are cooled, their blood viscosity goes up through the inherent viscoelastic properties of blood. As temperature drops from 37 degrees to 17 degrees, viscosity doubles. This increased viscosity is offset by a reduction in hematocrit, which is invariably associated with CPB. As the hematocrit drops from 30% to 10%, viscosity of blood halves. These two factors clinically can cancel each other out. The figure demonstrates the effect on blood pressure of a constant flow for various temperature and hematocrits. Reduced need for oxygen delivery, secondary to the principles of Q10, can result in a lower than expected theoretical perfusion pressure. As temperature drops from 37 degrees to 17 degrees, based on Q10, oxygen delivery reduces by 75%. This indicates that flow can be reduced by over 60% if the hematocrit falls from 30% to 20%. This theoretical treatise predicts that blood pressure management should be temperature- and hematocrit-dependent. The target optimal blood pressure will vary during the course of surgery as a result of heating, cooling, and hemodilution. Clinical correlation is needed. PMID:23198396

Ridgway, Tim; Al-Rawi, Omar; Palmer, Kenneth; Pullan, Mark; Poullis, Michael

2012-09-01

82

Association of genetic variation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure among African Americans: the Candidate Gene Association Resource study  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans (AAs) is higher than in other US groups; yet, few have performed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in AA. Among people of European descent, GWASs have identified genetic variants at 13 loci that are associated with blood pressure. It is unknown if these variants confer susceptibility in people of African ancestry. Here, we examined genome-wide and candidate gene associations with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) using the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) consortium consisting of 8591 AAs. Genotypes included genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data utilizing the Affymetrix 6.0 array with imputation to 2.5 million HapMap SNPs and candidate gene SNP data utilizing a 50K cardiovascular gene-centric array (ITMAT-Broad-CARe [IBC] array). For Affymetrix data, the strongest signal for DBP was rs10474346 (P= 3.6 × 10?8) located near GPR98 and ARRDC3. For SBP, the strongest signal was rs2258119 in C21orf91 (P= 4.7 × 10?8). The top IBC association for SBP was rs2012318 (P= 6.4 × 10?6) near SLC25A42 and for DBP was rs2523586 (P= 1.3 × 10?6) near HLA-B. None of the top variants replicated in additional AA (n = 11 882) or European-American (n = 69 899) cohorts. We replicated previously reported European-American blood pressure SNPs in our AA samples (SH2B3, P= 0.009; TBX3-TBX5, P= 0.03; and CSK-ULK3, P= 0.0004). These genetic loci represent the best evidence of genetic influences on SBP and DBP in AAs to date. More broadly, this work supports that notion that blood pressure among AAs is a trait with genetic underpinnings but also with significant complexity. PMID:21378095

Fox, Ervin R.; Young, J. Hunter; Li, Yali; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Keating, Brendan J.; Musani, Solomon K.; Liu, Kiang; Morrison, Alanna C.; Ganesh, Santhi; Kutlar, Abdullah; Ramachandran, Vasan S.; Polak, Josef F.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Dries, Daniel L.; Farlow, Deborah N.; Redline, Susan; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Hirschorn, Joel N.; Sun, Yan V.; Wyatt, Sharon B.; Penman, Alan D.; Palmas, Walter; Rotter, Jerome I.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Lyon, Helen N.; Kang, Sun J.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Cooper, Richard S.; Franceschini, Nora; Curb, J. David; Martin, Lisa W.; Eaton, Charles B.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Taylor, Herman A.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Ehret, Georg B.; Johnson, Toby; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Levy, Daniel; Munroe, Patricia B.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Bochud, Murielle; Johnson, Andrew D.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Smith, Albert V.; Tobin, Martin D.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L.; Launer, Lenore; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A.; Jackson, Anne U.; Peden, John F.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H.; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Chambers, John C.; Kumari, Meena; JinGo, Min; van der Harst, Pim; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D.G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Liu, Yongmei; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Lehtimäki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R.; Charlotte Onland-Moret, N.; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G.P.; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S.P.M.; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Arking, Dan E.; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L.; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J.; Connell, John M.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Day, Ian N.M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Clarke, Robert; Collins, Rory; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Ongen, Halit; Bis, Joshua C.; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Adair, Linda S.; Lee, Nanette R.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Hoffman Bolton, Judith A.; Köttgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M.; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Grässler, Jürgen; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F.; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Weder, Alan B.; Hunt, Steven C.; Bergman, Richard N.; Collins, Francis S.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Scott, Laura J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Staessen, Jan A.; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; SolerArtigas, Maria; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K.; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairajan; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; MariaCorsi, Anna; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A.; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stan?áková, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; Kathiresan, Sekar; O'Donnell, Chris; Schwartz, Steven M.; Arfan Ikram, M.; Longstreth, Will T.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R.G.; Wain, Louise V.; Morken, Mario A.; Swift, Amy J.; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Danesh, John; Rasheed, Asif; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Janipalli, Charles S.

2011-01-01

83

Cerebral vasospasm affects arterial critical closing pressure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of cerebral vasospasm (CVS) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) on critical closing pressure (CrCP) has not been fully delineated. Using cerebral impedance methodology, we sought to assess the behavior of CrCP during CVS. As CrCP expresses the sum of intracranial pressure (ICP) and vascular wall tension, we also explored its role in reflecting changes in vascular tone occurring in small vessels distal to spasm. This retrospective analysis was performed using recordings from 52 patients, diagnosed with CVS through transcranial Doppler measurements. Critical closing pressure was calculated noninvasively using arterial blood pressure and blood flow velocity. Outcome was assessed at both discharge and 3 months after ictus with the Glasgow Outcome Scale. The onset of CVS caused significant decreases in CrCP (P=0.025), without any observed significant changes in ICP (P=0.134). Vasospasm induced asymmetry, with CrCP ipsilateral to CVS becoming significantly lower than contralateral (P=0.025). Unfavorable outcomes were associated with a significantly lower CrCP after the onset of CVS (discharge: P=0.014; 3 months after SAH: P=0.020). Critical closing pressure is reduced in the presence of CVS in both temporal and spatial assessments. As ICP remained unchanged during CVS, reduced CrCP most probably reflects a lower wall tension in dilated small vessels distal to spasm.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 3 December 2014; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.198. PMID:25465041

Varsos, Georgios V; Budohoski, Karol P; Czosnyka, Marek; Kolias, Angelos G; Nasr, Nathalie; Donnelly, Joseph; Liu, Xiuyun; Kim, Dong-Joo; Hutchinson, Peter J; Kirkpatrick, Peter J; Varsos, Vassilis G; Smielewski, Peter

2014-12-01

84

Regression dilution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with established cerebrovascular disease.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for stroke and cardiovascular events. To quantify its effect, it is necessary to correct for regression dilution bias (RDB). RDB has been estimated from repeated measurements of BP in population-based studies, but there are no data in patients with established vascular disease. METHOD: We analyzed repeat measurements of BP from three large studies of patients with cerebrovascular disease: UK-TIA trial (n=2098), Dutch TIA tri...

Howard, Sc; Rothwell, Pm

2003-01-01

85

Results of ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in children with obesity  

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Full Text Available Objectives: The relationship between obesity and essential hypertension is well known. In this study, we aimed to evaluate ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring of obese and non-obese children who had similar demographic characteristics.Materials and methods: Seventy one children and adolescents (n=39 obesity, n=32 controls were studied. Blood pressure of the children were measured by 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring device.Results: Obese children had significantly higher mean blood pressure values (systolic 121.9±11.7 mmHg, diastolic 70.2±5.3 mmHg than control subjects (systolic 109.3±6.7 mmHg, diastolic 65.1±4.6 mmHg, p0.05. Blood pressure load was found to be increased in obese children compared to the controls (%13.6±12.9 and %2.6±3.4, respectively; p<0.05. Serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels of obese children (181.1±33.4 and 131.1±23.1mg/dl were significantly higher than those of the controls (134.3±11.1 and 103.3±14.2 mg/dl, p<0.05.Conclusions: Obesity in children and adolescents should not be regarded as variations of normality, but as abnormality with an extremely high risk for the development of hypertension and hyperlipidemia in adulthood.

Faruk Öktem

2010-12-01

86

Effects of mercury on the arterial blood pressure of anesthetized rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The available data suggests that hypotension caused by Hg2+ administration may be produced by a reduction of cardiac contractility or by cholinergic mechanisms. The hemodynamic effects of an intravenous injection of HgCl2 (5 mg/kg) were studied in anesthetized rats (N = 12) by monitoring left and ri [...] ght ventricular (LV and RV) systolic and diastolic pressures for 120 min. After HgCl2 administration the LV systolic pressure decreased only after 40 min (99 ± 3.3 to 85 ± 8.8 mmHg at 80 min). However, RV systolic pressure increased, initially slowly but faster after 30 min (25 ± 1.8 to 42 ± 1.6 mmHg at 80 min). Both right and left diastolic pressures increased after HgCl2 treatment, suggesting the development of diastolic ventricular dysfunction. Since HgCl2 could be increasing pulmonary vascular resistance, isolated lungs (N = 10) were perfused for 80 min with Krebs solution (continuous flow of 10 ml/min) containing or not 5 µM HgCl2. A continuous increase in pulmonary vascular resistance was observed, suggesting the direct effect of Hg2+ on the pulmonary vessels (12 ± 0.4 to 29 ± 3.2 mmHg at 30 min). To examine the interactions of Hg2+ and changes in cholinergic activity we analyzed the effects of acetylcholine (Ach) on mean arterial blood pressure (ABP) in anesthetized rats (N = 9) before and after Hg2+ treatment (5 mg/kg). Using the same amount and route used to study the hemodynamic effects we also examined the effects of Hg2+ administration on heart and plasma cholinesterase activity (N = 10). The in vivo hypotensive response to Ach (0.035 to 10.5 µg) was reduced after Hg2+ treatment. Cholinesterase activity (µM h-1 mg protein-1) increased in heart and plasma (32 and 65%, respectively) after Hg2+ treatment. In conclusion, the reduction in ABP produced by Hg2+ is not dependent on a putative increase in cholinergic activity. HgCl2 mainly affects cardiac function. The increased pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac failure due to diastolic dysfunction of both ventricles are factors that might contribute to the reduction of cardiac output and the fall in arterial pressure.

L.V., Rossoni; S.M.C., Amaral; P.F., Vassallo; A., França; E.M., Oliveira; K.J., Varner; J.G., Mill; D.V., Vassallo.

1999-08-01

87

Soybean oil increases SERCA2a expression and left ventricular contractility in rats without change in arterial blood pressure  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to evaluate the effects of soybean oil treatment for 15 days on arterial and ventricular pressure, myocardial mechanics and proteins involved in calcium handling. Methods Wistar rats were divided in two groups receiving 100 ?L of soybean oil (SB or saline (CT i.m. for 15 days. Ventricular performance was analyzed in male 12-weeks old Wistar rats by measuring left ventricle diastolic and systolic pressure in isolated perfused hearts according to the Langendorff technique. Protein expression was measured by Western blot analysis. Results Systolic and diastolic arterial pressures did not differ between CT and SB rats. However, heart rate was reduced in the SB group. In the perfused hearts, left ventricular isovolumetric systolic pressure was higher in the SB hearts. The inotropic response to extracellular Ca2+ and isoproterenol was higher in the soybean-treated animals than in the control group. Myosin ATPase and Na+-K+ATPase activities, the expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA2a and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX were increased in the SB group. Although the phosfolamban (PLB expression did not change, its phosphorylation at Ser16 was reduced while the SERCA2a/PLB ratio was increased. Conclusions In summary, soybean treatment for 15 days in rats increases the left ventricular performance without affecting arterial blood pressure. These changes might be associated with an increase in the myosin ATPase activity and SERCA2a expression.

Vassallo Dalton

2010-05-01

88

Downstream Hepatic Arterial Blood Pressure Changes Caused by Deployment of the Surefire AntiReflux Expandable Tip  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate blood pressure changes caused by deployment of the Surefire antireflux expandable tip. The pressure measurements are relevant because they imply changes in hepatoenteric arterial blood flow within this liver compartment during hepatic artery delivery of cytotoxic agents. Methods: After positioning the Surefire antireflux system in the targeted hepatic artery, blood pressure was obtained initially with the tip collapsed (or through a femoral artery sheath), then again after the tip was expanded before chemoembolization or yttrium 90 (90Y) radioembolization. Results: Eighteen patients with liver malignancy underwent 29 procedures in 29 hepatic arteries (3 common hepatic, 22 lobar, 4 segmental). Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure were all decreased by a mean of 29 mm Hg (p = 0.000004), 14 mm Hg (p = 0.0000004), and 22 mm Hg (p = 0.00000001), respectively. Conclusion: When the Surefire expandable tip is deployed to prevent retrograde reflux of agents, it also results in a significant decrease in blood pressure in the antegrade distribution, potentially resulting in hepatopedal blood flow in vessels that are difficult to embolize, such as the supraduodenal arteries

89

Downstream Hepatic Arterial Blood Pressure Changes Caused by Deployment of the Surefire AntiReflux Expandable Tip  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate blood pressure changes caused by deployment of the Surefire antireflux expandable tip. The pressure measurements are relevant because they imply changes in hepatoenteric arterial blood flow within this liver compartment during hepatic artery delivery of cytotoxic agents. Methods: After positioning the Surefire antireflux system in the targeted hepatic artery, blood pressure was obtained initially with the tip collapsed (or through a femoral artery sheath), then again after the tip was expanded before chemoembolization or yttrium 90 ({sup 90}Y) radioembolization. Results: Eighteen patients with liver malignancy underwent 29 procedures in 29 hepatic arteries (3 common hepatic, 22 lobar, 4 segmental). Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure were all decreased by a mean of 29 mm Hg (p = 0.000004), 14 mm Hg (p = 0.0000004), and 22 mm Hg (p = 0.00000001), respectively. Conclusion: When the Surefire expandable tip is deployed to prevent retrograde reflux of agents, it also results in a significant decrease in blood pressure in the antegrade distribution, potentially resulting in hepatopedal blood flow in vessels that are difficult to embolize, such as the supraduodenal arteries.

Rose, Steven C., E-mail: scrose@ucsd.edu; Kikolski, Steven G. [University of California, San Diego Health Sciences, Department of Radiology 8756, UCSD Medical Center (United States); Chomas, James E. [Surefire Medical, Inc. (United States)

2013-10-15

90

Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and structural changes in carotid arteries in normotensive workers occupationally exposed to lead.  

Science.gov (United States)

Occupational exposure to lead may cause an increase in blood pressure. The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of occupational exposure to lead on selected parameters of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and structural changes in carotid arteries. The study included 33 normotensive men occupationally exposed to lead and 39 unexposed men employed in administration of the foundry. All of the men underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography to determine intima-media thickness (IMT). The group of men occupationally exposed to lead manifested significantly higher mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (MDBP), mean blood pressure (MBP), pulse pressure (PP), variability of diastolic blood pressure (VDBP), and IMT than the unexposed group. The studied groups did not differ in mean values of variability of systolic blood pressure (VSBP). As compared to the unexposed group, in men exposed to lead, atherosclerotic plaques were significantly more common. In the group of persons exposed to lead the Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis revealed significant linear positive correlations between MSBP and IMT, between lead level and the number of atherosclerotic plaques, and between lead level and PP. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that higher lead level in blood and higher triglyceride concentration in blood represent independent risk factors of an increased pulse pressure in the group of individuals occupationally exposed to lead. Occupational exposure to lead can be associated with increased blood pressure and accelerated progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:21148199

Poreba, Rafa?; Poreba, Ma?gorzata; Ga?, Pawe?; Andrzejak, Ryszard

2011-09-01

91

DAILY BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING AND ARTERIAL RIGIDITY DATA IN OSTEOARTHRITIS PATIENTS WITH AND WITHOUT ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION  

OpenAIRE

We have compared the daily blood pressure monitoring data with arterial wall rigidity parameters in patients with osteoarthritis with and without arterial hypertension. In 32% of patients with osteoarthritis without arterial hypertension we have determined “non-dipper” type and in 16% of patients - “night-peaker”. In case of arterial hypertension 42,8% of patients with osteoarthritis have “night-peaker” type and 22,8% of patients have “non-dipper” type. We have found the corre...

Kharitonova, I. A.; Rebrov, ?. ?.

2009-01-01

92

Comparison of cardiovascular magnetic resonance of late gadolinium enhancement and diastolic wall thickness to predict recovery of left ventricular function after coronary artery bypass surgery  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to compare the value of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE and end-diastolic wall thickness (EDWT assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR in predicting recovery of left ventricular function after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG. Methods We enrolled patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular ejection fraction Results We studied 46 men and 4 women with an average age of 61 years. Baseline left ventricular ejection fraction was 37 ± 13%. A total of 2,020 myocardial segments were analyzed. Abnormal wall motion and the LGE area were detected in 1,446 segments (71.6% and 1,196 segments (59.2% respectively. Wall motion improvement was demonstrated in 481 of 1,227 segments (39.2% that initially had wall motion abnormalities at baseline. Logistic regression analysis showed that the LGE area, EDWT and resting wall motion grade predicted wall motion improvement. Comparison of Receiver-Operator-Characteristic (ROC curves demonstrated that the LGE area was the most important predictor (p Conclusion LGE and EDWT are independent predictors for functional recovery after revascularization. However, LGE appears to be a more important factor and independent of EDWT.

Udompunturak Suthipol

2008-09-01

93

Association of thyroid function with arterial pressure in normotensive and hypertensive euthyroid individuals: A cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Overt hypothyroidism has been associated with arterial hypertension and increased arterial stiffness. Results in euthyroid individuals have been conflicting. We investigated associations of thyroid function with systolic (SAP and diastolic (DAP arterial pressure in euthyroid subjects. Methods 311 euthyroid individuals (185 women, mean age 43.9 ± 9 without a history of diabetes attending a preventive medicine program were examined. Subjects receiving thyroxine (10.6% were excluded; 19.3% had hypertension, 43% had a family history for hypertension. TSH, fT4, thyroid autoantibodies, insulin, glucose were measured. The "fT4.TSH product", which has been suggested as a T4 resistance-index, was calculated. Results TSH range was 0.1–8, median 1.4 mU/L, fT4 range was 11.5–25.2 pmol/L, median 17.4. TSH and the "fT4.TSH product" were positively associated with DAP (p 2 mU/L (35.3% vs 21.3%, p = 0.045. Conclusion In euthyroid individuals the association of thyroid function with diastolic arterial pressure remains significant even when a stricter "normal range" for TSH levels is considered. The "freeT4.TSH" product appears to be an even stronger predictor of DAP, independently of HOMA insulin resistance index and obesity.

Saltiki Katerina

2008-09-01

94

Is Nocturnal Systolic Blood Pressure Rise Associated with Central Hemodynamics and Arterial Stiffness?  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess central hemodynamics and parameters of arterial stiffness of cases with nocturnal blood pressure rise. MATERIAL and METHODS: In this retrospective study, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring of 252 hypertensive patients was performed with the Mobil-O-Graph Arteriograph. RESULTS: 174 (%69.0 out of 252 patients were female and 78 (%31 were male and the mean age was 54.5±14.4. When Pearson's correlation test was performed, the nocturnal systolic blood pressure (SBP decline was associated with age (r=-0.169, p=0.008, diurnal pulse wave velocity (PWV (r=-0.179, p=0.005, nocturnal diastolic blood pressure (DBP decline (r=0.790, p<0.001, nocturnal central SBP (r=-0.410, p<0.001, and nocturnal augmentation index (Aix@75 (r=-0.215, p=0.001. When patients were divided into three groups as 10 % or more nocturnal SBP decline, less than 10 % nocturnal SBP decline and nocturnal SBP increase, there were statistically signifi cant differences regarding nocturnal pulse pressure (p<0.001, nocturnal DBP decline (p<0.001, nocturnal Aix@75 (p<0.001, and nocturnal peripheral resistance (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: We believe that strict follow up of conventional risk factors causing arterial stiffness in patients with less than 10 % nocturnal BP decline or increase and also the use of chronotherapy may be useful.

Gülperi ÇEL?K

2012-05-01

95

Casein-Derived Lactotripeptides Reduce Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in a Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials  

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Full Text Available There is an urgent need to treat individuals with high blood pressure (BP with effective dietary strategies. Previous studies suggest a small, but significant decrease in BP after lactotripeptides (LTP ingestion, although the data are inconsistent. The study aim was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis of data from all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCT. Medline, Cochrane library, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched until May 2014. Eligibility criteria were RCT that examined the effects of LTP on BP in adults, with systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP as outcome measures. Thirty RCT met the inclusion criteria, which resulted in 33 sets of data. The pooled treatment effect for SBP was ?2.95 mmHg (95% CI: ?4.17, ?1.73; p < 0.001, and for DBP was ?1.51 mmHg (95% CI: ?2.21, ?0.80; p < 0.001. Sub-group analyses revealed that reduction of BP in Japanese studies was significantly greater, compared with European studies (p = 0.002 for SBP and p < 0.001 for DBP. The 24-h ambulatory BP (AMBP response to LTP supplementation was statistically non-significant (p = 0.101 for SBP and p = 0.166 for DBP. Both publication bias and “small-study effect” were identified, which shifted the treatment effect towards less significant SBP and non-significant DBP reduction after LTP consumption. LTP may be effective in BP reduction, especially in Japanese individuals; however sub-group, meta-regression analyses and statistically significant publication biases suggest inconsistencies.

Ágnes A. Fekete

2015-01-01

96

Relationship between plasma BNP levels and left ventricular diastolic function as measured by radionuclide ventriculography in patients with coronary artery disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radionuclide ventriculography enables such parameters of the left ventricular (LV) function as the ejection fraction (EF), ejection rate (ER) and filling rate (FR) to be measured correctly. The impairment of the LV function in coronary artery disease (CAD) results in an increase in plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). The aim of this study was to check whether the reduction of the average filling rate (AFR) leads to an increase in plasma BNP levels in patients with CAD and nEF and whether that increase is comparable to that occurring in subjects with a reduced PER. The study population comprised 69 patients with CAD and 18 healthy subjects - a control group (CG). In all cases radionuclide ventriculography was performed at rest and the plasma BNP level was estimated. The plasma BNP concentration was significantly higher in the group with CAD than in those with CG. In patients with CAD and a decreased LVEF (dEF), the BNP level was significantly higher than in those with normal LVEF (nEF). In the subgroup with nEF and an AFR ? 1.04 EDV/s, the level of plasma BNP was significantly higher than in that with an AFR >1.04. In the total CAD group, a significant correlation was found between plasma BNP concentrations and the LVEF, PER and AFR. In patients with nEF, the level of plasma BNP correlated only with the AFR. It is concluded that the diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle in patients with CAD leads to an elevation of plasma BNP concentrations despite the normasma BNP concentrations despite the normal ejection fraction. A diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle affects the BNP plasma concentration to a greater degree than a systolic dysfunction. (author)

97

Prediction of arterial pressure increase after fluid challenge  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Mean arterial pressure above 65 mmHg is recommended for critically ill hypotensive patients whereas they do not benefit from supranormal cardiac output values. In this study we investigated if the increase of mean arterial pressure after volume expansion could be predicted by cardiovascular and renal variables. This is a relevant topic because unnecessary positive fluid balance increases mortality, organ dysfunction and Intensive Care Unit length of stay. Methods Thirty-six hypotensive patients (mean arterial pressure Results Twenty-two patients (61% increased arterial pressure after volume expansion. Baseline heart rate, arterial pressure, central venous pressure, central venous saturation, central venous to arterial PCO2 difference, lactate, urinary output, fractional excretion of sodium and urinary sodium/potassium ratio were similar between responder and non-responder. Only 7 out of 36 patients had valuable dynamic indices and then we excluded them from analysis. When the variables were tested as predictors of responders, they showed values of areas under the ROC curve ranging between 0.502 and 0.604. Logistic regression did not reveal any association between variables and responder definition. Conclusions Fluid challenge did not improve arterial pressure in about one third of hypotensive critically ill patients. Cardiovascular and renal variables did not enable us to predict the individual response to volume administration. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00721604.

Natalini Giuseppe

2012-03-01

98

DAILY BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING AND ARTERIAL RIGIDITY DATA IN OSTEOARTHRITIS PATIENTS WITH AND WITHOUT ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION  

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Full Text Available We have compared the daily blood pressure monitoring data with arterial wall rigidity parameters in patients with osteoarthritis with and without arterial hypertension. In 32% of patients with osteoarthritis without arterial hypertension we have determined “non-dipper” type and in 16% of patients - “night-peaker”. In case of arterial hypertension 42,8% of patients with osteoarthritis have “night-peaker” type and 22,8% of patients have “non-dipper” type. We have found the correlation between augmentation indices and daily blood pressure parameters.

I.A. Kharitonova

2009-03-01

99

Coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction are associated with stroke in patients affected by persistent non-valvular atrial fibrillation: a case-control study  

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Full Text Available Persistent non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events such as stroke, and its rate is expected to rise because of the ageing population. The absolute rate of stroke depends on age and comorbidity. Risk stratification for stroke in patients with NVAF derives from populations enrolled in randomized clinical trials. However, participants in clinical trials are often not representative of the general population. Many stroke risk stratification scores have been used, but they do not include transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE, pulsate wave Doppler (PWD and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI, simple and non-invasive diagnostic tools. The role of TTE, PWD and TDI findings has not been previously determined. Our study goal was to determine the association between TTE and PWD findings and stroke prevalence in a population of NVAF prone outpatients. Patients were divided into two groups: P for stroke prone and F for stroke free. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups concerning cardiovascular risk factors, age (p=0.2, sex (p=0.2, smoking (p=0.3, diabetes (p=0.1 and hypercholesterolemia (p=0.2; hypertension was statistically significant (p less than 0.001. There were statistically significant differences concerning coronary artery disease, previous acute myocardial infarction (AMI (p less than 0.05 and non- AMI coronaropathy (p less than 0.04, a higher rate being in the P group. Concerning echo-Doppler findings, a higher statistically significant rate of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH (p less than  0.05 and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (p less than 0.001 was found in the P group and dilated left atrium (p less than  0.04 in the F group, the difference was not significant for mitral regurgitation (p=0.7. Stroke prone NVAF patients have a higher rate of hypertension, coronary artery disease, with and without AMI, LVH and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, but not left atrial dilatation. M-B mode echocardiography and PWD examination help to identify high-risk stroke patients among NVAF subjects; therefore, they may help in the selection of appropriate therapy for each patient.

Andrea Passantino

2009-04-01

100

Pressure dependence of the mechanical properties of arteries in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Simultaneously measurements of intra-arterial pressure and external diameter were recorded from the thoracic and abdominal aortas, the carotid, brachiocephalic, left subclavian, and femoral arteries of anesthetized dogs. Data were recorded under control conditions and during efferent vagal stimulation, and were used to compute values of wall geometry, mechanical properties, phase velocity, and characteristic impedance. Values of these parameters computed for both control and vagal stimulation were used to represent their dependence on mean arterial pressure. Both the dynamic elastic modulus and the phase velocity increased with mean pressure at each arterial site. Values of computed characteristic impedance were constant and independent of mean arterial pressure between 80--150 mmHg. The tropical application of norepinephrine (100 mug/ml) to the femoral artery produced no change in mean pressure, while external diameter and dynamic modulus were decreased, and characteristic impedance was increased. These results provide direct support for the conclusion of previous studies on vascular impedance spectra which suggested a constancy of characteristic impedance with changes in mean arterial pressure. PMID:1200156

Cox, R H

1975-11-01

101

Noninvasive method for determining blood pressure and contours of arterial and volume pulses  

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Full Text Available A noninvasive method for monitoring blood pressure, based on the principles established by Riva-Rocci and Korotkoff (K, is described; it furnishes, after a single compression-deflation cycle of the arm-encircling cuff, values of sys-tolic and diastolic blood pressures as well as the contours of the brachial arterial pulse and the corresponding volume pulse. K-sounds are detected by a single microphone situated in the cubital fossa, and the time-varying cuff pressure P(t is read by a piezoresistive pressure sensor. The behavior of P(t during deflation is resolved into two parts, P(t=p(t+b(t; p is a train of posi-tive going pulses (arising from arterial pulsa-tions, whereas b is a slowly changing baseline. Noise pulses in the microphone output are re-jected by using the observation that the first few K-sounds are emitted when p is close to a maxi-mum, and the last few when dp/dt is close to a maximum. The performance of the instrument is illustrated by showing how it copes with ambi-ent noise and involuntary manual perturbations of P, and by presenting contours of various pulses.

Santosh Kumar

2008-08-01

102

Measuring Arterial Blood Pressure. A Self-Contained Instructional Module.  

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This self-contained instructional module is designed to help adult caregivers learn how to measure arterial blood pressure in the home. The module includes the following parts: objectives; pretest (with answers); four sections of instructional material covering (1) equipment, (2) cuff placement and locating the brachial artery, (3) measuring blood…

Schultz, Chris Ellen

103

Oscillometric and Intra-arterial Blood Pressure in Preterm and Term Infants: Extent of Discrepancy and Factors Associated with Inaccuracy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective?Securing an arterial line to monitor continuous blood pressure (BP) is difficult in infants. We aimed to reveal the extent of discrepancies between oscillometric and direct BP. Study Design?Infants who required continuous BP monitoring were prospectively enrolled. Direct and indirect BP were simultaneously recorded. Disposable BP cuffs matching one-half to two-thirds of the upper arm circumference were used. Results?A total of 74 infants were studied (gestational age [GA], 24-42 weeks). The correlation coefficients of systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial BP of indirect and direct measurements were 0.87, 0.82, and 0.84, respectively (p?cuff expansion. Conclusion?We recommend intra-arterial BP measurement when the BP values seriously influence the therapeutic protocol. PMID:24971570

Shimokaze, Tomoyuki; Akaba, Kazuhiro; Saito, Emi

2014-06-27

104

Flow- and pressure-adapted portal arterialization in dogs.  

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The effects of portal arterialization after portacaval shunt were studied in dogs. Flow- and pressure-adapted portal arterialization was performed by mounting a Teflon cuff on an autogenous vein bypass graft between the hepatic stump of the portal vein and the right renal artery. Immediately following operation, the total hepatic blood flow and intrahepatic portal venous pressure were within normal range. Eight weeks after operation, the intrahepatic portal venous pressure remained within the preoperative range, while total hepatic blood flow had increased double or triple. However, structural change due to increased flow was absent in the liver, even sixteen months after operation. Body weight, liver enzyme chemistry, ICG clearance rate, and amino acid metabolism were well maintained for the entire period of investigation. These findings suggest that sequelae such as hepatic encephalopathy and impaired hepatic metabolism after portacaval shunt can be avoided by portal arterialization, in the presence of an appropriate flow and pressure. PMID:4057699

Asakawa, H; Kasai, S; Mito, M

1985-07-01

105

Prediction of arterial pressure increase after fluid challenge  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Mean arterial pressure above 65 mmHg is recommended for critically ill hypotensive patients whereas they do not benefit from supranormal cardiac output values. In this study we investigated if the increase of mean arterial pressure after volume expansion could be predicted by cardiovascular and renal variables. This is a relevant topic because unnecessary positive fluid balance increases mortality, organ dysfunction and Intensive Care Unit length of stay.<...

Natalini Giuseppe; Rosano Antonio; Militano Carmine; Di Maio Antonella; Ferretti Pierluigi; Bertelli Michele; de Giuli Federica; Bernardini Achille

2012-01-01

106

Effect of angiotensin II blockade on central blood pressure and arterial stiffness in subjects with hypertension  

OpenAIRE

In hypertension, the blood pressure curve may be divided into two sets of components. The first set is mean arterial pressure, steady flow, and vascular resistance, thus acting on small arteries; the second set refers to large arteries, hence to pulse pressure, arterial stiffness, and wave reflections. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor perindopril not only reduces mean arterial pressure but also acts specifically on pulse pressure. The effect on pulse pressure predominates on ...

Safar, Michel E.

2010-01-01

107

The role of the kidney in regulating arterial blood pressure.  

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The kidney plays a central role in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. A large body of experimental and physiological evidence indicates that renal control of extracellular volume and renal perfusion pressure are closely involved in maintaining the arterial circulation and blood pressure. Renal artery perfusion pressure directly regulates sodium excretion-a process known as pressure natriuresis-and influences the activity of various vasoactive systems such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. As a result, many researchers argue that identifying any marked rise in blood pressure requires resetting of the relationship between arterial blood pressure and urinary sodium excretion, which can occur by an array of systemic or local mechanisms. Almost all of the monogenic forms of hypertension affect sites in the kidney associated with sodium handling and transport. Experimental models of spontaneous hypertension, such as the Dahl salt-sensitive rat, have been used to study the effects of kidney transplantation on blood pressure. Results from studies of kidney transplantation indicate that pressure sensitivity to sodium intake 'follows' the kidney, meaning that the recipient of a 'salt-resistant kidney' acquires sodium resistance, and that the recipient of a 'salt-sensitive kidney' acquires pressure sensitivity. The examples above and discussed in this Review demonstrate that it should come as no surprise that most disorders that affect the kidney or the renal vasculature commonly lead to secondary forms of hypertension. PMID:22926246

Wadei, Hani M; Textor, Stephen C

2012-10-01

108

Circadian rhythms of ECG T-wave, arterial pressure and heart rate in patients with ischemic heart disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of the data of 25 healthy subjects and 141 patients with IHD revealed circadian rhythms of heart rate, systolic and diastolic arterial pressure and ECG T-wave voltage both in patients and controls. On the basis of data obtained we conclude that circadian rhythms of heart rate and arterial pressure level in patients with IHD are changed as compared with the data of controls. This change is apparent in the alteration of the acrophase and amplitude in some cases and especially in the mesor alteration of the rhythm in others. Circadian rhythms of T-wave voltage in different leads in controls is characterized by the occurrence of acrophase at midday or in the evening hours. In patients with IHD the acrophase mainly occurs in the early morning hours or at night. These data acquire practical importance in prevention and pharmacological manipulation of IHD. PMID:7449578

Aslanian, N L; Adamian, K G; Grigorian, S V; Bagdassarian, R A; Assatrian, D G

1980-01-01

109

Evaluación de la presión arterial media durante la cirugía de implante dental / Evaluation of mean arterial blood pressure during dental implant surgery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Los eventos de estrés, como una cirugía bucal, pueden elevar los niveles de catecolaminas circulantes produciendo un alza en la presión arterial a niveles dañinos para el organismo. Nuestra investigación tiene como propósito determinar si existe una variación estadísticamente significa [...] tiva de la presión arterial durante la cirugía de implantes. Materiales y método: Se registró la presión arterial sistólica (PS) y diastólica (PD) a 30 individuos sometidos a una cirugía de implantes mediante un monitor Dinamap Pro 400. Se calculó el valor de la presión arterial media (PM) y, finalmente, se determinó la diferencia entre la PM inicial de cada individuo y el valor más alto de la PM alcanzado durante la cirugía. Resultados: El promedio de las PM iniciales fue de 91,452 mmHg y el promedio de las PM máximas alcanzadas durante la cirugía fue de 104,476 mmHg, existiendo diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p = 0,0005). Conclusión: Se observa un alza significativa en los valores de PM registrados en los individuos durante la cirugía de implantes, por lo que es importante considerar esta alza en todos los pacientes que serán sometidos a dicho procedimiento y más aún en aquellos que ya posean valores elevados de su presión arterial de manera a evitar posibles complicaciones. Abstract in english Introduction: The stress situations like an oral surgery can increase the blood catecholamines, producing an increased arterial blood pressure to levels that could damage health. This study attempt to determine whether there is a statistically significant variation in the arterial blood pressure dur [...] ing dental implant surgery. Materials and method: We registered the blood pressure - systolic (SP) and diastolic (DP)- to 30 subjects undergoing implant surgery with the Dina map Pro 400 monitor. We calculated the mean arterial blood pressure (MP) and finally we determined the difference between initial mean blood pressure and the highest blood pressure value reached at surgery. Results: The mean of the initial mean blood pressure was 91.452 mmHg and the mean of highest mean blood pressure reached during surgery was 104.476 mmHg, obtaining statistically significant differences (P=.0005). Conclusion: As there was a significant increase in the MP values recorded in subjects during dental implant surgery, this should be taken into account in all patients undergoing to this procedure, and particularly in those with hypertension, to avoid possible complications.

Rolando, Carrasco; Erita, Cordero; Ian, Goldberg; Benjamín, Martínez; Cristóbal, Pacheco.

2014-09-01

110

Noninvasive Measurement of Central Vascular Pressures With Arterial Tonometry: Clinical Revival of the Pulse Pressure Waveform?  

OpenAIRE

The arterial pulse has historically been an essential source of information in the clinical assessment of health. With current sphygmomanometric and oscillometric devices, only the peak and trough of the peripheral arterial pulse waveform are clinically used. Several limitations exist with peripheral blood pressure. First, central aortic pressure is a better predictor of cardiovascular outcome than peripheral pressure. Second, peripherally obtained blood pressure does not accurately reflect c...

Nelson, Matthew R.; Stepanek, Jan; Cevette, Michael; Covalciuc, Michael; Hurst, R. Todd; Tajik, A. Jamil

2010-01-01

111

Screening for extermity arterial injury with the arterial pressure index.  

Science.gov (United States)

Certain extremity injuries presenting to the ED or Trauma Unit warrant increased suspicion for underlying arterial trauma. Such injuries include knee dislocations, displaced medial tibial plateau fractures and other displaced bicondylar fractures around the knee, open or segmental distal femoral shaft fractures, floating joints, gunshot wounds in proximity to neurovascular structures, or mangled extremities. Once the diagnosis of arterial trauma is made, a multi-disciplinary approach is warranted. The diagnostic strategies for vascular injury have undergone an evolution over the past 2 decades. One and a half percent to 4.6% of patients hospitalized with blunt extremity trauma have associated vascular compromise [Bunt TJ, Malone JM, Moody M, et al. Am J Surg 1990;160(2):226-8; Reid JD, Weigelt JA, Thal ER, et al. Arch Surg 1988;123(8):942-6; Applebaum R, Yellin AE, Weaver FA, et al. Am J Surg 1990;160(2):221-4; discussion 224-5; Dennis JW, Frykberg ER, Veldenz HC, et al. J Trauma 1998;44(2):243-52; discussion 242-3]. An efficient and effective evidence-based approach to diagnosing vascular injury is necessary, as the difficulty in diagnosis, the multiplicity of diagnostic strategies, the limited time frame in which to initiate appropriate treatment, the limb threatening complications of a missed diagnosis, and the increased awareness of health care expenditures make this entity an intimidating diagnostic challenge [Johansen K, Lynch K, Paun M, et al. J Trauma 1991;31(4):515-9; discussion 519-22; Lynch K, Johansen K. Ann Surg 1991;214(6):737-41; Walker ML, Poindexter Jr JM, Stovall I. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1990;170(2):97-105; Kendall RW, Taylor DC, Salvian AJ, et al. J Trauma 1993;35(6):875-8]. The purpose of this article is to present an evidence-based algorithm for patients who present with either arterial injury or a high-risk of arterial injury. A diagnostic algorithm will be presented, and the rationale for diagnostic interventions will be discussed in the context of current medical literature. PMID:16140180

Levy, Bruce A; Zlowodzki, Michael P; Graves, Matt; Cole, Peter A

2005-09-01

112

Arterial reservoir-excess pressure and ventricular work.  

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This study is based on the hypothesis that the pressure within the arterial network can be usefully decomposed as the sum of a reservoir pressure and an excess pressure. The reservoir pressure waveform is defined to be the same in each vessel but delayed by the wave travel time from the root of the aorta. Using calculus of variations and mass conservation, which relates the flow and rates of change of pressure in the vessels, we show that the reservoir pressure waveform minimises the ventricular hydraulic work for any physiologically or clinically reasonable ejection waveform and arterial properties, i.e. vessel compliances and terminal resistances. We conclude that the excess pressure determines the excess work done by the ventricle, which may have clinically important implications. PMID:22367750

Parker, Kim H; Alastruey, Jordi; Stan, Guy-Bart

2012-04-01

113

Effects of smoking cessation on central blood pressure and arterial stiffness  

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Full Text Available Takeshi Takami1,Yoshihiko Saito21Department of Internal Medicine, Clinic Jingumae, Kashihara, Nara, Japan; 2First Department of Internal Medicine, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, JapanPurpose: Smoking affects arterial stiffness, thus causing an elevation in central blood pressure (CBP. The present study was designed to examine whether smoking cessation treatment improved CBP and arterial stiffness.Patients and methods: We conducted an observational study of 70 patients receiving smoking cessation treatment. Before and 60 weeks after the start of a 12-week varenicline treatment, we measured brachial blood pressure, CBP, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, normalized radial augmentation index (rAIx@75, left ventricular weight, and left ventricular diastolic function of each patient. The data were compared between the patients who succeeded in quitting smoking (smoking cessation group; n = 37 and those who failed to quit smoking (smoking group; n = 33.Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. Brachial blood pressure remained unchanged in both groups. CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75 decreased significantly in the smoking cessation group, while these parameters showed no significant change in the smoking group. Thus, CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75 showed greater decrease in the smoking cessation group than in the smoking group (CBP, ?7.1 ± 1.4 mmHg vs 1.2 ± 2.7 mmHg; P < 0.01; baPWV, ?204 ± 64 cm/s vs ?43 ± 72 cm/s; P < 0.01; rAIx@75, ?6.4 ± 2.8% vs ?1.0 ± 3.9%; P < 0.01. Left ventricular weight and left ventricular diastolic function remained unchanged in both groups.Conclusion: Patients in the smoking cessation group showed significant improvement in CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75. These results indicate that smoking cessation can improve arterial stiffness and CBP.Keywords: central blood pressure, augmentation index, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, smoking cessation, varenicline

Takami T

2011-10-01

114

Matching dicrotic notch and mean pulmonary artery pressures: implications for effective arterial elastance.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested that pulmonary artery pressure at the end of ejection is close to mean pulmonary artery pressure, thus contributing to the optimization of external power from the right ventricle. We tested the hypothesis that dicrotic notch and mean pulmonary artery pressures could be of similar magnitude in 15 men (50 +/- 12 yr) referred to our laboratory for diagnostic right and left heart catheterization. Beat-to-beat relationships between dicrotic notch and mean pulmonary artery pressures were studied 1) at rest over 10 consecutive beats and 2) in 5 patients during the Valsalva maneuver (178 beats studied). At rest, there was no difference between dicrotic notch and mean pulmonary artery pressures (21.8 +/- 12.0 vs. 21.9 +/- 11.1 mmHg). There was a strong linear relationship between dicrotic notch and mean pressures 1) over the 10 consecutive beats studied in each patient (mean r = 0.93), 2) over the 150 resting beats (r = 0.99), and 3) during the Valsalva maneuver in each patient (r = 0.98-0.99) and in the overall beats (r = 0.99). The difference between dicrotic notch and mean pressures was -0.1 +/- 1.7 mmHg at rest and -1.5 +/- 2.3 mmHg during the Valsalva maneuver. Substitution of the mean pulmonary artery pressure by the dicrotic notch pressure in the standard formula of the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) resulted in an equation relating linearly end-systolic pressure and stroke volume. The slope of this relation had the dimension of a volume elastance (in mmHg/ml), a simple estimate of volume elastance being obtained as 1.06(PVR/T), where T is duration of the cardiac cycle. In conclusion, dicrotic notch pressure was of similar magnitude as mean pulmonary artery pressure. These results confirmed our primary hypothesis and indicated that human pulmonary artery can be treated as if it is an elastic chamber with a volume elastance of 1.06(PVR/T). PMID:8897919

Chemla, D; Hébert, J L; Coirault, C; Salmeron, S; Zamani, K; Lecarpentier, Y

1996-10-01

115

Assembly of a Pulmonary Artery Pressure Sensor System  

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Full Text Available This paper presents an implantable system for telemonitoring the intravascular pressure in the pulmonary artery. By implanting a catheter-bound pressure and temperature sensor into the pulmonary artery, it is possible to monitor the actual value and the time variations of the intravascular pressure with a frequency of 128 Hz. Thus hospitalization of patients suffering from heart insufficiency can be avoided by early changes in therapy.Preliminary in vivo experiments have been conducted to verify the fixation mechanism and the positioning of the sensor at the right place in the pulmonary artery. It was shown that the proposed fixation mechanism and the packaging of the sensor promise to be stable.

J. Müntjes

2010-01-01

116

Arterial pressure: manual or digital sphygmomanometer?  

OpenAIRE

El presente es un estudio prospectivo y comparativo entre la medición de la presión arterial obtenida de manera manual con esfigmomanómetro aneroide y la obtenida mediante monitor automático. El desarrollo de la práctica se realizó sobre un grupo de 100 pacientes hospitalizados en el servicio de Neurocirugía y Otorrinolaringología del Consorcio Hospital General de Valencia durante el primer trimestre del año 2007, mediante mediciones secuenciales y efectuadas ...

Marti?nez Ramos, S.; Rosello? Herva?s, M.; Valle Morales, R.; Ga?mez Garci?a, M. J.; Jaen Cervera, R.

2008-01-01

117

Dança de salão: respostas crônicas na pressão arterial de hipertensos medicados / Ballroom dance: chronic responses on blood pressure in medicated hypertensives  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A importância da prática de exercícios físicos para portadores de hipertensão arterial sistêmica está bem estabelecida na literatura, entretanto, a Dança de Salão, neste contexto, tem sido pouco explorada. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar o efeito crônico da prática de dança de salão sobre a press [...] ão arterial sistêmica de hipertensos medicados. Considerou-se como amostra o número de medidas obtidas da pressão arterial dos pacientes durante a participação no programa de dança. Assim, 92 medidas da pressão arterial foram realizadas, sendo divididas em quatro grupos: 1) pressão arterial sistólica pré-programa; 2) pressão arterial sistólica pós-programa; 3) pressão arterial diastólica pré-programa e; 4) pressão arterial diastólica pós-programa. Utilizaram-se esfigmomanômetro de coluna de mercúrio e estetoscópio. Considerou-se o protocolo de mensuração da Diretriz Brasileira. A pressão arterial foi aferida antes e após cada sessão de dança. Os 23 hipertensos medicados estudados tinham idade média de 62,5±7 anos e 34,8% eram do sexo masculino. Quarenta sessões de dança foram realizadas, três vezes/semana, com duração de uma hora/sessão. O valor médio da pressão arterial sistólica pré-programa foi de 131,8±17mmHg e após 117,8±13mmHg com diferença estatística significativa (p Abstract in english The importance of physical exercise for patients with systemic hypertension is well established in the literature. However, ballroom dance has been little investigated in this context. The objective of this study was to determine the chronic effect of ballroom dance on blood pressure in medicated hy [...] pertensives. The sample was the number of blood pressure measurements obtained during the patients' participation in the dance program. Thus, 92 blood pressure measurements were taken and divided into four groups: 1) pre-session systolic blood pressure, 2) post-session systolic blood pressure, 3) pre-session diastolic blood pressure, 4) post-session diastolic blood pressure. We used a mercury sphygmomanometer and stethoscope. As measuring protocol, we considered the Brazilian Guidelines. Blood pressure was measured before and after each ballroom dance session. The mean age of the 23 medicated hypertensive patients studied was 62.5 ± 7 years and 34.8% of them were male. Forty sessions were held three times a week, lasting one hour/session. The mean pre-session systolic blood pressure was 131,8 ± 17mmHg and 117,8±13mmHg after the session, with statistically significant difference (p

Fernanda Christina de Souza, Guidarini; Isabel de Castro, Schenkel; Victor Carvalho, Kessler; Tânia Rosane Bertoldo, Benedetti; Tales de, Carvalho.

2013-04-01

118

The clinical usefulness of central hemodynamics to evaluate diastolic dysfunction in subjects without hypertension  

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Full Text Available GeeHee Kim,1 Ji-Hoon Kim,1 Keon-Woong Moon,1 Ki-Dong Yoo,1 Sang-Hyun Ihm,2 Ho-Joong Youn,2 Chul-Min Kim11Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St Vincent's Hospital, Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, 2Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South KoreaObjective: Diastolic dysfunction is associated with increased arterial stiffness in patients with hypertension. However, the role of arterial stiffness in diastolic dysfunction in subjects without hypertension has not been fully established.Materials and methods: A total of 287 subjects (male:female ratio 121:166, mean age 53.0±14.4 years without hypertension or any heart disease who simultaneously received transthoracic echocardiography and noninvasively semiautomated radial artery applanation tonometry (with an Omron HEM-9000AI in the Department of Internal Medicine, St Vincent’s Hospital, from July 2011 to September 2012, were enrolled in this study.Results: A total of 147 subjects (male:female ratio 59:88, mean age 61.7±9.9 years, representing 51.2% of the 287 subjects, had diastolic dysfunction (defined as abnormal relaxation pattern of mitral inflow. There were significant differences in systolic blood pressure (BP, pulse pressure, late systolic peak pressure (SBP2, and radial augmentation index (RaAIx between normal diastolic function and diastolic dysfunction. ?BP was defined as systolic BP minus SBP2, because of the difference in systolic BP between the two groups. ?BP (odds ratio [OR] 1.059, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.005–1.115; P=0.032 and RaAIx (odds ratio 1.027, 95% CI 1.009–1.044, P=0.003 were associated with diastolic dysfunction. A receiver operating-characteristic curve showed that ?BP (area under the curve 0.875, 95% CI 0.832–0.911 and RaAIx (area under the curve 0.878, 95% CI 0.835–0.914 were associated with diastolic dysfunction.Conclusion: We found that ?BP and increased RaAIx were associated with diastolic dysfunction in subjects without hypertension after adjustment for age and sex. Therefore, it is suggested that noninvasive estimation of central BP may be useful to reflect diastolic dysfunction in subjects with normal peripheral BP.Keywords: central blood pressure, augmentation index, diastolic dysfunction

Kim GH

2014-03-01

119

Atlas vertebra realignment and achievement of arterial pressure goal in hypertensive patients: a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anatomical abnormalities of the cervical spine at the level of the Atlas vertebra are associated with relative ischaemia of the brainstem circulation and increased blood pressure (BP). Manual correction of this mal-alignment has been associated with reduced arterial pressure. This pilot study tests the hypothesis that correcting mal-alignment of the Atlas vertebra reduces and maintains a lower BP. Using a double blind, placebo-controlled design at a single center, 50 drug naïve (n=26) or washed out (n=24) patients with Stage 1 hypertension were randomized to receive a National Upper Cervical Chiropractic (NUCCA) procedure or a sham procedure. Patients received no antihypertensive meds during the 8-week study duration. The primary end point was changed in systolic and diastolic BP comparing baseline and week 8, with a 90% power to detect an 8/5 mm Hg difference at week 8 over the placebo group. The study cohort had a mean age 52.7+/-9.6 years, consisted of 70% males. At week 8, there were differences in systolic BP (-17+/-9 mm Hg, NUCCA versus -3+/-11 mm Hg, placebo; P<0.0001) and diastolic BP (-10+/-11 mm Hg, NUCCA versus -2+/-7 mm Hg; P=0.002). Lateral displacement of Atlas vertebra (1.0, baseline versus 0.04 degrees week 8, NUCCA versus 0.6, baseline versus 0.5 degrees , placebo; P=0.002). Heart rate was not reduced in the NUCCA group (-0.3 beats per minute, NUCCA, versus 0.5 beats per minute, placebo). No adverse effects were recorded. We conclude that restoration of Atlas alignment is associated with marked and sustained reductions in BP similar to the use of two-drug combination therapy. PMID:17252032

Bakris, G; Dickholtz, M; Meyer, P M; Kravitz, G; Avery, E; Miller, M; Brown, J; Woodfield, C; Bell, B

2007-05-01

120

Magnetic sensor for arterial distension and blood pressure monitoring.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel sensor for measuring arterial distension, pulse and pressure waveform is developed and evaluated. The system consists of a magnetic sensor which is applied and fixed to arterial vessels without any blood vessel constriction, hence avoiding stenosis. The measurement principle could be validated by in vitro experiments on silicone tubes, and by in vivo experiments in an animal model, thereby indicating the non-linear viscoelastic characteristics of real blood vessels. The sensor is capable to provide absolute measurements of the dynamically varying arterial diameter. By calibrating the sensor, a long-term monitoring system for continuously measuring blood pressure and other cardiovascular parameters could be developed based on the method described. This will improve diagnostics for high risk patients and enable a better, specific treatment. PMID:25024165

Ruhhammer, Johannes; Herbstritt, Tamara; Ruh, Dominic; Foerster, Katharina; Heilmann, Claudia; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Goldschmidtboeing, Frank; Seifert, Andreas; Woias, Peter

2014-12-01

121

Arterial blood pressure analysis based on scattering transform I  

OpenAIRE

This article presents a new method for analyzing arterial blood pressure waves. The technique is based on the scattering transform and consists in solving the spectral problem associated to a one-dimensional Schrödinger operator with a potential depending linearly upon the pressure. This potential is then expressed with the discrete spectrum which includes negative eigenvalues and corresponds to the interacting components of an N-soliton. The approach is analogous to the Fourier transform wh...

Laleg, Taous-meriem; Cre?peau, Emmanuelle; Papelier, Yves; Sorine, Michel

2007-01-01

122

Interaction of left ventricular relaxation and filling during early diastole in human subjects  

OpenAIRE

Seventeen patients with coronary artery disease were studied with cineangiography and simultaneous tip manometry at resting heart rate and maximal tachycardia induced by atrial pacing. During early diastole, defined as the interval from the opening of the mitral valve to the point of minimal left ventricular pressure, 20 percent of total ventricular filling took place at resting heart rate, but 62 percent occurred during tachycardia. Minimal pressure was significantly correlated with the time...

Fioretti, P. M.; Brower, R. W.; Meester, G. T.; Serruys, P. W. J. C.

1980-01-01

123

Blood pressure self-measurement in upper arm and in wrist for treatment control of arterial hypertension compared to ABPM.  

Science.gov (United States)

Automatic 24 h Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) has become an established method in the diagnosis and treatment control of arterial hypertension. Fully automatic blood pressure devices for blood pressure self-measurement (BPSM) in the upper arm and in the wrist using the oscillometric measuring technique have been available in Germany for several years. After evaluating the blood pressure devices boso Oscillomat (upper arm) and Omron HEM-601 (wrist) by means of simultaneous invasive measurements, we studied the suitability of this new method for the control of treated hypertension. Using the device Space Labs 90207, we had ABPM carried out in 100 men (aged 58 +/- 8 years) with mild to moderate hypertension. They recorded hourly blood pressure measurements in the wrist between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m., in the same arm as the blood pressure monitoring using the device Omron HEM-601, or in the other arm using the device boso Oscillomat. The values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured using both methods. Since the random samples probably consisted of non-standard distribution differences, we applied the Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test for statistical analysis. No significant differences were recorded between the daily mean systolic (p blood pressure values determined by ABPM and by frequent blood pressure self-measurement. Multiple blood pressure readings obtained using blood pressure self-measurement in the upper arm as well as in the wrist are an alternative to the established, automatic 24-h, ambulatory blood pressure measurement for the treatment control of arterial hypertension, that nightly blood pressure measurement can be omitted. It has advantage of unrestricted and desired frequent use under standardized conditions. PMID:8896310

Eckert, S; Gleichmann, S; Gleichmann, U

1996-01-01

124

Treinamento resistido controla a pressão arterial de ratos hipertensos induzidos por l-NAME Resistance training controls arterial blood pressure in rats with L-NAME- induced hypertension  

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Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A hipertensão arterial é uma síndrome multifatorial, crônica, causada tanto por fatores congênitos ou adquiridos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do treinamento físico resistido (TR sobre pressão arterial, reatividade e morfologia vascular de ratos hipertensos induzidos por L-NAME. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar machos (200-250 g foram divididos em 3 grupos: normotenso sedentário (NS, hipertenso sedentário (HS e hipertenso treinado (HT. A hipertensão foi induzida pela administração de L-NAME (40 mg/kg na água de beber por 4 semanas. A pressão arterial foi avaliada antes e após o TR. O TR foi realizado utilizando 50% de 1RM, em 3 séries de 10 repetições, 3 vezes por semana, durante quatro semanas. A reatividade vascular foi mensurada em artéria mesentérica superior por curvas concentração resposta ao nitroprussiato de sódio (NPS e fenilefrina (FEN. Além disso, foram realizadas análises histológicas e estereológicas. RESULTADOS: O TR inibiu o aumento das pressões arteriais média e diastólica. Foi observada uma redução significativa na resposta máxima e na potência da FEN entre os grupos HS e HT. A análise histológica evidenciou aspecto normal para as túnicas íntima, média e adventícia em todos os grupos. Não houve diferença significativa nas áreas do lúmen, da túnica média e total das artérias dos grupos HS e HT em relação ao NS. A razão parede/lúmen arterial do grupo HS apresentou diferença significativa em relação ao NS (p BACKGROUND: Arterial hypertension is a multifactorial chronic condition caused by either congenital or acquired factors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of Resistance Training (RT on arterial pressure, and on vascular reactivity and morphology, of L-NAME-treated hypertensive rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (200 - 250 g were allocated into Sedentary Normotensive (SN, Sedentary Hypertensive (SH and Trained Hypertensive (TH groups. Hypertension was induced by adding L-NAME (40 mg/Kg to the drinking water for four weeks. Arterial pressure was evaluated before and after RT. RT was performed using 50% of 1RM, 3 sets of 10 repetitions, 3 times per week for four weeks. Vascular reactivity was measured in rat mesenteric artery rings by concentration-response curves to sodium nitroprusside (SNP; phenylephrine (PHE was also used for histological and stereological analysis. RESULTS: Resistance training inhibited the increase in mean and diastolic arterial pressures. Significant reduction was observed in Rmax (maximal response and pD2 (potency of PHE between SH and TH groups. Arteries demonstrated normal intima, media and adventitia layers in all groups. Stereological analysis demonstrated no significant difference in luminal, tunica media, and total areas of arteries in the SH and TH groups when compared to the SN group. Wall-to-lumen ratio of SH arteries was significantly different compared to SN arteries (p<0.05 but there was no difference when compared to TH arteries. CONCLUSIONS: RT was able to prevent an increase in blood pressure under the conditions in this study. This appears to involve a vasoconstrictor regulation mechanism and maintenance of luminal diameter in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats.

Ayslan Jorge Santos de Araujo

2013-04-01

125

Optimal perioperative management of arterial blood pressure  

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Full Text Available Laurent Lonjaret,1 Olivier Lairez,2 Vincent Minville,3 Thomas Geeraerts3 1Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Clinique des eaux claires, Baie-Mahault, France; 2Department of Cardiology, 3Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Toulouse, University Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France Abstract: Perioperative blood pressure management is a key factor of patient care for anesthetists, as perioperative hemodynamic instability is associated with cardiovascular complications. Hypertension is an independent predictive factor of cardiac adverse events in noncardiac surgery. Intraoperative hypotension is one of the most encountered factors associated with death related to anesthesia. In the preoperative setting, the majority of antihypertensive medications should be continued until surgery. Only renin-angiotensin system antagonists may be stopped. Hypertension, especially in the case of mild to moderate hypertension, is not a cause for delaying surgery. During the intraoperative period, anesthesia leads to hypotension. Hypotension episodes should be promptly treated by intravenous vasopressors, and according to their etiology. In the postoperative setting, hypertension predominates. Continuation of antihypertensive medications and postoperative care may be insufficient. In these cases, intravenous antihypertensive treatments are used to control blood pressure elevation. Keywords: hypertension, hypotension, perioperative, blood pressure control

Lonjaret L

2014-09-01

126

Proximal tubule angiotensinogen modulation of arterial pressure  

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Purpose of review Although the existence of a complete intrarenal renin–angiotensin system is now well established, its role in modulating tubule sodium transport and blood pressure is incompletely understood. Several recent studies have shed light on one component of the system, proximal tubule-derived angiotensinogen (AGT). This review discusses the synthesis, regulation and function of AGT in the proximal tubule. Recent findings Under normal sodium intake, AGT within the S1 and S2 segments of the proximal tubule may derive from the systemic circulation, whereas the S3 segment synthesizes AGT. Urinary AGT likely primarily reflects proximal tubule-derived AGT. Proximal tubule AGT synthesis is regulated by high Na intake, angiotensin-II and inflammatory cytokines. Transgenic expression of mouse AGT in the proximal tubule causes hypertension. Overexpression of rat AGT in the proximal tubule leads to hypertension, enhanced reactive oxygen species generation via NADPH oxidase, tubular apoptosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis; these effects can be mitigated by catalase overexpression. Summary Proximal tubule-derived AGT has the potential to modulate blood pressure and sodium balance, and promote renal injury. Interactions with the systemic renin–angiotensin system may influence the role of proximal tubule-derived AGT in the kidney. PMID:23010762

Ramkumar, Nirupama; Kohan, Donald E.

2014-01-01

127

Indicadores antropométricos e pressão arterial em escolares / Anthropometric measures and blood pressure in school children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar a relação entre pressão arterial e índice de massa corporal, circunferência abdominal, razão cintura/estatura e dobra cutânea tricipital em crianças e adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo epidemiológico transversal, do qual participaram 1.441 escolares de 10 a 16 anos de idade (655 men [...] inos e 786 meninas), selecionados por amostragem aleatória sistemática. Avaliaram-se a massa corporal, a estatura, a circunferência abdominal, a espessura da dobra cutânea tricipital, as pressões arteriais - sistólica e diastólica - o estágio maturacional e a classe econômica. Utilizaram-se os testes de correlação parcial de Pearson e a regressão logística multivariada, considerando-se p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of blood pressure and body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and triceps skinfold, in children and adolescents in Curitiba, state of Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a random sample of 1,441 students from public school [...] s, aged from10 to 16 years (655 boys and 786 girls). The following indicators were assessed: weight, height, waist circumference, triceps skinfold, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pubertal stage, and socioeconomic status. Pearson correlation tests and multivariate logistic regression were used, considering p

Deise Cristiane, Moser; Isabela de Carlos Back, Giuliano; Ana Cláudia Kapp, Titski; Anelise Reis, Gaya; Manuel João, Coelho-e-Silva; Neiva, Leite.

2013-06-01

128

The effects of dexmedetomidine administration on the pulmonary artery pressure and the transpulmonary pressure gradient after the bidirectional superior cavopulmonary shunt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hemodynamic effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) are not fully understood in patients with a single-ventricle physiology. The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize the effect of perioperative DEX infusion on PAP and the transpulmonary pressure gradient after a bidirectional superior cavopulmonary shunt (BCPS) operation. We retrieved physiologic data including the heart rate, incidence of cardiac pacing, systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure (ABP), and superior vena cava (SVC) and inferior vena cava (IVC) pressures from the medical records of all patients <12 months of age who underwent a BCPS operation. Patients with an additional Norwood or Damus-Kaye-Stansel procedure, those with additional pulmonary blood flow, and those without both a SVC and an IVC catheter were excluded from the present study. Following the BCPS operation, the SVC pressure is equivalent to the PAP. Similarly, the IVC pressure is equivalent to the common atrial pressure (CAP). Accordingly, we can directly assess the transpulmonary pressure gradient, defined as the difference between the PAP and the CAP, using simultaneous SVC and IVC pressure measurements. Twenty-nine patients were included in the present study. We did not find any increase in the PAP, CAP, PAP/systolic ABP ratio, or the transpulmonary pressure gradient as of 6 h after admission to the intensive care unit when the patients were treated with DEX infusion at a median (interquartile ranges) dose of 0.6 mcg/kg/h (0.4, 0.64 mcg/kg/h). We concluded that the administration of DEX to children with a single-ventricle physiology is acceptable. PMID:25113519

Nishibe, Shinichi; Imanishi, Hirokazu; Mieda, Tsutomu; Tsujita, Miki

2015-01-01

129

Mini invasive hemodynamic monitoring: from arterial pressure to cardiac output  

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Full Text Available To evaluate the Cardiac Output (CO the standard invasive pulmonary artery catheter (PAC is considered today the gold standard. The major criticism to the PAC is that its level of invasiveness is not supported by an improvement in patient's outcome. The interest to lesser and lesser invasive techniques is high. Therefore, the alternative techniques have been recently developed.Cardiac Output can be monitored continuously by different devices that analyze the arterial waveform to track changes in stroke volume (SV and CO. The analysis of the arterial pressure wave to determine cardiac output is classified as Pulse Contour analysis or Pulse Pressure Analysis. Starting from a similar principle three main devices are now available on the market, with different algorithms and features:• PiCCO System (Pulsion Medical System, Munich, Germany• LiDCOTM plus System (LidCO, Cambridge, UK• Flotrac technology and Vigileo Monitor (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA.The algorithm used by all these devices has been also implemented even with the analysis of the variation of stroke volume (SVV and of the pulse pressure (PPV. SVV and PPV represent the variation of stroke volume and of the pulse pressure during the respiratory cycle. In sedated ventilated patients these indexes have proven to predict the response to a fluid challenge. A high variation (>10-12% identifies with good sensitivity and specificity responders and not responders.

GIORGIO DELLA ROCCA

2008-02-01

130

Efectos del alcoholismo crónico sobre la presión arterial y frecuencia cardiaca en ratas adolescentes machos Effects of chronic alcoholism on the arterial pressure and heart rate in male adolescent rats  

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Full Text Available Se caracterizaron los efectos que sobre la presión arterial y la frecuencia cardiaca ocasiona el alcoholismo crónico iniciado en la adolescencia en ratas albinas machos. Se confeccionaron 2 grupos de animales (experimental y control y se hicieron 2 subgrupos de diferentes tiempos de tratamiento (3 y 5 meses. A las ratas experimentales se les suministró etanol mediante cánula intraesofágica. Se estudió la presión arterial y la frecuencia cardiaca mediante plestimografía directa. Para el procesamiento estadístico de los resultados se utilizó ANOVA de 2 vías con interacción. La ingestión de etanol provocó un incremento en la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica tanto a los 3 como a los 5 meses de tratamiento. Este incremento fue mayor a los 5 meses de tratamiento. La frecuencia cardiaca no mostró cambios significativos. Se concluyó que la ingestión crónica de etanol eleva la presión arterial de forma tiempo dependiente.The effects of chronic alcoholism initiated in the adolescence on arterial pressure and heart rate were characterized in male albine rats. They were divided into 2 groups (experimental and control and 2 subgroups with different times of treatment (3 and 5 months were organized. The experimental rats were administered ethanol by intraesophageal cannula. Arterial pressure and heart rate were studied by direct plethysmography. A two-way interactive ANOVA was used for the statistical processing of the results. The ingestion of ethanol produced an increase of the systolic and diastolic arterial pressure at 3 and 5 months of treatment. This rise was higher at 5 months of treatment. Heart rate did not show significant changes. It was concluded that the chronic ingestion of ethanol raises arterial pressure depending on time.

Aleida Herrera Batista

2006-03-01

131

Efectos del alcoholismo crónico sobre la presión arterial y frecuencia cardiaca en ratas adolescentes machos / Effects of chronic alcoholism on the arterial pressure and heart rate in male adolescent rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se caracterizaron los efectos que sobre la presión arterial y la frecuencia cardiaca ocasiona el alcoholismo crónico iniciado en la adolescencia en ratas albinas machos. Se confeccionaron 2 grupos de animales (experimental y control) y se hicieron 2 subgrupos de diferentes tiempos de tratamiento (3 [...] y 5 meses). A las ratas experimentales se les suministró etanol mediante cánula intraesofágica. Se estudió la presión arterial y la frecuencia cardiaca mediante plestimografía directa. Para el procesamiento estadístico de los resultados se utilizó ANOVA de 2 vías con interacción. La ingestión de etanol provocó un incremento en la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica tanto a los 3 como a los 5 meses de tratamiento. Este incremento fue mayor a los 5 meses de tratamiento. La frecuencia cardiaca no mostró cambios significativos. Se concluyó que la ingestión crónica de etanol eleva la presión arterial de forma tiempo dependiente. Abstract in english The effects of chronic alcoholism initiated in the adolescence on arterial pressure and heart rate were characterized in male albine rats. They were divided into 2 groups (experimental and control) and 2 subgroups with different times of treatment (3 and 5 months) were organized. The experimental ra [...] ts were administered ethanol by intraesophageal cannula. Arterial pressure and heart rate were studied by direct plethysmography. A two-way interactive ANOVA was used for the statistical processing of the results. The ingestion of ethanol produced an increase of the systolic and diastolic arterial pressure at 3 and 5 months of treatment. This rise was higher at 5 months of treatment. Heart rate did not show significant changes. It was concluded that the chronic ingestion of ethanol raises arterial pressure depending on time.

Aleida, Herrera Batista; Giselle, Puldón Seguí; Belsis, Díaz Rondón; Jorge, Bacallao Gallestey.

2006-03-01

132

Effect of lisinopril and enalapril on quality of life and blood pressure daily profile in patients with stable arterial hypertension.  

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Full Text Available Aim. To compare effect of long-term treatment with lisinopril and enalapril on quality of life (QL and blood pressure (BP daily profile in patients with stable arterial hypertension (AH.Material and methods. Analysis of three studies conducted in our center during last 4 years are presented (totally 86 patients were included. Protocol of studies was unified: after wash-out period ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM and QL were assessed. Afterwards, patients were switched to active therapy with enalapril or lisinopril. After long-term treatment with these drugs QL and ABPM and QL were assessed again.Results. Both drugs decreased in systolic and diastolic BP, time index and didn't change heart rate and night BP dipping. With lisinopril treatment, significant improvement in physical condition, efficiency at work, psychological profile and capacity for social contacts was observed, while treatment with enalapril positively influenced only on physical condition and intensity of negative psychological profile in patients with stable AH.Conclusion. In patients with stable AH lisinopril had better influence on QL than enalapril. Therapy with both drugs lead to significant decrease in systolic and diastolic BP and didn't change heart rate and night BP dipping.

G.F. Andreeva

2006-01-01

133

Treinamento resistido controla a pressão arterial de ratos hipertensos induzidos por l-NAME / Resistance training controls arterial blood pressure in rats with L-NAME- induced hypertension  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTO: A hipertensão arterial é uma síndrome multifatorial, crônica, causada tanto por fatores congênitos ou adquiridos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do treinamento físico resistido (TR) sobre pressão arterial, reatividade e morfologia vascular de ratos hipertensos induzidos por L-NAME. MÉTODOS [...] : Ratos Wistar machos (200-250 g) foram divididos em 3 grupos: normotenso sedentário (NS), hipertenso sedentário (HS) e hipertenso treinado (HT). A hipertensão foi induzida pela administração de L-NAME (40 mg/kg) na água de beber por 4 semanas. A pressão arterial foi avaliada antes e após o TR. O TR foi realizado utilizando 50% de 1RM, em 3 séries de 10 repetições, 3 vezes por semana, durante quatro semanas. A reatividade vascular foi mensurada em artéria mesentérica superior por curvas concentração resposta ao nitroprussiato de sódio (NPS) e fenilefrina (FEN). Além disso, foram realizadas análises histológicas e estereológicas. RESULTADOS: O TR inibiu o aumento das pressões arteriais média e diastólica. Foi observada uma redução significativa na resposta máxima e na potência da FEN entre os grupos HS e HT. A análise histológica evidenciou aspecto normal para as túnicas íntima, média e adventícia em todos os grupos. Não houve diferença significativa nas áreas do lúmen, da túnica média e total das artérias dos grupos HS e HT em relação ao NS. A razão parede/lúmen arterial do grupo HS apresentou diferença significativa em relação ao NS (p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Arterial hypertension is a multifactorial chronic condition caused by either congenital or acquired factors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of Resistance Training (RT) on arterial pressure, and on vascular reactivity and morphology, of L-NAME-treated hypertensive rats. METHODS: Male [...] Wistar rats (200 - 250 g) were allocated into Sedentary Normotensive (SN), Sedentary Hypertensive (SH) and Trained Hypertensive (TH) groups. Hypertension was induced by adding L-NAME (40 mg/Kg) to the drinking water for four weeks. Arterial pressure was evaluated before and after RT. RT was performed using 50% of 1RM, 3 sets of 10 repetitions, 3 times per week for four weeks. Vascular reactivity was measured in rat mesenteric artery rings by concentration-response curves to sodium nitroprusside (SNP); phenylephrine (PHE) was also used for histological and stereological analysis. RESULTS: Resistance training inhibited the increase in mean and diastolic arterial pressures. Significant reduction was observed in Rmax (maximal response) and pD2 (potency) of PHE between SH and TH groups. Arteries demonstrated normal intima, media and adventitia layers in all groups. Stereological analysis demonstrated no significant difference in luminal, tunica media, and total areas of arteries in the SH and TH groups when compared to the SN group. Wall-to-lumen ratio of SH arteries was significantly different compared to SN arteries (p

Ayslan Jorge Santos de, Araujo; Anne Carolline Veríssimo dos, Santos; Karine dos Santos, Souza; Marlúcia Bastos, Aires; Valter Joviniano, Santana-Filho; Emerson Ticona, Fioretto; Marcelo Mendonça, Mota; Márcio Roberto Viana, Santos.

2013-04-01

134

Sildenafil and diastolic dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction in patients with preserved ejection fraction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Diastolic dysfunction is frequently seen after myocardial infarction and is characterized by a disproportionate increase in filling pressure during exercise to maintain stroke volume. We hypothesized that sildenafil would reduce filling pressure during exercise in patients with diastolic dysfunction after myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy patients with diastolic dysfunction and near normal left ventricular ejection fraction on echocardiography were randomly assigned sildenafil 40 mg thrice daily or matching placebo for 9 weeks. Before randomization and after 9 weeks of treatment patients underwent simultaneous echocardiography and right heart catheterization at rest and during exercise. Primary end point was pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and secondary end points comprised cardiac index and pulmonary arterial pressure at rest and during exercise after 9 weeks. After 9 weeks there were no differences in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure at rest (13±4 versus 13±3 mm Hg, P=0.25) or at peak exercise (35±8 mm Hg versus 31±7 mm Hg, P=0.07). However, with treatment cardiac index increased at rest (P=0.006) and peak exercise (P=0.02) in the sildenafil group, and systemic vascular resistance index (resting, P=0.0002; peak exercise, P=0.007) and diastolic blood pressure (resting, P=0.005; peak exercise, P=0.02) were lower in the sildenafil group. Resting left ventricular end-diastolic volume index increased (P=0.001) within the sildenafil group but was unchanged in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Sildenafil did not decrease filling pressure at rest or during exercise in post-myocardial infarction patients with diastolic dysfunction. However, there were effects on secondary end points, which require further studies.

Andersen, Mads J; ErsbØll, Mads

2013-01-01

135

Assessment of Right Ventricle Diastolic Functions According to Phase of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

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Full Text Available In this study, the relationship of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and right ventricle diastolic function was investigated. Study groups were consisted of 44 patients with COPD and 20 healthy controls . It was found that, tricuspid E velocity was decreased, A velocity was increased and deceleration time (dt was prolonged in patients with COPD compared to controls. In addition, there was a positive correlation between phases of COPD and dt and negative correlation between phases of COPD and E/A ratio. In addition, there was a positive correlation between pulmonary artery pressure and dt, and negative correlation between pulmonary artery pressure and E/A ratio.

Aziz Karabulut

2005-01-01

136

Increased Nitric Oxide and Attenuated Diastolic Blood Pressure Variability in African Americans with Mildly Impaired Renal Function  

OpenAIRE

We investigated the relationship between renal function, blood pressure variability (BPV), and nitric oxide (NO) in a group of African Americans with normal or mildly impaired renal function. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed, NO measured, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculated in 38 African Americans. Participants were categorized as having normal (GFR > 90?mL/min per 1.73?m2) or mildly impaired (GFR 60–89?mL/min per 1.73?m2) renal function. Diasto...

Diaz, Keith M.; Feairheller, Deborah L.; Sturgeon, Kathleen M.; Praveen Veerabhadrappa; Williamson, Sheara T.; Crabbe, Deborah L.; Brown, Michael D.

2011-01-01

137

Modeling left ventricular diastolic dysfunction: classification and key indicators  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical modeling can be employed to overcome the practical difficulty of isolating the mechanisms responsible for clinical heart failure in the setting of normal left ventricular ejection fraction (HFNEF. In a human cardiovascular respiratory system (H-CRS model we introduce three cases of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD: (1 impaired left ventricular active relaxation (IR-type; (2 increased passive stiffness (restrictive or R-type; and (3 the combination of both (pseudo-normal or PN-type, to produce HFNEF. The effects of increasing systolic contractility are also considered. Model results showing ensuing heart failure and mechanisms involved are reported. Methods We employ our previously described H-CRS model with modified pulmonary compliances to better mimic normal pulmonary blood distribution. IR-type is modeled by changing the activation function of the left ventricle (LV, and R-type by increasing diastolic stiffness of the LV wall and septum. A 5th-order Cash-Karp Runge-Kutta numerical integration method solves the model differential equations. Results IR-type and R-type decrease LV stroke volume, cardiac output, ejection fraction (EF, and mean systemic arterial pressure. Heart rate, pulmonary pressures, pulmonary volumes, and pulmonary and systemic arterial-venous O2 and CO2 differences increase. IR-type decreases, but R-type increases the mitral E/A ratio. PN-type produces the well-described, pseudo-normal mitral inflow pattern. All three types of LVDD reduce right ventricular (RV and LV EF, but the latter remains normal or near normal. Simulations show reduced EF is partly restored by an accompanying increase in systolic stiffness, a compensatory mechanism that may lead clinicians to miss the presence of HF if they only consider LVEF and other indices of LV function. Simulations using the H-CRS model indicate that changes in RV function might well be diagnostic. This study also highlights the importance of septal mechanics in LVDD. Conclusion The model demonstrates that abnormal LV diastolic performance alone can result in decreased LV and RV systolic performance, not previously appreciated, and contribute to the clinical syndrome of HF. Furthermore, alterations of RV diastolic performance are present and may be a hallmark of LV diastolic parameter changes that can be used for better clinical recognition of LV diastolic heart disease.

Ma Tony S

2011-05-01

138

Influence of Age and Arterial Blood Pressure on the Anti-hypertensive Action of Dihydro-pyridine Compounds in Hypertensive Patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in english ABSTRACT To study the antihypertensive effect of dihydropyridines and correlate with the patient’s age, the degree of hypertension and mean arterial pressure, in three groups of eight hypertensive patients with mild, moderate and severe hypertension selected from the Clinical Pharmacology Unit of Va [...] rgas Hospital in Caracas. Mean age, weight and height of the selected patients were 55.66 ± 3.4, years, 67 ± 3.05 Kg and 1.63 ± 0.01 m, respectively. Three acute experimental designs compared with placebo were followed and each group of patients received amlodipine, nitrendipine or isradipine at different times, in single doses of 10, 20 and 5 mg, respectively. The cardiovascular parameters evaluated were: mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and cardiac frequency at regular intervals during 48, 6 and 24 hours for amlodipine, nitrendipine and isradipine, respectively. Acute administration of amlodipine (10 mg) to hypertensive patients, significantly reduced blood pressure form 185 ± 11.21/100 ± 7.07 to 150.5 ± 10.6/88.6 ± 7.8 mmHg at 8 hours and to 162 ± 10.9/91 ± 5.6 mmHg at 48 hours. Cardiac frequency also increased significantly at 8 and 48 hours in 10 and 9 beats/min, respectively. There was a positive correlation between patient’s age and mean arterial pressure decrease and also between pretreatment and decreased arterial pressure. Two hours after acute administration of isradipine (5 mg) to hypertensive patients, blood pressure decreased significantly from 179.50 ± 7.6/100.26 ± 3.28 mmHg to 143.75 ± 4.7/82 ± 5.18 mmHg. Cardiac frequency increased in 5 beats/min at the same time of measure. There was a positive correlation between patient’s age and arterial pressure decrease and a slight but not significant correlation between pretreatment and mean arterial blood pressure decrease. Acute dose of nitrendipine (20 mg) to hypertensive patients induced a significant fall of arterial blood pressure from 172.25 ± 7.8/107.13 ± 3.58 to 134.5 ± 5.08/81 ± 5.84 mmHg two hours after the administration of the drug, and the cardiac frequency increased significantly in 11 beats/min during this time. There was no significant correlation between patient’s age and the mean arterial pressure fall, neither between pretreatment and the decrease of arterial blood pressure.

M, Bermúdez; E, Lezama; A, Luchsinger; F, Contreras; MA, De la Parte; Manuel, Velasco.

2000-07-01

139

Obese children and adolescents have elevated nighttime blood pressure independent of insulin resistance and arterial stiffness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance has been related to elevated blood pressure (BP) in obese children and may adversely affect the vasculature by arterial stiffening. The objective was to investigate whether daytime and nighttime BP were elevated and related to insulin resistance and arterial stiffness in obese children and adolescents. METHODS: Ninety-two obese patients aged 10-18 years were compared with 49 healthy control individuals. Insulin resistance was measured as the homeostatic assessment model (HOMA), and arterial stiffness was measured as carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). RESULTS: Mean ± SD daytime systolic BP (SBP) (obese: 125±8.3mm Hg; control: 121±10.1mm Hg; P = 0.03) and nighttime SBP (obese: 108±10.7mm Hg; control: 102±8.2mm Hg; P = 0.0001) were higher in the obese group when compared with the control group. No difference was found in daytime diastolic BP (DBP), whereas nighttime DBP (obese: 60±6.6mm Hg; control: 57±4.8mm Hg; P = 0.001) and night-to-day BP ratios were higher in the obese group. Nighttime SBP was related to BMI z score (? = 6.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.9-9.1; P = 0.0002) and waist/height ratio (? = 36.7; 95% CI = 5.6-67.9; P = 0.02) in the obese group. HOMA index (obese: median = 3.7, interquartile range (IQR) = 2.3-6.0; control: median = 2.6, IQR = 1.8-3.4; P = 0.002) was higher, whereas cfPWV (obese: 4.8±0.8 m/s; control: 5.1±0.6 m/s; P = 0.03) was lower in the obese group. CfPWV was not related to logHOMA index. In multiple regression analyses, the higher nighttime BP in the obese group was independent of logHOMA and cfPWV. CONCLUSIONS: Obese children had a higher nighttime BP when compared with the control group independently of insulin resistance and arterial stiffness. No relationship was found between insulin resistance and arterial stiffness. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01310088.

Hvidt, Kristian N; Olsen, Michael H

2014-01-01

140

Relationship of daily arterial blood pressure monitoring readings and arterial stiffness profile in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease combined with arterial hypertension  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the study was to determine correlation between arterial blood pressure daily rhythm and daily profile of arterial stiffness in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and arterial hypertension. Materials et methods: Prospective investigation comprised 45 male patients with COPD and arterial hypertension. Individuals of 40 years younger and 80 years elder, patients with diabetes, stroke, angina pectoris, or heart infarction, vascular diseases, and exacerbatio...

Karoli N.A.; Dolishnyaya G.R.; Borodkin A.M.; Rebrov A.P.

2013-01-01

141

Monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial em pacientes normotensos com hipotireoidismo subclínico / Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in normotensive patients with subclinical hypothyroidism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTO: O hipotireoidismo manifesto está associado com elevação da pressão arterial diastólica; entretanto, a associação entre o hipotireoidismo subclínico (HS) e alteração da pressão arterial (PA) é desconhecida. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a monitorização ambulatorial d [...] a pressão arterial (MAPA) por 24 horas em pacientes normotensos com HS em comparação a indivíduos normotensos eutireóideos (EU). MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal com 50 participantes (HS = 30 e EU = 20) que não apresentavam diferenças em relação a fatores de risco para hipertensão. A monitorização ambulatorial de pressão arterial foi realizada com um monitor Dynamapa®, utilizando-se um método oscilométrico validado pela AAMI (Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation) e pela BHS (British Hypertension Society). RESULTADOS: Os níveis séricos médios de TSH e T4 livre foram respectivamente 6,9 ± 2,2 µUI/ml e 1,1 ± 0,2 ng/dl em pacientes com HS. Apesar de não haver diferença em relação à média da pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica entre os dois grupos, houve uma correlação positiva entre os níveis de pressão arterial diastólica média (PADM) e os valores séricos de TSH em pacientes com HS (r:0,477; p = 0,004). Essa correlação foi detectada por medidas diurnas (r:0,498; p = 0,002) e noturnas (r:0,322; p = 0,032). CONCLUSÃO: A pressão arterial não diferiu entre pacientes com ou sem HS; contudo, os resultados sugerem que a progressão de hipotireoidismo subclínico para níveis mais elevados de TSH pode aumentar o risco cardiovascular através do aumento da pressão arterial diastólica. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Overt hypothyroidism is associated with elevation of diastolic blood pressure; however the association of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) with arterial blood pressure (ABP) alteration is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate ambulatory blood pressure monitoring [...] (ABPM), over 24 hours, in normotensive patients with SH in comparison to euthyroid (EU) normotensive individuals. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with 50 participants (SH = 30 and EU = 20) that did not differ regarding risk factors for hypertension. The ABPM was carried out with a DINAMAPA TM monitor, using the oscillometric method validated by AAMI (Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation) and by the BHS (British Hypertension Society). RESULTS: The mean serum TSH and FT4 were respectively 6.9 ± 2.2 µUI/ml and 1.1 ± 0.2 ng/dl in SH patients. Although there was no difference in the mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the two groups, there was a positive correlation between the mean values of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and serum TSH levels in SH patients (r:0.477; p = 0.004). These correlations were detected at daytime (r:0.498; p = 0.002) and sleep-time (r:0.322; p = 0.032) measurements. CONCLUSION: The blood pressure was not different between patients with or without SH; however, the results suggest that the progression of subclinical hypothyroidism to higher levels of TSH may increase the cardiovascular risk by increasing diastolic blood pressure.

Marcia Martins, Ferreira; Patricia de Fatima dos Santos, Teixeira; Vera Aleta R., Mansur; Vaneska Spinelli, Reuters; Cloyra Paiva, Almeida; Mario, Vaisman.

2010-06-01

142

Monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial em pacientes normotensos com hipotireoidismo subclínico Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in normotensive patients with subclinical hypothyroidism  

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Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O hipotireoidismo manifesto está associado com elevação da pressão arterial diastólica; entretanto, a associação entre o hipotireoidismo subclínico (HS e alteração da pressão arterial (PA é desconhecida. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial (MAPA por 24 horas em pacientes normotensos com HS em comparação a indivíduos normotensos eutireóideos (EU. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal com 50 participantes (HS = 30 e EU = 20 que não apresentavam diferenças em relação a fatores de risco para hipertensão. A monitorização ambulatorial de pressão arterial foi realizada com um monitor Dynamapa®, utilizando-se um método oscilométrico validado pela AAMI (Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation e pela BHS (British Hypertension Society. RESULTADOS: Os níveis séricos médios de TSH e T4 livre foram respectivamente 6,9 ± 2,2 µUI/ml e 1,1 ± 0,2 ng/dl em pacientes com HS. Apesar de não haver diferença em relação à média da pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica entre os dois grupos, houve uma correlação positiva entre os níveis de pressão arterial diastólica média (PADM e os valores séricos de TSH em pacientes com HS (r:0,477; p = 0,004. Essa correlação foi detectada por medidas diurnas (r:0,498; p = 0,002 e noturnas (r:0,322; p = 0,032. CONCLUSÃO: A pressão arterial não diferiu entre pacientes com ou sem HS; contudo, os resultados sugerem que a progressão de hipotireoidismo subclínico para níveis mais elevados de TSH pode aumentar o risco cardiovascular através do aumento da pressão arterial diastólica.BACKGROUND: Overt hypothyroidism is associated with elevation of diastolic blood pressure; however the association of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH with arterial blood pressure (ABP alteration is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM, over 24 hours, in normotensive patients with SH in comparison to euthyroid (EU normotensive individuals. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with 50 participants (SH = 30 and EU = 20 that did not differ regarding risk factors for hypertension. The ABPM was carried out with a DINAMAPA TM monitor, using the oscillometric method validated by AAMI (Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation and by the BHS (British Hypertension Society. RESULTS: The mean serum TSH and FT4 were respectively 6.9 ± 2.2 µUI/ml and 1.1 ± 0.2 ng/dl in SH patients. Although there was no difference in the mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the two groups, there was a positive correlation between the mean values of diastolic blood pressure (DBP and serum TSH levels in SH patients (r:0.477; p = 0.004. These correlations were detected at daytime (r:0.498; p = 0.002 and sleep-time (r:0.322; p = 0.032 measurements. CONCLUSION: The blood pressure was not different between patients with or without SH; however, the results suggest that the progression of subclinical hypothyroidism to higher levels of TSH may increase the cardiovascular risk by increasing diastolic blood pressure.

Marcia Martins Ferreira

2010-06-01

143

Comportamiento de la presión pulmonar y función del ventrículo derecho intraesfuerzo / Pulmonary Artery Pressure and Right Ventricular Function during Exercise  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción El comportamiento fisiológico de la presión pulmonar durante el ejercicio continúa sin establecerse con precisión. La literatura es discordante con respecto a los valores considerados patológicos de presión pulmonar intraesfuerzo (PPI) en ausencia de valvulopatía mitral e incluso, las ú [...] ltimas guías no recomiendan utilizar la presión pulmonar media ? 30 mmHg con el esfuerzo para definir hipertensión pulmonar. Es escasa la información disponible en relación a la respuesta hemodinámica y funcional del ventrículo derecho (VD) con el esfuerzo y tampoco sobre el hecho de si podría discriminar entre una respuesta fisiológica o patológica de la presión pulmonar. Objetivo Determinar el comportamiento de la PPI y comparar los parámetros ecocardiográficos de función sistólica y diastólica del VD en relación a sus niveles. Material y Métodos Se incluyeron 94 pacientes sin cardiopatías significativas, con adecuada factibilidad para estimar presión pulmonar sistólica (PPS) basal y en máxima carga durate el eco-estrés en ejercicio. De acuerdo al valor de presión pulmonar con el ejercicio, la población fue estratificada en dos grupos: a) PI Abstract in english Background The physiological behavior of pulmonary artery pressure during exercise has not been precisely established yet. There is lack of agreement in the published literature about the abnormal values of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) during exercise in the absence of mitral valve disease. Indee [...] d, the last guidelines do not recommend using mean pulmonary artery pressure value ? 30 mmHg during exercise to define pulmonary hypertension. There is scarce information about the hemodynamic and functional response of the right ventricle (RV) during exercise and if it is useful to discriminate between a physiological or abnormal response of the pulmonary artery pressure. Objectives To determine the behavior of PAP during exercise and to compare the echocardiographic parameters of systolic and diastolic RV function in relation to PAP levels. Material and Methods A total of 94 patients without significant heart disease were included. Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) at rest and maximum exercise during dobutamine stress echocardiography was adequately measured in all patients. The population was divided into two groups according to the value of pulmonary artery pressure during exercise: a) PAP

Adrián J, Lescano; Roberto G, García Eleisequi; Carlos C, Canet; Martín J, Lombardero; Roberto O, Martingano.

2011-06-01

144

Associação entre a Incisura Diastólica das Artérias Uterinas e a Histologia do Leito Placentário em Grávidas com Pré-eclâmpsia Association between Diastolic Notch of Uterine Artery and the Histology of the Placental Bed in Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia  

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Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a associação entre a presença da incisura diastólica nas artérias uterinas maternas e as alterações histopatológicas dos vasos útero-placentários. Métodos: estudo transversal incluindo 144 pacientes com gestação única interrompida por via abdominal entre a 27ª e a 41ª semana. Destas, 84 gestações estavam associadas à pré-eclâmpsia e 60 não apresentaram intercorrências clínicas. Neste grupo realizou-se dopplerfluxometria de ambas as artérias uterinas e biópsia do leito placentário. Resultados: das 144 pacientes, 88 (61% tiveram o fragmento da biópsia considerado representativo do leito placentário. A incisura diastólica estava presente em 40 (70% dos casos de alterações fisiológicas inadequadas e ausente em 28 (90% dos casos de alterações fisiológicas presentes (p=0,05. A dopplerfluxometria apresentou sensibilidade de 70%, especificidade de 90% e valores preditivos positivo e negativo de 44 e 97%, respectivamente. A associação entre a presença de incisura diastólica bilateral das artérias uterinas e arteriopatia decidual também foi significativa (dos 25 casos de arteriopatia decidual a incisura estava presente em 24, p=0,05. A sensibilidade da dopplerfluxometria foi de 96%, especificidade de 70% e valores preditivos positivo e negativo de 26 e 99%, respectivamente, ao passo que para a arteriolosclerose a dopplerfluxometria apresentou sensibilidade de 80%, especificidade de 55% e valores preditivos positivo e negativo de 17 e 96%, respectivamente. Conclusões: a incisura diastólica nas artérias uterinas maternas é indicador seguro de vasculopatia no leito placentário. A adequada invasão trofoblástica do leito placentário, revelada por histologia típica de alterações fisiológicas, resulta na ausência de incisura diastólica bilateral das artérias uterinas maternas.Purpose: to evaluate the association between the presence of diastolic notch in the maternal uterine arteries, and the histopathological changes of the uteroplacental vessels. Methods: transversal study of 144 women with single pregnancy interrupted by cesarean section between 27 and 41 weeks. In this sample, 84 had pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and the other 60 were normal. In this group, Doppler study of both uterine arteries and placental bed biopsy was performed. Results: of the total of 144 patients, 88 patients (61% had a biopsy fragment that was considered representative of the placental bed. The diastolic notch was present in 40 patients (70% of the total of cases with inadequate physiologic alterations and absent in 28 patients (90% of the total of cases with physiologic alterations (p=0.0000. The Doppler study showed 70% sensitivity, 90% specificity, 44% positive predictive value and 97% negative predictive value. The association between bilateral diastolic notch of uterine arteries and acute atherosis in the placental bed was also significant (24 out of 25 cases -- p=0.000. The Doppler study showed 96% sensitivity, 70% specificity, 26% positive predictive value and 99% negative predictive value, while for arteriolosclerosis its results were 80% sensitivity, 55% specificity, 17% positive predictive value and 96% negative predictive value. Conclusions: the diastolic notch in the maternal uterine is a safe indicator of pathological vessel alteration in the placental bed. The adequate trophoblast migration into the myometrium, revealed by physiologic changes, results in the absence of bilateral diastolic notch of the maternal uterine arteries.

Regina Amélia Lopes Pessoa de Aguiar

2001-08-01

145

The association between arterial properties and blood pressure in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elevated blood pressure (BP) in adults is associated with increased arterial stiffness and thickness; however, its effect on arterial health in a pediatric population is less understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between childhood BP and arterial markers of arteriosclerotic progression. The study consisted of 106 children across a wide range of BP values divided into 2 BP groups: high BP (HBP; ?95th percentile; n = 21) and normal BP (NBP; <90th percentile; n = 85) based on consistent automated BP measures taken at 2 time points. The laboratory examination involved systemic pulse wave velocity (PWV), common carotid artery (CCA) intima media thickness (IMT) and distensibility, as well as body mass index (BMI) and pubertal maturation. BMI and heart rate, as well as PWV (HBP: n = 15 and NBP: n = 56), were higher in the HBP group (p < 0.001) with no difference between groups for both CCA distensibility and IMT (HBP: n = 21 and NBP: n = 83). Multivariate linear regression revealed that BP group (p = 0.003) was an independent predictor of PWV after controlling for age, sex, BMI, heart rate, and maturation. Our findings demonstrate a higher systemic PWV with no difference in CCA IMT or distensibility in children with elevated BP. Hence, markers of cardiovascular disease risk are augmented in healthy children with elevated BP. PMID:25506757

Phillips, Aaron A; Chirico, Daniele; Coverdale, Nicole S; Fitzgibbon, Laura K; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Wade, Terrance J; Cairney, John; O'Leary, Deborah D

2015-01-01

146

Relationship of daily arterial blood pressure monitoring readings and arterial stiffness profile in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease combined with arterial hypertension  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine correlation between arterial blood pressure daily rhythm and daily profile of arterial stiffness in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and arterial hypertension. Materials et methods: Prospective investigation comprised 45 male patients with COPD and arterial hypertension. Individuals of 40 years younger and 80 years elder, patients with diabetes, stroke, angina pectoris, or heart infarction, vascular diseases, and exacerbation of chronic disease, bronchial and pulmonary diseases of other etiology were excluded from the analyses. Comparison group included 47 patients with essential arterial hypertension and without chronic respiratory diseases closely similar on general parameters with patients from main clinical series. Twenty-four-hour arterial blood pressure monitoring (ABPM and daily arterial stiffness monitoring were performed using BPLab® MnSDP-2 apparatus (Petr Telegin, Russian Federation. Results: Patients with COPD combined with arterial hypertension with raised arterial stiffness measures prevail over individuals in essential hypertension group. There is pathological alteration of the ABPM circadian rhythm and raised «Pressure load» values in raised arterial stiffness group. Conclusion: We found ABPM raised parameters in patients with COPD and arterial hypertension. It confirms necessity of ABPM in daily arterial stiffness assessment in patients with COPD.

Karoli N.A.

2013-06-01

147

Central retinal artery and vein collapse pressure in giant cell arteritis versus nonarteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy and nonarteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy are acute optic neuropathies, which have to be differentiated from each other. It was the purpose of this study to assess whether ophthalmodynamometry with an assessment of the collapse pressure of the central retinal artery (CRA) and vein (CRV) is helpful for that. Using a Goldmann contact lens-associated ophthalmodynamometer, the diastolic collapse pressure of the CRA and CRV were measured in six patients (eight eyes) with giant cell arteritis-induced anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (GC-AION) and in 10 patients (12 eyes) with acute non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION). CRA collapse pressure was significantly (P=0.001; 95% confidence interval (CI): -68.7, -20.0) lower in the GC-AION group (52.7+/-24.6 arbitrary units) than in the NAION group (97.0+/-25.8 arbitrary units). CRV collapse pressure did not vary significantly (P=0.47). As measured by ophthalmodynamometry, CRA pressure is significantly lower in GC-AION than in NAION. CRV pressure does not vary markedly. These finding may be helpful for the clinical differentiation between GC-AION and NAION, and may give hints for the pathogenesis. PMID:17384573

Jonas, J B; Harder, B

2008-04-01

148

Increases in intramuscular pressure raise arterial blood pressure during dynamic exercise  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation was designed to determine the role of intramuscular pressure-sensitive mechanoreceptors and chemically sensitive metaboreceptors in affecting the blood pressure response to dynamic exercise in humans. Sixteen subjects performed incremental (20 W/min) cycle exercise to fatigue under four conditions: control, exercise with thigh cuff occlusion of 90 Torr (Cuff occlusion), exercise with lower body positive pressure (LBPP) of 45 Torr, and a combination of thigh cuff occlusion and LBPP (combination). Indexes of central command (heart rate, oxygen uptake, ratings of perceived exertion, and electromyographic activity), cardiac output, stroke volume, and total peripheral resistance were not significantly different between the four conditions. Mechanical stimulation during LBPP and combination conditions resulted in significant elevations in intramuscular pressure and mean arterial pressure from control at rest and throughout the incremental exercise protocol (P arterial pressure when the metaboreflex was stimulated by cuff occlusion. These findings suggest that under normal conditions the mechanoreflex is tonically active and is the primary mediator of exercise pressor reflex-induced alterations in arterial blood pressure during submaximal dynamic exercise in humans.

Gallagher, K. M.; Fadel, P. J.; Smith, S. A.; Norton, K. H.; Querry, R. G.; Olivencia-Yurvati, A.; Raven, P. B.

2001-01-01

149

Effects of PDE type 5 inhibitors on Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Resistant Hypertension / Efeitos dos Inibidores da PDE do Tipo 5 sobre a Disfunção Diastólica Ventricular Esquerda na Hipertensão Arterial Resistente  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Resistant hypertension (RHTN) is a multifactorial disease characterized by blood pressure (BP) levels above goal (140/90 mmHg) in spite of the concurrent use of three or more antihypertensive drugs of different classes. Moreover, it is well known that RHTN subjects have high prevalence of left ventr [...] icular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD), which leads to increased risk of heart failure progression. This review gathers data from studies evaluating the effects of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors (administration of acute sildenafil and short-term tadalafil) on diastolic function, biochemical and hemodynamic parameters in patients with RHTN. Acute study with sildenafil treatment found that inhibition of PDE-5 improved hemodynamic parameters and diastolic relaxation. In addition, short-term study with the use of tadalafil demonstrated improvement of LVDD, cGMP and BNP-32 levels, regardless of BP reduction. No endothelial function changes were observed in the studies. The findings of acute and short-term studies revealed potential therapeutic effects of IPDE-5 drugs on LVDD in RHTN patients.

Ana Paula Cabral de, Faria; Rodrigo, Modolo; Beatriz Vaz Domingues, Moreno; Heitor, Moreno.

150

Increased systemic blood pressure and arterial stiffness in young adults born prematurely.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have shown that a low birth weight is a risk factor for increased systemic blood pressure (BP) in adulthood. Further, systemic BP and arterial stiffness (AS) are reported to be increased in adolescents born prematurely. The purpose of this study was to characterize systemic BP and AS in young adults born preterm. Systemic BP was measured using an automated oscillometric device. AS was assessed by measuring the right carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWV) using a validated non-invasive automated method. Systemic BP, pulse pressure, and PWV [mean (confidence intervals)] were compared between 16 adults (age 21 years) born preterm (age at birth 32 weeks of gestation) with a birth weight (1710 g) appropriate for their gestational age and 15 adults (21 years) born at term (40 weeks of gestation) with a birth weight (3430 g) appropriate for their gestational age. Adults born preterm had a significantly higher systolic BP [122 mmHg (114-144) v. 112 (106-127)], mean BP [89 mmHg (86-98) v. 84 (81-91)], diastolic BP [69 mmHg (66-76) v. 65 (62-78)], pulse pressure [54 mmHg (47-72) v. 47 (42-60)], and PWV [7 m/s (6.3-8.6) v. 6.4 (5.8-8)] than did those born at term. Our findings suggest that young adults with a low birth weight due to preterm birth have increased systemic BP and AS. Accordingly, preterm birth may predispose individuals to cardiovascular diseases in adulthood due to increased AS. PMID:25154472

Tauzin, L; Rossi, P; Grosse, C; Boussuges, A; Frances, Y; Tsimaratos, M; Simeoni, U

2014-12-01

151

Entrapment of an arterial pressure catheter by a previously deployed Starclose device.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herein is a case report description of entrapment of an arterial pressure line by a previously deployed Starclose device. This device is widely used to control femoral artery puncture site following diagnostic catheterization. PMID:20506201

Alameddine, Abdallah K; Rousou, John A

2011-01-01

152

Remifentanil Prevents Tourniquet-Induced Arterial Pressure Increase in Elderly Orthopedic Patients under Sevoflurane/N2O General Anesthesia  

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Full Text Available Aims: Prolonged tourniquet inflation produces a hyperdynamic cardiovascular response. We investigated the effect of continuous remifentanil infusion on systemic arterial pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output changes during prolonged tourniquet use in elderly patients under sevoflurane/N2O general anesthesia.Methods: Thirty female patients scheduled for knee replacement arthroplasty were infused with either remifentanil at a target organ concentration of 2.0 ng/mL (remifentanil group, n = 15 or saline (control group, n = 15 after induction of anesthesia. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and N2O. Heart rate (HR, systolic arterial pressure (SAP, diastolic arterial pressure (DAP, cardiac index (CI, total systemic vascular resistance index (TSVRI, BIS, end-tidal sevoflurane concentration (EtSEVO, and end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration (EtCO2 were measured during the study period.Results: There were significant differences in mean HR, SAP, DAP, and EtSEVO over time between the groups (P = 0.047, P < 0.001, P = 0.017, and P < 0.001, respectively. There was a statistically significant time trend effect (P < 0.001 in HR, SAP, DAP, and CI between the groups, with a statistically significant time-group interaction between the two groups (P = 0.02, 0.007, 0.001, 0.01, respectively.Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that infusion with remifentanil prevented an increase in hemodynamic pressure during tourniquet inflation in elderly patients under sevoflurane/N2O general anesthesia.

Jun-Young Jung, Jin-Hee Han, Jae-Woo Yi, Jong-Man Kang

2012-01-01

153

Dynamic Stress Analysis of the Arterial Wall Utilizing Physiological Pressure Waveforms  

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Full Text Available Arterial diseases, promoted by alterations in arterial wall properties, are among the main causes of mortality. Mechanical stresses of the arterial wall caused by pulsatile luminal pressure define arterial function in normal and pathological conditions. This study aims to determine dynamic stress distribution in the arterial wall subjected to physiological pressure waveforms. Finite element models of a typical artery are developed to evaluate Von Misses stress in the arterial wall due to physiological pressure waveforms and with differing mechanical properties. Mechanical parameters include Young's modulus of elasticity, non-linear stress-strain relationship and visco-elastic parameter. The appropriate boundary conditions are allocated to allow radial expansion. Application of physiological pulsatile pressure results in stress waves with the values and waveforms markedly influenced by mechanical properties of the arterial wall and blood pressure pulse. Elevated elastic modulus of the arterial wall results in significant increase in maximum stress. Viscoelastic property leads to reduction of the peak stress and smoothening of the stress waveform. The pressure waveform is also a major parameter affecting the stress pattern in arterial wall. Hypertensive arteries result in higher and sharper stress waves not only because of a higher systolic value but also because of the sharper waveform. The combination of these parameters produces the resultant stress pattern in the arterial wall.

M. M. Khani

2008-01-01

154

Pulmonary and systemic arterial pressure in hyaline membrane disease.  

OpenAIRE

Systolic pulmonary arterial pressure was determined serially over the first 10 days of life in 33 babies with hyaline membrane disease by measuring the peak velocity of pansystolic tricuspid valve regurgitation, using Doppler ultrasound, and applying the Bernoulli equation. Results are presented in age groups 0-12, 13-36, 37-72, and 73-96 hours respectively. The incidence of tricuspid valve regurgitation was 92, 97, 80, and 64% (falling to 35% by day 10) compared with 53, 50, 31, and 0% in 17...

Skinner, J. R.; Boys, R. J.; Hunter, S.; Hey, E. N.

1992-01-01

155

Correlation analysis of the changes in arterial blood pressure in people with acute mountain sickness when exposed to high altitude  

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Full Text Available Objectives ?To investigate the changes in arterial blood pressure in the healthy lowlanders when they were exposed to different altitudes and duration, and the relationship of the exposure with the prevalence and susceptibility of acute mountain sickness (AMS, in order to evaluate the significance of arterial blood pressure changes in the diagnosis of AMS and its clinical risk. Methods ?Demographic data and blood pressure parameters [systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial BP (MABP] of healthy lowlanders (inhabitants in ?500m were collected after being exposed to 3700m on day 1, 3, 5 and 7, and also after being exposed to 4400m on day 5, while healthy young men living at low altitude were randomly selected as the control group. Simultaneously the AMS symptoms Questionnaire was filled. The Lake Louise acute mountain sickness scoring system (LLS was used to diagnose AMS. The changes in arterial blood pressure in people above and its correlation with AMS were analyzed. Results ?After acute exposure to 3700m (day 1, SBP, DBP and MABP rose obviously, and then descended moderately after adaptation for about a week, but still higher than that of LA level (P<0.05. And then SBP, DBP and MABP rose again at high-altitude of 4400m, but lower than the levels of day 1 at 3700m. MABP at 3700m and 4400m were related to LLS (r=0.138, P=0.048; r=0.145, P=0.045, respectively. MABP levels for diagnosis of AMS at 3700m showed an cut-off point of 98.5mmHg with sensitivity of 32.8% and specificity of 73.7% (P<0.05, and MABP levels for diagnosis of AMS at 4400m showed an cut-off point of 97.8mmHg with sensitivity of 42.4% and specificity of 75.5% (P<0.05. Conclusions ?After exposure to acute hypoxia, MABP may serve as a predictive parameter for diagnosis of AMS. However, the clinical application of MABP as a diagnostic criterion is limited because of its poor specificity or sensitivity. The use of MABP as a diagnostic criterion should be combined with other indicators such as arterial blood oxygen saturation (SaO2 for the diagnosis of AMS. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.03.12

Yang LIU

2014-03-01

156

The effects of geometry, elasticity, and external pressures on the diastolic pressure-volume and stiffness-stress relations. How important is the pericardium?  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of an incremental elastic modulus is applied in the quantification of passive elastic stiffness-stress relations of intact heart muscle, and a transmural pressure-volume relation for the left ventricle is subsequently derived in terms of geometry, muscle elasticity, and external pressures to assess their importance. Physiological and clinical applications of this method indicate that: (1) stiffness-stress relations obtained on the basis of pressure-volume data from dog hearts are not significantly different from those obtained from muscle strips excised from these same hearts; (2) shape and the presence of right ventricular, pericardial, or pleural pressures are of secondary importance in an assessment of passive elastic stiffness; and (3) dramatic shifts in the left ventricular intracavity pressure-volume relations following drug interventions are primarily due to the presence of substantial pericardial pressures; however, the transmural pressure-volume relations are not markedly altered, implying no alteration in the intrinsic ventricular compliance. PMID:371853

Mirsky, I; Rankin, J S

1979-05-01

157

Avaliação comparativa entre a anestesia geral com halotano e isoflurano sobre a pressão arterial em cães Comparartive evaluation of the general anesthesia with halothane and isoflurane on the arterial pressure in dogs  

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Full Text Available As alterações produzidas pelo halotano e isoflurano sobre as pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média foram avaliadas em 34 caninos de ambos os sexos e de diferentes pesos corporais e raças, todos submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos ortopédicos, divididos em dois grupos de 17 animais, submetidos a jejum prévio de 12 horas antes da indução anestésica. Os animais de ambos os grupos receberam sulfato de atropina 0,04mg/kg, associado ao sulfato de morfina 1,5mg/kg, administrados por via intramuscular e indução anestésica com propofol 6mg/kg por via intravenosa e a anestesia geral foi mantida com halotano no grupo I e o isoflurano no grupo II. Em ambos os grupos, o óxido nitroso na proporção 2:1 com oxigênio foi utilizado como gás diluente do anestésico volátil. Decorridos 15 minutos do início da anestesia volátil, as pressões sistólica, diastólica e média foram mensuradas pelo método oscilométrico indireto até o período de 90 minutos. Observou-se que as pressões arteriais sistólica e diastólica do grupo II foi maior a partir dos 45 minutos de manutenção com os anestésicos voláteis, não ocorrendo diferença significativa na freqüência cardíaca. Conclui-se que a manutenção anestésica com isoflurano produz valores de pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica superiores à manutenção com halotano que causou hipotensão arterial dos 45 aos 75 minutos de anestesia volátil.Changes in arterial systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure were evaluated and compared in 34 dogs anesthetized with halothane or isoflurane and submitted to orthopedic surgeries. Two groups were formed each with 17 dogs. These animals were fasted for 12 hours before anesthesia induction. Anesthetic technique was premedication with 0.04mg/kg atropine intramuscular combined 1.5mg/kg morphine intramuscular. Anesthesia was induced with 6.0mg/kg propofol intravenously. Anesthesia was maintained with halothane in group I and isoflurane in group II. In both groups, nitrous oxide and oxygen in a 2:1 ratio was used as diluent for the inhalant. After 15 minutes of inhalation anesthesia, arterial blood pressures were recorded with a noninvasive blood pressure monitor in 15 minutes intervals for 90 minutes. Statistical analyses showed that there was a significant difference in systolic and diastolic pressures after 45 minutes. Differences in heart rate were not significant. In dos, general anesthesia with isoflurane maintained higher arterial blood pressures than those anesthetized with halothane which produced arterial hipotension from 45 to 75 minutes of anesthesia.

Cláudio Corrêa Natalini

2000-06-01

158

Avaliação comparativa entre a anestesia geral com halotano e isoflurano sobre a pressão arterial em cães / Comparartive evaluation of the general anesthesia with halothane and isoflurane on the arterial pressure in dogs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As alterações produzidas pelo halotano e isoflurano sobre as pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média foram avaliadas em 34 caninos de ambos os sexos e de diferentes pesos corporais e raças, todos submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos ortopédicos, divididos em dois grupos de 17 animais, subm [...] etidos a jejum prévio de 12 horas antes da indução anestésica. Os animais de ambos os grupos receberam sulfato de atropina 0,04mg/kg, associado ao sulfato de morfina 1,5mg/kg, administrados por via intramuscular e indução anestésica com propofol 6mg/kg por via intravenosa e a anestesia geral foi mantida com halotano no grupo I e o isoflurano no grupo II. Em ambos os grupos, o óxido nitroso na proporção 2:1 com oxigênio foi utilizado como gás diluente do anestésico volátil. Decorridos 15 minutos do início da anestesia volátil, as pressões sistólica, diastólica e média foram mensuradas pelo método oscilométrico indireto até o período de 90 minutos. Observou-se que as pressões arteriais sistólica e diastólica do grupo II foi maior a partir dos 45 minutos de manutenção com os anestésicos voláteis, não ocorrendo diferença significativa na freqüência cardíaca. Conclui-se que a manutenção anestésica com isoflurano produz valores de pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica superiores à manutenção com halotano que causou hipotensão arterial dos 45 aos 75 minutos de anestesia volátil. Abstract in english Changes in arterial systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure were evaluated and compared in 34 dogs anesthetized with halothane or isoflurane and submitted to orthopedic surgeries. Two groups were formed each with 17 dogs. These animals were fasted for 12 hours before anesthesia induction. Anest [...] hetic technique was premedication with 0.04mg/kg atropine intramuscular combined 1.5mg/kg morphine intramuscular. Anesthesia was induced with 6.0mg/kg propofol intravenously. Anesthesia was maintained with halothane in group I and isoflurane in group II. In both groups, nitrous oxide and oxygen in a 2:1 ratio was used as diluent for the inhalant. After 15 minutes of inhalation anesthesia, arterial blood pressures were recorded with a noninvasive blood pressure monitor in 15 minutes intervals for 90 minutes. Statistical analyses showed that there was a significant difference in systolic and diastolic pressures after 45 minutes. Differences in heart rate were not significant. In dos, general anesthesia with isoflurane maintained higher arterial blood pressures than those anesthetized with halothane which produced arterial hipotension from 45 to 75 minutes of anesthesia.

Cláudio Corrêa, Natalini; Jefferson da Silva, Pires.

2000-06-01

159

Machine Learning Techniques for Arterial Pressure Waveform Analysis  

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Full Text Available The Arterial Pressure Waveform (APW can provide essential information about arterial wall integrity and arterial stiffness. Most of APW analysis frameworks individually process each hemodynamic parameter and do not evaluate inter-dependencies in the overall pulse morphology. The key contribution of this work is the use of machine learning algorithms to deal with vectorized features extracted from APW. With this purpose, we follow a five-step evaluation methodology: (1 a custom-designed, non-invasive, electromechanical device was used in the data collection from 50 subjects; (2 the acquired position and amplitude of onset, Systolic Peak (SP, Point of Inflection (Pi and Dicrotic Wave (DW were used for the computation of some morphological attributes; (3 pre-processing work on the datasets was performed in order to reduce the number of input features and increase the model accuracy by selecting the most relevant ones; (4 classification of the dataset was carried out using four different machine learning algorithms: Random Forest, BayesNet (probabilistic, J48 (decision tree and RIPPER (rule-based induction; and (5 we evaluate the trained models, using the majority-voting system, comparatively to the respective calculated Augmentation Index (AIx. Classification algorithms have been proved to be efficient, in particular Random Forest has shown good accuracy (96.95% and high area under the curve (AUC of a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve (0.961. Finally, during validation tests, a correlation between high risk labels, retrieved from the multi-parametric approach, and positive AIx values was verified. This approach gives allowance for designing new hemodynamic morphology vectors and techniques for multiple APW analysis, thus improving the arterial pulse understanding, especially when compared to traditional single-parameter analysis, where the failure in one parameter measurement component, such as Pi, can jeopardize the whole evaluation.

João Cardoso

2013-05-01

160

Adolescencia e hipertensión arterial / Adolescence and high blood pressure  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: se desconocen las características demográficas y clínicas de la hipertensión arterial en niños y adolescentes en Guane. Objetivo: caracterizar la hipertensión arterial en adolescentes de 10-15 años en Guane en el año 2013. Material y método: se realizó una investigación observacional, [...] descriptiva, transversal, con componente analítico en 360 niños de las edades mencionadas, en los que se comprobó: tensión arterial, índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de la cintura, tabaquismo y actividad física, todos con referencia a la edad y al sexo. Se resumieron las variables cualitativas en frecuencias absolutas y relativas porcentuales, y la asociación entre las mismas se midió mediante las pruebas de X² y Odds Ratio al 95 % de certeza. Resultados: hubo 175 normotensos en las edades 10-12 años, 8 pre-hipertensos y 9 hipertensos en el grupo de 13-15 años. Hubo prevalencia estadísticamente significativa (x²) de normotensos en el sexo femenino (p = 0.008). La obesidad estaba incrementada más de 5 veces en los varones (p = 0,002) y en edades de 13-15 años. Existió un incremento significativo de hipertensos en el grupo de 13-15 años con aumento de la circunferencia abdominal (p Abstract in english Introduction: the demographic and clinical characteristics of high blood pressure in Guane children and adolescents are unknown. Objective: to characterize high blood pressure in Guane 10-15-year-old adolescents, 2013. Material and method: an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional research was [...] carried out, with an analytical component, on 360 children of the mentioned ages, in which we analyzed: blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking and physical activity, all of which with reference to age and sex. The quantitative variants were defined in percentage absolute and relative frequencies, while association among them was measured by chi-square and Odds Ratio tests at 95% of certitude. Results: there were 175 with normal blood pressure between 10-12 years old, 8 pre-hypertensives aged 13-15 years old. There was a statistically significant prevalence of female patients with normal blood pressure (p=0.008). Obesity increased five times in male patients (p=0.002) and in ages 13-15 years old. There was a significant increase in hypertensive patients aged 13-15 years old, with increase in the waist circumference (p

Gabriela Elizabeth, Galarza Carrión.

2014-10-01

161

Monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial e pressão casual em hiper-reatores ao esforço / Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and casual blood pressure in hyper-reactive individuals  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTO: O desenvolvimento de hipertensão arterial sustentada é, pelo menos, duas vezes maior em indivíduos hiper-reatores ao esforço. Poucos trabalhos têm avaliado os parâmetros da monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial de 24 horas (MAPA) nesses indivíduos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação da [...] pressão arterial (PA) casual com a resposta hiper-reativa ao esforço (RHR) e comparar os padrões da monitorização ambulatorial de pressão arterial (MAPA) de indivíduos hiper-reatores ao esforço a um grupo controle, visando detectar alterações precoces que permitam uma atuação preventiva com implicação prognóstica. MÉTODOS: A PA casual e os dados da MAPA de 26 indivíduos adultos, com idade média de 41,50±11,78 anos, normotensos em repouso, hiper-reatores ao teste ergométrico (TE), foram comparados aos de 16 adultos, com média de idade de 41,38±11,55 anos, também normotensos em repouso, com resposta normal de PA ao esforço. Como normotensão foram considerados valores de PA 220mmHg e/ou incremento >15mmHg de pressão arterial diastólica (PAD) no TE, partindo-se de níveis de PA normais. RESULTADOS: A PAS (p=0,03) e PAD (p=0,002) casuais, a média da PAS (p=0,050) e as cargas pressóricas sistólicas na vigília (p=0,011) e nas 24 horas (p=0,017) à MAPA foram significativamente superiores nos hiper-reatores. CONCLUSÃO: A PA casual se correlacionou positivamente com a RHR. Os hiper-reatores apresentaram características peculiares na PA casual e MAPA, que, embora dentro da normalidade, se diferenciaram das observadas nos normorreatores. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Developing hypertension is likely to be at least two times greater in individual with exaggerated blood pressure response on exercise testing (ET). Few reports have evaluated the parameters of 24-hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) in normotensive individuals with exaggerate [...] d blood pressure response to exercise. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship among the casual blood pressure with hyper-reactive response on ET and to compare Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) data of hyper-reactive individuals with a control group in order to detect early disorders, that allows a preventive action with prognostic implication. METHODS: Casual BP measurement and parameters of ABPM of 26 adult individuals, with mean age of 41.50±11.78 years, normotensive at rest and hyper-reactive on ET was compared to those of 16 adult individuals, with mean age of 41.38±11.55 years, normotensive at rest with normal BP response on exercise. The values 15mmHg diastolic BP on ET for hyper-reactive response diagnosis. RESULTS: Hyper-reactive individuals presented the systolic (p=0.03) and diastolic (p=0.002) casual BP and mean systolic BP (p=0.050), systolic pressure load during the day (p=0.011), and systolic (p=0.017) pressure load higher when compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Casual high normal BP had a positive correlation with exaggerated BP response. The hyper-reactive individuals showed particular characteristics in casual BP as well as in ABPM parameters, which, although within the range of reference values, differed from those of individuals with normal response to exercise.

Lucia Brandão de, Oliveira; Ademir Batista da, Cunha; Wolney de Andrade, Martins; Rosiane Fátima Silveira de, Abreu; Luciana Silva Nogueira de, Barros; Delma Maria, Cunha; Antonio Cláudio Lucas da, Nóbrega; Luiz Romeu, Martins Filho.

2007-05-01

162

Monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial e pressão casual em hiper-reatores ao esforço Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and casual blood pressure in hyper-reactive individuals  

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Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O desenvolvimento de hipertensão arterial sustentada é, pelo menos, duas vezes maior em indivíduos hiper-reatores ao esforço. Poucos trabalhos têm avaliado os parâmetros da monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial de 24 horas (MAPA nesses indivíduos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação da pressão arterial (PA casual com a resposta hiper-reativa ao esforço (RHR e comparar os padrões da monitorização ambulatorial de pressão arterial (MAPA de indivíduos hiper-reatores ao esforço a um grupo controle, visando detectar alterações precoces que permitam uma atuação preventiva com implicação prognóstica. MÉTODOS: A PA casual e os dados da MAPA de 26 indivíduos adultos, com idade média de 41,50±11,78 anos, normotensos em repouso, hiper-reatores ao teste ergométrico (TE, foram comparados aos de 16 adultos, com média de idade de 41,38±11,55 anos, também normotensos em repouso, com resposta normal de PA ao esforço. Como normotensão foram considerados valores de PA 220mmHg e/ou incremento >15mmHg de pressão arterial diastólica (PAD no TE, partindo-se de níveis de PA normais. RESULTADOS: A PAS (p=0,03 e PAD (p=0,002 casuais, a média da PAS (p=0,050 e as cargas pressóricas sistólicas na vigília (p=0,011 e nas 24 horas (p=0,017 à MAPA foram significativamente superiores nos hiper-reatores. CONCLUSÃO: A PA casual se correlacionou positivamente com a RHR. Os hiper-reatores apresentaram características peculiares na PA casual e MAPA, que, embora dentro da normalidade, se diferenciaram das observadas nos normorreatores.BACKGROUND: Developing hypertension is likely to be at least two times greater in individual with exaggerated blood pressure response on exercise testing (ET. Few reports have evaluated the parameters of 24-hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM in normotensive individuals with exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship among the casual blood pressure with hyper-reactive response on ET and to compare Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM data of hyper-reactive individuals with a control group in order to detect early disorders, that allows a preventive action with prognostic implication. METHODS: Casual BP measurement and parameters of ABPM of 26 adult individuals, with mean age of 41.50±11.78 years, normotensive at rest and hyper-reactive on ET was compared to those of 16 adult individuals, with mean age of 41.38±11.55 years, normotensive at rest with normal BP response on exercise. The values 15mmHg diastolic BP on ET for hyper-reactive response diagnosis. RESULTS: Hyper-reactive individuals presented the systolic (p=0.03 and diastolic (p=0.002 casual BP and mean systolic BP (p=0.050, systolic pressure load during the day (p=0.011, and systolic (p=0.017 pressure load higher when compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Casual high normal BP had a positive correlation with exaggerated BP response. The hyper-reactive individuals showed particular characteristics in casual BP as well as in ABPM parameters, which, although within the range of reference values, differed from those of individuals with normal response to exercise.

Lucia Brandão de Oliveira

2007-05-01

163

Levels of pressure for adolescent students and risk indicators for arterial hypertension - a descriptive study  

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Full Text Available This transversal, descriptive, and analytical study attempts to identify the levels of pressure for a determined population of adolescent students and the risk indicators of significant association for arterial hypertension. The research was developed in a public school of the capital of the state of Maranhão, Brazil, with a sample size of 302 adolescent students. The data was collected using questionnaires with open and closed questions. Of the total number of adolescents who participated, 2.7% presented arterial hypertension, the greatest number of these within the age group of 14 to 17 years old, and predominantly masculine. In this study, after the statistic analysis, the association of arterial pressure behavior with gender, age, and nutritional situation did not show significance (p> 0.05, even though there was scientific corroboration among these variables as risk indicators for arterial hypertension. Smoking and the type of nourishment showed to be risk factors for arterial hypertension with (p<0.05. Although the present study has not found association between the nutritional situation of adolescents and arterial hypertension, it was observed that there exist important nutritional alterations, even though at the moment they have not affected arterial pressure. This study points out the need for the measurement of arterial pressure to be incorporated into the practice of clinical pediatrics, especially for the activities of health in schools, such that adolescents with alterations in their arterial pressure can be identified and evaluated earlier. Key-Words: Arterial pressure; Arterial Hipertensão; Health of the pertaining to school.

Francisca Georgina Macêdo de Sousa

2006-04-01

164

An Inquiry-Based Teaching Tool for Understanding Arterial Blood Pressure Regulation and Cardiovascular Function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a laboratory exercise designed to introduce students to the hemodynamic variables (heart rate, stroke volume, total peripheral resistance, and compliance) that alter arterial pressure. (Author/CCM)

Collins, Heidi L.; Rodenbaugh, David W.; Murphy, Todd P.; Kulics, Jennifer M.; Bailey, Cynthia M.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

1999-01-01

165

Non-invasive assessment of arterial stiffness using oscillometric blood pressure measurement  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Arterial stiffness is a major contributor to cardiovascular diseases. Because current methods of measuring arterial stiffness are technically demanding, the purpose of this study was to develop a simple method of evaluating arterial stiffness using oscillometric blood pressure measurement. Methods Blood pressure was conventionally measured in the left upper arm of 173 individuals using an inflatable cuff. Using the time series of occlusive cuff pressure and the amplitudes of pulse oscillations, we calculated local slopes of the curve between the decreasing cuff pressure and corresponding arterial volume. Whole pressure-volume curve was derived from numerical integration of the local slopes. The curve was fitted using an equation and we identified a numerical coefficient of the equation as an index of arterial stiffness (Arterial Pressure-volume Index, API. We also measured brachial-ankle (baPWV PWV and carotid-femoral (cfPWV PWV using a vascular testing device and compared the values with API. Furthermore, we assessed carotid arterial compliance using ultrasound images to compare with API. Results The slope of the calculated pressure-volume curve was steeper for compliant (low baPWV or cfPWV than stiff (high baPWV or cfPWV arteries. API was related to baPWV (r = -0.53, P r = -0.49, P r = 0.32, P Conclusions These results suggest that our method can simply and simultaneously evaluate arterial stiffness and blood pressure based on oscillometric measurements of blood pressure.

Komine Hidehiko

2012-02-01

166

Avaliação de fatores de risco associados com elevação da pressão arterial em crianças Evaluation of risk factors associated with increased blood pressure in children  

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Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar fatores associados a níveis elevados de pressão arterial em crianças. Métodos: Estudo transversal da pressão arterial de 672 crianças entre 2 e 11 anos de idade em duas instituições de ensino de Belo Horizonte, entre setembro e dezembro de 2001. A pressão arterial foi mensurada seguindo os parámetros estabelecidos pelo relatório do Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. As seguintes variáveis foram estudadas: idade, sexo, cor da pele, índice de qualidade de vida urbana, estatura e índice de massa corporal. Para a comparação das médias, foi utilizada a análise de variãncia, e para a comparação de proporções, o teste quiquadrado. As variãveis associadas a níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial foram incluídas em análise de regressão linear múltipla. Resultados: Na análise univariada, níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica estiveram associados com crianças de cor branca, crianças da região com alto índice de qualidade de vida urbana e com elevado índice de massa corporal. Na análise multivariada, apenas o índice de massa corporal, o índice de qualidade de vida urbana e a estatura mantiveram-se associados com níveis elevados de pressão sistólica. Em relação aos níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial diastólica, apenas as variáveis índice de qualidade de vida urbana e idade foram mantidas no modelo após o ajustamento. Conclusão: O sobrepeso e a obesidade estiveram associados com níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial sistólica. Outros fatores, não identificados, foram parcialmente associados a níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial de crianças do estabelecimento privado do ensinoTo identify factors associated with increased arterial blood pressure in children. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, arterial blood pressure was measured in 672 children between 2 and 11 years of age from two schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. After providing informed consent, all children had their blood pressure and anthropometric parameters measured. Blood pressure was measured based on the recommendations of the Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The following variables were assessed: age, sex, race, urban life quality index, weight, height, and body mass index. Analysis of variance was used for comparison of means and the chi-square was used for comparison of proportions. Variables associated with increased blood pressure were included in a multiple regression model. Results: According to univariate analysis, increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure were associated with high urban life quality index, white race and high body mass index. On multivariate analysis, body mass index, urban life quality index and height remained associated with increased systolic blood pressure; urban life quality index and age were associated with increased diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: In this study, excess weight and obesity were associated with increased systolic blood pressure. Other unidentified factors were partially associated with increased blood pressure in children from the school with elevated urban life quality index

Frederico D Garcia

2006-10-01

167

Avaliação de fatores de risco associados com elevação da pressão arterial em crianças / Evaluation of risk factors associated with increased blood pressure in children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Identificar fatores associados a níveis elevados de pressão arterial em crianças. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal da pressão arterial de 672 crianças entre 2 e 11 anos de idade em duas instituições de ensino de Belo Horizonte, entre setembro e dezembro de 2001. A pressão arterial foi mensurad [...] a seguindo os parâmetros estabelecidos pelo relatório do Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. As seguintes variáveis foram estudadas: idade, sexo, cor da pele, índice de qualidade de vida urbana, estatura e índice de massa corporal. Para a comparação das médias, foi utilizada a análise de variância, e para a comparação de proporções, o teste qui-quadrado. As variáveis associadas a níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial foram incluídas em análise de regressão linear múltipla. RESULTADOS: Na análise univariada, níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica estiveram associados com crianças de cor branca, crianças da região com alto índice de qualidade de vida urbana e com elevado índice de massa corporal. Na análise multivariada, apenas o índice de massa corporal, o índice de qualidade de vida urbana e a estatura mantiveram-se associados com níveis elevados de pressão sistólica. Em relação aos níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial diastólica, apenas as variáveis índice de qualidade de vida urbana e idade foram mantidas no modelo após o ajustamento. CONCLUSÃO: O sobrepeso e a obesidade estiveram associados com níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial sistólica. Outros fatores, não identificados, foram parcialmente associados a níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial de crianças do estabelecimento privado do ensino. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with increased arterial blood pressure in children. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, arterial blood pressure was measured in 672 children between 2 and 11 years of age from two schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. After providing informed co [...] nsent, all children had their blood pressure and anthropometric parameters measured. Blood pressure was measured based on the recommendations of the Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The following variables were assessed: age, sex, race, urban life quality index, weight, height, and body mass index. Analysis of variance was used for comparison of means and the chi-square was used for comparison of proportions. Variables associated with increased blood pressure were included in a multiple regression model. RESULTS: According to univariate analysis, increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure were associated with high urban life quality index, white race and high body mass index. On multivariate analysis, body mass index, urban life quality index and height remained associated with increased systolic blood pressure; urban life quality index and age were associated with increased diastolic blood pressure. CONCLUSION: In this study, excess weight and obesity were associated with increased systolic blood pressure. Other unidentified factors were partially associated with increased blood pressure in children from the school with elevated urban life quality index.

Frederico D, Garcia; Aleyson F, Terra; Anderson M, Queiroz; Cristiano A, Correia; Priscila S, Ramos; Quésia T, Ferreira; Regina L, Rocha; Eduardo A, Oliveira.

2004-02-01

168

Avaliação de fatores de risco associados com elevação da pressão arterial em crianças Evaluation of risk factors associated with increased blood pressure in children  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar fatores associados a níveis elevados de pressão arterial em crianças. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal da pressão arterial de 672 crianças entre 2 e 11 anos de idade em duas instituições de ensino de Belo Horizonte, entre setembro e dezembro de 2001. A pressão arterial foi mensurada seguindo os parâmetros estabelecidos pelo relatório do Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. As seguintes variáveis foram estudadas: idade, sexo, cor da pele, índice de qualidade de vida urbana, estatura e índice de massa corporal. Para a comparação das médias, foi utilizada a análise de variância, e para a comparação de proporções, o teste qui-quadrado. As variáveis associadas a níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial foram incluídas em análise de regressão linear múltipla. RESULTADOS: Na análise univariada, níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica estiveram associados com crianças de cor branca, crianças da região com alto índice de qualidade de vida urbana e com elevado índice de massa corporal. Na análise multivariada, apenas o índice de massa corporal, o índice de qualidade de vida urbana e a estatura mantiveram-se associados com níveis elevados de pressão sistólica. Em relação aos níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial diastólica, apenas as variáveis índice de qualidade de vida urbana e idade foram mantidas no modelo após o ajustamento. CONCLUSÃO: O sobrepeso e a obesidade estiveram associados com níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial sistólica. Outros fatores, não identificados, foram parcialmente associados a níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial de crianças do estabelecimento privado do ensino.OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with increased arterial blood pressure in children. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, arterial blood pressure was measured in 672 children between 2 and 11 years of age from two schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. After providing informed consent, all children had their blood pressure and anthropometric parameters measured. Blood pressure was measured based on the recommendations of the Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The following variables were assessed: age, sex, race, urban life quality index, weight, height, and body mass index. Analysis of variance was used for comparison of means and the chi-square was used for comparison of proportions. Variables associated with increased blood pressure were included in a multiple regression model. RESULTS: According to univariate analysis, increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure were associated with high urban life quality index, white race and high body mass index. On multivariate analysis, body mass index, urban life quality index and height remained associated with increased systolic blood pressure; urban life quality index and age were associated with increased diastolic blood pressure. CONCLUSION: In this study, excess weight and obesity were associated with increased systolic blood pressure. Other unidentified factors were partially associated with increased blood pressure in children from the school with elevated urban life quality index.

Frederico D Garcia

2004-02-01

169

Avaliação de fatores de risco associados com elevação da pressão arterial em crianças / Evaluation of risk factors associated with increased blood pressure in children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivos: Identificar fatores associados a níveis elevados de pressão arterial em crianças. Métodos: Estudo transversal da pressão arterial de 672 crianças entre 2 e 11 anos de idade em duas instituições de ensino de Belo Horizonte, entre setembro e dezembro de 2001. A pressão arterial foi mensurad [...] a seguindo os parámetros estabelecidos pelo relatório do Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. As seguintes variáveis foram estudadas: idade, sexo, cor da pele, índice de qualidade de vida urbana, estatura e índice de massa corporal. Para a comparação das médias, foi utilizada a análise de variãncia, e para a comparação de proporções, o teste quiquadrado. As variãveis associadas a níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial foram incluídas em análise de regressão linear múltipla. Resultados: Na análise univariada, níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica estiveram associados com crianças de cor branca, crianças da região com alto índice de qualidade de vida urbana e com elevado índice de massa corporal. Na análise multivariada, apenas o índice de massa corporal, o índice de qualidade de vida urbana e a estatura mantiveram-se associados com níveis elevados de pressão sistólica. Em relação aos níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial diastólica, apenas as variáveis índice de qualidade de vida urbana e idade foram mantidas no modelo após o ajustamento. Conclusão: O sobrepeso e a obesidade estiveram associados com níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial sistólica. Outros fatores, não identificados, foram parcialmente associados a níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial de crianças do estabelecimento privado do ensino Abstract in english To identify factors associated with increased arterial blood pressure in children. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, arterial blood pressure was measured in 672 children between 2 and 11 years of age from two schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. After providing informed consent, all [...] children had their blood pressure and anthropometric parameters measured. Blood pressure was measured based on the recommendations of the Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The following variables were assessed: age, sex, race, urban life quality index, weight, height, and body mass index. Analysis of variance was used for comparison of means and the chi-square was used for comparison of proportions. Variables associated with increased blood pressure were included in a multiple regression model. Results: According to univariate analysis, increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure were associated with high urban life quality index, white race and high body mass index. On multivariate analysis, body mass index, urban life quality index and height remained associated with increased systolic blood pressure; urban life quality index and age were associated with increased diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: In this study, excess weight and obesity were associated with increased systolic blood pressure. Other unidentified factors were partially associated with increased blood pressure in children from the school with elevated urban life quality index

Frederico D, Garcia; Aleyson F, Terra; Anderson M, Queiroz; Cristiano A, Correia; Priscila S, Ramos; Quèsia T, Ferreira; Regina L, Rocha; Eduardo A, Oliveira.

2006-10-01

170

Cardiovascular design in fin whales: high-stiffness arteries protect against adverse pressure gradients at depth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fin whales have an incompliant aorta, which, we hypothesize, represents an adaptation to large, depth-induced variations in arterial transmural pressures. We hypothesize these variations arise from a limited ability of tissues to respond to rapid changes in ambient ocean pressures during a dive. We tested this hypothesis by measuring arterial mechanics experimentally and modelling arterial transmural pressures mathematically. The mechanical properties of mammalian arteries reflect the physiological loads they experience, so we examined a wide range of fin whale arteries. All arteries had abundant adventitial collagen that was usually recruited at very low stretches and inflation pressures (2-3 kPa), making arterial diameter largely independent of transmural pressure. Arteries withstood significant negative transmural pressures (-7 to -50 kPa) before collapsing. Collapse was resisted by recruitment of adventitial collagen at very low stretches. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis of depth-induced variation of arterial transmural pressure. Because transmural pressures depend on thoracic pressures, we modelled the thorax of a diving fin whale to assess the likelihood of significant variation in transmural pressures. The model predicted that deformation of the thorax body wall and diaphragm could not always equalize thoracic and ambient pressures because of asymmetrical conditions on dive descent and ascent. Redistribution of blood could partially compensate for asymmetrical conditions, but inertial and viscoelastic lag necessarily limits tissue response rates. Without pressure equilibrium, particularly when ambient pressures change rapidly, internal pressure gradients will develop and expose arteries to transient pressure fluctuations, but with minimal hemodynamic consequence due to their low compliance. PMID:23804669

Lillie, M A; Piscitelli, M A; Vogl, A W; Gosline, J M; Shadwick, R E

2013-07-15

171

Correlation between antrhopometric indicators and blood pressure in adolescents / Correlação entre indicadores antropométricos e pressão arterial de adolescentes / Correlación entre los indicadores antropométricos y presión arterial de los adolescentes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a correlação entre indicadores antropométricos e pressão arterial de adolescentes de Imperatriz-MA. Trata-se de estudo quantitativo do tipo transversal, desenvolvido entre setembro e novembro de 2012 com 218 estudantes. O questionário utilizado contemplou dados d [...] e identificação, antropométricos e pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica. Quanto aos valores de pressão arterial, verificou-se que 4,6%, 2,4% e 1,3% da amostra estavam inseridos na categoria limítrofe, hipertensão em estágio I e II, respectivamente. Entre o sexo feminino, o índice de adiposidade central e todas as pregas cutâneas apresentaram valores médios superiores ao masculino e, ainda, constatou-se correlação positiva entre pressão arterial sistólica e altura (r=0,18), peso (r=0,20) e circunferência da cintura (r=0,17); negativa entre pressão arterial diastólica e índice de adiposidade central (r=-0,18). A medida da circunferência do pescoço e da cintura foi a única medida antropométrica com correlação positiva e simultânea com pressão arterial sistólica em ambos os sexos. Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la correlación entre la presión antropométrico y sangre de los adolescentes de Imperatriz-MA. Se trata de un estudio transversal, realizado entre septiembre y noviembre de 2012 con 218 estudiantes. El cuestionario incluía datos de identificación, antropométri [...] cas y de presión arterial sistólica y diastólica. En el análisis de las pruebas de correlación de Pearson y de Spearman utilizado bajo criterios preestablecidos. Sólo el 8,3% de la muestra tenía cifras de presión arterial fuera del rango normal, siendo un 4,6%, 2,4% y 1,3% en el límite de la categoría hipertensión en estadio I y II, respectivamente. En las mujeres la tasa de obesidad central y pliegues cutáneos mostraron los mayores valores medios que los hombres. En las niñas hay una correlación positiva entre la presión arterial sistólica y la altura (r=0,18), el peso (r=0,20) y la circunferencia de la cintura (r=0,17); correlación negativa entre la presión arterial diastólica y el índice de adiposidad central (r=-0,18). Una sola medida antropométrica que se correlaciona positivamente con la presión arterial sistólica y simultánea en ambos sexos es la medida de la circunferencia del cuello y la cintura. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to analyze the correlation between anthropometric indicators and blood pressure of adolescents from Imperatriz, state of Maranhão, Brazil. It is a quantitative cross-sectional study, developed between September and November of 2012 with 218 students. We used a [...] questionnaire to collect data regarding identification, anthropometrics, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Considering blood pressure, we found that 4.6%, 2.4% and 1.3% of the sample were included in the borderline, stage 1 and stage 2 hypertension categories, respectively. Among female participants, body adiposity index and skinfold presented higher mean values than those of their male counterparts. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between systolic blood pressure and height (r=0.18), weight (r=0.20) and waist circumference (r=0.17), and a negative correlation between diastolic blood pressure and body adiposity index (r=-0.18). The measures of neck and waist circumference were the only anthropometric measures with positive and simultaneous correlations with systolic blood pressure for both genders.

Aline Viana de, Oliveira; Ana Cristina Pereira de Jesus, Costa; Lívia Maia, Pascoal; Leonardo Hunaldo dos, Santos; Emilia Soares, Chaves; Márcio Flávio Moura de, Araújo.

2014-12-01

172

Perfusion of veins at arterial pressure increases the expression of KLF5 and cell cycle genes in smooth muscle cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation remains a major cause of veno-arterial graft failure. We hypothesised that exposure of venous SMCs to arterial pressure would increase KLF5 expression and that of cell cycle genes. Porcine jugular veins were perfused at arterial or venous pressure in the absence of growth factors. The KLF5, c-myc, cyclin-D and cyclin-E expression were elevated within 24 h of perfusion at arterial pressure but not at venous pressure. Arterial pressure also reduced the decline in SM-myosin heavy chain expression. These data suggest a role for KLF5 in initiating venous SMCs proliferation in response to arterial pressure.

Amirak, Emre [Section of Molecular Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Zakkar, Mustafa; Evans, Paul C. [Cardiovascular Sciences, Bywaters Center for Vascular Inflammation, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 ONN (United Kingdom); Kemp, Paul R., E-mail: p.kemp@imperial.ac.uk [Section of Molecular Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2010-01-01

173

Correlation between 24-hour profile of blood pressure and ventricular arrhythmias and their prognostic significance in patients with arterial hypertension  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH, apart from arterial hypertension, is a risk factor for electrophysiologic heart condition disorder and sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to examine a relationship between complex ventricular arrhythmias and parameters of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the patients with arterial hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH, as well as their prognostic significance during a five-year follow-up. Methods. Ninety patients with arterial hypertension and LVH were included in this study (mean age 55.2±8.3 years. There were 35 healthy people in the control group (mean age 54.5±7.1 years. Left ventricular mass index was 171.9±32.4 g/m2 in the LVH group and 102.4±13.3 g/m2 in the control group. Clinical examination, echocardiogram, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and 24-hour holter monitoring were done in all of the examined persons. Ventricular arrhythmias were classified by the Lown classification. Results. In the LVH group there were 54 (60.0% of the patients with ? III Lown class. The best predictor of a Lown class were left ventricular mass index by using multivariate stepwise regression analyses (? = 0.212; p < 0.05 and small decrease of diastolic blood pressure during the night (? = -0.293; p < 0.01. The main predictor of bad prognosis was left ventricular mass index during a five year follow-up (? = 0.302; p < 0.01, for stepwise regression model: F = 8.828; p < 0.01, adjusted R2 = 0.091. Conclusion. Left ventricular arrhythmias are frequent in patients with lower decrease of blood pressure during the night. There was no correlation between the degree of ventricular arrhythmias and parameters from 24-hour blood pressure monitoring and a five-year prognosis in the patients with arterial hypertension and LVH. A bad five-year follow-up outcome of hypertensive disease depends on left ventricular mass index.

?or?evi? Dragan

2008-01-01

174

Non-invasive assessment of arterial stiffness using oscillometric blood pressure measurement  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Arterial stiffness is a major contributor to cardiovascular diseases. Because current methods of measuring arterial stiffness are technically demanding, the purpose of this study was to develop a simple method of evaluating arterial stiffness using oscillometric blood pressure measurement. Methods Blood pressure was conventionally measured in the left upper arm of 173 individuals using an inflatable cuff. Using the time series of occlusive cu...

Komine Hidehiko; Asai Yoshiyuki; Yokoi Takashi; Yoshizawa Mutsuko

2012-01-01

175

Medida da pressão arterial no braço e antebraço em função do manguito Medida de la presión arterial en el brazo y antebrazo en función del manguito Arm and forearm blood pressure measurements as a function of cuff width  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e comparar os níveis de pressão arterial no braço e antebraço usando manguitos de dimensões apropriadas e o manguito padrão. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 103 indivíduos, aplicando a razão circunferência braquial (CB /largura de manguito de 0,40 nos dois segmentos, e registros com o manguito padrão após um minuto. razão CB /comprimento do manguito de 0,80, correto ou padrão, circunferências medidas no ponto médio de cada segmento. RESULTADOS: Diferenças significativas indicaram hiperestimação da pressão diastólica no antebraço, menor daquela observada em outros estudos. A manobra de Forsberg melhorou a audibilidade dos sons de Korotkoff. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados indicam que o manguito correto diminui a hiperestimação dos registros diastólicos observada por outros autores. O avanço no conhecimento da medida no antebraço requer outros estudos.OBJETIVO:Identificar y comparar los niveles de presión arterial en el brazo y antebrazo usando manguitos de dimensiones apropiadas y el manguito patrón. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio transversal realizado con 103 individuos, aplicando la razón circunferencia braquial (CB /ancho del manguito de 0,40 en los dos segmentos, y registros con el manguito patrón después un minuto, razón CB /largo del manguito de 0,80, correcto o patrón, circunferencias medidas en el punto medio de cada segmento. RESULTADOS: Diferencias significativas indicaron hiperestimación de la presión diastólica en el antebrazo, menor de aquella observada en otros estudios. La maniobra de Forsberg mejoró la audibilidad de los sonidos de Korotkoff. CONCLUSIÓN: Los hallazgos indican que el manguito correcto disminuye la hiperestimación de los registros diastólicos observada por otros autores. El avance en el conocimiento de la medida en el antebrazo requiere de otros estudios.OBJECTIVE: To identify and compare arm and forearm blood pressure measurements using appropriate cuff sizes versus a usual standard cuff. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparative study was used. Blood pressure was measured in 103 individuals using a 0.40 cuff width and 0.80 cuff length on both segments and followed by a measure with a usual standard cuff after one minute. Arm and forearm circumferences were measured at the middle point. RESULTS: Significant differences indicated overestimation of diastolic blood pressure in the forearm. These differences were lower than differences reported in other studies. Korotkoff sounds were improved after Forsberg's maneuver. CONCLUSION: Although, we found an overestimation of diastolic blood pressure in forearm, other studies suggest that the use of appropriate cuff sizes in the forearm derive more accurate measures of diastolic blood pressure. There is a need to study further measurements of blood pressure in the forearm.

Edna Apparecida Moura Arcuri

2009-02-01

176

Medida da pressão arterial no braço e antebraço em função do manguito / Arm and forearm blood pressure measurements as a function of cuff width / Medida de la presión arterial en el brazo y antebrazo en función del manguito  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Identificar e comparar os níveis de pressão arterial no braço e antebraço usando manguitos de dimensões apropriadas e o manguito padrão. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 103 indivíduos, aplicando a razão circunferência braquial (CB) /largura de manguito de 0,40 nos dois segmentos, e registr [...] os com o manguito padrão após um minuto. razão CB /comprimento do manguito de 0,80, correto ou padrão, circunferências medidas no ponto médio de cada segmento. RESULTADOS: Diferenças significativas indicaram hiperestimação da pressão diastólica no antebraço, menor daquela observada em outros estudos. A manobra de Forsberg melhorou a audibilidade dos sons de Korotkoff. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados indicam que o manguito correto diminui a hiperestimação dos registros diastólicos observada por outros autores. O avanço no conhecimento da medida no antebraço requer outros estudos. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO:Identificar y comparar los niveles de presión arterial en el brazo y antebrazo usando manguitos de dimensiones apropiadas y el manguito patrón. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio transversal realizado con 103 individuos, aplicando la razón circunferencia braquial (CB) /ancho del manguito de 0, [...] 40 en los dos segmentos, y registros con el manguito patrón después un minuto, razón CB /largo del manguito de 0,80, correcto o patrón, circunferencias medidas en el punto medio de cada segmento. RESULTADOS: Diferencias significativas indicaron hiperestimación de la presión diastólica en el antebrazo, menor de aquella observada en otros estudios. La maniobra de Forsberg mejoró la audibilidad de los sonidos de Korotkoff. CONCLUSIÓN: Los hallazgos indican que el manguito correcto disminuye la hiperestimación de los registros diastólicos observada por otros autores. El avance en el conocimiento de la medida en el antebrazo requiere de otros estudios. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify and compare arm and forearm blood pressure measurements using appropriate cuff sizes versus a usual standard cuff. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparative study was used. Blood pressure was measured in 103 individuals using a 0.40 cuff width and 0.80 cuff length on both segment [...] s and followed by a measure with a usual standard cuff after one minute. Arm and forearm circumferences were measured at the middle point. RESULTS: Significant differences indicated overestimation of diastolic blood pressure in the forearm. These differences were lower than differences reported in other studies. Korotkoff sounds were improved after Forsberg's maneuver. CONCLUSION: Although, we found an overestimation of diastolic blood pressure in forearm, other studies suggest that the use of appropriate cuff sizes in the forearm derive more accurate measures of diastolic blood pressure. There is a need to study further measurements of blood pressure in the forearm.

Edna Apparecida Moura, Arcuri; Solange Cristina Denzin, Rosa; Rosa Maria, Scanavini; Gesiane de Salles Cardin, Denzin.

2009-02-01

177

[Assessment of left ventricular contractility (Emax) and arterial load (Ea) in humans by transesophageal echocardiography and radial artery pressure tracing].  

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We determined both the slope of the left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relation (Emax), which is a measure of contractility independent of loading conditions, and the slope of the arterial end-systolic pressure-stroke volume relation (Ea), which is a measure of arterial load independent of ventricular function, in 10 patients undergoing elective noncardiac surgery. Left ventricular end-systolic volume (Ves) was measured by transesophageal echocardiography and instantaneous left ventricular end-systolic pressure (Pes) was estimated from the dicrotic notch pressure in the radial artery. Emax was calculated during afterload reduction (nicardipine 30 micrograms.kg-1 iv), and the correlation of Emax to either Pes/Ves ratio or MAP (mean arterial blood pressure)/Ves ratio was accomplished in order to investigate whether these indices were clinically useful measurements of ventricular function or not. Ea was also calculated from the data obtained before and 2-3 min after nicardipine iv. The averaged Emax and x-axis intercept (Vo) were 3.11 mmHg.ml-1 and -3.8 ml, respectively. The correlation coefficient obtained between Emax and Pes/Ves was 0.96, and that obtained between Emax and MAP/Ves was 0.97. Ea decreased significantly (P < 0.05) following intravenous nicardipine, demonstrating a decreased arterial load. The direction of changes in Ea was similar to that reported previously in systemic vascular resistance. From these results, we conclude that measurement of Emax (or Pes/Ves, MAP/Ves) and Ea using transesophageal echocardiography and radial artery pressure tracing is feasible and these are a useful tool to estimate left ventricular performance and arterial load during surgery. PMID:8254869

Oshita, S; Kaieda, R; Murakawa, T; Masuda, N; Funatsu, N; Yokota, K; Sakabe, T

1993-11-01

178

The Effect of Static Stretch on Elastin Degradation in Arteries  

OpenAIRE

Previously we have shown that gradual changes in the structure of elastin during an elastase treatment can lead to important transition stages in the mechanical behavior of arteries [1]. However, in vivo arteries are constantly being loaded due to systolic and diastolic pressures and so understanding the effects of loading on the enzymatic degradation of elastin in arteries is important. With biaxial tensile testing, we measured the mechanical behavior of porcine thoracic aortas digested with...

Chow, Ming-jay; Choi, Myunghwan; Yun, Seok Hyun; Zhang, Yanhang

2013-01-01

179

Exercise training improves mean arterial pressure in breast cancer survivors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese "O exercício físico melhora a pressão arterial média em sobreviventes de câncer de mama."Atualmente, muitos sobreviventes de câncer de mama em todo o mundo vivem com os efeitos secundários relacionados com o tratamento, incluindo problemas de saúde cardiovascular. Este estudo examinou os efeitos de [...] uma intervenção de exercício de 5 meses com marcadores não-invasivos de saúde cardiovascular em sobreviventes de câncer de mama. As relações entre esses marcadores e os marcadores mais utilizados de saúde em geral também foram exploradas. Cinquenta e duas sobreviventes completaram o treinamento em um centro de reabilitação da Universidade da Carolina do Norte em Chapel Hill entre 2008-2011. Foram implementadas intervenção combinando exercício aeróbio e resistido (3 vezes / semana durante 1h) em intensidades progredindo de baixo (40%) a moderada (65-70% do VO2max) para exercícios aeróbios, e 8-12 repetições máxima para o exercício de resistência. Redução significativa da pressão arterial média (PAM) foi observada a partir da linha de base para avaliação final. Foi encontrada uma correlação significativa entre o MAPA e Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC). Em conclusão, 5 meses de intervenção com exercícios combinados de resistência e aeróbio melhorou positivamente o MAP, que foi, em parte, atribuída a mudanças no IMC. Abstract in spanish "El ejercicio físico mejora la presión arterial media en los sobrevivientes de cáncer de mama."Actualmente, muchos de los sobrevivientes de cáncer de mama en todo el mundo viven con los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento, incluyendo problemas de salud cardiovascular. Este estudio ex [...] aminó los efectos de una intervención de ejercicio durante cinco meses con marcadores no invasivos de la salud cardiovascular en sobrevivientes de cáncer de seno. También se exploraron las relaciones entre estos marcadores y los marcadores más utilizados de la salud general. Cincuenta y dos sobrevivientes completaron la formación en un centro de rehabilitación en la Universidad de Carolina del Norte en Chapel Hill de 2008 a 2011. Intervención se implementara la combinación de ejercicio aeróbico y de resistencia (3 veces / semana durante 1 h) a intensidades que van de la baja (40%) o moderada (65-70% VO2max) para el ejercicio aeróbico, y 8-12 repeticiones máximas para el ejercicio de resistencia. Se observó una reducción significativa de la presión arterial media (MAP) desde el inicio hasta la evaluación final. Se encontró una correlación significativa entre el MAPA y el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC). En conclusión, a cinco meses de intervención con ejercicio aeróbico y de resistencia combinado mejoraron positivamente el MAP, que se atribuye en parte a los cambios en el IMC. Abstract in english Currently, many breast cancer survivors worldwide live with treatment-related side effects, including cardiovascular health problems. This study examined effects of a 5-month exercise intervention on non-invasive markers of cardiovascular health in breast cancer survivors. Relationships between thes [...] e markers and commonly used markers of overall health were also explored. Fifty-two survivors completed the exercise training at a rehabilitation center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill between 2008-2011. A combined aerobic and resistance exercise intervention (3 times/week for 1h) at intensities progressing from low (40%) to moderate (65-70% of VO2max) for aerobic and 8-12 repetitions max for the resistance exercise were implemented. Significant reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP) was observed from baseline to final assessment. A significant correlation was found between MAP and Body Mass Index (BMI). In conclusion, 5-months combined aerobic and resistance exercise intervention positively improved MAP which was, in part, attributed to changes in BMI.

Robert, C. Mills; Marcelo G. B., Nascimento; Gislane F. de, Melo; Anthony C., Hackney; Claudio L., Battaglini.

2014-09-01

180

Strength training reduces arterial blood pressure but not sympathetic neural activity in young normotensive subjects  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of resistance training on arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest have not been established. Although endurance training is commonly recommended to lower arterial blood pressure, it is not known whether similar adaptations occur with resistance training. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that whole body resistance training reduces arterial blood pressure at rest, with concomitant reductions in MSNA. Twelve young [21 +/- 0.3 (SE) yr] subjects underwent a program of whole body resistance training 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Resting arterial blood pressure (n = 12; automated sphygmomanometer) and MSNA (n = 8; peroneal nerve microneurography) were measured during a 5-min period of supine rest before and after exercise training. Thirteen additional young (21 +/- 0.8 yr) subjects served as controls. Resistance training significantly increased one-repetition maximum values in all trained muscle groups (P arterial blood pressures at rest. Resistance training did not affect MSNA or heart rate. Arterial blood pressures and MSNA were unchanged, but heart rate increased after 8 wk of relative inactivity for subjects in the control group (61 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 3 beats/min; P = 0.01). These results indicate that whole body resistance exercise training might decrease the risk for development of cardiovascular disease by lowering arterial blood pressure but that reductions of pressure are not coupled to resistance exercise-induced decreases of sympathetic tone.

Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Downs, Emily M.; Cooke, William H.

2003-01-01

181

Prognostic impact of pulmonary artery systolic pressure in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Baseline pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a predictor of poor outcomes in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Surgical aortic valve replacement is thought to alleviate PH. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic impact of PH in patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). An observational cohort study was conducted using prospectively collected data on 277 consecutive patients with severe AS who underwent TAVR at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota) from November 1, 2008, to June 31, 2013. Clinical and echocardiographic data, pulmonary function characteristics, and outcomes stratified by tertiles of pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) were analyzed. From 277 patients who underwent TAVR, 251 patients had PASP assessment at baseline. Those in the highest PASP tertile (PASP ?49 mm Hg) had more severe chronic lung disease and worse diastolic dysfunction. Being in the highest PASP tertile was an independent predictor of long-term mortality (hazard ratio 2.88, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 7.23). Patients in the highest PASP tertile had longer lengths of hospital stay, while other short-term outcomes (30-day mortality and readmission, stroke, prolonged ventilation, and reoperation for bleeding) were similar across PASP tertiles. TAVR was associated with a decrease in PASP in the highest PASP tertile at 1 week after the procedure (-8 ± 14 mm Hg) and at 3 months (-7 ± 15 mm Hg) compared with baseline. In conclusion, among patients with severe AS who underwent TAVR, higher baseline PASP was strongly associated with diastolic dysfunction and chronic lung disease. Patients with higher baseline PASP tolerated TAVR relatively well in the early postprocedural phase, with diminished long-term survival. PH should not disqualify patients with severe AS from consideration for TAVR. PMID:25260946

Bishu, Kalkidan; Suri, Rakesh M; Nkomo, Vuyisile T; Kane, Garvan C; Greason, Kevin L; Reeder, Guy S; Mathew, Verghese; Holmes, David R; Rihal, Charanjit S; Melduni, Rowlens M

2014-11-15

182

Clinical aspects of left ventricular diastolic function assessed by Doppler echocardiography following acute myocardial infarction.  

Science.gov (United States)

LV systolic function and dilation after Ml have been extensively studied and have been related to heart failure and cardiac mortality. In recent years, it has been increasingly apparent that LV diastolic dysfunction contributes to signs and symptoms of heart failure and LV diastolic dysfunction is associated with increased mortality rates in patients chronic heart failure independent of systolic function. LV diastolic dysfunction is difficult to assess on basis of clinical examination including chest radiography and electrocardiography. LV diastolic filling has traditionally been evaluated by cardiac catherization with direct measurement of filling pressures and relaxation. However, the invasive approach describing LV compliance and relaxation as the major determinants of LV diastolic function, is not feasible and suitable for routine investigations of diastolic function. Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography has become a well accented practical and safe non-invasive method for diagnosis of LV diastolic dysfunction. Combined invasive and echocardiographic studies have shown that analysis of mitral and pulmonary venous flow velocities relate to invasively measured filling pressures and relaxation rate in cardiac diseases. Based on Doppler analysis of mitral and pulmonary venous flow three abnormal LV filling patterns are identified: impaired relaxation, "pseudonormalization" and restrictive. These LV filling patterns have been related to symptoms, relaxation rate, filling pressure and prognosis in patients with restrictive and dilated cardiomyopathy. The Doppler flow profiles are influenced by several factors including age, heart rate, load conditions and valve heart diseases which must be taken into consideration during evaluation. During the last decade information about LV diastolic function assessed non-invasively by Doppler echocardiography has gained in patients with CAD. Myocardial ischemia induced by brief coronary artery occlusion or pacing leads to abnormal myocardial relaxation which can be reversed to normal by restoring normal myocardial blood flow. The diastolic abnormality is present within seconds and a characteristic impaired relaxation filling pattern are identified by mitral and pulmonary venous flow analysis. Diastolic dysfunction has been recognized during the early as well during the post-MI phase with or without LV systolic dysfunction. In the acute phase both an abnormal relaxation pattern and restrictive LV filling pattern are present which has been related to in-hospital heart failure. The identification of a pseudonormal or restrictive LV filling pattern are associated with later readmission to hospital with heart failure and cardiac death. Abnormal relaxation filling is the most pronounced filling pattern after one year which might be related to the remodeling process including compensatory hypertrophy, scarring of the infarct zone leading to a non-uniform relaxation of the LV. Remodeling of the LV following a MI is subject to several factors which might involve diastolic function. This is supported by the presence of an impaired relaxation and restrictive filling pattern are associated with progressive LV dilatation following Ml. Furthermore, the LV remodeling process following the very early phase includes the scarring process with collagen deposition in the infarcted and non-infarcted myocardium. The extent and quality of the repair process involving collagen deposition are believed to influence the remodeling process. Increased collagen deposition in the subacute phase of Ml indicated by elevated values of the collagen marker PIIINP is found to be related to LV dilation, depressed systolic function and restrictive LV filling. Development of a restrictive filling in patients with increased collagen deposition might be due to increasing LV volume but also to increased myocardial stiffness. Regarding prognosis diastolic dysfunction seems to be an important marker of outcome as abnormal diastolic properties are related to progressive LV dilatation, development of heart failure

Poulsen, S H

2001-11-01

183

Cardiotocografia em gestações com diástole zero ou reversa nas artérias umbilicais: análise dos resultados perinatais / Cardiotocography in pregnancies with absent or reversed end-diastolic velocity in the umbilical arteries: analisys of perinatal outcome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Estudar, em gestações com diástole zero (DZ) ou reversa (DR), dopplervelocimetria das artérias umbilicais os resultados perinatais de acordo com os parâmetros cardiotocográficos. MÉTODOS: Entre 1993 e 2000, foram selecionadas 127 gestantes com DZ ou DR. A classificação adotada para a card [...] iotocografia foi ativo (normal), hipoativo (suspeito) e inativo (alterado) Os parâmetros analisados foram: variabilidade da FCF, acelerações transitórias, DIP II, DIP umbilical, desaceleração prolongada e padrão pseudo sinusoidal. RESULTADOS: Houve associação (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To study the correlation between cardiotocography parameters and perinatal outcome in pregnancies with absent or reversed end-diastolic velocity (AERDV) in the umbilical arteries. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-seven cases presenting with AREDV followed between 1993 and 2000 were select [...] ed for analysis. The last cardiotocographic tracing performed on the day of delivery was reviewed and the following parameters were considered: magnitude of long-term variability, presence or absence of acceleration, late deceleration, variable deceleration, prolonged deceleration, pseudo sinusoidal pattern and the classification in normal, suspected and abnormal tracing. RESULTS: A significant (p

Roseli Mieko Yamamoto, Nomura; Rossana Pulcineli Vieira, Francisco; Seizo, Miyadahira; Marcelo, Zugaib.

2003-01-01

184

Cerebral blood flow velocity declines before arterial pressure in patients with orthostatic vasovagal presyncope  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVES: We studied hemodynamic changes leading to orthostatic vasovagal presyncope to determine whether changes of cerebral artery blood flow velocity precede or follow reductions of arterial pressure. BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests that disordered cerebral autoregulation contributes to the occurrence of orthostatic vasovagal syncope. We studied cerebral hemodynamics with transcranial Doppler recordings, and we closely examined the temporal sequence of changes of cerebral artery blood flow velocity and systemic arterial pressure in 15 patients who did or did not faint during passive 70 degrees head-up tilt. METHODS: We recorded photoplethysmographic arterial pressure, RR intervals (electrocardiogram) and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocities (mean, total, mean/RR interval; Gosling's pulsatility index; and cerebrovascular resistance [mean cerebral velocity/mean arterial pressure, MAP]). RESULTS: Eight men developed presyncope, and six men and one woman did not. Presyncopal patients reported light-headedness, diaphoresis, or a sensation of fatigue 155 s (range: 25 to 414 s) before any cerebral or systemic hemodynamic change. Average cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) changes (defined by an iterative linear regression algorithm) began 67 s (range: 9 to 198 s) before reductions of MAP. Cerebral and systemic hemodynamic measurements remained constant in nonsyncopal patients. CONCLUSIONS: Presyncopal symptoms and CBFV changes precede arterial pressure reductions in patients with orthostatic vasovagal syncope. Therefore, changes of cerebrovascular regulation may contribute to the occurrence of vasovagal reactions.

Dan, Dan; Hoag, Jeffrey B.; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A.; Wood, Mark A.; Eckberg, Dwain L.; Gilligan, David M.

2002-01-01

185

Effect of volume reduction on diastolic echocardiographic parameters in hemodialyzed patients  

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Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular problems including arterial hypertension, coronary artery diseases, congestive heart failure are prevalent among chronic hemodialyzed patients. Ultrafiltration of hemodialyzed patient's serum, which culminating in intravascular volume reduction, is frequently used during hemodialysis. One of the restrictions of the echocardiographic evaluation of the diastolic heart function is the intravascular volume dependency of some echocardiographic parameters. In this study we have evaluated the volume dependency of certain echocardiography parameters in chronically hemodialyzed patients. Methods: Thirteen patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis in Ghaem Hospital Hemodialysis Center in Mashhad, Iran, were evaluated one hour before and immediately after hemodialysis for the following: all diastolic echocardiographic parameters, left ventricular function, left ventricular systolic function, inferior vena cava (IVC diameter and IVC collapsibility with inspiration, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The echocardiographic parameters were analyzed using the paired Student's t-test. Results: With hemodialysis, there was no significant change in left ventricular function, A wave amplitude and E/F slope, however, there was a significant reduction of the E wave amplitude, increment in E wave deceleration time (p= 0.001, t=-4.14 and a decrease in the E/A ratio (p=0.03, t=2.46. Tissue Doppler echocardiography showed no significant change in mitral annular diastolic motion, E'/A' waves, with hemodialysis (p=0.728, t= - 0.356, although there was a reduction of the E/E' ratio. Conclusion: Tissue Doppler imaging and color M-mode echocardiographic parameters are independent of the intravascular value status. With no change associated with hemodialysis, these parameters can be used as reliable criteria for evaluating ventricular diastolic function even when the volume status varies.     Hekmat R. *1"nTalebi S.2"nMohebati.M.2"n1- Department of Nephrology"n2- Department of Cardiology"nMashad University of Medical"nSciences

Hekmat R

2007-09-01

186

Drinking and arterial blood pressure responses to ANG II in young and old rats  

OpenAIRE

We investigated water drinking and arterial blood pressure responses to intravenous infusions of ANG II in young (4 mo), middle-aged adult (12 mo), and old (29 mo) male Brown Norway rats. Infusions of ANG II began with arterial blood pressure either at control levels or at reduced levels following injection of the vasodilator minoxidil. Under control conditions, mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to ANG II rose to the same level for all groups, and middle-aged and old rats drank as much...

Thunhorst, Robert L.; Beltz, Terry G.; Johnson, Alan Kim

2010-01-01

187

Avaliação das pressões sistólica, diastólica e pressão de pulso como fator de risco para doença aterosclerótica coronariana grave em mulheres com angina instável ou infarto agudo do miocárdio sem supradesnivelamento do segmento ST Evaluation of systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure as risk factors for severe coronary arteriosclerotic disease in women with unstable angina non-ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar se as pressões, medidas na raiz da aorta, são fatores de risco para doença aterosclerótica coronariana grave em mulheres com angina instável ou infarto agudo do miocárdio sem supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (AI/IAMSS. MÉTODO:As pressões, assim como os fatores de risco para doença arterial coronariana (DAC foram prospectivamente coletados de março/1993 a agosto/2001 em 593 mulheres com diagnóstico de AI/IAMSS submetidas à cinecoronariografia. Lesões coronarianas definidas como graves estenoses > 70%. RESULTADOS: Idade média de 59,2±11,2 anos, significantemente mais alta nas pacientes com DAC: 61,9 ± 10,8 anos vs 56.4 ± 10,8 anos; tabagismo, diabetes e climatério foram mais freqüentes nas pacientes com DAC. As médias das pressões sistólica e arterial média foram iguais nos dois grupos, entretanto as médias das pressões diastólicas do ventrículo esquerdo (17.6 ± 8.7 x 15.1 ± 8.1, p=0.001 e da pressão de pulso aórtica foram significantemente maiores nas pacientes com DAC (75.5 ± 22 x 70 ± 19, p=0.002, enquanto a média da pressão diastólica aórtica foi significantemente mais alta nas pacientes sem DAC (75.3 ± 17.5 x 79.8 ± 16, p=0.003. Na análise multivariada a pressão de pulso > 80 mmHg e pressão sistólica > 165 foram independentemente associadas a DAC com razão de chance de 2.12 e 2.09, p 80 mmHg e pressão sistólica > 165 mmHg determinaram risco duas vezes maior de lesão coronariana grave.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pressures assessed at the aortic root as risk factors for severe atherosclerotic coronary heart disease in women with unstable angina/compatible clinical history associated with increase in cardiac enzymes (total CPK and CK-MB 2 times greater than the standard value used in the hospital, with the absence of new Q waves on the electrocardiogram (UA/NSTEMI. METHODS: Five hundred and ninety-three female patients with clinical diagnosis of UA/NSTEMI underwent cinecoronariography from March 1993 to August 2001, and the risk factors for CHD were studied. During examination the pressures, at the aortic root, and coronary obstructions were visually assessed by 2 interventional cardiologists, and those stenosis over 70% were considered severe. RESULTS: Eight-one per cent of the population was white and 18.3% was black. Mean age was 59.2±11.2 years, and it was significantly higher in patients with severe coronary lesions: 61.9 ± 10.8 years versus 56.4 ± 10.8 years; smoking, diabetes mellitus and climacteric were more frequent in patients with CHD. The average mean arterial pressure and mean systolic blood pressure was the same in both groups, however, average left ventricle diastolic pressure (17.6 ± 8.7 x 15.1 ± 8.1, p=0.001, and aortic pulse pressure were significantly greater in patients with CHD (75.5 ± 22 x 70 ± 19, p=0.002, while average aortic diastolic pressure was significantly greater in patients without CHD (79.8 ± 16 x 75.3 ± 17.5, p=0.003. In the multivariated analysis, pulse pressure > 80 mmHg and systolic blood pressure > 165 were independently associated with severe CHD with odds ratio of 2.12 and 2.09, p 80 mmHg and systolic blood pressure > 165 mmHG determined risk two times greater of severe coronary disease.

José Marconi Almeida de Sousa

2004-05-01

188

A Review of Genetics, Arterial Stiffness, and Blood Pressure in African Americans  

OpenAIRE

The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans in the United States is amongst the highest in the world and increasing. The identification of genes and pathways regulating blood pressure in African Americans has been challenging. An early predictor of hypertension is arterial stiffness. The prevalence of arterial stiffness is significantly higher in African Americans compared to Caucasians. Approximately 20% of the variance in arterial stiffness is estimated to be heritable. Identifying ...

Hall, Jennifer L.; Duprez, Daniel A.; Barac, Ana; Rich, Stephen S.

2012-01-01

189

Effects of acute variation of dialysate calcium concentrations on arterial stiffness and aortic pressure waveform  

OpenAIRE

Background. Abnormal mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease plays a critical role in vascular calcification and arterial stiffness. The impact of presently used dialysis calcium concentration (DCa) on arterial stiffness and aortic pressure waveform has never been studied. The aim of the present study is to evaluate, in haemodialysis (HD) patients, the impact of acute modification of DCa on arterial stiffness and central pulse wave profile (cPWP).

Lebeouf, Ame?lie; Mac-way, Fabrice; Utescu, Mihai Silviu; Chbinou, Nadia; Douville, Pierre; Desmeules, Simon; Agharazii, Mohsen

2009-01-01

190

Measurement of Blood Pressure Using an Arterial Pulsimeter Equipped with a Hall Device  

OpenAIRE

To measure precise blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate without using a cuff, we have developed an arterial pulsimeter consisting of a small, portable apparatus incorporating a Hall device. Regression analysis of the pulse wave measured during testing of the arterial pulsimeter was conducted using two equations of the BP algorithm. The estimated values of BP obtained by the cuffless arterial pulsimeter over 5 s were compared with values obtained using electronic or liquid mercury BP meters. The...

Jong-Gu Choi; Keun-Ho Kim; Woo-Beom Lee; Dong-Hyun Nam; Il-Ho Son; You-Sik Hong; Sang-Suk Lee

2011-01-01

191

Combined use of non-invasive techniques to predict pulmonary arterial pressure in chronic respiratory disease.  

OpenAIRE

The value of non-invasive procedures for predicting pulmonary arterial pressure was investigated in 370 patients with chronic obstructive lung diseases and in 73 with fibrosing alveolitis in a combined study at nine centres in six European countries. Measurements included forced expiratory volume in one second, arterial blood gas tensions, standard electrocardiogram, radiographic dimensions of pulmonary artery, right ventricle dimensions by M mode echocardiography, and myocardial scintigraphy...

Bishop, J. M.; Csukas, M.

1989-01-01

192

Peculiarities of the Left Ventricle Segmental Diastolic Dysfunction and Structural and Geometrical Reconstruction in Children with a Diabetes Mellitus of the 1st Type  

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Full Text Available Aim of investigation is a study of the systolic and diastolic dysfunctions, including the segmental and global diastolic disturbances depending on the left ventricle geometrical values and the arterial pressure level in children with a diabetes mellitus of the 1st type.Materials and methods. 126 children with a diabetes mellitus of the 1st type are examined. 38 children are examined with a disease remoteness of up to 5 years; 69 children — of 5—10 years; 19 children — of more than 10 years. An echocardiographic examination with the restimulation index, systolic and diastolic function value calculation was made. A method of tissue visualization in the impulse and wave mode was used for assessment of a segmental diastolic dysfunction.Results. The heart lesion in children with a diabetes mellitus of the 1st type was characterized by the left ventricle hypertrophy development according to eccentric type, accompanied by the left ventricle segmental diastolic dysfunction early appearance according to a delayed relaxation type. The arterial pressure increase, revealing at the indexed value analysis, is one of the most substantial factors, defining the cardiovascular system functioning disturbances.

L.V. Kazakova

2010-03-01

193

Correlates of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in men 40 to 59 years of age sampled from United States of America and Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Lipid Research Clinics populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The correlates of blood pressure (BP) were investigated in 2 samples using common protocols, one from a Union of Soviet Socialist Republics study in 2 locations and one from a United States of America study in 9 locations. Age, heart rate, Quetelet index, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, natural logarithm of triglycerides and fasting glucose were positively related to systolic BP in both samples. In diastolic BP, alcohol consumption, heart rate, Quetelet index and natural logarithm of triglycerides were positively associated, and number of cigarettes smoked was negatively related in both samples. PMID:3259070

Abernathy, J R; Thorn, M D; Ekelund, L G; Holme, I; Stinnett, S S; Shestov, D B; Deev, A D

1988-05-01

194

Defining the adequate arterial pressure target during septic shock: not a 'micro' issue but the microcirculation can help  

OpenAIRE

The Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines suggest targeting a mean arterial pressure of at least 65 mm Hg to maintain organ perfusion pressure during septic shock. However, the optimal mean arterial pressure can be higher in patients with a history of hypertension or other vascular comorbidities or in those with increased abdominal pressure. In a given individual, the adequate mean arterial pressure target can be difficult to define with the routine hemodynamic parameters (for example, cardiac...

Silva, Serena; Teboul, Jean-louis

2011-01-01

195

Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with metabolic syndrome  

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Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS, which is a cluster of medical disorders, is common and it is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between characteristics of metabolic syndrome and the grade of diastolic dysfunction. The study included 72 patients (29 male and 43 female, who had central obesity and at least two of the other four characteristics of metabolic syndrome according to IDF (International Diabetes Federation criteria. The exclusion criteria were age above 65, impaired systolic function (left ventricular ejection fraction <55%, atrial fibrillation, valvular and pericardial heart disease. Diastolic function was determined according to the criteria of the American Society of Echocardiography. There was a positive correlation between the number of characteristics of metabolic syndrome and the diastolic dysfunction grade (p<0.0001. The positive correlation was found between the grade of diastolic dysfunction and the waist circumference (p<0.0001, arterial hypertension (p<0.001, pared glucose tolerance/diabetes (P=0.0063, and hypertriglyceridemia (p=0.0262. A low level of high-density lipoprotein did not show a statistically significant correlation. The presence of metabolic syndrome is associated with the presence of diastolic dysfunction. The grade of diastolic dysfunction is dependent on the number of coexisting characteristics of metabolic syndrome. Arterial hypertension, central obesity, hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia showed a significant correlation with the degree of diastolic dysfunction.

Penjaškovi? Davor

2012-01-01

196

Peculiarities of the Left Ventricle Segmental Diastolic Dysfunction and Structural and Geometrical Reconstruction in Children with a Diabetes Mellitus of the 1st Type  

OpenAIRE

Aim of investigation is a study of the systolic and diastolic dysfunctions, including the segmental and global diastolic disturbances depending on the left ventricle geometrical values and the arterial pressure level in children with a diabetes mellitus of the 1st type.Materials and methods. 126 children with a diabetes mellitus of the 1st type are examined. 38 children are examined with a disease remoteness of up to 5 years; 69 children — of 5—10 years; 19 children — of more than 10 ye...

Kazakova, L. V.; Karpovich, E. I.; Lukushkina, E. F.; Strongin, L. G.; Yu Lukushkina, A.

2010-01-01

197

Influence of central venous pressure upon sinus node responses to arterial baroreflex stimulation in man  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements were made of sinus node responses to arterial baroreceptor stimulation with phenylephrine injection or neck suction, before and during changes of central venous pressure provoked by lower body negative pressure or leg and lower truck elevation. Variations of central venous pressure between 1.1 and 9.0 mm Hg did not influence arterial baroreflex mediated bradycardia. Baroreflex sinus node responses were augmented by intravenous propranolol, but the level of responses after propranolol was comparable during the control state, lower body negative pressure, and leg and trunk elevation. Sinus node responses to very brief baroreceptor stimuli applied during the transitions of central venous pressure also were comparable in the three states. The authors conclude that physiological variations of central venous pressure do not influence sinus node responses to arterial baroreceptor stimulation in man.

Mark, A. L.; Takeshita, A.; Eckberg, D. L.; Abboud, F. M.

1978-01-01

198

An Inexpensive Arterial Pressure Wave Sensor and its application in different physiological condition  

CERN Document Server

Arterial Blood Pressure wave monitoring is considered to be important in assessment of cardiovascular system. We developed a novel pulse wave detection system using low frequency specific piezoelectric material as pressure wave sensor. The transducer detects the periodic change in the arterial wall diameter produced by pressure wave and the amplified signal after integration represents the pressure wave. The signal before integration is proportional to the rate of change of pressure wave and it not only reproduces the pressure waveform faithfully, but also its sharper nature helps to reliably detect the heart period variability (HPV). We have studied the position-specific (e.g. over carotid or radial artery) nature of change of this pulse wave signal (shape and amplitude) and also the changes at different physiological states.

Sur, S; Sur, Shantanu

2005-01-01

199

Focus on diastolic dysfunction: A new approach to heart failure therapy  

OpenAIRE

1. Although heart failure is commonly associated with depressed systolic function, there is increasing evidence that impaired diastolic performance is also universally present and might be a key determinant of symptoms, physical capacity and even survival in some subsets of patients. 2. Reduced diastolic distensibility increases cardiac filling pressure not only at rest, but even more during exercise when diastolic filling time is reduced. The increases in filling pressure and diastolic wall ...

Pouleur, H.; Hanet, Claude; Gurne?, O.; Rousseau, Michel

1989-01-01

200

Pressure-induced connective tissue synthesis in pulmonary artery segments is dependent on intact endothelium.  

OpenAIRE

Physiologic stimuli of connective tissue accumulation in pulmonary vascular remodeling are poorly defined. We postulated that increased pressure within central pulmonary arteries is a stimulus for connective tissue synthesis and the response is dependent on an intact endothelium. Mechanical tension equivalent to 50 mmHg pressure was applied for 4 h to isolated rat main pulmonary arteries (endothelium intact or removed), and incorporation of [14C]proline into collagen, [14C]valine into elastin...

Tozzi, C. A.; Poiani, G. J.; Harangozo, A. M.; Boyd, C. D.; Riley, D. J.

1989-01-01

201

Uniform Transmural Strain in Pre-Stressed Arteries Occurs at Physiological Pressure  

OpenAIRE

Residual deformation (strain) exists in arterial vessels, and has been previously proposed to induce homogeneous transmural strain distribution. In this work, we present analytical formulations that predict the existence of a finite internal (homeostatic) pressure for which the transmural deformation is homogenous, and the corresponding stress field. We provide evidence on the physical existence of homeostatic pressure when the artery is modeled as an incompressible tube with orthotropic cons...

Destrade, Michel; Liu, Yi; Murphy, Jeremiah G.; Kassab, Ghassan S.

2012-01-01

202

Effects of hypoproteinemia on renal hemodynamics, arterial pressure, and fluid volume  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of long-term hypoproteinemia on renal hemodynamics, arterial pressure, and fluid volume were studied in eight conscious dogs over a 34-day period. Plasma protein concentration (PPC) was decreased by daily plasmapheresis, and the effects of decreasing and increasing sodium intake were measured. By the 12th day of plasmapheresis PPC had decreased to 2.5 g/dl from a control value of 7.2 g/dl, mean arterial pressure had decreased to 78% of control, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 75.2% of control, and urinary sodium excretion was decreased. By day 18 of plasmapheresis, estimated renal plasma flow (ERPF) was decreased to 60% of control due to the decreased arterial pressure and an increase in renal vascular resistance. GFR and ERPF were determined from the total clearance of [125I]iothalamate and [131I]iodohippurate. Also, plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone concentration were both increased, and the relationship between mean arterial pressure and urinary sodium excretion was distinctly shifted to the left along the arterial pressure axis. In contradistinction to acute experiments, chronic hypoproteinemia results in decreases in GFR, ERPF, and urinary sodium excretion and has marked effects on both fluid volume and arterial pressure regulation

203

Effects of hypoproteinemia on renal hemodynamics, arterial pressure, and fluid volume  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of long-term hypoproteinemia on renal hemodynamics, arterial pressure, and fluid volume were studied in eight conscious dogs over a 34-day period. Plasma protein concentration (PPC) was decreased by daily plasmapheresis, and the effects of decreasing and increasing sodium intake were measured. By the 12th day of plasmapheresis PPC had decreased to 2.5 g/dl from a control value of 7.2 g/dl, mean arterial pressure had decreased to 78% of control, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 75.2% of control, and urinary sodium excretion was decreased. By day 18 of plasmapheresis, estimated renal plasma flow (ERPF) was decreased to 60% of control due to the decreased arterial pressure and an increase in renal vascular resistance. GFR and ERPF were determined from the total clearance of (/sup 125/I)iothalamate and (/sup 131/I)iodohippurate. Also, plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone concentration were both increased, and the relationship between mean arterial pressure and urinary sodium excretion was distinctly shifted to the left along the arterial pressure axis. In contradistinction to acute experiments, chronic hypoproteinemia results in decreases in GFR, ERPF, and urinary sodium excretion and has marked effects on both fluid volume and arterial pressure regulation.

Manning, R.D. Jr.

1987-01-01

204

Construcción y validación clínica de un prototipo para el registro continuo de la presión arterial de forma no invasiva y ambulatoria Construction and clinical validation of an automated measuring device for continuous non-invasive ambulatory blood pressure measurement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: la monitorización ambulatoria de la presión arterial con equipos biomédicos, es un método útil y confiable para el diagnóstico de la hipertensión arterial. El propósito del estudio fue validar un nuevo equipo de monitorización ambulatoria de la presión arterial de 24 horas (MAPA-FCV de bajo costo, producido en la Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia. Métodos: el estudio se desarrolló de acuerdo con las recomendaciones de la Sociedad Americana para el Avance de la Instrumentación Médica (AAMI, por sus siglas en Inglés y la Sociedad Británica de Hipertensión (BHS para validación de equipos de monitorización de presión arterial. Se incluyeron 85 sujetos sanos, en quienes, una persona previamente entrenada, obtuvo tres medidas simultáneas de presión arterial (cada 10 minutos y se compararon con las que se obtuvieron con el equipo MAPA-FCV. Resultados: los sujetos presentaron una presión arterial sistólica de 115 ± 15 mm Hg y diastólica de 71 ± 8 mm Hg. Se encontró una diferencia media de 0,63 ± 5,94 mm Hg en la presión arterial sistólica y de 0,17 ± 5,08 mm Hg en la diastólica entre el equipo y el observador entrenado. Así mismo, se observó que más de 93% de las mediciones simultáneas de presión arterial, presentaron una diferencia menor a 10 mm Hg. Conclusiones: en el estudio el monitor MAPA-FCV alcanzó altos grados de concordancia con los valores de presión arterial que obtuvo el personal capacitado; adicionalmente el equipo cumplió con los criterios de validación de la AAMI y BHS, lo que hace posible su recomendación para uso clínico en población adulta.Introduction: ambulatory arterial pressure monitoring with biomedical devices is a useful and reliable method to diagnose hypertension. The aim of this study was to validate a new low cost Holter blood pressure monitor (MAPA-FCV produced at the Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia. Methods: the study was developed according to the guidelines for validation of automated blood pressure measuring devices of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI and the British Hypertension Society (BHS. Three blood pressure measurements were taken in 85 healthy subjects in a 30 minutes period (every 10 minutes. Measurements were taken by one observer trained to measure blood pressure with a mercury column device, and were compared with those obtained with the automatic device. Results: mean systolic blood pressure obtained in the subjects was 115 ± 15 mmHg, and mean diastolic blood pressure was 71 ± 8 mmHg. The mean and standard deviation of the differences between the measurements obtained by the observer and those obtained with the automatic device were 0.63 ± 5.94 mmHg for systolic pressure and 0.17 ± 5.08 mmHg for diastolic pressure. In addition, about 93% of the differences between the ascultatory and MAPA-FCV were within 10 mmHg. Conclusions: in the present study a close agreement between systolic and diastolic pressure measurements obtained by the auscultatory method and the MAPA-FCV device was found. The data obtained show that the MAPA-FCV can be recommended for clinical use according to the guidelines of international entities.

Ángel M Chaves

2009-02-01

205

Construcción y validación clínica de un prototipo para el registro continuo de la presión arterial de forma no invasiva y ambulatoria / Construction and clinical validation of an automated measuring device for continuous non-invasive ambulatory blood pressure measurement  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: la monitorización ambulatoria de la presión arterial con equipos biomédicos, es un método útil y confiable para el diagnóstico de la hipertensión arterial. El propósito del estudio fue validar un nuevo equipo de monitorización ambulatoria de la presión arterial de 24 horas (MAPA-FCV) d [...] e bajo costo, producido en la Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia. Métodos: el estudio se desarrolló de acuerdo con las recomendaciones de la Sociedad Americana para el Avance de la Instrumentación Médica (AAMI, por sus siglas en Inglés) y la Sociedad Británica de Hipertensión (BHS) para validación de equipos de monitorización de presión arterial. Se incluyeron 85 sujetos sanos, en quienes, una persona previamente entrenada, obtuvo tres medidas simultáneas de presión arterial (cada 10 minutos) y se compararon con las que se obtuvieron con el equipo MAPA-FCV. Resultados: los sujetos presentaron una presión arterial sistólica de 115 ± 15 mm Hg y diastólica de 71 ± 8 mm Hg. Se encontró una diferencia media de 0,63 ± 5,94 mm Hg en la presión arterial sistólica y de 0,17 ± 5,08 mm Hg en la diastólica entre el equipo y el observador entrenado. Así mismo, se observó que más de 93% de las mediciones simultáneas de presión arterial, presentaron una diferencia menor a 10 mm Hg. Conclusiones: en el estudio el monitor MAPA-FCV alcanzó altos grados de concordancia con los valores de presión arterial que obtuvo el personal capacitado; adicionalmente el equipo cumplió con los criterios de validación de la AAMI y BHS, lo que hace posible su recomendación para uso clínico en población adulta. Abstract in english Introduction: ambulatory arterial pressure monitoring with biomedical devices is a useful and reliable method to diagnose hypertension. The aim of this study was to validate a new low cost Holter blood pressure monitor (MAPA-FCV) produced at the Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia. Methods: the stu [...] dy was developed according to the guidelines for validation of automated blood pressure measuring devices of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) and the British Hypertension Society (BHS). Three blood pressure measurements were taken in 85 healthy subjects in a 30 minutes period (every 10 minutes). Measurements were taken by one observer trained to measure blood pressure with a mercury column device, and were compared with those obtained with the automatic device. Results: mean systolic blood pressure obtained in the subjects was 115 ± 15 mmHg, and mean diastolic blood pressure was 71 ± 8 mmHg. The mean and standard deviation of the differences between the measurements obtained by the observer and those obtained with the automatic device were 0.63 ± 5.94 mmHg for systolic pressure and 0.17 ± 5.08 mmHg for diastolic pressure. In addition, about 93% of the differences between the ascultatory and MAPA-FCV were within 10 mmHg. Conclusions: in the present study a close agreement between systolic and diastolic pressure measurements obtained by the auscultatory method and the MAPA-FCV device was found. The data obtained show that the MAPA-FCV can be recommended for clinical use according to the guidelines of international entities.

Ángel M, Chaves; Ronald G, García; Wilson, Gamboa; Leonardo, Rodríguez; Isabel C, Arenas; Hernán, Villa-Roel; Víctor R, Castillo.

2009-02-01

206

Blood pressure, blood pressure variability and myocardial ischemia : Studies in patients with peripheral arterial disease and matched control subjects  

OpenAIRE

Background: Patients presenting with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) often have concomitant coronary artery disease (CAD), which is frequently asymptomatic. Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring improves risk stratification in hypertensive patients beyond that offered by office BP(OBP) measurements. PAD-patients form a subgroup of high risk hypertensives but there is no controlled study on ABP in these patients. Because standard diagnostic procedures for CAD are less ...

Svensson, Per

2004-01-01

207

Pressão arterial após programa de exercício físico supervisionado em mulheres idosas hipertensas / Blood pressure after supervised physical exercise program in elderly women with hypertension  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A população de idosos tem elevado os índices de doenças crônicas como hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) com prevalência em mulheres. Intervenções não farmacológicas, como o exercício físico, são apontadas pela eficácia na diminuição da pressão arterial (PA). OBJETIVO: Verificar a resp [...] osta da pressão arterial de idosas hipertensas nos distintos momentos de um programa de exercício físico supervisionado (PEFS). MÉTODOS: Constituiu-se de um estudo descritivo de corte transversal realizado durante 18 semanas. Participaram 41 mulheres idosas com HAS, em tratamento farmacológico, distribuídas em grupo experimental (GE) (n = 26) que participou da intervenção, e grupo controle (GC) (n = 15), em dois momentos: pré e pós-PEFS. O IMC, a pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) e diastólica (PAD) foram avaliados no início e após 18 semanas de PEFS no GE e GC. A comparação intra e intergrupos foi feita com o teste t pareado e ANOVA two way com Kruskal Wallis, com nível de significância de p Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The elderly population has increased the levels of chronic diseases such as hypertension (HBP) with prevalence in women. Non-pharmacological interventions, such as exercise, have been indicated by the effectiveness in lowering blood pressure (BP). OBJECTIVE: To analyze the blood pressu [...] re response in elderly hypertensive women in the different moments of a supervised physical exercise program (SPEP). METHODS: It consisted of a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out for 18 weeks. 41 elderly women with hypertension, under pharmacological treatment, distributed in the experimental group (EG) (n=26) which participated in the intervention, and control group (CG) (n=15) in two stages: before and after SPEP. BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were evaluated at baseline and after 18 weeks of SPEP in the EG and CG. The intra and inter comparison was made with the paired t test and two-way ANOVA with Kruskal Wallis test, with a significance level of p

Adriana Ribeiro de O. N. do, Rêgo; André L. M., Gomes; Renato P., Veras; Edmundo de Drummond, A. Júnior; Rodolfo Alkimin, M.N.; Estélio H. M., Dantas.

2011-10-01

208

Intra-arterial Infusion of Leptin does not Affect Blood Pressure in Salt-loaded Rabbits  

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Full Text Available The aim of this research is to see the effect of intra-arterial infusion of leptin on blood pressure of salt loaded rabbits in vivo. Increased blood pressure was produced in rabbits by giving diets containing 8% sodium chloride for 5 weeks. Leptin in different concentrations was infused intra-arterially into rabbits fed on high salt diets and the response was compared in rabbits fed with low salt diets. High salt diets produced significant increase in blood pressure. In rabbits fed with low salt diet, leptin infused intra-arterially caused an increase in blood pressure while infusion of leptin into rabbits fed with high salt diets does not affect the blood pressure. In conclusion, salt loading to rabbits abolishes the effect of leptin on cardiovascular system. This may indicate that leptin effect on sympathetic activity is altered by high salt diets in these animals.

Mohammad Nidal Khabaz

2010-01-01

209

An electronic circuit that detects left ventricular ejection events by processing the arterial pressure waveform  

Science.gov (United States)

An electronic circuit for processing arterial blood pressure waveform signals is described. The circuit detects blood pressure as the heart pumps blood through the aortic valve and the pressure distribution caused by aortic valve closure. From these measurements, timing signals for use in measuring the left ventricular ejection time is determined, and signals are provided for computer monitoring of the cardiovascular system. Illustrations are given of the circuit and pressure waveforms.

Gebben, V. D.; Webb, J. A., Jr.

1972-01-01

210

Application of 1D blood flow models of the human arterial network to differential pressure predictions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new application of 1D models of the human arterial network is proposed. We take advantage of the sensitivity of the models predictions for the pressure profiles within the main aorta to key model parameter values. We propose to use the patterns in the predicted differences from a base case as a way to infer to the most probable changes in the parameter values. We demonstrate this application using an impedance model that we have recently developed (Johnson, 2010). The input model parameters are all physiologically related, such as the geometric dimensions of large arteries, various blood properties, vessel elasticity, etc. and can therefore be patient specific. As a base case, nominal values from the literature are used. The necessary information to characterize the smaller arteries, arterioles, and capillaries is taken from a physical scaling model (West, 1999). Model predictions for the effective impedance of the human arterial system closely agree with experimental data available in the literature. The predictions for the pressure wave development along the main arteries are also found in qualitative agreement with previous published results. The model has been further validated against our own measured pressure data in the carotid and radial arteries, obtained from healthy individuals. Upon changes in the value of key model parameters, we show that the differences seen in the pressure profiles correspond to qualitatively different patterns for different parameters. This suggests the possibility of using the model in interpreting multiple pressure data of healthy/diseased individuals. PMID:21236432

Johnson, David A; Rose, William C; Edwards, Jonathan W; Naik, Ulhas P; Beris, Antony N

2011-03-15

211

Cone pathway function in relation to asymmetric carotid artery stenosis : correlation to blood pressure  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose:  To examine retinal function in relation to retinal perfusion pressure in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Methods:  Thirteen patients with carotid artery stenosis without clinical eye disease underwent assessment of ophthalmic artery systolic blood pressure (OSP) by ocular pneumoplethysmography, carotid artery obstructive disease by ultrasonography, intraocular pressure by applanation tonometry, retinal perfusion by fluorescein angiography and retinal function by multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). Data analysis compared the eye on the most stenotic side with the fellow eye in the same patient. Results:  Ophthalmic systolic pressure was 95.8?±?13.1?mmHg on the side with the highest degree of carotid artery stenosis (mean 94.0%) and 111.7?±?10.3?mmHg in the fellow eyes on the side with the lesser degree of stenosis (mean 33.9%). Summed mfERG implicit times (N1 and P1) were 3.4% and 2.0% longer (p?=?0.013 and 0.021), and N1 and P1 amplitudes were 18.0% and 16.0% (p?=?0.0041 and 0.020) lower in eyes on the side with the higher stenosis compared with the contralateral eyes. Shorter implicit times and higher amplitudes were correlated with higher brachial systolic arterial blood pressure (p?=?0.0028, 0.011, 0.041 for N1, P1, N2 implicit times, respectively, and p?=?0.0086, 0.016, 0.040 for N1, P1, N2 for amplitudes, respectively, corrected for OSP). Conclusion:  Cone function deviation was observed in clinically healthy eyes on the side with highest degree of carotid artery stenosis and was found correlated to arterial blood pressure.

Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Munch, Inger Christine

2013-01-01

212

FSI simulation for the analysis of pulse wave velocity in artery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, we developed an arterial network model to simulate the arterial pressures and PWV (Pulse Wave Velocity) in arteries. The model can provide the clinician with a more refined method of non-invasively determining the hemodynamics. It is based upon a numerical solution of the one-dimensional fluid-structure interaction in a geometrically accurate branching network of the arterial system including energy losses at bifurcations. Using this method, we simulated the pulse wave velocity in arterial networks and evaluated the effect of arterial wall stiffening on PWV. Computational results showed that the PWV increased according to arterial wall stiffening. For the stiffened artery, systolic blood pressure increased whereas the diastolic pressure decreased, indicating that arterial wall stiffening can give rise to ventricular hypertrophy.

213

FSI simulation for the analysis of pulse wave velocity in artery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, we developed an arterial network model to simulate the arterial pressures and PWV (Pulse Wave Velocity) in arteries. The model can provide the clinician with a more refined method of non-invasively determining the hemodynamics. It is based upon a numerical solution of the one-dimensional fluid-structure interaction in a geometrically accurate branching network of the arterial system including energy losses at bifurcations. Using this method, we simulated the pulse wave velocity in arterial networks and evaluated the effect of arterial wall stiffening on PWV. Computational results showed that the PWV increased according to arterial wall stiffening. For the stiffened artery, systolic blood pressure increased whereas the diastolic pressure decreased, indicating that arterial wall stiffening can give rise to ventricular hypertrophy.

Shim, Eun Bo; Jun, Hyung Min; Kwon, Soon Sung [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

2009-07-01

214

Variabilidad de la medición de la presión arterial en Pediatría: estudio de práctica clínica Variability of the blood pressure measurement in Pediatrics. A clinical practice study  

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Full Text Available Objetivo. Estudiar la precisión y concordancia de la medición de presión arterial en pacientes pediátricos con dispositivos aneroides y oscilométricos de uso común.
Métodos. Estudio transversal de evaluación de medidas repetidas con distintos dispositivos y diferentes observadores de la presión arterial en una muestra consecutiva de 121 pacientes pediátricos mayores de 4 años ingresados. Análisis de la adecuación del tamaño del manguito empleado a las medidas de perímetro y longitud del brazo y su repercusión en la concordancia entre medidas. Estimación de medias y diferencias de medidas repetidas, coeficientes de correlación intraclase y análisis de Bland-Altman.
Resultados. Las mediciones realizadas con el dispositivo oscilométrico superaron a las del aneroide (2,6 unidades para la sistólica y 1,5 para la diastólica. La diferencia entre métodos se asociaba discretamente a un desajuste con respecto al perímetro del brazo, tanto para la presión sistólica (sobreestimación media 2,55 mmHg como para la diastólica (sobrestimación media de 2,44 mmHg. La concordancia entre medidas repetidas fue alta y aceptable entre dispositivos. Las diferencias medias y sus intervalos de concordancia fueron para la tensión sistólica de 2,6 mmHg (-8,3 a +13,5 y para la diastólica 1,5 mmHg (-11,4 a +14,4. Todas las diferencias se adecuaban al grado A de la British Hypertension Society, salvo para el criterio de 5 mmHg de la presión arterial diastólica (grado C.
Conclusiones. Considerando la aceptable precisión, la facilidad de aplicación y la objetividad de los dispositivos oscilométricos parece recomendable su uso como método de cribado habitual, aunque, mientras no esté aclarada la validez de sus mediciones, si éstas se sitúan en valores anormales, deberían confirmarse con otros instrumentos. Objective. To study the reliability and consistency of measuring blood pressure in pediatric patients with aneroid and oscillometric devices of common use.
Methods. A cross-sectional was carried out, with evaluation of repeated measurements of blood pressure by different devices and observers in a sample of 121 consecutive pediatric hospitalised patients over 4 years old. The adequacy of cuff size used to the measures of perimeter and length of arm and its impact on the consistency between measures were analyzed. Means and differences of repeated measurements, intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman analysis were estimated.
Results. The measurements with the oscillometric device exceeded those of the aneroid (2.6 units for systolic and 1.5 for diastolic. The difference between methods was associated discreetly to a mismatch with respect to arm circumference, both for systolic pressure (mean overestimation of 2.55 mmHg and for diastolic (mean overestimation of 2.44 mmHg. The agreement between repeated measures was high and between devices acceptable. Mean differences and their concordance intervals ranges were for systolic blood pressure of 2.6 mmHg (-8.3 to +13.5 and for diastolic 1.5 mmHg (-11.4 to 14.4. All differences were suitable for the A grade of the British Hypertension Society, except for the criterion of 5 mm Hg of the diastolic blood pressure (Grade C.
Conclusions. Considering the acceptable accuracy, ease of application and the objectivity of oscillometric devices, they seem recommendable for use as a common screening method, though, while the validity of their measurements was not clarified, whether they are at abnormal levels, should be confirmed with other instruments.

N. Rodríguez Arias

2011-01-01

215

Alterations in fetal kidney development and elevations in arterial blood pressure in young adult sheep after clinical doses of antenatal glucocorticoids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiologic studies have yielded controversial information regarding an association between antenatal steroid administration and elevations in arterial blood pressure (BP). The aim of the study was to determine whether antenatal administration of a clinically relevant dose of steroids at a time when fetal nephrogenesis is at its highest results in abnormal kidney development and adult hypertension. Pregnant sheep were treated with either vehicle or betamethasone. Maternal injections were given 24 h apart at 80 d of gestational age (dGA; 0.55 of gestation). Animals were studied either as fetuses or as immature adults. Fetuses were delivered by cesarean section at 135 dGA. Adults were studied at 6 mo of age. Betamethasone administration did not induce premature labor or intrauterine growth restriction. In the betamethasone-exposed group, we found at 135 dGA a 25.5% decrease in the number of glomeruli with no differences in fetal kidney weight. In adults, mean, systolic, and diastolic arterial BPs were significantly higher, whereas there were no significant differences in heart rate over the same study period. The major finding of this study is that a single course of antenatal steroids alters renal development and is associated with elevations in arterial BP in lambs at 6 mo of age. We conclude that antenatal glucocorticoid administration under the National Institutes of Health consensus guidelines may alter human fetal renal development. PMID:16148065

Figueroa, Jorge P; Rose, James C; Massmann, G Angela; Zhang, Jie; Acuña, Gonzalo

2005-09-01

216

Arterial blood pressure and hypertension in Benin in the equatorial forest zone of Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The blood pressures of the employees of the civil services in Benin, the capital of Bendel State of Nigeria were measured. Out of a total workforce of 970 males and 360 females to whom the screening was offered, 916 males and 347 females between 15 and 60 years responded, giving a response rate of 95%. The study has confirmed that systolic and diastolic pressures of Nigerians studied rise with advancing age. It has also been found that body mass is an important factor in the levels of blood pressure attained since blood pressures were found to rise with increase in body mass. The prevelance of hypertension was found to be 14% and 10% for males and females respectively. The study population is of special interest since no previous report has emanated from the community studied. Some important differences with earlier studies in Nigeria are discussed. PMID:7210158

Oviasu, V O; Okupa, F E

1980-09-01

217

Assessment of the changes in blood pressure circadian profile and variability in patients with chronic heart failure and arterial hypertension during combined therapy including ivabradine  

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Full Text Available Aim. To assess the changes in blood pressure (BP circadian profile and variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic etiology and arterial hypertension (HT due to the complex therapy including ivabradine.Material and methods. Patients (n=90 with CHF class II–III NYHA associated with stable angina II-III class and HT were examined. The patients were randomized into 3 groups depending on received drugs: perindopril and ivabradine - group 1; perindopril, bisoprolol and ivabradine - group 2; perindopril and bisoprolol - group 3. The duration of therapy was 6 months. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM was assessed at baseline and after treatment.Results. More significant reduction in average 24-hours systolic BP was found in groups 1 and 2 compared to group 3 (?%: -19.4±0,4; -21.1±0.4 and -11.8±0.6, respectively as well as diastolic BP (?%: -10.6±0.6; -12.9±0.4 and -4,3±0.3, respectively and other ABPM indicators. Improvement of BP circadian rhythm was found due to increase in the number of «Dipper» patients (p=0.016. More significant reduction in average daily and night systolic and diastolic BP (p=0.001, as well as daily and night BP variability (p=0.001 was also found in patients of group 2 compared to these of group 1.Conclusion. Moderate antihypertensive effect (in respect of both diastolic and systolic BP was shown when ivabradine was included into the complex therapy of patients with ischemic CHF and HT. The effect was more pronounced when ivabradine was combined with perindopril and bisoprolol. This was accompanied by reduction in high BP daily variability and improvement of the BP circadian rhythm.

M.V. Surovtseva

2012-10-01

218

Effect of glycemic control on microalbuminuria and arterial blood pressure in patients with type 1 diabetes  

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Full Text Available Introduction Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of hypertension in type 1 diabetes. Microalbuminuria is usually the first manifestation of renal disease and antedate hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between glycemic control, hypertension and microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetics. Material and methods We studied 27 type 1 diabetics, 18 male and 9 female, aged 18-50 years, with a duration of diabetes <20 years. Glycemic control was assessed using glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc measurements, fructosamine and lipid analysis. 24-h urinary albumin excretion rate was evaluated by radioimmunoassay. Patients with persistent urinary albumin excretion rate 30-300 nig/24 h were defined as microalbuminuric (Group A -41% patients and lower than that, as normoalbuminuric (Group B -59%. We examined them twice: first in poor glycemic control and then in good glycemic control. Results We found significant differences (Student's t-test between groups in regard to microalbuminuria (p<0.01, diabetes duration (p<0.05, systolic blood pressure (BP and diastolic BP (p<0.05. Systolic BP (p<0.01, diastolic BP (p<0.01 and microalbuminuria (p=0,05 positively correlated (Spearman's rho with poor glycemic control in Group A. In both groups there was a significant improvement in glycemic control and regression in systolic and diastolic BP (p<0.01, but only Group B showed significant reduction in urinary albumin excretion rate (p<0.0l. Discussion and conclusion In this study, type 1 diabetics showed regression in systolic and diastolic hypertension with improvements of glycemic control regardless of presence of microalbuminuria, but only normoalbuminuric showed significant reduction in urinary albumin excretion rate.

Vasovi? Olga

2005-01-01

219

Pulse transit time as a surrogate measure of changes in systolic arterial pressure in children during sleep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulse transit time has been proposed as a surrogate measure of systolic arterial pressure, as it is dependent upon arterial stiffness. Past research has shown that pulse transit time has a significant inverse relationship to systolic arterial pressure in adults; however, studies in children are limited. This study aimed to explore the relationship between systolic arterial pressure and pulse transit time in children during sleep. Twenty-five children (13.1 ± 1.6 years, 48% male) underwent overnight polysomnography (PSG) with a simultaneous recording of continuous systolic arterial pressure and photoplethysmography. Pulse transit time was calculated as the time delay between the R-wave peak of the electrocardiogram (ECG) to the 50% point of the upstroke of the corresponding photoplethysmography waveform; 500 beats of simultaneous systolic arterial pressure and pulse transit time were analysed in each sleep stage for each child. Pulse transit time was normalized to each subject's mean wake pulse transit time. The ability of pulse transit time to predict systolic arterial pressure change was determined by linear mixed-effects modelling. Significant negative correlations between pulse transit time and systolic arterial pressure were found for individual children for each sleep stage [mean correlations for cohort: non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep 1 and 2 r = -0.57, slow wave sleep (SWS) r = -0.76, REM r = -0.65, P transit time were a significant predictor of changes in systolic arterial pressure for each sleep stage (P transit time-predicted systolic arterial pressure closely tracked actual systolic arterial pressure changes over time. This study demonstrated that pulse transit time was accurate in tracking systolic arterial pressure changes over time. Thus, the use of pulse transit time as a surrogate measure of changes in systolic arterial pressure in children is a valid, non-invasive and inexpensive method with many potential applications. PMID:24605887

Vlahandonis, Anna; Biggs, Sarah N; Nixon, Gillian M; Davey, Margot J; Walter, Lisa M; Horne, Rosemary S C

2014-08-01

220

Echocardiographic evaluation of the arterial stiffness in healthy subjects and hypertensive patients under 60 years  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We conducted a cross-sectional study that included 83 patients (healthy, n=43; hypertensive, n=40) assisted in the external consultation of the National Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery Institute, from April to October, 2009. We included clinical (age, sex, personal antecedents of smoking habit, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension) and echocardiographic (diastolic function, arterial stiffness index [?], pressure strain elastic modulus [Ep], arterial compliance, local pulse wave velocity [LPWV]) variables

221

Intra-arterial Infusion of Leptin does not Affect Blood Pressure in Salt-loaded Rabbits  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this research is to see the effect of intra-arterial infusion of leptin on blood pressure of salt loaded rabbits in vivo. Increased blood pressure was produced in rabbits by giving diets containing 8% sodium chloride for 5 weeks. Leptin in different concentrations was infused intra-arterially into rabbits fed on high salt diets and the response was compared in rabbits fed with low salt diets. High salt diets produced significant increase in blood pressure. In rabbits fed wit...

Mohammad Nidal Khabaz; Mohamad, Mohamad M. J.; Khalid Talafih; Mohammad, Mukhallad A.

2010-01-01

222

Low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm presenting with pulmonary embolism: a case series  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pulmonary artery aneurysm is an uncommon disorder with severe complications. The diagnosis is often difficult, since the clinical manifestations are non-specific and the treatment is controversial, as the natural history of the disease is not completely understood. Case presentation We describe the cases of two patients with pulmonary artery aneurysms. The first patient was a 68-year-old Caucasian man with an idiopathic low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm together with a pulmonary embolism. The patient preferred a conservative approach and was stable at the 10-month follow-up visit after being placed on anti-coagulant treatment. The second patient was a 66-year-old Caucasian woman with a low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm also presented together with a pulmonary embolism. The aneurysm was secondary to pulmonary valve stenosis. She received anti-coagulants and, after stabilization, underwent percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty. Conclusion Pulmonary embolism may be the initial presentation of a low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm. No underlying cause for pulmonary embolism was found in either of our patients, suggesting a causal association with low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm.

Papoulidis Pavlos

2011-04-01

223

Dynamic pressure–flow relationship of the cerebral circulation during acute increase in arterial pressure  

Science.gov (United States)

The physiological mechanism(s) for the regulation of the dynamic pressure–flow relationship of the cerebral circulation are not well understood. We studied the effects of acute cerebral vasoconstriction on the transfer function between spontaneous changes in blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in 13 healthy subjects (30 ± 7 years). CBFV was measured in the middle cerebral artery using transcranial Doppler. BP was increased stepwise with phenylephrine infusion at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 ?g kg?1 min?1. Phenylephrine increased BP by 11, 23 and 37% from baseline, while CBFV increased (11%) only with the highest increase in BP. Cerebrovascular resistance index (BP/CBFV) increased progressively by 6, 17 and 23%, demonstrating effective steady-state autoregulation. Transfer function gain at the low frequencies (LF, 0.07–0.20 Hz) was reduced by 15, 14 and 14%, while the phase was reduced by 10, 17 and 31%. A similar trend of changes was observed at the high frequencies (HF, 0.20–0.35 Hz), but gain and phase remained unchanged at the very low frequencies (VLF, 0.02–0.07 Hz). Windkessel model simulation suggests that increases in steady-state cerebrovascular resistance and/or decreases in vascular compliance during cerebral vasoconstriction contribute to the changes in gain and phase. These findings suggest that changes in steady-state cerebrovascular resistance and/or vascular compliance modulate the dynamic pressure–flow relationship at the low and high frequencies, while dynamic autoregulation is likely to be dominant at the very low frequencies. Thus, oscillations in CBFV are modulated not only by dynamic autoregulation, but also by changes in steady-state cerebrovascular resistance and/or vascular compliance. PMID:19359366

Zhang, Rong; Behbehani, Khosrow; Levine, Benjamin D

2009-01-01

224

Velocidade da onda de pulso, pressão arterial e adipocitocinas em adultos jovens: estudo do Rio de Janeiro Pulse wave velocity, blood pressure and adipocytokines in young adults: the Rio de Janeiro study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Dados sobre a avaliação não invasiva vascular e suas relações com variáveis de risco cardiovascular são escassos em jovens. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre a velocidade de onda de pulso e a pressão arterial,variáveis antropométricas e metabólicas, incluindo as adipocitocinas, em indivíduos adultos jovens. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 96 indivíduos (51 homens do estudo do Rio de Janeiro, de 26 a 35 anos (média 30,09 ± 1,92. Foram obtidos a velocidade de onda de pulso (método Complior, pressão arterial, índice de massa corporal, glicose, perfil lipídico, leptina, insulina, adiponectina e o índice de resistência à insulina HOMA-IR. Os indivíduos foram estratificados em três grupos segundo o tercil da VOP para cada sexo. RESULTADOS: O grupo com maior tercil de VOP mostrou maiores médias de pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica, pressão arterial média, índice de massa corporal, insulina, HOMA-IR e menores médias de adiponectina, além de maiores prevalências de diabetes mellitus/intolerância à glicose e hiperinsulinemia. Houve correlação significativa e positiva da velocidade da onda de pulso com pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica, pressão de pulso e pressão arterial média, índice de massa corporal, e LDL-colesterol e negativa com HDL-colesterol e adiponectina. Em modelo de regressão múltipla, após ajuste do HDL-colesterol, LDL-colesterol e adiponectina para sexo, idade, índice de massa corporal e pressão arterial média, apenas o sexo masculino e a pressão arterial média mantiveram correlação significativa com a velocidade de onda de pulso. CONCLUSÃO: A velocidade de onda de pulso em adultos jovens mostrou relação significativa com variáveis de risco cardiovascular, destacando-se o sexo masculino e a pressão arterial média como importantes variáveis no seu determinismo. Os achados sugerem que a medida da VOP pode ser útil para a identificação do acometimento vascular nessa faixa etária.BACKGROUND: Data on noninvasive vascular assessment and their association with cardiovascular risk variables are scarce in young individuals. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between pulse wave velocity and blood pressure, anthropometric and metabolic variables, including adipocytokines, in young adults. METHODS: A total of 96 individuals aged 26 to 35 years (mean 30.09 ± 1.92; 51 males were assessed in the Rio de Janeiro study. Pulse wave velocity (Complior method, blood pressure, body mass index, glucose, lipid profile, leptin, insulin, adiponectin and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR were analyzed. Subjects were stratified into three groups according to the PWV tertile for each gender. RESULTS: The group with the highest pulse wave velocity (PWV tertile showed higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, body mass index, insulin, and HOMA-IR, as well as lower mean adiponectin; higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus/glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. There was a significant positive correlation of PWV with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean blood pressure, body mass index, and LDL-cholesterol, and a negative correlation with HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin. In the multiple regression model, after adjustment of HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and adiponectin for gender, age, body mass index and mean blood pressure, only the male gender and mean blood pressure remained significantly correlated with PWV. CONCLUSION: PWV in young adults showed a significant association with cardiovascular risk variables, especially in the male gender, and mean blood pressure as important determinant variables. The findings suggest that PWV measurement can be useful for the identification of vascular impairment in this age group.

Oswaldo Luiz Pizzi

2012-01-01

225

Velocidade da onda de pulso, pressão arterial e adipocitocinas em adultos jovens: estudo do Rio de Janeiro Pulse wave velocity, blood pressure and adipocytokines in young adults: the Rio de Janeiro study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Dados sobre a avaliação não invasiva vascular e suas relações com variáveis de risco cardiovascular são escassos em jovens. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre a velocidade de onda de pulso e a pressão arterial,variáveis antropométricas e metabólicas, incluindo as adipocitocinas, em indivíduos adultos jovens. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 96 indivíduos (51 homens do estudo do Rio de Janeiro, de 26 a 35 anos (média 30,09 ± 1,92. Foram obtidos a velocidade de onda de pulso (método Complior, pressão arterial, índice de massa corporal, glicose, perfil lipídico, leptina, insulina, adiponectina e o índice de resistência à insulina HOMA-IR. Os indivíduos foram estratificados em três grupos segundo o tercil da VOP para cada sexo. RESULTADOS: O grupo com maior tercil de VOP mostrou maiores médias de pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica, pressão arterial média, índice de massa corporal, insulina, HOMA-IR e menores médias de adiponectina, além de maiores prevalências de diabetes mellitus/intolerância à glicose e hiperinsulinemia. Houve correlação significativa e positiva da velocidade da onda de pulso com pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica, pressão de pulso e pressão arterial média, índice de massa corporal, e LDL-colesterol e negativa com HDL-colesterol e adiponectina. Em modelo de regressão múltipla, após ajuste do HDL-colesterol, LDL-colesterol e adiponectina para sexo, idade, índice de massa corporal e pressão arterial média, apenas o sexo masculino e a pressão arterial média mantiveram correlação significativa com a velocidade de onda de pulso. CONCLUSÃO: A velocidade de onda de pulso em adultos jovens mostrou relação significativa com variáveis de risco cardiovascular, destacando-se o sexo masculino e a pressão arterial média como importantes variáveis no seu determinismo. Os achados sugerem que a medida da VOP pode ser útil para a identificação do acometimento vascular nessa faixa etária.BACKGROUND: Data on noninvasive vascular assessment and their association with cardiovascular risk variables are scarce in young individuals. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between pulse wave velocity and blood pressure, anthropometric and metabolic variables, including adipocytokines, in young adults. METHODS: A total of 96 individuals aged 26 to 35 years (mean 30.09 ± 1.92; 51 males were assessed in the Rio de Janeiro study. Pulse wave velocity (Complior method, blood pressure, body mass index, glucose, lipid profile, leptin, insulin, adiponectin and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR were analyzed. Subjects were stratified into three groups according to the PWV tertile for each gender. RESULTS: The group with the highest pulse wave velocity (PWV tertile showed higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, body mass index, insulin, and HOMA-IR, as well as lower mean adiponectin; higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus/glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. There was a significant positive correlation of PWV with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean blood pressure, body mass index, and LDL-cholesterol, and a negative correlation with HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin. In the multiple regression model, after adjustment of HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and adiponectin for gender, age, body mass index and mean blood pressure, only the male gender and mean blood pressure remained significantly correlated with PWV. CONCLUSION: PWV in young adults showed a significant association with cardiovascular risk variables, especially in the male gender, and mean blood pressure as important determinant variables. The findings suggest that PWV measurement can be useful for the identification of vascular impairment in this age group.

Oswaldo Luiz Pizzi

2013-01-01

226

Velocidade da onda de pulso, pressão arterial e adipocitocinas em adultos jovens: estudo do Rio de Janeiro / Pulse wave velocity, blood pressure and adipocytokines in young adults: the Rio de Janeiro study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTO: Dados sobre a avaliação não invasiva vascular e suas relações com variáveis de risco cardiovascular são escassos em jovens. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre a velocidade de onda de pulso e a pressão arterial,variáveis antropométricas e metabólicas, incluindo as adipocitocinas, em indiví [...] duos adultos jovens. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 96 indivíduos (51 homens) do estudo do Rio de Janeiro, de 26 a 35 anos (média 30,09 ± 1,92). Foram obtidos a velocidade de onda de pulso (método Complior), pressão arterial, índice de massa corporal, glicose, perfil lipídico, leptina, insulina, adiponectina e o índice de resistência à insulina HOMA-IR. Os indivíduos foram estratificados em três grupos segundo o tercil da VOP para cada sexo. RESULTADOS: O grupo com maior tercil de VOP mostrou maiores médias de pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica, pressão arterial média, índice de massa corporal, insulina, HOMA-IR e menores médias de adiponectina, além de maiores prevalências de diabetes mellitus/intolerância à glicose e hiperinsulinemia. Houve correlação significativa e positiva da velocidade da onda de pulso com pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica, pressão de pulso e pressão arterial média, índice de massa corporal, e LDL-colesterol e negativa com HDL-colesterol e adiponectina. Em modelo de regressão múltipla, após ajuste do HDL-colesterol, LDL-colesterol e adiponectina para sexo, idade, índice de massa corporal e pressão arterial média, apenas o sexo masculino e a pressão arterial média mantiveram correlação significativa com a velocidade de onda de pulso. CONCLUSÃO: A velocidade de onda de pulso em adultos jovens mostrou relação significativa com variáveis de risco cardiovascular, destacando-se o sexo masculino e a pressão arterial média como importantes variáveis no seu determinismo. Os achados sugerem que a medida da VOP pode ser útil para a identificação do acometimento vascular nessa faixa etária. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Data on noninvasive vascular assessment and their association with cardiovascular risk variables are scarce in young individuals. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between pulse wave velocity and blood pressure, anthropometric and metabolic variables, including adipocytokines, in yo [...] ung adults. METHODS: A total of 96 individuals aged 26 to 35 years (mean 30.09 ± 1.92; 51 males) were assessed in the Rio de Janeiro study. Pulse wave velocity (Complior method), blood pressure, body mass index, glucose, lipid profile, leptin, insulin, adiponectin and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were analyzed. Subjects were stratified into three groups according to the PWV tertile for each gender. RESULTS: The group with the highest pulse wave velocity (PWV) tertile showed higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, body mass index, insulin, and HOMA-IR, as well as lower mean adiponectin; higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus/glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. There was a significant positive correlation of PWV with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean blood pressure, body mass index, and LDL-cholesterol, and a negative correlation with HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin. In the multiple regression model, after adjustment of HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and adiponectin for gender, age, body mass index and mean blood pressure, only the male gender and mean blood pressure remained significantly correlated with PWV. CONCLUSION: PWV in young adults showed a significant association with cardiovascular risk variables, especially in the male gender, and mean blood pressure as important determinant variables. The findings suggest that PWV measurement can be useful for the identification of vascular impairment in this age group.

Oswaldo Luiz, Pizzi; Andréa Araujo, Brandão; Roberto, Pozzan; Maria Eliane Campos, Magalhães; Erika Maria Gonçalves, Campana; Flavia Lopes, Fonseca; Elizabete Viana de, Freitas; Ayrton Pires, Brandão.

2013-01-01

227

Test of a novel miniature blood pressure sensor in the coronary arteries of a swine model  

Science.gov (United States)

Fractional flow reserve (FFR) has proven to be very useful in diagnosis of narrowed coronary arteries. It is a technique that is used in coronary catheterization to measure blood pressure difference across a coronary artery stenosis in maximal flow. In-vivo blood pressure measurement is critical in FFR diagnosis. This paper presents a novel miniature all-optical fiber blood pressure sensor. It is based on Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometry principle. The FP cavity was fabricated by directly wet etching the fiber tip. Then, a diaphragm with well-controlled thickness was bonded to the end face of the fiber using the thermal bonding technique. Finally, the sensor was packaged with a bio-compatible and flexible coil for animal tests. A 25-50 kg Yorkshire swine model was introduced as the animal test target. The left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was exposed, and beyond the takeoff of the largest diagonal branch, a 3.0 mm vascular occluder was secured. Firstly, standard invasive manometry was used to obtain the blood pressure as baseline. Next, a guiding catheter was introduced into the ostium of the left main coronary artery, and the miniature blood pressure sensor was advanced into the LAD at a point beyond the vascular occlude. The blood pressure beyond the vascular occlude was recorded. The sensor successfully recorded the blood pressure at both near-end and far-end of the vascular occluder.

Wu, Nan; Sun, Kai; Zou, Xiaotian; Barringhaus, Kurt; Wang, Xingwei

2011-06-01

228

The interaction between pindolol and epinephrine contained in local anesthetic solution to the left ventricular diastolic filling velocity in normal subjects.  

OpenAIRE

To evaluate the interaction between the nonselective beta-blocker, pindolol, and epinephrine contained in a local anesthetic solution, the left ventricular diastolic filling velocity was examined with pulsed Doppler echocardiography. Arterial blood pressure (BP), the R-R interval on the electrocardiogram (RR), and Doppler echo-cardiographic measurements were recorded in seven healthy volunteers after 45 micrograms of epinephrine contained in lidocaine (L-E) was injected in the maxilla after p...

Niwa, H.; Shibutani, T.; Hori, T.; Kim, Y.; Akita, M.; Matsuura, H.

1996-01-01

229

Arterial blood pressure values in children and adolescents in the Lublin population. Epidemiological studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The frequency of arterial hypertension occurrence in the adult population is estimated at 10-20%. In the last decade attention has been called to hypertension in children and adolescents. The purpose of the present study was to determine the arterial blood pressure in the studied age groups of children and adolescents in the elementary and secondary schools in Lublin, and to establish the prevalence of hypertension in this population group. PMID:1307761

Markiewicz, M; Jach, A; Wójcik, J; Poleszak, K; Prasa?, M

1992-01-01

230

Low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm presenting with pulmonary embolism: a case series  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Introduction Pulmonary artery aneurysm is an uncommon disorder with severe complications. The diagnosis is often difficult, since the clinical manifestations are non-specific and the treatment is controversial, as the natural history of the disease is not completely understood. Case presentation We describe the cases of two patients with pulmonary artery aneurysms. The first patient was a 68-year-old Caucasian man with an idiopathic low-pressure pulmona...

Papoulidis Pavlos; Mantzourani Stamatia; Vassiliadis Konstantinos; Steiropoulos Paschalis; Antoniadou ?aria; Serasli Eva; Tsara Venetia

2011-01-01

231

Hospitalizations Due to Unstable Angina Pectoris in Diastolic and Systolic Heart Failure  

OpenAIRE

Patients with diastolic heart failure (HF) i.e. clinical HF with normal or near normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) may experience unstable angina pectoris (UAP) due to epicardial atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) and/or to subendocardial ischemia, even in the absence of CAD. However, the risk of UAP among ambulatory diastolic HF patients has not been well studied. We examined incident hospitalizations due to UAP among 916 diastolic HF (LVEF >45%) patients without sig...

Ahmed, Ali; Zile, Michael R.; Rich, Michael W.; Fleg, Jerome L.; Adams, Kirkwood F.; Love, Thomas E.; Young, James B.; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Dell’italia, Louis J.

2007-01-01

232

Diastolic dysfunction in Diabetes Mellitus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Conclusion: Echocardiography is a sensitive method to investigate for diastolic dysfunction. There is a high prevalence of diastolic dysfunction in diabetes, which is an early marker of diabetic cardiomyopathy. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(3.000: 249-252

Nikhil M Dikshit

2013-06-01

233

Blood pressure and mesenteric resistance arterial function after spaceflight  

Science.gov (United States)

Ground studies indicate that spaceflight may diminish vascular contraction. To examine that possibility, vascular function was measured in spontaneously hypertensive rats immediately after an 18-day shuttle flight. Isolated mesenteric resistance arterial responses to cumulative additions of norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside were measured using wire myography within 17 h of landing. After flight, maximal contraction to norepinephrine was attenuated (P function. The resulting decrement in vascular function may contribute to orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight.

Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Chapman, Justin; Xue, Hong; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; McCarron, David A.

2002-01-01

234

Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure and susceptibility to high altitude pulmonary edema.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is evidence that pulmonary arterial hypertension plays a major role in the occurrence of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). We tested the hypothesis that the pulmonary arterial systolic pressure response to a challenge associated with hypoxia and mild exercise may be considered a predictive factor of HAPE. Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure was measured by Doppler echocardiography in 8 HAPE susceptible (HAPE-S) subjects and 8 HAPE resistant mountaineers (HAPE-R) during a hypoxic exercise challenge established by the French Association for Sport Medicine (Richalet's test). Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure during hypoxic exercise allowed a significant discrimination between the groups, although an overlap of values was observed. When expressed as individual variations from baseline to hypoxic exercise level however, we found a highly significant difference. No overlap was observed between HAPE-R (range: 6.7-18.5 mmHg) and HAPE-S (range: 19.2-30.4 mmHg) groups, with a cut-off value at 19 mmHg. Plasma Vascular Endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased in response to hypoxic exercise only in HAPE-S group. Individual increases in pulmonary arterial systolic pressure during hypoxic exercise from basal resting normoxic values seem relevant to estimate HAPE susceptibility when measured during the Richalet's test. PMID:21964625

Mounier, Rémi; Amonchot, Aimé; Caillot, Nicolas; Gladine, Cécile; Citron, Bernard; Bedu, Mario; Chirico, Erica; Coudert, Jean; Pialoux, Vincent

2011-12-15

235

The vibration plethysmographic method of arterial compliance analysis in dependence on transmural pressure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to obtain a detailed analysis of the relationship between the finger arterial compliance C [ml/mm Hg] and the arterial transmural pressure P(t) [mm Hg]. We constructed a dynamic plethysmograph enabling us to set up a constant pressure P(css) [mm Hg] and a superimposed fast pressure vibration in the finger cuff (equipped with a source of infra-red light and a photoelectric sensor for the measurement of arterial volume). P(css) could be set on the required time interval in steps ranging between 30 and 170 mm Hg, and on sinusoidal pressure oscillation with an amplitude P(ca) (2 mm Hg) and a frequency f (20, 25, 30, 35, 40 Hz). At the same time continuous blood pressure BP was measured on the adjacent finger (Portapres). We described the volume dependence of a unitary arterial length on the time-varying transmural pressure acting on the arterial wall (externally P(css)+P(ca).sin(2pif), internally BP) by a second-order differential equation for volume. This equation was linearized within a small range of selected BP. In the next step, a Fourier transform was applied to obtain the frequency characteristic in analytic form of a complex linear combination of frequency functions. While series of oscillations [P(ca), f] were applied for each P(css), the corresponding response of the plethysmogram was measured. Amplitude spectra were obtained to estimate coefficients of the frequency characteristic by regression analysis. We determined the absolute value: elastance E, and its inverse value: compliance (C=1/E). Then, C=C(P(t)) was acquired by applying sequences of oscillations for different P(css) (and thus P(t)) by the above-described procedure. This methodology will be used for the study of finger arterial compliance in different physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25669680

Moudr, J; Sva?inová, J; Závodná, E; Honzíková, N

2015-02-10

236

Systemic blood pressure, arterial stiffness and pulse waveform analysis at altitude.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: Systemic arterial pressure rises on acute exposure to high altitude and changes in blood pressure (BP) and endothelial function may be important in the pathogenesis of clinical syndromes occurring at high altitude. METHODS: Arterial BP, stiffness (SI) and tone (RI) were studied over 11 days in 17 subjects (three having mild hypertension) ascending to 3,450m and 4,770m using a non-invasive, finger photoplethysmography technique. RESULTS: At 3,450m BP rose from mean 131/75 mmHg (SD ...

Rhodes, Hl; Chesterman, K.; Chan, Cw; Collins, P.; Kewley, E.; Pattinson, Kt; Myers, S.; Imray, Ch; Wright, Ad

2011-01-01

237

Circuit for detecting initial systole and dicrotic notch. [for monitoring arterial pressure  

Science.gov (United States)

Circuitry is disclosed for processing an arterial pressure waveform to produce during any one cycle a pulse corresponding to the initial systole and a pulse corresponding to the dicrotic notch. In a first channel, an electrical analog of the arterial pressure waveform is filtered and then compared to the original waveform to produce an initial systole signal. In a second channel, the analog is differentiated, filtered, and fed through a gate controlled by pulses from the first channel to produce an electrical pulse corresponding to the dicrotic notch.

Gebben, V. D.; Webb, J. A., Jr. (inventors)

1974-01-01

238

Arterial blood pressure of term newborns during the first week of life  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The progressive behavior of the blood pressure of term newborns during the first week of life was assessed by the simultaneous use of oscillometric and Doppler methods. A total of 174 term neonates born at the Municipal Hospital Odilon Behrens in Belo Horizonte, from March 1996 to February 1997, were prospectively assessed. The oscillometric and Doppler ultrasonic methods were simultaneously used for four consecutive recordings obtained at 12 ± 6, 24 ± 6 and 72 ± 24 h and on the 7th ± 1 day of life. The combined use of the two methods simplified the procedure, with automatic cuff inflation and deflation, and speed was properly controlled with an automatic pressure monitor. The procedure was performed using a Y-connection to the mercury sphygmomanometer, with blood pressure being recorded with an automatic device and systolic blood pressure being measured simultaneously by Doppler ultrasound. The newborns were awake, not crying and in the supine position. A statistically significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed between the first and second, and the third and fourth measurements by Doppler and oscillometric methods. No significant correlation between birth weight, length, ponderal index and blood pressure was observed. The technique used represents a simpler and more accurate procedure for blood pressure measurement.

M.C.V.A. Nascimento

2002-08-01

239

Arterial blood pressure of term newborns during the first week of life.  

Science.gov (United States)

The progressive behavior of the blood pressure of term newborns during the first week of life was assessed by the simultaneous use of oscillometric and Doppler methods. A total of 174 term neonates born at the Municipal Hospital Odilon Behrens in Belo Horizonte, from March 1996 to February 1997, were prospectively assessed. The oscillometric and Doppler ultrasonic methods were simultaneously used for four consecutive recordings obtained at 12 +/- 6, 24 +/- 6 and 72 +/- 24 h and on the 7th +/- 1 day of life. The combined use of the two methods simplified the procedure, with automatic cuff inflation and deflation, and speed was properly controlled with an automatic pressure monitor. The procedure was performed using a Y-connection to the mercury sphygmomanometer, with blood pressure being recorded with an automatic device and systolic blood pressure being measured simultaneously by Doppler ultrasound. The newborns were awake, not crying and in the supine position. A statistically significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed between the first and second, and the third and fourth measurements by Doppler and oscillometric methods. No significant correlation between birth weight, length, ponderal index and blood pressure was observed. The technique used represents a simpler and more accurate procedure for blood pressure measurement. PMID:12185382

Nascimento, M C V A; Xavier, C C; Goulart, E M A

2002-08-01

240

Arterial blood pressure of term newborns during the first week of life  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The progressive behavior of the blood pressure of term newborns during the first week of life was assessed by the simultaneous use of oscillometric and Doppler methods. A total of 174 term neonates born at the Municipal Hospital Odilon Behrens in Belo Horizonte, from March 1996 to February 1997, wer [...] e prospectively assessed. The oscillometric and Doppler ultrasonic methods were simultaneously used for four consecutive recordings obtained at 12 ± 6, 24 ± 6 and 72 ± 24 h and on the 7th ± 1 day of life. The combined use of the two methods simplified the procedure, with automatic cuff inflation and deflation, and speed was properly controlled with an automatic pressure monitor. The procedure was performed using a Y-connection to the mercury sphygmomanometer, with blood pressure being recorded with an automatic device and systolic blood pressure being measured simultaneously by Doppler ultrasound. The newborns were awake, not crying and in the supine position. A statistically significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed between the first and second, and the third and fourth measurements by Doppler and oscillometric methods. No significant correlation between birth weight, length, ponderal index and blood pressure was observed. The technique used represents a simpler and more accurate procedure for blood pressure measurement.

M.C.V.A., Nascimento; C.C., Xavier; E.M.A., Goulart.

2002-08-01

241

Study the effect of exercise on systolic pulmonary artery pressure in healthy subjects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: As no data is available concerning the cut-off value defining abnormal pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP response in subjects of various ages, the aim of this study is to assess physiological PASP response to exercise in healthy individuals of various ages. Material and methods: One hundred and twenty three healthy volunteers, aged 30 to 70 years, underwent Doppler echocardiographic measurements at rest and after treadmill exercise test. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure was estimated at rest, and immediately after peak exercise using Bernoulli formula (four times tricuspid valve regurgitation velocity squared adding an estimated right atrial pressure. Results: Lower and upper limits of PASP during rest was 7 and 28 mmHg and after peak exercise was 14 and 48 mmHg respectively. After exercise, PASP increased from rest (14 ± 4 mmHg to peak (25 ± 7 mmHg. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure during rest and peak exercise, increased with age, but has no correlation with body mass index or gender. Conclusion: Pulmonary artery systolic pressure at peak exercise can frequently reach values ? 30 mmHg in healthy individuals with good exercise capacity, especially in elderly individuals, which goes beyond pathologic definitions of pulmonary hypertension.

Mohammad Nourizadeh

2012-04-01

242

Pharmacodynamic and pharmacoeconomic aspects of application of antihypertensive preparations of various groups in patients with arterial hypertension  

OpenAIRE

At the background of the therapy for 3 months with Perindopril, Telmisartan and Bisoprolol, the patients with arterial hypertension were noted to decrease systolic and diastolic arterial pressure. The preparations under investigation had different effects on electrolyte metabolism. Therapy with Telmisartan turned out to have the least effect on electrolyte metabolism. Microalbuminuria is a risk factor in patients with arterial hypertension and may influence on the basic blood electrolyte bala...

Kurkina T.V.; Svistunov ?.?.; Bogoslovskaya S. I.; Klochkov V.A.; Glybochko G.H.; Shuldyakov V.A.; Em, Luchinina; Levanov A.N.

2010-01-01

243

Sildenafil and diastolic dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction in patients with preserved ejection fraction : the Sildenafil and Diastolic Dysfunction After Acute Myocardial Infarction (SIDAMI) trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Diastolic dysfunction is frequently seen after myocardial infarction and is characterized by a disproportionate increase in filling pressure during exercise to maintain stroke volume. We hypothesized that sildenafil would reduce filling pressure during exercise in patients with diastolic dysfunction after myocardial infarction.

Andersen, Mads J; ErsbØll, Mads

2013-01-01

244

ORIGINAL PAPER Pulmonary artery pressure in association with serum parathormone in maintenance hemodialysis patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: There are several potential explanations for the development of PH in patients with stable hemodialysis patients. Hormonal and metabolic derangement associated with end-stage renal failure might lead to pulmonary arterial vasoconstriction and an increase of the pulmonary vascular resistance. The aim of this study was to consider the association of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP with serum parathormone in end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients under regular hemodialysis treatment. Material and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing maintenance hemodialysis treatment through an arteriovenous fistula which was created on the hand, and with acetate basis dialysate and polysulfone membranes. For all patients serum intact parathormone (iPTH was measured. For assessment of pulmonary artery pressure, all patients were subjected to two-dimensional and doppler echocardiographic studies that were done for the patients after their hemodialysis sessions. Results: The study comprised 102 patients (F=46, M=56 consisting of 73 non diabetic hemodialysis patients (F=33, M=40, and 29 diabetic hemodialysis patients (F=13, M=16. The duration of hemodialysis was 17.8±29 months. The mean ±SD of serum iPTH of total patients was 338±306 pg/ml. The mean ±SD of pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PAP was 41.5±12.6 mmHg. A significant positive correlation of PAP with the dosage (r=0.36, p=0.001 and duration of hemodialysis (r=0.35, p<0.001 was seen, also a significant positive correlation of pulmonary artery systolic pressure with serum intact parathormone (iPTH in hemodialysis patients was found. Conclusions: A significant positive correlation of serum intact parathormone with pulmonary artery pressure, which is a new aspect of uncontrolled secondary hyperparathyroidism implies the need for a better control of poorly controlled hyperparathyroidism disease in hemodialysis patients.

Hamid Nasri

2006-03-01

245

Comment on: Serum cholesterol and LDL-C in association with level of diastolic blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:Monitoring of blood pressure and serum lipids would be beneficial for diabetic patients in preventing the disease progression especially diabetic nephropathy in this population.

Nasri Hamid

2012-12-01

246

Metabólitos séricos da vitamina D não se correlacionam com pressão arterial em adolescentes / There are no association between vitamin D metabolites and blood pressure in adolescents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a associação entre o estado nutricional da vitamina D, a adiposidade e a pressão arterial (PA) em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada avaliação antropométrica, da composição corporal, da ingestão alimentar, de medidas bioquímicas e aferição da PA de 205 [...] adolescentes, com média de idade de 18,2 anos. RESULTADOS: Destes, 12,19% apresentaram PA elevada. O nível sérico médio da 25OHD foi 29,2(0,8) ng/mL, e 62% dos adolescentes apresentaram insuficiência de vitamina D. Não foi encontrada correlação significativa entre a PAS e a PAD com a 25OHD e a 1,25(OH)2D. Houve correlação negativa entre a PAD com os níveis séricos de adiponectina, e tanto a PAS quanto a PAD apresentaram correlação positiva com a circunferência da cintura em ambos os sexos. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve relação entre os níveis séricos de vitamina D e a PA. Porém, a gordura visceral apresenta risco potencial para elevação da PA em adolescentes. Abstract in english OBJETIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between serum levels of vitamin D and blood pressure (BP) in adolescents. METHODS: The anthropometric measurements, body composition, dietary intake, blood pressure and biochemical measurements was undertaken. RESULTS: Two hundre [...] d and five adolescents, 106 boys and 99 girls, mean aged 18.2 years old, participate of the study. Elevated BP was observed in 12.19% of the adolescents. Mean 25OHD concentration was 29.2(0.8) ng/mL. Vitamin D insufficiency was observed in 62% of adolescents. There were no correlation between systolic and diastolic BP with 25OHD and 1,25(OH)2D concentration. An inverse correlation between adiponectin and diastolic BP was observed and positive significant correlation was observed between waist circumference with systolic and diastolic BP in both boys and in girls. In conclusion, no relationships between vitamin D levels and blood pressure were observed. CONCLUSION: However, the intra-abdominal adiposity offers potential risk to BP elevation in adolescents.

Barbara Santarosa Emo, Peters; Janaína Pivetta, Roque; Mauro, Fisberg; Lígia Araújo, Martini.

2009-06-01

247

Echocardiographic evaluation and comparison of the effects of isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane on left ventricular relaxation indices in patients with diastolic dysfunction  

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Full Text Available This prospective randomized study aims to evaluate and compare the effects of isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane (study drugs on left ventricular (LV diastolic function in patients with impaired LV relaxation due to ischemic heart disease using transesophageal Doppler echocardiography. After approval of the local ethics committee and informed consent, 45 patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery were enrolled in the study. Patients were selected by a preoperative Transthoracic Echocardiographic diagnosis of impaired relaxation or Grade 1 Diastolic Dysfunction. They randomly received fentanyl and midazolam anesthesia with 1 MAC of isoflurane (n=16, sevoflurane (n=14 or desflurane (n=15. Hemodynamic parameters and TEE derived ventricular diastolic relaxation indices before and after the study drug administration were compared. LV filling pressures were kept constant throughout the study period to exclude the effect of the loading conditions on diastolic function. Four patients in the sevoflurane group and three in the desflurane group were excluded from the study, after baseline TEE examination revealed normal diastolic filling pattern. All the three study drugs significantly reduced the systemic vascular resistance index with a significant increase in cardiac index. Mean arterial pressure was reduced by all the drugs, although the decrease was not statistically significant. Hemodynamic changes were comparable between all the three groups. In terms of LV relaxation indices, all three agents led to a significant improvement in diastolic function. Transmitral and Tissue Doppler E/A and Em/Am ratios improved significantly Transmitral and Tissue Doppler E/A and Em/Am ratios improved significantly accompanied by a significant decrease in deceleration time and isovolumetric relaxation time. The effect of all three agents on diastolic relaxation parameters was comparable. In conclusion , Isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane, do not appear to have a detrimental effect in patients with early diastolic dysfunction. On the contrary, these inhalational agents actually improve the LV relaxation. A significant reduction in afterload produced by these vapors can be a possible reason for these findings. The positive effect of these inhalational agents on LV relaxation can have a profound effect on the perioperative anesthetic management of patients with diastolic dysfunction.

Sarkar Subhendu

2010-01-01

248

Interpretación de la relación presión-flujo en la hipertensión arterial pulmonar idiopática / Pressure-flow relationships interpretation in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Conocer más de la relación presión arterial pulmonar media/índice cardiaco y sus perfiles en enfermos con hipertensión arterial pulmonar idiopática. Métodos: La presión arterial pulmonar media/índice cardiaco y la presión extrapolada al eje de cero flujo se obtuvo en 40 enfermos respirando [...] aire ambiente, oxígeno 99.5% e hidralazina. Se obtuvieron dos grupos de acuerdo a criterios de "respuesta vasodilatadora aguda", respondedores (n = 20) y no respondedores (n = 20). Se analizó este criterio versus el propuesto por la Task Force de la Sociedad Europea de Cardiología en la población respondedora. Resultados: La presión arterial pulmonar media/Índice cardiaco se ubicó de forma anormal en el diagrama de presión-flujo de la cohorte total, (p Abstract in english Objectives: We analyze exercise-derived mean pulmonary artery pressure/cardiac index relationship to expand the concepts regarding its nature and to better identify "responders" in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension patients. Methods: Mean pulmonary artery pressure/cardiac index relationship [...] and extrapolated pressure to zero flow were obtained in 40 patients' breathing room air, oxygen 99.5% and hydralazine. The hemodynamic characteristics were analyzed for the cohort and separate for responders (n = 20) and non responders (n = 20) according to the acute response to vasodilator. We tested this previous criteria versus the Task Force on diagnosis and treatment prescribed by the European Society of Cardiology. Results: The mean pulmonary arterial pressure/cardiac index was located abnormally in the pressure-flow diagram of the total cohort (p 40 mmHg mean pulmonary arterial pressure. Pressures were 34 ± 3 vs. 45 ± 4 mm Hg and slopes 1.14 (95% CI: 0.67 - 1.61) vs. 2.22(95% CI: 1.35 - 3.09) mm Hg/L min/m², p

Eulo, Lupi-Herrera; Luis Efren, Santos-Martínez; Tomás, Pulido; Julio, Sandoval.

2010-09-01

249

Is There an Optimal Arterial Pressure Level in Patients with End-Stage Chronic Renal Failure Before and After Kidney Transplantation?  

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Full Text Available Arterial hypertension occurs in 100% cases of end-stage chronic renal failure (ESCRF. It significantly worsens ESCRF and provokes cardiovascular complications. The presence of uncontrolled arterial hypertension after kidney transplantation becomes a determining factor deteriorating the prognosis of patients. The aim of the investigation was to define the changes of arterial pressure (AP in patients with end-stage chronic renal failure before and after kidney transplantation, along with antihypertensive therapy, and determine the most safe arterial pressure levels, with the kidney continuing its optimal functioning. Materials and Methods. The study involved 31 patients (16 male, 15 female patients, who underwent kidney transplantation for ESCRF. The study included the kidney functioning monitoring for a month after the transplantation (5 examinations, and the analysis of hemodynamic, biochemical indices, with transplant function definition. With the aim of achieving optimal AP before and after kidney transplantation, we actively titrated antihypertensive medicinal preparations and studied the functional state of a transplant. Results. Arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 100% of patients before transplantation; its level decreasing, on average, to the next lower order. In early postoperative period on day 7±1 the patients’ systolic AP decreased from 159.4±13.2/98.7±5.6 to 137.1±9.4/84.8±8.1 mm Hg (p < 0.001, and by the time of discharge its level averaged 127.9±9.2/81.1±6.9 mm Hg. Before hospitalization the patients took on average 1.9±0.2 basic medications, on discharge — 2.9±0.1. The indices of creatinine and urea levels, glomerular filtration rate (GFR and proteinuria consistently normalized. Postoperative intensity of systemic AP decrease had no effect on GFR levels in patients with ESCRF: GFR insignificantly increased in higher systolic AP: R2=0.082; p=0.09; R^2=0.083; p=0.23. A month after kidney transplantation AP level appeared to be optimal in the range of 115–130 mm Hg, and with such AP values GFR indices significantly grew (R2=0.25; p=0.035; R^2=0.3; p=0.027. Diastolic AP level had no significant effect on transplant function. Conclusion. In 100% cases, ESCRF patients have a syndrome of II or III degree arterial hypertension. After kidney transplantation there is an independent AP increase by one-two AP increase degrees. Intensive AP decrease in ESCRF patients before transplantation results in GFR decline. After transplantation there is GFR increase with an active decrease of systolic AP in the range of 115–130 mm Hg.

I.V. Fomin

2014-06-01

250

An Ultra Miniature MEMS Capacitor for Arterial Pressure Measurement  

Science.gov (United States)

In biomedical field, there is a need for improving medical technologies to provide accurate diagnosis to patients. The objective is to develop a minimally invasive, implantable, pressure sensing system that continuously monitors physiological changes in real-time. For implementing, three different shapes of MEMS capacitive pressure sensor having same area of diaphragm 0.126 mm² is designed and simulated for blood pressure measurement. The various shapes which are taken are circular, square and rectangular. COMSOL multiphysics tool is used for simulation. For these shapes capacitance and deflection variation of membrane with applied pressure is studied. Result shows a sensitivity of 0.255 aF/kPa, 0.125 aF/kPa and 0.09 aF/kPa for circular, square and rectangular shape, respectively. So, circular MEMS capacitor provides the greater sensitivity than all other shapes and also provides greater deflection of diaphragm due to applied pressure of 40 kPa. Also deflection is more in circular diaphragm capacitive pressure sensor.

Monga, A.; Vig, R.

2012-12-01

251

Relationship between pulmonary artery volumes at computed tomography and pulmonary artery pressures in patients with- and without pulmonary hypertension  

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Objectives: This study was designed to determine the relationship between pulmonary artery (PA) volumes at computed tomography (CT) and PA pressures at right-sided heart catheterization in patients with and without pulmonary hypertension (PAH) to develop a noninvasive CT method of PA pressure quantification. Materials and methods: Sixteen patients with chronic sleep apnea syndrome underwent contrast enhanced helical CT (slice thickness 3 mm; pitch 2; increment 2 mm) at inspiration. Eight patients had PAH while cardiopulmonary disease has been excluded in eight other patients. Vascular volumes were determined using a 3D technique (threshold seeded vascular tracing algorithm; thresholds -600 H [lower] and 3000 H [upper]). Right-sided heart catheterization measurements were available for linear regression analysis of PA volumes and pressures. Results: Correlation between PA pressures and volumes (normalized for BMI), was high in both groups (without PAH: r = .85; with PAH .90, Pearson). Compared to elevated PA pressures in patients with pulmonary hypertension (p < .005), PA volumes also were significantly increased (p < .05) among the groups. Conclusions: High correlation was found between PA volumes and mean PA pressures in patients with- and without PAH. Significant differences in PA volumes at CT-volumetry may admit non-invasive determination of pulmonary hypertension.

Froelich, Jens J. [Department of Radiology, Philipps-University Hospital, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany)], E-mail: jens.froelich@klinikum-hef.de; Koenig, Helmut [Department of Radiology, Philipps-University Hospital, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany)], E-mail: helmut.koenig@siemens.com; Knaak, Lennard [Department of Medicine, Philipps-University Hospital, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany)], E-mail: froehlic@staff.uni-marburg.de; Krass, Stefan [MeVis Research, Universitaetsallee 29, 28359 Bremen (Germany)], E-mail: krass@mevis.de; Klose, Klaus J. [Department of Radiology, Philipps-University Hospital, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany)], E-mail: klose@med.uni-marburg.de

2008-09-15

252

Determinação da pressão arterial em recém-nascidos =Determination of blood pressure in newborns  

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Full Text Available Objetivo: descrever as recomendações para a determinação da pressão arterial em recém-nascidos, os métodos e instrumentos utilizados. Fonte de dados: revisão de artigos médicos sobre pressão arterial em recém-nascidos publicados nos últimos vinte anos (base de dados: MEDLINE, PubMed e artigos originais sobre o método do “flush”. Síntese de dados: vários fatores dificultam as medidas e interpretação da pressão arterial em neonatos, como tamanho variável do braço, dificuldade de obtenção em recém-nascidos chorosos e variação na pressão arterial quanto à idade gestacional e peso. A medida da pressão arterial deve ser realizada preferencialmente no braço direito, com a largura do manguito correspondendo a 40% da circunferência do braço e que envolva 80% a 100% da respectiva extremidade. Atualmente, os métodos de monitorização não-invasiva da pressão arterial estão bem difundidos, especialmente o uso da oscilometria automática. Além disso, o antigo método do “flush” e a técnica da oximetria de pulso têm sido citados na literatura. Como limitação mais importante encontra-se a ausência de validação dos equipamentos em neonatologia, especialmente dos monitores oscilométricos. Conclusões: dois elementos importantes para obtenção de pressões arteriais exatas são um bebê calmo e um manguito de tamanho adequado. Todos os métodos descritos são adequados para a mensuração da pressão arterial em recém-nascidos. Objective: To describe the recommendations for the determination of the blood pressure in newborn, the methods and the devices. Sources of data: Review of medical articles about blood pressure in newborn published in the last twenty years (database: Medline, PubMed and original articles about the flush method. Summary of the findings: Several factors complicate the measures and interpretation of the blood pressure in newborns, like variable size of the upper arm, difficulty in tearful newborn and variation in the blood pressure regarding the weight and gestational age. The measure of the blood pressure should be performed preferentially in the right upper arm, with cuff size corresponding to 40% of the circumference of the upper arm and that involves 80% to 100% of the respective extremity. Nowadays, noninvasive measurements methods of the blood pressure feel well spread, especially the use of oscillometric automatic. Moreover, the antique flush method and pulse oximetry techniques have been being cited in the literature. Like more important limitation to meets itself the validation absence of the devices in neonatology, especially in the oscillometrics devices. Conclusions: Two important elements for obtainment of exact blood pressures are a calm baby and a adequate cuff size and all described methods are adequate for measurement of the blood pressure.

Fiori, Renato Machado

2007-01-01

253

Brachial artery vasomotion and transducer pressure effect on measurements by active contour segmentation on ultrasound  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To use feed-forward active contours (snakes) to track and measure brachial artery vasomotion on ultrasound images recorded in both transverse and longitudinal views; and to compare the algorithm's performance in each view. Methods: Longitudinal and transverse view ultrasound image sequences of 45 brachial arteries were segmented by feed-forward active contour (FFAC). The segmented regions were used to measure vasomotion artery diameter, cross-sectional area, and distention both as peak-to-peak diameter and as area. ECG waveforms were also simultaneously extracted frame-by-frame by thresholding a running finite-difference image between consecutive images. The arterial and ECG waveforms were compared as they traced each phase of the cardiac cycle. Results: FFAC successfully segmented arteries in longitudinal and transverse views in all 45 cases. The automated analysis took significantly less time than manual tracing, but produced superior, well-behaved arterial waveforms. Automated arterial measurements also had lower interobserver variability as measured by correlation, difference in mean values, and coefficient of variation. Although FFAC successfully segmented both the longitudinal and transverse images, transverse measurements were less variable. The cross-sectional area computed from the longitudinal images was 27% lower than the area measured from transverse images, possibly due to the compression of the artery along the image depth by transducer pressure. Conclusions: FFAC is a robust and sensitive vasomotion segmentation algorithm in both transverse and longitudinal views. Transverse imaging may offer advantages over longitudinal imaging: transverse measurements are more consistent, possibly because the method is less sensitive to variations in transducer pressure during imaging. PMID:24506648

Cary, Theodore W.; Reamer, Courtney B.; Sultan, Laith R.; Mohler, Emile R.; Sehgal, Chandra M.

2014-01-01

254

Vitamin D levels and left ventricular diastolic function  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To determine the association between serum vitamin D level and left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction. Background Vitamin D deficiency has been shown in observational and prospective studies to be associated with cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease, LV hypertrophy and systolic heart failure. Even though diastolic LV dysfunction is an early manifestation of cardiac disease, there is no study that examines whether a deficiency of vitamin D is associated with LV diastolic dysfunction. Method A retrospective observational review of 1011 patients (679 women) was conducted to examine if low 25-OH-vitamin D levels were associated with LV diastolic dysfunction. Results All the LV diastolic dysfunction parameters: left atrial volume index, E/e', e' velocity, LV mass index and deceleration time were not significantly different between patients with 25-OH vitamin D level ?20?ng/mL vs 25-OH vitamin D level >20?ng/mL. Conclusions Despite growing medical literature suggesting vitamin D deficiency is associated with cardiovascular disease, in this present study there is no significant association of vitamin D levels and LV diastolic performance, including left atrial volume index. PMID:25332778

Pandit, Anil; Mookadam, Farouk; Boddu, Sailaja; Aryal Pandit, Aashrayata; Tandar, Anwar; Chaliki, Hari; Cha, Stephen; Lee, Howard R

2014-01-01

255

The effects of 12-week psyllium fibre supplementation or healthy diet on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in overweight and obese individuals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endothelial dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness occur early in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome and they are both powerful independent predictors of cardiovascular risk. A high-fibre diet has been correlated with lower BMI and a lower incidence of hyperlipidaemia, CVD, hypertension and diabetes. The present randomised, parallel-design study compared the effects of fibre intake from a healthy diet v. fibre supplement diets on blood pressure (BP) and vascular function over 12 weeks. Overweight and obese adults were randomised to one of three groups: control (with placebo), fibre supplement (FIB) or healthy eating group with placebo (HLT). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was lower in the FIB group compared with the control group at week 6, but not at week 12. However, SBP was lower in the HLT group compared with control group at week 12. At week 6, the FIB group presented lower diastolic blood pressure and augmentation index compared with the control group, but this result did not persist to the end of the study. The present study did not show any improvements in BP or vascular function in overweight and obese individuals with psyllium fibre supplementation over 12 weeks of intervention. However, a healthy diet provided the greatest improvements in BP in overweight and obese subjects. Further research with hypertensive individuals is necessary to elucidate whether increased fibre consumption in the form of psyllium supplementation may provide a safe and acceptable means to reduce BP, vascular function and the risk of developing CVD. PMID:21787454

Pal, Sebely; Khossousi, Alireza; Binns, Colin; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone

2012-03-01

256

Noninvasive Ankle Blood Pressure Measurements by Oscillometry  

OpenAIRE

Noninvasive ankle systolic, mean and diastolic pressures were obtained with an oscillometric instrument available commercially. Systolic pressures were also measured at either the posterior tibial or dorsal pedal artery by using the Doppler technique with the ultrasound probe. Ankle pressures were obtained in normal subjects and in patients with peripheral vascular disease, particularly patients with calcified or incompressible vessels or with different posterior tibial and dorsal pedal Doppl...

Salles-cunha, Sergio X.; Vincent, Dennis G.; Towne, Jonathan B.; Bernhard, Victor M.

1982-01-01

257

Effects of chronic beta-blockade on intra-arterial blood pressure during motor car driving.  

OpenAIRE

Continuous intra-arterial blood pressure recordings during motor car driving were performed in 15 patients with untreated essential hypertension, using the "Oxford" recording technique. Each subject was an experienced driver who used his car every day, and for the study drove from his work place to the hospital during the later afternoon. This drive took place in urban traffic and the average duration was 20.9 minutes. Blood pressure during car driving was remarkably stable, and the average s...

Millar-craig, M. W.; Mann, S.; Balasubramanian, V.; Cashman, P.; Raftery, E. B.

1981-01-01

258

New Cardiovascular Indices Based on a Nonlinear Spectral Analysis of Arterial Blood Pressure Waveforms  

OpenAIRE

A new method for analyzing arterial blood pressure is presented in this report. The technique is based on the scattering transform and consists in solving the spectral problem associated to a one-dimensional Schr\\"odinger operator with a potential depending linearly upon the pressure. This potential is then expressed with the discrete spectrum which includes negative eigenvalues and corresponds to the interacting components of an N-soliton. The approach is similar to a nonli...

Laleg, Taous-meriem; Me?digue, Claire; Papelier, Yves; Cre?peau, Emmanuelle; Sorine, Michel

2007-01-01

259

Is Nocturnal Systolic Blood Pressure Rise Associated with Central Hemodynamics and Arterial Stiffness?  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess central hemodynamics and parameters of arterial stiffness of cases with nocturnal blood pressure rise. MATERIAL and METHODS: In this retrospective study, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring of 252 hypertensive patients was performed with the Mobil-O-Graph Arteriograph. RESULTS: 174 (%69.0) out of 252 patients were female and 78 (%31) were male and the mean age was 54.5±14.4. When Pearson's correlation test was performed, the nocturnal sy...

C?eli?k, Gu?lperi; Gu?ndog?du, Ali; Elsu?rer Afs?ar, Rengin; S?ahi?n, Fatih

2012-01-01

260

Increased Myogenic Reactivity of Uterine Arteries from Pregnant Rats with Reduced Uterine Perfusion Pressure  

OpenAIRE

The etiology of preeclampsia remains unknown. However, a contributing factor to this hypertensive disease of pregnancy is a reduction in uterine perfusion pressure resulting in placental ischemia. Uterine arteries may be a major regulator of this process through changes in vascular reactivity and localized blood flow. The reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) pregnant rat is an established animal model of preeclampsia pathology. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were used for this investigatio...

Reho, John J.; Toot, Jonathan D.; Peck, Jennifer; Novak, Jacqueline; Yun, Yang H.; Ramirez, Rolando J.

2012-01-01

261

Frequency dependent effect of selective biphasic left vagus nerve stimulation on heart rate and arterial pressure  

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Full Text Available Activation of the parasympathetic pathway leads to negative chronotropic, dromotropic, and inotropic changes of heart function. The ability to selectively stimulate certain superficial compartments of peripheral nerves has been demonstrated previously. The aim of the present study was to find a clinically acceptable selective biphasic vagus nerve stimulation technique, which could allow gradual regulation of heart rate and systemic arterial pressure. In two patients, the left vagus nerve was stimulated with a combination of quasi-trapezoidal cathodic and rectangular anodic current pulses with different stimulation frequencies (10Hz, 20Hz, 30Hz and increasing current. The heart rate and systemic arterial pressure decreased with increasing current at all different stimulation frequencies (p<0.05. The heart rate and arterial pressure response was more gradual with 10Hz compared to 20Hz/30Hz vagus nerve stimulation (p<0.05. In conclusion, selective vagus nerve stimulation, with a combination of quasi-trapezoidal cathodic and rectangular anodic current pulses at 10Hz, offers gradual heart rate and systolic arterial pressure control.

MATEJ PODBREGAR

2012-10-01

262

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Flexibility Techniques: Acute Effects on Arterial Blood Pressure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of stretching techniques on arterial blood pressure (ABP) were studied in three groups of 20 men each. Each group performed one of three proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques. Results are presented. The study indicates that the benefits of stretching may outweigh the risk of elevated ABP. (JL)

Cornelius, William L.; Craft-Hamm, Kelley

1988-01-01

263

Hemodynamic assessment of radial-arterial pressure-wave contours in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new classification system for the radial-arterial pressure-wave contour in children is proposed with respect to their hemodynamic parameters. The contour of the radial-arterial pressure wave was analyzed in 45 children who had undergone open heart surgery. Stroke volume and peripheral vascular resistance were calculated from the cardiac output by thermodilution. The arterial pressure-wave contours were classified into type I, II or III, with each wave type having three, two and one shoulders, respectively. Type I denoted a better cardiac index, with a lower heart rate and larger stroke volume than type II. Type III was symptomatic of low cardiac output. Type I was further classified into subgroups Ia and Ib according to the magnitude of the tidal wave, and type II was subdivided into IIa and IIb according to the magnitude of the dicrotic notch. The classification of subgroup types a and b in both types I and II was related to the degree of vascular contraction. It is concluded that monitoring of the arterial pressure-wave contours provides useful information regarding hemodynamics in children. PMID:1788839

Nomoto, S; Muraoka, R; Yokota, M

1991-12-01

264

Blood pressure and mesenteric resistance arterial function after spaceflight  

Science.gov (United States)

Ground studies indicate that spaceflight may diminish vascular contraction. To examine that possibility, vascular function was measured in spontaneously hypertensive rats immediately after an 18-day shuttle flight. Isolated mesenteric resistance arterial responses to cumulative additions of norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside were measured using wire myography within 17 h of landing. After flight, maximal contraction to norepinephrine was attenuated (P < 0.001) as was relaxation to acetylcholine (P < 0.001) and sodium nitroprusside (P < 0.05). At high concentrations, acetylcholine caused vascular contraction in vessels from flight animals but not in vessels from vivarium control animals (P < 0.05). The results are consistent with data from ground studies and indicate that spaceflight causes both endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent alterations in vascular function. The resulting decrement in vascular function may contribute to orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight.

Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Chapman, Justin; Xue, Hong; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; McCarron, David A.

2002-01-01

265

Echocardiographic evaluation of the arterial stiffness in healthy subjects and hypertensive patients under 60 years.  

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Full Text Available Objectives To determine the association of several parameters of arterial stiffness withdiastolic dysfunction and arterial hypertension in patients under 60 years.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study that included 83 patients (healthy,n=43; hypertensive, n=40 assisted in the external consultation of the NationalCardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery Institute, from April to October,2009. We included clinical (age, sex, personal antecedents of smokinghabit, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension and echocardiographic(diastolic function, arterial stiffness index [?], pressure strain elasticmodulus [Ep], arterial compliance, local pulse wave velocity [LPWV] variables.Results Arterial stiffness index [?], Ep and LPWV were significantly greater in thegroup of hypertensive patients vs healthy subjects (p<0,001 and hypertensivepatients with diastolic dysfunction vs hypertensive with normal diastolicfunction (p<0,001. We demonstrated a proportional and significant increasein the presence of diastolic dysfunction in patients withLPWV?5m/seg and more than 5 years of hypertension, when compared tothose with LPWV?5m/seg and less than 5 years of hypertension, andLPWV<5m/seg independently of the years of hypertension (30, 0% vs 20,0% vs 12, 5% vs 2, 5%, p=0,036, respectively.Conclusions Arterial stiffness showed a significant association with the presence of arterialhypertension and diastolic dysfunction.

Julio Cesar Gandarilla Sarmientos

2011-01-01

266

Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function during coronary arteriography before and after acute left ventricular failure in dogs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hemodynamic side effects of intracoronary injection of low osmolality contrast media were studied in anesthetised dogs, both with and without left ventricular (LV) failure. LV failure was induced by microembolization of the area supplied by the left main coronary artery. LV pressure and volume, aortic pressure, and cardiac output were recorded. 6 ml iodixanol 320 mg I/ml containing 20 mmol Na+/l, a new non-ionic dimer, was compared to iohexol and ioxaglate. Iodixanol induced small systolic alterations both before and after LV failure. Iohexol increased LV inotropy while ioxaglate depressed myocardial function. Before failure iodixanol and ioxaglate impaired isovolumic relaxation, but early diastolic filling was not reduced. After failure the relaxation process was not affected, but ioxaglate reduced early diastolic filling. Ioxaglate also increased LV end-diastolic pressure and volume more than the non-ionic contrast media. In conclusion, iodixanol induced only small changes in systolic and diatolic function. Iodixanol should therefore be hemodynamically well tolerated during coronary arteriography, and also in acute ischemic heart failure. (orig.)

267

Artificial Arterial Blood Pressure Artifact Models and an Evaluation of a Robust Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Estimator  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Within the intensive care unit (ICU), arterial blood pressure (ABP) is typically recorded at different (and sometimes uneven) sampling frequencies, and from different sensors, and is often corrupted by different artifacts and noise which are often non-Gaussian, nonlinear and nonstationary. Extracting robust parameters from such signals, and providing confidences in the estimates is therefore difficult and requires an adaptive filtering approach which accou...

Mark Roger G; Li Qiao; Clifford Gari D

2009-01-01

268

Fatores preditores para o óbito neonatal em gestações com diástole zero ou reversa na doplervelocimetria da artéria umbilical / Predictor parameters of neonatal death in gestations with absent or reverse end-diastolic flow in the umbilical artery doppler velocimetry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar os fatores de risco antenatais e pós-natais para o óbito neonatal em gestações com diástole zero (DZ) ou reversa (DR) na doplervelocimetria da artéria umbilical. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, retrospectivo, inferencial, a partir de 48 prontuários de gestações únicas com DZ ou DR, id [...] ade gestacional entre 24 e 34 semanas, em uma maternidade no Nordeste do Brasil. A média de idade foi de 27,3 anos (DP: 7,9). Vinte (41,7%) eram primigestas. Síndromes hipertensivas foram observadas em 44 (91,7%) casos. Trinta e cinco (72,9%) apresentavam DZ e 13 (27,1%) DR. Procedeu-se inicialmente à análise univariada (teste t de Student e teste Exato de Fisher), relacionando os parâmetros com o desfecho avaliado (óbito neonatal). As variáveis que apresentaram associação significativa foram incluídas no modelo de regressão logística (Estatística de Wald). O nível de significância utilizado foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: a mortalidade perinatal foi de 64,6% (31/48). Ocorreram cinco óbitos fetais e 26 neonatais. A média de idade gestacional no momento do diagnóstico foi de 27,9 (DP: 2,8) semanas. A resolução da gestação antes de 24 horas após o diagnóstico ocorreu em 52,1% dos casos. Parto abdominal foi realizado em 85,4% dos casos. Os recém-nascidos pesaram em média 975,9 g (DP: 457,5). Vinte e quatro (57,1%) apresentaram Apgar menor que 7 no primeiro minuto e 21,4%, no quinto. A idade gestacional no momento do diagnóstico, o peso ao nascer e o Apgar de primeiro minuto revelaram-se variáveis significativamente relacionadas com o óbito neonatal (valores de p foram, respectivamente, 0,008; 0,004 e 0,020). As razões de chance foi de 6,6; 25,3 e 13,8 para o óbito neonatal, quando o diagnóstico foi estabelecido até a 28ª semana, peso Abstract in english PURPOSE: to evaluate the antenatal and postnatal risk factors of neonatal death in pregnancies with absent (DZ) or reverse (DR) end-diastolic flow in the umbilical artery. METHODS: a cross-sectional retrospective study based on data from 48 medical records of singleton pregnancies with DZ or DR, and [...] gestational age of 24 to 34 weeks, at a maternity in the Brazilian Northeast. Mean age was 27.3 (SD: 7.9) years. Twenty (41.7%) patients were primiparas. Hypertensive disorders were found in 44 (91.7%) cases. Thirty-five women (72.9%) had DZ and 13 (27.1%) had DR. Univariate analysis was firstly done (Student's t-test and Fisher's exact test) correlating the parameters with the assessed outcome (neonatal death). Variables that showed significant association were included in the logistic regression model (Wald statistics). The level of significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: The perinatal mortality rate was 64.6% (31/48). There were five stillbirths and 26 neonatal deaths. The mean gestational age at diagnosis was 27.9 (SD: 2.8) weeks. Deliveries before 24 hours after diagnosis occurred in 52.1% of the cases. Cesarean section was performed in 85.4% of the sample. The newborns weighed 975.9 g on average (SD: 457.5). Twenty-four (57.1%) presented Apgar scores below 7 in the first minute and 21.4% in the fifth minute. Gestational age at diagnosis, birth weight and Apgar of the first minute proved to be variables significantly related to neonatal death (p values were: 0.008, 0.004, and 0.020, respectively). The Odds Ratio was 6.6, 25.3 and 13.8 for neonatal death, when the diagnosis was established at the 28th week, weight was

Manoel, Martins Neto; Francisco Herlânio Costa, Carvalho; Rosa Maria Salani, Mota; Carlos Augusto, Alencar Júnior.

2010-07-01

269

Respuesta ortostática de la tensión arterial de pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson inicial / Orthostatic response of blood pressure in patients with early Parkinson's disease  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Evaluar la respuesta ortostática de la tensión arterial de forma no invasiva en pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson inicial leve a moderada atendidos en el Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía. Método: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal con grupo control. Se incluyeron [...] pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson de menos de 5 años de evolución y severidad leve a moderada así como controles sanos. Se excluyeron sujetos con diabetes mellitus, hipertensión arterial o diagnóstico de disautonomía. Se realizaron mediciones de la tensión arterial en posición supina, y posteriormente a los3y5minde asumir bipedestación. Resultados: Se incluyeron 70 sujetos con enfermedad de Parkinson y 145 controles. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en género y edad entre ambos grupos. No hubo diferencias en el cambio de la tensión arterial sistólica entre los grupos a los 3 min pero sí a los 5min (p = 0.03). En el caso de la tensión diastólica existió diferencia entre ambos grupos a los 3 y 5min (p = 0.02 y p = 0.007). Conclusión: Los pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson inicial presentan diferencias en la respuesta ortostática con respecto a controles sanos, siendo de mayor relevancia a los 5 min de bipedestación. Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate orthostatic blood pressure response in patients with early Parkinson's disease and mild to moderate disease treated at the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery. Method: A cross-sectional study with control group was carried out. Patients with Parkinson's disease wi [...] th a disease duration of less than 5 years and mild to moderate severity along with healthy controls of the same age group were included. Those subjects with diabetes mellitus, hypertension or diagnosis of dysautonomia were excluded. Blood pressure was measured in supine position as well as after 3 and 5 min of standing. Results: Seventy subjects with Parkinson's disease and 145 controls were included. There were no statistically significant differences in gender and age between both groups. There was no difference in systolic blood pressure change between groups at 3 minutes but at 5 minutes a statistically significant difference was found (P = .03). For diastolic blood pressure a difference between both groups was present at three and five minutes (P = .02 and P = .007). Conclusion: Patients with early Parkinson's disease have differences in orthostatic responses compared to healthy controls, these differences are more relevant at 5 minutes of standing.

Mayela, Rodríguez-Violante; Amin, Cervantes-Arriaga; Daniela, García-Ibarra; Teresa, Corona.

2013-06-01

270

Left ventricular dimensions and function during right ventricular pressure overload.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of right ventricular (RV) pressure overload on left ventricular (LV) function is controversial. Therefore, we examined LV dimensions and shortening after acute and chronic pulmonary artery (PA) constriction in six conscious dogs, preinstrumented with LV and RV catheters, an LV micromanometer, a PA inflatable cuff occluder, and ultrasonic crystals to measure an LV anteroposterior, a septal-lateral, and a free wall segment chord. Studies were performed before, immediately after, and 2, 4, and 6 wk after PA constriction. With acute cuff inflation, RV systolic- and end-diastolic pressures rose, but LV end-diastolic pressure fell. Both septal-lateral end-diastolic length and systolic shortening declined 4.1 +/- 0.7 mm and 5.9 +/- 2.3% respectively (P less than 0.01), whereas the anteroposterior and segment chords were unaffected. With chronic RV pressure overload septal-lateral shortening but not end-diastolic length returned to control levels. Also the first derivative of LV pressure (LV dP/dt) fell 540 +/- 164 mmHg/s by 6 wk compared with control, but this decline was reversed by volume expansion with dextran. We conclude that RV pressure overload displaces the septum toward the LV free wall; acutely this displacement is primarily at end diastole, but chronically it occurs at end systole as well, maintaining the septal contribution to LV ejection. Thus chronic RV pressure overload is associated with significant changes in LV diastolic shape but maintenance of normal LV function. PMID:7065274

Badke, F R

1982-04-01

271

Blood pressure and lipid profile in young women: the role of anthropometric measurement / Pressão arterial e perfil lipídico em mulheres jovens: o papel da avaliação antropométrica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Composição corporal tem importância fundamental para a qualidade de vida e é um forte preditor de mortalidade e morbidade nos seres humanos. A identificação e o monitoramento da quantidade de gordura corporal têm recebido atenção especial no que se refere aos aspectos relacionados com a promoção da [...] saúde, não apenas de suas ações na prevenção e no controle das doenças cardiovasculares, mas também pela sua associação com fatores de risco, especialmente em níveis de lipídeos plasmáticos e da pressão arterial. Foi investigado a relação entre o índice de massa corporal (IMC) e percentual de gordura corporal (% GC) pela bioimpedância elétrica (BIA), com os níveis de pressão arterial (sistólica e diastólica) e lipídeos séricos (CT, HDL-c, LDL-c, VLDL-c, TG). Em um grupo de 57 mulheres (com idades entre 18 e 26 anos de idade), a obesidade foi detectada em cinco e 19 mulheres, IMC (? 30 kg/m2) e % BF (? 30%), respectivamente. IMC e % GC foram positivamente correlacionados com a pressão arterial (sistólica e diastólica), e altamente significativos no grupo dos obesos pelo % GC. Além disso, o IMC e % GC foram significativamente correlacionados com todos os lipídios e frações de lipoproteínas VLDL-C e triglicérides, respectivamente. Estes resultados sugerem que o % GC é um bom indicador de “obesidade oculta” em indivíduos com índice de massa corporal normal. Que o uso associado de IMC e % GC para melhor avaliar a obesidade pode melhorar o estudo dos níveis de pressão arterial e alterações de lipídios que é geralmente associada à obesidade. Abstract in english Body composition has fundamental importance in the quality of life and is a powerful predictor of mortality and morbidity in humans. The identification and monitoring of the amount of body fat have been receiving special attention in aspects related to health promotion, not just for its actions in t [...] he prevention and in the control of cardiovascular diseases but also for their induction and association with risk factors, especially in the plasmatic lipid levels and arterial pressure. It was investigated the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (%BF) by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with the blood pressure levels (systolic and diastolic) and serum lipids (TC, HDL-c, LDL-c, VLDL-c, TG). In a group of fifty seven women (aged 18 to 26 years old ), obesity was detected in 5 and 19 women by BMI (? 30 kg/m2) and %BF (? 30%), respectively. BMI and % BF were positively correlated with blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), and highly significant in the obese group by %BF. Moreover, BMI and % BF were significantly correlated with all lipids and lipoprotein fractions VLDL-c and triglyceride, respectively. These results suggest that %BF is a good indicator of “occult obesity” in subjects with normal body mass index. The associated use of BMI and %BF to better evaluate obesity may improve the study of blood pressure levels and serum lipid changes that are commonly associated with obesity.

Marcelo Custódio, Rubira; Ana Paula Fernandes de Angelis, Rubira; Lucas De Angelis, Rubira; Milton Carlos Martins, Lima; Roberto Jorge da Silva, Franco; Fernanda Marciano, Consolim-Colombo.

2014-12-01

272

Limitação funcional e claudicação intermitente: impacto das medidas de pressão arterial / Functional limitation and intermittent claudication: impact of blood pressure measurements  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTO: A hipertensão arterial é importante fator de risco para Doença Arterial Obstrutiva Periférica dos Membros Inferiores (DAOMI). Entretanto, a correlação entre pressão arterial e Pressão de Pulso (PP) com a gravidade da DAOMI e o prejuízo funcional decorrente dessa doença ainda não está bem [...] estabelecida na população brasileira. OBJETIVO: Verificar se há correlação entre pressão arterial, PP, gravidade da DAOMI e capacidade funcional de pacientes com DAOMI sintomática. MÉTODOS: FORAM avaliados 65 pacientes (62,2 ± 8,1 anos; 56,9% do sexo masculino), divididos em dois grupos: pressão arterial normal (A) e elevada (B). A gravidade da DAOMI foi avaliada por meio do Índice Tornozelo-Braquial (ITB) e a capacidade funcional, pelas distâncias total e livre de dor percorridas em teste de marcha. RESULTADOS: O grupo A foi constituído por 17 (26,1%) pacientes. A Pressão Arterial Sistólica (PAS), diastólica e a PP foram, respectivamente, 125,4 ± 11,7; 74,5 ± 9,1 e 50,9 ±10,0 mmHg, para o grupo A, e 160,7 ± 19,6; 90,0 ± 12,2 e 70,7 ± 20,2 mmHg, para o grupo B. O ITB foi significativamente menor no grupo B (0,66 ± 0,12 vs 0,57 ± 0,13, p 40 mmHg percorreram menores distâncias. CONCLUSÃO: A PAS e a PP correlacionaram-se de forma significativa com as distâncias percorridas em teste de marcha, sugerindo que sejam marcardores clínicos da limitação da capacidade funcional em pacientes com DAOMI sintomática. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Arterial hypertension is an important risk factor for Lower-Limb Occlusive Arterial Disease (LLOAD). However, the correlation between blood pressure and pulse pressure (PP) with LLOAD severity and functional impairment resulting from this disease is not well established in the Brazilian [...] population. OBJECTIVE: To verify whether there is a correlation between blood pressure, PP, LLOAD severity and functional capacity in patients with symptomatic LLOAD. METHODS: A total of 65 patients (62.2 + 8.1 years, 56.9% males) were evaluated. They were divided into two groups: normal (A) and high (B) blood pressure. LLOAD severity was assessed using the ankle-brachial index (ABI) and functional capacity by the total and pain-free walking distance at the 6-minute walking test (6MWT). RESULTS: Group A consisted of 17 (26.1%) patients. The systolic (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and PP were, respectively, 125.4 ±11.7, 74.5 ± 9.1 and 50.9 ± 10.0 mmHg in group A and 160.7 ± 19.6, 90.0 ± 12.2 and 70.7 ± 20.2 mmHg in group B. The ABI was significantly lower in group B (0.66 ± 0.12 vs. 0.57 ± 0.13, p 40 mmHg walked shorter distances. CONCLUSION: SBP and PP significantly correlated with the distances walked in the 6MWT, suggesting they are clinical markers of functional capacity impairment in patients with symptomatic LLOAD.

Rita de Cássia Gengo e, Silva; Cassiana Rosa Galvão, Giribela; Nelson, Wolosker; Fernanda Marciano, Consolim-Colombo.

2012-02-01

273

Resposta da pressão arterial ao esforço em adolescentes: influência do sobrepeso e obesidade / Blood pressure response to physical exertion in adolescents: influence of overweight and obesity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTO: A resposta aguda da pressão arterial ao esforço tem sido utilizada como indicador de risco para o desenvolvimento de hipertensão arterial. Os fatores associados com essa resposta precisam ser esclarecidos a fim de se intervir na prevenção da doença hipertensiva. OBJETIVO: Descrever o com [...] portamento das variáveis cardiovasculares ao esforço agudo em adolescentes com excesso de peso, por meio de teste cardiopulmonar. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída de 104 adolescentes (56 meninos e 48 meninas), divididos nos grupos de sobrepeso/obesos (GSO) e eutróficos (GE). Foram aferidas variáveis antropométricas (peso, estatura e IMC), de composição corporal (dobra cutânea) e variáveis hemodinâmicas de pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) e diastólica (PAD) e freqüência cardíaca (FC), no repouso e no esforço máximo do teste cardiopulmonar. RESULTADOS: No grupo masculino, identificaram-se maiores valores de pressão arterial sistólica de repouso para o GSO, quando comparados com o GE (113 ± 13 vs 106 ± 8 mmHg; p = 0,009), a PAS pré-exercício (120 ± 14 vs 109 ± 10 mmHg; p = 0,003) e de PAS na carga máxima de trabalho (156 ± 20 vs 146 ± 14 mmHg; p = 0,03). No grupo feminino, apenas a PAS pré-exercício foi superior no grupo de sobrepeso, quando isso foi comparado com as eutróficas (114 ± 11 vs 106 ± 10 mmHg; p = 0,009). CONCLUSÃO: A resposta pressórica durante o exercício foi mais exacerbada em adolescentes obesos quando comparada com àquela obtida em eutróficos, o que indica maior reatividade ao estresse físico. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The acute blood pressure response to physical exertion has been used as an indicator of the risk of developing hypertension. The factors associated with this response need to be clarified for timely intervention in preventing hypertensive disease. OBJECTIVE: To describe the response of c [...] ardiovascular variables to acute physical exertion in overweight adolescents using cardiopulmonary exercise testing. METHODS: The sample consisted of 104 adolescents (56 boys and 48 girls), divided into two groups: the obese/overweight group (OOG) and the eutrophic group (EG). The following variables were measured: anthropometric (weight, height, and BMI), body composition (skin fold thickness), as well as hemodynamic variables such as systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), and heart rate (HR), at rest and at maximal physical exertion during the cardiopulmonary test. RESULTS: In the male group, the greatest values of systolic arterial pressure at rest were recorded in the OOG as compared to the EG (113 ± 13 vs 106 ± 8 mmHg; p = 0.009), pre-exertion SAP (120 ± 14 vs 109 ± 10 mmHg; p = 0.003), and SAP during maximal exertion conditions (156 ± 20 vs 146 ± 14 mmHg; p = 0.03). In the female group, only pre-exertion SAP was higher in the overweight group as compared to the eutrophic girls (114 ± 11 vs 106 ± 10 mmHg; p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: The response of arterial blood pressure during physical exercise was most exacerbated in obese adolescents as compared to eutrophic teens, suggesting greater reactivity to physical exertion.

Luciana, Carletti; Anabel Nunes, Rodrigues; Anselmo José, Perez; Dalton Valentim, Vassallo.

2008-07-01

274

Evaluation of accuracy of invasive and non-invasive blood pressure monitoring in relation to carotid artery pressure in anaesthetised ponies  

OpenAIRE

Invasive blood pressure measurement (IBP) using peripheral arteries is a commonly used technique in equine anaesthesia, although the accuracy has not been demonstrated. Non-invasive blood pressure monitoring (NIBP) may be indicated for field anesthesia, short procedures and foal anaesthesia. In the present report, the agreement of various IBP and NIBP measuring sites compared to carotid artery pressure was tested in anaesthetised experimental ponies. Six ponies were anaesthetised in lateral r...

Gent, Thomas C.; Schwarz, Andrea; Hatz, Lea-annina; Gozalo-marcilla, Miguel; Stijn, Schauvliege; Gasthuys, Frank; Bettschart-wolfensberger, Regula

2015-01-01

275

[Evaluation of selected functional circulation parameters of workers from various occupational groups exposed to electromagnetic fields of high frequency. III. 24-h monitoring of arterial blood pressure (ABP)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of blood pressure regulation in persons occupationally exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) has not as yet been elucidated, and most data come from studies carried out long time ago (1960-70) in the former Soviet Union. Our study was aimed at verifying the Soviet data by means of modern methods. Together with traditional methods, a 24-h monitoring of arterial blood pressure (ABP) using a Medilog ABP kit (Oxford) were employed. Measurements were taken automatically every 0.5 h during daily activities and every 1 h during the night rest (about 41 measurements/day). The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were calculated over day (BPSDOver, BPDOver, HROver), during daily activities (HPDD, BPSD, HRD) and during the night rest (BPSN, BPDN, HRN). The subjective and objective examinations were carried out as well as resting ECG and a 24-h Holter were performed (the results have been published earlier). The study covered male workers of middlewave broadcast stations (71), radioservice (40) and radio line stations (42). The subjects were aged 21-60 years and the duration of their work with devices generating high frequency EMF ranged between 1 and 42 years. The first group of workers was exposed to EFM at the frequency of 1 Mhz, the second at about 150 Mhz and the third group, not exposed, served as the control group. The study revealed that the mean arterial blood pressure and the day/night blood pressure variability indicator showed no significant differences between the groups, whereas the daily heart rate was significantly lower in the workers of middlewave broadcast stations in comparison with the controls despite similar type of work as far as physical effort and psychic burden are concerned, and similar non-occupational activities. The day/night heart rate variability indicator was significantly lower in the groups exposed. The decreased value of this indicator may suggest the occurrence of disorders in the neurovegetative regulation. In persons employed at radioservice stations a higher incidence of the increased arterial blood pressure, in comparison with the control group, was observed. PMID:9198713

Gadzicka, E; Bortkiewicz, A; Zmy?lony, M; Pa?czy?ski, C

1997-01-01

276

Fast and accurate pressure-drop prediction in straightened atherosclerotic coronary arteries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atherosclerotic disease progression in coronary arteries is influenced by wall shear stress. To compute patient-specific wall shear stress, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is required. In this study we propose a method for computing the pressure-drop in regions proximal and distal to a plaque, which can serve as a boundary condition in CFD. As a first step towards exploring the proposed method we investigated ten straightened coronary arteries. First, the flow fields were calculated with CFD and velocity profiles were fitted on the results. Second, the Navier-Stokes equation was simplified and solved with the found velocity profiles to obtain a pressure-drop estimate (?p (1)). Next, ?p (1) was compared to the pressure-drop from CFD (?p CFD) as a validation step. Finally, the velocity profiles, and thus the pressure-drop were predicted based on geometry and flow, resulting in ?p geom. We found that ?p (1) adequately estimated ?p CFD with velocity profiles that have one free parameter ?. This ? was successfully related to geometry and flow, resulting in an excellent agreement between ?p CFD and ?p geom: 3.9 ± 4.9% difference at Re = 150. We showed that this method can quickly and accurately predict pressure-drop on the basis of geometry and flow in straightened coronary arteries that are mildly diseased. PMID:25113232

Schrauwen, Jelle T C; Koeze, Dion J; Wentzel, Jolanda J; van de Vosse, Frans N; van der Steen, Anton F W; Gijsen, Frank J H

2015-01-01

277

Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detecheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse oximeters showed gradual decrease of saturations during induced hypoperfusion which demonstrate the direct relation between blood volumes (PPG amplitudes), arterial vessel stenosis and blood oxygen saturation. The custom made pulse oximeter was found to be more sensitive to SpO2 changes than the commercial pulse oximeter especially at high occluding pressures

278

ELEVATED PRESSURE CAUSES ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION IN MOUSE CAROTID ARTERIES BY INCREASING LOCAL ANGIOTENSIN SIGNALING.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were performed to determine whether or not acute exposure to elevated pressure would disrupt endothelium-dependent dilatation by increasing local angiotensin II (ANGII) signaling. Vasomotor responses of mouse isolated carotid arteries were analyzed in a pressure myograph at a control transmural pressure (PTM) of 80mmHg. Acetylcholine-induced dilatation was reduced by endothelial denudation or by inhibition of NO synthase (LNAME, 100 ?M). Transient exposure to elevated PTM (150mmHg, 180 minutes) inhibited dilatation to acetylcholine, but did not affect responses to the NO donor DEA-NONOate. Elevated PTM also increased endothelial reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the pressure-induced endothelial dysfunction was prevented by the direct antioxidant and NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (100 ?M). The increase in endothelial ROS in response to elevated PTM was reduced by the AT1 receptor (AT1R) antagonists losartan (3?M) or valsartan (1?M). Indeed, elevated PTM caused marked expression of angiotensinogen, the precursor of ANGII. Inhibition of ANGII signaling, by blocking angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) (perindoprilat, 1?M; captopril, 10?M) or blocking AT1Rs prevented the impaired response to acetylcholine in arteries exposed to 150mmHg, but did not affect dilatation to the muscarinic agonist in arteries maintained at 80mmHg. After inhibiting ANGII, elevated pressure no longer impaired endothelial dilatation. In arteries treated with perindoprilat to inhibit endogenous formation of the peptide, exogenous ANGII (0.3?M, 180 minutes) inhibited dilatation to acetylcholine. Therefore, elevated pressure rapidly impairs endothelium-dependent dilatation by causing ANG expression and enabling ANGII-dependent activation of AT1 receptors. These processes may contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension-induced vascular dysfunction and organ injury. PMID:25485905

Zhao, Yingzi; Flavahan, Sheila; Leung, Susan W S; Xu, Aimin; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Flavahan, Nicholas A

2014-12-01

279

Distensibility in Arteries, Arterioles and Veins in Humans : Adaptation to Intermittent or Prolonged Change in Regional Intravascular Pressure  

OpenAIRE

The present series of in vivo experiments in healthy subjects, were performed to investigate wall stiffness in peripheral vessels and how this modality adapts to iterative increments or sustained reductions in local intravascular pressures. Vascular stiffness was measured as changes in arterial and venous diameters, and in arterial flow, during graded increments in distending pressures in the vasculature of an arm or a lower leg. In addition, effects of intravascular pressure elevation on flo...

Ko?lega?rd, Roger

2010-01-01

280

Speed Modulation of the Continuous-Flow Total Artificial Heart to Simulate a Physiologic Arterial Pressure Waveform  

OpenAIRE

This study demonstrated the concept of using speed modulation in a continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) to shape arterial pressure waveforms and to adjust pressure pulsatility. A programmable function generator was used to determine the optimum pulsatile speed profile. Three speed profiles (sinusoidal, rectangular, and optimized [a profile optimized for generation of a physiologic arterial pressure waveform]) were evaluated using the CFTAH mock circulatory loop. Hemodynamic paramete...

Shiose, Akira; Nowak, Kathleen; Horvath, David J.; Massiello, Alex L.; Golding, Leonard A. R.; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

2010-01-01

281

The Effects of Cola Acuminata on Arterial Blood Pressure  

OpenAIRE

Caffeine has been proven to be vasoactive and augments the release of calcium from sarcoplasmic reticulum. Interestingly, caffeine is the most active principle of Cola acuminata-commonly consumed in Nigeria. This study is designed to determine its effects on blood pressure using 20 Sprague dawley rats with an average weight of 150g. The animals were subdivided into 2 groups of 10 rats each (control and test groups). The control rats were fed with rat chow while the test groups were fed with s...

Igbinovia, E. N. S.; Ugwu, A. C.; Nwaopara, A. O.; Otamere, H. O.; Adisa, W. A.

2009-01-01

282

The arterial load in pulmonary hypertension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The anatomical differences between the pulmonary and systemic arterial system are the main cause of the difference in distribution of compliance. In the pulmonary arterial system compliance is distributed over the entire arterial system, and stands at the basis of the constancy of the RC-time. This distribution depends on the number of peripheral vessels, which is ?8–10 times more in the pulmonary system than the systemic tree. In the systemic arterial tree the compliance is mainly located in the aorta (80% of total compliance in thoracic-abdominal aorta. The constant RC-time in the pulmonary bed results in proportionality of systolic and diastolic pressure with mean pressure and, in turn, in the constant ratio of oscillatory and mean power.

A. Vonk-Noordegraaf

2010-09-01

283

Efeitos de exercícios aquáticos sobre a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e a pressão arterial em hipertensas / Effects of aquatic exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure in hypertensive women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo visou avaliar a influência de um programa de exercícios aquáticos sobre a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e a pressão arterial em mulheres hipertensas. Dez hipertensas participaram do programa de exercícios aquáticos - aeróbicos, de fortalecimento, alongamento e relaxamento - duas vezes por sem [...] ana durante 7 semanas, totalizando 14 sessões. Foram avaliadas pelo teste de esforço cardiorrespiratório antes e após o desenvolvimento do programa. A pressão arterial foi mensurada ao repouso e aos 10, 20 e 30 minutos após o exercício em cada sessão. As variáveis cardiorrespiratórias não apresentaram alterações significativas após o programa, tanto dos valores de limiar de anaerobiose quanto os do pico de esforço. As pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média de repouso permaneceram estáveis no decorrer do programa. Entretanto, no período pós-exercício, os níveis da pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) e média (PAM) foram significativamente menores, quando comparados aos valores pré-exercício: houve redução média de 6,43 mmHg da PAS e 3,08 mmHg da PAM aos 30 minutos pós-exercício. Assim, o programa de exercícios aquáticos proposto não promove ganho aeróbico efetivo, mas os resultados sugerem que exercícios aquáticos como os propostos, em intensidade próxima ao limiar de anaerobiose, desencadeiam redução dos níveis de pressão arterial no período pós-exercício, em mulheres hipertensas. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to assess the influence of an aquatic exercise program on cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure in hypertensive women. Ten hypertensive women took part in the study. The program consisted of aquatic aerobic, strengthening, and stretching exercises in intensity near t [...] he anaerobic threshold, besides relaxation, twice a week during 7 weeks, totalling 14 sessions. They were assessed by cardiorespiratory exercise testing before and after program development. Blood pressure was measured at rest before and at 10, 20, and 30 minutes after exercise, at the end of each session. After the hydrotherapy program, cardiorespiratory ranges did not show significant changes, neither at the anaerobic threshold nor at the effort peak. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean (MBP) blood pressure at rest remained stable all through the program. However, SBP and MBP levels at 30-minute rest after exercises, at the end of the program, were significantly lower when compared to pre-exercise ones: there was a mean 6,43 mmHg SBP decrease and a 3,08 mmHg MBP decrease. The hydrotherapy program thus did not promote effective aerobic increase, but results suggest that the proposed exercises, performed at near-anaerobic threshold, may reduce post-exercise SBP and MBP levels in hypertensive women.

Lisiane, Piazza; Marice Regina, Menta; Cristiano, Castoldi; José Basileu Caon, Reolão; Rodrigo, Schmidt; Leonardo, Calegari.

2008-09-01

284

Efeitos de exercícios aquáticos sobre a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e a pressão arterial em hipertensas Effects of aquatic exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure in hypertensive women  

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Full Text Available O estudo visou avaliar a influência de um programa de exercícios aquáticos sobre a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e a pressão arterial em mulheres hipertensas. Dez hipertensas participaram do programa de exercícios aquáticos - aeróbicos, de fortalecimento, alongamento e relaxamento - duas vezes por semana durante 7 semanas, totalizando 14 sessões. Foram avaliadas pelo teste de esforço cardiorrespiratório antes e após o desenvolvimento do programa. A pressão arterial foi mensurada ao repouso e aos 10, 20 e 30 minutos após o exercício em cada sessão. As variáveis cardiorrespiratórias não apresentaram alterações significativas após o programa, tanto dos valores de limiar de anaerobiose quanto os do pico de esforço. As pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média de repouso permaneceram estáveis no decorrer do programa. Entretanto, no período pós-exercício, os níveis da pressão arterial sistólica (PAS e média (PAM foram significativamente menores, quando comparados aos valores pré-exercício: houve redução média de 6,43 mmHg da PAS e 3,08 mmHg da PAM aos 30 minutos pós-exercício. Assim, o programa de exercícios aquáticos proposto não promove ganho aeróbico efetivo, mas os resultados sugerem que exercícios aquáticos como os propostos, em intensidade próxima ao limiar de anaerobiose, desencadeiam redução dos níveis de pressão arterial no período pós-exercício, em mulheres hipertensas.The aim of this study was to assess the influence of an aquatic exercise program on cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure in hypertensive women. Ten hypertensive women took part in the study. The program consisted of aquatic aerobic, strengthening, and stretching exercises in intensity near the anaerobic threshold, besides relaxation, twice a week during 7 weeks, totalling 14 sessions. They were assessed by cardiorespiratory exercise testing before and after program development. Blood pressure was measured at rest before and at 10, 20, and 30 minutes after exercise, at the end of each session. After the hydrotherapy program, cardiorespiratory ranges did not show significant changes, neither at the anaerobic threshold nor at the effort peak. Systolic (SBP, diastolic (DBP, and mean (MBP blood pressure at rest remained stable all through the program. However, SBP and MBP levels at 30-minute rest after exercises, at the end of the program, were significantly lower when compared to pre-exercise ones: there was a mean 6,43 mmHg SBP decrease and a 3,08 mmHg MBP decrease. The hydrotherapy program thus did not promote effective aerobic increase, but results suggest that the proposed exercises, performed at near-anaerobic threshold, may reduce post-exercise SBP and MBP levels in hypertensive women.

Lisiane Piazza

2008-09-01

285

Arterial pressure and flow wave analysis using time-domain 1-d hemodynamics.  

Science.gov (United States)

We reviewed existing methods for analyzing, in the time domain, physical mechanisms underlying the patterns of blood pressure and flow waveforms in the arterial system. These are wave intensity analysis and separations into several types of waveforms: (i) forward- and backward-traveling, (ii) peripheral and conduit, or (iii) reservoir and excess. We assessed the physical information provided by each method and showed how to combine existing methods in order to quantify contributions to numerically generated waveforms from previous cardiac cycles and from specific regions and properties of the numerical domain: the aortic root, arterial bifurcations and tapered vessels, peripheral reflection sites, and the Windkessel function of the aorta. We illustrated our results with numerical examples involving generalized arterial stiffening in a distributed one-dimensional model or localized changes in the model parameters due to a femoral stenosis, carotid stent or abdominal aortic aneurysm. PMID:25138163

Willemet, Marie; Alastruey, Jordi

2015-01-01

286

Invasive intracranial arterial pressure monitoring during endovascular cerebral aneurysms embolization for cerebral perfusion evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to define a method of estimation of cerebral blood flow by a determination of parameters of the hemodynamics during neuroendovascular procedures. Materials and Methods. Extracranial and intracranial mean arterial pressure (MAP) was invasively monitored with the help of a transducing system during an endovascular coiling procedure in 19 patients. The measurements were performed at the tip of the guiding catheter and microcatheter placed into internal carotid artery (ICA) C1 segments and of the microcatheter placed into C4 ICA segments, at different stages of the aneurysm repair. Results. As measured, the diameter of the ICA in the C1 and C4 segments did not differ substantially. MAP in the ICA was determined to be 91.2 ± 9.6 mmHg in the skull cavity, and 102.4 ± 6.3 mmHg outside of the skull cavity, with an average difference of 9.2 ± 3.0 mmHg. Conclusion. The difference in MAP, as measured in the ICA outside and inside the skull cavity, was ascribed to the influence of intracranial pressure. Further investigation is required to check the accuracy of invasive intra-arterial pressure recording for an objective and direct measurement of the cerebral perfusion in reference to the intracranial pressure level. PMID:25366620

Netlyukh, Andriy M; Shevaga, Volodymyr M; Yakovenko, Leonid M; Payenok, Angelika V; Salo, Victor M; Kobyletskiy, Oleg Ja

2015-01-01

287

Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO{sub 2} sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse oximeters showed gradual decrease of saturations during induced hypoperfusion which demonstrate the direct relation between blood volumes (PPG amplitudes), arterial vessel stenosis and blood oxygen saturation. The custom made pulse oximeter was found to be more sensitive to SpO{sub 2} changes than the commercial pulse oximeter especially at high occluding pressures.

Kyriacou, P A [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Shafqat, K [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Pal, S K [St Andrew' s Centre for Plastic Surgery and Burns, Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, CM1 7ET (United Kingdom)

2007-10-15

288

Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse oximeters showed gradual decrease of saturations during induced hypoperfusion which demonstrate the direct relation between blood volumes (PPG amplitudes), arterial vessel stenosis and blood oxygen saturation. The custom made pulse oximeter was found to be more sensitive to SpO2 changes than the commercial pulse oximeter especially at high occluding pressures.

Kyriacou, P. A.; Shafqat, K.; Pal, S. K.

2007-10-01

289

Validade de um monitor digital de pulso para mensuração de pressão arterial em comparação com um esfigmomanômetro de mercúrio Validity of a wrist digital monitor for blood pressure measurement in comparison to a mercury sphygmomanometer  

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Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Medidas válidas da pressão arterial, em situações clínicas e na comunidade, são essenciais para a monitoração dessa variável em nível populacional. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a validade de um monitor digital de pulso para mensuração da pressão arterial em adolescentes, em comparação com um esfigmomanômetro de mercúrio. MÉTODOS: Um estudo de validação foi realizado na cidade de Pelotas, região sul do Brasil. A pressão arterial foi medida duas vezes, utilizando-se dois esfigmomanômetros diferentes: um aparelho digital de pulso OMRON e um aparelho de mesa BD de mercúrio. Metade da amostra foi medida primeiro através do manômetro digital e depois pelo de mercúrio, enquanto a outra metade foi avaliada na ordem inversa. A concordância entre as duas medidas foi avaliada através do método de Bland & Altman. RESULTADOS: 120 adolescentes com idade entre 14 e 15 anos foram incluídos no estudo (50% de cada sexo. A pressão sistólica média entre os meninos foi de 113,7 mmHg (DP 14,2 usando o manômetro de mercúrio e 115,5 mmHg (DP 15,2 usando o aparelho digital. Os valores equivalentes para a pressão diastólica foram 61,5 mmHg (DP 9,9 e 69,6 mmHg (10,2, respectivamente. Entre as meninas, a pressão sistólica média foi de 104,7 mmHg (DP 10,1 usando o manômetro de mercúrio e 102,4 mmHg (DP 11.9 usando o aparelho digital. Os valores equivalentes para a pressão diastólica foram 60,0 mmHg (DP 10,4 e 65,7 mmHg (DP 7,7, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: O manômetro digital apresentou alta concordância com o manômetro de mercúrio para medir a pressão arterial sistólica. A concordância foi menor para a pressão arterial diastólica. O uso de equações de correção pode ser uma alternativa para estudos utilizando esse monitor digital de pulso em adolescentes.BACKGROUND: Valid measurements of blood pressure, both at clinical and community settings, are essential for monitoring this variable at the population level. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of a wrist digital monitor for measuring blood pressure among adolescents in comparison to a mercury sphygmomanometer. METHODS: A validation study was carried out in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Blood pressure was measured twice using two different sphygmomanometers; an OMRON wrist digital and a desktop BD mercury one. Half of the sample was measured first with the digital manometer and subsequently with the mercury one, whereas the remaining half was evaluated in the opposite order. Agreement between both measures was evaluated using the Bland and Altman method. RESULTS: 120 adolescents aged 14 to 15 years were included (50% of each sex. Mean systolic blood pressure among boys was 113.7 mmHg (SD 14.2 when using the mercury manometer and 115.5 mmHg (SD 15.2 when using the digital one. Equivalent values for diastolic blood pressure were 61.5 mmHg (SD 9.9 and 69.6 mmHg (10.2, respectively. Among girls, the mean systolic blood pressure was 104.7 mmHg (SD 10.1 when using the mercury manometer and 102.4 mmHg (SD 11.9 when using the digital device. Values for diastolic blood pressure were 60.0 mmHg (SD 10.4 and 65.7 mmHg (SD 7.7, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The digital device showed a high level of agreement with the mercury manometer when measuring systolic blood pressure. The level of agreement was lower for diastolic blood pressure. The use of correction equations may be an alternative for studies using this wrist digital monitor in adolescent patients.

Ana M. B. Menezes

2010-03-01

290

Correlação entre as pressões parciais de co2 no ar expirado e no sangue arterial, em porcas submetidas a pneumoperitônio / Correlation between the expired air co2 partial pressure and the arterial co2 pressure in pigs under pneumoperitonium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: As cirurgias realizadas por via laparoscópica, que utilizam CO2 para realização do pneumoperitônio, cursam com hipercarbia. Esta alteração pode ser estimada pela pressão parcial de CO2 no ar expirado. Este trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de determinar se há correlação entre pressão [...] parcial de CO2 arterial e pressão parcial de CO2 no ar expirado nas cirurgias por via laparoscópica. MÉTODO: Distribuíram-se 20 porcas em dois grupos: sem pneumoperitônio e com pneumoperitônio de 12 mmHg de pressão intra-abdominal. Foram medidas a pressão endotraqueal, saturação arterial de O2, pressão parcial de CO2 no ar expirado, pH e pressão parcial de CO2 arteriais. RESULTADOS: Após a realização do pneumoperitônio foi encontrado aumento significativo da pressão endotraqueal, da pressão parcial de CO2 no ar expirado e pressão parcial de CO2 arterial. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de ter ocorrido aumento nas pressões parciais de CO2 tanto arterial quanto no ar expirado, não houve correlação linear entre elas, não se podendo estimar em cirurgias por via laparoscópica a pressão parcial de CO2 arterial pela pressão parcial de CO2 no ar expirado. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The use of CO2 to promote pneumoperitoneun in laparoscopic surgeries causes hipercarbia. Expired air CO2 partial pressure may estimate this change.The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a correlation between arterial CO2 partial pressure and expired air CO2 partial pre [...] ssure during laparoscopic surgeries. METHODS: Twenty female pigs were assigned to two groups: one without pneumoperitoneun and another with a 12 mmHg intra abdominal pressure. Endotracheal pressure, arterial CO2 saturation, expired air CO2 partial pressure, pH and arterial CO2 partial pressure were determined. RESULTS: After performing pneumoperitoneun there was a marked increase in endotracheal pressure, expired air CO2 partial pressure and arterial CO2 partial pressure. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of the increase in both CO2 arterial partial pressure and expired air partial pressure, there was no linear correlation between them, so that it is not possible to estimate arterial CO2 partial pressure by the expired air CO2 partial pressure during laparoscopic surgeries.

Antonio Carlos, Valezi; Jorge, Mali Junior; Rodrigo Gomes de, Oliveira; Laerte H., Storti.

2003-06-01

291

Frecuencia de la hipertensión arterial y su relación con algunas variables clínicas en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 / High blood pressure frequency and its relation to some clinical variables in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con 300 pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 ingresados en el Centro de Atención al Diabético de Bayamo, Granma, en el período comprendido entre octubre de 2007 y mayo de 2008, con el objetivo de conocer la frecuencia de hipertensión arterial y su relación con al [...] gunas variables clínicas en estos casos. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de cada uno de ellos para obtener datos de los aspectos siguientes: edad, sexo, color de la piel, hábitos tóxicos, edad al comienzo de la diabetes, estado nutricional, circunferencia de la cintura, tensión arterial y complicaciones crónicas de la diabetes. Se encontró hipertensión arterial en 210 pacientes (70 %); de ellos, 57 (27,1 %) presentaron hipertensión sistólica aislada, 39 (18,5 %) hipertensión diastólica, y 114 (54,4 %) hipertensión sistodiastólica. La hipertensión arterial se presentó desde el inicio de la diabetes en el 62,9 %. El 76,1 % de los pacientes hipertensos tenían sobrepeso u obesidad (P=0,0557). Resultó significativa la asociación entre la hipertensión arterial y la cardiopatía isquémica (p= 0,0117). En relación con el ictus y la insuficiencia arterial periférica, aunque la mayoría de los casos eran hipertensos, no llegó a ser estadísticamente significativo (p= 0,8261, p= 0,8600). El 71,1 % de los pacientes con retinopatía diabética y el 75 % con nefropatía diabética eran hipertensos (p= 0,8261, p= 0,8600). Se concluye que la hipertensión arterial tiene una elevada incidencia en los pacientes con diabetes mellitas tipo 2, porque está presente en un porcentaje importante desde el diagnóstico de la diabetes y se asocia significativamente a la presencia de cardiopatía isquémica. Abstract in english A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in 300 patients with type 2 diabetes admitted in Diabetes Care Center of Bayamo, Granma province between October, 2007 and May, 2008 to know the high blood pressure frequency and its relation to some clinical variables in these cases. Medical rec [...] ords of each patient were reviewed to obtain data on the following features: age, sex, skin color, toxic habits, arterial pressure, and chronic complications of diabetes. High blood pressure was present in 210 patients (70 %), from them 57 (27.1 %) had isolated systolic hypertension, 39 (18.5 %) diastolic hypertension, and 114 (54.4 %) systolic-diastolic hypertension. Arterial hypertension was present from onset of diabetes in 62.9 %. The 76.1 % of hypertensive patients had overweight or obesity (p= 0.0557). The relationship was significant between arterial hypertension and ischemic heart disease (p = 0.0117). With regard to ictus and peripheral arterial failure, although most of cases were hypertensive, there was not statistic significance (p= 0.8261, p= 0.8600). The 71,1 % of patients presenting with diabetic retinopathy and the 75 % with diabetic nephropathy were hypertensive (p= 0.8261, p= 0.8600). We conclude that arterial hypertension shows a high incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus due to its presence in a significant percentage from the diabetes diagnosis and it is markedly associated with presence of ischemic heart disease.

Eduardo, Valdés Ramos; Niurka, Bencosme Rodríguez.

2009-12-01

292

Frecuencia de la hipertensión arterial y su relación con algunas variables clínicas en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 High blood pressure frequency and its relation to some clinical variables in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

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Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con 300 pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 ingresados en el Centro de Atención al Diabético de Bayamo, Granma, en el período comprendido entre octubre de 2007 y mayo de 2008, con el objetivo de conocer la frecuencia de hipertensión arterial y su relación con algunas variables clínicas en estos casos. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de cada uno de ellos para obtener datos de los aspectos siguientes: edad, sexo, color de la piel, hábitos tóxicos, edad al comienzo de la diabetes, estado nutricional, circunferencia de la cintura, tensión arterial y complicaciones crónicas de la diabetes. Se encontró hipertensión arterial en 210 pacientes (70 %; de ellos, 57 (27,1 % presentaron hipertensión sistólica aislada, 39 (18,5 % hipertensión diastólica, y 114 (54,4 % hipertensión sistodiastólica. La hipertensión arterial se presentó desde el inicio de la diabetes en el 62,9 %. El 76,1 % de los pacientes hipertensos tenían sobrepeso u obesidad (P=0,0557. Resultó significativa la asociación entre la hipertensión arterial y la cardiopatía isquémica (p= 0,0117. En relación con el ictus y la insuficiencia arterial periférica, aunque la mayoría de los casos eran hipertensos, no llegó a ser estadísticamente significativo (p= 0,8261, p= 0,8600. El 71,1 % de los pacientes con retinopatía diabética y el 75 % con nefropatía diabética eran hipertensos (p= 0,8261, p= 0,8600. Se concluye que la hipertensión arterial tiene una elevada incidencia en los pacientes con diabetes mellitas tipo 2, porque está presente en un porcentaje importante desde el diagnóstico de la diabetes y se asocia significativamente a la presencia de cardiopatía isquémica.A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in 300 patients with type 2 diabetes admitted in Diabetes Care Center of Bayamo, Granma province between October, 2007 and May, 2008 to know the high blood pressure frequency and its relation to some clinical variables in these cases. Medical records of each patient were reviewed to obtain data on the following features: age, sex, skin color, toxic habits, arterial pressure, and chronic complications of diabetes. High blood pressure was present in 210 patients (70 %, from them 57 (27.1 % had isolated systolic hypertension, 39 (18.5 % diastolic hypertension, and 114 (54.4 % systolic-diastolic hypertension. Arterial hypertension was present from onset of diabetes in 62.9 %. The 76.1 % of hypertensive patients had overweight or obesity (p= 0.0557. The relationship was significant between arterial hypertension and ischemic heart disease (p = 0.0117. With regard to ictus and peripheral arterial failure, although most of cases were hypertensive, there was not statistic significance (p= 0.8261, p= 0.8600. The 71,1 % of patients presenting with diabetic retinopathy and the 75 % with diabetic nephropathy were hypertensive (p= 0.8261, p= 0.8600. We conclude that arterial hypertension shows a high incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus due to its presence in a significant percentage from the diabetes diagnosis and it is markedly associated with presence of ischemic heart disease.

Eduardo Valdés Ramos

2009-12-01

293

Current clinical applications of spectral tissue Doppler echocardiography (E/E' ratio as a noninvasive surrogate for left ventricular diastolic pressures in the diagnosis of heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function  

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Full Text Available Abstract Congestive heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function has emerged as a growing epidemic medical syndrome in developed countries, which is characterized by high morbidity and mortality rates. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of this condition is essential for optimizing the therapeutic management. The diagnosis of congestive heart failure is challenging in patients presenting without obvious left ventricular systolic dysfunction and additional diagnostic information is most commonly required in this setting. Comprehensive Doppler echocardiography is the single most useful diagnostic test recommended by the ESC and ACC/AHA guidelines for assessing left ventricular ejection fraction and cardiac abnormalities in patients with suspected congestive heart failure, and non-invasively determined basal or exercise-induced pulmonary capillary hypertension is likely to become a hallmark of congestive heart failure in symptomatic patients with preserved left ventricular systolic function. The present review will focus on the current clinical applications of spectral tissue Doppler echocardiography used as a reliable noninvasive surrogate for left ventricular diastolic pressures at rest as well as during exercise in the diagnosis of heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function. Chronic congestive heart failure, a disease of exercise, and acute heart failure syndromes are characterized by specific pathophysiologic and diagnostic issues, and these two clinical presentations will be discussed separately.

Roux Emmanuel

2007-03-01

294

The mobility analog for modeling the intra-arterial pressure wave parameters.  

Science.gov (United States)

To assist in the identification of physical/physiological parameters obtained from in vivo rat aortic artery dynamic pressure data, the natural (mobility) mechanical circuit model was constructed. The direct electrical analog of the model thus obtained was then analyzed using SPICE. The experimental data were obtained using a Multifunction Pressure Generator (MPG), appropriate pressure probes, and a high-speed video camera. Two 486 computers were used for system control and data recording and computation. Transfer functions in rational form of the ratio of the MPG input pressure (Pi) to the intra-arterial pressure (Po) were then generated in the s-domain. The mechanical circuit described by these rational functions was then constructed and transformed into its equivalent electrical model for analysis. On this basis, physiological pressures are represented by electrical currents, and volume flow rates by electrical voltages. The results obtained through steady-state (Bode plot) and transient analysis of the model developed suggest a compartmental model that explains the experimental observations. The mobility model is an improvement over previous models in that the mass element is referred to a single frame of reference, which agrees with the physical property that mass is a one-terminal device. PMID:7654985

Ferris, C D; Stinnett, H O

1995-01-01

295

Estudo da pressão arterial pelo método indireto oscilométrico (petmap®) em cães domésticos não anestesiados / Study of blood pressure by the indirect oscillometric method (petmap®) in domestic unanesthetized dogs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo das pressões arteriais sistólica, média, diastólica e da frequência cardíaca, pelo método indireto oscilométrico (petmap®), foi realizado em 150 cães atendidos pelo Serviço de Clínica Médica de Pequenos Animais da FMVZ - Unesp/Botucatu. Investigou-se a influência de fatores como presença do [...] proprietário, estado de saúde, diagnóstico de doença renal, raça, idade, sexo, decúbito, contenção, fluidoterapia, condição corpórea, temperamento, atividade física, dieta e atitude associados ou não à elevação da pressão arterial. Dos 150 cães, 34% encontravam-se sob a categoria de risco mínimo para o desenvolvimento de lesões hipertensivas, 14,6% com hipertensão branda, 22,6% com hipertensão moderada e 28,66%, com hipertensão grave. Houve influência, dos fatores analisados, na elevação da pressão arterial de acordo com a categoria de risco. Abstract in english The study of systolic, mean, diastolic and heart rate by the oscillometric indirect method (PetMapTM) was performed in 150 dogs attended by the Small Animal Service of Medicine of FMVZ - Unesp/Botucatu. The influence of factors such as presence of the owner, health status, diagnosis of kidney diseas [...] e, race, age, sex, recumbency, containment, fluid, body condition, temperament, physical activity, diet and attitude associated or not with elevated blood pressure was investigated. Of the 150 dogs, 34% were under the category of minimal risk for the development of hypertensive lesions, 14.6% with mild hypertension, 22.6% with moderate hypertension and 28.66% with severe hypertension. The analyzed factors influenced the elevation of blood pressure according to risk category.

M., Tebaldi; M.L.G., Lourenço; L.H.A., Machado; M.J., Sudano; L.R., Carvalho.

1456-14-01

296

Intensidades de treinamento resistido e pressão arterial de idosas hipertensas - um estudo piloto / Resistance training intensities and blood pressure of hypertensive older women - a pilot study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Observa-se que a literatura apresenta uma lacuna acerca da intensidade ideal de treinamento resistido para idosos hipertensos, os poucos estudos existentes utilizam treinamentos com diferentes intensidades. OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito de duas intensidades de treinamento resistido sobre [...] a pressão arterial de idosas hipertensas controladas. Métodos: Dezesseis idosas hipertensas, controladas por medicação anti-hipertensiva, foram divididas em dois grupos através de sorteio. Nove pacientes foram submetidas a treinamento resistido moderado (G1) e sete, a treinamento resistido leve (G2). As pacientes realizaram oito semanas de treinamento resistido, com frequência de três vezes por semana em dias alternados, no período vespertino. Os exercícios realizados foram respectivamente: leg press, supino reto, extensão de joelhos, puxada frontal, flexão de joelhos, abdução de ombro, abdução unilateral de quadril com cross over e rosca direta com barra. RESULTADOS: As pacientes do G1 apresentaram redução tanto nos valores de repouso da pressão arterial diastólica (PAD) p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The optimum intensity of resistance training for hypertensive elderly has not been studied yet and the few studies in the literature used training with distinct intensities. Objective: To verify the effect of two resistance training intensities on blood pressure (BP) of elderly women wit [...] h controlled hypertension. METHODS: Sixteen older women with hypertension controlled by anti-hypertensive drug were randomly divided into two groups. Nine patients were submitted to moderate resistance training (G1) and seven patients were submitted to mild resistance training (G2). The patients underwent eight weeks of resistance training, with frequency of three times per week on alternate days in the afternoon. The exercises performed were: leg press, bench press, knee extension, lat pull-down, knee flexion, shoulder abduction, standing cable hip abduction and biceps curl. RESULTS: G1 patients presented reduction in both resting values in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) p

Eline Silva da, Cunha; Patrícia Angélica de, Miranda; Silva, Nogueira; Eduardo Caldas, Costa; Eliane Pereira da, Silva; Gardênia Maria Holanda, Ferreira.

2012-12-01

297

Estudo da pressão arterial pelo método indireto oscilométrico (petmap® em cães domésticos não anestesiados Study of blood pressure by the indirect oscillometric method (petmap® in domestic unanesthetized dogs  

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Full Text Available O estudo das pressões arteriais sistólica, média, diastólica e da frequência cardíaca, pelo método indireto oscilométrico (petmap®, foi realizado em 150 cães atendidos pelo Serviço de Clínica Médica de Pequenos Animais da FMVZ - Unesp/Botucatu. Investigou-se a influência de fatores como presença do proprietário, estado de saúde, diagnóstico de doença renal, raça, idade, sexo, decúbito, contenção, fluidoterapia, condição corpórea, temperamento, atividade física, dieta e atitude associados ou não à elevação da pressão arterial. Dos 150 cães, 34% encontravam-se sob a categoria de risco mínimo para o desenvolvimento de lesões hipertensivas, 14,6% com hipertensão branda, 22,6% com hipertensão moderada e 28,66%, com hipertensão grave. Houve influência, dos fatores analisados, na elevação da pressão arterial de acordo com a categoria de risco.The study of systolic, mean, diastolic and heart rate by the oscillometric indirect method (PetMapTM was performed in 150 dogs attended by the Small Animal Service of Medicine of FMVZ - Unesp/Botucatu. The influence of factors such as presence of the owner, health status, diagnosis of kidney disease, race, age, sex, recumbency, containment, fluid, body condition, temperament, physical activity, diet and attitude associated or not with elevated blood pressure was investigated. Of the 150 dogs, 34% were under the category of minimal risk for the development of hypertensive lesions, 14.6% with mild hypertension, 22.6% with moderate hypertension and 28.66% with severe hypertension. The analyzed factors influenced the elevation of blood pressure according to risk category.

M. Tebaldi

2012-12-01

298

Model Predictive Control of Drug Infusion System for Mean Arterial Pressure Regulation of Critical Care Patients  

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Full Text Available Patients recovering in critical care units are continuously monitored for their hemodynamic states and accordingly given proper medication. The widely monitored hemodynamic variable is the Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP, which is regulated by infusion of vasoactive drugs like Sodium Nitroprusside (SNP. Presently, physicians check the patients’ MAP at regular intervals. This task is time-consuming and if automated, allows the physicians to attend to other critical parameters, which cannot be measured. Automation of the drug infusion based on the MAP would lead to continuous regulation of the hemodynamic variable enabling speedier recovery. This study attempts to automate the regulation of the drug infusion system using a model predictive controller. The controller’s performance was tested for three types of patient models. The controller tracks the set point changes and maintains the mean arterial pressure within the required values.

S.A. Nirmala

2014-05-01

299

Medida da pressão arterial em crianças e adolescentes: recomendações das diretrizes de hipertensão arterial e prática médica atual / Blood pressure measurement in children and adolescents: guidelines of high blood pressure recommendations and current clinical practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Identificar, em crianças e adolescentes (7 a 17 anos, rede pública e privada de ensino), a freqüência de indivíduos já submetidos à medida da pressão arterial (MPA), o número de vezes, os locais em que foi realizada a aferição e o resultado informado. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal. Amostrage [...] m por conglomerados em 40 escolas, nível fundamental e médio, sorteadas. Cálculo da amostra baseado na prevalência esperada de HAS em crianças e adolescentes. Protocolo: questionário sobre realização prévia de MPA (em caso afirmativo, quantas vezes, quando foi a última medida, o local e o resultado da medida) e duas MPA. Variáveis independentes: sexo, faixa etária, classe econômica, escola pública ou privada. RESULTADOS: Amostra constituída de 1253 estudantes 1215 responderam ao questionário (97%) 531 do sexo masculino média de 12,4 ± 3 anos. Prevalência de HAS: 7,7% 348 estudantes (29%) já haviam medido a PA (54% 1 vez 35% 2 a 4 vezes 11% 5 ou mais) 53% há menos de 1 ano. Posto de Saúde, residência, hospital e consultório foram os locais mais mencionados (27%, 16%, 15% e 14%, respectivamente). Houve associação significante entre prévia MPA com faixa etária de 15 a 17 anos, classes econômicas A e B e ser estudante de escola privada. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar das recomendações, há baixa freqüência de MPA (29%) em crianças e adolescentes, demonstrando que a mesma não foi ainda incorporada na prática clínica. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine, in a school-based sample of children and adolescents, aged from 7 to 17 years, of both gender, in public and private schools, the frequency of students already submitted to blood pressure measure. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out, sampling from a population p [...] ool of elementary and middle schools, randomly selected. The sample was calculated based on the expected prevalence of hypertension for the age group. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured twice and hypertension was defined as mean systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure over the 95th percentile. Independent variables studied: sex; age groups; economic status; public/private school. RESULTS: The final sample included 1253 students. The response rate was 97%: 1215 students; 531 males; mean age 12,4±3 years (236 from 7 to 9 years; 638 from 10 to 14 years; 341 from 15 to 17 years). Prevalence of hypertension was 7.7%; 348 students (29%) were already submitted to blood pressure measures (54% once; 35% 2 to 4 times; 11% 5 or more times). High economic status, private school and adolescent group were significantly associated to previous blood pressure measure. CONCLUSION: Despite of pediatric consensus statements and guidelines recommendations about importance of blood pressure measure at every examination after age 3 years, there is a very low frequency of this practice (29%) in children and adolescents.

Maria Alayde Mendonça da, Silva; Ivan Romero, Rivera; Maria Goretti Barbosa de, Souza; Antonio Carlos de Camargo, Carvalho.

2007-04-01

300

Medida da pressão arterial em crianças e adolescentes: recomendações das diretrizes de hipertensão arterial e prática médica atual Blood pressure measurement in children and adolescents: guidelines of high blood pressure recommendations and current clinical practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar, em crianças e adolescentes (7 a 17 anos, rede pública e privada de ensino, a freqüência de indivíduos já submetidos à medida da pressão arterial (MPA, o número de vezes, os locais em que foi realizada a aferição e o resultado informado. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal. Amostragem por conglomerados em 40 escolas, nível fundamental e médio, sorteadas. Cálculo da amostra baseado na prevalência esperada de HAS em crianças e adolescentes. Protocolo: questionário sobre realização prévia de MPA (em caso afirmativo, quantas vezes, quando foi a última medida, o local e o resultado da medida e duas MPA. Variáveis independentes: sexo, faixa etária, classe econômica, escola pública ou privada. RESULTADOS: Amostra constituída de 1253 estudantes 1215 responderam ao questionário (97% 531 do sexo masculino média de 12,4 ± 3 anos. Prevalência de HAS: 7,7% 348 estudantes (29% já haviam medido a PA (54% 1 vez 35% 2 a 4 vezes 11% 5 ou mais 53% há menos de 1 ano. Posto de Saúde, residência, hospital e consultório foram os locais mais mencionados (27%, 16%, 15% e 14%, respectivamente. Houve associação significante entre prévia MPA com faixa etária de 15 a 17 anos, classes econômicas A e B e ser estudante de escola privada. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar das recomendações, há baixa freqüência de MPA (29% em crianças e adolescentes, demonstrando que a mesma não foi ainda incorporada na prática clínica.OBJECTIVE: To determine, in a school-based sample of children and adolescents, aged from 7 to 17 years, of both gender, in public and private schools, the frequency of students already submitted to blood pressure measure. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out, sampling from a population pool of elementary and middle schools, randomly selected. The sample was calculated based on the expected prevalence of hypertension for the age group. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured twice and hypertension was defined as mean systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure over the 95th percentile. Independent variables studied: sex; age groups; economic status; public/private school. RESULTS: The final sample included 1253 students. The response rate was 97%: 1215 students; 531 males; mean age 12,4±3 years (236 from 7 to 9 years; 638 from 10 to 14 years; 341 from 15 to 17 years. Prevalence of hypertension was 7.7%; 348 students (29% were already submitted to blood pressure measures (54% once; 35% 2 to 4 times; 11% 5 or more times. High economic status, private school and adolescent group were significantly associated to previous blood pressure measure. CONCLUSION: Despite of pediatric consensus statements and guidelines recommendations about importance of blood pressure measure at every examination after age 3 years, there is a very low frequency of this practice (29% in children and adolescents.

Maria Alayde Mendonça da Silva

2007-04-01

301

Two sites for modulation of human sympathetic activity by arterial baroreceptors?  

OpenAIRE

1. Peroneal muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSA), finger blood pressure and cardiac intervals were recorded at rest in 60 healthy subjects, aged 18-71 years. Arterial baroreflex control of MSA was analysed by relating each spontaneous sympathetic burst to the diastolic blood pressure and the cardiac interval of the heart beat during which the burst was generated. The results were expressed as blood pressure/cardiac interval threshold for occurrence of bursts, and as baroreflex sensitivity ...

Kienbaum, P.; Karlssonn, T.; Sverrisdottir, Yb; Elam, M.; Wallin, Bg

2001-01-01

302

Concurrent determinants of blood pressure among adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study Determinantes contemporâneos da pressão arterial em adolescentes: a visita de 11 anos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1993  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate concurrent risk factors for high blood pressure in adolescents. This is a prospective cohort study including 4,452 adolescents born in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 1993. Blood pressure was measured before and after the interview, and the mean value was used in the analyses. Mean systolic blood pressure was 101.9mmHg (SD = 12.3 and mean diastolic pressure was 63.4mmHg (SD = 9.9. Adolescents with black skin had higher blood pressure than those with white skin. Mean systolic pressure among subjects in the top quartile of body mass index (BMI was 11.6mmHg higher than among those in the lowest quartile. Mean systolic pressure among postmenarcheal girls was 5.4mmHg higher than among premenarcheal girls. Similar trends were found for diastolic arterial pressure. Our findings suggest that blood pressure control must begin already in childhood and adolescence.O objetivo do presente artigo foi avaliar fatores associados com a pressão arterial de adolescentes. Trata-se de estudo de coorte prospectivo, incluindo 4.452 adolescentes nascidos em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, em 1993. A pressão arterial foi medida no início e final da entrevista com aparelho digital, sendo o valor médio utilizado nas análises. A pressão arterial sistólica média foi de 101,9mmHg (DP = 12,3 e a diastólica foi de 63,4mmHg (DP = 9,9. Adolescentes com pele preta apresentaram valores mais elevados de pressão arterial sistólica do que os de pele branca. Adolescentes no quartil superior do índice de massa corporal (IMC apresentaram uma pressão sistólica média 11,6mmHg maior do que aqueles no quartil inferior. Meninas que já menstruaram apresentaram uma pressão sistólica média 5,4mmHg maior em comparação às demais. Os resultados foram similares para a pressão arterial diastólica. O controle da pressão arterial elevada deve ser iniciado desde a infância e adolescência.

Ana M. B. Menezes

2010-10-01

303

Percutaneous renal artery stenting reduces arterial blood pressure, but what about renal function? A single-center experience  

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Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effects of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTRA/S on arterial blood pressure and renal function.Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients undergoing PTRA/S at our institution between December 2003 and September 2006 was done. Follow-up data were derived from hospital records. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (EGFR was used as the marker of renal function. To evaluate the pre- and post-procedure values in individual patients the paired t test and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used.Results: Thirty-six patients (16 women, 30 men; mean age 59±15 years, range: 25-83 years underwent 43 PTRA/S interventions at our institution. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.3±8.6 (range 2-28 months. We observed no significant change in EGFR from pre-procedure to that obtained at follow-up (71.4±40.2 mL/min vs.73.3±39.0 mL/min; p=0.483. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP, however, was reduced significantly: pre-procedure MABP-123±22 mmHg; post-procedure follow-up value of 101±14 mmHg (p <0.001. The mean number of antihypertensive medications used at the time of intervention was 2.1±1.0 (range: 0-4, whereas at follow-up, this number had decreased to 1.3±1.0 (range: 0-4; p<0.001. In patients with renal impairment (EGFR ?59 mL/min, 41% showed improvement, 29% showed no change and 29% demonstrated deterioration in EGFR. Conclusion: PTRA/S may preserve renal function, especially in patients with pre-procedural impaired renal function.

Erkan Dervi?o?lu

2010-02-01

304

Association between metabolic syndrome and parameters of 24-hour blood pressure ambulatory monitoring / Associação entre síndrome metabólica e parâmetros da monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial de 24 horas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar associação entre síndrome metabólica (SM) e parâmetros da monitorização da pressão arterial de 24 horas (MAPA) como medida de risco cardiovascular (RCV). SUJEITOS E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 136 pacientes hipertensos, ambos sexos, idade entre 29 e 83 anos. RCV foi definido pela p [...] resença de, no mínimo, três das seguintes condições: 1) pressão arterial sistólica/diastólica ? 140/90 mmHg, ausência/atenuação do descenso noturno e pressão de pulso (PP) ? 53 mmHg, 2) pressão de pulso 24h (PP24h), 3) sono (PPS), 4) vigília (PPV) e 5) descenso noturno. RESULTADOS: PPV, PPS e PP24h estiveram aumentadas em 54% dos pacientes. Hipertrigliceridemia (52%), HDL baixo (72,8%), obesidade abdominal (60,3%), SM (58,1%), dislipidemia (88,8%), sobrepeso (74,3%) e obesidade (33,8%) estavam elevados. SM, ajustada pela idade, foi associada a elevado RCV (OR = 4,5 e OR = 3,6), a PP24h (OR = 2,3 e OR = 4,7) e a PPS (OR = 2,2 e OR = 4,6). CONCLUSÕES: SM foi altamente prevalente e correlacionada aos parâmetros da pressão arterial de 24 horas alterados. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between metabolic syndrome (MS) and 24-hour blood pressure parameters as a measure of cardiovascular risk (CVR). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 136 hypertensive subjects, of both sexes, aged between 29 and 83 years were studied. CVR was defined as having at least three [...] of the following conditions: 1) systolic/diastolic blood pressure (BP) ? 140/90 mmHg, absence/atennuation of nighttime fall in BP during sleep, pulse pressure (PP) ? 53 mmHg; 2) 24-h PP > 53 mmHg, 3) nighttime PP > 53 mmHg, 4) daytime PP > 53 mmHg and 5) nighttime fall in BP during sleep. RESULTS: The 24-h PP, daytime PP and nighttime PP were elevated in 54% of the population. Hypertriglyceridemia (52%), low HDL (72.8%), abdominal obesity (60.3%), MS (58.1%), dyslipidemia (88.8%), overweight (74.3%) and obesity (33.8%) were also elevated. Age-adjusted MS was associated with higher CVR (OR = 4.5 and 3.6), 24-h PP (OR = 2.3 and 4.7), and daytime PP (OR = 2.2 and 4.6). CONCLUSIONS: MS was highly prevalent and correlated with altered 24-hour blood pressure parameters.

Mariana Santos, Felisbino-Mendes; Tatiane, Géa-Horta; Antônio Luiz Pinho, Ribeiro; Gilberto, Kac; Salete Maria de Fátima, Silqueira; Gustavo, Velásquez-Meléndez.

2011-08-01

305

Influence of anxiety on blood pressure and heart rate during dental treatment / Influência da ansiedade na pressão arterial e frequência cardíaca durante o tratamento odontológico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência da ansiedade detectadas por meio de uma escala de ansiedade sobre os níveis de pressão arterial e a frequência cardíaca, durante o atendimento odontológico de pacientes das Clínicas de Odontologia do Centro Universitário de São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brasil. MET [...] ODOLOGIA: Foram selecionados ao acaso 60 voluntários que receberam atendimento odontológico de urgência. Foi utilizada uma escala para avaliar o grau de ansiedade dos voluntários. Foi verificada também a pressão arterial e a frequência cardíaca dos pacientes em três períodos distintos: pré, trans e pós-anestesia odontológica. RESULTADOS: A ansiedade não foi afetada pelas faixas etárias, apenas pelo gênero. A ansiedade não deve ser uma barreira, entre profissional/paciente e, ainda, a ansiedade apresentada não é um sinal clínico levado em consideração para a aplicação de medidas de controle. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve alteração da pressão arterial sistólica, diastólica e da frequência cardíaca em relação ao grau de ansiedade e dor e ao tipo de solução anestésica empregada. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of anxiety on blood pressure and heart rate during dental care in patients of the Dentistry Clinic in Rio Preto University Center - UNIRP, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A sample of 60 volunteers who sought for the dental screening service was s [...] elected. We used a scale to evaluate the volunteers' anxiety level. Blood pressure and heart rate of patients were also checked in different periods of the dental treatment. RESULTS: Most of the volunteers were women. The relation between anxiety and pain before treatment, revealed that 54 (90.0%) had no pain. The patients had low anxiety towards the use of different anesthetic solutions used during dental procedures. There was no statistically significant difference concerning to systolic blood pressure at first and, after application of anesthetic, given the degree of anxiety. Heart rate does not change as a function of anxiety. There is a slight change in heart rate after anesthesia, and it soon gets back to normal. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in behavior of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in relation to the anxiety level and pain, measured before, during and after the procedure. Heart rate did not change during dental treatment in the patient anxiety level.

Jean Carlos Fernandes, Goulart; Matheus Dias, Pinheiro; Rodrigo Ventura, Rodrigues; Fabiano de Sant' Ana dos, Santos; Alex Tadeu, Martins; Fábio Luiz Ferreira, Scannavino.

306

Frequency dependent effect of selective biphasic left vagus nerve stimulation on heart rate and arterial pressure  

OpenAIRE

Activation of the parasympathetic pathway leads to negative chronotropic, dromotropic, and inotropic changes of heart function. The ability to selectively stimulate certain superficial compartments of peripheral nerves has been demonstrated previously. The aim of the present study was to find a clinically acceptable selective biphasic vagus nerve stimulation technique, which could allow gradual regulation of heart rate and systemic arterial pressure. In two patients, the left vagus nerve was...

MATEJ PODBREGAR; IVAN RADAN; TOMISLAV MIRKOVIC; IVAN KNEŽEVI?; BORUT GERŠAK; JANEZ ROZMAN

2012-01-01

307

Effects of intrathecal kynurenate on arterial pressure during chronic osmotic stress in conscious rats  

OpenAIRE

Increased plasma osmolality elevates mean arterial pressure (MAP) through activation of the sympathetic nervous system, but the neurotransmitters released in the spinal cord to regulate MAP during osmotic stress remain unresolved. Glutamatergic neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla project to sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord and are likely activated during conditions of osmotic stress; however, this has not been examined in conscious rats. This study investigated wh...

Veitenheimer, Britta; Osborn, John W.

2012-01-01

308

Effect of global and regional sympathetic blockade on arterial pressure during water deprivation in conscious rats  

OpenAIRE

Forty-eight hours of water deprivation (WD) in conscious rats results in a paradoxical increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP). Previous studies suggest this may be due to increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). However, this remains to be investigated in conscious, freely behaving animals. The purpose of this study was to determine, in conscious rats, the role of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in mediating WD-induced increases in MAP and to identify which vascular beds are targete...

Veitenheimer, Britta J.; Engeland, William C.; Guzman, Pilar A.; Fink, Gregory D.; Osborn, John W.

2012-01-01

309

A simple model of cerebral blood flow dependence on arterial blood pressure  

OpenAIRE

It is shown that the dependence of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) on mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) can be described with a simple model having the following assumptions. Below certain MABP (denoted as MABP1) there are no autoregulatory or feedback mechanisms influencing CBF. Between MABP1 and MABP2 (MABP at which breakthrough accurs) there is a linear (on MABP) dependent feedback with a sloap depending very much on the individual considered. The classical autoregulation...

Gersten, Alexander

2011-01-01

310

Arterial line pressure control enhanced extracorporeal blood flow prescription in hemodialysis patients  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background In hemodialysis, extracorporeal blood flow (Qb) recommendation is 300–500 mL/min. To achieve the best Qb, we based our prescription on dynamic arterial line pressure (DALP). Methods This prospective study included 72 patients with catheter Group 1 (G1), 1877 treatments and 35 arterio-venous (AV) fistulae Group 2 (G2), 1868 treatments. The dialysis staff was trained to prescribe Qb sufficient to obtain DALP between -200 to -250 mmHg. We meas...

Rosales Laura; Flores Nelly; De-La-Cruz Guadalupe; Magaña Salvador; Herrera–Felix Juan P; Mariscal Alfonso; Mora-Bravo Franklin G; Franco Martha; Pérez-Grovas Héctor

2008-01-01

311

Aspects of the continuous clinical measurement of arterial blood pressure and cardiac output  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the authors try to classify circulatory measurements as to certain characteristics such as ''activeness'', ''invasivenesss'', etc. Next they turn to defining some fundamental measurements in the blood circulation and focus attention on the continuous measurement of systemic arterial pressure and flow to finally emphasize the inaccuracy of clinical cardiac output methods. The conclusion is that clinical circulatory measurement methods have accuracies at least an order of magnitude worse than common physical methods used in electrical or mechanical engineering. (Auth.)

312

Pressure profile and morphology of the arteries along the giraffe limb  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Giraffes are the tallest animals on earth and the effects of gravity on their cardiovascular system have puzzled physiologists for centuries. The authors measured arterial and venous pressure in the foreleg of anesthetized giraffes, suspended in upright standing position, and determined the ratio between tunica media and lumen areas along the length of the femoral/tibial arteries in the hindleg. Volume fraction of elastin, density of vasa vasorum and innervations was estimated by stereology. Immunohistological staining with S100 was used to examine the innervation. The pressure increase in the artery and vein along the foreleg was not significantly different from what was expected on basis of gravity. The area of the arterial lumen in the hindleg decreased towards the hoof from 11.2 ± 4.2 to 0.6 ± 0.5 mm(2) (n = 10, P = 0.001), but most of this narrowing occurred within 2-4 cm immediately below the knee. This abrupt narrowing was associated with a marked increase in media to lumen area ratio (from 1.2 ± 0.5 to 7.8 ± 2.5; P = 0.001), and a decrease in mean volume fraction of elastin from 38 ± 6% proximal to the narrowing to 5.8 ± 1.1% distally (P = 0.001). The narrowing had a six-fold higher innervation density than the immediate distal and proximal regions. The sudden narrowing was also observed in the hind legs of neonates, indicating that it does not develop as an adaptation to the high transmural pressure in the standing giraffe. More likely it represents a preadaptation to the high pressures experienced by adult giraffes.

Østergaard, Kristine Hovkjær; Bertelsen, Mads Frost

2011-01-01

313

Cardiac Output Measurement by Arterial Pressure Waveform Analysis During Optimization of Biventricular Pacing After Cardiac Surgery  

OpenAIRE

Biventricular pacing (BiVP) can optimize cardiac output (CO) in patients after cardiac surgery, so devices that calculate continuous CO from arterial pressure may be a useful tool. We investigated PulseCO for measuring CO during optimization by comparison with aortic flow probe measurement. Seven patients in the Biventricular Pacing After Cardiac Surgery (BiPACS) trial were studied. Before weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, BiVP was initiated. After bypass, CO was optimized by varying atrio...

Booth, Justin H.; Quinn, T. Alexander; Richmond, Marc E.; Cabreriza, Santos E.; Weinberg, Alan D.; Johnston, Taylor; Spotnitz, Henry M.

2009-01-01

314

Fourier Analysis of Peripheral Blood Pressure and Flow in Intraoperative Assessment of Infrainguinal Arterial Reconstructions  

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Full Text Available AIM: To assess infrainguinal arterial reconstructions by intraoperative flowmetry under the distal anastomosis using a fast Fourier transformation; calculate and compare the amplitude ratios of peripheral arterial blood pressure and volume flow before and after drug-induced vasodilation of occluded bypass grafts and bypass grafts that have been patent at least for 1 year. To find what magnitude of the change of these ratios indicate a long-term patency of the bypass grafting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We compared the results of the intraoperative flowmetry tests of 97 patients with infrainguinal arterial reconstructions. The patients were divided into two groups based on the graft status: the grafts in 49 patients were patent for at least a year, and 48 patients had failed bypass. We used a fast Fourier transform (FFT of the pressure and blood flow waves and compared the ratios of their amplitudes before and after administration of a vasodilator drug into the graft. Comparing the ratios obtained before and those after administration of the drug we quantified their change in each group and analysed them. RESULTS: After a drug-induced vasodilation, the blood pressure and flow amplitude ratios for the group with compromised reconstructions were less than 1.9 times smaller than those before drug infusion, while for the group with bypass grafts that had been functional for at least 12 months the ratios declined by more than 1.9?2 times. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of the change of amplitude ratios of the peripheral pressure and volume flow after drug-induced vasodilation can be used to make an assessment of the bypass graft and the distal arterial segment.

Cheshmedzhiev Mihail V.

2014-08-01

315

Arterial Pressure and Flow Wave Analysis Using Time-Domain 1-D Hemodynamics  

OpenAIRE

We reviewed existing methods for analyzing, in the time domain, physical mechanisms underlying the patterns of blood pressure and flow waveforms in the arterial system. These are wave intensity analysis and separations into several types of waveforms: (i) forward- and backward-traveling, (ii) peripheral and conduit, or (iii) reservoir and excess. We assessed the physical information provided by each method and showed how to combine existing methods in order to quantify contributions to numeri...

Willemet, Marie; Alastruey, Jordi

2014-01-01

316

Effects of ?-adrenergic receptor agonists on drinking and arterial blood pressure in young and old rats  

OpenAIRE

These experiments examined water-drinking and arterial blood pressure responses to ?-adrenergic receptor activation in young (4 mo), “middle-aged” adult (12 mo), and old (29 mo) male rats of the Brown-Norway strain. We used isoproterenol to simultaneously activate ?1- and ?2-adrenergic receptors, salbutamol to selectively activate ?2-adrenergic receptors, and the combination of isoproterenol and the ?2-adrenergic receptor antagonist ICI 118,551 to stimulate only ?1-adrenergic recept...

Thunhorst, Robert L.; Grobe, Connie L.; Beltz, Terry G.; Johnson, Alan Kim

2011-01-01

317

Modelling carotid artery adaptations to dynamic alterations in pressure and flow over the cardiac cycle  

OpenAIRE

Motivated by recent clinical and laboratory findings of important effects of pulsatile pressure and flow on arterial adaptations, we employ and extend an established constrained mixture framework of growth (change in mass) and remodelling (change in structure) to include such dynamical effects. New descriptors of cell and tissue behavior (constitutive relations) are postulated and refined based on new experimental data from a transverse aortic arch banding model in the mouse that increases pu...

Cardamone, L.; Valenti?n, A.; Eberth, J. F.; Humphrey, J. D.

2010-01-01

318

Mecanismos fisiopatológicos del desbalance glomérulo-tubular en la hipertensión arterial / Pathophysiological mechanisms of the lack of glomerulus-tubule balance in arterial high blood pressure  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las actuales tendencias e hipótesis para interpretar los mecanismos etiopatogénicos de la hipertensión arterial esencial, involucran al sistema renal como mecanismo preponderante en la regulación a largo plazo de la presión arterial y la existencia en él de algún fenómeno que puede conllevar a desba [...] lance glomérulo-tubular, con preponderancia tubular Aunque el análisis de este último hecho no ha sido como tal abordado en la patogénesis del síndrome hipertensivo. Con el objetivo de interpretar el papel del desbalance glomérulo-tubular, con preponderancia tubular en la fisiopatología de la hipertensión arterial como fenómeno en el que confluyen múltiples mecanismos fisiopatológicos renales ya descritos, se revisaron estos últimos, de forma integrada y su relación causal con el desbalance glomérulo-tubular, con preponderancia tubular. La preponderancia tubular, punto común de los mecanismos que se discuten, favorece la disminución de la excreción fraccional de Na+, la retención hidrosalina y la elevación de la presión arterial. Abstract in english The current trends and hypotheses to know the etiopathogenesis mechanisms of the essential arterial high blood pressure involved the renal system as a prevailing mechanism in the long-term regulation of arterial pressure and the existence in it of some phenomenon that could lead to a glomerulus-tubu [...] le lack of balance with tubular preponderance. Although the analysis of this latter fact, has not been approached as such in pathogenesis of hypertensive syndrome. With the aim of to interpret the role of glomerulus-tubule lack of balance with tubular preponderance in pathophysiology of arterial high blood pressure as a phenomenon in which converging multiple renal pathophysiological mechanisms already described, these latter were reviewed in a integrated way and its causal relation with the above mentioned lack of balance with tubular preponderance. This preponderance, a common point of discussed mechanisms, favors the decrease of a fractional releasing of Na+, the hydrosaline retention and the raise of arterial pressure.

María Ofelia, Barber Fox; Katiana, Galvizu Díaz; Aydelín, Pérez Ramos; María Ofelia, Fox Pascual.

2010-12-01

319

Acute endotoxemia increases left ventricular contractility and diastolic stiffness in calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the acute effects of endotoxemia on left ventricular (LV) contractility, relaxation, diastolic properties, and mechanical energetics in closed-chest calves. Twelve male calves (4 to 10 days old) were anesthetized with alpha-chloralose and instrumented to measure the LV pressure-volume relationship. Calves (n = 6) in the control group remained hemodynamically stable for 4 h. Calves (n = 6) administered endotoxin (0.1 microg/kg, O55:B5, i.v., over 0.5 h) had increased heart rate, mean pulmonary artery pressure, LV contractility (end-systolic elastance), chamber stiffness, and mechanical efficiency, no change in LV relaxation, and decreased mean systemic arterial pressure, cardiac output, and LV stroke work and pressure-volume area. Endotoxin-induced changes were maximal at t = 0.5 h, after which time all hemodynamic variables gradually returned towards baseline values. Intravenous administration of isoproterenol (0.02 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) alone or combined with phenylephrine (5 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) at t = 4 h produced similar increases in heart rate, end-systolic elastance, and cardiac output in control and endotoxin-treated groups. Our findings indicate that circulatory dysfunction, rather than LV dysfunction, predominates during acute endotoxemia (4 h) in chloralose-anesthetized, closed-chest neonatal calves. PMID:10565614

Constable, P D

1999-11-01

320

Arterial pressure responses to increasing interstitial potassium in hindlimb muscle of dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Static contraction of hindlimb skeletal muscle is known to increase reflexly arterial pressure and heart rate. Potassium is known to be released by the working muscle and is thought to activate the afferents responsible for the reflex cardiovascular responses to muscular contraction. However, it is not known whether potassium, at interstitial concentrations within the range observed during static contraction, is capable of stimulating these afferents. Thus we injected potassium into the gracilis artery of chloralose-anesthetized dogs while we measured interstitial potassium concentrations in the gracilis muscle with potassium-selective electrodes. In 16 dogs, we found that potassium injections, which increased interstitial potassium concentrations by 4.7 +/- 0.3 mM, increased mean arterial pressure by 18 +/- 3 mmHg and heart rate by 12 +/- 8 beats/min; cutting the obturator nerve abolished these increases. These heart rate and blood pressure responses were of short duration (20 +/- 7 s), even though interstitial potassium remained elevated for a period of several minutes. In 5 of the 16 dogs, static contraction of the gracilis muscle for 60 s increased interstitial potassium concentration by 4.3 +/- 0.3 mM. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that potassium plays a role in causing the reflex cardiovascular responses to static muscular contraction. PMID:6437247

Rybicki, K J; Kaufman, M P; Kenyon, J L; Mitchell, J H

1984-10-01

321

Analytical Model to Assess Systolic Pressure in Pulmonary Artery in Patients with Bronchial Asthma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to study the peculiarities of pulmonary circulatory dynamics in patients with bronchial asthma, develop and apply an analytical model of correlation between systolic pressure in pulmonary artery and respiratory function (RF values. Materials and Methods. 112 patients with severe bronchial asthma (BA were examined. Physical examination, RF and echo Doppler cardiography were performed in all patients. Results. The presence of obstructive syndrome was confirmed when performing RF investigation in patients with severe BA. Severe pulmonary hypertension was also revealed in patients with severe BA. The pressure in pulmonary artery was increasing in bronchial obstruction progression and the reduction of forced expiratory volume per second (FEV1 that was represented by negative significant correlation dependence between the given parameters (r=–0.48; ?=0.005. There was developed an analytical model of dependence between FEV1 and the level of systolic pressure in pulmonary artery based on linear regression analysis. The model enables to assess approximately the main parameters of pulmonary circulatory dynamics in BA patients in clinical practice. Conclusion. Pulmonary hypertension revealed in 53.2% of BA patients has moderate functional character. One of the determining factors of pulmonary hypertension in bronchial asthma is bronchial obstruction. There is strong correlation and analytical interrelation between RF and pulmonary circulatory dynamics values.

S.S. Plastinina

2011-12-01

322

Coronary artery spasm  

Science.gov (United States)

Coronary artery spasm is a temporary, sudden narrowing of one of the coronary arteries (the arteries that supply blood to ... with angina (chest pain and pressure) have coronary artery spasm. Coronary artery spasm occurs most commonly in people ...

323

Respuesta de la frecuencia cardiaca y presión arterial en la fase II del programa de rehabilitación cardiaca en Costa Rica / Heart rate and blood pressure response in phase II cardiac rehabilitation program in Costa Rica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: describir el comportamiento de la frecuencia cardiaca y presión arterial en pacientes participantes de la fase II del programa de rehabilitación cardiaca del Centro Nacional de Rehabilitación. Métodos: 175 pacientes portadores de enfermedad arterial coronaria admitidos en la fase II del pr [...] ograma de rehabilitación cardiaca, del Centro Nacional de Rehabilitación, entre junio de 2009 y junio de 2011, con una duración de 12 semanas. Se les midió la frecuencia cardiaca y la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica antes del ejercicio y 3 minutos después de finalizado, con seguimiento a 2 años plazo. Resultados: de los 175 pacientes, 134 (76,1%) fueron hombres, con edad promedio de 59,3 años. La frecuencia cardiaca posterior al ejercicio mostró un aumento promedio de 7,9 latidos/ min (13,3%), la presión arterial sistólica una disminución en promedio de 7,80 mmHg (6,98 %) y la presión arterial diastólica mostró un incremento de 2,25 mmHg (3,15 %) el primer mes; 0,71 mmHg (1,24%) el segundo mes y -1,62 mmHg (-1,24%) el tercer mes. A los 2 años se localizó a 121 pacientes de los cuales 10 pacientes sufrieron algún tipo de re-intervención cardiaca y 2 siguen a la espera de un nuevo procedimiento; 88 (72%) se mantienen haciendo ejercicio. No se encontró relación entre el comportamiento de la frecuencia cardiaca y la presión arterial con la incidencia de nuevos eventos o re-intervenciones. Conclusión: el estudio muestra cambios producidos por el ejercicio progresivo en la frecuencia cardiaca y la presión arterial, en un programa de rehabilitación cardiaca fase II. Se encontró un alto porcentaje de adherencia al ejercicio y baja incidencia de eventos a 2 años plazo. Abstract in english Aim: To describe the behavior of heart rate and blood pressure in patients participating in stage II of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Program at the National Rehabilitation Center. Methods: 175 patients with coronary artery disease admitted in phase II of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Program at the Natio [...] nal Rehabilitation Center between June 2009 and June 2011, and a 12-week duration. We recorded heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure before and 3 minutes after exercise; with follow-up after 2 years. Results: Out of the 175 patients, 134 (76.1%) were men, with a mean age of 59.3 years old. Heart rate after exercise showed an average increase of 7.9 b/m (13.3%). Systolic blood pressure showed an average decrease of 7.80 mmHg (6.98%) and diastolic blood pressure showed an increase of 2.25 mmHg (3.15%) in the first month, 0.71 mmHg (1.24%) in the second month, and -1.62 mmHg (-1.24%) in the third month. After 2 years we found 121 patients, 10 of them had suffered some kind of cardiac re-intervention and 2 were still waiting for a new procedure; 88 (72%) continue doing exercise. No relationship was found between behavior of heart rate and of blood pressure and the incidence of new cardiac events or re-interventions. Conclusion: This study describes changes in heart rate and blood pressure as a result of progressive exercise in a phase II cardiac rehabilitation program. We found a high percentage of adherence to exercise and a low incidence of events after 2 years.

Manuel, Wong-On; Severita, Carrillo-Barrantes; Milena, Molina-Astúa; Christian, Vargas-Quesada; Sofía, Chaverri Flores.

2014-09-01

324

Exercício físico controla pressão arterial e melhora qualidade de vida / Exercise control blood pressure and improvement quality of life  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Para o tratamento correto da hipertensão arterial, é plausível a hipótese de que diante da prática regular de exercícios físicos estes pacientes não necessitariam de fármacos anti-hipertensivos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do tratamento exclusivo com exercício físico na pressão arterial ( [...] PA) e qualidade de vida (QV) de hipertensos. MÉTODO: Ensaio clínico com 32 hipertensos sedentários, 55±9 anos, que estavam sob tratamento farmacológico (TF) aleatoriamente alocados em Grupo Exercício (GE) e Grupo Controle (GC). No GE, 18 indivíduos (50% mulheres) após pelo menos dez dias de interrupção do TF iniciaram programa de exercício de dez semanas, 3x/semana, 30 minutos de exercício aeróbio seguidos por exercícios resistidos, enquanto 14 do GC (57% mulheres) se mantiveram sob TF. Foi verificada PA sistólica (PAS) e diastólica (PAD) no início e final do estudo pelo método auscultatório clássico e QV pelo questionário MINICHAL. Os dados foram expressos por M±DP, usou-se teste t de Student, U de Mann-Whitney e Wilcoxon, considerando-se p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Hypertension can be correctly treated when exercise is regularly practiced and hence, patients would not need anti-hypertensive drugs. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of treatment exclusively with exercise on blood pressure (BP) and quality of life (QL) of hypertensive subjects. METHODS: [...] Clinical trial with 32 sedentary hypertensive subjects, aged 55 ± 9 years, under pharmacological treatment (PT) randomly allocated to Exercise Group (EG) and Control Group (CG). At EG, 18 subjects (50% women) at least 10 days after the cessation of PT started the exercise program of 10 weeks, 3x/week, 30 minutes of aerobic exercise followed by resistance exercises, while 14 CG (57% women) remained under PT. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was evaluated by auscultation at the beginning and end and QL was evaluated using the questionnaire MINICHAL. Data were expressed as mean ± SD and statistical analysis was performed using t test, Mann Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests. RESULTS: At the beginning and end of the study, no significant differences in were observed in BP between groups. Within groups, BP in EG remained similar to the values before drugs were removed (SBP 132.2 ± 13.3 x 134.4 ± 10 mmHg, DBP 85.0 ± 9 x 85.3 ± 10 mmHg p = ns) and the CG (SBP 127.2 ± 19 x 130.2 ± 16 mmHg, DBP 82.1 ± 16 x 85.3 ± 12 mmHg p = ns).For QL, no inter-group difference was observed in scores at the beginning and end; intra-group significant improvement in the emotional aspect of the EG (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: The anti-hypertensive therapy with exercise only in comparison to conventional pharmacological treatment allowed the same BP control and better QL perception.

Daiana Cristine, Bündchen; Isabel de Castro, Schenkel; Rafaella Zulianello dos, Santos; Tales de, Carvalho.

2013-04-01

325

The obligatory role of the kidney in long-term arterial blood pressure control: extending Guyton's model of the circulation.  

OpenAIRE

We describe a model for the essential role of the kidney in long-term blood pressure regulation. We begin with a simple hydraulic model for the circulation, with a constant circulating volume. We show, with the help of a modification of Guyton's classic diagram, that cardiac output and mean arterial pressure are functions of circulating volume, peripheral resistance, venous and arterial compliances, and the cardiac Starling curve. This approach models only acute changes in a 'closed' circulat...

Dorrington, Kl; Pandit, Jj

2009-01-01

326

A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF MEAN ARTERIAL PRESSURE ON ESTIMATED BLOOD LOSS DURING ENDOSCOPIC SINUS SURGERY  

OpenAIRE

The current practice of lowering mean arterial pressure (MAP) during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is common, but unproven with regard to peer reviewed literature. The controlled hypotension induced is aimed for improved surgical field and lower the blood loss. Lower mean arterial pressures especially for prolonged surgeries may result in end organ hypoperfusion. The authors reviewed all patients who underwent outpatient endoscopic sinus surgery for the diagnosis of chronic sinusitis f...

Williams, George W.; Aanchal Sharma; Chunyan Cai

2014-01-01

327

Arterial pressure profile in patients with cirrhosis : Fourier analysis of arterial pulse in relation to pressure level, stroke volume, and severity of disease: on the reduction of afterload in the hyperdynamic syndrome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: Patients with cirrhosis have cardiovascular dysfunction and altered mechanical properties of large and small arteries. This study was undertaken in order to analyze the arterial pressure curve in relation to mean arterial pressure level, stroke volume, and severity of liver disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one patients with cirrhosis (Child-Turcotte classes A/B/C = 13/15/13) were studied during a hemodynamic investigation of portal hypertension. Fifteen patients without liver disease served as controls. We applied fast Fourier analysis to quantify the pressure components of the arterial curve, the harmonic Fourier coefficients (HFC). RESULTS: Mean arterial pressure was significantly reduced (91 vs. 98 mmHg, p < 0.001) and stroke volume was significantly increased (94 vs. 78 ml, p < 0.001) in patients with cirrhosis versus controls. The HFC were significantly lower in patients with cirrhosis than in controls (-15 to -24%, p < 0.002), except for the fourth HFC, which was significantly increased (+28%, p < 0.02). In contrast to controls, which showed a highly significant effect of the level of arterial pressure on their HFC (p < 0.001), patients with cirrhosis did not show pressure or stroke volume dependence on their HFC, indicating an overall compliant and slow reflective arterial vascular bed. The initial rise in pulse pressure (dP/dt) was inversely related to the Child-Turcotte score (p < 0.05), and the HFC were borderline significantly related to this score (p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: The arterial pulsation in cirrhosis is qualitatively changed with reduced pulse reflections, which may protect against manifest cardiac failure in patients with advanced cirrhosis.

Henriksen, Jens H; Fuglsang, Stefan

2012-01-01

328

Oscillometric continuous blood pressure sensing for wearable health monitoring system  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we present an acquisition chain for the measurement of blood arterial pressure based on the oscillometric method. This method does not suffer from any limitation as the well-known auscultatory method and it is suited for wearable health monitoring systems. The device uses a pressure sensor whose signal is filtered, digitalized and analyzed by a microcontroller. Local analysis allows the evaluation of the systolic and diastolic pressure values which can be used ...

Gelao, Gennaro; Marani, Roberto; Passaro, Vittorio M. N.; Perri, Anna Gina

2015-01-01

329

Intensidades de treinamento resistido e pressão arterial de idosas hipertensas - um estudo piloto Resistance training intensities and blood pressure of hypertensive older women - a pilot study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Observa-se que a literatura apresenta uma lacuna acerca da intensidade ideal de treinamento resistido para idosos hipertensos, os poucos estudos existentes utilizam treinamentos com diferentes intensidades. OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito de duas intensidades de treinamento resistido sobre a pressão arterial de idosas hipertensas controladas. Métodos: Dezesseis idosas hipertensas, controladas por medicação anti-hipertensiva, foram divididas em dois grupos através de sorteio. Nove pacientes foram submetidas a treinamento resistido moderado (G1 e sete, a treinamento resistido leve (G2. As pacientes realizaram oito semanas de treinamento resistido, com frequência de três vezes por semana em dias alternados, no período vespertino. Os exercícios realizados foram respectivamente: leg press, supino reto, extensão de joelhos, puxada frontal, flexão de joelhos, abdução de ombro, abdução unilateral de quadril com cross over e rosca direta com barra. RESULTADOS: As pacientes do G1 apresentaram redução tanto nos valores de repouso da pressão arterial diastólica (PAD p BACKGROUND: The optimum intensity of resistance training for hypertensive elderly has not been studied yet and the few studies in the literature used training with distinct intensities. Objective: To verify the effect of two resistance training intensities on blood pressure (BP of elderly women with controlled hypertension. METHODS: Sixteen older women with hypertension controlled by anti-hypertensive drug were randomly divided into two groups. Nine patients were submitted to moderate resistance training (G1 and seven patients were submitted to mild resistance training (G2. The patients underwent eight weeks of resistance training, with frequency of three times per week on alternate days in the afternoon. The exercises performed were: leg press, bench press, knee extension, lat pull-down, knee flexion, shoulder abduction, standing cable hip abdu