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Sample records for artery diastolic pressure

  1. The severity of coronary artery disease evaluated by central systolic pressure and fractional diastolic pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Song-Tao An; Yan-Yan QI; Li-Xia Wang

    2010-01-01

    Background: Central pulse pressure, pulse pressure index and fractional pulse pressure have been confirmed to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but if the severity of cardiovascular disease, specifically for the coronary artery disease, is evaluated by central systolic pressure and fractional diastolic pressure has been not well studied. Aims: This study was designed to examine if central systolic pressure and fractional diastolic pressure could act as a predicting ...

  2. Increased response of diastolic blood pressure to exercise in patients with coronary artery disease: an index of latent ventricular dysfunction?

    OpenAIRE

    Paraskevaidis, I A; Kremastinos, D.T.; Kassimatis, A S; Karavolias, G K; Kordosis, G D; Kyriakides, Z. S.; Toutouzas, P. K.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether an abnormal response of diastolic blood pressure during treadmill exercise stress testing correlated with the number of obstructed vessels and with left ventricular systolic function in patients with coronary artery disease. DESIGN--Diastolic blood pressure was measured invasively during exercise stress testing and coronary angiograms and left ventriculograms were obtained at rest in patients with coronary artery disease. The abnormal (> or = 15 mm Hg) diastoli...

  3. Influence of isoflurane on the diastolic pressure-flow relationship and critical occlusion pressure during arterial CABG surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, José; Hanekop, Gerd G.; Weyland, Andreas; Popov, Aron F.; Schmitto, Jan D.; Bauer, Martin; Kazmaier, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The effects of isoflurane on the determinants of blood flow during Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery are not completely understood. This study characterized the influence of isoflurane on the diastolic Pressure-Flow (P-F) relationship and Critical Occlusion Pressure (COP) during CABG surgery. Twenty patients undergoing CABG surgery were studied. Patients were assigned to an isoflurane or control group. Hemodynamic and flow measurements during CABG surgery were performed twice (15 minutes after the discontinuation of extracorporeal circulation (T15) and again 15 minutes later (T30)). The zero flow pressure intercept (a measure of COP) was extrapolated from a linear regression analysis of the instantaneous diastolic P-F relationship. In the isoflurane group, the application of isoflurane significantly increased the slope of the diastolic P-F relationship by 215% indicating a mean reduction of Coronary Vascular Resistance (CVR) by 46%. Simultaneously, the Mean Diastolic Aortic Pressure (MDAP) decreased by 19% mainly due to a decrease in the systemic vascular resistance index by 21%. The COP, cardiac index, heart rate, Left Ventricular End-Diastolic Pressure (LVEDP) and Coronary Sinus Pressure (CSP) did not change significantly. In the control group, the parameters remained unchanged. In both groups, COP significantly exceeded the CSP and LVEDP at both time points. We conclude that short-term application of isoflurane at a sedative concentration markedly increases the slope of the instantaneous diastolic P-F relationship during CABG surgery implying a distinct decrease with CVR in patients undergoing CABG surgery.

  4. Abnormal shortened diastolic time length at increasing heart rates in patients with abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombardini Tonino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree of pulmonary hypertension is not independently related to the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction but is frequently associated with diastolic filling abnormalities. The aim of this study was to assess diastolic times at increasing heart rates in normal and in patients with and without abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PASP. Methods. We enrolled 109 patients (78 males, age 62 ± 13 years referred for exercise stress echocardiography and 16 controls. The PASP was derived from the tricuspid Doppler tracing. A cut-off value of PASP ≥ 50 mmHg at peak stress was considered as indicative of abnormal increase in PASP. Diastolic times and the diastolic/systolic time ratio were recorded by a precordial cutaneous force sensor based on a linear accelerometer. Results At baseline, PASP was 30 ± 5 mmHg in patients and 25 ± 4 in controls. At peak stress the PASP was normal in 95 patients (Group 1; 14 patients (Group 2 showed an abnormal increase in PASP (from 35 ± 4 to 62 ± 12 mmHg; P Conclusion The first and second heart sound vibrations non-invasively monitored by a force sensor are useful for continuously assessing diastolic time during exercise. Exercise-induced abnormal PASP was associated with reduced diastolic time at heart rates beyond 100 beats per minute.

  5. Diastolic compliance and exercise-induced left ventricular diastolic volume changes in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study consists of 46 consecutive patients who had supine resting and exercise multigated (MUGA) blood pool studies. All patients had angio-graphically important coronary stenosis in at least one major vessel. Thirty-five out of 46 patients with coronary artery disease increased left ventricular end diastolic volume with a supine exercise. The remaining eleven patients dit not dilate the left ventricle. Those patients, who were able to increase their end diastolic volume during exercise, had better compliance of the left ventricle manifested by lower end diastolic pressures, whereas, patients with poor left ventricular compliance were unable to volume expand during supine exercise

  6. Oscillometric measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressures validated in a physiologic mathematical model

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    Babbs Charles F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oscillometric method of measuring blood pressure with an automated cuff yields valid estimates of mean pressure but questionable estimates of systolic and diastolic pressures. Existing algorithms are sensitive to differences in pulse pressure and artery stiffness. Some are closely guarded trade secrets. Accurate extraction of systolic and diastolic pressures from the envelope of cuff pressure oscillations remains an open problem in biomedical engineering. Methods A new analysis of relevant anatomy, physiology and physics reveals the mechanisms underlying the production of cuff pressure oscillations as well as a way to extract systolic and diastolic pressures from the envelope of oscillations in any individual subject. Stiffness characteristics of the compressed artery segment can be extracted from the envelope shape to create an individualized mathematical model. The model is tested with a matrix of possible systolic and diastolic pressure values, and the minimum least squares difference between observed and predicted envelope functions indicates the best fit choices of systolic and diastolic pressure within the test matrix. Results The model reproduces realistic cuff pressure oscillations. The regression procedure extracts systolic and diastolic pressures accurately in the face of varying pulse pressure and arterial stiffness. The root mean squared error in extracted systolic and diastolic pressures over a range of challenging test scenarios is 0.3 mmHg. Conclusions A new algorithm based on physics and physiology allows accurate extraction of systolic and diastolic pressures from cuff pressure oscillations in a way that can be validated, criticized, and updated in the public domain.

  7. Arterial Stiffness and Wave Reflection: Sex Differences and Relationship with Left Ventricular Diastolic Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Palmieri, Vittorio; Homma, Shunichi; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Di Tullio, Marco R.

    2012-01-01

    Increased arterial stiffness and wave reflection have been reported in heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) and in asymptomatic left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, a precursor of HFNEF. It is unclear whether women, who have higher frequency of HFNEF, are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious effects of arterial stiffness on LV diastolic function. We investigated in a large community-based cohort, whether sex differences exist in the relationship between arterial stiffness, wave reflection and LV diastolic function. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection were assessed in 983 participants from the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) study using applanation tonometry. Central pulse pressure/stroke volume index (cPP/SVi), total arterial compliance, pulse pressure amplification and augmentation index were used as parameters of arterial stiffness and wave reflection. LV diastolic function was evaluated by two-dimensional echocardiography and tissue-Doppler imaging. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection were greater in women compared to men, independent of body size and heart rate (all p<0.01), and showed inverse relationships with parameters of diastolic function in both sexes. Further adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors attenuated these relationships; however, higher cPP/SVi predicted LV diastolic dysfunction in women [odds ratio (OR) 1.54, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.03–2.30] and men (OR: 2.09, 95% CI 1.30–3.39) independent of other risk factors. In conclusion, in our community-based cohort study, higher arterial stiffness was associated with worse LV diastolic function in men and women. Women’s higher arterial stiffness, independent of body size, may contribute to their greater susceptibility to develop HFNEF. PMID:22753223

  8. Relationship between left ventricular diastolic function and arterial stiffness in asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Cornelis J; Auger, Dominique; Djaberi, Roxana; de Koning, Eelco J; Rabelink, Ton J; Pereira, Alberto M; Bax, Jeroen J; Delgado, Victoria; Jukema, J Wouter; Scholte, Arthur J

    2013-03-01

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness are common in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the relation between these two pathophysiological factors remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between LV diastolic function and arterial stiffness as assessed with applanation tonometry. In 142 asymptomatic patients with DM (mean age 48 years, 75 (53 %) men, 72 (51 %) patients with type 2 DM) LV diastolic function was assessed with echocardiography. Arterial stiffness was evaluated measuring the aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) whereas wave reflection was assessed measuring central systolic blood pressure (cSBP), central pulse pressure (cPP), and augmentation index (AIx) with applanation tonometry. Mean E/A ratio, E' and E/E' ratio were 1.1 ± 0.3, 8.1 ± 2.3 and 9.2 ± 3.3 cm/s, respectively. Mean PWV, mean cSBP, median cPP and mean AIx were 7.9 ± 2.4 m/s, 122 ± 17 mmHg, 40 [35-51] mmHg and 17.9 ± 12.1 %, respectively. PWV was independently associated with LV diastolic dysfunction grade (? = 0.76, p = 0.03). In contrast, measures of wave reflection, cPP, cSBP and AIx were independently related with E/A ratio, but not with the LV diastolic dysfunction grade. Parameters of arterial stiffness and wave reflection are associated with echocardiographic indices of LV diastolic function in asymptomatic patients with DM. Therapies that prevent progression of arterial stiffness and reduce late-systolic pressure overload may help to reduce the prevalence of LV diastolic dysfunction in this population. PMID:23053856

  9. Association between diastolic blood pressure and cumulative work time

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro Ricardo; Lima Filho Euclydes Custódio de

    1999-01-01

    Diastolic blood pressure was viewed as a generic indicator of aging, and its association with cumulative work time was studied after controlling for age as a potential confounding factor. The study was conducted among production line workers at a Brazilian tannery in July 1993. The association between diastolic blood pressure and cumulative work time was verified by fitting a second-order linear regression model, where diastolic blood pressure was a function of worker's age and cumulative wor...

  10. Association between diastolic blood pressure and cumulative work time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cordeiro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Diastolic blood pressure was viewed as a generic indicator of aging, and its association with cumulative work time was studied after controlling for age as a potential confounding factor. The study was conducted among production line workers at a Brazilian tannery in July 1993. The association between diastolic blood pressure and cumulative work time was verified by fitting a second-order linear regression model, where diastolic blood pressure was a function of worker's age and cumulative work time. By fitting the model, one can predict that, in the beginning of working life at the tannery, on average each 1-year period is associated with an increase of about 1.5 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure. The fit obtained highlights one component directly associated with work as part of the rate of pressure increase in the study group. This component is twice as high as that directly associated with age.

  11. Carotid artery mixing with diastole-phased pulsed drug infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focal injury to the brain or retina is a frequent complication of drug delivery to the internal carotid artery (ICA) and may be due to poor mixing of the drug with blood at the infusion site. Rhesus monkeys were studied to determine whether phased drug delivery during diastole from a modified pulsatile angiographic injector would improve drug mixing in vivo. A radiolabeled flow tracer, carbon-14-iodoantipyrine (14C-IAP), was injected into the ICA of three monkeys in 80-msec pulses, each ending at least 50 msec before the end of local diastole. Local isotope concentration in the brain was determined by quantitative autoradiography. The ratio of highest to lowest concentration was 1.86 +/- 0.26 (mean +/- standard deviation) in the frontoparietal cortex, 1.65 +/- 0.42 in the frontoparietal white matter, 1.89 +/- 0.28 in the temporal cortex, and 1.39 +/- 0.17 in the basal ganglia. These results were similar to recordings in three control animals that received intravenous 14C-IAP to demonstrate complete drug mixing (1.37 +/- 0.12, 1.41 +/- 0.11, 1.70 +/- 0.08, 1.22 +/- 0.24, respectively), and contrasted to findings in five animals which received continuous intracarotid infusions to demonstrate standard ICA drug delivery (4.54 +/- 2.07, 2.94 +/- 1.45, 5.43 +/- 3.57, 3.60 +/- 2.90, respectively). Pulsed intra-arterial infusion during diastole provides a technically simple method for improving intravascular drug mixing, and results in drug delivery to tissue capillaries that is proportional to blood flow

  12. Left ventricular diastolic function in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 302 patients with confirmed coronary disease we determined the left ventricular diastolic function with the Nuclear Stethoscope by the aid of the Peak Filling Rate (PFR) and the Time to Peak Filling Rate (TPFR). Moreover we investigated the ejection fraction (EF). 201 patients had already suffered a myocardial infarction, of these 99 an anterior wall and 102 an inferior wall infarction. The remaining 101 patients had a CAD without a history of myocardial infarction. The PFR was 2.19 ± 0.65 EDV/sec in the 99 patients after anterior wall infarction and 2.62 ± 0.85 EDV/sec in the 102 patients after inferior wall infarction and 2.79 ± 0.85 EDV/sec in 101 patients with coronary artery disease without a history of myocardial infarction. For the PFR there could be found a statistically significant difference between normal patients and patients after anterior wall infarction (p < 0.0001), normal patients and patients after inferior wall infarction (p < 0.0001) and normal patients and patients with coronary artery disease (p < 0.0001). The TPFR was 180 ± 37.5 msec after anterior - and 158 ± 50.7 msec after inferior wall infarction and 156 ± 45.2 msec in the patients with CAD without previous infarction. The left ventricular diastolic function (PFR and/or TPFR) was abnormal in 88% after anterior- and in 82% after inferior wall infarction and in 69% in coronary patients without previous myocardial infarction. In comparison with this the ejection fraction was reduced in 66% in anterior- and in 61% inferior wall infarction at rest. These results indicate that the diastolic function at rest appears to be more informative for evaluation of a left ventricular dysfunction than the systolic function at rest. (orig.)

  13. Multivariate Modeling of Body Mass Index, Pulse Pressure, Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in Chinese Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yili; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Jiang, Wenjie; Wang, Shaojie; Li, Shuxia; von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob; Tan, Qihua

    2015-01-01

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure (PP), and body mass index (BMI) are heritable traits in human metabolic health but their common genetic and environmental backgrounds are not well investigated. The aim of this article was to explore the phenotypic and genetic associations among PP, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and BMI. The studied sample contained 615 twin pairs (17-84 years) collected in the Qingdao municipality. Univariate and multivariate...

  14. Relationship between occupational exposure to lead and local arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic function in individuals with arterial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relationship between occupational exposure to lead and frequency of complications in persons with arterial hypertension has been poorly investigated. This study aimed at evaluation of the relationship between occupational exposure to lead and manifestation of an increased local arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The studies included 105 men (mean age: 44.47 ± 9.12 years) with arterial hypertension, treated with hypotensive drugs: group I - men occupationally exposed to lead (n = 53), and group II - men not exposed to lead (n = 52). In echocardiographic examination, the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was diagnosed significantly more frequently in group I than in group II. In eTracking examination mean values of stiffness parameter (?), augmentation index (AI) and one-point pulse wave velocity (PWV-?) were significantly higher and mean values of arterial compliance (AC) were significantly lower in group I than in group II. The logistic regression showed that in the group of persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead a more advanced age, higher blood lead concentration and higher mean values of augmentation index represent independent risk factors of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The multifactorial regression showed that amongst persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead higher blood zinc protoporphyrin concentration, a more advanced age and higher value of body mass index (BMI) represent independent risk factors of an increased local arterial stiffness. In summary, we should note that in the group of persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead the study has demonstrated a significantly more frequent manifestation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and an increase in local arterial stiffness. - Highlights: ? Amongst persons with AH exposed to Pb higher ZnPP represent independent risk factor of increased local arterial stiffness. ? Higher Pb-B represent independent risk factor of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. ? The study has demonstrated a more frequent manifestation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in group exposed to Pb. ? Also, in this group the study has demonstrated a more frequent manifestation of increase in local arterial stiffness.

  15. Association between intrarenal arterial resistance and diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes

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    Matthews D Geoffrey

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In comparison to the well established changes in compliance that occur at the large vessel level in diabetes, much less is known about the changes in compliance of the cardiovascular system at the end-organ level. The aim of this study was therefore to examine whether there was a correlation between resistance of the intrarenal arteries of the kidney and compliance of the left ventricle, as estimated by measurements of diastolic function, in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Methods We studied 167 unselected clinic patients with type 2 diabetes with a kidney duplex scan to estimate intrarenal vascular resistance, i.e. the resistance index (RI = peak systolic velocity-minimum diastolic velocity/peak systolic velocity and a transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE employing tissue doppler studies to document diastolic and systolic ventricular function. Results Renal RI was significantly higher in subjects with diastolic dysfunction (0.72 ± 0.05 when compared with those who had a normal TTE examination (0.66 ± 0.06, p Conclusion Increasing vascular resistance of the intrarenal arteries was associated with markers of diastolic dysfunction in subjects with type 2 diabetes. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that vascular and cardiac stiffening in diabetes are manifestations of common pathophysiological mechanisms.

  16. Protein Changes Contributing to Right Ventricular Cardiomyocyte Diastolic Dysfunction in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rain, Silvia; Bos, Denielli da Silva Goncalves; Handoko, M. Louis; Westerhof, Nico; Stienen, Ger; Ottenheijm, Coen; Goebel, Max; Dorfmüller, Peter; Guignabert, Christophe; Humbert, Marc; Bogaard, Harm?Jan; dos Remedios, Cris; Saripalli, Chandra; Hidalgo, Carlos G.; Granzier, Henk L.; Vonk?Noordegraaf, Anton; van der Velden, Jolanda; de Man, Frances S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Right ventricular (RV) diastolic function is impaired in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Our previous study showed that elevated cardiomyocyte stiffness and myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity underlie diastolic dysfunction in PAH. This study investigates protein modifications contributing to cellular diastolic dysfunction in PAH. Methods and Results RV samples from PAH patients undergoing heart?lung transplantation were compared to non?failing donors (Don). Titin stiffness contribution to RV diastolic dysfunction was determined by Western?blot analyses using antibodies to protein?kinase?A (PKA), C? (PKC?) and Ca2+/calmoduling?dependent?kinase (CamKII?) titin and phospholamban (PLN) phosphorylation sites: N2B (Ser469), PEVK (Ser170 and Ser26), and PLN (Thr17), respectively. PKA and PKC? sites were significantly less phosphorylated in PAH compared with donors (P<0.0001). To test the functional relevance of PKA?, PKC??, and CamKII??mediated titin phosphorylation, we measured the stiffness of single RV cardiomyocytes before and after kinase incubation. PKA significantly decreased PAH RV cardiomyocyte diastolic stiffness, PKC? further increased stiffness while CamKII? had no major effect. CamKII? activation was determined indirectly by measuring PLN Thr17phosphorylation level. No significant changes were found between the groups. Myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity is mediated by sarcomeric troponin I (cTnI) phosphorylation. We observed increased unphosphorylated cTnI in PAH compared with donors (P<0.05) and reduced PKA?mediated cTnI phosphorylation (Ser22/23) (P<0.001). Finally, alterations in Ca2+?handling proteins contribute to RV diastolic dysfunction due to insufficient diastolic Ca2+ clearance. PAH SERCA2a levels and PLN phosphorylation were significantly reduced compared with donors (P<0.05). Conclusions Increased titin stiffness, reduced cTnI phosphorylation, and altered levels of phosphorylation of Ca2+ handling proteins contribute to RV diastolic dysfunction in PAH. PMID:24895160

  17. Phase shifts of synchronized oscillators and the systolic/diastolic blood pressure relation

    CERN Document Server

    Angelini, L; Maestri, R; Marinazzo, D; Nardulli, Giuseppe; Nitti, L; Pellicoro, M; Pinna, G D; Stramaglia, S

    2004-01-01

    We study the phase-synchronization properties of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure in healthy subjects. We find that delays in the oscillatory components of the time series depend on the frequency bands that are considered, in particular we find a change of sign in the phase shift going from the Very Low Frequency band to the High Frequency band. This behavior should reflect a collective behavior of a system of nonlinear interacting elementary oscillators. We prove that some models describing such systems, e.g. the Winfree and the Kuramoto models offer a clue to this phenomenon. For these theoretical models there is a linear relationship between phase shifts and the difference of natural frequencies of oscillators and a change of sign in the phase shift naturally emerges.

  18. Casein improves brachial and central aortic diastolic blood pressure in overweight adolescents: a randomised, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Karina; Larnkjær, Anni; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Jensen, Signe Marie; Hoppe, Camilla; Mølgaard, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness, blood pressure (BP) and blood lipids may be improved by milk in adults and the effects may be mediated via proteins. However, limited is known about the effects of milk proteins on central aortic BP and no studies have examined the effects in children. Therefore, the present...... water, skimmed milk, whey or casein for 12 weeks. The milk-based test drinks contained 35 g protein/l. The effects were compared with the water group and a pretest control group consisting of thirty-two of the adolescents followed 12 weeks before the start of the intervention. Outcomes were brachial and...... central aortic BP, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index, serum C-reactive protein and blood lipids. Brachial and central aortic diastolic BP (DBP) decreased by 2·7% (P= 0·036) and 2·6% (P = 0·048), respectively, within the casein group and the changes were significantly different from those of the...

  19. Arterial blood pressure analysis based on scattering transform II

    OpenAIRE

    Laleg, Taous-Meriem; Médigue, Claire; Cottin, François; Sorine, Michel

    2007-01-01

    "Arterial blood pressure analysis based on scattering transform I" introduces a new method based on the scattering transform for a one dimensional Schrödinger equation to reconstruct the arterial blood pressure waves and separate its systolic and diastolic parts. In this article, we propose to analyse the parameters computed from this technique in different clinical and physiological conditions. Two cases are considered: moderate chronic heart failure and high fit triathlets. The variability ...

  20. Diastolic blood pressure and area of residence: multilevel versus ecological analysis of social inequity

    OpenAIRE

    Merlo, Juan; Östergren, Per-Olof; Hagberg, Oskar; Lindström, Martin; Lindgren, Anna; Melander, Arne; Råstam, Lennart; Berglund, Göran

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES---To study geographical differences in diastolic blood pressure and the influence of the social environment (census percentage of people with low educational achievement) on individual diastolic blood pressure level, after controlling for individual age and educational achievement. To compare the results of multilevel and ecological analyses. DESIGN---Cross sectional analysis performed by multilevel linear regression modelling, with women at the first level and urban areas...

  1. Clinical evaluation of early diastolic function with radionuclide ventriculography in patient with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 23 normal subjects, 37 CAD-NMI and 14 CAD-MI, left ventricular function was assessed using an automatic method from equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography. Early diastolic function was measured for evaluating its clinical value in coronary artery diseases. The results showed that PFR was more sensitive than the others for detecting ischaemic heart disease. There were significant difference on PFR between normal subjects and CAD-NMI group (p TPER(17/37, pEF(16/37, p>0.05). There were also significant difference in PFR, PER and EF between CAD-NMI and CAD-MI (p0.05)

  2. [An analysis of the indices of ambulatory circadian blood pressure monitoring in patients with arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonova, M V; Belousov, Iu B; Semenchuk, G A; Malysheva, E A; Upnitski?, A A; Istratov, S Iu

    1997-01-01

    The authors have found that more accurate prognosis of left ventricular myocardial hypertrophy (LVMH) may be made basing on fluctuations and variability of arterial pressure throughout the day: significant fluctuations of arterial pressure at night and pronounced variability of systolic arterial pressure in the day time and at night are indicative of essential hypertension instability and may contribute to LVMH progression. Of still greater prognostic significance is assessment of 24-h arterial pressure rhythm by the degree of a night fall (DNF) in diastolic arterial pressure (DAP). A disturbed 24-h rhythm of arterial pressure (a fall in DNF of DAP) is a predictor of LVMH development. PMID:9163047

  3. Multivariate Modeling of Body Mass Index, Pulse Pressure, Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in Chinese Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yili; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2015-01-01

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure (PP), and body mass index (BMI) are heritable traits in human metabolic health but their common genetic and environmental backgrounds are not well investigated. The aim of this article was to explore the phenotypic and genetic associations among PP, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and BMI. The studied sample contained 615 twin pairs (17–84 years) collected in the Qingdao municipality. Univariate and multivariate structural equation models were fitted for assessing the genetic and environmental contributions. The AE model combining additive genetic (A) and unique environmental (E) factors produced the best fit for each four phenotypes. Heritability estimated in univariate analysis ranged from 0.42 to 0.74 with the highest for BMI (95% CI 0.70–0.78), and the lowest for PP (95% CI 0.34–0.49). The multivariate model estimated (1) high genetic correlations for DBP with SBP (0.87), PP with SBP (0.75); (2) low–moderate genetic correlations between PP and DBP (0.32), each BP component and BMI (0.24–0.37); (3) moderate unique environmental correlation for PP with SBP (0.68) and SBP with DBP (0.63); (4) there was no significant unique environmental correlation between PP and BMI. Overall, our multivariate analyses revealed common genetic and environmental backgrounds for PP, BP, and BMI in Chinese twins.

  4. Casein improves brachial and central aortic diastolic blood pressure in overweight adolescents : A randomised, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Karina; Larnkjær, Anni

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness, blood pressure (BP) and blood lipids may be improved by milk in adults and the effects may be mediated via proteins. However, limited is known about the effects of milk proteins on central aortic BP and no studies have examined the effects in children. Therefore, the present trial examined the effect of milk and milk proteins on brachial and central aortic BP, blood lipids, inflammation and arterial stiffness in overweight adolescents. A randomised controlled trial was conducted in 193 overweight adolescents aged 12–15 years. They were randomly assigned to drink 1 litre of water, skimmed milk, whey or casein for 12 weeks. The milk-based test drinks contained 35 g protein/l. The effects were compared with the water group and a pretest control group consisting of thirty-two of the adolescents followed 12 weeks before the start of the intervention. Outcomes were brachial and central aortic BP, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index, serum C-reactive protein and blood lipids. Brachial and central aortic diastolic BP (DBP) decreased by 2·7% (P = 0·036) and 2·6%(P = 0·048), respectively, within the casein group and the changes were significantly different from those of the pretest control group (P = 0·040 and P = 0·034, respectively). There was a significant increase in central aortic DBP, and in brachial and central systolic BP in the whey group compared with the water group (P = 0·003, P = 0·009 and P = 0·002, respectively). There were no changes in measures of arterial stiffness or blood lipid concentrations. A high intake of casein improves DBP in overweight adolescents. Thus, casein may be beneficial for younger overweight subjects in terms of reducing the longterm risk of CVD. In contrast, whey protein seems to increase BP compared with drinking water; however, water may be considered an active control group.

  5. Casein improves brachial and central aortic diastolic blood pressure in overweight adolescents: a randomised, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Karina; Larnkjær, Anni

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness, blood pressure (BP) and blood lipids may be improved by milk in adults and the effects may be mediated via proteins. However, limited is known about the effects of milk proteins on central aortic BP and no studies have examined the effects in children. Therefore, the present trial examined the effect of milk and milk proteins on brachial and central aortic BP, blood lipids, inflammation and arterial stiffness in overweight adolescents. A randomised controlled trial was conducted in 193 overweight adolescents aged 12–15 years. They were randomly assigned to drink 1 litre of water, skimmed milk, whey or casein for 12 weeks. The milk-based test drinks contained 35 g protein/l. The effects were compared with the water group and a pretest control group consisting of thirty-two of the adolescents followed 12 weeks before the start of the intervention. Outcomes were brachial and central aortic BP, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index, serum C-reactive protein and blood lipids. Brachial and central aortic diastolic BP (DBP) decreased by 2·7% (P= 0·036) and 2·6% (P = 0·048), respectively, within the casein group and the changes were significantly different from those of the pretest control group (P = 0·040 and P = 0·034, respectively). There was a significant increase in central aortic DBP, and in brachial and central systolic BP in the whey group compared with the water group (P = 0·003, P= 0·009 and P = 0·002, respectively). There were no changes in measures of arterial stiffness or blood lipid concentrations. A high intake of casein improves DBP in overweight adolescents. Thus, casein may be beneficial for younger overweight subjects in terms of reducing the longterm risk of CVD. In contrast, whey protein seems to increase BP compared with drinking water; however, water may be considered an active control group.

  6. Association between diastolic blood pressure and cumulative work time Associação entre pressão diastólica e tempo de serviço

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Cordeiro; Euclydes Custódio de Lima Filho

    1999-01-01

    Diastolic blood pressure was viewed as a generic indicator of aging, and its association with cumulative work time was studied after controlling for age as a potential confounding factor. The study was conducted among production line workers at a Brazilian tannery in July 1993. The association between diastolic blood pressure and cumulative work time was verified by fitting a second-order linear regression model, where diastolic blood pressure was a function of worker's age and cumulative wor...

  7. EFFECT OF GENDER DIFFERENCE AND CIRCADIAN RHYTHM ON DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE FOR VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Rajagopal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of gender difference and circadian rhythm on diastolic blood pressure for volleyball players. METHODS: To achieve the purpose, a total of thirty volleyball players [men (n = 15 and women (n = 15] age between 19 years and 22 years from Einstein College of Engineering, Tamil Nadu, India were selected as subjects. The two independent variables of gender and circadian variations and dependent variable of diastolic blood pressure were selected for this study. The experimental design used was static group factorial design. The data were collected at 02:00, 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00 and 22:00 hours on diastolic blood pressure by using Erkameter during the academic year of 2009 – 2010. Collected data were subjected to statistical analysis by using two-way factorial (2 x 6 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Cosinor analysis. RESULTS: There was insignificant difference between genders, significant difference at different times of the day and insignificant circadian rhythmicity exists on diastolic blood pressure for women and significant for men. CONCLUSION: It is recommended to the physical educators to adopt the findings of this study while planning to improve sports skills for the players and athletes.

  8. Coronary Flow Reserve Predicts Cardiopulmonary Fitness in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Independently of Systolic and Diastolic Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoer, Martin; Olsen, Rasmus Huan

    2014-01-01

    Despite revascularization and optimal medical treatment, patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) have reduced exercise capacity. In the absence of coronary artery stenosis, coronary flow reserve (CFR) is a measure of coronary microvascular function, and a marker of future poor outcome in CAD patients. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship among CFR, systolic and diastolic function, peripheral vascular function, and cardiopulmonary fitness in CAD patients.

  9. Comparison of the effect of pressure loading on left ventricular size, systolic and diastolic function in canines with left ventricular dysfunction with preserved and reduced ejection fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavine Steven J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decompensated heart failure may present with severe hypertension in patients with preserved (PreEF or reduced left ventricular (LV ejection fraction (RedEF and is clinically indistinguishable. Previously, we demonstrated that arterial pressure elevation increases LV filling pressures in a canine model of chronic LV dysfunction with PreEF or RedEF. It is not clear whether any differences in hemodynamics, LV volume or performance, or diastolic function can be demonstrated between canines with PreEF or RedEF in response to arterial pressure elevation. We hypothesized that the LV systolic, diastolic, and hemodynamic response to pressure loading would be similar in RedEF or PreEF. Methods We studied 25 dogs with chronic LV dysfunction due to coronary microsphere embolization with RedEF (35 ± 4% and 20 dogs with PreEF (50 ± 3%. Arterial pressure was increased with methoxamine infusion and hemodynamics and echo-Doppler parameters of LV size, function, transaortic and transmitral pulsed Doppler prior to and with methoxamine infusion was obtained. Results Though LV filling pressures were similar at baseline, LV size was larger (p Conclusion Pressure loading in a canine model of LV dysfunction with PreEF and RedEF resulted in similar degrees of LV dilatation, increased filling pressures, and increased index of myocardial performance.

  10. Impact of age on the importance of systolic and diastolic blood pressures for stroke risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishram, Julie K K; Borglykke, Anders Rething; Andreasen, Anne H; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Ibsen, Hans; Jørgensen, Torben; Broda, Grazyna; Palmieri, Luigi; Giampaoli, Simona; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Kee, Frank; Mancia, Giuseppe; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Sans, Susana; Olsen, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates age-related shifts in the relative importance of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures as predictors of stroke and whether these relations are influenced by other cardiovascular risk factors. Using 34 European cohorts from the MOnica, Risk, Genetics, Archiving, and Monograph (MORGAM) Project with baseline between 1982 and 1997, 68 551 subjects aged 19 to 78 years, without cardiovascular disease and not receiving antihypertensive treatment, were included. Duri...

  11. Impact of Age on the Importance of Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressures for Stroke Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishram, Julie K K; Borglykke, Anders; Andreasen, Anne H; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Ibsen, Hans; Jørgensen, Torben; Broda, Grazyna; Palmieri, Luigi; Giampaoli, Simona; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Kee, Frank; Mancia, Giuseppe; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Sans, Susana; Olsen, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates age-related shifts in the relative importance of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures as predictors of stroke and whether these relations are influenced by other cardiovascular risk factors. Using 34 European cohorts from the MOnica, Risk, Genetics, Archiving, and Monograph (MORGAM) Project with baseline between 1982 and 1997, 68 551 subjects aged 19 to 78 years, without cardiovascular disease and not receiving antihypertensive treatment, were included. Duri...

  12. Minimum left ventricular pressure during beta-adrenergic stimulation in human subjects. Evidence for elastic recoil and diastolic "suction" in the normal heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udelson, J E; Bacharach, S L; Cannon, R O; Bonow, R O

    1990-10-01

    The influence of elastic recoil and restoring forces on diastolic left ventricular pressure decay and minimum left ventricular pressures has been demonstrated in animal models but has not been studied in the human heart. To investigate this issue in the normal human left ventricle, we studied eight patients with chest pain and normal coronary arteries with simultaneous measurement of left ventricular volume (by radionuclide angiography) and pressure (by micromanometer catheter) and coronary sinus blood flow. Electrocardiographic-gated data were obtained in the basal state, during rapid atrial pacing, and during isoproterenol infusion to a similar heart rate. Compared with pacing, isoproterenol increased ejection fraction and reduced end-systolic volume (p less than 0.005), end-systolic pressure (p less than 0.005), and the half-time of pressure decline after peak negative dP/dt (T1/2) (p less than 0.001). Negative diastolic pressure developed in seven of eight patients during isoproterenol (range, -0.5 to -2.4 mm Hg) but in only one of eight during pacing (-0.2 mm Hg). These reduced diastolic pressures during isoproterenol were accompanied by increased stroke volume (reflecting increased transmitral flow) and diminished pulmonary wedge pressure (reflecting left atrial pressure). The magnitude of reduction in minimum diastolic pressure during pacing and isoproterenol was related to the change in end-systolic volume (r = 0.79, p less than 0.001), ejection fraction (r = -0.74, p less than 0.001), T1/2 (r = -0.57, p less than 0.02), and coronary sinus flow (r = 0.73, p less than 0.005). Stronger correlations were observed in analyzing changes during isoproterenol alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1976048

  13. Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Wiinberg, N; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients have disturbed systemic hemodynamics with reduced arterial blood pressure, but this has not been investigated during daily activity and sleep. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured by an automatic ambulant...... device for monitoring blood pressure in 35 patients with cirrhosis and 35 healthy matched controls. During the daytime, SBP, DBP, and MAP were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls (median 118 vs. 127; 70 vs. 78; 86 vs. 94 mm Hg, P < .0001 to P < .05). The nighttime blood pressures...... were almost similar in the two groups (108 vs. 110; 65 vs. 67; 78 vs. 82 mm Hg, NS). Conversely, HR was significantly higher in the patients both in the daytime (86 vs. 72/min, P < .0001) and at night (80 vs. 64/min, P < .0001). Consequently, the reduction in blood pressure and HR from daytime to...

  14. Combine proper exercise and regular taking antihypertensive medicine was better to lower diastolic blood pressure among diastolic prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Ermita I. Ilyas; Bastaman Basuki; Dede Kusmana

    2010-01-01

    Aim To prove that proper exercise and taking antihypertensive medicine may reduce diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by ? 5 mmHg.Method A quasi-experimentation study was done on employees of a government bureau in Jakarta, for 8 weeks from March to August 2008. All prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects were detected through a survey prior to the quasi-experimentation study. A talk was given at the beginning of the quasi-experimentation study, and weekly counseling sessions on exercise, taking...

  15. Double product response and diastolic blood pressure in treadmill, stationary bicycle and muscular circuit exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmiro Santos Resende

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the various causes for cardiovascular problems affecting the world population nowadays, the most relevant risk factors is sedentary lifestyle. Many studies have been carried out to analyse and elucidate main adaptations on the cardiovascular system stimulated by different sorts of exercises.In this way, this study had aimed at comparing the acute response of double product (DP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP after treadmill (TRM, stationary bicycle (BIC or muscle circuit training (MCT exercises. Nine individuals (6 women and 3 men exercised at 60% of heart rate reserve (HRR on the TRM and BIC and at 60% of one repetition maximum (1RM in MCT. The results showed that pre- and post-effort DP were significantly difference in all three exercises. However, DP did not differ among exercise types. The hypotensive DBP pos-effort response was greater in MCT. According to the results, it was concluded that there is no difference on the heart work demand rate estimated by DP among the three exercises and MCT at 60% 1RM provokes a greater hypotensive DBP post-effort response. RESUMO Entre as diversas causas de problemas cardiovasculares que afetam a população mundial, na atualidade, o sedentarismo é apontado como um dos fatores de risco mais relevantes. Vários estudos têm se preocupado em analisar e esclarecer as principais adaptações provocadas pelos diferentes tipos de exercícios sobre o sistema cardiovascular. Seguindo esta linha o presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar e comparar a resposta aguda do duplo produto (DP e a pressão arterial diastólica (PAD em exercício de esteira, bicicleta estacionária e circuito na musculação. Foram avaliados nove indivíduos sendo seis mulheres e três homens, na esteira, a 60% da freqüência cardíaca de reserva (FCR, na bicicleta estacionária, a 60% FCR e circuito de musculação a 60% de 1 repetição máxima (1RM. Os resultados encontrados apresentaram diferença significativa do DP pré e pós esforço nos três exercícios. Quando comparado, o DP obtido pós esforço, nos três exercícios, não houve diferença significativa. A resposta hipotensiva da PAD pós-esforço foi mais acentuada após exercício de circuito em musculação, quando comparada com as outras modalidades exercício analisadas. De acordo com os procedimentos metodológicos adotados e os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que não há diferença na taxa de exigência de trabalho do miocárdio entre os três exercicios analisados e que o circuito de musculação, a 60% 1RM, provoca uma maior resposta hipotensiva da PAD pós-esforço.

  16. Double product response and diastolic blood pressure in treadmill, stationary bicycle and muscular circuit exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Teixeira Paranhos Lopes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the various causes for cardiovascular problems affecting the world population nowadays, the most relevant risk factors is sedentary lifestyle. Many studies have been carried out to analyse and elucidate main adaptations on the cardiovascular system stimulated by different sorts of exercises.In this way, this study had aimed at comparing the acute response of double product (DP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP after treadmill (TRM, stationary bicycle (BIC or muscle circuit training (MCT exercises. Nine individuals (6 women and 3 men exercised at 60% of heart rate reserve (HRR on the TRM and BIC and at 60% of one repetition maximum (1RM in MCT. The results showed that pre- and post-effort DP were significantly difference in all three exercises. However, DP did not differ among exercise types. The hypotensive DBP pos-effort response was greater in MCT. According to the results, it was concluded that there is no difference on the heart work demand rate estimated by DP among the three exercises and MCT at 60% 1RM provokes a greater hypotensive DBP post-effort response. . Resumo Entre as diversas causas de problemas cardiovasculares que afetam a população mundial, na atualidade, o sedentarismo é apontado como um dos fatores de risco mais relevantes. Vários estudos têm se preocupado em analisar e esclarecer as principais adaptações provocadas pelos diferentes tipos de exercícios sobre o sistema cardiovascular. Seguindo esta linha o presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar e comparar a resposta aguda do duplo produto (DP e a pressão arterial diastólica (PAD em exercício de esteira, bicicleta estacionária e circuito na musculação. Foram avaliados nove indivíduos sendo seis mulheres e três homens, na esteira, a 60% da freqüência cardíaca de reserva (FCR, na bicicleta estacionária, a 60% FCR e circuito de musculação a 60% de 1 repetição máxima (1RM. Os resultados encontrados apresentaram diferença significativa do DP pré e pós esforço nos três exercícios. Quando comparado, o DP obtido pós esforço, nos três exercícios, não houve diferença significativa. A resposta hipotensiva da PAD pós-esforço foi mais acentuada após exercício de circuito em musculação, quando comparada com as outras modalidades exercício analisadas. De acordo com os procedimentos metodológicos adotados e os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que não há diferença na taxa de exigência de trabalho do miocárdio entre os três exercicios analisados e que o circuito de musculação, a 60% 1RM, provoca uma maior resposta hipotensiva da PAD pós-esforço.

  17. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade improves diastolic function independent of blood pressure reduction in a transgenic model of RAAS overexpression

    OpenAIRE

    Habibi, Javad; DeMarco, Vincent G.; Ma, Lixin; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Rainey, William E.; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Sowers, James R.

    2011-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that aldosterone can promote diastolic dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis independent of blood pressure effects, perhaps through increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Accordingly, this investigation was designed to ascertain if mineralocorticoid receptor blockade improves diastolic dysfunction independently of changes in blood pressure through actions on myocardial oxidative stress and fibrosis. We used young transgenic (mRen2)27 [TG(mRen2)27] rats with increas...

  18. Arterial pressure measurement: Is the envelope curve of the oscillometric method influenced by arterial stiffness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of peripheral arterial pressure using the oscillometric method is commonly used by professionals as well as by patients in their homes. This non invasive automatic method is fast, efficient and the required equipment is affordable with a low cost. The measurement method consists of obtaining parameters from a calibrated decreasing curve that is modulated by heart beats witch appear when arterial pressure reaches the cuff pressure. Diastolic, mean and systolic pressures are obtained calculating particular instants from the heart beats envelope curve. In this article we analyze the envelope of this amplified curve to find out if its morphology is related to arterial stiffness in patients. We found, in 33 volunteers, that the envelope waveform width correlates to systolic pressure (r=0.4, p<0.05), to pulse pressure (r=0.6, p<0.05) and to pulse pressure normalized to systolic pressure (r=0.6, p<0.05). We believe that the morphology of the heart beats envelope curve obtained with the oscillometric method for peripheral pressure measurement depends on arterial stiffness and can be used to enhance pressure measurements

  19. Effects of exposure to carbon disulphide on low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and diastolic blood pressure.

    OpenAIRE

    Egeland, G M; Burkhart, G A; Schnorr, T M; Hornung, R W; Fajen, J M; Lee, S. T.

    1992-01-01

    The relation of carbon disulphide (CS2) exposure to risk factors for ischaemic heart disease was recently examined using data from a 1979 cross sectional study of 410 male textile workers, of whom 165 were exposed and 245 were unexposed to CS2. Average eight hour CS2 exposure concentrations ranged from 0.6 to 11.8 ppm by job title category among the exposed workers. A significant and positive linear trend in low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (LDLc) and diastolic blood pressure...

  20. Casein improves brachial and central aortic diastolic blood pressure in overweight adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Karina; Larnkjær, Anni; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Jensen, Signe Marie; Hoppe, Camilla; Mølgaard, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness, blood pressure (BP) and blood lipids may be improved by milk in adults and the effects may be mediated via proteins. However, limited is known about the effects of milk proteins on central aortic BP and no studies have examined the effects in children. Therefore, the present trial examined the effect of milk and milk proteins on brachial and central aortic BP, blood lipids, inflammation and arterial stiffness in overweight adolescents. A randomised controlled trial was conduc...

  1. Importance of diastolic velocities in the detection of celiac and mesenteric artery disease by duplex ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko, M J; Just, S; Schroeder, T V

    1997-01-01

    To assess the predictive value of ultrasound duplex scanning in the detection of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and celiac artery (CA) occlusive disease.......To assess the predictive value of ultrasound duplex scanning in the detection of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and celiac artery (CA) occlusive disease....

  2. Reconstruction of brachial pressure from finger arterial pressure during orthostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogert, Lysander W J; Harms, Mark P M; Pott, Frank; Secher, Niels H; Wesseling, Karel H; van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2004-01-01

    In patients with recurrent syncope, monitoring of intra-arterial pressure during orthostatic stress testing is recommended because of the potentially sudden and rapid development of hypotension. Replacing brachial arterial pressure (BAP) by the non-invasively obtained finger arterial pressure (Fin...

  3. Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller, SØren; Wiinberg, N

    1995-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients have disturbed systemic hemodynamics with reduced arterial blood pressure, but this has not been investigated during daily activity and sleep. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured by an automatic ambulant device for monitoring blood pressure in 35 patients with cirrhosis and 35 healthy matched controls. During the daytime, SBP, DBP, and MAP were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls (median 118 vs. 127; 70 vs. 78; 86 vs. 94 mm Hg, P < .0001 to P < .05). The nighttime blood pressures were almost similar in the two groups (108 vs. 110; 65 vs. 67; 78 vs. 82 mm Hg, NS). Conversely, HR was significantly higher in the patients both in the daytime (86 vs. 72/min, P < .0001) and at night (80 vs. 64/min, P < .0001). Consequently, the reduction in blood pressure and HR from daytime to nighttime was significantly lower in the patients than in the controls (P < .0001 to P < .01). Multiple regression analysis showedHR, serum albumin, serum sodium, and clotting factors 2, 7, and 10 as significant independent predictors of SBP in cirrhosis. In conclusion, cirrhotic patients have elevated HR, but surprisingly normal arterial blood pressure during the nighttime, and the circadian variation in blood pressure and HR is diminished, probably because of an almost unaltered cardiac output during the 24 hours. These results may reflect a major defect in the ability of optimal regulation of blood pressure in cirrhotic patients.

  4. Collagen network remodelling and diastolic stiffness of the rat left ventricle with pressure overload hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, C W; Jalil, J E; Janicki, J S; Pick, R; Aghili, S; Abrahams, C; Weber, K T

    1988-10-01

    This study had two objectives: (a) to determine the accumulation of collagen and its structural remodelling in the hypertrophied rat left ventricle after 4 and 8 weeks of abdominal aorta banding; and (b) to correlate these findings with the diastolic stress-strain relation of the intact myocardium. In comparison to age and sex matched controls, the collagen volume fraction of the hypertrophied myocardium after 4 and 8 weeks of aortic banding increased significantly from 3.5(SD1.0)% to 7.8(4.2)% and 6.2(2.0)% respectively. This accumulation of collagen, or fibrosis, occurred in the absence of myocyte necrosis. Scanning electron microscopy showed increased density and thickness of the collagen weave and tendons. At 4 weeks, light microscopy showed interstitial oedema and disrupted collagen fibrils. Left ventricular diastolic stress-strain relations of both pressure overload groups were significantly steeper than that of the control group. Thus the response of the interstitium to the hypertrophic process that accompanies abdominal aorta banding is a complex process that includes a structural remodelling of the fibrillar collagen matrix and the early appearance of interstitial oedema, each of which may contribute to a rise in the passive stiffness of the intact myocardium. PMID:2978464

  5. Accuracy of mean arterial pressure and blood pressure measurements in predicting pre-eclampsia: systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cnossen, J S; Vollebregt, K.C.; de Vrieze, N; ter Riet, G; Mol, B.W.J.; Franx, A.; Khan, K S; vam der Post, J A M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of using systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and increase of blood pressure to predict pre-eclampsia. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis of data on test accuracy. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Medion, checking reference lists of included articles and reviews, contact with authors. Review methods Without language restrictions, two reviewers independently selected the articles in which the accuracy of b...

  6. Mechanism of depressed left ventricular early diastolic filling in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multigated blood pool imaging with Tc-99m were obtained at rest at modified LAO. LV was divided from its geometric center and regional time activity curves (TACs) at septal (LAD distribution) and postero-lateral (non-ischemic) regions were obtained as well as global TACs. From global and regional TACs, global filling rate (1/3 FRm) and regional filling rate (R-FR) were calculated during the first third of diastole of each TAC. Patients with CAD were divided into Group I (n=10, without myocardial infarction) and Group II (n=8, with old anterior infarction). In Group II, reduced septal regional EF was observed and it was accompanied with compensatory augumentation of postero-lateral regional EF. In both CAD groups, global 1/3 FRm and septal R-FR reduced significantly compared with those of normal subjects(Septal R-FR; 2.15+-0.38 sec-1 in normal subjects, 1.49+-0.26 sec-1 in Group I, 1.72+-0.19 sec-1 in Group II), but postero-lateral R-FRs were not different from normal subjects. In Group II, end-ejection in the septal region delayed strikingly (50+-25 msec) and when R-FR was calculated at the same timing as global 1/3 FRm, it reduced significantly (0.83+-0.32 sec-1). But in Group I, delay of septal end-ejection was minimal (15+-13 msec) and R-FR did not change when it was measured at the same timing as global 1/3 FRm. These results suggest followings; in Group II, reduced LV early diastolic filling were caused by asynchronous LV filling as well as impaired diastolic filling of diseased myocardium, while in Group I, it was caused by reduced diastolic filling itself. Besides, no compensatory augumentation of diastolic filling in nonischemic myocardium may be a cause of early appearance of reduced diastolic filling in patients with CAD. (J.P.N.)

  7. Combine proper exercise and regular taking antihypertensive medicine was better to lower diastolic blood pressure among diastolic prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermita I. Ilyas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To prove that proper exercise and taking antihypertensive medicine may reduce diastolic blood pressure (DBP by ? 5 mmHg.Method A quasi-experimentation study was done on employees of a government bureau in Jakarta, for 8 weeks from March to August 2008. All prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects were detected through a survey prior to the quasi-experimentation study. A talk was given at the beginning of the quasi-experimentation study, and weekly counseling sessions on exercise, taking medications, and other related topics continued for 8 weeks. Cox regression was used for calculating relative risk.Results A total 1,016 employees out of 1,300 were involved in this blood pressure survey. Of these, 318 subjects had a DBP of 80 mmHg or more. Out of 120 subjects who voluntarily participated, 104 subjects completed the quasi-experimentation study. Compared to those who did not exercise properly and did not take antihypertensive medicines, subjects who did exercise properly and took medicines regularly had a lower diastolic blood pressure DBP ? 5 mmHg by more than 12-fold [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 12.32; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0,65-234,54; P = 0.095. However subjects who exercised properly or took antyhypertensive medicines irregularly were found to lower their DBP ? 5 mmHg by almost 11 fold [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 10.94; 95% confidence interval (CI = 2.04-58.74]; P = 0.005. Subjects with DBP = 90-99mmHg had a decrease of DBP ? 5 mmHg 4.8 fold (RRa = 4.75; 95% CI = 1.19-18.65 compared to those with DBP = 80-89mmHg. Compared to the normal subjects, the obese, resting pulse rate bradycardia, and high average pulse pressure subjects had less probability of lowering DBP ? 5mmHg, by 87%, 90%, and 65%, respectively.Conclusion Combine proper exercise and taking antihypertensive medicine was reduce DBP by ?5 mmHg among DBP (pre- hypertensive subjects. The obese, bradycardia, or high pulse pressure subjects failed to lowering their DBP ?5 mmHg by proper exercise and taking antihypertensive medicine. (Med J Indones 2009;19:191-8Key words: decreased diastolic blood pressure, exercise, medicine intake

  8. Arterial blood pressure measurement and pulse wave analysis—their role in enhancing cardiovascular assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common method of clinical measurement of arterial blood pressure is by means of the cuff sphygmomanometer. This instrument has provided fundamental quantitative information on arterial pressure in individual subjects and in populations and facilitated estimation of cardiovascular risk related to levels of blood pressure obtained from the brachial cuff. Although the measurement is taken in a peripheral limb, the values are generally assumed to reflect the pressure throughout the arterial tree in large conduit arteries. Since the arterial pressure pulse becomes modified as it travels away from the heart towards the periphery, this is generally true for mean and diastolic pressure, but not for systolic pressure, and so pulse pressure. The relationship between central and peripheral pulse pressure depends on propagation characteristics of arteries. Hence, while the sphygmomanometer gives values of two single points on the pressure wave (systolic and diastolic pressure), there is additional information that can be obtained from the time-varying pulse waveform that enables an improved quantification of the systolic load on the heart and other central organs. This topical review will assess techniques of pressure measurement that relate to the use of the cuff sphygmomanometer and to the non-invasive registration and analysis of the peripheral and central arterial pressure waveform. Improved assessment of cardiovascular function in relation to treatment and management of high blood pressure will result from future developments in the indirect measurement of arterial blood pressure that involve the conventional cuff sphygmomanometer with the addition of information derived from the peripheral arterial pulse. (topical review)

  9. Determinantes clínicos de la presión de fin de diástole / Clinical determining factors of the end of diastole's pressure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Miguel, Benítez; José Vicente, Narváez.

    2007-09-15

    Full Text Available Introducción: la falla cardiaca sobreviene a los pacientes con múltiples enfermedades cardiovasculares. Se encuentra con frecuencia, que algunos pacientes no empeoran su clase funcional, a pesar de reunir condiciones clínicas que suponen una severa alteración fisiopatológica. Estos hallazgos son con [...] firmados al medir la presión de fin de diástole (PFD) en el laboratorio de hemodinamia. Objetivo: determinar qué factores clínicos inciden en la PFD. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo de 200 pacientes estudiados (muestra aleatoria de 1730 pacientes) durante el año 2005, con análisis de las relaciones entre la variable dependiente PFD y las variables independientes: edad, sexo, peso, superficie corporal, factores de riesgo, cuadro clínico, fracción de eyección (FE), alteraciones estructurales ventriculares (dilatación o hipertrofia), compromiso coronario (uno, dos o tres vasos, angiográficamente sanos, o presencia de flujo lento intracoronario), y la arteria coronaria comprometida. Se aplicó un modelo de regresión lineal simple mediante el paquete estadístico STATA Versión 9. Resultados: las variaciones de aumento de la PFD están relacionadas con: hipertensión arterial (HTA), dilatación ventricular izquierda, mayor compromiso coronario (tres vasos) y presencia de ateromatosis significativa de las arterias descendente anterior y coronaria derecha. Las variaciones decrecientes de la PFD se presentaron ante el aumento de la FE y la presencia de arterias sanas. Conclusiones: se confirman algunos factores conocidos que inciden sobre la PFD, pero sorprende la ausencia de cambios significativos de la PFD ante cuadros clínicos más inestables y ante la presencia de hipertrofia. Este estudio provee elementos significativos para futuras investigaciones clínicas en el campo. Abstract in english Abstract Introduction: many cardiovascular diseases may cause heart failure, because of impairment of systolic or diastolic function, or both. It is frequently observed that regardless of physiopathological processes that were presumed to cause major symptoms, some patients have normal or quite norm [...] al functional class of dyspnea. This observation is sometimes confirmed in the cath lab, when the measured end diastolic pressure (EDP) is normal. Objective: to study which clinical factors are related with changes in EDP. Methods: 200 patients were included in a sample of 1.730 patients studied in the Cath Lab during 2005. This retrospective, descriptive and analytic study seeked for association between EDP and independent variables such as: age, sex gender, weight, clinical risk factor for coronary artery disease, the clinical presentation, ejection fraction (EF) measured, structural changes in left ventricle morphology (dilatation or hypertrophy), extent of coronary disease (one, two or three-vessel disease, normal coronaries, or reduced intracoronary flow), and the coronary artery involved. Statistically, a simple linear regression model was applied in the STATA 9 program. Results: increasing variability in the EDP was found to be significantly related with: hypertension, dilated left ventricle, 3-vessel disease, left coronary descendant and right coronary artery involvement. Decreasing variability of EDP presented with increasing EF and normal coronary arteries. Conclusions: some clinical factors were confirmed as related with altered EDP, but others, such as the more unstable clinical conditions and hypertrophy, surprisingly showed no significant relation with EDP variations. This investigation offers new pathways to future clinical studies in this area.

  10. Determinantes clínicos de la presión de fin de diástole Clinical determining factors of the end of diastole's pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Benítez

    Full Text Available Introducción: la falla cardiaca sobreviene a los pacientes con múltiples enfermedades cardiovasculares. Se encuentra con frecuencia, que algunos pacientes no empeoran su clase funcional, a pesar de reunir condiciones clínicas que suponen una severa alteración fisiopatológica. Estos hallazgos son confirmados al medir la presión de fin de diástole (PFD en el laboratorio de hemodinamia. Objetivo: determinar qué factores clínicos inciden en la PFD. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo de 200 pacientes estudiados (muestra aleatoria de 1730 pacientes durante el año 2005, con análisis de las relaciones entre la variable dependiente PFD y las variables independientes: edad, sexo, peso, superficie corporal, factores de riesgo, cuadro clínico, fracción de eyección (FE, alteraciones estructurales ventriculares (dilatación o hipertrofia, compromiso coronario (uno, dos o tres vasos, angiográficamente sanos, o presencia de flujo lento intracoronario, y la arteria coronaria comprometida. Se aplicó un modelo de regresión lineal simple mediante el paquete estadístico STATA Versión 9. Resultados: las variaciones de aumento de la PFD están relacionadas con: hipertensión arterial (HTA, dilatación ventricular izquierda, mayor compromiso coronario (tres vasos y presencia de ateromatosis significativa de las arterias descendente anterior y coronaria derecha. Las variaciones decrecientes de la PFD se presentaron ante el aumento de la FE y la presencia de arterias sanas. Conclusiones: se confirman algunos factores conocidos que inciden sobre la PFD, pero sorprende la ausencia de cambios significativos de la PFD ante cuadros clínicos más inestables y ante la presencia de hipertrofia. Este estudio provee elementos significativos para futuras investigaciones clínicas en el campo.Abstract Introduction: many cardiovascular diseases may cause heart failure, because of impairment of systolic or diastolic function, or both. It is frequently observed that regardless of physiopathological processes that were presumed to cause major symptoms, some patients have normal or quite normal functional class of dyspnea. This observation is sometimes confirmed in the cath lab, when the measured end diastolic pressure (EDP is normal. Objective: to study which clinical factors are related with changes in EDP. Methods: 200 patients were included in a sample of 1.730 patients studied in the Cath Lab during 2005. This retrospective, descriptive and analytic study seeked for association between EDP and independent variables such as: age, sex gender, weight, clinical risk factor for coronary artery disease, the clinical presentation, ejection fraction (EF measured, structural changes in left ventricle morphology (dilatation or hypertrophy, extent of coronary disease (one, two or three-vessel disease, normal coronaries, or reduced intracoronary flow, and the coronary artery involved. Statistically, a simple linear regression model was applied in the STATA 9 program. Results: increasing variability in the EDP was found to be significantly related with: hypertension, dilated left ventricle, 3-vessel disease, left coronary descendant and right coronary artery involvement. Decreasing variability of EDP presented with increasing EF and normal coronary arteries. Conclusions: some clinical factors were confirmed as related with altered EDP, but others, such as the more unstable clinical conditions and hypertrophy, surprisingly showed no significant relation with EDP variations. This investigation offers new pathways to future clinical studies in this area.

  11. Carotid Artery End-Diastolic Velocity and Future Cerebro-Cardiovascular Events in Asymptomatic High Risk Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyemoon; Jung, Young Hak; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Youn; Min, Pil-Ki; Yoon, Young Won; Lee, Byoung Kwon; Hong, Bum-Kee; Rim, Se-Joong; Kwon, Hyuck Moon

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Prognostic value of additional carotid Doppler evaluations to carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque has not been completely evaluated. Subjects and Methods A total of 1119 patients with risk factors for, but without, overt coronary artery disease (CAD), who underwent both carotid ultrasound and Doppler examination were included in the present study. Parameters of interest included peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities, resistive indices of the carotid arteries, IMT, and plaque measurements. The primary end-point was all-cause cerebro-cardiovascular events (CVEs) including acute myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization therapy, heart failure admission, stroke, and cardiovascular death. Model 1 covariates comprised age and sex; Model 2 also included hypertension, diabetes and smoking; Model 3 also had use of aspirin and statin; and Model 4 also included IMT and plaque. Results The mean follow-up duration was 1386±461 days and the mean age of the study population was 60±12 years. Amongst 1119 participants, 43% were women, 57% had a history of hypertension, and 23% had diabetes. During follow-up, 6.6% of patients experienced CVEs. Among carotid Doppler parameters, average common carotid artery end-diastolic velocity was the independent predictor for future CVEs after adjustments for all models variables (HR 0.95 per cm/s, 95% confident interval 0.91-0.99, p=0.034 in Model 4) and significantly increased the predictive value of Model 4 (global ?2=59.0 vs. 62.8, p=0.029). Conclusion Carotid Doppler measurements in addition to IMT and plaque evaluation are independently associated with future CVEs in asymptomatic patients at risk for CAD. PMID:26798388

  12. Right ventricular systolic and diastolic function at rest in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Right ventricular systolic and diastolic function was studied in patients with ischemic heart disease using equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography. In patients with inferior myocardial infarction and proximal right coronary lesions, the right ventricular ejection fraction (0.43+-0.06, n=10, mean+-SD) and peak filling rate (1.7+-0.4 EDV/sec) were lower than normals (0.57+-0.07 and 2.7+-0.4 EDV/sec, n=10, p<0.001, respectively). In these patients, the right ventricular time to peak filling rate was longer than in normals (225+-36 msec vs 136+-45 msec, p<0.001), while the left ventricular ejection fraction remained normal. In patients with inferior myocardial infarction and distal right coronary lesions, the right ventricular ejection fraction, peak filling rate and time to peak filling rate were not different from those in normals. Even in patients with proximal right coronary lesions, the right ventricular ejection fraction was normal unless they had an inferior myocardial infarction. A decreased left ventricular ejection fraction and abnormal motion of the ventricular septum did not affect the right ventricular ejection fraction. The present results suggest that patients with an inferior myocardial infarction and proximal right coronary lesion often develop right ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction. (author)

  13. Spectral analysis of heart rate and arterial pressure variability after nitric oxide synthase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhov, D; Markova, P; Girchev, R

    1998-01-01

    The experiments were performed on male, conscious Wistar rats. Femoral arterial pressure was registered by Statham GOULD P23 ID pressure transducer connected to MP 100WS BIOPAC work station after analog to digital conversion during 40 minutes long control period. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition was performed by injection of 100 microliters, 10 mg/kg b.w. N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in saline through femoral vein catheter. Twenty minutes later arterial pressure registration was started and was continued for 40 minutes. The pulse-by-pulse values of systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure as well as the pulse intervals were measured by peak and rate detectors of the AcqKnowledge 2.0 software. Row data were processed using a virtual instrument developed in our laboratory in the graphical programming environment Lab VIEW 3.1.1. L-NAME increased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure by 16.6%, 25% and 35%, respectively. The PMF/PHF ratio in heart rate spectrum decreased, indicating an increased vagal effect on the heart. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition increased the low-frequency component of systolic arterial blood pressure variability by 39.5%. Nitric oxide is a physiological regulator of rapid fluctuations of arterial blood pressure. PMID:10672333

  14. Post-exercise contractility, diastolic function, and pressure: Operator-independent sensor-based intelligent monitoring for heart failure telemedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannoni Massimo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New sensors for intelligent remote monitoring of the heart should be developed. Recently, a cutaneous force-frequency relation recording system has been validated based on heart sound amplitude and timing variations at increasing heart rates. Aim To assess sensor-based post-exercise contractility, diastolic function and pressure in normal and diseased hearts as a model of a wireless telemedicine system. Methods We enrolled 150 patients and 22 controls referred for exercise-stress echocardiography, age 55 ± 18 years. The sensor was attached in the precordial region by an ECG electrode. Stress and recovery contractility were derived by first heart sound amplitude vibration changes; diastolic times were acquired continuously. Systemic pressure changes were quantitatively documented by second heart sound recording. Results Interpretable sensor recordings were obtained in all patients (feasibility = 100%. Post-exercise contractility overshoot (defined as increase > 10% of recovery contractility vs exercise value was more frequent in patients than controls (27% vs 8%, p 1 in 20 patients and in none of the controls (p 1 in only 3 patients (p Conclusion Post-exercise contractility, diastolic time and pressure changes can be continuously measured by a cutaneous sensor. Heart disease affects not only exercise systolic performance, but also post-exercise recovery, diastolic time intervals and blood pressure changes – in our study, all of these were monitored by a non-invasive wearable sensor.

  15. Plasma advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and NF-κB activity are independent determinants of diastolic and pulse pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sourris, Karly C; Lyons, Jasmine G; Dougherty, Sonia L; Chand, Vibhasha; Straznicky, Nora E; Schlaich, Markus P; Grima, Mariee T; Cooper, Mark E; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; de Courten, Maximilian; Forbes, Josephine M; de Courten, Barbora

    2013-01-01

    ). Carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) was measured by ELISA as a marker for circulating AGEs and NF-κB p65 activity as an inflammatory marker by DNA-binding in peripheral blood mononuclear cells lysates (PBMC). Results: Plasma CML concentrations were related to diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.51, p...

  16. Diastolic function and functional capacity after a single session of continuous positive airway pressure in patients with compensated heart failure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marjory Fernanda, Bussoni; Gabriel Negretti, Guirado; Luiz Shiguero, Matsubara; Meliza Goi, Roscani; Bertha Furlan, Polegato; Suzana Tanni, Minamoto; Silméia Garcia Zanati, Bazan; Beatriz Bojikian, Matsubara.

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The effects of acute continuous positive airway pressure therapy on left ventricular diastolic function and functional capacity in patients with compensated systolic heart failure remain unclear. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial included 43 pati [...] ents with heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction

  17. Mechanical Buckling of Artery under Pulsatile Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qin; Han, Hai-Chao

    2012-01-01

    Tortuosity that often occurs in carotid and other arteries has been shown to be associated with high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, and other diseases. However the mechanisms of tortuosity development are not clear. Our previous studies have suggested that arteries buckling could be a possible mechanism for the initiation of tortuous shape but artery buckling under pulsatile flow condition has not been fully studied. The objectives of this study were to determine the artery critical bucklin...

  18. Regular Khat (Catha edulis chewing is associated with elevated diastolic blood pressure among adults in Butajira, Ethiopia: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gedif Teferi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fresh leaves and buds of the Khat plant (Catha edulis contain Cathinone, an amphetamine like alkaloid responsible for its pharmacological action. Chewing of Khat has been associated with a transient rise in blood pressure and heart rate in experimental studies. Few studies examined the effect of regular or frequent Khat chewing on blood pressure at the population level. This study was conducted to examine the association of regular Khat chewing with blood pressure among adults. Methods We compared systolic and diastolic blood pressure of adults 35-65 years of age who reported regular chewing of Khat during the preceding five years to those who never chewed Khat during the same period. Study participants were recruited from purposively selected urban and rural villages of Butajira District in Ethiopia. The comparative groups, chewers (334 and non-chewers (330, were identified from among the general population through a house-to-house visit using a screening questionnaire. They were frequency-matched for sex and age within a five-year range. Data were collected through structured interviews and physical measurements including blood pressure, weight and height. Results The prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher among Khat chewers (13.4% than non-chewers (10.7%, odds ratio (OR = 1.66 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.05, 3.13. A considerably high proportion of chewers (29.9% than non-chewers (20.6% had sub-optimal diastolic blood pressure (> 80 mmHg. The mean (sd diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher among Khat chewers [75.0 (11.6] than non-chewers [72.9 (11.7], P Conclusion Regular chewing of Khat is associated with elevated mean diastolic blood pressure, which is consistent with the peripheral vasoconstrictor effect of Cathinone. Regular Khat chewing may have sustained effects on the cardiovascular system that can contribute to elevated blood pressure at the population level.

  19. Association of genetic variation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure among African Americans: the Candidate Gene Association Resource study

    OpenAIRE

    Spector, Tim D.; Rotimi, Charles N; Hedblad, Bo; Brand, Eva; Day, Ian N M; Kita, Yoshikuni; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Wong, Andrew; Ogihara, Toshio; Salomaa, Veikko; Igl, Wilmar; Laitinen, Jaana; Olden, Matthias; Okamura, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans (AAs) is higher than in other US groups; yet, few have performed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in AA. Among people of European descent, GWASs have identified genetic variants at 13 loci that are associated with blood pressure. It is unknown if these variants confer susceptibility in people of African ancestry. Here, we examined genome-wide and candidate gene associations with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressu...

  20. [Predictive value of absent or reverse end-diastolic blood flow in the umbilical artery in the diagnosis of fetal distress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breborowicz, G H; Dubiel, M; Szpurek, D; Ropacka, M; Szymankiewicz, M; Markwitz, W; Kempiak, J; S?omko, Z

    1994-07-01

    To examine the significance of the absence of reverse of end-diastolic (ARED) velocity in umbilical artery, outcome of pregnancy in 24 women with this complication was evaluated. Acute or chronic hypoxia was evident in 87.5% fetuses with ARED. Such situation is a definable high-risk state that demands intensive surveillance. PMID:8001854

  1. Positive-end Expiratory Pressure Influences Echocardiographic Measures of Diastolic Function: A Randomized, Crossover Study in Cardiac Surgery Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl-Olsen, Peter; Hermansen, Johan Fridolf; Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz; Rasmussen, Linda Aagaard; Jakobsen, Carl-Johan; Sloth, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonography of the cardiovascular system is pivotal for hemodynamic assessment. Diastolic function is evaluated with a combination of tissue Doppler (e' and a') and pulsed Doppler (E and A) measures of transmitral- and mitral valve annuli velocities. However, accurate echocardiographic evaluation in the intensive care unit or perioperative setting is contingent on relative resistance to positive pressure ventilation and changes in preload. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of positive...

  2. High intensity interior aircraft noise increases the risk of high diastolic blood pressure in Indonesian Air Force pilots

    OpenAIRE

    Minarma Siagian; Bastaman Basuki; Dede Kusmana

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the effects of aircraft noise, resting pulse rate, and other factors on the risk of high diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Indonesian Air Force pilots.Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted using data extracted from annual medical check-ups indoctrination aerophysiologic training records at the Saryanto Aviation and Aerospace Health Institute (LAKESPRA) in Jakarta from January 2003 – September 2008. For analysis of DBP: the case group with DBP ? 90 mmHg were compar...

  3. Ultrasonographic measurement of carotid artery resistive index and diastolic function of the heart in gout patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancheva, Rada N; Kundurdjiev, Atanas I; Ivanova, Mariana G; Kundurzhiev, Todor G; Rashkov, Rasho K; Kolarov, Zlatimir G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the functional disorder in the blood circulation of gout patients with a method that shows early damage of the heart and vascular structures. A total of 117 patients were examined cross-sectionally by a complex multimodal ultrasonography and were divided into four groups: 37 healthy controls, 24 asymptomatic hyperuricemia, 36 gout without tophi and 20 gouty tophi. With pulsed Doppler, common carotid artery resistive index (CCARI) and parameters of the transmitral blood flow were determined: the ratio between maximal early and late flow velocities (E/A ratio) and deceleration time (DT). With tissue Doppler imaging, mitral annular peak velocity (Em) was obtained. In the examined ultrasonographic parameters between healthy controls and the three patient groups, there was a statistically significant difference (p gout without tophi, no significant difference in CCARI (p = 0.656), E/A ratio (p = 0.472), DT (p = 0.990) and Em (p = 0.488) was found. Gouty tophi in comparison with gout without tophi and asymptomatic hyperuricemia had significantly lower Em (mean ± SD 0.07 ± 0.02 vs 0.09 ± 0.03 vs 0.13 ± 0.17) and significantly higher CCARI (mean ± SD 0.74 ± 0.05 vs 0.70 ± 0.05 vs 0.69 ± 0.05). Further multiple logistic regression revealed that tophi increased subject's likelihood of having category of CCARI ? 0.7 with an OR = 10.91 (95 % CI 1.80-66.14, p = 0.009), while the category of Em heart is independently associated with renal insufficiency. In terms of CV risk, tophi are an indicator of its increase. PMID:25963802

  4. Effects of verapamil and propranolol on left ventricular systolic function and diastolic filling in patients with coronary artery disease: radionuclide angiographic studies at rest and during exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the effects of verapamil on left ventricular (LV) systolic function and diastolic filling in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), researchers performed gated radionuclide angiography at rest and during exercise in 16 symptomatic patients before and during oral verapamil therapy (480 mg/day). Twelve patients were also studied during oral propranolol. LV ejection fraction at rest was normal in 13 patients, but abnormal diastolic filling at rest, defined as peak filling rate (PFR) less than 2.5 end-diastolic volumes (EDV)/sec or time to PFR greater than 180 msec, was present in 15. During verapamil, resting ejection fraction decreased, but resting diastolic filling improved: PFR increased and time to PFR decreased. Exercise ejection fraction did not change during verapamil, but exercise PFR increased, and exercise time to PFR decreased. In contrast, propranolol did not alter ejection fraction, PFR, or time to PFR at rest or during exercise. Thus, LV ejection fraction is decreased by verapamil at rest but is unchanged during exercise. While LV systolic function is not improved by verapamil, LV diastolic filling is enhanced by verapamil, both at rest and during exercise. These mechanisms may account in part for the symptomatic improvement in many patients during verapamil therapy

  5. Pulmonary artery pressure changes during exercise and daily activities in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, J S; Keegan, J; Wright, C; Fox, K M; Poole-Wilson, P A

    1990-01-01

    Long-term continuous pulmonary artery pressure monitoring was used to investigate pressure changes during different types of exercise and normal daily activities in patients with chronic heart failure. Nine men (mean age 55 years) with treated chronic heart failure underwent continuous pulmonary artery pressure measurement with use of a micromanometer-tipped catheter with in vivo calibration and frequency-modulated recording. The mean (+/- SD) maximal systolic pulmonary artery pressure (in mm Hg) was 59.4 +/- 26.1 on treadmill exercise, 54.9 +/- 30.6 on bicycle exercise, 52.5 +/- 26.1 walking up and down stairs and 43.5 +/- 23.9 walking on a flat surface. The mean maximal diastolic pressure (in mm Hg) was 27.8 +/- 14.6 on treadmill exercise, 25.5 +/- 14.9 on bicycle exercise, 24.9 +/- 14.8 walking up and down stairs and 20.4 +/- 12.5 walking on a flat surface. The increase in pulmonary artery pressure did not correlate with the severity of the limiting symptoms except during walking on a flat surface. All patients had marked postural changes in pressure, with the systolic pressure difference from lying to standing ranging from 8 to 25 mm Hg and the diastolic pressure difference ranging from 3 to 13 mm Hg. Eating meals caused an increase in pressure in three patients, but less than that when lying flat. There was an increase in pressure during urination in four patients equal to that when walking on a flat surface. None of these activities was associated with symptoms. Neither symptoms nor pulmonary artery pressure during maximal exercise is the same as during daily activities. This may restrict the value of maximal exercise tests in assessing patients with chronic heart failure. PMID:2295741

  6. Non-Invasive Assessment of Left Ventricular End-Diastolic Pressure in Patients with Chronic Aortic Regurgitation, Comparison of the Sensitivity and Specificity of CW Doppler Echocardiography with Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Esmaeilzadeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Left ventricular end diastolic pressure could be estimated collectively using various measures of mitral valve and pulmonary venous flow velocities. In patients with aortic regurgitation, the AR velocity reflects the diastolic pressure difference between the aorta and the left ventricle. We sought to predict the left ventricular end diastolic pressure by a new Doppler index as aortic regurgitation peak early to late diastolic pressure gradient ratio.Patients and Methods: Fifty three patients with at least moderate aortic regurgitation were enrolled in this study. Physical examination, electrocardiography and echocardiography were performed one day before cardiac catheterization. The severity of AR was graded according to the recommendations of American society for echocardiography. The pressure half time, aortic regurgitation early diastolic velocity , aortic regurgitation early diastolic pressure gradient , aortic regurgitation end diastolic velocity, aortic regurgitation end diastolic pressure gradient, and early diastolic to end diastolic pressure gradient ratio of averaged three beats were measured and recorded. The results from cardiac catheterization and echocardiography were compared.Result: The early diastolic to end diastolic pressure gradient ratio was very accurate (80% for determining the left ventricular end diastolic pressure (P =0.01. An early diastolic to end diastolic pressure gradient ratio of 1.5 has a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 32% for left ventricular end diastolic pressure ?12 mmHg. The best cutoff value of early diastolic to end diastolic pressure gradient ratio for the prediction of left ventricular end diastolic pressure >12 mmHg was higher than 2.0, with a sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 96% We found no significant correlation between the left ventricular end diastolic pressure with either left ventricular ejection fraction or aortic regurgitation severity in cardiac catheterization (P =0.5.Conclusion: Doppler echocardiography is a viable alternative of cardiac catheterization for determination of the left ventricular end diastolic pressure. The early diastolic to end diastolic pressure gradient ratio is a simple, easy and new method for assessment of the LVEDP in patients with severe chronic aortic regurgitation.

  7. Improved lipids, diastolic pressure and kidney function are potential contributors to familial longevity: a study on 60 Chinese centenarian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong-Han; Pu, Shao-Yan; Xiao, Fu-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Qiong; Yan, Dong-Jing; Liu, Yao-Wen; Lin, Rong; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Yu, Qin; Yang, Li-Qin; Yang, Xing-Li; Ge, Ming-Xia; Li, Ying; Jiang, Jian-Jun; Cai, Wang-Wei; Kong, Qing-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Centenarians are a good healthy aging model. Interestingly, centenarians' offspring are prone to achieve longevity. Here we recruited 60 longevity families and investigated the blood biochemical indexes of family members to seek candidate factors associated with familial longevity. First, associations of blood indexes with age were tested. Second, associations of blood parameters in centenarians (CEN) with their first generation of offspring (F1) and F1 spouses (F1SP) were analyzed. Third, genes involved in regulating target factors were investigated. We found that total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) increased with age (20-80 years), but decreased in CEN. Similarly, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and blood creatinine (BCr) increased with age (20-80 years), but were maintained on a plateau in CEN. Importantly, we first revealed dual changes in blood pressure, i.e., decreased diastolic blood pressure but increased systolic blood pressure in CEN, which associated with altered CST3 expression. Genetic analysis revealed a significant association of blood uric acid (BUA) and BCr in CEN with F1 but not with F1SP, suggesting they may be heritable traits. Taken together, our results suggest serum lipids, kidney function and especially diastolic pressure rather than systolic pressure were improved in CEN or their offspring, suggesting these factors may play an important role in familial longevity. PMID:26911903

  8. Investigation Of Arterial Blood Pressure Level And Metabolic Indices In Patients With Arterial Hypertension At Pharmacotherapy With Antihypertensive Medicines Of Various Chemical Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Kh. Glybochko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to carry on the comparative analysis of medicines of various chemical structure, Telmisar-tan and Bisoprolol, and to reveal their effect on the arterial blood pressure level and the indices of various metabolic processes in patients with arterial hypertension. 60 out-patients with arterial hypertension (stage II risk III both males and females aged 33-55 have been under study taking Telmisartan and Bisoprolol for 3 months. While treating the patients the arterial blood pressure level control and biochemical investigations for determination the indices of metabolic processes have been carried out. The investigated medications have provided the decrease of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure parameters, the increase of concentration of total and ionized calcium, chlorine ions, urea and total bilirubin in blood plasma. Therapy with Telmisartan has shown more significant increase of potassium level in erythro-cytes, decrease of levels of natrium, glucose, glycolized hemoglobin and triglycerides and increased contents of alani-naminotransferase and aspartataminotransferase. The course of therapy with Bisoprolol has restored the normal level of magnesium in blood plasma, has not have any influence on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, increased the level of alaninaminotransferase and significantly increased the contents of total and ionized calcium, urea and creatinine. 3-months therapy with Telmisartan and Bisoprolol has proved the decrease of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure in patients with arterial hypertension. The medications under study have had active and variable effects on metabolic indices

  9. Measurement of Blood Pressure Using an Arterial Pulsimeter Equipped with a Hall Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Gu Choi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To measure precise blood pressure (BP and pulse rate without using a cuff, we have developed an arterial pulsimeter consisting of a small, portable apparatus incorporating a Hall device. Regression analysis of the pulse wave measured during testing of the arterial pulsimeter was conducted using two equations of the BP algorithm. The estimated values of BP obtained by the cuffless arterial pulsimeter over 5 s were compared with values obtained using electronic or liquid mercury BP meters. The standard deviation between the estimated values and the measured values for systolic and diastolic BP were 8.3 and 4.9, respectively, which are close to the range of values of the BP International Standard. Detailed analysis of the pulse wave measured by the cuffless radial artery pulsimeter by detecting changes in the magnetic field can be used to develop a new diagnostic algorithm for BP, which can be applied to new medical apparatus such as the radial artery pulsimeter.

  10. Validation of a method for noninvasive measurement of central arterial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharir, T; Marmor, A; Ting, C T; Chen, J W; Liu, C P; Chang, M S; Yin, F C; Kass, D A

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this study was to validate a newly improved noninvasive method for calibrated measurement of the ascending portion of the central arterial pressure wave in humans. Noninvasive pressure waveforms were generated by measuring the time delay between the R wave of the electrocardiogram and onset of brachial artery flow (by Doppler) during computer-controlled upper arm cuff deflation. This delay shortens with falling cuff pressure (becoming near constant at and below diastolic pressure), so that a plot of pressure versus time delay yields the ascending portion of the arterial waveform. These waveforms were compared with simultaneous invasive ascending aortic pressures in 57 adult patients (31 by fluid manometer [group A] and 26 by catheter-tipped micromanometer [group B]) during routine cardiac catheterization. Patient age ranged from 26 to 77 years. Eighty percent of group A patients and 40% of group B had coronary artery disease. Noninvasive systolic and diastolic pressures were very similar to invasive values in both groups (Pni = 0.98 x Pi, r = 0.99, p pressure differences between waveforms were also similar in both groups, averaging between 4.5 and 5.5 mm Hg. Micromanometer and noninvasive pressure data were also obtained before and after intravenous nitroglycerin (n = 5) and isometric handgrip (n = 8) and demonstrated good agreement. A potential application of these pressures is for estimating maximal ventricular power to assess systolic function. This was tested using invasive pressure-volume data from four patients under a variety of conditions (exercise, pacing, etc.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8418026

  11. Afterload-induced diastolic dysfunction contributes to high filling pressures in experimental heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Sara; Rodrigues, Sara; Tavares-Silva, Marta; Oliveira-Pinto, José; Alaa, Mohamed; Abdellatif, Mahmoud; Fontoura, Dulce; Falcão-Pires, Inês; Gillebert, Thierry C; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Lourenço, André P

    2015-11-15

    Myocardial stiffness and upward-shifted end-diastolic pressure-volume (P-V) relationship (EDPVR) are the key to high filling pressures in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Nevertheless, many patients may remain asymptomatic unless hemodynamic stress is imposed on the myocardium. Whether delayed relaxation induced by pressure challenge may contribute to high end-diastolic pressure (EDP) remains unsettled. Our aim was to assess the effect of suddenly imposed isovolumic afterload on relaxation and EDP, exploiting a highly controlled P-V experimental evaluation setup in the ZSF1 obese rat (ZSF1 Ob) model of HFpEF. Twenty-week-old ZSF1 Ob (n = 12), healthy Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY, n = 11), and hypertensive ZSF1 lean control rats (ZSF1 Ln, n = 10) underwent open-thorax left ventricular (LV) P-V hemodynamic evaluation under anesthesia with sevoflurane. EDPVR was obtained by inferior vena cava occlusions to assess LV ED chamber stiffness constant ?, and single-beat isovolumic afterload acquisitions were obtained by swift occlusions of the ascending aorta. ZSF1 Ob showed increased ED stiffness, delayed relaxation, as assessed by time constant of isovolumic relaxation (?), and elevated EDP with normal ejection fraction. Isovolumic afterload increased EDP without concomitant changes in ED volume or heart rate. In isovolumic beats, relaxation was delayed to the extent that time for complete relaxation as predicted by 3.5 × monoexponentially derived ? (?exp) exceeded effective filling time. EDP elevation correlated with reduced time available to relax, which was the only independent predictor of EDP rise in multiple linear regression. Our results suggest that delayed relaxation during pressure challenge is an important contributor to lung congestion and effort intolerance in HFpEF. PMID:26408538

  12. Medida da pressão arterial em gestante Toma de la presión arterial en embarazadas Blood pressure measurement in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M. Junqueira V. de Oliveira

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de revisão da literatura à respeito da medida indireta da pressão arterial (P A em gestante normotensa. Aborda as modificações ocorridas na pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica decorrentes da gravidez. São discutidos aspectos polêmicos no procedimento de medida da P A, como por exemplo qual a fase dos sons de Korotkoff (fase quatro ou cinco que representa melhor a pressão diastólica e o uso da Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial. Enfatiza as recomendações de diferentes sociedades (American Heart Association, British Hypertension Society, Australasian Society, National High Blood Pressure Education Program e World Health Organization.Se trata de una revisión de la literatura con respeto a la toma indirecta de la presión arterial (PA en embarazadas normotensas. Se describen los cámbios que ocurrer en la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica a causa del embarazo. Son discutidos aspectos polémicos en el procedimiento de la toma de la PA, como por ejemplo: cuál es la fase de los sonidos de Korotkoff (fases cuatro o cinco que representa mejor la presión sistólica. Se enfatizan las recomendaciones de diferentes sociedades (American Heart Association, British Hypertension Society, Australasian Society, National High Blood Pressure Education Program and World Health Organization.This study deals with the review of the literature regarding the indirect blood pressure measurement in normal pregnant women. It shows the changes that happened whith the blood pressure due to pregnancy. Polemical aspects in the procedure of blood pressure measurement are discussed; for example, which one of the Korotkoff phases (4 or 5 that better represent the diastolic blood pressure and the use of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in pregnancy. The recommendations from different societies are emphasized (American Heart Association, British Hypertension Society, Australasian Society, National High Blood Pressure Education Program and World Health Organization.

  13. Medida da pressão arterial em gestante / Blood pressure measurement in pregnancy / Toma de la presión arterial en embarazadas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sonia M. Junqueira V. de, Oliveira; Edna Apparecida Moura, Arcuri.

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de revisão da literatura à respeito da medida indireta da pressão arterial (P A) em gestante normotensa. Aborda as modificações ocorridas na pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica decorrentes da gravidez. São discutidos aspectos polêmicos no procedimento de medida da P A, como por exemplo [...] qual a fase dos sons de Korotkoff (fase quatro ou cinco) que representa melhor a pressão diastólica e o uso da Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial. Enfatiza as recomendações de diferentes sociedades (American Heart Association, British Hypertension Society, Australasian Society, National High Blood Pressure Education Program e World Health Organization). Abstract in spanish Se trata de una revisión de la literatura con respeto a la toma indirecta de la presión arterial (PA) en embarazadas normotensas. Se describen los cámbios que ocurrer en la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica a causa del embarazo. Son discutidos aspectos polémicos en el procedimiento de la toma [...] de la PA, como por ejemplo: cuál es la fase de los sonidos de Korotkoff (fases cuatro o cinco) que representa mejor la presión sistólica. Se enfatizan las recomendaciones de diferentes sociedades (American Heart Association, British Hypertension Society, Australasian Society, National High Blood Pressure Education Program and World Health Organization). Abstract in english This study deals with the review of the literature regarding the indirect blood pressure measurement in normal pregnant women. It shows the changes that happened whith the blood pressure due to pregnancy. Polemical aspects in the procedure of blood pressure measurement are discussed; for example, wh [...] ich one of the Korotkoff phases (4 or 5) that better represent the diastolic blood pressure and the use of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in pregnancy. The recommendations from different societies are emphasized (American Heart Association, British Hypertension Society, Australasian Society, National High Blood Pressure Education Program and World Health Organization).

  14. Plasma advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and NF-?B activity are independent determinants of diastolic and pulse pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sourris, Karly C; Lyons, Jasmine G

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: High levels of circulating advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can initiate chronic low-grade activation of the immune system (CLAIS) with each of these factors independently associated with cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Therefore, our objective was to characterize the relationship between serum AGEs, CLAIS and other risk factors for CV disease in normotensive non-diabetic individuals. Methods: We measured body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure, lipid and glucose profile in 44 non-diabetic volunteers (17 female, 27 males). Carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) was measured by ELISA as a marker for circulating AGEs and NF-?B p65 activity as an inflammatory marker by DNA-binding in peripheral blood mononuclear cells lysates (PBMC). Results: Plasma CML concentrations were related to diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.51, p

  15. Ambulatory Arterial Stiffness Index and circadian blood pressure variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrainwala, Jehan; Patel, Ami; Diaz, Keith M; Veerabhadrappa, Praveen; Cohen, Debbie L; Cucchiara, Andrew; Townsend, Raymond R

    2015-09-01

    The manner in which the circulation accommodates each heartbeat may underlie blood pressure (BP) variability. We used the Ambulatory Arterial Stiffness Index (AASI), which reflects this ventricular-vascular interaction, in untreated individuals with prehypertension and Stage 1 hypertension to evaluate two different measures of BP variability using the brachial pulse pressure (PP) obtained over 24 hours. We enrolled 64 untreated adults with systolic BP between 130-159 mm Hg and diastolic values of <100 mm Hg who underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring with calculation of 24-hour AASIs. Variability in brachial PP was determined using the standard deviation of the measurements over 24 hours and the average real variability. The 24-hour AASI correlated with both measures of 24-hour PP variability (P < .001 for both). Subdividing the 24-hour stiffness index into daytime and nighttime components showed modest differences in their relationship to PP variability, with the daytime being significantly different from 24-hour AASI and the standard deviation of the brachial PP consistently having a higher correlation to the AASI when compared with the average real variability. These observations may be useful to understand differences in variability measures of BP measurements, such as PP, to measures like the AASI as reported in longitudinal studies. PMID:26260424

  16. Genome-wide association study identifies six new loci influencing pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wain, Louise V; Verwoert, Germaine C; O’Reilly, Paul F; Shi, Gang; Johnson, Toby; Johnson, Andrew D; Bochud, Murielle; Rice, Kenneth M; Henneman, Peter; Smith, Albert V; Ehret, Georg B; Amin, Najaf; Larson, Martin G; Mooser, Vincent; Hadley, David; Dörr, Marcus; Bis, Joshua C; Aspelund, Thor; Esko, Tõnu; Janssens, A Cecile JW; Zhao, Jing Hua; Heath, Simon; Laan, Maris; Fu, Jingyuan; Pistis, Giorgio; Luan, Jian’an; Arora, Pankaj; Lucas, Gavin; Pirastu, Nicola; Pichler, Irene; Jackson, Anne U; Webster, Rebecca J; Zhang, Feng; Peden, John F; Schmidt, Helena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Campbell, Harry; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Hotteng, Jouke-Jan; Vitart, Veronique; Chasman, Daniel I; Trompet, Stella; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Chambers, John C; Guo, Xiuqing; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kühnel, Brigitte; Lopez, Lorna M; Polašek, Ozren; Boban, Mladen; Nelson, Christopher P; Morrison, Alanna C; Pihur, Vasyl; Ganesh, Santhi K; Hofman, Albert; Kundu, Suman; Mattace-Raso, Francesco US; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sijbrands, Eric JG; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Wang, Thomas J; Bergmann, Sven; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Zitting, Paavo; McArdle, Wendy L; Kroemer, Heyo K; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Glazer, Nicole L; Taylor, Kent D; Harris, Tamara B; Alavere, Helene; Haller, Toomas; Keis, Aime; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Aulchenko, Yurii; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Eyheramendy, Susana; Org, Elin; Sõber, Siim; Lu, Xiaowen; Nolte, Ilja M; Penninx, Brenda W; Corre, Tanguy; Masciullo, Corrado; Sala, Cinzia; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F; Melander, Olle; O’Donnell, Christopher J; Salomaa, Veikko; d’Adamo, Adamo Pio; Fabretto, Antonella; Faletra, Flavio; Ulivi, Sheila; Del Greco, M Fabiola; Facheris, Maurizio; Collins, Francis S; Bergman, Richard N; Beilby, John P; Hung, Joseph; Musk, A William; Mangino, Massimo; Shin, So-Youn; Soranzo, Nicole; Watkins, Hugh; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Gider, Pierre; Loitfelder, Marisa; Zeginigg, Marion; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer S; Navarro, Pau; Wild, Sarah H; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; de Geus, Eco JC; Willemsen, Gonneke; Parker, Alex N; Rose, Lynda M; Buckley, Brendan; Stott, David; Orru, Marco; Uda, Manuela; van der Klauw, Melanie M; Zhang, Weihua; Li, Xinzhong; Scott, James; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Burke, Gregory L; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Döring, Angela; Meitinger, Thomas; Davies, Gail; Starr, John M; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Lindeman, Jan H; ’t Hoen, Peter AC; König, Inke R; Felix, Janine F; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C; Ongen, Halit; Breteler, Monique; Debette, Stéphanie; DeStefano, Anita L; Fornage, Myriam; Mitchell, Gary F; Smith, Nicholas L; Holm, Hilma; Stefansson, Kari; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Samani, Nilesh J; Preuss, Michael; Rudan, Igor; Hayward, Caroline; Deary, Ian J; Wichmann, H-Erich; Raitakari, Olli T; Palmas, Walter; Kooner, Jaspal S; Stolk, Ronald P; Jukema, J Wouter; Wright, Alan F; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B; Wilson, James F; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schmidt, Reinhold; Farrall, Martin; Spector, Tim D; Palmer, Lyle J; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pfeufer, Arne; Gasparini, Paolo; Siscovick, David; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth JF; Toniolo, Daniela; Snieder, Harold; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Wareham, Nicholas J; Oostra, Ben A; Metspalu, Andres; Launer, Lenore; Rettig, Rainer; Strachan, David P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Witteman, Jacqueline CM; Erdmann, Jeanette; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boehnke, Michael; Ridker, Paul M; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Munroe, Patricia B; Psaty, Bruce M; Caulfield, Mark J; Rao, Dabeeru C

    2012-01-01

    Numerous genetic loci influence systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Europeans 1-3. We now report genome-wide association studies of pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In discovery (N=74,064) and follow-up studies (N=48,607), we identified at genome-wide significance (P= 2.7×10-8 to P=2.3×10-13) four novel PP loci (at 4q12 near CHIC2/PDGFRAI, 7q22.3 near PIK3CG, 8q24.12 in NOV, 11q24.3 near ADAMTS-8), two novel MAP loci (3p21.31 in MAP4, 10q25.3 near ADRB1) and one locus associated with both traits (2q24.3 near FIGN) which has recently been associated with SBP in east Asians. For three of the novel PP signals, the estimated effect for SBP was opposite to that for DBP, in contrast to the majority of common SBP- and DBP-associated variants which show concordant effects on both traits. These findings indicate novel genetic mechanisms underlying blood pressure variation, including pathways that may differentially influence SBP and DBP. PMID:21909110

  17. A novel transmission-based test of association for multivariate phenotypes: an application to systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Tanushree; Mukhopadhyay, Indranil; Ghosh, Saurabh

    2014-01-01

    Unlike case-control studies, family-based tests for association are protected against population stratification. Complex genetic traits are often governed by quantitative precursors and it has been argued that it may be a more powerful strategy to analyze these quantitative precursors instead of the clinical end point trait. Although methods have been developed for family-based association tests for single quantitative traits, it is of interest to develop such methods for multivariate phenotypes. We propose a novel transmission-based approach based on a trio design using a simple logistic regression to test for association with a multivariate phenotype. We use our proposed method to analyze data on systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels provided in Genetic Analysis Workshop 18. However, we find that the bivariate analysis of the two phenotypes did not provide more promising results compared to univariate analyses, suggesting a possibility of a different set of major genetic variants modulating the two phenotypes. PMID:25519341

  18. High intensity interior aircraft noise increases the risk of high diastolic blood pressure in Indonesian Air Force pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarma Siagian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the effects of aircraft noise, resting pulse rate, and other factors on the risk of high diastolic blood pressure (DBP in Indonesian Air Force pilots.Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted using data extracted from annual medical check-ups indoctrination aerophysiologic training records at the Saryanto Aviation and Aerospace Health Institute (LAKESPRA in Jakarta from January 2003 – September 2008. For analysis of DBP: the case group with DBP ? 90 mmHg were compared with contral group with DBP < 79 mmHG. One case matched to 12 controls.Results: Out of 567 pilots, 544 (95.9% had complete medical records. For this analysis there were 40 cases of high DBP and 480 controls for DBP. Pilots exposed to aircraft noise 90-95 dB rather than 70-80 dB had a 2.7-fold increase for high DBP [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 2.70; 95% confi dence interval (CI = 1.05-6.97]. Pilots with resting pulse rates of ? 81/minute rather than ? 80/minute had a 2.7-fold increase for high DBP (ORa = 2.66; 95% CI = 1.26-5.61. In terms of total fl ight hours, pilots who had 1401-11125 hours rather than 147-1400 hours had a 3.2-fold increase for high DBP (ORa = 3.18; 95% CI = 1.01-10.03.Conclusion: High interior aircraft noise, high total flight hours,  and high resting pulse rate, increased risk for high DBP. Self assessment of resting pulse rate can be used to control the risk of high DBP. (Med J Indones 2009; 276: 276-82Keywords: diastolic blood pressure, aircraft noise, resting pulse rate, military pilots

  19. Effects of verapamil and propranolol on left ventricular systolic function and diastolic filling in patients with coronary artery disease: radionuclide angiographic studies at rest and during exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the effects of verapamil on left ventricular (LV) systolic function and diastolic filling in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), we performed gated radionuclide angiography at rest and during exercise in 16 symptomatic patients before and during oral verapamil therapy (480 mg/day). Twelve patients were also studied during oral propranolol (160-320 mg/day). LV ejection fraction at rest was normal in 13 patients, but abnormal diastolic filling at rest, defined as peak filling rate (PFR) 180 msec, was present in 15. During verapamil, resting ejection fraction decreased (control 50 + 10% [ + SD ], verapamil 45 + 12%, p < 0.005), but resting diastolic filling improved: PFR increased (control 1.9 + 0.6 EDV/sec, verapamil 2.3 + 0.9 EDV/sec, p < 0.005) and time to PFR decreased (control 185 + 38 mssec, verapamil 161 + 27 msec, p < 0.05). Exercise ejection fraction did not change during verapamil (control 42 + 13%, verapamil 43 + 12%. NS), but exercise PFR increased (control 3.1 + 0.9 EDV/sec, verapamil 3.6 + 1.1 EDV/sec, p < 0.05) and exercise time to PFR decreased (control 108 + 30 msec, verapamil 91 + 17 msec, p < 0.05). In contrast, propranolol did not alter ejection fraction, PFR, or time to PFR at rest or during exercise. Thus, LV ejection fraction is decreased by verapamil at rest but is unchanged during exercise. While LV systolic function is not improved by verapamil, LV diastolic filling is enhanced by verapamil, both at rest and during exercise. These mechanisms may account in part for the symptomatic improvement in many patients during verapamil therapy

  20. New Cardiovascular Indices Based on a Nonlinear Spectral Analysis of Arterial Blood Pressure Waveforms

    CERN Document Server

    Laleg, Taous-Meriem; Papelier, Yves; Crépeau, Emmanuelle; Sorine, Michel

    2007-01-01

    A new method for analyzing arterial blood pressure is presented in this report. The technique is based on the scattering transform and consists in solving the spectral problem associated to a one-dimensional Schr\\"odinger operator with a potential depending linearly upon the pressure. This potential is then expressed with the discrete spectrum which includes negative eigenvalues and corresponds to the interacting components of an N-soliton. The approach is similar to a nonlinear Fourier transform where the solitons play the role of sine and cosine components. The method provides new cardiovascular indices that seem to contain relevant physiological information. We first show how to use this approach to decompose the arterial blood pressure pulse into elementary waves and to reconstruct it or to separate its systolic and diastolic phases. Then we analyse the parameters computed from this technique in two physiological conditions, the head-up 60 degrees tilt test and the isometric handgrip test, widely used for...

  1. Probing genetic overlap in the regulation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in Danish and Chinese twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia; Pang, Zengchang

    2014-01-01

    Although the phenotypic correlation between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is well known, the genetic basis for the correlation has rarely been investigated. The aim of this paper is to examine the genetic overlap between SBP and DBP by fitting bivariate models to Danish and Chinese twins and comparing ethnic differences between the two samples. Our estimates revealed a high proportion of additive genetic components shared by both SBP and DBP in Danish (0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.75) and Chinese (0.62, 95% CI: 0.50-0.71) twins with no statistically significant ethnic differences. The estimated genetic component in phenotypic correlation could serve to guide molecular genetic studies searching for genetic variants that affect both SBP and DBP. The bivariate model also estimated genetic and environmental contributions to SBP and DBP separately, with an overall pattern of higher genetic regulation or heritability in Danish (0.72, 95% CI: 0.67-0.76 for SBP; 0.70, 95% CI: 0.65-0.75 for DBP) than in Chinese (0.54, 95% CI: 0.44-0.63 for SBP; 0.57, 95% CI: 0.47-0.65 for DBP) twins and a higher contribution from unique environmental factors in Chinese compared with Danish twins. The estimated contribution from unique environmental factors suggests that promoting healthy lifestyles may provide an efficient way of controlling high blood pressure, particularly in the Chinese population.

  2. Association of genetic variation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure among African Americans: the Candidate Gene Association Resource study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ervin R.; Young, J. Hunter; Li, Yali; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Keating, Brendan J.; Musani, Solomon K.; Liu, Kiang; Morrison, Alanna C.; Ganesh, Santhi; Kutlar, Abdullah; Ramachandran, Vasan S.; Polak, Josef F.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Dries, Daniel L.; Farlow, Deborah N.; Redline, Susan; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Hirschorn, Joel N.; Sun, Yan V.; Wyatt, Sharon B.; Penman, Alan D.; Palmas, Walter; Rotter, Jerome I.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Lyon, Helen N.; Kang, Sun J.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Cooper, Richard S.; Franceschini, Nora; Curb, J. David; Martin, Lisa W.; Eaton, Charles B.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Taylor, Herman A.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Ehret, Georg B.; Johnson, Toby; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Levy, Daniel; Munroe, Patricia B.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Bochud, Murielle; Johnson, Andrew D.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Smith, Albert V.; Tobin, Martin D.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L.; Launer, Lenore; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A.; Jackson, Anne U.; Peden, John F.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H.; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Chambers, John C.; Kumari, Meena; JinGo, Min; van der Harst, Pim; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D.G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Liu, Yongmei; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Lehtimäki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R.; Charlotte Onland-Moret, N.; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G.P.; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S.P.M.; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Arking, Dan E.; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L.; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J.; Connell, John M.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Day, Ian N.M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Clarke, Robert; Collins, Rory; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Ongen, Halit; Bis, Joshua C.; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Adair, Linda S.; Lee, Nanette R.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Hoffman Bolton, Judith A.; Köttgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M.; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Grässler, Jürgen; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F.; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Weder, Alan B.; Hunt, Steven C.; Bergman, Richard N.; Collins, Francis S.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Scott, Laura J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Staessen, Jan A.; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; SolerArtigas, Maria; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K.; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairajan; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; MariaCorsi, Anna; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A.; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stančáková, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; Kathiresan, Sekar; O'Donnell, Chris; Schwartz, Steven M.; Arfan Ikram, M.; Longstreth, Will T.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R.G.; Wain, Louise V.; Morken, Mario A.; Swift, Amy J.; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Danesh, John; Rasheed, Asif; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Radha Mani, K.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Hofman, Albert; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U.S.; Oostra, Ben A.; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lakatta, Edward G.; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Würz, Peter; Twee-Hee Ong, Rick; Dörr, Marcus; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F.; Nalls, Michael A.; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kranthi Kumar, M.J.; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Fowkes, Gerald R.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Schwarz, Peter E.H.; Hayward, Caroline; Guo, Xiuqing; Bots, Michiel L.; Brand, Eva; Samani, Nilesh J.; Polasek, Ozren; Talmud, Philippa J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Laan, Maris; Hveem, Kristian; Palmer, Lyle J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Casas, Juan P.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Vineis, Paolo; Raitakari, Olli; Wong, Tien Y.; Shyong Tai, E.; Laakso, Markku; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Harris, Tamara B.; Morris, Richard W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G.; Miki, Tetsuro; Saleheen, Danish; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Coresh, Josef; Navis, Gerjan; Salomaa, Veikko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Melander, Olle; Ridker, Paul M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Wright, Alan F.; Wilson, James F.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Farrall, Martin; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J.G.; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rettig, Rainer; Uda, Manuela; Strachan, David P.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boehnke, Michael; Larson, Martin G.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Psaty, Bruce M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Elliott, Paul; van Duijn , Cornelia M.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans (AAs) is higher than in other US groups; yet, few have performed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in AA. Among people of European descent, GWASs have identified genetic variants at 13 loci that are associated with blood pressure. It is unknown if these variants confer susceptibility in people of African ancestry. Here, we examined genome-wide and candidate gene associations with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) using the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) consortium consisting of 8591 AAs. Genotypes included genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data utilizing the Affymetrix 6.0 array with imputation to 2.5 million HapMap SNPs and candidate gene SNP data utilizing a 50K cardiovascular gene-centric array (ITMAT-Broad-CARe [IBC] array). For Affymetrix data, the strongest signal for DBP was rs10474346 (P= 3.6 × 10−8) located near GPR98 and ARRDC3. For SBP, the strongest signal was rs2258119 in C21orf91 (P= 4.7 × 10−8). The top IBC association for SBP was rs2012318 (P= 6.4 × 10−6) near SLC25A42 and for DBP was rs2523586 (P= 1.3 × 10−6) near HLA-B. None of the top variants replicated in additional AA (n = 11 882) or European-American (n = 69 899) cohorts. We replicated previously reported European-American blood pressure SNPs in our AA samples (SH2B3, P= 0.009; TBX3-TBX5, P= 0.03; and CSK-ULK3, P= 0.0004). These genetic loci represent the best evidence of genetic influences on SBP and DBP in AAs to date. More broadly, this work supports that notion that blood pressure among AAs is a trait with genetic underpinnings but also with significant complexity. PMID:21378095

  3. Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke More Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure Updated:Oct 22,2015 There are several harmful ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  4. Determining the Arterial Blood Pressure of People Living in Yesilyurt Local Healthcare Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyza Dereli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Whereas the prevalance of arterial blood pressure which was a chronical health problem was 20%-25% among 30 year-old people, them showing an increase in aging, the percentage went as high as 50% in 60?s and later ages. What was that worrisome was that despite the high prevalance, only half of these received treathment. This is study was descriptively and cross-sectionally planned to determine whether the people asking their tensions to be measured in and around the Yesilyurt local healthcare office region. METHODS: The environment of the research consisted of 1400 people over 35 age and registered Yesilyurt Local healthcare Office and the whole of the environment were included in this sample. The study was conducted over 340 voluntaries. The data was collected by a questionnaire of 14 questions containing socio-demografic features and by measuring the arterial blood pressure, height and weight of the individuals. In the evaluation of the data, chi-square test was used and the level of significantly was accepted as 0.05. RESULTS: In this study, the rate of high sistolic blood pressure was found to be 21.47% and the rate of high diastolic blood pressure to be 8.23%. It was determined that age and body mass index varrieties were effective on sistolic hipertension. It was also found that in their behaviors of the use of hypertensive medicine, of regular arterial pressure controls and of having the hypertesion diagnosis significant differnces varied statistically on both sistolic and diastolic blood pressure people having. CONCLUSION: In order to improve the health, informative information abouth hypertension was provided for the participants for too days consisting of 4 sessions. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(1.000: 53-58

  5. Changes in the retrobulbar arterial circulation after decrease of the elevated intraocular pressure in men and women with primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanovi? Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An altered perfusion of the optic nerve head has been proposed as a pathogenic factor of glaucoma. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of the hemodynamic parameters in the retrobulbar arterial circulation after decrease of the elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in women and men with primary open angle glaucoma. Methods. The study included 60 patients (33 males and 27 females older than 50 years, with diagnosed and treated primary open angle glaucoma (77 eyes of 39 patients had increased IOP, >25 mm Hg. They were examined at the Clinic of Eye Diseases (complete ophthalmologic exam and Clinic of Neurology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, from December 2009 to December 2010. Imaging of hemodynamic parameters of three retrobulbar arterial vessels: ophthalmic, central retinal and posterior ciliary arteries with color Doppler was performed. Results. Among women, hemodynamic arterial parameter of the peak-systolic velocity was increased in the central retinal artery and decreased in the ophthalmic artery and posterior ciliary arteries; end- diastolic velocity was increased in all three retrobulbar vascular levels; Pourcelot resistivity index was increased, but pulsatility index was decreased in all three vessels. Among men, peak-systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity and pulsatility index were decreased in all three vessels; resistivity index was increased in the ophthalmic artery, but decreased in the central retinal artery and posterior ciliary arteries. There was a significant change of the ophthalmic artery pulsatility index in women, and the end-diastolic velocity of the ophthalmic artery in men. Conclusion. There was a difference of the retrobulbar arterial circulation between women and men with primary open angle glaucoma after decrease of the elevated intraocular pressure. The role of vascular factors in the supply of the optic disc neuroretinal rim is important.

  6. Results of ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in children with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Öktem

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The relationship between obesity and essential hypertension is well known. In this study, we aimed to evaluate ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring of obese and non-obese children who had similar demographic characteristics.Materials and methods: Seventy one children and adolescents (n=39 obesity, n=32 controls were studied. Blood pressure of the children were measured by 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring device.Results: Obese children had significantly higher mean blood pressure values (systolic 121.9±11.7 mmHg, diastolic 70.2±5.3 mmHg than control subjects (systolic 109.3±6.7 mmHg, diastolic 65.1±4.6 mmHg, p0.05. Blood pressure load was found to be increased in obese children compared to the controls (%13.6±12.9 and %2.6±3.4, respectively; p<0.05. Serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels of obese children (181.1±33.4 and 131.1±23.1mg/dl were significantly higher than those of the controls (134.3±11.1 and 103.3±14.2 mg/dl, p<0.05.Conclusions: Obesity in children and adolescents should not be regarded as variations of normality, but as abnormality with an extremely high risk for the development of hypertension and hyperlipidemia in adulthood.

  7. Effects of mercury on the arterial blood pressure of anesthetized rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.V., Rossoni; S.M.C., Amaral; P.F., Vassallo; A., França; E.M., Oliveira; K.J., Varner; J.G., Mill; D.V., Vassallo.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The available data suggests that hypotension caused by Hg2+ administration may be produced by a reduction of cardiac contractility or by cholinergic mechanisms. The hemodynamic effects of an intravenous injection of HgCl2 (5 mg/kg) were studied in anesthetized rats (N = 12) by monitoring left and ri [...] ght ventricular (LV and RV) systolic and diastolic pressures for 120 min. After HgCl2 administration the LV systolic pressure decreased only after 40 min (99 ± 3.3 to 85 ± 8.8 mmHg at 80 min). However, RV systolic pressure increased, initially slowly but faster after 30 min (25 ± 1.8 to 42 ± 1.6 mmHg at 80 min). Both right and left diastolic pressures increased after HgCl2 treatment, suggesting the development of diastolic ventricular dysfunction. Since HgCl2 could be increasing pulmonary vascular resistance, isolated lungs (N = 10) were perfused for 80 min with Krebs solution (continuous flow of 10 ml/min) containing or not 5 µM HgCl2. A continuous increase in pulmonary vascular resistance was observed, suggesting the direct effect of Hg2+ on the pulmonary vessels (12 ± 0.4 to 29 ± 3.2 mmHg at 30 min). To examine the interactions of Hg2+ and changes in cholinergic activity we analyzed the effects of acetylcholine (Ach) on mean arterial blood pressure (ABP) in anesthetized rats (N = 9) before and after Hg2+ treatment (5 mg/kg). Using the same amount and route used to study the hemodynamic effects we also examined the effects of Hg2+ administration on heart and plasma cholinesterase activity (N = 10). The in vivo hypotensive response to Ach (0.035 to 10.5 µg) was reduced after Hg2+ treatment. Cholinesterase activity (µM h-1 mg protein-1) increased in heart and plasma (32 and 65%, respectively) after Hg2+ treatment. In conclusion, the reduction in ABP produced by Hg2+ is not dependent on a putative increase in cholinergic activity. HgCl2 mainly affects cardiac function. The increased pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac failure due to diastolic dysfunction of both ventricles are factors that might contribute to the reduction of cardiac output and the fall in arterial pressure.

  8. Effects of mercury on the arterial blood pressure of anesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossoni L.V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The available data suggests that hypotension caused by Hg2+ administration may be produced by a reduction of cardiac contractility or by cholinergic mechanisms. The hemodynamic effects of an intravenous injection of HgCl2 (5 mg/kg were studied in anesthetized rats (N = 12 by monitoring left and right ventricular (LV and RV systolic and diastolic pressures for 120 min. After HgCl2 administration the LV systolic pressure decreased only after 40 min (99 ± 3.3 to 85 ± 8.8 mmHg at 80 min. However, RV systolic pressure increased, initially slowly but faster after 30 min (25 ± 1.8 to 42 ± 1.6 mmHg at 80 min. Both right and left diastolic pressures increased after HgCl2 treatment, suggesting the development of diastolic ventricular dysfunction. Since HgCl2 could be increasing pulmonary vascular resistance, isolated lungs (N = 10 were perfused for 80 min with Krebs solution (continuous flow of 10 ml/min containing or not 5 µM HgCl2. A continuous increase in pulmonary vascular resistance was observed, suggesting the direct effect of Hg2+ on the pulmonary vessels (12 ± 0.4 to 29 ± 3.2 mmHg at 30 min. To examine the interactions of Hg2+ and changes in cholinergic activity we analyzed the effects of acetylcholine (Ach on mean arterial blood pressure (ABP in anesthetized rats (N = 9 before and after Hg2+ treatment (5 mg/kg. Using the same amount and route used to study the hemodynamic effects we also examined the effects of Hg2+ administration on heart and plasma cholinesterase activity (N = 10. The in vivo hypotensive response to Ach (0.035 to 10.5 µg was reduced after Hg2+ treatment. Cholinesterase activity (µM h-1 mg protein-1 increased in heart and plasma (32 and 65%, respectively after Hg2+ treatment. In conclusion, the reduction in ABP produced by Hg2+ is not dependent on a putative increase in cholinergic activity. HgCl2 mainly affects cardiac function. The increased pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac failure due to diastolic dysfunction of both ventricles are factors that might contribute to the reduction of cardiac output and the fall in arterial pressure.

  9. Ambulatory pulmonary arterial pressure in primary pulmonary hypertension: variability, relation to systemic arterial pressure, and plasma catecholamines.

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, A M; Ikram, H; Crozier, I G; M.G. Nicholls; Jans, S

    1990-01-01

    The variability of pulmonary arterial pressure, the relation of pulmonary pressure to systemic pressure, pulmonary pressure responses to stimuli (exercise, hypoxia, smoking, free ambulation), and plasma catecholamine responses were assessed in five patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Ambulatory monitoring techniques provided data for the computerised analysis of continuous, beat-to-beat, direct recordings of both pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures for 8 to 10 hours. The absol...

  10. Assessment of changes in left ventricular diastolic filling during dipyridamole infusion in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 8 normal subjects underwent first-pass radionuclide ventriculography before and after dipyridamole tests. Hemodynamic parameters were evaluated in early and late diastolic phases. In the normal group, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) increased after dipyridamole infusion. In addition, dipyridamole infusion was associated with an increase in left ventricular early filling time (FT) and early filling volume (FV) and a decrease in late FT and late FV. Left ventricular early peak filling rate (PFR) was significantly increased. In the IHD group, however, there was no significant change in LVEF. Both left ventricular early FT and early FV were decreased, and both late FT and late FV were increased. In the group of IHD patients, the time to early PFR was significantly prolonged, although there was no difference in early PFR, late PFR, and the ratio of early to late PFRs. These results indicate that dipyridamole infusion does not always induce a decrease in left ventricular contractile function in ischemic heart, but maintains the left ventricular FV by compensated mechanism of late filling ability for the decreased left ventricular early filling ability. (N.K.)

  11. Casein-Derived Lactotripeptides Reduce Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in a Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes A. Fekete

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to treat individuals with high blood pressure (BP with effective dietary strategies. Previous studies suggest a small, but significant decrease in BP after lactotripeptides (LTP ingestion, although the data are inconsistent. The study aim was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis of data from all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCT. Medline, Cochrane library, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched until May 2014. Eligibility criteria were RCT that examined the effects of LTP on BP in adults, with systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP as outcome measures. Thirty RCT met the inclusion criteria, which resulted in 33 sets of data. The pooled treatment effect for SBP was ?2.95 mmHg (95% CI: ?4.17, ?1.73; p < 0.001, and for DBP was ?1.51 mmHg (95% CI: ?2.21, ?0.80; p < 0.001. Sub-group analyses revealed that reduction of BP in Japanese studies was significantly greater, compared with European studies (p = 0.002 for SBP and p < 0.001 for DBP. The 24-h ambulatory BP (AMBP response to LTP supplementation was statistically non-significant (p = 0.101 for SBP and p = 0.166 for DBP. Both publication bias and “small-study effect” were identified, which shifted the treatment effect towards less significant SBP and non-significant DBP reduction after LTP consumption. LTP may be effective in BP reduction, especially in Japanese individuals; however sub-group, meta-regression analyses and statistically significant publication biases suggest inconsistencies.

  12. Downstream Hepatic Arterial Blood Pressure Changes Caused by Deployment of the Surefire AntiReflux Expandable Tip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Steven C., E-mail: scrose@ucsd.edu; Kikolski, Steven G. [University of California, San Diego Health Sciences, Department of Radiology 8756, UCSD Medical Center (United States); Chomas, James E. [Surefire Medical, Inc. (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate blood pressure changes caused by deployment of the Surefire antireflux expandable tip. The pressure measurements are relevant because they imply changes in hepatoenteric arterial blood flow within this liver compartment during hepatic artery delivery of cytotoxic agents. Methods: After positioning the Surefire antireflux system in the targeted hepatic artery, blood pressure was obtained initially with the tip collapsed (or through a femoral artery sheath), then again after the tip was expanded before chemoembolization or yttrium 90 ({sup 90}Y) radioembolization. Results: Eighteen patients with liver malignancy underwent 29 procedures in 29 hepatic arteries (3 common hepatic, 22 lobar, 4 segmental). Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure were all decreased by a mean of 29 mm Hg (p = 0.000004), 14 mm Hg (p = 0.0000004), and 22 mm Hg (p = 0.00000001), respectively. Conclusion: When the Surefire expandable tip is deployed to prevent retrograde reflux of agents, it also results in a significant decrease in blood pressure in the antegrade distribution, potentially resulting in hepatopedal blood flow in vessels that are difficult to embolize, such as the supraduodenal arteries.

  13. Downstream Hepatic Arterial Blood Pressure Changes Caused by Deployment of the Surefire AntiReflux Expandable Tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate blood pressure changes caused by deployment of the Surefire antireflux expandable tip. The pressure measurements are relevant because they imply changes in hepatoenteric arterial blood flow within this liver compartment during hepatic artery delivery of cytotoxic agents. Methods: After positioning the Surefire antireflux system in the targeted hepatic artery, blood pressure was obtained initially with the tip collapsed (or through a femoral artery sheath), then again after the tip was expanded before chemoembolization or yttrium 90 (90Y) radioembolization. Results: Eighteen patients with liver malignancy underwent 29 procedures in 29 hepatic arteries (3 common hepatic, 22 lobar, 4 segmental). Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure were all decreased by a mean of 29 mm Hg (p = 0.000004), 14 mm Hg (p = 0.0000004), and 22 mm Hg (p = 0.00000001), respectively. Conclusion: When the Surefire expandable tip is deployed to prevent retrograde reflux of agents, it also results in a significant decrease in blood pressure in the antegrade distribution, potentially resulting in hepatopedal blood flow in vessels that are difficult to embolize, such as the supraduodenal arteries

  14. Comparing systolic and diastolic Blood pressure changes and heartbeat rate following administration of anesthetics containing epinephrine and felypressin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jafari

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available   Complex mechanisms have been known for keeping blood pressure in normal level. In fact, these mechanisms have inter-related functions and can be dysregulated by both internal and external stimuli while cardiovascular system functions to minimize these changes. Vasoconstrictors can cause clinical and hemodynamical changes as 1-2 cartridges of epinephrine containing lidocaine can has no considerable effects in a normal individual ( unless administered IV but 3 cartridges can bring about some clinical symptoms, according to a number of investigations. In current study, epinephrine’s effect on heartbeat rate was found more potent than felypressin which is considered as a disadvantage. on the other hand, epinephrine acts on arteries and can cause less bleeding, less drug toxicity and deeper and longer anesthesia. Therefore, it is preferred to felypressin due to its better action. It should be noted that the changes resulted by epinephrine and felypressin are of no significant importance in healthy individuals.

  15. Increase of pulmonary arterial pressure in subjects with venous gas emboli after uncomplicated recreational SCUBA diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marabotti, Claudio; Scalzini, Alessandro; Chiesa, Ferruccio

    2013-04-01

    The presence of circulating gas bubbles has been repeatedly reported after uncomplicated SCUBA dives. The clinical and pathophysiological relevance of this phenomenon is still under debate but some experimental data suggest that silent bubbles may have a damaging potential on pulmonary endothelial cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible hemodynamic effect on pulmonary circulation of post-dive circulating gas bubbles. To this aim, 16 experienced divers were studied by Doppler-echocardiography in basal conditions and 2.0 ± 0.15 h after an uncomplicated, unrestricted recreational SCUBA dive. At the post-dive examination, circulating bubbles were present in 10/16 subjects (62.5%). Divers with circulating bubbles showed a significant post-dive increase of pulmonary systolic arterial pressure (evaluated by the maximal velocity of the physiological tricuspid regurgitation; P < 0.01)) and right ventricular internal dimension (P < 0.05). Divers without circulating bubbles showed no significant change in cardiac anatomy and pulmonary arterial pressure. Both groups showed a significant post-dive decrease of transmitral E/A ratio (index of left ventricular diastolic function: subjects with bubbles P < 0.01; subjects without bubbles P < 0.05). These results seem to indicate that circulating gas bubbles may lead to a hemodynamically relevant increase of pulmonary arterial pressure, able to induce an acute right ventricular dilation. Post-dive diastolic function changes, observed in both groups, may be explained by a preload reduction due to immersion natriuresis. The results of the present study add some evidence that post-dive circulating bubbles, although symptomless, have an easily detectable pathogenetic potential, inducing unfavorable hemodynamic changes in the lesser circulation. PMID:23375948

  16. Coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction are associated with stroke in patients affected by persistent non-valvular atrial fibrillation: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Passantino

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Persistent non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events such as stroke, and its rate is expected to rise because of the ageing population. The absolute rate of stroke depends on age and comorbidity. Risk stratification for stroke in patients with NVAF derives from populations enrolled in randomized clinical trials. However, participants in clinical trials are often not representative of the general population. Many stroke risk stratification scores have been used, but they do not include transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE, pulsate wave Doppler (PWD and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI, simple and non-invasive diagnostic tools. The role of TTE, PWD and TDI findings has not been previously determined. Our study goal was to determine the association between TTE and PWD findings and stroke prevalence in a population of NVAF prone outpatients. Patients were divided into two groups: P for stroke prone and F for stroke free. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups concerning cardiovascular risk factors, age (p=0.2, sex (p=0.2, smoking (p=0.3, diabetes (p=0.1 and hypercholesterolemia (p=0.2; hypertension was statistically significant (p less than 0.001. There were statistically significant differences concerning coronary artery disease, previous acute myocardial infarction (AMI (p less than 0.05 and non- AMI coronaropathy (p less than 0.04, a higher rate being in the P group. Concerning echo-Doppler findings, a higher statistically significant rate of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH (p less than  0.05 and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (p less than 0.001 was found in the P group and dilated left atrium (p less than  0.04 in the F group, the difference was not significant for mitral regurgitation (p=0.7. Stroke prone NVAF patients have a higher rate of hypertension, coronary artery disease, with and without AMI, LVH and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, but not left atrial dilatation. M-B mode echocardiography and PWD examination help to identify high-risk stroke patients among NVAF subjects; therefore, they may help in the selection of appropriate therapy for each patient.

  17. Assembly of a Pulmonary Artery Pressure Sensor System

    OpenAIRE

    J. Müntjes; S. Meine; Flach, E.; Görtz, M.; R Hartmann; T. Schmitz-Rode; Trieu, H.K.; W. Mokwa

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an implantable system for telemonitoring the intravascular pressure in the pulmonary artery. By implanting a catheter-bound pressure and temperature sensor into the pulmonary artery, it is possible to monitor the actual value and the time variations of the intravascular pressure with a frequency of 128 Hz. Thus hospitalization of patients suffering from heart insufficiency can be avoided by early changes in therapy.Preliminary in vivo experiments have been conducted to ver...

  18. Association of thyroid function with arterial pressure in normotensive and hypertensive euthyroid individuals: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltiki Katerina

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overt hypothyroidism has been associated with arterial hypertension and increased arterial stiffness. Results in euthyroid individuals have been conflicting. We investigated associations of thyroid function with systolic (SAP and diastolic (DAP arterial pressure in euthyroid subjects. Methods 311 euthyroid individuals (185 women, mean age 43.9 ± 9 without a history of diabetes attending a preventive medicine program were examined. Subjects receiving thyroxine (10.6% were excluded; 19.3% had hypertension, 43% had a family history for hypertension. TSH, fT4, thyroid autoantibodies, insulin, glucose were measured. The "fT4.TSH product", which has been suggested as a T4 resistance-index, was calculated. Results TSH range was 0.1–8, median 1.4 mU/L, fT4 range was 11.5–25.2 pmol/L, median 17.4. TSH and the "fT4.TSH product" were positively associated with DAP (p 2 mU/L (35.3% vs 21.3%, p = 0.045. Conclusion In euthyroid individuals the association of thyroid function with diastolic arterial pressure remains significant even when a stricter "normal range" for TSH levels is considered. The "freeT4.TSH" product appears to be an even stronger predictor of DAP, independently of HOMA insulin resistance index and obesity.

  19. The effect of carotid artery occlusion on lingual arterial blood pressure in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, D L; Pettifer, G R

    1997-01-01

    Although temporary occlusion of the carotid arteries is commonly done to reduce blood loss during nasal surgery in the dog, data supporting its use are mostly anecdotal and subjective. Twelve dogs were placed under general inhalation anesthesia and mechanically ventilated to maintain normocapnea and an end-tidal halothane concentration equivalent to 1.3 times the minimum alveolar concentration. Tourniquets were placed around both carotid arteries of each dog. Both lingual arteries were cannulated in each dog and their heart rate and blood pressure were measured bilaterally. During unilateral carotid artery occlusion, the blood pressures in the ipsilateral lingual artery were significantly (P carotid artery occlusion resulted in a further significant (P carotid occlusion (P carotid artery occlusion has the potential to reduce intraoperative blood loss during oronasal surgery in the dog. PMID:9332746

  20. Measurement of brachial artery endothelial function using a standard blood pressure cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Tison, Geoffrey H; Alley, Hugh F; Budinger, Thomas F; Owens, Christopher D; Olgin, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    The integrity of endothelial function in major arteries (EFMA) is a powerful independent predictor of heart attack and stroke. Existing ultrasound-based non-invasive assessment methods are technically challenging and suitable only for laboratory settings. EFMA, like blood pressure (BP), is both acutely and chronically affected by factors such as lifestyle and medication. Consequently, laboratory-based measurements cannot fully gauge the effects of medical interventions on EFMA. EFMA and BP have, arguably, comparable (but complementary) value in the assessment of cardiovascular health. Widespread deployment of EFMA assessment is thus a desirable clinical goal. To this end, we propose a device based on modifying the measurement protocol of a standard electronic sphygmomanometer. The protocol involves inflating the cuff to sub-diastolic levels to enable recording of the pulse waveform before and after vasodilatory stimulus. The mechanical unloading of the arterial wall provided by the cuff amplifies the distension that occurs with each pulse, which is measured as a pressure variation in the cuff. We show that the height of the rising edge of each pulse is proportional to the change in lumen area between diastole and systole. This allows the effect of vasodilatory stimuli on the artery to be measured with high sensitivity. We compare the proposed cuff flow-mediated dilation (cFMD) method to ultrasound flow-mediated dilation (uFMD). We find significant correlation (r = 0.55, p = 0.003, N = 27) between cFMD- and uFMD-based metrics obtained when the release of a 5 min cuff occlusion is employed to induce endothelial stimulus via reactive hyperemia. cFMD is approximately proportional to the square of uFMD, representing a typical increase in sensitivity to vasodilation of 300-600%. This study illustrates the potential for an individual to conveniently measure his/her EFMA by using a low-cost reprogrammed home sphygmomanometer. PMID:26393958

  1. Machine Learning Techniques for Arterial Pressure Waveform Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    João Cardoso; Carlos Correia; Mariano Pego; Tânia Pereira; H. Catarina Pereira; João Vieira; Pedro Santos; Vânia G. Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The Arterial Pressure Waveform (APW) can provide essential information about arterial wall integrity and arterial stiffness. Most of APW analysis frameworks individually process each hemodynamic parameter and do not evaluate inter-dependencies in the overall pulse morphology. The key contribution of this work is the use of machine learning algorithms to deal with vectorized features extracted from APW. With this purpose, we follow a five-step evaluation methodology: (1) a custom-designed, non...

  2. Hypertension and chronic kidney disease: respective contribution of mean and pulse pressure and arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheder-Elfekih, Rania; Yannoutsos, Alexandra; Blacher, Jacques; London, Gérard M; Safar, Michel E

    2015-10-01

    Hypertension (HTN) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is influenced by blood pressure (BP) and the progression of CKD, including hemodialysis and renal transplantation. To date, the efficacy of antihypertensive drug strategies has chiefly been assessed by measuring steady-state systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures (MAP). However, recently elucidated features of the BP curve have highlighted other important goals, that is, the specific roles of pulse pressure (PP), arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and wave reflections as potentially deleterious factors affecting the progression of HTN and CKD. Pharmacological strategies to date have included progressive withdrawal of alpha-blocking agents; efficacy of beta-blockers for coronary prevention; use of angiotensin blockade in HTN with glomerular injury, using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition or receptor blockade, as mono but never double-blockade, to avoid major complications; development of combination therapies with diuretics and/or calcium channel blockers. Nowadays, most clinical trials show that SBP, DBP and MAP-lowering is an effective strategy, although results no longer show preference for any specific drug class.Studies of arterial stiffness in CKD have become crucial. In older individuals, PWV is considerably elevated. The 'stiffness gradient' disappears or is inverted (normally, aortic PWV is lower than brachial PWV). Despite BP-lowering, PP is insufficiently dampened, thus promoting microcirculatory damage, progression of arterial calcifications and disturbed wave reflections, which all increase the risk of mortality. In the absence of effective hemodialysis or graft, increased arterial stiffness is therefore a major cardiovascular risk factor in CKD. PMID:26237563

  3. La hipertensión arterial en la tercera edad / High blood pressure in third age

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    David, García Barreto; Julio, Álvarez González; Raymid, García Fernández; Juan, Valiente Mustelier; Alberto, Hernández Cañero.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la quinta o sexta décadas de la vida, la hipertensión arterial adopta formas y obedece a causas diferentes a las del niño o a las del adulto joven. En este caso, la presión arterial sistólica aumenta (> 140 mmHg) y la diastólica se mantiene o disminuye ([...] ión diferencial. La causa es la rigidez de las arterias de conductancia por la aterosclerosis y la acción de algunas hormonas como: adrenalina, noradrenalina, angiotensina II y aldosterona sobre la pared media arterial. El diagnóstico se hace constatando hipertensión sistólica aislada en pacientes mayores de 50 años. En jóvenes, además de la presión sistólica elevada con presión diastólica normal o baja, es conveniente medir otros indicadores de rigidez aórtica. La hipertensión sistólica en la tercera edad suele asociarse a: hipertrofia arterial y ventricular izquierda, disminución de la relajación de las paredes cardíacas y coronarias, isquemia miocárdica, nefrosclerosis, declinación cognoscitiva o incluso, demencia. El tratamiento requiere cuidados especiales y se debe adaptar a la frecuente comorbilidad de la edad avanzada. Los grupos antihipertensivos más efectivos, según ensayos al azar, son: los inhibidores de la enzima conversora de angiotensina, los bloqueadores de la angiotensina II, los antagonistas de la aldosterona y los bloqueadores de calcio. Los nitratos y los diuréticos se han empleado para reducir la presión sistólica, especialmente cuando concurre regurgitación valvular aórtica. La disminución de la presión sistólica, parece traer como consecuencia un retardo o detención de las complicaciones cardiovasculares, de la declinación cognoscitiva y de la demencia en pacientes de edad avanzada. Abstract in english From the fifth or sixth decades of life, high blood pressure adopts ways and is due to different causes to that of child or to that of young adult. In this case, systolic arterial pressure increases (> 140 mmHg), and the diastolic one remains or decreases ([...] ases. The cause is conduction artery stiffness by atherosclerosis as well as the action of some hormones including: adrenaline, noradrenaline, agiotensin II, and aldosterone on the arterial medium wall. Diagnosis is made verifying presence of an isolated systolic high blood pressure in patients aged over 50. In youngest, in addition to high systolic pressure with a normal or low diastolic pressure, it is advisable measurement of others indicators of aortic stiffness. Systolic pressure in third age may to be associated with: left ventricular and arterial hypertrophy, a relaxation decrease of cardiac and coronary walls, myocardial ischemia, nephroesclerosis, cognitive decline or even dementia. Treatment requires special cares and must to adjust to the frequent morbidity of old age. The more effective antihypertensive groups according to randomized assays include: agiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, agiotensin II blockers, aldosterone antagonists, and calcium blockers. Nitrates and diuretic agents have been used to reduce systolic pressure, especially when there is an aortic valvular regurgitation. Decrease of systolic pressure to result in a delay or an arrest of cardiovascular complications, of cognitive decline, and dementia in third age patients.

  4. Medial circumflex femoral artery flap for ischial pressure sore

    OpenAIRE

    Palanivelu S

    2009-01-01

    A new axial pattern flap based on the terminal branches of the medial circumflex femoral artery is described for coverage of ischial pressure sore. Based on the terminal branches of the transverse branch of medial circumflex femoral artery, which exit through the gap between the quadratus femoris muscle above and the upper border of adductor magnus muscle below, this fascio cutaneous flap is much smaller than the posterior thigh flap but extremely useful to cover ischeal pressure sores. The s...

  5. Nesfatin-1 and Vitamin D levels may be associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure values and hearth rate in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Kir Sahin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, insulin resistance (IR, inflammation, and hyperandrogenism may lead to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and hypertension. Nesfatin-1 (N1 may be related to IR, obesity, and hypertension. Furthermore, a vitamin D (VD deficiency is associated with hypertension and PCOS. We aimed to investigate N1 and VD levels in PCOS that have an effect on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR.This study included 54 patients with PCOS and 48 age-body mass index (BMI-matched healthy controls. PCOS was diagnosed according to clinical practice guidelines. Ferriman-Gallwey scores (FGS were calculated, while N1, VD, and other hormonal and biochemical parameters were measured for all subjects. Systolic and diastolic BP was measured as well. HR was calculated using an electrocardiogram.The levels of N1 (p < 0.001, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP (p = 0.036, homeostasis model assessment as an index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p < 0.001, systolic (p < 0.001 and diastolic (p < 0.001 BP and HR (p < 0.001 in the PCOS group were significantly higher than in the control group. However, the VD levels of the PCOS group were lower than the control group (p = 0.004. N1 had a strong positive correlation with BMI, HOMA-IR, hs-CRP, luteinizing hormone, systolic and diastolic BP, and HR. VD levels were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR and luteinizing hormone.Elevated N1 and decreased VD levels may be related to the presence of high-normal BP or hypertension in PCOS subjects.  N1 level may be associated with an increased BP due to its relation to inflammation and IR.

  6. Nesfatin-1 and Vitamin D levels may be associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure values and hearth rate in polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Figen Kir Sahin; Serap Baydur Sahin; Ulku Mete Ural; Medine Cumhur Cure; Senol Senturk; Yesim Bayoglu Tekin; Gulsah Balik; Erkan Cure; Suleyman Yuce; Aynur Kirbas

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, insulin resistance (IR), inflammation, and hyperandrogenism may lead to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and hypertension. Nesfatin-1 (N1) may be related to IR, obesity, and hypertension. Furthermore, a vitamin D (VD) deficiency is associated with hypertension and PCOS. We aimed to investigate N1 and VD levels in PCOS that have an effect on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR).This study included 54 patients with PCOS and 48 age-body mass index (BMI)-matched...

  7. Low dialysate potassium and central arterial pressure waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kals, Jaak

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular mortality is high in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Early arterial pressure wave reflections predict mortality in HD patients, and HD acutely improves the central pressure waveform. Potassium (K) plays a crucial role in cardiac electrophysiology, and patients with end-stage kidney disease depend on HD for neutral K balance. We aimed to study the impact of dialysate K concentrations on central arterial pressure waveform. Methods Thirty-three chronic HD patients were studied before and after a HD session, and the prescribed dialysate K concentration was recorded. In a subset of 23 patients without arrhythmias, pulse wave analysis was performed on radial arteries. Nine patients had dialysate K set to 1 mmol/L (group 1), and 14 patients had K set to 2 or 3 mmol/L (group 2). Augmentation index (AIx), defined as difference between the second and first systolic peak divided by central pulse pressure, was used as a measure of arterial stiffness. Results HD reduced the AIx in group 1 only (p = 0.0005). Likewise, central systolic pressure was reduced in group 1 only (p = 0.006). The relative reduction of AIx post-HD was significantly higher in group 1 compared with group 2 (p < 0.0001). The association between low dialysate K and AIx reduction remained statistically significant after adjustment for variables including the change in central and peripheral systolic pressure and mean arterial pressure. Conclusion Low dialysate K is strongly and independently associated with the acute improvement of AIx. PMID:25951045

  8. Evaluación de la presión arterial media durante la cirugía de implante dental / Evaluation of mean arterial blood pressure during dental implant surgery

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rolando, Carrasco; Erita, Cordero; Ian, Goldberg; Benjamín, Martínez; Cristóbal, Pacheco.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los eventos de estrés, como una cirugía bucal, pueden elevar los niveles de catecolaminas circulantes produciendo un alza en la presión arterial a niveles dañinos para el organismo. Nuestra investigación tiene como propósito determinar si existe una variación estadísticamente significa [...] tiva de la presión arterial durante la cirugía de implantes. Materiales y método: Se registró la presión arterial sistólica (PS) y diastólica (PD) a 30 individuos sometidos a una cirugía de implantes mediante un monitor Dinamap Pro 400. Se calculó el valor de la presión arterial media (PM) y, finalmente, se determinó la diferencia entre la PM inicial de cada individuo y el valor más alto de la PM alcanzado durante la cirugía. Resultados: El promedio de las PM iniciales fue de 91,452 mmHg y el promedio de las PM máximas alcanzadas durante la cirugía fue de 104,476 mmHg, existiendo diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p = 0,0005). Conclusión: Se observa un alza significativa en los valores de PM registrados en los individuos durante la cirugía de implantes, por lo que es importante considerar esta alza en todos los pacientes que serán sometidos a dicho procedimiento y más aún en aquellos que ya posean valores elevados de su presión arterial de manera a evitar posibles complicaciones. Abstract in english Introduction: The stress situations like an oral surgery can increase the blood catecholamines, producing an increased arterial blood pressure to levels that could damage health. This study attempt to determine whether there is a statistically significant variation in the arterial blood pressure dur [...] ing dental implant surgery. Materials and method: We registered the blood pressure - systolic (SP) and diastolic (DP)- to 30 subjects undergoing implant surgery with the Dina map Pro 400 monitor. We calculated the mean arterial blood pressure (MP) and finally we determined the difference between initial mean blood pressure and the highest blood pressure value reached at surgery. Results: The mean of the initial mean blood pressure was 91.452 mmHg and the mean of highest mean blood pressure reached during surgery was 104.476 mmHg, obtaining statistically significant differences (P=.0005). Conclusion: As there was a significant increase in the MP values recorded in subjects during dental implant surgery, this should be taken into account in all patients undergoing to this procedure, and particularly in those with hypertension, to avoid possible complications.

  9. Carotid artery disease and low cerebral perfusion pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Utzon, N P; Aabech, J; Sillesen, H; Sørensen, P S; Engell, H C

    1990-01-01

    Direct internal carotid artery blood pressure measurements in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy identified 49 patients, among 239 consecutive cases (21%), who had a reduction in perfusion pressure of 20% or more. The clinical history, objective findings and angiographic data were compare...

  10. Effects of smoking cessation on central blood pressure and arterial stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takami T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Takeshi Takami1,Yoshihiko Saito21Department of Internal Medicine, Clinic Jingumae, Kashihara, Nara, Japan; 2First Department of Internal Medicine, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, JapanPurpose: Smoking affects arterial stiffness, thus causing an elevation in central blood pressure (CBP. The present study was designed to examine whether smoking cessation treatment improved CBP and arterial stiffness.Patients and methods: We conducted an observational study of 70 patients receiving smoking cessation treatment. Before and 60 weeks after the start of a 12-week varenicline treatment, we measured brachial blood pressure, CBP, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, normalized radial augmentation index (rAIx@75, left ventricular weight, and left ventricular diastolic function of each patient. The data were compared between the patients who succeeded in quitting smoking (smoking cessation group; n = 37 and those who failed to quit smoking (smoking group; n = 33.Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. Brachial blood pressure remained unchanged in both groups. CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75 decreased significantly in the smoking cessation group, while these parameters showed no significant change in the smoking group. Thus, CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75 showed greater decrease in the smoking cessation group than in the smoking group (CBP, ?7.1 ± 1.4 mmHg vs 1.2 ± 2.7 mmHg; P < 0.01; baPWV, ?204 ± 64 cm/s vs ?43 ± 72 cm/s; P < 0.01; rAIx@75, ?6.4 ± 2.8% vs ?1.0 ± 3.9%; P < 0.01. Left ventricular weight and left ventricular diastolic function remained unchanged in both groups.Conclusion: Patients in the smoking cessation group showed significant improvement in CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75. These results indicate that smoking cessation can improve arterial stiffness and CBP.Keywords: central blood pressure, augmentation index, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, smoking cessation, varenicline

  11. Ambulatory hypertension subtypes and 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure as distinct outcome predictors in 8341 untreated people recruited from 12 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Wei, Fang-Fei

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on risk associated with 24-hour ambulatory diastolic (DBP24) versus systolic (SBP24) blood pressure are scarce. METHODS AND RESULTS: We recorded 24-hour blood pressure and health outcomes in 8341 untreated people (mean age, 50.8 years; 46.6% women) randomly recruited from 12 populations. We computed hazard ratios (HRs) using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Over 11.2 years (median), 927 (11.1%) participants died, 356 (4.3%) from cardiovascular causes, and 744 (8.9%) experienced a fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular event. Isolated diastolic hypertension (DBP24?80 mm?Hg) did not increase the risk of total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or stroke (HRs?1.54; P?0.18), but was associated with a higher risk of fatal combined with nonfatal cardiovascular, cardiac, or coronary events (HRs?1.75; P?0.0054). Isolated systolic hypertension (SBP24?130 mm?Hg) and mixed diastolic plus systolic hypertension were associated with increased risks of all aforementioned end points (P?0.0012). Below age 50, DBP24 was the main driver of risk, reaching significance for total (HR for 1-SD increase, 2.05; P=0.0039) and cardiovascular mortality (HR, 4.07; P=0.0032) and for all cardiovascular end points combined (HR, 1.74; P=0.039) with a nonsignificant contribution of SBP24 (HR?0.92; P?0.068); above age 50, SBP24 predicted all end points (HR?1.19; P?0.0002) with a nonsignificant contribution of DBP24 (0.96?HR?1.14; P?0.10). The interactions of age with SBP24 and DBP24 were significant for all cardiovascular and coronary events (P?0.043). CONCLUSIONS: The risks conferred by DBP24 and SBP24 are age dependent. DBP24 and isolated diastolic hypertension drive coronary complications below age 50, whereas above age 50 SBP24 and isolated systolic and mixed hypertension are the predominant risk factors.

  12. Ambulatory Hypertension Subtypes and 24-Hour Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure as Distinct Outcome Predictors in 8341 Untreated People Recruited From 12 Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Wei, Fang-Fei

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on risk associated with 24-hour ambulatory diastolic (DBP24) versus systolic (SBP24) blood pressure are scarce. METHODS AND RESULTS: We recorded 24-hour blood pressure and health outcomes in 8341 untreated people (mean age, 50.8 years; 46.6% women) randomly recruited from 12 populations. We computed hazard ratios (HRs) using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Over 11.2 years (median), 927 (11.1%) participants died, 356 (4.3%) from cardiovascular causes, and 744 (8.9%) experienced a fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular event. Isolated diastolic hypertension (DBP24?80 mm?Hg) did not increase the risk of total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or stroke (HRs?1.54; P?0.18), but was associated with a higher risk of fatal combined with nonfatal cardiovascular, cardiac, or coronary events (HRs?1.75; P?0.0054). Isolated systolic hypertension (SBP24?130 mm?Hg) and mixed diastolic plus systolic hypertension were associated with increased risks of all aforementioned end points (P?0.0012). Below age 50, DBP24 was the main driver of risk, reaching significance for total (HR for 1-SD increase, 2.05; P=0.0039) and cardiovascular mortality (HR, 4.07; P=0.0032) and for all cardiovascular end points combined (HR, 1.74; P=0.039) with a nonsignificant contribution of SBP24 (HR?0.92; P?0.068); above age 50, SBP24 predicted all end points (HR?1.19; P?0.0002) with a nonsignificant contribution of DBP24 (0.96?HR?1.14; P?0.10). The interactions of age with SBP24 and DBP24 were significant for all cardiovascular and coronary events (P?0.043). CONCLUSIONS: The risks conferred by DBP24 and SBP24 are age dependent. DBP24 and isolated diastolic hypertension drive coronary complications below age 50, whereas above age 50 SBP24 and isolated systolic and mixed hypertension are the predominant risk factors.

  13. Dynamic Stress Analysis of the Arterial Wall Utilizing Physiological Pressure Waveforms

    OpenAIRE

    Khani, M. M.; M. T. Shadpour; S. Delavarpour; S. Naghizadeh; Avolio, A.

    2008-01-01

    Arterial diseases, promoted by alterations in arterial wall properties, are among the main causes of mortality. Mechanical stresses of the arterial wall caused by pulsatile luminal pressure define arterial function in normal and pathological conditions. This study aims to determine dynamic stress distribution in the arterial wall subjected to physiological pressure waveforms. Finite element models of a typical artery are developed to evaluate Von Misses stress in the arterial wall due to phys...

  14. Efeitos agudos de uma sessão de reabilitação cardíaca sobre a pressão arterial / Acute effects of one session of cardiac rehabilitation on arterial blood pressure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Murillo Frazão de Lima e, Costa; Danielly Inocêncio de, Araújo.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Hipertensão arterial é uma condição mórbida presente em grande parte dos adultos. Estudos evidenciam que exercícios físicos de moderada intensidade e curta duração têm efeitos satisfatórios na redução da pressão arterial. OBJETIVO: Mensurar a duração do efeito hipotensor de uma única ses [...] são de reabilitação cardíaca a partir da prática de exercício aeróbico de curta duração e moderada intensidade. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: O estudo foi prospectivo e quase-experimental. Participaram do estudo nove voluntários hipertensos e sedentários (cinco do sexo feminino e quatro do masculino), monitorizados pelo exame de medida ambulatorial da pressão arterial por 12 horas e 30 minutos. Foi realizada uma única sessão de treinamento aeróbico por dez minutos em bicicleta ergométrica numa intensidade moderada. RESULTADOS: Houve redução tanto na PAS (pressão arterial sistólica) como na PAD (pressão arterial diastólica) (ANOVA, p Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is a morbid condition present in most adults. Studies show that exercise of moderate intensity and short duration has satisfactory effects on lowering blood pressure. OBJECTIVE: To measure the duration of the hypotensive effect of a single session of cardiac rehabilitation [...] , through aerobic exercise of short duration and moderate intensity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was prospective and quasi-experimental. Study participants were nine hypertensive and sedentary volunteers (five female and four male), monitored by examining measured ambulatory blood pressure for 12 hours and 30 minutes. We performed a single session of aerobic training for ten minutes on a stationary bicycle at a moderate intensity. RESULTS: There was a reduction in both SBP (systolic blood pressure) and DBP (diastolic blood pressure) (ANOVA, p

  15. Assembly of a Pulmonary Artery Pressure Sensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Müntjes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an implantable system for telemonitoring the intravascular pressure in the pulmonary artery. By implanting a catheter-bound pressure and temperature sensor into the pulmonary artery, it is possible to monitor the actual value and the time variations of the intravascular pressure with a frequency of 128 Hz. Thus hospitalization of patients suffering from heart insufficiency can be avoided by early changes in therapy.Preliminary in vivo experiments have been conducted to verify the fixation mechanism and the positioning of the sensor at the right place in the pulmonary artery. It was shown that the proposed fixation mechanism and the packaging of the sensor promise to be stable.

  16. Borderline pulmonary pressures in scleroderma - a ‘pre-pulmonary arterial hypertension’ condition?

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacs, Gabor; Olschewski, Horst

    2015-01-01

    Patients with systemic sclerosis may develop borderline pulmonary arterial pressure. The clinical relevance of this condition is not always clear. Reported data support the evidence that this subgroup may represent an intermediate stage between normal pulmonary arterial pressure and manifest pulmonary arterial hypertension, a serious complication in scleroderma. Recognizing the clinical relevance of borderline pulmonary arterial pressure increase in scleroderma patients, future studies should...

  17. The effect of siesta in parameters of cardiac structure and in interpretation of ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A.M. Gomes

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of the siesta in ambulatory blood pressure (BP monitoring and in cardiac structure parameters. METHODS: 1940 ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring tests were analyzed (Spacelabs 90207, 15/15 minutes from 7:00 to 22:00 hours and 20/20 minutes from 22:01 to 6.59hours and 21% of the records indicated that the person had taken a siesta (263 woman, 52±14 years. The average duration of the siesta was 118±58 minutes. RESULTS: (average ± standard deviation The average of systolic/diastolic pressures during wakefulness, including the napping period, was less than the average for the period not including the siesta (138±16/85±11 vs 139±16/86±11 mmHg, p5%. CONCLUSION: The siesta influenced the heart structure parameters and from a statistical point of view the average of systolic and diastolic pressures and the respective pressure loads of the wakeful period.

  18. Medial circumflex femoral artery flap for ischial pressure sore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanivelu S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new axial pattern flap based on the terminal branches of the medial circumflex femoral artery is described for coverage of ischial pressure sore. Based on the terminal branches of the transverse branch of medial circumflex femoral artery, which exit through the gap between the quadratus femoris muscle above and the upper border of adductor magnus muscle below, this fascio cutaneous flap is much smaller than the posterior thigh flap but extremely useful to cover ischeal pressure sores. The skin redundancy below the gluteal fold allows a primary closure of the donor defect. It can also be used in combination with biceps femoris muscle flap.

  19. The clinical usefulness of central hemodynamics to evaluate diastolic dysfunction in subjects without hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim GH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available GeeHee Kim,1 Ji-Hoon Kim,1 Keon-Woong Moon,1 Ki-Dong Yoo,1 Sang-Hyun Ihm,2 Ho-Joong Youn,2 Chul-Min Kim11Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St Vincent's Hospital, Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, 2Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South KoreaObjective: Diastolic dysfunction is associated with increased arterial stiffness in patients with hypertension. However, the role of arterial stiffness in diastolic dysfunction in subjects without hypertension has not been fully established.Materials and methods: A total of 287 subjects (male:female ratio 121:166, mean age 53.0±14.4 years without hypertension or any heart disease who simultaneously received transthoracic echocardiography and noninvasively semiautomated radial artery applanation tonometry (with an Omron HEM-9000AI in the Department of Internal Medicine, St Vincent’s Hospital, from July 2011 to September 2012, were enrolled in this study.Results: A total of 147 subjects (male:female ratio 59:88, mean age 61.7±9.9 years, representing 51.2% of the 287 subjects, had diastolic dysfunction (defined as abnormal relaxation pattern of mitral inflow. There were significant differences in systolic blood pressure (BP, pulse pressure, late systolic peak pressure (SBP2, and radial augmentation index (RaAIx between normal diastolic function and diastolic dysfunction. ?BP was defined as systolic BP minus SBP2, because of the difference in systolic BP between the two groups. ?BP (odds ratio [OR] 1.059, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.005–1.115; P=0.032 and RaAIx (odds ratio 1.027, 95% CI 1.009–1.044, P=0.003 were associated with diastolic dysfunction. A receiver operating-characteristic curve showed that ?BP (area under the curve 0.875, 95% CI 0.832–0.911 and RaAIx (area under the curve 0.878, 95% CI 0.835–0.914 were associated with diastolic dysfunction.Conclusion: We found that ?BP and increased RaAIx were associated with diastolic dysfunction in subjects without hypertension after adjustment for age and sex. Therefore, it is suggested that noninvasive estimation of central BP may be useful to reflect diastolic dysfunction in subjects with normal peripheral BP.Keywords: central blood pressure, augmentation index, diastolic dysfunction

  20. Effects of PNF stretching phases on acute arterial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, W L; Jensen, R L; Odell, M E

    1995-06-01

    This study examined acute systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure responses within passive and modified proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching techniques. Nonhypertensives (N = 60) were assigned to one of three treatment groups. Group 1 employed an antagonist passive stretch (APS), 6-sec maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the antagonist, and subsequent APS. Group 2 employed an APS, a 6-sec MVIC of the antagonist, submaximal concentric contraction of the agonist, and APS. Group 3 was similar to Group 2, with the deletion of an MVIC prior to the concentric contraction. Blood pressures were obtained during rest, baseline following passive stretch, and at the end of the three phases of the PNF technique. Range of motion (ROM) data were collected for baseline and treatment in terminal hip flexion for each group. All PNF treatments were effective for increasing ROM. One or two trials of PNF improve ROM and avoid increasing SBP, while a third trial increases SBP. PMID:7640648

  1. Regular Khat (Catha edulis) chewing is associated with elevated diastolic blood pressure among adults in Butajira, Ethiopia: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Gedif Teferi; Getahun Workineh; Tesfaye Fikru

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Fresh leaves and buds of the Khat plant (Catha edulis) contain Cathinone, an amphetamine like alkaloid responsible for its pharmacological action. Chewing of Khat has been associated with a transient rise in blood pressure and heart rate in experimental studies. Few studies examined the effect of regular or frequent Khat chewing on blood pressure at the population level. This study was conducted to examine the association of regular Khat chewing with blood pressure among a...

  2. Dança de salão: respostas crônicas na pressão arterial de hipertensos medicados / Ballroom dance: chronic responses on blood pressure in medicated hypertensives

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Christina de Souza, Guidarini; Isabel de Castro, Schenkel; Victor Carvalho, Kessler; Tânia Rosane Bertoldo, Benedetti; Tales de, Carvalho.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A importância da prática de exercícios físicos para portadores de hipertensão arterial sistêmica está bem estabelecida na literatura, entretanto, a Dança de Salão, neste contexto, tem sido pouco explorada. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar o efeito crônico da prática de dança de salão sobre a press [...] ão arterial sistêmica de hipertensos medicados. Considerou-se como amostra o número de medidas obtidas da pressão arterial dos pacientes durante a participação no programa de dança. Assim, 92 medidas da pressão arterial foram realizadas, sendo divididas em quatro grupos: 1) pressão arterial sistólica pré-programa; 2) pressão arterial sistólica pós-programa; 3) pressão arterial diastólica pré-programa e; 4) pressão arterial diastólica pós-programa. Utilizaram-se esfigmomanômetro de coluna de mercúrio e estetoscópio. Considerou-se o protocolo de mensuração da Diretriz Brasileira. A pressão arterial foi aferida antes e após cada sessão de dança. Os 23 hipertensos medicados estudados tinham idade média de 62,5±7 anos e 34,8% eram do sexo masculino. Quarenta sessões de dança foram realizadas, três vezes/semana, com duração de uma hora/sessão. O valor médio da pressão arterial sistólica pré-programa foi de 131,8±17mmHg e após 117,8±13mmHg com diferença estatística significativa (p Abstract in english The importance of physical exercise for patients with systemic hypertension is well established in the literature. However, ballroom dance has been little investigated in this context. The objective of this study was to determine the chronic effect of ballroom dance on blood pressure in medicated hy [...] pertensives. The sample was the number of blood pressure measurements obtained during the patients' participation in the dance program. Thus, 92 blood pressure measurements were taken and divided into four groups: 1) pre-session systolic blood pressure, 2) post-session systolic blood pressure, 3) pre-session diastolic blood pressure, 4) post-session diastolic blood pressure. We used a mercury sphygmomanometer and stethoscope. As measuring protocol, we considered the Brazilian Guidelines. Blood pressure was measured before and after each ballroom dance session. The mean age of the 23 medicated hypertensive patients studied was 62.5 ± 7 years and 34.8% of them were male. Forty sessions were held three times a week, lasting one hour/session. The mean pre-session systolic blood pressure was 131,8 ± 17mmHg and 117,8±13mmHg after the session, with statistically significant difference (p

  3. Dynamic Arterial Elastance in Predicting Arterial Pressure Increase After Fluid Challenge During Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyungseok; Kong, Yu-Gyeong; Jin, Seok-Joon; Chin, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Yeong; Lee, Yoon-Kyung; Hwang, Jai-Hyun; Kim, Young-Kug

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy, specific physiological conditions such as carbon dioxide insufflation and the steep Trendelenburg position can alter the cardiac workload and cerebral hemodynamics. Inadequate arterial blood pressure is associated with hypoperfusion, organ damage, and poor outcomes. Dynamic arterial elastance (Ea) has been proposed to be a useful index of fluid management in hypotensive patients. We therefore evaluated whether dynamic Ea can predict a mean arterial pressure (MAP) increase ? 15% after fluid challenge during pneumoperitoneum and the steep Trendelenburg position. We enrolled 39 patients receiving robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. Fluid challenge was performed with 500?mL colloids in the presence of preload-dependent conditions and arterial hypotension. Patients were classified as arterial pressure responders or arterial pressure nonresponders according to whether they showed an MAP increase ?15% after fluid challenge. Dynamic Ea was defined as the ratio between the pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to assess the arterial pressure responsiveness after fluid challenge during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. Of the 39 patients, 17 were arterial pressure responders and 22 were arterial pressure nonresponders. The mean dynamic Ea before fluid challenge was significantly higher in arterial pressure responders than in arterial pressure nonresponders (0.79 vs 0.61, P?robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. This result suggests that evaluation of arterial pressure responsiveness using dynamic Ea helps to maintain an adequate arterial blood pressure and to improve perioperative outcomes in preload-dependent patients receiving robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy under pneumoperitoneum and in the steep Trendelenburg position. PMID:26469925

  4. Association of sleep duration with arterial blood pressure profile of Gujarati Indian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Wasim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recently, National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey-1 data analysis found short sleep duration as a risk factor for hypertension in the U.S. population. However, since ethnic differences exist in the aetiopathogenesis of diseases, the current study was undertaken to study the effect of sleep duration on the blood pressure profile of Gujarati Indian adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 489 Gujarati Indian adolescents of age group 16-19 years studying in school and colleges in the local population. The participants were assessed for their sleep duration, physical activity status, body composition, blood pressure profile and cardiovascular reactivity. The sleep duration was reported by the subjects as the number of hours they slept on most of the nights in a week over the last one year. The observations of the study were then analyzed after grouping them into: 1 Adequate Sleep Duration at Night, ASDN (? 7 hrs and 2 Inadequate Sleep Duration at Night, ISDN (< 7 hrs groups. Student?s unpaired t-test was used to study if any significant difference (P< 0.05 existed between the groups. Results: No significant difference was found in Systolic blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure, Pulse pressure and Mean arterial pressure between the ASDN group and the ISDN group. Physical activity status also did not differ between the two groups. However, adolescents of ISDN group showed a significantly higher level of adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity as compared to adolescents of ASDN group. Conclusion: Although short sleep duration is associated with a higher level of adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity in Gujarati Indian adolescents, it does not affect the resting blood pressure profile of these adolescents. However, longitudinal studies would be required to observe if the changes in adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity affect these adolescents in later life.

  5. Probing genetic overlap in the regulation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in Danish and Chinese twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Duan, Haiping; von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob; Tan, Qihua; Kruse, Torben Arvid; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2014-01-01

    with Danish twins. The estimated contribution from unique environmental factors suggests that promoting healthy lifestyles may provide an efficient way of controlling high blood pressure, particularly in the Chinese population.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 15 May 2014; doi:10...

  6. Stratification of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Findings by Cluster Analysis in Patients with Arterial Hypertension, Obesity and Albuminuria

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    Samoyavcheva S.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the characteristics of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM indices in the combination of arterial hypertension (AH with obesity and albuminuria using cluster analysis. Material and Methods. The study involved 70 AH patients randomly chosen, aged from 23 to 71 years (mean age — 47.9 years. ABPM was performed before antihypertensive therapy administration. We estimated body mass index and albuminuria level. ABPM indices were stratified into clusters. Results. Clusters with normal heart rate prevailed in patients with normal weight and overweight, I degree obesity in all AH varuants. Hypertensive clusters with tachycardia were found to prevail in patients with II–III degree obesity. AH structure changed with body mass increase. In overweight and I degree obesity there grows the occurrence of systolic-diastolic AH clusters. In II–III degree obesity the clusters of systolic-diastolic and isolated diastolic AH were revealed less frequently than in normal body weight, while isolated systolic AH clusters were found more frequently. Their occurrence increased in patients with a high albuminuria level as well. Conclusion. ABPM data can be grouped into clusters, and their own pathogenic mechanisms of AH maintenance and regulation seem to prevail in each cluster. In overweight and I degree obesity patients the occurrence of systolic-diastolic AH increases. With obesity degree increase there is the tendency for heart rate rise, and hemodynamic AH variants are redistributed towards the increase of isolated systolic AH, which is likely to be due to the increase in AH severity with vascular wall remodeling progression. Isolated systolic AH prevalence is increasing not only in II–III degree obesity, but also in high albuminuria supporting the significance of systolic AH in albuminuria development. No interaction between albuminuria and heart rate was revealed.

  7. Epworth's sleepiness scale in outpatients with different values of arterial blood pressure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel, Gus; Daniel Nunes e, Silva; Juliana, Fernandes; Caroline P., Cunha; Geraldo Druck, Sant' Anna.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare sleepiness scores of the Epworth scale in patients with different levels of arterial pressure when undergoing outpatient monitoring within the context of clinical evaluation. METHODS: A total of 157 patients selected for outpatient monitoring of arterial pressure during hyperte [...] nsion evaluation were divided into 3 groups: group 1 - normotensive; group 2 - hypertensive; group 3 - resistant hypertensive. For analysis, values > or = 11 were considered as associated with respiratory disturbances during sleep. RESULTS: Seventeen (10.8%) patients in group 1, 112 (71.3%) in group 2, and 28 (17.8%) in group 3, which was composed of aged, more severely hypertensive individuals, were analyzed. Groups were similar relative to sex and body mass index, but different in relation to systolic and diastolic pressure levels and age. Despite an absolute difference, no statistically significant difference occurred between Epworth scores and in the proportion of patients with values > or = 11 (5.9% vs. 18.8% vs. 212.4%; P=0.37). Despite the positive association between degree of sleepiness measured with the scale and the severity of the hypertension, no statistical significance occurred following control by age (p=0.18). CONCLUSION: A positive correlation exists between degree of sleepiness and hypertension severity. The absence of a statistical significance shown in the present study could be due to a beta type of error. Instruments that render this complaint into an objective finding could help in the pursuit of an investigation of respiratory disturbances during sleep in more severely hypertensive patients, and should therefore be studied better.

  8. Epworth's sleepiness scale in outpatients with different values of arterial blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gus

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare sleepiness scores of the Epworth scale in patients with different levels of arterial pressure when undergoing outpatient monitoring within the context of clinical evaluation. METHODS: A total of 157 patients selected for outpatient monitoring of arterial pressure during hypertension evaluation were divided into 3 groups: group 1 - normotensive; group 2 - hypertensive; group 3 - resistant hypertensive. For analysis, values > or = 11 were considered as associated with respiratory disturbances during sleep. RESULTS: Seventeen (10.8% patients in group 1, 112 (71.3% in group 2, and 28 (17.8% in group 3, which was composed of aged, more severely hypertensive individuals, were analyzed. Groups were similar relative to sex and body mass index, but different in relation to systolic and diastolic pressure levels and age. Despite an absolute difference, no statistically significant difference occurred between Epworth scores and in the proportion of patients with values > or = 11 (5.9% vs. 18.8% vs. 212.4%; P=0.37. Despite the positive association between degree of sleepiness measured with the scale and the severity of the hypertension, no statistical significance occurred following control by age (p=0.18. CONCLUSION: A positive correlation exists between degree of sleepiness and hypertension severity. The absence of a statistical significance shown in the present study could be due to a beta type of error. Instruments that render this complaint into an objective finding could help in the pursuit of an investigation of respiratory disturbances during sleep in more severely hypertensive patients, and should therefore be studied better.

  9. Arterial pressure optimization in the treatment of septic shock: a complex puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Alan E.; Trzeciak, Stephen; Dellinger, R. Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Arterial pressure optimization in septic shock is a critical, yet poorly understood component of resuscitation. New data suggest that, during the routine management of patients with severe sepsis, there is no association between mean arterial pressure achieved and outcome as long as the mean arterial pressure is maintained at or above 70 mmHg. Although these data add important new evidence to our understanding of arterial pressure management, there are still many unanswered questions upon whi...

  10. Central aortic blood pressure from ultrasound wall-tracking of the carotid artery in children: comparison with invasive measurements and radial tonometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Laura; Keehn, Louise; Guilcher, Antoine; Reidy, John F; Karunanithy, Narayan; Rosenthal, Eric; Qureshi, Shakeel; Chowienczyk, Phil J; Sinha, Manish D

    2015-05-01

    Differences between central aortic root (c) and peripheral (p) systolic blood pressure (SBP) may be particularly marked in children, but noninvasive methods for assessing cSBP in children have not been validated. We compared estimates of cSBP obtained from radiofrequency ultrasound wall tracking of the carotid artery (ART.LAB system) with that measured directly by a catheter in the aortic root at the time of arterial cannulation. Carotid waveforms were calibrated from invasive measurements of mean and diastolic pressures. In 9 children aged 10.5 ± 5.0 years (mean ± SD), cSBP obtained from carotid wall tracking was highly correlated with invasive measures of cSBP (r=0.99) with mean (± SD) difference 3.9 ± 2.5 mm?Hg. Second, we compared values of cSBP obtained from the carotid with those obtained using noninvasive applanation tonometry at the radial artery and a radial-to-aortic transfer function (SphygmoCor). Both carotid and radial tonometric measurements were calibrated from the same peripheral mean and diastolic measurements of blood pressure obtained by sphygmomanometry. In 84 children aged 13.2 ± 3.2 years, there was excellent agreement between the 2 methods (r=0.95; PcSBP as estimated by carotid wall tracking provides an acceptable measurement of true cSBP when calibration is from true mean and diastolic pressures. Close agreement of cSBP obtained by carotid wall tracking and radial tonometry suggests that these provide similar results when calibrated from the same peripheral blood pressure measurements. PMID:25824246

  11. Cardiac diastolic dysfunction in conscious dogs with heart failure induced by chronic coronary microembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Robert M; Jones, Bonita D; Corbly, Angela K; Wang, Juan; Braz, Julian C; Sandusky, George E; Wang, Jie; Shen, Weiqun

    2006-12-01

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is a fundamental impairment in congestive heart failure (CHF). This study examined LV diastolic function in the canine model of CHF induced by chronic coronary embolization (CCE). Dogs were implanted with coronary catheters (both left anterior descending and circumflex arteries) for CCE and instrumented for measurement of LV pressure and dimension. Heart failure was elicited by daily intracoronary injections of microspheres (1.2 million, 90- to 120-microm diameter) for 24 +/- 4 days, resulting in significant depression of cardiac systolic function. After CCE, LV maximum negative change of pressure with time (dP/dt(min)) decreased by 25 +/- 2% (P depressed LV systolic function there is significant impairment of LV diastolic relaxation and increase in chamber stiffness, with development of myocardial fibrosis and activation of PAI-1, in the canine model of CHF induced by CCE. PMID:16877566

  12. Low arterial pressure on admission as a predictor of mortality in operated patients with type A aortic dissection

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    Pavlović Katica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hypertension is a known predictor of proximal aortic dissection, but it is not commonly present in these patients on presentation. The associations between ascending aorta with left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiovascular risk factors and coronary atherosclerosis, and outcome of these patients are not fully elucidated. Methods. This retrospective study included 55 consecutive patients with acute type A aortic dissection treated surgically in our institution during the last 2 years. The diagnosis was based on imaging studies. Diameter of ascending aorta was measured with echocardiography. Results. The mean age of the patients was 55.4 ± 12.19 years, and 72.7% were men. A history of arterial hypertension was present in 76.4% of the patients. Maximal ascending aorta diameter was 4.09 ± 0.59 cm, while patients with frank aneurysm accounted for 5.5%. Systolic blood pressure on admission was < 150 mmHg in 58.2% of the patients. Diastolic blood pressure on admission was < 90 mmHg in 54.5% of the patients. Mean arterial pressure on admission was 104.9 ± 24.6 mmHg. No correlations were demonstrated between maximal ascending aorta diameter and diameter of the left ventricular wall, any obtained risk factor and with coronary artery atherosclerosis (p > 0.05. After six months 11 (20% patients died, while intrahospital mortality was 72%. According to logistic regression analysis which included traditional risk factors, echo parameters, coronary artery disease and logistic euro scor, mean arterial blood pressure was the independent predictor of a six-month mortality [RR 0.956; CI (0.918-0.994 ; p = 0.024]. Conclusion. In our population the acute type A aortic dissection occurred rarely in the setting of frank ascending aortic aneurysms > 5.0 cm. The majority of patients had a history of arterial hypertension. A history of arterial hypertension was not associated with maximal ascending aorta diameter. Mean arterial blood pressure was the independent predictor of a six-months mortality.

  13. A general model for continuous noninvasive pulmonary artery pressure estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert; Ventura, Dan

    2013-08-01

    Elevated pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) is a significant healthcare risk. Continuous monitoring for patients with elevated PAP is crucial for effective treatment, yet the most accurate method is invasive and expensive, and cannot be performed repeatedly. Noninvasive methods exist but are somewhat inaccurate, expensive, and cannot be used for continuous monitoring. We present a machine learning model based on heart sounds that estimates pulmonary artery pressure with enough accuracy to exclude an invasive diagnostic operation, allowing for consistent monitoring of heart condition in suspect patients without the cost and risk of invasive monitoring. We conduct a greedy search through 38 possible features using a 109-patient cross-validation to find the most predictive features. Our best general model has a standard estimate of error (SEE) of 8.3mmHg, which outperforms the previous best performance in the literature on a general set of unseen patient data. PMID:23746733

  14. Blood pressure dipping and arterial stiffness in kidney transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    XHIGNESSE, Patricia; Saint-Remy, Annie; Bonvoisin, Catherine; Weekers, Laurent; Dubois, Bernard; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    In 70 kidney transplant recipients, nocturnal blood pressure(BP) nondipping (nondipping or reversed rhythm) was highly frequent (48% were nondippers and 29% had a reversed rhythm). When compared dippers, nondippers and reversed, neither BMI, time on hemodialysis, graft survival, eGFR or antihypertensive drugs allowed to distinct the three groups. Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) did not differ between groups but calcification score and ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) were significantly th...

  15. Treinamento resistido controla a pressão arterial de ratos hipertensos induzidos por l-NAME / Resistance training controls arterial blood pressure in rats with L-NAME- induced hypertension

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ayslan Jorge Santos de, Araujo; Anne Carolline Veríssimo dos, Santos; Karine dos Santos, Souza; Marlúcia Bastos, Aires; Valter Joviniano, Santana-Filho; Emerson Ticona, Fioretto; Marcelo Mendonça, Mota; Márcio Roberto Viana, Santos.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A hipertensão arterial é uma síndrome multifatorial, crônica, causada tanto por fatores congênitos ou adquiridos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do treinamento físico resistido (TR) sobre pressão arterial, reatividade e morfologia vascular de ratos hipertensos induzidos por L-NAME. MÉTODOS [...] : Ratos Wistar machos (200-250 g) foram divididos em 3 grupos: normotenso sedentário (NS), hipertenso sedentário (HS) e hipertenso treinado (HT). A hipertensão foi induzida pela administração de L-NAME (40 mg/kg) na água de beber por 4 semanas. A pressão arterial foi avaliada antes e após o TR. O TR foi realizado utilizando 50% de 1RM, em 3 séries de 10 repetições, 3 vezes por semana, durante quatro semanas. A reatividade vascular foi mensurada em artéria mesentérica superior por curvas concentração resposta ao nitroprussiato de sódio (NPS) e fenilefrina (FEN). Além disso, foram realizadas análises histológicas e estereológicas. RESULTADOS: O TR inibiu o aumento das pressões arteriais média e diastólica. Foi observada uma redução significativa na resposta máxima e na potência da FEN entre os grupos HS e HT. A análise histológica evidenciou aspecto normal para as túnicas íntima, média e adventícia em todos os grupos. Não houve diferença significativa nas áreas do lúmen, da túnica média e total das artérias dos grupos HS e HT em relação ao NS. A razão parede/lúmen arterial do grupo HS apresentou diferença significativa em relação ao NS (p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Arterial hypertension is a multifactorial chronic condition caused by either congenital or acquired factors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of Resistance Training (RT) on arterial pressure, and on vascular reactivity and morphology, of L-NAME-treated hypertensive rats. METHODS: Male [...] Wistar rats (200 - 250 g) were allocated into Sedentary Normotensive (SN), Sedentary Hypertensive (SH) and Trained Hypertensive (TH) groups. Hypertension was induced by adding L-NAME (40 mg/Kg) to the drinking water for four weeks. Arterial pressure was evaluated before and after RT. RT was performed using 50% of 1RM, 3 sets of 10 repetitions, 3 times per week for four weeks. Vascular reactivity was measured in rat mesenteric artery rings by concentration-response curves to sodium nitroprusside (SNP); phenylephrine (PHE) was also used for histological and stereological analysis. RESULTS: Resistance training inhibited the increase in mean and diastolic arterial pressures. Significant reduction was observed in Rmax (maximal response) and pD2 (potency) of PHE between SH and TH groups. Arteries demonstrated normal intima, media and adventitia layers in all groups. Stereological analysis demonstrated no significant difference in luminal, tunica media, and total areas of arteries in the SH and TH groups when compared to the SN group. Wall-to-lumen ratio of SH arteries was significantly different compared to SN arteries (p

  16. Efectos del alcoholismo crónico sobre la presión arterial y frecuencia cardiaca en ratas adolescentes machos / Effects of chronic alcoholism on the arterial pressure and heart rate in male adolescent rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aleida, Herrera Batista; Giselle, Puldón Seguí; Belsis, Díaz Rondón; Jorge, Bacallao Gallestey.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron los efectos que sobre la presión arterial y la frecuencia cardiaca ocasiona el alcoholismo crónico iniciado en la adolescencia en ratas albinas machos. Se confeccionaron 2 grupos de animales (experimental y control) y se hicieron 2 subgrupos de diferentes tiempos de tratamiento (3 [...] y 5 meses). A las ratas experimentales se les suministró etanol mediante cánula intraesofágica. Se estudió la presión arterial y la frecuencia cardiaca mediante plestimografía directa. Para el procesamiento estadístico de los resultados se utilizó ANOVA de 2 vías con interacción. La ingestión de etanol provocó un incremento en la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica tanto a los 3 como a los 5 meses de tratamiento. Este incremento fue mayor a los 5 meses de tratamiento. La frecuencia cardiaca no mostró cambios significativos. Se concluyó que la ingestión crónica de etanol eleva la presión arterial de forma tiempo dependiente. Abstract in english The effects of chronic alcoholism initiated in the adolescence on arterial pressure and heart rate were characterized in male albine rats. They were divided into 2 groups (experimental and control) and 2 subgroups with different times of treatment (3 and 5 months) were organized. The experimental ra [...] ts were administered ethanol by intraesophageal cannula. Arterial pressure and heart rate were studied by direct plethysmography. A two-way interactive ANOVA was used for the statistical processing of the results. The ingestion of ethanol produced an increase of the systolic and diastolic arterial pressure at 3 and 5 months of treatment. This rise was higher at 5 months of treatment. Heart rate did not show significant changes. It was concluded that the chronic ingestion of ethanol raises arterial pressure depending on time.

  17. Efectos del alcoholismo crónico sobre la presión arterial y frecuencia cardiaca en ratas adolescentes machos Effects of chronic alcoholism on the arterial pressure and heart rate in male adolescent rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleida Herrera Batista

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron los efectos que sobre la presión arterial y la frecuencia cardiaca ocasiona el alcoholismo crónico iniciado en la adolescencia en ratas albinas machos. Se confeccionaron 2 grupos de animales (experimental y control y se hicieron 2 subgrupos de diferentes tiempos de tratamiento (3 y 5 meses. A las ratas experimentales se les suministró etanol mediante cánula intraesofágica. Se estudió la presión arterial y la frecuencia cardiaca mediante plestimografía directa. Para el procesamiento estadístico de los resultados se utilizó ANOVA de 2 vías con interacción. La ingestión de etanol provocó un incremento en la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica tanto a los 3 como a los 5 meses de tratamiento. Este incremento fue mayor a los 5 meses de tratamiento. La frecuencia cardiaca no mostró cambios significativos. Se concluyó que la ingestión crónica de etanol eleva la presión arterial de forma tiempo dependiente.The effects of chronic alcoholism initiated in the adolescence on arterial pressure and heart rate were characterized in male albine rats. They were divided into 2 groups (experimental and control and 2 subgroups with different times of treatment (3 and 5 months were organized. The experimental rats were administered ethanol by intraesophageal cannula. Arterial pressure and heart rate were studied by direct plethysmography. A two-way interactive ANOVA was used for the statistical processing of the results. The ingestion of ethanol produced an increase of the systolic and diastolic arterial pressure at 3 and 5 months of treatment. This rise was higher at 5 months of treatment. Heart rate did not show significant changes. It was concluded that the chronic ingestion of ethanol raises arterial pressure depending on time.

  18. Effects of heat stress on dynamic cerebral autoregulation during large fluctuations in arterial blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Brothers, R. Matthew; Zhang, Rong; Wingo, Jonathan E.; Hubing, Kimberly A.; Crandall, Craig G

    2009-01-01

    Impaired cerebral autoregulation during marked reductions in arterial blood pressure may contribute to heat stress-induced orthostatic intolerance. This study tested the hypothesis that passive heat stress attenuates dynamic cerebral autoregulation during pronounced swings in arterial blood pressure. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and middle cerebral artery blood velocity were continuously recorded for ?6 min during normothermia and heat stress (core body temperature = 36.9 ± 0.1°C and 38...

  19. The association between arterial properties and blood pressure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Aaron A; Chirico, Daniele; Coverdale, Nicole S; Fitzgibbon, Laura K; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Wade, Terrance J; Cairney, John; O'Leary, Deborah D

    2015-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP) in adults is associated with increased arterial stiffness and thickness; however, its effect on arterial health in a pediatric population is less understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between childhood BP and arterial markers of arteriosclerotic progression. The study consisted of 106 children across a wide range of BP values divided into 2 BP groups: high BP (HBP; ? 95th percentile; n = 21) and normal BP (NBP; < 90th percentile; n = 85) based on consistent automated BP measures taken at 2 time points. The laboratory examination involved systemic pulse wave velocity (PWV), common carotid artery (CCA) intima media thickness (IMT) and distensibility, as well as body mass index (BMI) and pubertal maturation. BMI and heart rate, as well as PWV (HBP: n = 15 and NBP: n = 56), were higher in the HBP group (p < 0.001) with no difference between groups for both CCA distensibility and IMT (HBP: n = 21 and NBP: n = 83). Multivariate linear regression revealed that BP group (p = 0.003) was an independent predictor of PWV after controlling for age, sex, BMI, heart rate, and maturation. Our findings demonstrate a higher systemic PWV with no difference in CCA IMT or distensibility in children with elevated BP. Hence, markers of cardiovascular disease risk are augmented in healthy children with elevated BP. PMID:25506757

  20. Effects of PDE type 5 inhibitors on Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Resistant Hypertension / Efeitos dos Inibidores da PDE do Tipo 5 sobre a Disfunção Diastólica Ventricular Esquerda na Hipertensão Arterial Resistente

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Paula Cabral de, Faria; Rodrigo, Modolo; Beatriz Vaz Domingues, Moreno; Heitor, Moreno.

    Full Text Available Resistant hypertension (RHTN) is a multifactorial disease characterized by blood pressure (BP) levels above goal (140/90 mmHg) in spite of the concurrent use of three or more antihypertensive drugs of different classes. Moreover, it is well known that RHTN subjects have high prevalence of left ventr [...] icular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD), which leads to increased risk of heart failure progression. This review gathers data from studies evaluating the effects of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors (administration of acute sildenafil and short-term tadalafil) on diastolic function, biochemical and hemodynamic parameters in patients with RHTN. Acute study with sildenafil treatment found that inhibition of PDE-5 improved hemodynamic parameters and diastolic relaxation. In addition, short-term study with the use of tadalafil demonstrated improvement of LVDD, cGMP and BNP-32 levels, regardless of BP reduction. No endothelial function changes were observed in the studies. The findings of acute and short-term studies revealed potential therapeutic effects of IPDE-5 drugs on LVDD in RHTN patients.

  1. Effects of PDE type 5 inhibitors on Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Resistant Hypertension / Efeitos dos Inibidores da PDE do Tipo 5 sobre a Disfunção Diastólica Ventricular Esquerda na Hipertensão Arterial Resistente

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Paula Cabral de, Faria; Rodrigo, Modolo; Beatriz Vaz Domingues, Moreno; Heitor, Moreno.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistant hypertension (RHTN) is a multifactorial disease characterized by blood pressure (BP) levels above goal (140/90 mmHg) in spite of the concurrent use of three or more antihypertensive drugs of different classes. Moreover, it is well known that RHTN subjects have high prevalence of left ventr [...] icular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD), which leads to increased risk of heart failure progression. This review gathers data from studies evaluating the effects of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors (administration of acute sildenafil and short-term tadalafil) on diastolic function, biochemical and hemodynamic parameters in patients with RHTN. Acute study with sildenafil treatment found that inhibition of PDE-5 improved hemodynamic parameters and diastolic relaxation. In addition, short-term study with the use of tadalafil demonstrated improvement of LVDD, cGMP and BNP-32 levels, regardless of BP reduction. No endothelial function changes were observed in the studies. The findings of acute and short-term studies revealed potential therapeutic effects of IPDE-5 drugs on LVDD in RHTN patients.

  2. Echophonocardiographic estimates of pulmonary artery wedge pressure in mitral stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahko, P S; Shaver, J A; Salerni, R; Gamble, W H; Reddy, P S

    1985-02-01

    The efficacy of noninvasive indexes for predicting pulmonary artery wedge (PAW) pressure was reviewed in 77 patients with mitral stenosis. M-mode echocardiography and phonocardiography were used to measure the aortic valve closure-mitral valve E-point interval (A2-E) and the electrocardiographic Q wave-mitral valve closure interval (Q-C) close to the time of diagnostic cardiac catheterization. During catheterization, in 65 patients PAW pressure was measured and in 12 left atrial (LA) pressure was measured. The A2-E and Q-C intervals taken alone had only modest correlation with PAW pressure (r = -0.54 and r = 0.46, respectively). The correlation was weakest in patients with atrial fibrillation and best in sinus rhythm when heart rate variation between invasive and noninvasive studies was within +/- 5 beats. Substitution of V-wave pressure for mean PAW pressure and correction for variation in blood pressure improved the A2-E correlation (r = -0.64), as did combining the A2-E and Q-C intervals into a ratio [(Q-C)/(A2-E)] (r = 0.62). However, the best results were obtained in patients where LA pressure was measured directly (r = -0.91 for A2-E), suggesting the PAW pressure is not always an accurate reflection of LA pressure. In conclusion, many factors in addition to LA pressure affect the Q-C and A2-E intervals which, in many situations, decrease their predictive value. However, if used appropriately, these intervals may allow an estimation of PAW pressure. PMID:3969884

  3. Influence of Age and Arterial Blood Pressure on the Anti-hypertensive Action of Dihydro-pyridine Compounds in Hypertensive Patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Bermúdez; E, Lezama; A, Luchsinger; F, Contreras; MA, De la Parte; Manuel, Velasco.

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To study the antihypertensive effect of dihydropyridines and correlate with the patient’s age, the degree of hypertension and mean arterial pressure, in three groups of eight hypertensive patients with mild, moderate and severe hypertension selected from the Clinical Pharmacology Unit of Va [...] rgas Hospital in Caracas. Mean age, weight and height of the selected patients were 55.66 ± 3.4, years, 67 ± 3.05 Kg and 1.63 ± 0.01 m, respectively. Three acute experimental designs compared with placebo were followed and each group of patients received amlodipine, nitrendipine or isradipine at different times, in single doses of 10, 20 and 5 mg, respectively. The cardiovascular parameters evaluated were: mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and cardiac frequency at regular intervals during 48, 6 and 24 hours for amlodipine, nitrendipine and isradipine, respectively. Acute administration of amlodipine (10 mg) to hypertensive patients, significantly reduced blood pressure form 185 ± 11.21/100 ± 7.07 to 150.5 ± 10.6/88.6 ± 7.8 mmHg at 8 hours and to 162 ± 10.9/91 ± 5.6 mmHg at 48 hours. Cardiac frequency also increased significantly at 8 and 48 hours in 10 and 9 beats/min, respectively. There was a positive correlation between patient’s age and mean arterial pressure decrease and also between pretreatment and decreased arterial pressure. Two hours after acute administration of isradipine (5 mg) to hypertensive patients, blood pressure decreased significantly from 179.50 ± 7.6/100.26 ± 3.28 mmHg to 143.75 ± 4.7/82 ± 5.18 mmHg. Cardiac frequency increased in 5 beats/min at the same time of measure. There was a positive correlation between patient’s age and arterial pressure decrease and a slight but not significant correlation between pretreatment and mean arterial blood pressure decrease. Acute dose of nitrendipine (20 mg) to hypertensive patients induced a significant fall of arterial blood pressure from 172.25 ± 7.8/107.13 ± 3.58 to 134.5 ± 5.08/81 ± 5.84 mmHg two hours after the administration of the drug, and the cardiac frequency increased significantly in 11 beats/min during this time. There was no significant correlation between patient’s age and the mean arterial pressure fall, neither between pretreatment and the decrease of arterial blood pressure.

  4. Relationship of daily arterial blood pressure monitoring readings and arterial stiffness profile in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease combined with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoli N.A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine correlation between arterial blood pressure daily rhythm and daily profile of arterial stiffness in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and arterial hypertension. Materials et methods: Prospective investigation comprised 45 male patients with COPD and arterial hypertension. Individuals of 40 years younger and 80 years elder, patients with diabetes, stroke, angina pectoris, or heart infarction, vascular diseases, and exacerbation of chronic disease, bronchial and pulmonary diseases of other etiology were excluded from the analyses. Comparison group included 47 patients with essential arterial hypertension and without chronic respiratory diseases closely similar on general parameters with patients from main clinical series. Twenty-four-hour arterial blood pressure monitoring (ABPM and daily arterial stiffness monitoring were performed using BPLab® MnSDP-2 apparatus (Petr Telegin, Russian Federation. Results: Patients with COPD combined with arterial hypertension with raised arterial stiffness measures prevail over individuals in essential hypertension group. There is pathological alteration of the ABPM circadian rhythm and raised «Pressure load» values in raised arterial stiffness group. Conclusion: We found ABPM raised parameters in patients with COPD and arterial hypertension. It confirms necessity of ABPM in daily arterial stiffness assessment in patients with COPD.

  5. Comportamiento de la presión pulmonar y función del ventrículo derecho intraesfuerzo / Pulmonary Artery Pressure and Right Ventricular Function during Exercise

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adrián J, Lescano; Roberto G, García Eleisequi; Carlos C, Canet; Martín J, Lombardero; Roberto O, Martingano.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción El comportamiento fisiológico de la presión pulmonar durante el ejercicio continúa sin establecerse con precisión. La literatura es discordante con respecto a los valores considerados patológicos de presión pulmonar intraesfuerzo (PPI) en ausencia de valvulopatía mitral e incluso, las ú [...] ltimas guías no recomiendan utilizar la presión pulmonar media ? 30 mmHg con el esfuerzo para definir hipertensión pulmonar. Es escasa la información disponible en relación a la respuesta hemodinámica y funcional del ventrículo derecho (VD) con el esfuerzo y tampoco sobre el hecho de si podría discriminar entre una respuesta fisiológica o patológica de la presión pulmonar. Objetivo Determinar el comportamiento de la PPI y comparar los parámetros ecocardiográficos de función sistólica y diastólica del VD en relación a sus niveles. Material y Métodos Se incluyeron 94 pacientes sin cardiopatías significativas, con adecuada factibilidad para estimar presión pulmonar sistólica (PPS) basal y en máxima carga durate el eco-estrés en ejercicio. De acuerdo al valor de presión pulmonar con el ejercicio, la población fue estratificada en dos grupos: a) PI Abstract in english Background The physiological behavior of pulmonary artery pressure during exercise has not been precisely established yet. There is lack of agreement in the published literature about the abnormal values of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) during exercise in the absence of mitral valve disease. Indee [...] d, the last guidelines do not recommend using mean pulmonary artery pressure value ? 30 mmHg during exercise to define pulmonary hypertension. There is scarce information about the hemodynamic and functional response of the right ventricle (RV) during exercise and if it is useful to discriminate between a physiological or abnormal response of the pulmonary artery pressure. Objectives To determine the behavior of PAP during exercise and to compare the echocardiographic parameters of systolic and diastolic RV function in relation to PAP levels. Material and Methods A total of 94 patients without significant heart disease were included. Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) at rest and maximum exercise during dobutamine stress echocardiography was adequately measured in all patients. The population was divided into two groups according to the value of pulmonary artery pressure during exercise: a) PAP

  6. Semi-invasive method for instantaneous and phasic measurement of arterial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, H N; Stein, P D

    1976-01-01

    A method for the instantaneous and phasic measurement of arterial blood pressure that eliminates the necessity of entry of the artery is described. This is accomplished with a miniature strain gauge transducer enclosed within a plastic cuff which is positioned around the artery. The device is suitable for monitoring arterial pressure in seriously ill patients and for chronic measurements of pressure in untrained and unanesthetized laboratory animals. The system was found to be stable, and recorded pressures were virtually identical to those measured intra-arterially with a catheter-tip micromanometer. PMID:958045

  7. Right ventricular diastolic dysfunction and patent foramen ovale causing profound cyanosis

    OpenAIRE

    Shnaider, H; Shiran, A.; Lorber, A.

    2004-01-01

    A 73 year old woman presented with profound central cyanosis and a history of a minor stroke. She had normal heart morphology, normal pulmonary artery pressure, and a normal coronary angiography. A patent foramen ovale (PFO) with a massive right to left shunt was demonstrated at the atrial level, with normal pulmonary venous saturations and Po2 values. This rare, age related case of right ventricular diastolic dysfunction in a normotensive patient revealed a generous PFO allowing a pronounced...

  8. Monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial em pacientes normotensos com hipotireoidismo subclínico / Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in normotensive patients with subclinical hypothyroidism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcia Martins, Ferreira; Patricia de Fatima dos Santos, Teixeira; Vera Aleta R., Mansur; Vaneska Spinelli, Reuters; Cloyra Paiva, Almeida; Mario, Vaisman.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O hipotireoidismo manifesto está associado com elevação da pressão arterial diastólica; entretanto, a associação entre o hipotireoidismo subclínico (HS) e alteração da pressão arterial (PA) é desconhecida. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a monitorização ambulatorial d [...] a pressão arterial (MAPA) por 24 horas em pacientes normotensos com HS em comparação a indivíduos normotensos eutireóideos (EU). MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal com 50 participantes (HS = 30 e EU = 20) que não apresentavam diferenças em relação a fatores de risco para hipertensão. A monitorização ambulatorial de pressão arterial foi realizada com um monitor Dynamapa®, utilizando-se um método oscilométrico validado pela AAMI (Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation) e pela BHS (British Hypertension Society). RESULTADOS: Os níveis séricos médios de TSH e T4 livre foram respectivamente 6,9 ± 2,2 µUI/ml e 1,1 ± 0,2 ng/dl em pacientes com HS. Apesar de não haver diferença em relação à média da pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica entre os dois grupos, houve uma correlação positiva entre os níveis de pressão arterial diastólica média (PADM) e os valores séricos de TSH em pacientes com HS (r:0,477; p = 0,004). Essa correlação foi detectada por medidas diurnas (r:0,498; p = 0,002) e noturnas (r:0,322; p = 0,032). CONCLUSÃO: A pressão arterial não diferiu entre pacientes com ou sem HS; contudo, os resultados sugerem que a progressão de hipotireoidismo subclínico para níveis mais elevados de TSH pode aumentar o risco cardiovascular através do aumento da pressão arterial diastólica. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Overt hypothyroidism is associated with elevation of diastolic blood pressure; however the association of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) with arterial blood pressure (ABP) alteration is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate ambulatory blood pressure monitoring [...] (ABPM), over 24 hours, in normotensive patients with SH in comparison to euthyroid (EU) normotensive individuals. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with 50 participants (SH = 30 and EU = 20) that did not differ regarding risk factors for hypertension. The ABPM was carried out with a DINAMAPA TM monitor, using the oscillometric method validated by AAMI (Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation) and by the BHS (British Hypertension Society). RESULTS: The mean serum TSH and FT4 were respectively 6.9 ± 2.2 µUI/ml and 1.1 ± 0.2 ng/dl in SH patients. Although there was no difference in the mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the two groups, there was a positive correlation between the mean values of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and serum TSH levels in SH patients (r:0.477; p = 0.004). These correlations were detected at daytime (r:0.498; p = 0.002) and sleep-time (r:0.322; p = 0.032) measurements. CONCLUSION: The blood pressure was not different between patients with or without SH; however, the results suggest that the progression of subclinical hypothyroidism to higher levels of TSH may increase the cardiovascular risk by increasing diastolic blood pressure.

  9. Pressão arterial de adolescentes de escolas particulares de Fortaleza-CE Presión arterial de adolescentes de escuelas particulares en Fortaleza-CE Blood pressure of adolescents in private schools in Fortaleza-CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Carina Viana da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar a pressão arterial de adolescentes de escolas particulares da cidade de Fortaleza-CE. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo quantitativo com delineamento transversal no qual foram investigados 794 adolescentes, entre 12-17 anos de idade de 14 escolas privadas dessa cidade no período de março a setembro de 2007, mediante aplicação de um formulário que abrangeu o registro das características sóciodemográficas, pressão arterial, Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC, prática de atividade física e glicemia capilar. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que 19,7% dos jovens apresentavam pressão arterial elevada. Os adolescentes do sexo masculino apresentaram pressão arteial sistólica (PAS e pressão arterial diastólica (PAD maiores do que a do sexo feminino (p=0,0001. A pesquisa constatou valores maiores de PAS e PAD naqueles com excesso de peso (p=0,0001. CONCLUSÃO: A pressão arterial foi influenciada sobretudo pelo sexo e IMC.OBJETIVO: Identificar la presión arterial de adolescentes de escuelas particulares en la ciudad de Fortaleza-CE. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio cuantitativo con delineamiento transversal en el cual fueron investigados 794 adolescentes - entre 12 y 17 años de edad - de 14 escuelas privadas de esa ciudad, en el período de marzo a septiembre de 2007. Se utilizó un formulario que contempló el registro de las siguientes características: socio-demográficas, presión arterial, Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC, práctica de actividad física y, glucemia capilar. RESULTADOS: Se verificó que 19,7% de los jóvenes presentaban presión arterial elevada. Los adolescentes del sexo masculino presentaron presión arterial sistólica (PAS y presión arterial diastólica (PAD mayores que las del sexo femenino (p=0,0001. La investigación constató valores mayores de PAS y PAD en aquellos con exceso de peso (p=0,0001. CONCLUSIÓN: La presión arterial fue influenciada, sobre todo, por el sexo y el IMC.OBJECTIVE: To identify the blood pressure of adolescents in private schools in the city of Fortaleza-CE. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional and quantitative study in which 794 adolescents were surveyed - between 12 and 17 years of age - from 14 private schools of that city, in the period from March to September 2007. It was used a questionnaire that contemplated the following characteristics: socio-demographic, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI, physical activity and capillary glucose. RESULTS: It was found that 19.7% of young people had high blood pressure. The male participants had systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP higher than females (p=0.0001. The investigation found higher values of SBP and DBP in those who were overweight (p=0.0001. CONCLUSION: The blood pressure was influenced mainly by gender and BMI.

  10. Heart left ventricle's diastolic function features in patients with reactive arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaska, G

    2013-01-01

    Cross-correlation analysis's data indicate for the patients with reactive arthritis features, which determine character the left ventricle's diastolic filling, are end-diastolic pressure and end-diastolic pressure/end-diastolic volume index in the left ventricle. PMID:25016748

  11. Smooth Muscle Cell Contraction Increases the Critical Buckling Pressure of Arteries

    OpenAIRE

    Hayman, Danika M.; Zhang, Jinzhou; Liu, Qin; Xiao, Yangming; Han, Hai-Chao

    2012-01-01

    Recent in vitro experiments demonstrated that arteries under increased internal pressure or decreased axial stretch may buckle into the tortuous pattern that is commonly observed in aging or diseased arteries in vivo. It suggests that buckling is a possible mechanism for the development of artery tortuosity. Vascular tone has significant effects on arterial mechanical properties but its effect on artery buckling is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of smooth mu...

  12. Classification of peripheral occlusive arterial diseases based on symptoms, signs and distal blood pressure measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, K H; Noer, Ivan; Paaske, William; Sager, P

    1980-01-01

    Systolic blood pressures at toe and ankle were measured in 459 consecutive patients with occlusive arterial disease. Fifty-eight per cent had intermittent claudication with arterial disease of all degrees of severity. Seventeen per cent complained of rest pain having toe systolic pressures below 30 mmHg, half had arterial lesions proximal to the groin. None had diabetes. Fourteen per cent non-diabetic patients had chronic ulcerations on the foot with arterial lesions similar to those in patients...

  13. Cerebral autoregulation with changes in arterial and cerebral venous pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of cerebral venous pressure (Pcv) elevation on cerebral autoregulation has been incompletely studied. The authors compared the effect of decreased cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) by elevated Pcv and decreased arterial pressure (Pa) on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in a canine modified bypass model. CPP of 80, 70, 60, 50, 40 and 30 mmHg were produced by decreasing Pa with intracranial pressure (ICP) and Pcv maintained at 0 mmHg (group 1, n = 5), or by elevating Pcv as Pa was maintained at 80 mmHg (group 2, n = 5. CBF was measured using radiolabeled microspheres, and CMRO2 = CBF times arterial-sagittal sinus O2 content difference. Cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) = CPP/CBF. In group 1 CBF (ml/100 gm/min) was unchanged from control (36 +/- 4) as CPP was decreased from 80 to 40 mmHg. As CPP was decreased to 30 mmHg, CBF decreased to 28 +/- 1. CVR (mmHg/ml/min/100 gm) was 2.3 +/- 0.3 and progressively decreased to 1.0 +/- 0.1 at CPP of 30 mmHg. In group 2 CBF was 34 +/- 3 and was unchanged as CPP decreased to 50 mmHg. At CPP of 40 and 30 mmHg CBF decreased to 25 +/- 3 and 22 +/- 2 respectively. Control CRV was 2.4 +/- 0.2 and progressively decreased to 1.4 +/- 0.1 as CPP decreased to 30 mmHg. CMRO2 was unchanged from control in both groups. Thus, CBF is maintained to low CPP regardless of whether vascular transmural pressure was decreased (decrease Pa) or increased (increased Pcv) demonstrating that the myogenic mechanism of autoregulation may be unimportant in normoxic dogs

  14. Impact of age on the importance of systolic and diastolic blood pressures for stroke risk: the MOnica, Risk, Genetics, Archiving, and Monograph (MORGAM) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishram, Julie K K; Borglykke, Anders; Andreasen, Anne H; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Ibsen, Hans; Jørgensen, Torben; Broda, Grazyna; Palmieri, Luigi; Giampaoli, Simona; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Kee, Frank; Mancia, Giuseppe; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Sans, Susana; Olsen, Michael H

    2012-11-01

    This study investigates age-related shifts in the relative importance of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures as predictors of stroke and whether these relations are influenced by other cardiovascular risk factors. Using 34 European cohorts from the MOnica, Risk, Genetics, Archiving, and Monograph (MORGAM) Project with baseline between 1982 and 1997, 68 551 subjects aged 19 to 78 years, without cardiovascular disease and not receiving antihypertensive treatment, were included. During a mean of 13.2 years of follow-up, stroke incidence was 2.8%. Stroke risk was analyzed using hazard ratios per 10-mm Hg/5-mm Hg increase in SBP/DBP by multivariate-adjusted Cox regressions, including SBP and DBP simultaneously. Because of nonlinearity, DBP was analyzed separately for DBP ? 71 mm Hg and DBP <71 mm Hg. Stroke risk was associated positively with SBP and DBP ? 71 mm Hg (SBP/DBP ? 71 mm Hg; hazard ratios: 1.15/1.06 [95% CI: 1.12-1.18/1.03-1.09]) and negatively with DBP <71 mm Hg (0.88[0.79-0.98]). The hazard ratio for DBP decreased with age (P<0.001) and was not influenced by other cardiovascular risk factors. Taking into account the age × DBP interaction, both SBP and DBP ? 71 mm Hg were significantly associated with stroke risk until age 62 years, but in subjects older than 46 years the superiority of SBP for stroke risk exceeded that of DBP ? 71 mm Hg and remained significant until age 78 years. DBP <71 mm Hg became significant at age 50 years with an inverse relation to stroke risk. In Europeans, stroke risk should be assessed by both SBP and DBP until age 62 years with increased focus on SBP from age 47 years. From age 62 years, emphasis should be on SBP without neglecting the potential harm of very low DBP. PMID:23006731

  15. Machine Learning Techniques for Arterial Pressure Waveform Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cardoso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Arterial Pressure Waveform (APW can provide essential information about arterial wall integrity and arterial stiffness. Most of APW analysis frameworks individually process each hemodynamic parameter and do not evaluate inter-dependencies in the overall pulse morphology. The key contribution of this work is the use of machine learning algorithms to deal with vectorized features extracted from APW. With this purpose, we follow a five-step evaluation methodology: (1 a custom-designed, non-invasive, electromechanical device was used in the data collection from 50 subjects; (2 the acquired position and amplitude of onset, Systolic Peak (SP, Point of Inflection (Pi and Dicrotic Wave (DW were used for the computation of some morphological attributes; (3 pre-processing work on the datasets was performed in order to reduce the number of input features and increase the model accuracy by selecting the most relevant ones; (4 classification of the dataset was carried out using four different machine learning algorithms: Random Forest, BayesNet (probabilistic, J48 (decision tree and RIPPER (rule-based induction; and (5 we evaluate the trained models, using the majority-voting system, comparatively to the respective calculated Augmentation Index (AIx. Classification algorithms have been proved to be efficient, in particular Random Forest has shown good accuracy (96.95% and high area under the curve (AUC of a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve (0.961. Finally, during validation tests, a correlation between high risk labels, retrieved from the multi-parametric approach, and positive AIx values was verified. This approach gives allowance for designing new hemodynamic morphology vectors and techniques for multiple APW analysis, thus improving the arterial pulse understanding, especially when compared to traditional single-parameter analysis, where the failure in one parameter measurement component, such as Pi, can jeopardize the whole evaluation.

  16. Adolescencia e hipertensión arterial / Adolescence and high blood pressure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriela Elizabeth, Galarza Carrión.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: se desconocen las características demográficas y clínicas de la hipertensión arterial en niños y adolescentes en Guane. Objetivo: caracterizar la hipertensión arterial en adolescentes de 10-15 años en Guane en el año 2013. Material y método: se realizó una investigación observacional, [...] descriptiva, transversal, con componente analítico en 360 niños de las edades mencionadas, en los que se comprobó: tensión arterial, índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de la cintura, tabaquismo y actividad física, todos con referencia a la edad y al sexo. Se resumieron las variables cualitativas en frecuencias absolutas y relativas porcentuales, y la asociación entre las mismas se midió mediante las pruebas de X² y Odds Ratio al 95 % de certeza. Resultados: hubo 175 normotensos en las edades 10-12 años, 8 pre-hipertensos y 9 hipertensos en el grupo de 13-15 años. Hubo prevalencia estadísticamente significativa (x²) de normotensos en el sexo femenino (p = 0.008). La obesidad estaba incrementada más de 5 veces en los varones (p = 0,002) y en edades de 13-15 años. Existió un incremento significativo de hipertensos en el grupo de 13-15 años con aumento de la circunferencia abdominal (p Abstract in english Introduction: the demographic and clinical characteristics of high blood pressure in Guane children and adolescents are unknown. Objective: to characterize high blood pressure in Guane 10-15-year-old adolescents, 2013. Material and method: an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional research was [...] carried out, with an analytical component, on 360 children of the mentioned ages, in which we analyzed: blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking and physical activity, all of which with reference to age and sex. The quantitative variants were defined in percentage absolute and relative frequencies, while association among them was measured by chi-square and Odds Ratio tests at 95% of certitude. Results: there were 175 with normal blood pressure between 10-12 years old, 8 pre-hypertensives aged 13-15 years old. There was a statistically significant prevalence of female patients with normal blood pressure (p=0.008). Obesity increased five times in male patients (p=0.002) and in ages 13-15 years old. There was a significant increase in hypertensive patients aged 13-15 years old, with increase in the waist circumference (p

  17. Efeito do treinamento com pesos na pressão arterial de repouso em idosas normotensas / Effect of resistence training in blood pressure at rest in normotensive elderly

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Luiz Demantova, Gurjão; Raquel, Gonçalves; Nelson Hilário, Carneiro; Marilia, Ceccato; José Claudio, Jambassi Filho; Sebastião, Gobbi.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O treinamento com pesos (TP) tem sido amplamente empregado em adultos idosos com objetivo de minimizar ou reverter os efeitos deletérios do processo de envelhecimento no sistema neuromuscular. No entanto, os potenciais benefícios do TP para a pressão arterial e frequência cardíaca de rep [...] ouso de adultos idosos ainda permanecem controversos. OBJETIVO: Analisar o efeito de oito semanas de TP na pressão arterial sistólica (PAS), pressão arterial diastólica (PAD), pressão arterial média (PAM) e frequência cardíaca (FC) de repouso em idosas sem hipertensão arterial. MÉTODOS: Dezessete mulheres idosas (66,0 ± 5,8 anos) sem experiência em TP foram separadas aleatoriamente em grupo treinamento (GT; n = 10) e grupo controle (GC; n = 7). As variáveis hemodinâmicas de repouso foram avaliadas pelo método auscultatório (esfigmomanômetro de mercúrio) e frequencímetro cardíaco (Polar), antes e após oito semanas do período experimental. RESULTADOS: Reduções atribuíveis ao TP foram encontradas apenas para a PAS (-13,4 mmHg; p Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Resistance training (RT) has been widely used for older adults in order to minimize or reverse the deleterious effects of aging in the neuromuscular system. However, the potential benefits of RT on arterial blood pressure and heart rate at rest in older adults remain controversial. OBJ [...] ECTIVE: To analyze the effect of eight weeks of RT on systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in older women without hypertension. METHODS: Seventeen women (aged 66.0 ± 5.8 years) without previous experience in RT were randomly assigned to either a training (TG, n = 10) or control (CG, n = 7) groups. Hemodynamic parameters at rest were evaluated by auscultatory method (mercury sphygmomanometer) and HR monitor (Polar), before and after eight weeks of experimental period. RESULTS: Reductions attributable to RT were found only to SBP (-13.4 mmHg, p

  18. Levels of pressure for adolescent students and risk indicators for arterial hypertension - a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Georgina Macêdo de Sousa

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This transversal, descriptive, and analytical study attempts to identify the levels of pressure for a determined population of adolescent students and the risk indicators of significant association for arterial hypertension. The research was developed in a public school of the capital of the state of Maranhão, Brazil, with a sample size of 302 adolescent students. The data was collected using questionnaires with open and closed questions. Of the total number of adolescents who participated, 2.7% presented arterial hypertension, the greatest number of these within the age group of 14 to 17 years old, and predominantly masculine. In this study, after the statistic analysis, the association of arterial pressure behavior with gender, age, and nutritional situation did not show significance (p> 0.05, even though there was scientific corroboration among these variables as risk indicators for arterial hypertension. Smoking and the type of nourishment showed to be risk factors for arterial hypertension with (p<0.05. Although the present study has not found association between the nutritional situation of adolescents and arterial hypertension, it was observed that there exist important nutritional alterations, even though at the moment they have not affected arterial pressure. This study points out the need for the measurement of arterial pressure to be incorporated into the practice of clinical pediatrics, especially for the activities of health in schools, such that adolescents with alterations in their arterial pressure can be identified and evaluated earlier. Key-Words: Arterial pressure; Arterial Hipertensão; Health of the pertaining to school.

  19. Daily Rhythm of Arterial Pressure in Patients with Autoimmune Thyroidite in a Phase Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Kravez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research was studying of a condition circadian rhythms and parameters of a daily structure according to 24-hour monitoring blood pressure at sick with the verified diagnosis of autoimmune thyroidite in a phase of subclinical hypothyroidism. 23 patients (22 women and 1 man in the age of from 18 till 58 years are surveyed. The control group was made by practically healthy 25 persons without pathology of a thyroid gland and normal values of blood pressure of similar age. It is revealed, that at patients with autoimmune thyroidite in a phase of subclinical hypothyroidism higher levels of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in day time and night hours, also infringement circadian a rhythm of systolic blood pressure “non-dipper” at 39,2% of patients are defined. It is received, that according to 24-hour monitoring blood pressure these patients have features of dynamics of the diastolic blood pressure, described increase of diastolic blood pressure in the afternoon and excessive decrease at night in 30,4% of cases.

  20. Avaliação de fatores de risco associados com elevação da pressão arterial em crianças / Evaluation of risk factors associated with increased blood pressure in children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Frederico D, Garcia; Aleyson F, Terra; Anderson M, Queiroz; Cristiano A, Correia; Priscila S, Ramos; Quèsia T, Ferreira; Regina L, Rocha; Eduardo A, Oliveira.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar fatores associados a níveis elevados de pressão arterial em crianças. Métodos: Estudo transversal da pressão arterial de 672 crianças entre 2 e 11 anos de idade em duas instituições de ensino de Belo Horizonte, entre setembro e dezembro de 2001. A pressão arterial foi mensurad [...] a seguindo os parámetros estabelecidos pelo relatório do Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. As seguintes variáveis foram estudadas: idade, sexo, cor da pele, índice de qualidade de vida urbana, estatura e índice de massa corporal. Para a comparação das médias, foi utilizada a análise de variãncia, e para a comparação de proporções, o teste quiquadrado. As variãveis associadas a níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial foram incluídas em análise de regressão linear múltipla. Resultados: Na análise univariada, níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica estiveram associados com crianças de cor branca, crianças da região com alto índice de qualidade de vida urbana e com elevado índice de massa corporal. Na análise multivariada, apenas o índice de massa corporal, o índice de qualidade de vida urbana e a estatura mantiveram-se associados com níveis elevados de pressão sistólica. Em relação aos níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial diastólica, apenas as variáveis índice de qualidade de vida urbana e idade foram mantidas no modelo após o ajustamento. Conclusão: O sobrepeso e a obesidade estiveram associados com níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial sistólica. Outros fatores, não identificados, foram parcialmente associados a níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial de crianças do estabelecimento privado do ensino Abstract in english To identify factors associated with increased arterial blood pressure in children. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, arterial blood pressure was measured in 672 children between 2 and 11 years of age from two schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. After providing informed consent, all [...] children had their blood pressure and anthropometric parameters measured. Blood pressure was measured based on the recommendations of the Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The following variables were assessed: age, sex, race, urban life quality index, weight, height, and body mass index. Analysis of variance was used for comparison of means and the chi-square was used for comparison of proportions. Variables associated with increased blood pressure were included in a multiple regression model. Results: According to univariate analysis, increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure were associated with high urban life quality index, white race and high body mass index. On multivariate analysis, body mass index, urban life quality index and height remained associated with increased systolic blood pressure; urban life quality index and age were associated with increased diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: In this study, excess weight and obesity were associated with increased systolic blood pressure. Other unidentified factors were partially associated with increased blood pressure in children from the school with elevated urban life quality index

  1. Avaliação de fatores de risco associados com elevação da pressão arterial em crianças / Evaluation of risk factors associated with increased blood pressure in children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Frederico D, Garcia; Aleyson F, Terra; Anderson M, Queiroz; Cristiano A, Correia; Priscila S, Ramos; Quésia T, Ferreira; Regina L, Rocha; Eduardo A, Oliveira.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar fatores associados a níveis elevados de pressão arterial em crianças. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal da pressão arterial de 672 crianças entre 2 e 11 anos de idade em duas instituições de ensino de Belo Horizonte, entre setembro e dezembro de 2001. A pressão arterial foi mensurad [...] a seguindo os parâmetros estabelecidos pelo relatório do Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. As seguintes variáveis foram estudadas: idade, sexo, cor da pele, índice de qualidade de vida urbana, estatura e índice de massa corporal. Para a comparação das médias, foi utilizada a análise de variância, e para a comparação de proporções, o teste qui-quadrado. As variáveis associadas a níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial foram incluídas em análise de regressão linear múltipla. RESULTADOS: Na análise univariada, níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica estiveram associados com crianças de cor branca, crianças da região com alto índice de qualidade de vida urbana e com elevado índice de massa corporal. Na análise multivariada, apenas o índice de massa corporal, o índice de qualidade de vida urbana e a estatura mantiveram-se associados com níveis elevados de pressão sistólica. Em relação aos níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial diastólica, apenas as variáveis índice de qualidade de vida urbana e idade foram mantidas no modelo após o ajustamento. CONCLUSÃO: O sobrepeso e a obesidade estiveram associados com níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial sistólica. Outros fatores, não identificados, foram parcialmente associados a níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial de crianças do estabelecimento privado do ensino. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with increased arterial blood pressure in children. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, arterial blood pressure was measured in 672 children between 2 and 11 years of age from two schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. After providing informed co [...] nsent, all children had their blood pressure and anthropometric parameters measured. Blood pressure was measured based on the recommendations of the Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The following variables were assessed: age, sex, race, urban life quality index, weight, height, and body mass index. Analysis of variance was used for comparison of means and the chi-square was used for comparison of proportions. Variables associated with increased blood pressure were included in a multiple regression model. RESULTS: According to univariate analysis, increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure were associated with high urban life quality index, white race and high body mass index. On multivariate analysis, body mass index, urban life quality index and height remained associated with increased systolic blood pressure; urban life quality index and age were associated with increased diastolic blood pressure. CONCLUSION: In this study, excess weight and obesity were associated with increased systolic blood pressure. Other unidentified factors were partially associated with increased blood pressure in children from the school with elevated urban life quality index.

  2. Avaliação de fatores de risco associados com elevação da pressão arterial em crianças / Evaluation of risk factors associated with increased blood pressure in children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Frederico D., Garcia; Aleyson F., Terra; Anderson M., Queiroz; Cristiano A., Correia; Priscila S., Ramos; Quésia T., Ferreira; Regina L., Rocha; Eduardo A., Oliveira.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identi?car fatores associados a níveis elevados de pressão arterial em crianças. Métodos: Estudo transversal da pressão arterial de 672 crianças entre 2 e 11 anos de idade em duas instituições de ensino de Belo Horizonte, entre setembro e dezembro de 2001. A pressão arterial foi mensurada [...] seguindo os parâmetros estabelecidos pelo relatório do Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. As seguintes variáveis foram estudadas: idade, sexo, cor da pele, índice de qualidade de vida urbana, estatura e índice de massa corporal. Para a comparação das médias, foi utilizada a análise de variância, e para a comparação de proporções, o teste quiquadrado. As variáveis associadas a níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial foram incluídas em análise de regressão linear múltipla. Resultados: Na análise univariada, níveis mais elevados de press ão arterial sistólica e diastólica estiveram associados com crianças de cor branca, crianças da região com alto índice de qualidade de vida urbana e com elevado índice de massa corporal. Na análise multivariada, apenas o índice de massa corporal, o índice de qualidade de vida urbana e a estatura mantiveram-se associados com níveis elevados de pressão sistólica. Em relação aos níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial diastólica, apenas as variáveis índice de qualidade de vida urbana e idade foram mantidas no modelo após o ajustamento. Conclusão: O sobrepeso e a obesidade estiveram associados com níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial sistólica. Outros fatores, não identi?cados, foram parcialmente associados a níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial de crianças do estabelecimento privado do ensino. Abstract in english Objective: To identify factors associated with increased arterial blood pressure in children. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, arterial blood pressure was measured in 672 children between 2 and 11 years of age from two schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. After providing informed co [...] nsent, all children had their blood pressure and anthropometric parameters measured. Blood pressure was measured based on the recommendations of the Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The following variables were assessed: age, sex, race, urban life quality index, weight, height, and body mass index. Analysis of variance was used for comparison of means and the chi-square was used for comparison of proportions. Variables associated with increased blood pressure were included in a multiple regression model. Results: According to univariate analysis, increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure were associated with high urban life quality index, white race and high body mass index. On multivariate analysis, body mass index, urban life quality index and height remained associated with increased systolic blood pressure; urban life quality index and age were associated with increased diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: In this study, excess weight and obesity were associated with increased systolic blood pressure. Other unidenti?ed factors were partially associated with increased blood pressure in children from the school with elevated urban life quality index.

  3. Avaliação de fatores de risco associados com elevação da pressão arterial em crianças Evaluation of risk factors associated with increased blood pressure in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico D Garcia

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar fatores associados a níveis elevados de pressão arterial em crianças. Métodos: Estudo transversal da pressão arterial de 672 crianças entre 2 e 11 anos de idade em duas instituições de ensino de Belo Horizonte, entre setembro e dezembro de 2001. A pressão arterial foi mensurada seguindo os parámetros estabelecidos pelo relatório do Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. As seguintes variáveis foram estudadas: idade, sexo, cor da pele, índice de qualidade de vida urbana, estatura e índice de massa corporal. Para a comparação das médias, foi utilizada a análise de variãncia, e para a comparação de proporções, o teste quiquadrado. As variãveis associadas a níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial foram incluídas em análise de regressão linear múltipla. Resultados: Na análise univariada, níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica estiveram associados com crianças de cor branca, crianças da região com alto índice de qualidade de vida urbana e com elevado índice de massa corporal. Na análise multivariada, apenas o índice de massa corporal, o índice de qualidade de vida urbana e a estatura mantiveram-se associados com níveis elevados de pressão sistólica. Em relação aos níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial diastólica, apenas as variáveis índice de qualidade de vida urbana e idade foram mantidas no modelo após o ajustamento. Conclusão: O sobrepeso e a obesidade estiveram associados com níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial sistólica. Outros fatores, não identificados, foram parcialmente associados a níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial de crianças do estabelecimento privado do ensinoTo identify factors associated with increased arterial blood pressure in children. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, arterial blood pressure was measured in 672 children between 2 and 11 years of age from two schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. After providing informed consent, all children had their blood pressure and anthropometric parameters measured. Blood pressure was measured based on the recommendations of the Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The following variables were assessed: age, sex, race, urban life quality index, weight, height, and body mass index. Analysis of variance was used for comparison of means and the chi-square was used for comparison of proportions. Variables associated with increased blood pressure were included in a multiple regression model. Results: According to univariate analysis, increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure were associated with high urban life quality index, white race and high body mass index. On multivariate analysis, body mass index, urban life quality index and height remained associated with increased systolic blood pressure; urban life quality index and age were associated with increased diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: In this study, excess weight and obesity were associated with increased systolic blood pressure. Other unidentified factors were partially associated with increased blood pressure in children from the school with elevated urban life quality index

  4. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and N-terminal probrain sodium-uretic peptid level in patients with atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyak G.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In our study 100 consecutive non-valvular permanent atrial fibrillation patients with NYHA I – III heart failure, 43 - 86 years old (65 men and 35 women were examined. Control group consisted of 30 patients with arterial hypertension and coronary artery disease matched by age, sex with basic group. Relationship of NT-proBNP with echocardiographic parameters of left heart were studied. Transthoracic echocardiography with tissue doppler measurements were performed on echocardiograph “SONOS 7500”. For left ventricular filling pressure assessment ratio Em/Ea was used due to its diagnostic value in atrial fibrillation (regardless of left ventricular ejection fraction. Mean left ventricular filling pressure was increased in patients with heart failure: in atrial fibrillation group and controls as well. In comparison with controls atrial fibrillation group was more likely to have higher both systolic and diastolic left atrial square and volume. According to Em/Ea in 95% of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation high left ventricular filling pressure was observed, this testifies to diastolic dysfunction. This parameter correlated well with left atrial square and volume during systole and diastole. Correlation between NT pro-BNP level and NYHA class of heart failure, left ventricular filling pressure was determined in patients with atrial fibrillation. Tissue doppler echocardiography makes it possible to diagnose left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in atrial fibrillation patients.

  5. Atrap deficiency increases arterial blood pressure and plasma volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppermann, Mona; Gess, Bernhard; Schweda, Frank; Castrop, Hayo

    2010-03-01

    The angiotensin receptor-associated protein (Atrap) interacts with angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 (AT1) receptors and facilitates their internalization in vitro, but little is known about the function of Atrap in vivo. Here, we detected Atrap expression in several organs of wild-type mice; the highest expression was in the kidney where it localized to the proximal tubule, particularly the brush border. There was no Atrap expression in the renal vasculature or juxtaglomerular cells. We generated Atrap-deficient (Atrap-/-) mice, which were viable and seemed grossly normal. Mean systolic BP was significantly higher in Atrap-/- mice compared with wild-type mice. Dose-response relationships of arterial BP after acute AngII infusion were similar in both genotypes. Plasma volume was significantly higher and plasma renin concentration was markedly lower in Atrap-/- mice compared with wild-type mice. (125)I-AngII binding showed enhanced surface expression of AT1 receptors in the renal cortex of Atrap-/- mice, accompanied by increased carboanhydrase-sensitive proximal tubular function. In summary, Atrap-/- mice have increased arterial pressure and plasma volume. Atrap seems to modulate volume status by acting as a negative regulator of AT1 receptors in the renal tubules. PMID:20093357

  6. Atrap Deficiency Increases Arterial Blood Pressure and Plasma Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppermann, Mona; Gess, Bernhard; Schweda, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The angiotensin receptor-associated protein (Atrap) interacts with angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 (AT1) receptors and facilitates their internalization in vitro, but little is known about the function of Atrap in vivo. Here, we detected Atrap expression in several organs of wild-type mice; the highest expression was in the kidney where it localized to the proximal tubule, particularly the brush border. There was no Atrap expression in the renal vasculature or juxtaglomerular cells. We generated Atrap-deficient (Atrap?/?) mice, which were viable and seemed grossly normal. Mean systolic BP was significantly higher in Atrap?/? mice compared with wild-type mice. Dose-response relationships of arterial BP after acute AngII infusion were similar in both genotypes. Plasma volume was significantly higher and plasma renin concentration was markedly lower in Atrap?/? mice compared with wild-type mice. 125I-AngII binding showed enhanced surface expression of AT1 receptors in the renal cortex of Atrap?/? mice, accompanied by increased carboanhydrase-sensitive proximal tubular function. In summary, Atrap?/? mice have increased arterial pressure and plasma volume. Atrap seems to modulate volume status by acting as a negative regulator of AT1 receptors in the renal tubules. PMID:20093357

  7. Simulations of piezoelectric pressure sensor for radial artery pulse measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radial artery pulse is used to diagnose human body constitution (Prakruti) in Ayurveda. A system consisting of piezoelectric sensor (22 mm x 12 mm), data acquisition card and LabView software was used to record the pulse data. The pulse obtained from the sensor was noisy, even though signal processing was done. Moreover due to large sized senor accurate measurements were not possible. Hence, a need was felt to develop a sensor of the size of the order of finger tip with a resonant frequency of the order of 1 Hz. A micromachined pressure sensor based on piezoelectric sensing mechanism was designed and simulated using CoventorWare. Simulations were carried out by varying dimensions of the sensor to optimize the resonant frequency, stresses and voltage generated as a function of applied pressure. All simulations were done with pressure ranging of 1-30 kPa, which is the range used by Ayurvedic practitioners for diagnosis. Preliminary work on fabrication of such a sensor was carried out successfully.

  8. Simulations of piezoelectric pressure sensor for radial artery pulse measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Abhay B. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Kalange, Ashok E. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Tuljaram Chaturchand College, Baramati 413 102 (India); Bodas, Dhananjay, E-mail: dhananjay.bodas@gmail.co [Center for Nanobio Sciences, Agharkar Research Institute, Pune 411 004 (India); Gangal, S.A. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2010-04-15

    A radial artery pulse is used to diagnose human body constitution (Prakruti) in Ayurveda. A system consisting of piezoelectric sensor (22 mm x 12 mm), data acquisition card and LabView software was used to record the pulse data. The pulse obtained from the sensor was noisy, even though signal processing was done. Moreover due to large sized senor accurate measurements were not possible. Hence, a need was felt to develop a sensor of the size of the order of finger tip with a resonant frequency of the order of 1 Hz. A micromachined pressure sensor based on piezoelectric sensing mechanism was designed and simulated using CoventorWare. Simulations were carried out by varying dimensions of the sensor to optimize the resonant frequency, stresses and voltage generated as a function of applied pressure. All simulations were done with pressure ranging of 1-30 kPa, which is the range used by Ayurvedic practitioners for diagnosis. Preliminary work on fabrication of such a sensor was carried out successfully.

  9. Diastolic dysfunction and diastolic heart failure: diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galderisi Maurizio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Left ventricular (LV diastolic dysfunction (DD and diastolic heart failure (HF, that is symptomatic DD, are due to alterations of myocardial diastolic properties. These alterations involve relaxation and/or filling and/or distensibility. Arterial hypertension associated to LV concentric remodelling is the main determinant of DD but several other cardiac diseases, including myocardial ischemia, and extra-cardiac pathologies involving the heart are other possible causes. In the majority of the studies, isolated diastolic HF has been made equal to HF with preserved systolic function (= normal ejection fraction but the true definition of this condition needs a quantitative estimation of LV diastolic properties. According to the position of the European Society of Cardiology and subsequent research refinements the use of Doppler echocardiography (transmitral inflow and pulmonary venous flow and the new ultrasound tools has to be encouraged for diagnosis of DD. In relation to uncertain definitions, both prevalence and prognosis of diastolic heart failure are very variable. Despite an apparent lower death rate in comparison with LV systolic HF, long-term follow-up (more than 5 years show similar mortality between the two kinds of HF. Recent studies performed by Doppler diastolic indexes have identified the prognostic power of both transmitral E/A ratio 1.5 (restrictive patterns. The therapy of LV DD and HF is not well established but ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin inhibitors, aldosterone antagonists and ?-blockers show potential beneficial effect on diastolic properties. Several trials, completed or ongoing, have been planned to treat DD and diastolic HF.

  10. Stiffness Indices and Fractal Dimension relationship in Arterial Pressure and Diameter Time Series in-Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cymberknop, L.; Legnani, W.; Pessana, F.; Bia, D.; Zócalo, Y.; Armentano, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    The advent of vascular diseases, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis, is associated to significant alterations in the physical properties of arterial vessels. Evaluation of arterial biomechanical behaviour is related to the assessment of three representative indices: arterial compliance, arterial distensibility and arterial stiffness index. Elasticity is the most important mechanical property of the arterial wall, whose natures is strictly non-linear. Intervention of elastin and collagen fibres, passive constituent elements of the arterial wall, is related to the applied wall stress level. Concerning this, appropriate tools are required to analyse the temporal dynamics of the signals involved, in order to characterize the whole phenomenon. Fractal geometry can be mentioned as one of those techniques. The aim of this study consisted on arterial pressure and diameter signals processing, by means of nonlinear techniques based on fractal geometry. Time series morphology was related to different arterial stiffness states, generated by means of blood flow variations, during experiences performed in vitro.

  11. Feasibility of pulmonary artery pressure measurements in infants through aorto-pulmonary shunts using a micromanometer pressure wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, A D; Matherne, G P

    2003-01-01

    Assessment of pulmonary artery pressure is an essential element in the evaluation of children palliated with surgical aorto-pulmonary shunts prior to definitive surgical repair. We report the ease of use and accuracy of a 0.014 inch micromanometer pressure wire for the measurement of pulmonary artery pressures in children with aorto-pulmonary artery shunts. The study population consisted of 11 infants and children with either a 3.5 mm modified Blalock-Taussig shunt from the subclavian artery to the branch pulmonary artery after stage 1 Norwood repair for hypoplastic left heart syndrome or palliative staged repair for tetralogy of Fallot, or a central shunt for pulmonary atresia or double outlet right ventricle. The unique features of the micromanometer pressure wire allowed rapid access and accurate measurement of pulmonary pressures in all patients studied. We conclude that the micromanometer pressure wire is a unique and accurate alternative device for rapid and safe determinations of pulmonary artery pressures in children with aorto-pulmonary artery shunts. PMID:12360387

  12. Correlation between antrhopometric indicators and blood pressure in adolescents / Correlação entre indicadores antropométricos e pressão arterial de adolescentes / Correlación entre los indicadores antropométricos y presión arterial de los adolescentes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline Viana de, Oliveira; Ana Cristina Pereira de Jesus, Costa; Lívia Maia, Pascoal; Leonardo Hunaldo dos, Santos; Emilia Soares, Chaves; Márcio Flávio Moura de, Araújo.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a correlação entre indicadores antropométricos e pressão arterial de adolescentes de Imperatriz-MA. Trata-se de estudo quantitativo do tipo transversal, desenvolvido entre setembro e novembro de 2012 com 218 estudantes. O questionário utilizado contemplou dados d [...] e identificação, antropométricos e pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica. Quanto aos valores de pressão arterial, verificou-se que 4,6%, 2,4% e 1,3% da amostra estavam inseridos na categoria limítrofe, hipertensão em estágio I e II, respectivamente. Entre o sexo feminino, o índice de adiposidade central e todas as pregas cutâneas apresentaram valores médios superiores ao masculino e, ainda, constatou-se correlação positiva entre pressão arterial sistólica e altura (r=0,18), peso (r=0,20) e circunferência da cintura (r=0,17); negativa entre pressão arterial diastólica e índice de adiposidade central (r=-0,18). A medida da circunferência do pescoço e da cintura foi a única medida antropométrica com correlação positiva e simultânea com pressão arterial sistólica em ambos os sexos. Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la correlación entre la presión antropométrico y sangre de los adolescentes de Imperatriz-MA. Se trata de un estudio transversal, realizado entre septiembre y noviembre de 2012 con 218 estudiantes. El cuestionario incluía datos de identificación, antropométri [...] cas y de presión arterial sistólica y diastólica. En el análisis de las pruebas de correlación de Pearson y de Spearman utilizado bajo criterios preestablecidos. Sólo el 8,3% de la muestra tenía cifras de presión arterial fuera del rango normal, siendo un 4,6%, 2,4% y 1,3% en el límite de la categoría hipertensión en estadio I y II, respectivamente. En las mujeres la tasa de obesidad central y pliegues cutáneos mostraron los mayores valores medios que los hombres. En las niñas hay una correlación positiva entre la presión arterial sistólica y la altura (r=0,18), el peso (r=0,20) y la circunferencia de la cintura (r=0,17); correlación negativa entre la presión arterial diastólica y el índice de adiposidad central (r=-0,18). Una sola medida antropométrica que se correlaciona positivamente con la presión arterial sistólica y simultánea en ambos sexos es la medida de la circunferencia del cuello y la cintura. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to analyze the correlation between anthropometric indicators and blood pressure of adolescents from Imperatriz, state of Maranhão, Brazil. It is a quantitative cross-sectional study, developed between September and November of 2012 with 218 students. We used a [...] questionnaire to collect data regarding identification, anthropometrics, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Considering blood pressure, we found that 4.6%, 2.4% and 1.3% of the sample were included in the borderline, stage 1 and stage 2 hypertension categories, respectively. Among female participants, body adiposity index and skinfold presented higher mean values than those of their male counterparts. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between systolic blood pressure and height (r=0.18), weight (r=0.20) and waist circumference (r=0.17), and a negative correlation between diastolic blood pressure and body adiposity index (r=-0.18). The measures of neck and waist circumference were the only anthropometric measures with positive and simultaneous correlations with systolic blood pressure for both genders.

  13. Perfusion of veins at arterial pressure increases the expression of KLF5 and cell cycle genes in smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation remains a major cause of veno-arterial graft failure. We hypothesised that exposure of venous SMCs to arterial pressure would increase KLF5 expression and that of cell cycle genes. Porcine jugular veins were perfused at arterial or venous pressure in the absence of growth factors. The KLF5, c-myc, cyclin-D and cyclin-E expression were elevated within 24 h of perfusion at arterial pressure but not at venous pressure. Arterial pressure also reduced the decline in SM-myosin heavy chain expression. These data suggest a role for KLF5 in initiating venous SMCs proliferation in response to arterial pressure.

  14. Correlation between 24-hour profile of blood pressure and ventricular arrhythmias and their prognostic significance in patients with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?or?evi? Dragan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH, apart from arterial hypertension, is a risk factor for electrophysiologic heart condition disorder and sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to examine a relationship between complex ventricular arrhythmias and parameters of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the patients with arterial hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH, as well as their prognostic significance during a five-year follow-up. Methods. Ninety patients with arterial hypertension and LVH were included in this study (mean age 55.2±8.3 years. There were 35 healthy people in the control group (mean age 54.5±7.1 years. Left ventricular mass index was 171.9±32.4 g/m2 in the LVH group and 102.4±13.3 g/m2 in the control group. Clinical examination, echocardiogram, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and 24-hour holter monitoring were done in all of the examined persons. Ventricular arrhythmias were classified by the Lown classification. Results. In the LVH group there were 54 (60.0% of the patients with ? III Lown class. The best predictor of a Lown class were left ventricular mass index by using multivariate stepwise regression analyses (? = 0.212; p < 0.05 and small decrease of diastolic blood pressure during the night (? = -0.293; p < 0.01. The main predictor of bad prognosis was left ventricular mass index during a five year follow-up (? = 0.302; p < 0.01, for stepwise regression model: F = 8.828; p < 0.01, adjusted R2 = 0.091. Conclusion. Left ventricular arrhythmias are frequent in patients with lower decrease of blood pressure during the night. There was no correlation between the degree of ventricular arrhythmias and parameters from 24-hour blood pressure monitoring and a five-year prognosis in the patients with arterial hypertension and LVH. A bad five-year follow-up outcome of hypertensive disease depends on left ventricular mass index.

  15. Pulmonary artery pressure measurement during exercise testing in patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeside, D A; Smith, A; Brown, A; Patel, K R; Madhok, R; Cleland, J; Peacock, A J

    2000-08-01

    It is recognized that exercise produces abnormally large increases in pulmonary artery pressure in patients with pulmonary vascular disease as a consequence of a variety of disorders, but the relationship between pressure and cardiopulmonary exercise performance is poorly understood. This lack of understanding is due (in part) to difficulty making measurements of pulmonary haemodynamics using conventional fluid filled catheters. This article seeks to improve understanding by comparing variables measured during formal exercise testing with simultaneous measurements of pulmonary artery pressure using a micro-manometer tipped catheter. Ten patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension were studied using a micromanometer tipped pulmonary artery catheter, during cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Ventilatory equivalents for oxygen and carbon dioxide correlated with the pulmonary artery pressure measured on exercise, but oxygen pulse and oxygen uptake did not. Ventilatory equivalents, noninvasively measured during exercise, may merit further study as potential surrogates of pulmonary artery pressure and hence be useful in identifying individuals at risk of developing pulmonary hypertension. PMID:10968504

  16. Exercise training improves mean arterial pressure in breast cancer survivors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Robert, C. Mills; Marcelo G. B., Nascimento; Gislane F. de, Melo; Anthony C., Hackney; Claudio L., Battaglini.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available "O exercício físico melhora a pressão arterial média em sobreviventes de câncer de mama."Atualmente, muitos sobreviventes de câncer de mama em todo o mundo vivem com os efeitos secundários relacionados com o tratamento, incluindo problemas de saúde cardiovascular. Este estudo examinou os efeitos de [...] uma intervenção de exercício de 5 meses com marcadores não-invasivos de saúde cardiovascular em sobreviventes de câncer de mama. As relações entre esses marcadores e os marcadores mais utilizados de saúde em geral também foram exploradas. Cinquenta e duas sobreviventes completaram o treinamento em um centro de reabilitação da Universidade da Carolina do Norte em Chapel Hill entre 2008-2011. Foram implementadas intervenção combinando exercício aeróbio e resistido (3 vezes / semana durante 1h) em intensidades progredindo de baixo (40%) a moderada (65-70% do VO2max) para exercícios aeróbios, e 8-12 repetições máxima para o exercício de resistência. Redução significativa da pressão arterial média (PAM) foi observada a partir da linha de base para avaliação final. Foi encontrada uma correlação significativa entre o MAPA e Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC). Em conclusão, 5 meses de intervenção com exercícios combinados de resistência e aeróbio melhorou positivamente o MAP, que foi, em parte, atribuída a mudanças no IMC. Abstract in spanish "El ejercicio físico mejora la presión arterial media en los sobrevivientes de cáncer de mama."Actualmente, muchos de los sobrevivientes de cáncer de mama en todo el mundo viven con los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento, incluyendo problemas de salud cardiovascular. Este estudio ex [...] aminó los efectos de una intervención de ejercicio durante cinco meses con marcadores no invasivos de la salud cardiovascular en sobrevivientes de cáncer de seno. También se exploraron las relaciones entre estos marcadores y los marcadores más utilizados de la salud general. Cincuenta y dos sobrevivientes completaron la formación en un centro de rehabilitación en la Universidad de Carolina del Norte en Chapel Hill de 2008 a 2011. Intervención se implementara la combinación de ejercicio aeróbico y de resistencia (3 veces / semana durante 1 h) a intensidades que van de la baja (40%) o moderada (65-70% VO2max) para el ejercicio aeróbico, y 8-12 repeticiones máximas para el ejercicio de resistencia. Se observó una reducción significativa de la presión arterial media (MAP) desde el inicio hasta la evaluación final. Se encontró una correlación significativa entre el MAPA y el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC). En conclusión, a cinco meses de intervención con ejercicio aeróbico y de resistencia combinado mejoraron positivamente el MAP, que se atribuye en parte a los cambios en el IMC. Abstract in english Currently, many breast cancer survivors worldwide live with treatment-related side effects, including cardiovascular health problems. This study examined effects of a 5-month exercise intervention on non-invasive markers of cardiovascular health in breast cancer survivors. Relationships between thes [...] e markers and commonly used markers of overall health were also explored. Fifty-two survivors completed the exercise training at a rehabilitation center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill between 2008-2011. A combined aerobic and resistance exercise intervention (3 times/week for 1h) at intensities progressing from low (40%) to moderate (65-70% of VO2max) for aerobic and 8-12 repetitions max for the resistance exercise were implemented. Significant reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP) was observed from baseline to final assessment. A significant correlation was found between MAP and Body Mass Index (BMI). In conclusion, 5-months combined aerobic and resistance exercise intervention positively improved MAP which was, in part, attributed to changes in BMI.

  17. Medida da pressão arterial no braço e antebraço em função do manguito Medida de la presión arterial en el brazo y antebrazo en función del manguito Arm and forearm blood pressure measurements as a function of cuff width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Apparecida Moura Arcuri

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e comparar os níveis de pressão arterial no braço e antebraço usando manguitos de dimensões apropriadas e o manguito padrão. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 103 indivíduos, aplicando a razão circunferência braquial (CB /largura de manguito de 0,40 nos dois segmentos, e registros com o manguito padrão após um minuto. razão CB /comprimento do manguito de 0,80, correto ou padrão, circunferências medidas no ponto médio de cada segmento. RESULTADOS: Diferenças significativas indicaram hiperestimação da pressão diastólica no antebraço, menor daquela observada em outros estudos. A manobra de Forsberg melhorou a audibilidade dos sons de Korotkoff. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados indicam que o manguito correto diminui a hiperestimação dos registros diastólicos observada por outros autores. O avanço no conhecimento da medida no antebraço requer outros estudos.OBJETIVO:Identificar y comparar los niveles de presión arterial en el brazo y antebrazo usando manguitos de dimensiones apropiadas y el manguito patrón. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio transversal realizado con 103 individuos, aplicando la razón circunferencia braquial (CB /ancho del manguito de 0,40 en los dos segmentos, y registros con el manguito patrón después un minuto, razón CB /largo del manguito de 0,80, correcto o patrón, circunferencias medidas en el punto medio de cada segmento. RESULTADOS: Diferencias significativas indicaron hiperestimación de la presión diastólica en el antebrazo, menor de aquella observada en otros estudios. La maniobra de Forsberg mejoró la audibilidad de los sonidos de Korotkoff. CONCLUSIÓN: Los hallazgos indican que el manguito correcto disminuye la hiperestimación de los registros diastólicos observada por otros autores. El avance en el conocimiento de la medida en el antebrazo requiere de otros estudios.OBJECTIVE: To identify and compare arm and forearm blood pressure measurements using appropriate cuff sizes versus a usual standard cuff. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparative study was used. Blood pressure was measured in 103 individuals using a 0.40 cuff width and 0.80 cuff length on both segments and followed by a measure with a usual standard cuff after one minute. Arm and forearm circumferences were measured at the middle point. RESULTS: Significant differences indicated overestimation of diastolic blood pressure in the forearm. These differences were lower than differences reported in other studies. Korotkoff sounds were improved after Forsberg's maneuver. CONCLUSION: Although, we found an overestimation of diastolic blood pressure in forearm, other studies suggest that the use of appropriate cuff sizes in the forearm derive more accurate measures of diastolic blood pressure. There is a need to study further measurements of blood pressure in the forearm.

  18. Pressure Myography to Study the Function and Structure of isolated small arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SchjØrring, Olav; Carlsson, Rune

    2015-01-01

    Small arteries play an important role in regulation of peripheral resistance and organ perfusion. Here we describe a series of the methods allowing measurements in pressurized segments of small arteries from the systemic and coronary circulation of mice as well as other species. The pressure myography techniques described include measurements of wall structure, wall stress, strain, and of myogenic tone. The pressurized perfused small arteries also allow evaluation of responses to increases in pressure, flow, and drugs, where the main readout is changes in vascular diameter.

  19. Effect of iohexol and diatrizoate on pulmonary arterial pressure following pulmonary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A clinical comparison of the effects on pulmonary arterial pressure produced by iohexol and diatrizoate, following selective pulmonary angiography, was made in 17 patients with a normal pressure before the injection of the contrast medium. A double blind crossover study was performed and each contrast medium was administered in random order. The pulmonary arterial pressure was continuously recorded before, during and after the injection for 3 minutes. The effect of iohexol on the pulmonary arterial pressure was significantly less than that of diatrizoate. The results indicated that iohexol should be better tolerated than diatrizoate and therefore a safer contrast medium for selective pulmonary angiography. (orig.)

  20. Blood pressure changes in dogs with babesiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Jacobson

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Systemic arterial blood pressures were measured in 30 dogs with acute babesiosis, 10 each with mild uncomplicated, severe uncomplicated and complicated disease. Ten healthy dogs were used as controls. Hypotension was defined as more than 3 standard deviations below the control mean. Normal mean pressures (±SD were: systolic arterial pressure 151 (±11 mm Hg, diastolic arterial pressure 89 (±8 mm Hg and mean arterial pressure 107 (±10 mmHg. Hypotension was the most frequent abnormality, and increased strikingly in incidence as disease severity increased, with 5/10 dogs in the complicated group being hypotensive for systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures, compared with 2/10 in the severe uncomplicated group and 0/10 in the mild uncomplicated group. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures in the complicated group and severe uncomplicated group, and systolic pressure in the mild uncomplicated group, were significantly lower than in the controls. There were no significant relationships between arterial pressures and age, pulse rate, respiratory rate, temperature, mucous membrane colour or haematocrit. There was a significant negative correlation between arterial pressures and white cell and immature neutrophil counts. Arterial pressures differed significantly between dogs that were clinically collapsed and those that were not, but not between survivors and non-survivors. Pulse pressure (systolic - diastolic was low in 7/10 complicated, 1/10 mild uncomplicated, and 1/10 severe uncomplicated cases, and differed significantly between the complicated and control groups. The high incidence of hypotension in clinically severe babesiosis has important implications for therapy.

  1. Arterial Pressure Gradients during Upright Posture and 30 deg Head Down Tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, E. R; William, J. M.; Ueno, T.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Gravity alters local blood pressure within the body so that arterial pressures in the head and foot are lower and higher, respectively, than that at heart level. Furthermore, vascular responses to local alterations of arterial pressure are probably important to maintain orthostatic tolerance upon return to the Earth after space flight. However, it has been difficult to evaluate the body's arterial pressure gradient due to the lack of noninvasive technology. This study was therefore designed to investigate whether finger arterial pressure (FAP), measured noninvasively, follows a normal hydrostatic pressure gradient above and below heart level during upright posture and 30 deg head down tilt (HDT). Seven healthy subjects gave informed consent and were 19 to 52 years old with a height range of 158 to 181 cm. A Finapres device measured arterial pressure at different levels of the body by moving the hand from 36 cm below heart level (BH) to 72 cm above heart level (AH) in upright posture and from 36 cm BH to 48 cm AH during HDT in increments of 12 cm. Mean FAP creased by 85 mmHg transitioning from BH to AH in upright posture, and the pressure gradient calculated from hydrostatic pressure difference (rho(gh)) was 84 mmHg. In HDT, mean FAP decreased by 65 mmHg from BH to AH, and the calculated pressure gradient was also 65 mmHg. There was no significant difference between the measured FAP gradient and the calculated pressure gradient, although a significant (p = 0.023) offset was seen for absolute arterial pressure in upright posture. These results indicate that arterial pressure at various levels can be obtained from the blood pressure at heart level by calculating rho(gh) + an offset. The offset equals the difference between heart level and the site of measurement. In summary, we conclude that local blood pressure gradients can be measured by noninvasive studies of FAP.

  2. Pressure measurements in arterial feeders of brain arteriovenous malformations before and after endovascular embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are composed of abnormal arterial and venous vessels in the brain causing arteriovenous shunts of arterialized blood directly from pial arteries to draining veins. The hemodynamics of these lesions is not well-understood. Changes in blood flow and pressure are probably related to the natural history of AVMs and may also play a major role in AVM treatment. In this study intra-arterial pressure was measured in feeding arteries of AVMs using a microcatheter that had been placed for subsequent embolization treatment (201 measurements were performed in 95 patients before and after the embolization procedure). Results show a direct relationship between pressure changes and degree of embolization. Since pressure changes during the embolization procedure are relatively small, it seems unlikely that these changes are the direct cause of rupture and periprocedural bleedings. (orig.)

  3. Altered diastolic function and aortic stiffness in Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çal?k, Ali Nazmi; Özcan, Kaz?m Serhan; Yüksel, Gülbün; Güngör, Bar?s?; Aru?arslan, Emre; Varlibas, Figen; Ekmekci, Ahmet; Osmonov, Damirbek; Tatl?su, Mustafa Adem; Karaca, Mehmet; Bolca, Osman; Erdinler, ?zzet

    2014-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is closely linked to cardiovascular risk factors. Methods Echocardiographic studies were performed, including left ventricular diastolic functions, left and right atrial conduction times, and arterial stiffness parameters, namely stiffness index, pressure-strain elastic modulus, and distensibility, on 29 patients with AD and 24 age-matched individuals with normal cognitive function. Results The peak mitral flow velocity of the early rapid filling wave (E) was lower, and the peak velocity of the late filling wave caused by atrial contraction (A), deceleration time of peak E velocity, and isovolumetric relaxation time were higher in the AD group. The early myocardial peak (Ea) velocity was significantly lower in AD patients, whereas the late diastolic (Aa) velocity and E/Ea ratio were similar between the two groups. In Alzheimer patients, stiffness index and pressure-strain elastic modulus were higher, and distensibility was significantly lower in the AD group compared to the control. Interatrial electromechanical delay was significantly longer in the AD group. Conclusion Our findings suggest that patients with AD are more likely to have diastolic dysfunction, higher atrial conduction times, and increased arterial stiffness compared to the controls of same sex and similar age. PMID:25075180

  4. Relationship between mean arterial pressure and end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide during hemorrhagic shock and volume resuscitation

    OpenAIRE

    Stefek Grmec; Mirjam Golub; Alina Jelatancev

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between partial end-tidal CO2 (pet) and mean arterial pressure in patients with traumatic hemorrhagic shock, who were receiving constant minute ventilation. Methods. In 61 patients we continuously measured pet CO2 with a capnograph, direct arterial pressure via a cannula, oxygen levels via pulse oximetry and body temperature. Results. We observed significant changes in pet CO2 (increase) after volume resuscitation and a quantitative linear relati...

  5. Diabetic nephropathy and arterial hypertension. The effect of antihypertensive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Andersen, A R; Smidt, U M; Christiansen, J S; Oxenbøll, B; Svendsen, P A

    arterial blood pressure to a hypertensive level is an early feature; 43% of the patients had diastolic blood pressure greater than 100 mm Hg. Early and aggressive antihypertensive treatment reduces both albuminuria and the rate of decline in GFR in young patients with diabetic nephropathy....

  6. The Effect of Static Stretch on Elastin Degradation in Arteries

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Ming-Jay; Choi, Myunghwan; Yun, Seok Hyun; Zhang, Yanhang

    2013-01-01

    Previously we have shown that gradual changes in the structure of elastin during an elastase treatment can lead to important transition stages in the mechanical behavior of arteries [1]. However, in vivo arteries are constantly being loaded due to systolic and diastolic pressures and so understanding the effects of loading on the enzymatic degradation of elastin in arteries is important. With biaxial tensile testing, we measured the mechanical behavior of porcine thoracic aortas digested with...

  7. Critical buckling pressure in mouse carotid arteries with altered elastic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkemeyer, Callan M; James, Rhys H; Devarakonda, Siva Teja; Le, Victoria P; Liu, Qin; Han, Hai-Chao; Wagenseil, Jessica E

    2015-06-01

    Arteries can buckle axially under applied critical buckling pressure due to a mechanical instability. Buckling can cause arterial tortuosity leading to flow irregularities and stroke. Genetic mutations in elastic fiber proteins are associated with arterial tortuosity in humans and mice, and may be the result of alterations in critical buckling pressure. Hence, the objective of this study is to investigate how genetic defects in elastic fibers affect buckling pressure. We use mouse models of human disease with reduced amounts of elastin (Eln+/-) and with defects in elastic fiber assembly due to the absence of fibulin-5 (Fbln5-/-). We find that Eln+/- arteries have reduced buckling pressure compared to their wild-type controls. Fbln5-/- arteries have similar buckling pressure to wild-type at low axial stretch, but increased buckling pressure at high stretch. We fit material parameters to mechanical test data for Eln+/-, Fbln5-/- and wild-type arteries using Fung and four-fiber strain energy functions. Fitted parameters are used to predict theoretical buckling pressure based on equilibrium of an inflated, buckled, thick-walled cylinder. In general, the theoretical predictions underestimate the buckling pressure at low axial stretch and overestimate the buckling pressure at high stretch. The theoretical predictions with both models replicate the increased buckling pressure at high stretch for Fbln5-/- arteries, but the four-fiber model predictions best match the experimental trends in buckling pressure changes with axial stretch. This study provides experimental and theoretical methods for further investigating the influence of genetic mutations in elastic fibers on buckling behavior and the development of arterial tortuosity. PMID:25771258

  8. Avaliação das pressões sistólica, diastólica e pressão de pulso como fator de risco para doença aterosclerótica coronariana grave em mulheres com angina instável ou infarto agudo do miocárdio sem supradesnivelamento do segmento ST Evaluation of systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure as risk factors for severe coronary arteriosclerotic disease in women with unstable angina non-ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marconi Almeida de Sousa

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar se as pressões, medidas na raiz da aorta, são fatores de risco para doença aterosclerótica coronariana grave em mulheres com angina instável ou infarto agudo do miocárdio sem supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (AI/IAMSS. MÉTODO:As pressões, assim como os fatores de risco para doença arterial coronariana (DAC foram prospectivamente coletados de março/1993 a agosto/2001 em 593 mulheres com diagnóstico de AI/IAMSS submetidas à cinecoronariografia. Lesões coronarianas definidas como graves estenoses > 70%. RESULTADOS: Idade média de 59,2±11,2 anos, significantemente mais alta nas pacientes com DAC: 61,9 ± 10,8 anos vs 56.4 ± 10,8 anos; tabagismo, diabetes e climatério foram mais freqüentes nas pacientes com DAC. As médias das pressões sistólica e arterial média foram iguais nos dois grupos, entretanto as médias das pressões diastólicas do ventrículo esquerdo (17.6 ± 8.7 x 15.1 ± 8.1, p=0.001 e da pressão de pulso aórtica foram significantemente maiores nas pacientes com DAC (75.5 ± 22 x 70 ± 19, p=0.002, enquanto a média da pressão diastólica aórtica foi significantemente mais alta nas pacientes sem DAC (75.3 ± 17.5 x 79.8 ± 16, p=0.003. Na análise multivariada a pressão de pulso > 80 mmHg e pressão sistólica > 165 foram independentemente associadas a DAC com razão de chance de 2.12 e 2.09, p 80 mmHg e pressão sistólica > 165 mmHg determinaram risco duas vezes maior de lesão coronariana grave.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pressures assessed at the aortic root as risk factors for severe atherosclerotic coronary heart disease in women with unstable angina/compatible clinical history associated with increase in cardiac enzymes (total CPK and CK-MB 2 times greater than the standard value used in the hospital, with the absence of new Q waves on the electrocardiogram (UA/NSTEMI. METHODS: Five hundred and ninety-three female patients with clinical diagnosis of UA/NSTEMI underwent cinecoronariography from March 1993 to August 2001, and the risk factors for CHD were studied. During examination the pressures, at the aortic root, and coronary obstructions were visually assessed by 2 interventional cardiologists, and those stenosis over 70% were considered severe. RESULTS: Eight-one per cent of the population was white and 18.3% was black. Mean age was 59.2±11.2 years, and it was significantly higher in patients with severe coronary lesions: 61.9 ± 10.8 years versus 56.4 ± 10.8 years; smoking, diabetes mellitus and climacteric were more frequent in patients with CHD. The average mean arterial pressure and mean systolic blood pressure was the same in both groups, however, average left ventricle diastolic pressure (17.6 ± 8.7 x 15.1 ± 8.1, p=0.001, and aortic pulse pressure were significantly greater in patients with CHD (75.5 ± 22 x 70 ± 19, p=0.002, while average aortic diastolic pressure was significantly greater in patients without CHD (79.8 ± 16 x 75.3 ± 17.5, p=0.003. In the multivariated analysis, pulse pressure > 80 mmHg and systolic blood pressure > 165 were independently associated with severe CHD with odds ratio of 2.12 and 2.09, p 80 mmHg and systolic blood pressure > 165 mmHG determined risk two times greater of severe coronary disease.

  9. Uniform Transmural Strain in Pre-Stressed Arteries Occurs at Physiological Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrade, Michel; Liu, Yi; Murphy, Jeremiah G.; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2012-01-01

    Residual deformation (strain) exists in arterial vessels, and has been previously proposed to induce homogeneous transmural strain distribution. In this work, we present analytical formulations that predict the existence of a finite internal (homeostatic) pressure for which the transmural deformation is homogenous, and the corresponding stress field. We provide evidence on the physical existence of homeostatic pressure when the artery is modeled as an incompressible tube with orthotropic constitutive strain-energy function. Based on experimental data of rabbit carotid arteries and porcine coronary arteries, the model predicts a homeostatic mean pressure of ~90 mmHg and 70–120 mmHg, respectively. The predictions are well within the physiological pressure range. Some consequences of this strain homogeneity in the physiological pressure range are explored under the proposed assumptions. PMID:22763133

  10. Strength training reduces arterial blood pressure but not sympathetic neural activity in young normotensive subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Downs, Emily M.; Cooke, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of resistance training on arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest have not been established. Although endurance training is commonly recommended to lower arterial blood pressure, it is not known whether similar adaptations occur with resistance training. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that whole body resistance training reduces arterial blood pressure at rest, with concomitant reductions in MSNA. Twelve young [21 +/- 0.3 (SE) yr] subjects underwent a program of whole body resistance training 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Resting arterial blood pressure (n = 12; automated sphygmomanometer) and MSNA (n = 8; peroneal nerve microneurography) were measured during a 5-min period of supine rest before and after exercise training. Thirteen additional young (21 +/- 0.8 yr) subjects served as controls. Resistance training significantly increased one-repetition maximum values in all trained muscle groups (P blood pressures at rest. Resistance training did not affect MSNA or heart rate. Arterial blood pressures and MSNA were unchanged, but heart rate increased after 8 wk of relative inactivity for subjects in the control group (61 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 3 beats/min; P = 0.01). These results indicate that whole body resistance exercise training might decrease the risk for development of cardiovascular disease by lowering arterial blood pressure but that reductions of pressure are not coupled to resistance exercise-induced decreases of sympathetic tone.

  11. Low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm presenting with pulmonary embolism: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Papoulidis Pavlos; Mantzourani Stamatia; Vassiliadis Konstantinos; Steiropoulos Paschalis; Antoniadou ?aria; Serasli Eva; Tsara Venetia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Pulmonary artery aneurysm is an uncommon disorder with severe complications. The diagnosis is often difficult, since the clinical manifestations are non-specific and the treatment is controversial, as the natural history of the disease is not completely understood. Case presentation We describe the cases of two patients with pulmonary artery aneurysms. The first patient was a 68-year-old Caucasian man with an idiopathic low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm together wit...

  12. Effect of Rg3-enriched Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) on arterial stiffness and blood pressure in healthy individuals: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovski, Elena; Bateman, Emma A; Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Fairgrieve, Chris; Mucalo, Iva; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2014-08-01

    Ginsenoside Rg3, present in steamed ginseng (Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer), is thought to be a potent modulator of vascular function. Our objective was to clinically evaluate acute effects of ginsenoside Rg3-enriched Korean red ginseng (Rg3-KRG) on measures of arterial stiffness and peripheral and central blood pressure (BP) parameters in healthy volunteers. Using a double-blind, randomized, crossover design, 23 individuals (9 males:14 females; age, 25 ± 2 years; body mass index, 22 ± 0.6 kg/m(2); systolic BP/diastolic BP, 113 ± 3/70 ± 2 mm Hg) were administered 400-mg Rg3-KRG extract or 400-mg wheat bran control on two separate visits with a 7-day washout period. Aortic augmentation index and central BP were measured using applanation tonometry by radial pulse wave analysis, and peripheral BP was evaluated oscillometrically. Measurements were taken at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 hours after intervention. Compared with control, there were significant reductions in augmentation index (-4.3 ± 8.9%, P = .03), central (-4.8 ± 6.8 mm Hg, P = .01) and brachial mean arterial pressure (-4.4 ± 6.6 mm Hg, P = .01), central systolic (-5.0 ± 7.9 mm Hg, P = .01) and diastolic BP (-3.9 ± 6.6 mm Hg, P = .01), and brachial systolic (-4.4 ± 10.0 mm Hg, P = .048) and diastolic BP (-3.6 ± 6.4 mm Hg, P = .01) at 3 hours after intervention compared with control. This study is the first to demonstrate Rg3-KRG extract acutely lowers central and peripheral arterial pressures in healthy adults. Further clinical evaluation is desired to quantify efficacy in higher risk individuals and in long-term settings. PMID:24997863

  13. Straight versus tortuous retinal arteries in relation to blood pressure and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    TaarnhØj, Nina Charlotte; Munch, I C

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: To assess the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on retinal arterial tortuosity and the association between tortuosity and various health indices in healthy young to middle-aged persons. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 57 monozygotic and 52 dizygotic same-sex healthy twin pairs, aged 20 to 46 years, who were characterised by determination of retinal vessel diameters, arterial blood pressure, blood glucose, body mass index, smoking habits and retinal arterial tortuosity, using a three-level grading scale (straight, wavy, tortuous). Heritability of retinal arterial tortuosity was estimated using structural equation modelling. RESULTS: Of 218 subjects, 79 (36.2%) had straight retinal arteries, 110 (50.5%) had wavy arteries, and 29 (13.3%) had tortuous arteries. Heritability of tortuosity was 82% (CI(95 )64, 92%), with unshared environmental factors accounting for the remaining 18% (CI(95 )8, 36%). Increasing values of mean arterial blood pressure and body massindex were both associated with decreasing levels of retinal arterial tortuosity. CONCLUSION: There was a large variation in tortuosity of retinal arteries in these healthy subjects and the predominant determinant was genetic influence, accounting for 82% of the observed variation in tortuosity.

  14. Arterial Pressure Gradient of Upper Extremity Arteriovenous Access Steal Syndrome: Treatment Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifsnyder, Thomas; Arnaoutakis, George J

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Treatment options after arteriovenous fistula(AVF) associated steal include: ligation, banding, and distal revascularization-interval ligation(DRIL). The purpose of this study was to evaluate arterial pressure gradients in upper extremity steal syndrome. Methods Pre-operative arteriography and sequential intra-arterial pressure readings were performed on consecutive AVF patients with hand ischemia. Analysis of variance(ANOVA) with repeated measures analyzed inter-subject comparisons, and post-hoc analysis identified anatomic locations with highest inflow pressures. Results Nine patients presented with ischemic hand symptoms after AVF. Pullback arterial pressure measurements revealed gradual increases in systolic and mean pressures as the catheter position was moved proximally from the AVF anastomosis. Post-hoc analysis after ANOVA revealed higher axillary artery systolic pressure compared to proximal brachial artery(153vs116.8,p=0.007). Conclusion AVF-related steal syndrome decreases arterial inflow pressure of the affected extremity more proximally than previously thought. When performing a DRIL procedure, consideration should be given to placing the anastomosis as proximally as possible. PMID:20675320

  15. Defining the adequate arterial pressure target during septic shock: not a 'micro' issue but the microcirculation can help

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Serena; Teboul, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    The Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines suggest targeting a mean arterial pressure of at least 65 mm Hg to maintain organ perfusion pressure during septic shock. However, the optimal mean arterial pressure can be higher in patients with a history of hypertension or other vascular comorbidities or in those with increased abdominal pressure. In a given individual, the adequate mean arterial pressure target can be difficult to define with the routine hemodynamic parameters (for example, cardiac...

  16. Balloon-occluded arterial stump pressure before balloon-occluded transarterial chemoembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Endo, Jun; Hashida, Kazunobu; Mizukami, Hajime; Nagata, Junko; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Kojima, Seiichiro; Takashimizu, Shinji; Yamagami, Takuji; Watanabe, Norihito; Hasebe, Terumitsu

    2016-02-01

    Objective To evaluate balloon-occluded arterial stump pressure (BOASP), which is responsible for effective balloon-occluded transarterial chemoembolization (B-TACE), at each hepatic arterial level before B-TACE using a 1.8-French tip microballoon catheter for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Material and methods The BOASP at various embolization portions was retrospectively investigated. "Selective" and "non-targeted" BOASP was defined as the BOASP at the subsegmental or segmental artery and the lobar artery, respectively. Results The measurement of the BOASP was carried out in 87 arteries in 47 patients. BOASP?>?64?mmHg was revealed in the caudate lobe artery (A1) and the left medial segmental (A4), right anterior superior segmental (A8), anterior segmental, right and left hepatic arteries. Significant difference was noted in the incidence of BOASP above 64?mmHg between "non-targeted" and "selective" BOASP (p?=?0.01). "Non-targeted" BOASP was significantly greater than "selective" BOASP (p?=?0.0147). In addition, the BOASP in A1, 4, 8 and the anterior segmental arteries were significantly greater than in the other subsegmental and segmental arteries (p?=?0.0007). Conclusion "Non-targeted" B-TACE should be avoided to perform effective B-TACE and "selective" B-TACE at A1, 4, 8 and the anterior segmental arteries may become less effective than at the other segmental or subsegmental arteries. PMID:26406612

  17. Ambulatory arterial stiffness indices and target organ damage in hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Marcos Manuel; Recio-Rodríguez José; Patino-Alonso Ma; Gómez-Sánchez Leticia; Agudo-Conde Cristina; Gómez-Sánchez Marta; Rodríguez-Sánchez Emiliano; García-Ortiz Luís

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The present study was designed to evaluate which arterial stiffness parameter - AASI or the home arterial stiffness index (HASI) - correlates best with vascular, cardiac and renal damage in hypertensive individuals. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 258 hypertensive patients. AASI and HASI were defined as the 1-regression slope of diastolic over systolic blood pressure readings obtained from 24-hour recordings and home blood pressure over 6 days. Re...

  18. An Inexpensive Arterial Pressure Wave Sensor and its application in different physiological condition

    CERN Document Server

    Sur, S; Sur, Shantanu

    2005-01-01

    Arterial Blood Pressure wave monitoring is considered to be important in assessment of cardiovascular system. We developed a novel pulse wave detection system using low frequency specific piezoelectric material as pressure wave sensor. The transducer detects the periodic change in the arterial wall diameter produced by pressure wave and the amplified signal after integration represents the pressure wave. The signal before integration is proportional to the rate of change of pressure wave and it not only reproduces the pressure waveform faithfully, but also its sharper nature helps to reliably detect the heart period variability (HPV). We have studied the position-specific (e.g. over carotid or radial artery) nature of change of this pulse wave signal (shape and amplitude) and also the changes at different physiological states.

  19. Influence of central venous pressure upon sinus node responses to arterial baroreflex stimulation in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, A. L.; Takeshita, A.; Eckberg, D. L.; Abboud, F. M.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements were made of sinus node responses to arterial baroreceptor stimulation with phenylephrine injection or neck suction, before and during changes of central venous pressure provoked by lower body negative pressure or leg and lower truck elevation. Variations of central venous pressure between 1.1 and 9.0 mm Hg did not influence arterial baroreflex mediated bradycardia. Baroreflex sinus node responses were augmented by intravenous propranolol, but the level of responses after propranolol was comparable during the control state, lower body negative pressure, and leg and trunk elevation. Sinus node responses to very brief baroreceptor stimuli applied during the transitions of central venous pressure also were comparable in the three states. The authors conclude that physiological variations of central venous pressure do not influence sinus node responses to arterial baroreceptor stimulation in man.

  20. Impact of Physical Activity Interventions on Blood Pressure in Brazilian Populations / Impacto de Intervenções em Atividade Física sobre a Pressão Arterial de Populações Brasileiras

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vivian Freitas Rezende, Bento; Flávia Barbizan, Albino; Karen Fernandes de, Moura; Gustavo Jorge, Maftum; Mauro de Castro dos, Santos; Luiz César, Guarita-Souza; José Rocha, Faria Neto; Cristina Pellegrino, Baena.

    Full Text Available Fundamento: A pressão arterial elevada está associada com a doença cardiovascular, que é a principal causa de mortalidade na população brasileira. Modificações no estilo de vida, incluindo a atividade física, são importantes para a redução dos níveis pressóricos e diminuição dos gastos decorrentes [...] de desfechos. Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto de intervenções em atividade física sobre a pressão arterial de brasileiros. Métodos: Metanálise feita por meio de revisão sistemática, utilizando várias bases de dados em ciências da saúde publicados até maio/2014. Foram utilizados sete estudos e uma amostra de 493 participantes. Foram incluídos estudos paralelos de intervenções em atividade física em populações adultas brasileiras que possuíam descrição de pressão arterial (mmHg) antes e após a intervenção em grupos controle e intervenção. Resultados: Dos 390 estudos encontrados, oito atingiram os critérios de inclusão propostos para a revisão sistemática e sete ensaios clínicos randomizados foram incluídos para a meta-análise. Dentre esses, intervenções com atividade física variaram entre exercícios de resistência e aeróbico. Houve redução da pressão arterial sistólica -10.09 (IC 95%: - 18.76 a -1.43 mmHg) e da pressão arterial diastólica -7,47 (IC 95%: -11.30 a -3.63 mmHg). Conclusões: A evidência disponível sobre os efeitos da atividade física na pressão arterial da população brasileira indica um efeito homogêneo e significativo para pressão arterial sistólica e para pressão arterial diastólica, porém a força dos estudos sintetizados é baixa e a qualidade metodológica, baixa e/ou regular. Estudos maiores e com maior rigor metodológico são necessários para construção de evidência robusta. Abstract in english Background: High blood pressure is associated with cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of mortality in the Brazilian population. Lifestyle changes, including physical activity, are important for lowering blood pressure levels and decreasing the costs associated with outcomes. Objecti [...] ve: Assess the impact of physical activity interventions on blood pressure in Brazilian individuals. Methods: Meta-analysis and systematic review of studies published until May 2014, retrieved from several health sciences databases. Seven studies with 493 participants were included. The analysis included parallel studies of physical activity interventions in adult populations in Brazil with a description of blood pressure (mmHg) before and after the intervention in the control and intervention groups. Results: Of 390 retrieved studies, eight matched the proposed inclusion criteria for the systematic review and seven randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. Physical activity interventions included aerobic and resistance exercises. There was a reduction of -10.09 (95% CI: -18.76 to -1.43 mmHg) in the systolic and -7.47 (95% CI: -11.30 to -3.63 mmHg) in the diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Available evidence on the effects of physical activity on blood pressure in the Brazilian population shows a homogeneous and significant effect at both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. However, the strength of the included studies was low and the methodological quality was also low and/or regular. Larger studies with more rigorous methodology are necessary to build robust evidence.

  1. Pulmonary artery pressure and the acute chest syndrome in homozygous sickle cell disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Denbow, C E; Chung, E E; Serjeant, G R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate whether attacks of acute chest syndrome affected pulmonary artery pressure in patients homozygous for sickle cell disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Pulmonary artery pressure, assessed by non-invasive echocardiographic techniques. PATIENTS--20 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease with a history of at least six episodes of acute chest syndrome and in 20 age, sex, and height matched controls with homozygous sickle cell disease without a history of acute chest synd...

  2. Moderately Elevated Intracranial Pressure Produces Greater Cross-Filling of the Anterior Communicating Artery

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yi C; J Young, Robert; Jones, Kevin; Koh, Elsie; Lien, Ruby J; Kagetsu, Nolan J

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether moderately elevated intracranial pressure is associated with greater cross-filling of the anterior communicating artery on diagnostic cerebral angiography. A retrospective study of 12 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage was performed. Data on sequential cerebral angiograms and clinical data were used to indirectly estimate intracranial pressure (ICP). Cross-filling of the anterior communicating artery (ACom) was recorded according to our scoring syste...

  3. Increased Ambulatory Arterial Stiffness Index and Pulse Pressure in Microalbuminuric Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Esben; Hansen, Klavs W; Knudsen, Søren T; Erlandsen, Mogens; Ebbehøj, Eva; Mogensen, Carl Erik; Poulsen, Per L

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundAmbulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) has been proposed as an indirect measure of arterial stiffness. The aims of this study were (i) to analyze AASI and pulse pressure (PP) in micro- and normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients and healthy controls and (ii) to explore the relation between nocturnal blood pressure (BP) reduction, BP variability, and AASI.MethodsAmbulatory BP monitoring was performed in 34 micro- and 34 normoalbuminuric T1DM patients matched for ge...

  4. Uniform Transmural Strain in Pre-Stressed Arteries Occurs at Physiological Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Destrade, Michel; LIU Yi; Murphy, Jeremiah G.; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2012-01-01

    Residual deformation (strain) exists in arterial vessels, and has been previously proposed to induce homogeneous transmural strain distribution. In this work, we present analytical formulations that predict the existence of a finite internal (homeostatic) pressure for which the transmural deformation is homogenous, and the corresponding stress field. We provide evidence on the physical existence of homeostatic pressure when the artery is modeled as an incompressible tube with orthotropic cons...

  5. Altered diastolic function and aortic stiffness in Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çal?k AN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ali Nazmi Çalik,3 Kazim Serhan Özcan,4 Gülbün Yüksel,2 Baris Güngör,1 Emre Arugarslan,1 Figen Varlibas,2 Ahmet Ekmekci,1 Damirbek Osmonov,1 Mustafa Adem Tatlisu,1 Mehmet Karaca,1 Osman Bolca,1 Izzet Erdinler1 1Department of Cardiology, Siyami Ersek Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery Center, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Neurology, Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Cardiology, Yozgat State Hospital, Yozgat, Turkey; 4Department of Cardiology, Derince Training and Research Hospital, Kocaeli, Turkey Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD is closely linked to cardiovascular risk factors.Methods: Echocardiographic studies were performed, including left ventricular diastolic functions, left and right atrial conduction times, and arterial stiffness parameters, namely stiffness index, pressure-strain elastic modulus, and distensibility, on 29 patients with AD and 24 age-matched individuals with normal cognitive function.Results: The peak mitral flow velocity of the early rapid filling wave (E was lower, and the peak velocity of the late filling wave caused by atrial contraction (A, deceleration time of peak E velocity, and isovolumetric relaxation time were higher in the AD group. The early myocardial peak (Ea velocity was significantly lower in AD patients, whereas the late diastolic (Aa velocity and E/Ea ratio were similar between the two groups. In Alzheimer patients, stiffness index and pressure-strain elastic modulus were higher, and distensibility was significantly lower in the AD group compared to the control. Interatrial electromechanical delay was significantly longer in the AD group.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that patients with AD are more likely to have diastolic dysfunction, higher atrial conduction times, and increased arterial stiffness compared to the controls of same sex and similar age. Keywords: diastolic dysfunction, atrial conduction time

  6. Improvement of diastolic function after regression of left ventricular hypertrophy / Mejora de la función diastólica tras regresión de la hipertrofia ventricular izquierda

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raúl, Teniente-Valente; Sergio, Solorio; Enrique, Vargas-Salado; Carlos, Aguirre-Vázquez; Martha A, Hernández-González; José Antonio, Olvera-Lopez; Leticia, Rodríguez-Mariscal; Miguel Angel, Luna-Ruiz; José Manuel, Guillén Contreras; Blanca Olivia, Murillo Ortiz.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la función diastólica después de revertir la hipertrofia ventricular izquierda, en hipertensión leve a moderada tratada con inhibidores de la enzima convertidora angiotensina (ECA) y, si era necesario, con un diurético. Métodos: Noventa y ocho pacientes hipertensos con hipertrofia [...] ventricular izquierda e índices de función diastólica anormal del ventrículo izquierdo recibieron captopril 50 a 200 mg/día (Capotena®) más clortalidona durante 12 meses para lograr el control de la presión arterial, definido como presión diastólica Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate the diastolic function after regression of left ventricular hypertrophy, in mild to moderate hypertension treated with angiotensin converting enzyme(ACE) inhibitor and, if necessary, with a diuretic. Methods: Ninety-eight hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy [...] (LVH) and abnormal left ventricle diastolic function indexes received captopril (Capotena® ) 50 to 200 mg/day plus chlortalidone during 12 months to reach blood pressure control, defined as a diastolic blood pressure

  7. Comportamento da pressão arterial em filhos de normotensos e filhos de hipertensos submetidos a estímulos pressóricos Arterial blood pressure responses in children of normotensive and hypertensive parents submitted to pressor tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wilson S. Cavalcante

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a pressão arterial (PA basal e as respostas a estímulos pressóricos de filhos de normotensos e filhos de hipertensos. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 32 adolescentes, do sexo masculino, brancos, na faixa etária entre 13 e 18 anos, sendo que 16 eram filhos de hipertensos e 16 filhos de normotensos. Para cada indivíduo foi aferida a PA basal seguida da aplicação de três testes pressóricos: teste do exercício isométrico com o handgrip, teste pressor ao frio e teste do exercício aritmético mental. Para a aferição da PA foi utilizado um dispositivo oscilométrico, digital, previamente calibrado. RESULTADOS: Os filhos de hipertensos exibiram valores basais de PA, tanto sistólica quanto diastólica, maiores que os filhos de normotensos (pPURPOSE: To compare cardiovascular reactivity in adolescents with and without family history of hypertension. METHODS: Thirty two subjects, males, students, aging between 13 to 18 years old were examined. One half of them had no family history of hypertension and the other half had at least one hypertensive parent. Basal blood pressure level was obtained before the application of the following selected tests: isometric handgrip exercise test, cold pressor test and arithmetic mental stress test. The blood pressure values were obtained by a digital, oscilometric device, previously calibrated. RESULTS: The subjects with family history of hypertension exhibited higher basal levels of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p<0,10. Concerning the tests applied, the subjects with family history of hypertension also exhibited higher responses, but only the response of the diastolic blood pressure to the mental stress test was statistically significant (p<0,10. CONCLUSION: Our findings point to the need of a special follow-up of children with a family history of hypertension.

  8. Pressão arterial de adolescentes de escolas particulares de Fortaleza-CE / Blood pressure of adolescents in private schools in Fortaleza-CE / Presión arterial de adolescentes de escuelas particulares en Fortaleza-CE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Polyana Carina Viana da, Silva; Márcio Flávio Moura de, Araújo; Lívia Silva de, Almeida; Hérica Cristina Alves de, Vasconcelos; Roberto Wagner Júnior Freire de, Freitas; Marta Maria Coelho, Damasceno; Marcos Venícios de Oliveira, Lopes.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar a pressão arterial de adolescentes de escolas particulares da cidade de Fortaleza-CE. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo quantitativo com delineamento transversal no qual foram investigados 794 adolescentes, entre 12-17 anos de idade de 14 escolas privadas dessa cidade no período de março [...] a setembro de 2007, mediante aplicação de um formulário que abrangeu o registro das características sóciodemográficas, pressão arterial, Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC), prática de atividade física e glicemia capilar. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que 19,7% dos jovens apresentavam pressão arterial elevada. Os adolescentes do sexo masculino apresentaram pressão arteial sistólica (PAS) e pressão arterial diastólica (PAD) maiores do que a do sexo feminino (p=0,0001). A pesquisa constatou valores maiores de PAS e PAD naqueles com excesso de peso (p=0,0001). CONCLUSÃO: A pressão arterial foi influenciada sobretudo pelo sexo e IMC. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Identificar la presión arterial de adolescentes de escuelas particulares en la ciudad de Fortaleza-CE. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio cuantitativo con delineamiento transversal en el cual fueron investigados 794 adolescentes - entre 12 y 17 años de edad - de 14 escuelas privadas de esa ci [...] udad, en el período de marzo a septiembre de 2007. Se utilizó un formulario que contempló el registro de las siguientes características: socio-demográficas, presión arterial, Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC), práctica de actividad física y, glucemia capilar. RESULTADOS: Se verificó que 19,7% de los jóvenes presentaban presión arterial elevada. Los adolescentes del sexo masculino presentaron presión arterial sistólica (PAS) y presión arterial diastólica (PAD) mayores que las del sexo femenino (p=0,0001). La investigación constató valores mayores de PAS y PAD en aquellos con exceso de peso (p=0,0001). CONCLUSIÓN: La presión arterial fue influenciada, sobre todo, por el sexo y el IMC. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify the blood pressure of adolescents in private schools in the city of Fortaleza-CE. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional and quantitative study in which 794 adolescents were surveyed - between 12 and 17 years of age - from 14 private schools of that city, in the period from March [...] to September 2007. It was used a questionnaire that contemplated the following characteristics: socio-demographic, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and capillary glucose. RESULTS: It was found that 19.7% of young people had high blood pressure. The male participants had systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) higher than females (p=0.0001). The investigation found higher values of SBP and DBP in those who were overweight (p=0.0001). CONCLUSION: The blood pressure was influenced mainly by gender and BMI.

  9. Clinical observations on the effect of carotid artery occlusion on cerebral blood flow mapped by xenon computed tomography and its correlation with carotid artery back pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xenon computed tomographic cerebral blood flow mapping was correlated with internal carotid artery stump pressures and clinical neurologic assessment during temporary internal carotid artery occlusion. One hundred fourteen patients with skull base tumors or intracranial aneurysms potentially requiring carotid resection or ligation underwent angiography, xenon CT cerebral blood flow mapping, and internal carotid artery blood pressure monitoring. The internal carotid artery was then temporarily occluded with a balloon catheter, stump pressure was measured through the catheter, and the xenon CT cerebral blood flow mapping was repeated. Adequate xenon CT cerebral blood flow was defined as greater than 30 cc/100 gm/min. All patients had normal xenon CT cerebral blood flow before internal carotid artery occlusion. During internal carotid artery occlusion, xenon CT cerebral blood flow was found to be normal (group I, 40 patients), globally reduced but still within the normal range (group II, 50 patients), or low in the distribution of the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (group III, 13 patients). With balloon occlusion, an immediate neurologic deficit developed in 11 patients (9%) requiring deflation of the balloon preceding xenon CT cerebral blood flow measurement (group IV). In group I internal carotid artery blood pressure was 128 mm Hg. (range 85 to 171 mm Hg) with stump pressure 86 mm Hg (range 46 to 125 mm Hg). In group II internal carotid artery blood pressure was 130 mm Hg. (range 78 to 199 mm Hg), with stump pressure 86 mm Hg (range 31 to 150 mm Hg)

  10. Intra-arterial Infusion of Leptin does not Affect Blood Pressure in Salt-loaded Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nidal Khabaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to see the effect of intra-arterial infusion of leptin on blood pressure of salt loaded rabbits in vivo. Increased blood pressure was produced in rabbits by giving diets containing 8% sodium chloride for 5 weeks. Leptin in different concentrations was infused intra-arterially into rabbits fed on high salt diets and the response was compared in rabbits fed with low salt diets. High salt diets produced significant increase in blood pressure. In rabbits fed with low salt diet, leptin infused intra-arterially caused an increase in blood pressure while infusion of leptin into rabbits fed with high salt diets does not affect the blood pressure. In conclusion, salt loading to rabbits abolishes the effect of leptin on cardiovascular system. This may indicate that leptin effect on sympathetic activity is altered by high salt diets in these animals.

  11. Arterial pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass is not associated with acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandler, K; Jensen, M E; Nilsson, J C; Møller, C H; Steinbrüchel, D A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is common and is associated with increased mortality. We wanted to investigate if the arterial pressure or the use of norepinephrine during cardiopulmonary bypass were associated with AKI. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients who...... underwent coronary artery bypass grafting with or without concomitant procedures was conducted. AKI was defined using the RIFLE criteria. Data on arterial pressure and use of norepinephrine during cardiopulmonary bypass were entered in a binary logistic regression model to control for possible perioperative...... confounders. RESULTS: A total of 623 patients were included. Mean age was 68.3?±?9.7 years and 81% were males. AKI was observed in 198 patients (32%). Mean arterial pressure was 47?±?6?mmHg and 45?±?6?mmHg (P?=?0.008) in the AKI and no-AKI group, respectively. Norepinephrine was used more frequently and in...

  12. Acompanhamento da pressão arterial: estudo com crianças e adolescentes com história familiar de hipertensão Acompañamiento de la presión arterial: investigación con niños y adolescentes con historia familiar de hipertensión Blood pressure tracking: study with children and adolescents with familial history of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Soares Chaves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar a evolução dos percentis de pressão arterial em crianças e adolescentes com história familiar de hipertensão arterial. Estudo longitudinal desenvolvido em uma comunidade de Fortaleza, Ceará. A pressão arterial foi avaliada em cinco encontros domiciliares, de janeiro de 2004 a dezembro de 2006. Grupo de 141 participantes, dos quais 92 crianças e 49 adolescentes. Das crianças, 67,4% permaneceram sem alterações dos percentis de pressão arterial em todas as avaliações; dos adolescentes, 65,3% permaneceram nesta condição. A maior parte dos indivíduos mantiveram seus valores e percentis de pressões arteriais sistólica e diastólica elevados, e muitos que não apresentavam inicialmente alterações passaram a mostrá-las no decorrer do acompanhamento. Confirma-se a necessidade de monitoração da pressão arterial rotineira de crianças e adolescentes tanto para a detecção precoce como para a prevenção de complicações.El objetivo fue analizar la evolución de los percentiles de presión arterial en niños y adolescentes con historia familiar de hipertensión arterial. Estudio longitudinal en una comunidad de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. La presión arterial fue evaluada en cinco encuentros en los sitios, de enero de 2004 a diciembre de 2006. El grupo fue de 141 participantes, de los cuales 92 niños y 49 adolescentes. De los niños, 67,4% permanecieron sin alteraciones de los percentiles de presión arterial en todas las evaluaciones; de los adolescentes, 65,3% permanecieron en ésta condición. La mayor parte de los individuos mantenieron sus valores y percentiles de presión arterial sistólica y presión arterial diástolica muy altos, y muchos que no presentaban inicialmente alteraciones, pasaron a señalalas en el decurrir del acompañamiento. Así, se comprueba la necesidad de monitoración de la presión arterial rutinera de niños y adolescentes tanto para la detección como para la prevención de complicaciones.The purpose of this study is to analyze the evolution of the percentiles of blood pressure in children and adolescents with familial history of arterial hypertension. This is a longitudinal study developed in a community in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. The blood pressure was evaluated in five home visits from January, 2004 to December, 2006. The group was composed of 141 participants, of which 92 were children and 49 adolescents. Of the children, 67,4% remained with no alterations of the percentiles of blood pressure in all the evaluations; of the adolescents, 65,3% remained in the same condition. Most individuals kept their values and percentiles of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, and many that did not initially present alterations started to show some during the follow up. As a result, routine monitoring of blood pressure of children and adolescents proves necessary for the early detection and prevention of complications.

  13. END-DIASTOLIC FLOW REVERSAL LIMITS THE EFFICACY OF PEDIATRIC INTRAAORTIC BALLOON PUMP COUNTERPULSATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Carlo R.; Rogers, Benjamin D.; Ionan, Constantine E.; Koenig, Steven C.; Pantalos, George M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Counterpulsation with an intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) has not achieved the same successes or clinical use in pediatric patients as in adults. In a pediatric animal model, IABP efficacy was investigated to determine whether IABP timing with a high-fidelity blood pressure signal may improve counterpulsation therapy versus a low-fidelity signal. METHODS In Yorkshire piglets (n=19, 13.0±0.5 kg) with coronary ligation-induced acute ischemic left ventricular failure, pediatric IABPs (5 or 7cc) were placed in the descending thoracic aorta. Inflation and deflation were timed with traditional criteria from low-fidelity (fluid-filled) and high-fidelity (micromanometer) blood pressure signals during 1:1 support. Aortic, carotid, and coronary hemodynamics were measured with pressure and flow transducers. Myocardial oxygen consumption was calculated from coronary sinus and arterial blood samples. Left ventricular myocardial blood flow and end-organ blood flow were measured with microspheres. RESULTS Despite significant suprasystolic diastolic augmentation and afterload reduction at heart rates of 105±3bmp, left ventricular myocardial blood flow, myocardial oxygen consumption, the myocardial oxygen supply/demand relationship, cardiac output, and end-organ blood flow did not change. Statistically significant end-diastolic coronary, carotid, and aortic flow reversal occurred with IABP deflation. Inflation and deflation timed with a high-fidelity versus low-fidelity signal did not attenuate systemic flow reversal or improve the myocardial oxygen supply/demand relationship. CONCLUSIONS Systemic end-diastolic flow reversal limited counterpulsation efficacy in a pediatric model of acute left ventricular failure. Adjustment of IABP inflation and deflation timing with traditional criteria and a high-fidelity blood pressure waveform did not improve IABP efficacy or attenuate flow reversal. End-diastolic flow reversal may limit the efficacy of IABP counterpulsation therapy in pediatric patients with traditional timing criteria. Investigation of alternative deflation timing strategies is warranted. PMID:24139614

  14. Pressão arterial após programa de exercício físico supervisionado em mulheres idosas hipertensas / Blood pressure after supervised physical exercise program in elderly women with hypertension

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana Ribeiro de O. N. do, Rêgo; André L. M., Gomes; Renato P., Veras; Edmundo de Drummond, A. Júnior; Rodolfo Alkimin, M.N.; Estélio H. M., Dantas.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A população de idosos tem elevado os índices de doenças crônicas como hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) com prevalência em mulheres. Intervenções não farmacológicas, como o exercício físico, são apontadas pela eficácia na diminuição da pressão arterial (PA). OBJETIVO: Verificar a resp [...] osta da pressão arterial de idosas hipertensas nos distintos momentos de um programa de exercício físico supervisionado (PEFS). MÉTODOS: Constituiu-se de um estudo descritivo de corte transversal realizado durante 18 semanas. Participaram 41 mulheres idosas com HAS, em tratamento farmacológico, distribuídas em grupo experimental (GE) (n = 26) que participou da intervenção, e grupo controle (GC) (n = 15), em dois momentos: pré e pós-PEFS. O IMC, a pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) e diastólica (PAD) foram avaliados no início e após 18 semanas de PEFS no GE e GC. A comparação intra e intergrupos foi feita com o teste t pareado e ANOVA two way com Kruskal Wallis, com nível de significância de p Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The elderly population has increased the levels of chronic diseases such as hypertension (HBP) with prevalence in women. Non-pharmacological interventions, such as exercise, have been indicated by the effectiveness in lowering blood pressure (BP). OBJECTIVE: To analyze the blood pressu [...] re response in elderly hypertensive women in the different moments of a supervised physical exercise program (SPEP). METHODS: It consisted of a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out for 18 weeks. 41 elderly women with hypertension, under pharmacological treatment, distributed in the experimental group (EG) (n=26) which participated in the intervention, and control group (CG) (n=15) in two stages: before and after SPEP. BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were evaluated at baseline and after 18 weeks of SPEP in the EG and CG. The intra and inter comparison was made with the paired t test and two-way ANOVA with Kruskal Wallis test, with a significance level of p

  15. Construcción y validación clínica de un prototipo para el registro continuo de la presión arterial de forma no invasiva y ambulatoria / Construction and clinical validation of an automated measuring device for continuous non-invasive ambulatory blood pressure measurement

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ángel M, Chaves; Ronald G, García; Wilson, Gamboa; Leonardo, Rodríguez; Isabel C, Arenas; Hernán, Villa-Roel; Víctor R, Castillo.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la monitorización ambulatoria de la presión arterial con equipos biomédicos, es un método útil y confiable para el diagnóstico de la hipertensión arterial. El propósito del estudio fue validar un nuevo equipo de monitorización ambulatoria de la presión arterial de 24 horas (MAPA-FCV) d [...] e bajo costo, producido en la Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia. Métodos: el estudio se desarrolló de acuerdo con las recomendaciones de la Sociedad Americana para el Avance de la Instrumentación Médica (AAMI, por sus siglas en Inglés) y la Sociedad Británica de Hipertensión (BHS) para validación de equipos de monitorización de presión arterial. Se incluyeron 85 sujetos sanos, en quienes, una persona previamente entrenada, obtuvo tres medidas simultáneas de presión arterial (cada 10 minutos) y se compararon con las que se obtuvieron con el equipo MAPA-FCV. Resultados: los sujetos presentaron una presión arterial sistólica de 115 ± 15 mm Hg y diastólica de 71 ± 8 mm Hg. Se encontró una diferencia media de 0,63 ± 5,94 mm Hg en la presión arterial sistólica y de 0,17 ± 5,08 mm Hg en la diastólica entre el equipo y el observador entrenado. Así mismo, se observó que más de 93% de las mediciones simultáneas de presión arterial, presentaron una diferencia menor a 10 mm Hg. Conclusiones: en el estudio el monitor MAPA-FCV alcanzó altos grados de concordancia con los valores de presión arterial que obtuvo el personal capacitado; adicionalmente el equipo cumplió con los criterios de validación de la AAMI y BHS, lo que hace posible su recomendación para uso clínico en población adulta. Abstract in english Introduction: ambulatory arterial pressure monitoring with biomedical devices is a useful and reliable method to diagnose hypertension. The aim of this study was to validate a new low cost Holter blood pressure monitor (MAPA-FCV) produced at the Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia. Methods: the stu [...] dy was developed according to the guidelines for validation of automated blood pressure measuring devices of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) and the British Hypertension Society (BHS). Three blood pressure measurements were taken in 85 healthy subjects in a 30 minutes period (every 10 minutes). Measurements were taken by one observer trained to measure blood pressure with a mercury column device, and were compared with those obtained with the automatic device. Results: mean systolic blood pressure obtained in the subjects was 115 ± 15 mmHg, and mean diastolic blood pressure was 71 ± 8 mmHg. The mean and standard deviation of the differences between the measurements obtained by the observer and those obtained with the automatic device were 0.63 ± 5.94 mmHg for systolic pressure and 0.17 ± 5.08 mmHg for diastolic pressure. In addition, about 93% of the differences between the ascultatory and MAPA-FCV were within 10 mmHg. Conclusions: in the present study a close agreement between systolic and diastolic pressure measurements obtained by the auscultatory method and the MAPA-FCV device was found. The data obtained show that the MAPA-FCV can be recommended for clinical use according to the guidelines of international entities.

  16. Hubungan Kadar Apelin dengan Disfungsi Diastol pada Penderita Gagal Jantung dengan Fraksi Ejeksi Normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Rostiati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apelin ia a novel multifunction peptide implicated in cardiovascular performance regulation in chronic pressure overload. Plasma apelin level and its correlation to diastolic dysfunction in patient heart failure with preserved ejection fraction were investigated. Hypertensive patients with heart failure but without coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, obese, and diabetes mellitus were enrolled in this study. Each patients underwent plasma apelin measurement and echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular diastolic function. Statistical analysis was conducted using Spearman Rank. Fifty patients, 24 males (48% and 26 females (52%, met the inclusion criteria. The mean age of the participants was 58.72 (11.02 years with a duration of hypertension between 1–30 years, median 5 year. Mean body mass index was 24.13 kg/m2. Systolic blood pressure median was 130 (120–180mmHg while the diastolic blood pressure median was 90 (70–110mmHg. Left ventricular ejection fraction median was 65 (49–77%, treatment with Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI was 48%, calcium channel blocker (CCB was 27%, beta blocker was 6%, angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB was 3%, and diuretic was 1%. Diastolic function assessment with tissue doppler imaging (TDI resulted in a mean of 10.32, deceleration time mean of 228.2, E/A (early/atrial (late filling velocities ratio median of 0.77 (0.43–1.53,and IVRT (isovolumic relaxation time median of 92 (59–177. Plasma apelin measurement median was 1080.5 (993.2–11 pg/mL. In conclusion, there is a positive correlation between plasma apelin level and diastolic function (TDI (R=0.3445, p=0.014. There is no significant correlation between plasma apelin level and diastolic function using other criteria. In conclusion, apelin can be used for assessing symptoms and prognosis of heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction because apelin level is upregulated when pressure overload occurs with less fibrosis and down-regulated when pressure overload occurs with marked fibrosis.

  17. Decrease of blood pressure by community-based strategies / Descenso de la presión arterial por estrategias comunitarias

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Martín R., Salazar; Horacio A., Carbajal; Marcelo, Aizpurua; Beatriz, Riondet; Horacio F., Rodrigo; Valentín, Rechifort; Susana M., Quaini; Raúl F., Echeverria.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La ciudad de Rauch presentaba en 1997 alta prevalencia de hipertensión arterial (HA) y bajos niveles de tratamiento y control. Para evaluar el impacto de actividades de intervención comunitarias sobre la presión arterial (PA) reencuestamos en el año 2003 a una cohorte de 1526 habitantes de 15-75 año [...] s. Las actividades de intervención fueron el estudio inicial, la indicación de concurrir a su médico cuando se hallaban alteraciones, la provisión gratuita de antihipertensivos y la difusión por medios masivos de los resultados del estudio y de hábitos saludables de vida. La PA fue medida en el domicilio por enfermeras especialmente entrenadas, considerando PA sistólica y diastólica (PAS y PAD) a los promedios de tres registros en una ocasión. Se reencuestaron 1307 individuos (85.65%). La PAS descendió de 137.98 ± 0.57 a 132.49 ± 0.53 mm Hg (p Abstract in english In a cross section study performed in Rauch in 1997 we found a high prevalence of hypertension and low levels of treatment and control. To evaluate the impact of the community-based intervention activities on blood pressure (BP), we made a cohort study in 1526 inhabitants aged between 15 and 75 year [...] s in 2003. The initial study, the advice to consult the family doctor when alterations were found, the free provision of antihypertensive drugs, the press diffusion of the study results and a healthy lifestyle were included among the intervention activities. BP was measured in the subjects' residence by especially trained nurses, considering systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) as the average of three measurements in one occasion. A total of 1307 subjects (85.65%) were re-interviewed. SBP decreased from 137.98 ± 0.57 to 132.49 ± 0.53 mm Hg (p

  18. Diastolic dysfunction in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil M Dikshit

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Echocardiography is a sensitive method to investigate for diastolic dysfunction. There is a high prevalence of diastolic dysfunction in diabetes, which is an early marker of diabetic cardiomyopathy. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(3.000: 249-252

  19. Assessment of the changes in blood pressure circadian profile and variability in patients with chronic heart failure and arterial hypertension during combined therapy including ivabradine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Surovtseva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the changes in blood pressure (BP circadian profile and variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic etiology and arterial hypertension (HT due to the complex therapy including ivabradine.Material and methods. Patients (n=90 with CHF class II–III NYHA associated with stable angina II-III class and HT were examined. The patients were randomized into 3 groups depending on received drugs: perindopril and ivabradine - group 1; perindopril, bisoprolol and ivabradine - group 2; perindopril and bisoprolol - group 3. The duration of therapy was 6 months. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM was assessed at baseline and after treatment.Results. More significant reduction in average 24-hours systolic BP was found in groups 1 and 2 compared to group 3 (?%: -19.4±0,4; -21.1±0.4 and -11.8±0.6, respectively as well as diastolic BP (?%: -10.6±0.6; -12.9±0.4 and -4,3±0.3, respectively and other ABPM indicators. Improvement of BP circadian rhythm was found due to increase in the number of «Dipper» patients (p=0.016. More significant reduction in average daily and night systolic and diastolic BP (p=0.001, as well as daily and night BP variability (p=0.001 was also found in patients of group 2 compared to these of group 1.Conclusion. Moderate antihypertensive effect (in respect of both diastolic and systolic BP was shown when ivabradine was included into the complex therapy of patients with ischemic CHF and HT. The effect was more pronounced when ivabradine was combined with perindopril and bisoprolol. This was accompanied by reduction in high BP daily variability and improvement of the BP circadian rhythm.

  20. Low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm presenting with pulmonary embolism: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papoulidis Pavlos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pulmonary artery aneurysm is an uncommon disorder with severe complications. The diagnosis is often difficult, since the clinical manifestations are non-specific and the treatment is controversial, as the natural history of the disease is not completely understood. Case presentation We describe the cases of two patients with pulmonary artery aneurysms. The first patient was a 68-year-old Caucasian man with an idiopathic low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm together with a pulmonary embolism. The patient preferred a conservative approach and was stable at the 10-month follow-up visit after being placed on anti-coagulant treatment. The second patient was a 66-year-old Caucasian woman with a low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm also presented together with a pulmonary embolism. The aneurysm was secondary to pulmonary valve stenosis. She received anti-coagulants and, after stabilization, underwent percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty. Conclusion Pulmonary embolism may be the initial presentation of a low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm. No underlying cause for pulmonary embolism was found in either of our patients, suggesting a causal association with low-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm.

  1. Basis of monitoring central blood pressure and hemodynamic parameters by peripheral arterial pulse waveform analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Hiroshi; Katsuda, Shin-ichiro

    2013-01-01

    In hypertension clinics, central blood pressure (CBP) should be estimated, instead of directly measured, by the "signal processing" of a noninvasive peripheral pressure waveform. This paper deals with the data obtained in our three separate studies focusing on a major estimation method, i.e., radial artery late systolic shoulder pressure (rSBP2)-based CBP estimation. Study 1: Using a wave separation analysis of precise animal data of pressure wave transmission along the upper-limb arteries, we first demonstrate that pulse pressure amplification is largely attributable to local wave reflection alone. Study 2: A frequency component analysis of simultaneously recorded human central and radial artery pressure waveforms showed a predominance of lower (1st+2nd) harmonic components in determining the central augmentation peak amplitude. The features of a central pressure waveform, including its phase property, may contribute to the less-altered transmission of augmentation peak pressure to rSBP2. Study 3: Comparisons of noninvasive rSBP2 with direct or estimated central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) revealed broad agreement but also augmentation-dependent biases. Based on the features of the biases as well as the counterbalanced relationship between pulse pressure amplification and the transmission-induced alterations of augmentation peak amplitude observed in Study 2, we propose an improved cSBP estimate, SBPm, the simple arithmetic mean of rSBP2 and peripheral systolic blood pressure. PMID:24109664

  2. Protein losing enteropathy secondary to a pulmonary artery stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 2-year-old patient with hypoplastic left heart syndrome presented 6 months following Fontan completion with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE). He had undergone stent implantation in the left pulmonary artery after the Norwood procedure, followed by redilation of the stent prior to Fontan completion. Combined bronchoscopic and catheterization studies during spontaneous breathing confirmed left bronchial stenosis behind the stent, and diastolic systemic ventricular pressure during expiration of 25 mm Hg. We postulate that the stent acts as a valve, against which the patient generates high expiratory pressures, which are reflected in the ventricular diastolic pressure. This may be the cause of PLE

  3. Fibromuscular dysplasia of renal arteries: percutaneous revascularization based on hemodynamic assessment with a pressure measurement guidewire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Ehtisham; Brocato, Michele; Palakodeti, Vachaspathi; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2006-03-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) leading to renal artery stenosis and hypertension is one of the most common treatable causes of secondary hypertension. However, frequently it can be difficult to judge the anatomical severity of a stenotic lesion with various noninvasive and invasive imaging modalities. We present two patients with poorly controlled hypertension and FMD affecting the renal arteries, in whom there were no anatomically significant stenoses by renal magnetic resonance angiography or selective renal artery angiography. Utilizing a 0.014'' high fidelity micromanometer tipped PressureWire XT (Radi, Reading, MA), to measure intravascular pressure gradients throughout the diseased renal arteries, we identified physiologically significant stenoses, and successfully treated both patients with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. PMID:16475187

  4. Arterial dysfunction but maintained systemic blood pressure in cavin-1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swärd, Karl; Albinsson, Sebastian; Rippe, Catarina

    2014-01-01

    Caveolae are omega-shaped plasma membrane micro-domains that are abundant in cells of the vascular system. Formation of caveolae depends on caveolin-1 and cavin-1 and lack of either protein leads to loss of caveolae. Mice with caveolin-1 deficiency have dysfunctional blood vessels, but whether absence of cavin-1 similarly leads to vascular dysfunction is not known. Here we addressed this hypothesis using small mesenteric arteries from cavin-1-deficient mice. Cavin-1-reporter staining was intense in mesenteric arteries, brain arterioles and elsewhere in the vascular system, with positive staining of both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Arterial expression of cavin-1, -2 and -3 was reduced in knockout (KO) arteries as was expression of caveolin-1, -2 and -3. Caveolae were absent in the endothelial and smooth muscle layers of small mesenteric arteries as determined by electron microscopy. Arginase, a negative regulator of nitric oxide production, was elevated in cavin-1 deficient arteries as was contraction in response to the ?1-adrenergic agonist cirazoline. Detailed assessment of vascular dimensions revealed increased media thickness and reduced distensibility, arguing that enhanced contraction was due to increased muscle mass. Contrasting with increased ?1-adrenergic contraction, myogenic tone was essentially absent and this appeared to be due in part to increased nitric oxide production. Vasomotion was less frequent in the knock-out vessels. In keeping with the opposing influences on arterial resistance of increased agonist-induced contractility and reduced myogenic tone, arterial blood pressure was unchanged in vivo. We conclude that deficiency of cavin-1 affects the function of small arteries, but that opposing influences on arterial resistance balance each other such that systemic blood pressure in unstressed mice is well maintained. PMID:24658465

  5. Test of a novel miniature blood pressure sensor in the coronary arteries of a swine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Sun, Kai; Zou, Xiaotian; Barringhaus, Kurt; Wang, Xingwei

    2011-06-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) has proven to be very useful in diagnosis of narrowed coronary arteries. It is a technique that is used in coronary catheterization to measure blood pressure difference across a coronary artery stenosis in maximal flow. In-vivo blood pressure measurement is critical in FFR diagnosis. This paper presents a novel miniature all-optical fiber blood pressure sensor. It is based on Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometry principle. The FP cavity was fabricated by directly wet etching the fiber tip. Then, a diaphragm with well-controlled thickness was bonded to the end face of the fiber using the thermal bonding technique. Finally, the sensor was packaged with a bio-compatible and flexible coil for animal tests. A 25-50 kg Yorkshire swine model was introduced as the animal test target. The left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was exposed, and beyond the takeoff of the largest diagonal branch, a 3.0 mm vascular occluder was secured. Firstly, standard invasive manometry was used to obtain the blood pressure as baseline. Next, a guiding catheter was introduced into the ostium of the left main coronary artery, and the miniature blood pressure sensor was advanced into the LAD at a point beyond the vascular occlude. The blood pressure beyond the vascular occlude was recorded. The sensor successfully recorded the blood pressure at both near-end and far-end of the vascular occluder.

  6. Comment on: Serum cholesterol and LDL-C in association with level of diastolic blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasri Hamid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:Monitoring of blood pressure and serum lipids would be beneficial for diabetic patients in preventing the disease progression especially diabetic nephropathy in this population.

  7. Straight versus tortuous retinal arteries in relation to blood pressure and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, N C B B; Munch, I C; Sander, B; Kessel, L; Hougaard, J L; Kyvik, K; Sørensen, T I A; Larsen, M

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: To assess the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on retinal arterial tortuosity and the association between tortuosity and various health indices in healthy young to middle-aged persons. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 57 monozygotic and 52 dizygotic same-sex healthy twin pairs, aged 20 to 46 years, who were characterised by determination of retinal vessel diameters, arterial blood pressure, blood glucose, body mass index, smoking habits and ret...

  8. Nurse Home Visity with Educational Activities in the arterial pressure treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de Fátima Mantovani; Juliana Veiga Mottin; Juliana Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    This study aims: to compare the maintenance of the arterial pressure levels on Arterial Hypertension bearings, followed and monitored with educational activities in family (cases) or individualized (control), visited at home monthly and bimonthly respectively. 30 users enrolled in the Hyper tense Treatment Programme have been followed since October 2005, aged between 18 e 65 years old. The data analysis shows that, in the case group 64% kept the weight and the abdominal circumference and 29% ...

  9. Obese children and adolescents have elevated nighttime blood pressure independent of insulin resistance and arterial stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Kristian N; Olsen, Michael H; Holm, Jens-Christian; Ibsen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance has been related to elevated blood pressure (BP) in obese children and may adversely affect the vasculature by arterial stiffening. The objective was to investigate whether daytime and nighttime BP were elevated and related to insulin resistance and arterial stiffness in obese children and adolescents. METHODS: Ninety-two obese patients aged 10-18 years were compared with 49 healthy control individuals. Insulin resistance was measured as the homeostatic assessment ...

  10. The compliance of the porcine pulmonary artery depends on pressure and heart rate

    OpenAIRE

    Kornet, L.; Jansen, J.R.C.; Nijenhuis, F.C.A.M. te; Langewouters, G.J.; Versprille, A

    1998-01-01

    1. The influence of mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mean Ppa) on dynamic (Cd) and pseudo-static compliance (Cps) of the pulmonary artery was studied at a constant and a changing heart rate. Cd is the change in cross-sectional area (CSA) relative to the change in Ppa throughout a heart cycle. Cps is the change in mean CSA relative to the change in mean Ppa. If Cd is known, pulmonary blood flow can be computed from the Ppa ...

  11. The giraffe kidney tolerates high arterial blood pressure by high renal interstitial pressure and low glomerular filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Wang, T; Brøndum, E; Østergaard, Kristine Hovkjær; Baandrup, Ulrik; Hørlyck, A; Hasenkam, J M; Smerup, Morten Holdgaard; Funder, J; Marcussen, Niels; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Grøndahl, Carsten; Pedersen, Michael; Agger, P; Candy, G; Aalkjær, Christian; Bie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The tallest animal on earth, the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is endowed with a mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) twice that of other mammals. The kidneys reside at heart level and show no sign of hypertension-related damage. We hypothesized that a species-specific evolutionary...

  12. Pressão arterial elevada em adolescentes: prevalência e fatores associados / High blood pressure in adolescents: prevalence and associated factors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diego Augusto Santos, Silva; Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de, Lima; Rodolfo André, Dellagrana; Eliane Denise Araújo, Bacil; Cassiano Ricardo, Rech.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar a prevalência e os fatores associados à pressão arterial (PA) elevada em adolescentes de um município Brasileiro. Estudo transversal, conduzido em 653 adolescentes (57,9% do sexo feminino) de 14 a 19 anos de idade, estudantes do ensino médio. A Pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) [...] e a diastólica (PAD) foram mensuradas em todos os sujeitos. Variáveis sociodemográficas, do estilo de vida e índice de massa corporal foram obtidas. Regressão logística binária, bruta e ajustada, foi empregada com nível de significância de 5%. A média da PAS e PAD foi de 111,9 mmHg e 69,9 mmHg, respectivamente. A prevalência de PA elevada foi de 12,4%. Na análise multivariável foi identificado que jovens do sexo masculino (OR: 2,37; IC95%: 1,45-3,90), com escolaridade materna de até oito anos (OR: 1,84; IC95%: 1,03-3,30) e com excesso de peso (OR: 3,79; IC95%: 2,23-6,43), apresentaram maiores chances de PA elevada. O termo de interação entre sexo masculino e excesso de peso representou o subgrupo com maiores chances de PA elevada (OR: 6,41; IC95%: 3,00-13,16). Níveis pressóricos elevados acometem adolescentes da cidade de Ponta Grossa, Paraná, e os grupos com maiores chances de PA elevada foram os do sexo masculino, com escolaridade materna baixa e com excesso de peso. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of high Blood Pressure (BP) among adolescents in a Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 653 adolescents (57.9% female) of high school level between 14 and 19 years of age. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) an [...] d diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of all subjects were measured. Social and demographic variables and lifestyle factors and body mass index were obtained. Binary logistic regression, crude and adjusted, was employed with a significance level of 5%. The mean SBP and DBP were 111.9 mmHg and 69.9 mmHg, respectively. The prevalence of high BP levels was 12.4%. The multivariable analysis revealed that males (OR: 2.37, 95% CI: 1.45, 3.90), adolescents with maternal education

  13. Dietary sodium and arterial blood pressure: evidence against genetic susceptibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, G. C.; Foy, C. J.; Hart, J T; Bingham, G.; Edwards, C.; Hart, M; Thomas, E(European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland); Walton, P.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty five subjects with both parents in the top third of their age specific blood pressure distributions and 31 subjects with both parents in the bottom third of their blood pressure distributions restricted their intake of sodium for eight weeks while taking part in a double blind, randomised crossover trial of supplements of sodium and placebo. A comparison of two periods of four weeks at different intakes of sodium showed no differences in blood pressure in either the groups as a whole o...

  14. Contexto, percepción de la situación económica y cifras de la tensión arterial / Context, perception of the economic situation and blood pressure figures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Georgia, Díaz-Perera Fernández; Jorge, Bacallao Gallestey; Eduardo, Alemañy Pérez.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: todas las actividades humanas están influenciadas por un contexto, y cualquier atributo, característica o indicador está condicionado por este. La percepción de la situación económica es una de las variables que se ha estudiado en el contexto de la epidemiologia social en las investiga [...] ciones que valoran la autoeficacia y las expectativas de resultados vinculadas con la salud. La hipertensión constituye uno de los factores de riesgo para las enfermedades del corazón. Objetivos: estimar la influencia de la percepción de la situación económica por policlínicos sobre las cifras de tensión arterial. Métodos: estudio descriptivo mediante un muestreo probabilístico de las familias en 12 consultorios del médico y la enfermera de la familia, pertenecientes a siete policlínicos de La Habana. Se recogieron variables como la edad, valoración individual de la percepción de la situación económica. Se empleó como escala de valoración: 1. Excelente, 2. Buena, 3. Regular, 4. Mala y 5. Muy Mala. Se realizaron mediciones individuales (adultos entrevistados) resultantes del examen físico y antropométrico: peso, talla, índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de la cintura y tensión arterial. Resultados: se encontró que los que aprecian que su condición económica es mala o muy mala tienen más alta densidades de hipertensos en las familias. Existe un claro gradiente de la tensión arterial sistólica y diastólica según percepción de la situación económica. Según va empeorando la percepción de la situación económica los valores estandarizados de la tensión arterial van aumentando, sin embargo, por policlínicos se aprecia que las trayectorias de la tensión arterial sistólica y diastólica no son paralelas. Conclusiones: el patrón de asociaciones entre ciertos factores individuales y las cifras de tensión arterial cambiaron de un policlínico a otro. Se pone de manifiesto la modulación de efecto que ejerce el contexto sobre el impacto de los factores individuales y la necesidad de incluir la percepción de la condición económica como correlato de las condiciones de salud en futuros estudios epidemiológicos. Abstract in english Introduction: all human activities occur in a context. Attributes, characteristics and indicators are conditioned by their context. Perception of the economic situation is one of the social epidemiology variables used in research about the self-efficacy and expectations of health outcomes. Hypertens [...] ion is a risk factor for heart disease. Objectives: estimate the influence of perception of the economic situation by polyclinics upon blood pressure figures. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted based on probabilistic sampling of the families in 12 family doctor's and nurse's consultation offices from seven polyclinics in Havana. The variables analyzed were age and individual assessment of the perception of the economic situation. The following assessment scale was used: 1. Excellent, 2. Good, 3. Fair, 4. Bad and 5. Very Bad. During the physical and anthropometric examination of the adults surveyed, the following measurements were taken: weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure. Results: a higher number of hypertensives was found in families that perceive their economic situation as bad or very bad. There is a clear relationship between perception of the economic situation and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Standardized blood pressure values rise as perception of the economic situation worsens. However, as viewed by polyclinics, systolic and diastolic blood pressure trajectories are not parallel. Conclusions: the pattern of association between certain individual factors and blood pressure figures varies between polyclinics. A modulation effect is exerted by the context upon the impact of individual factors. Perception of the economic situation should be included as a correlate of health conditions in future epidemiological studies.

  15. Velocidade da onda de pulso, pressão arterial e adipocitocinas em adultos jovens: estudo do Rio de Janeiro / Pulse wave velocity, blood pressure and adipocytokines in young adults: the Rio de Janeiro study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oswaldo Luiz, Pizzi; Andréa Araujo, Brandão; Roberto, Pozzan; Maria Eliane Campos, Magalhães; Erika Maria Gonçalves, Campana; Flavia Lopes, Fonseca; Elizabete Viana de, Freitas; Ayrton Pires, Brandão.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Dados sobre a avaliação não invasiva vascular e suas relações com variáveis de risco cardiovascular são escassos em jovens. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre a velocidade de onda de pulso e a pressão arterial,variáveis antropométricas e metabólicas, incluindo as adipocitocinas, em indiví [...] duos adultos jovens. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 96 indivíduos (51 homens) do estudo do Rio de Janeiro, de 26 a 35 anos (média 30,09 ± 1,92). Foram obtidos a velocidade de onda de pulso (método Complior), pressão arterial, índice de massa corporal, glicose, perfil lipídico, leptina, insulina, adiponectina e o índice de resistência à insulina HOMA-IR. Os indivíduos foram estratificados em três grupos segundo o tercil da VOP para cada sexo. RESULTADOS: O grupo com maior tercil de VOP mostrou maiores médias de pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica, pressão arterial média, índice de massa corporal, insulina, HOMA-IR e menores médias de adiponectina, além de maiores prevalências de diabetes mellitus/intolerância à glicose e hiperinsulinemia. Houve correlação significativa e positiva da velocidade da onda de pulso com pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica, pressão de pulso e pressão arterial média, índice de massa corporal, e LDL-colesterol e negativa com HDL-colesterol e adiponectina. Em modelo de regressão múltipla, após ajuste do HDL-colesterol, LDL-colesterol e adiponectina para sexo, idade, índice de massa corporal e pressão arterial média, apenas o sexo masculino e a pressão arterial média mantiveram correlação significativa com a velocidade de onda de pulso. CONCLUSÃO: A velocidade de onda de pulso em adultos jovens mostrou relação significativa com variáveis de risco cardiovascular, destacando-se o sexo masculino e a pressão arterial média como importantes variáveis no seu determinismo. Os achados sugerem que a medida da VOP pode ser útil para a identificação do acometimento vascular nessa faixa etária. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Data on noninvasive vascular assessment and their association with cardiovascular risk variables are scarce in young individuals. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between pulse wave velocity and blood pressure, anthropometric and metabolic variables, including adipocytokines, in yo [...] ung adults. METHODS: A total of 96 individuals aged 26 to 35 years (mean 30.09 ± 1.92; 51 males) were assessed in the Rio de Janeiro study. Pulse wave velocity (Complior method), blood pressure, body mass index, glucose, lipid profile, leptin, insulin, adiponectin and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were analyzed. Subjects were stratified into three groups according to the PWV tertile for each gender. RESULTS: The group with the highest pulse wave velocity (PWV) tertile showed higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, body mass index, insulin, and HOMA-IR, as well as lower mean adiponectin; higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus/glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. There was a significant positive correlation of PWV with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean blood pressure, body mass index, and LDL-cholesterol, and a negative correlation with HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin. In the multiple regression model, after adjustment of HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and adiponectin for gender, age, body mass index and mean blood pressure, only the male gender and mean blood pressure remained significantly correlated with PWV. CONCLUSION: PWV in young adults showed a significant association with cardiovascular risk variables, especially in the male gender, and mean blood pressure as important determinant variables. The findings suggest that PWV measurement can be useful for the identification of vascular impairment in this age group.

  16. Variação da Pressão Arterial em Usuárias de Terapia de Reposição Hormonal Variation of Blood Pressure in Users of Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alaércio de Toledo Lima-Junior

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar os efeitos da terapia de reposição hormonal sobre a pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica de mulheres na pós-menopausa. Casuística e Métodos: foram avaliadas retrospectivamente 166 usuárias e 136 não-usuárias de reposição hormonal, acompanhadas no Ambulatório de Menopausa do Centro de Atenção Integral à Saúde da Mulher da Universidade Estadual de Campinas por um período de três anos. Avaliamos a variação desses parâmetros em relação aos valores iniciais. A análise dos dados foi realizada usando-se o teste t de Student, o Teste de Mann-Whitney e o teste não-paramétrico de Wilcoxon. Resultados: observou-se que a pressão arterial sistólica das usuárias de terapia de reposição hormonal foi menor ao final do terceiro ano de uso quando comparada com os valores iniciais (p = 0,01. Não houve diferença significativa na pressão arterial diastólica entre as usuárias e as não-usuárias. Conclusão: a terapia de reposição hormonal não produziu alterações nos parâmetros estudados em mulheres adequadamente acompanhadas durante o seu uso.Purpose: to evaluate the effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT on the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of postmenopausal women. Methods: a total of 166 users and 136 non-users of hormone replacement were evaluated retrospectively during a period of three years. All women were assisted at the Menopause Outpatient Clinic of CAISM -- Unicamp, where the variations of these parameters were evaluated at the end of each year in relation to the initial parameters. The data analysis was performed through Student's t test, Mann-Whitney test, and the Wilcoxon nonparametric test. Results: we observed that the systolic blood pressure of HRT users was statistically lower at the end of the third year of use, compared to the initial values (p = 0.01. There was no significant difference in the diastolic blood pressure between users and non-users. Conclusion: hormone replacement therapy did not produce changes in the parameters studied in women properly assisted during the use of HRT.

  17. Pressure and flow in arterial aneurysms simulated in mathematical models

    OpenAIRE

    Wille, Sven Ø.

    1981-01-01

    In this work pressure and flow patterns inside two kinds of axis symmetric aneurysms are presented under steady flow conditions. The results are obtained by solving the axi-symmetric formulation of the non-linear Navier-Stokes equations.

  18. Arterial blood pressure of term newborns during the first week of life

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.C.V.A., Nascimento; C.C., Xavier; E.M.A., Goulart.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The progressive behavior of the blood pressure of term newborns during the first week of life was assessed by the simultaneous use of oscillometric and Doppler methods. A total of 174 term neonates born at the Municipal Hospital Odilon Behrens in Belo Horizonte, from March 1996 to February 1997, wer [...] e prospectively assessed. The oscillometric and Doppler ultrasonic methods were simultaneously used for four consecutive recordings obtained at 12 ± 6, 24 ± 6 and 72 ± 24 h and on the 7th ± 1 day of life. The combined use of the two methods simplified the procedure, with automatic cuff inflation and deflation, and speed was properly controlled with an automatic pressure monitor. The procedure was performed using a Y-connection to the mercury sphygmomanometer, with blood pressure being recorded with an automatic device and systolic blood pressure being measured simultaneously by Doppler ultrasound. The newborns were awake, not crying and in the supine position. A statistically significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed between the first and second, and the third and fourth measurements by Doppler and oscillometric methods. No significant correlation between birth weight, length, ponderal index and blood pressure was observed. The technique used represents a simpler and more accurate procedure for blood pressure measurement.

  19. An Ultra Miniature MEMS Capacitor for Arterial Pressure Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monga, A.; Vig, R.

    2012-12-01

    In biomedical field, there is a need for improving medical technologies to provide accurate diagnosis to patients. The objective is to develop a minimally invasive, implantable, pressure sensing system that continuously monitors physiological changes in real-time. For implementing, three different shapes of MEMS capacitive pressure sensor having same area of diaphragm 0.126 mm² is designed and simulated for blood pressure measurement. The various shapes which are taken are circular, square and rectangular. COMSOL multiphysics tool is used for simulation. For these shapes capacitance and deflection variation of membrane with applied pressure is studied. Result shows a sensitivity of 0.255 aF/kPa, 0.125 aF/kPa and 0.09 aF/kPa for circular, square and rectangular shape, respectively. So, circular MEMS capacitor provides the greater sensitivity than all other shapes and also provides greater deflection of diaphragm due to applied pressure of 40 kPa. Also deflection is more in circular diaphragm capacitive pressure sensor.

  20. Consumo de fibra dietética, sodio, potasio y calcio y su relación con la presión arterial en hombres adultos normotensos Dietary fiber, energy, sodium, potassium and calcium intake and its relationship to blood pressure in normotensive male adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nydia Ballesteros-Vásquez

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto del consumo de fibra dietética, energía, sodio, potasio y calcio sobre la presión arterial de un grupo de adultos normotensos, tomando en cuenta indicadores tales como la edad, el sexo, la actividad física y la obesidad. Material y métodos. Se evaluaron 38 sujetos del sexo masculino de 30 a 45 años de edad, normotensos, aparentemente sanos y residentes de la ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, México. Se midió la presión arterial y se realizó una evaluación dietética, antropométrica y de actividad física. Resultados. La dieta resultó ser alta en fibra y en grasa. El sodio estaba 56% por arriba de la recomendación en 87% de los casos y fue la variable que más efecto mostró sobre la presión diastólica. De los sujetos estudiados, 36.9% tenían sobrepeso y obesidad, y se encontró una asociación significativa entre el índice de masa corporal y la presión diastólica y sistólica. Conclusiones. Existe una asociación significativa entre la hipertensión arterial y el alto consumo de sodio, el sobrepeso y la obesidad en sujetos normotensos.Objective. To evaluate the effect of dietary fiber, energy, sodium, calcium and potassium intake on the blood pressure of a group of normotensive adults. Material and methods. Subjects were 38 healthy normotensive adult males aged 30-45 years, resident of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Blood pressure, diet, anthropometric data and physical activity were recorded. Results. Their diet was high in fiber and fat. Sodium intake was 56% above the recommended values in 87% of the subjects, and the variable with the highest correlation to diastolic blood pressure. Of the subjects, 36.9% were overweight and obese, and a significant statistic association was found between BMI and diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Conclusions. A significant relationship was found between hypertension and high consumption of sodium, overweight and obesity in healthy adult normotensive males.

  1. Consumo de fibra dietética, sodio, potasio y calcio y su relación con la presión arterial en hombres adultos normotensos / Dietary fiber, energy, sodium, potassium and calcium intake and its relationship to blood pressure in normotensive male adults

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Martha Nydia, Ballesteros-Vásquez; Rosa María, Cabrera-Pacheco; María del Socorro, Saucedo-Tamayo; María Isabel, Grijalva-Haro.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto del consumo de fibra dietética, energía, sodio, potasio y calcio sobre la presión arterial de un grupo de adultos normotensos, tomando en cuenta indicadores tales como la edad, el sexo, la actividad física y la obesidad. Material y métodos. Se evaluaron 38 sujetos del sex [...] o masculino de 30 a 45 años de edad, normotensos, aparentemente sanos y residentes de la ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, México. Se midió la presión arterial y se realizó una evaluación dietética, antropométrica y de actividad física. Resultados. La dieta resultó ser alta en fibra y en grasa. El sodio estaba 56% por arriba de la recomendación en 87% de los casos y fue la variable que más efecto mostró sobre la presión diastólica. De los sujetos estudiados, 36.9% tenían sobrepeso y obesidad, y se encontró una asociación significativa entre el índice de masa corporal y la presión diastólica y sistólica. Conclusiones. Existe una asociación significativa entre la hipertensión arterial y el alto consumo de sodio, el sobrepeso y la obesidad en sujetos normotensos. Abstract in english Objective. To evaluate the effect of dietary fiber, energy, sodium, calcium and potassium intake on the blood pressure of a group of normotensive adults. Material and methods. Subjects were 38 healthy normotensive adult males aged 30-45 years, resident of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Blood pressure, [...] diet, anthropometric data and physical activity were recorded. Results. Their diet was high in fiber and fat. Sodium intake was 56% above the recommended values in 87% of the subjects, and the variable with the highest correlation to diastolic blood pressure. Of the subjects, 36.9% were overweight and obese, and a significant statistic association was found between BMI and diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Conclusions. A significant relationship was found between hypertension and high consumption of sodium, overweight and obesity in healthy adult normotensive males.

  2. Relationship between pulmonary artery volumes at computed tomography and pulmonary artery pressures in patients with- and without pulmonary hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froelich, Jens J. [Department of Radiology, Philipps-University Hospital, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany)], E-mail: jens.froelich@klinikum-hef.de; Koenig, Helmut [Department of Radiology, Philipps-University Hospital, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany)], E-mail: helmut.koenig@siemens.com; Knaak, Lennard [Department of Medicine, Philipps-University Hospital, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany)], E-mail: froehlic@staff.uni-marburg.de; Krass, Stefan [MeVis Research, Universitaetsallee 29, 28359 Bremen (Germany)], E-mail: krass@mevis.de; Klose, Klaus J. [Department of Radiology, Philipps-University Hospital, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany)], E-mail: klose@med.uni-marburg.de

    2008-09-15

    Objectives: This study was designed to determine the relationship between pulmonary artery (PA) volumes at computed tomography (CT) and PA pressures at right-sided heart catheterization in patients with and without pulmonary hypertension (PAH) to develop a noninvasive CT method of PA pressure quantification. Materials and methods: Sixteen patients with chronic sleep apnea syndrome underwent contrast enhanced helical CT (slice thickness 3 mm; pitch 2; increment 2 mm) at inspiration. Eight patients had PAH while cardiopulmonary disease has been excluded in eight other patients. Vascular volumes were determined using a 3D technique (threshold seeded vascular tracing algorithm; thresholds -600 H [lower] and 3000 H [upper]). Right-sided heart catheterization measurements were available for linear regression analysis of PA volumes and pressures. Results: Correlation between PA pressures and volumes (normalized for BMI), was high in both groups (without PAH: r = .85; with PAH .90, Pearson). Compared to elevated PA pressures in patients with pulmonary hypertension (p < .005), PA volumes also were significantly increased (p < .05) among the groups. Conclusions: High correlation was found between PA volumes and mean PA pressures in patients with- and without PAH. Significant differences in PA volumes at CT-volumetry may admit non-invasive determination of pulmonary hypertension.

  3. Relationship between pulmonary artery volumes at computed tomography and pulmonary artery pressures in patients with- and without pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: This study was designed to determine the relationship between pulmonary artery (PA) volumes at computed tomography (CT) and PA pressures at right-sided heart catheterization in patients with and without pulmonary hypertension (PAH) to develop a noninvasive CT method of PA pressure quantification. Materials and methods: Sixteen patients with chronic sleep apnea syndrome underwent contrast enhanced helical CT (slice thickness 3 mm; pitch 2; increment 2 mm) at inspiration. Eight patients had PAH while cardiopulmonary disease has been excluded in eight other patients. Vascular volumes were determined using a 3D technique (threshold seeded vascular tracing algorithm; thresholds -600 H [lower] and 3000 H [upper]). Right-sided heart catheterization measurements were available for linear regression analysis of PA volumes and pressures. Results: Correlation between PA pressures and volumes (normalized for BMI), was high in both groups (without PAH: r = .85; with PAH .90, Pearson). Compared to elevated PA pressures in patients with pulmonary hypertension (p < .005), PA volumes also were significantly increased (p < .05) among the groups. Conclusions: High correlation was found between PA volumes and mean PA pressures in patients with- and without PAH. Significant differences in PA volumes at CT-volumetry may admit non-invasive determination of pulmonary hypertension

  4. Brachial artery vasomotion and transducer pressure effect on measurements by active contour segmentation on ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To use feed-forward active contours (snakes) to track and measure brachial artery vasomotion on ultrasound images recorded in both transverse and longitudinal views; and to compare the algorithm's performance in each view. Methods: Longitudinal and transverse view ultrasound image sequences of 45 brachial arteries were segmented by feed-forward active contour (FFAC). The segmented regions were used to measure vasomotion artery diameter, cross-sectional area, and distention both as peak-to-peak diameter and as area. ECG waveforms were also simultaneously extracted frame-by-frame by thresholding a running finite-difference image between consecutive images. The arterial and ECG waveforms were compared as they traced each phase of the cardiac cycle. Results: FFAC successfully segmented arteries in longitudinal and transverse views in all 45 cases. The automated analysis took significantly less time than manual tracing, but produced superior, well-behaved arterial waveforms. Automated arterial measurements also had lower interobserver variability as measured by correlation, difference in mean values, and coefficient of variation. Although FFAC successfully segmented both the longitudinal and transverse images, transverse measurements were less variable. The cross-sectional area computed from the longitudinal images was 27% lower than the area measured from transverse images, possibly due to the compression of the artery along the image depth by transducer pressure. Conclusions: FFAC is a robust and sensitive vasomotion segmentation algorithm in both transverse and longitudinal views. Transverse imaging may offer advantages over longitudinal imaging: transverse measurements are more consistent, possibly because the method is less sensitive to variations in transducer pressure during imaging

  5. Brachial artery vasomotion and transducer pressure effect on measurements by active contour segmentation on ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Theodore W.; Sultan, Laith R.; Sehgal, Chandra M., E-mail: sehgalc@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Reamer, Courtney B.; Mohler, Emile R. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Section of Vascular Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To use feed-forward active contours (snakes) to track and measure brachial artery vasomotion on ultrasound images recorded in both transverse and longitudinal views; and to compare the algorithm's performance in each view. Methods: Longitudinal and transverse view ultrasound image sequences of 45 brachial arteries were segmented by feed-forward active contour (FFAC). The segmented regions were used to measure vasomotion artery diameter, cross-sectional area, and distention both as peak-to-peak diameter and as area. ECG waveforms were also simultaneously extracted frame-by-frame by thresholding a running finite-difference image between consecutive images. The arterial and ECG waveforms were compared as they traced each phase of the cardiac cycle. Results: FFAC successfully segmented arteries in longitudinal and transverse views in all 45 cases. The automated analysis took significantly less time than manual tracing, but produced superior, well-behaved arterial waveforms. Automated arterial measurements also had lower interobserver variability as measured by correlation, difference in mean values, and coefficient of variation. Although FFAC successfully segmented both the longitudinal and transverse images, transverse measurements were less variable. The cross-sectional area computed from the longitudinal images was 27% lower than the area measured from transverse images, possibly due to the compression of the artery along the image depth by transducer pressure. Conclusions: FFAC is a robust and sensitive vasomotion segmentation algorithm in both transverse and longitudinal views. Transverse imaging may offer advantages over longitudinal imaging: transverse measurements are more consistent, possibly because the method is less sensitive to variations in transducer pressure during imaging.

  6. The origin of mean arterial and jugular venous blood pressures in giraffes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Graham; Maloney, Shane K; Mitchell, Duncan; Keegan, D James

    2006-07-01

    Using a mechanical model of the giraffe neck and head circulation consisting of a rigid, ascending, 'carotid' limb, a 'cranial' circulation that could be rigid or collapsible, and a descending, 'jugular' limb that also could be rigid or collapsible, we have analyzed the origin of the high arterial and venous pressures in giraffe, and whether blood flow is assisted by a siphon. When the tubes were rigid and the 'jugular' limb exit was lower than the 'carotid' limb entrance a siphon operated, 'carotid' hydrostatic pressures became more negative, and flow was 3.3 l min(-1) but ceased when the 'cranial' and 'jugular' limbs were collapsible or when the 'jugular' limb was opened to the atmosphere. Pumping water through the model produced positive pressures in the 'carotid' limb similar to those found in giraffe. Applying an external 'tissue' pressure to the 'jugular' tube during pump flow produced the typical pressures found in the jugular vein in giraffe. Constriction of the lowest, 'jugular cuff', portion of the 'jugular' limb showed that the cuff may augment the orthostatic reflex during head raising. Except when all tubes were rigid, pressures were unaffected by a siphon. We conclude that mean arterial blood pressure in giraffes is a consequence of the hydrostatic pressure generated by the column of blood in the neck, that tissue pressure around the collapsible jugular vein produces the known jugular pressures, and that a siphon does not assist flow through the cranial circulation. PMID:16788035

  7. Interpretación de la relación presión-flujo en la hipertensión arterial pulmonar idiopática / Pressure-flow relationships interpretation in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eulo, Lupi-Herrera; Luis Efren, Santos-Martínez; Tomás, Pulido; Julio, Sandoval.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conocer más de la relación presión arterial pulmonar media/índice cardiaco y sus perfiles en enfermos con hipertensión arterial pulmonar idiopática. Métodos: La presión arterial pulmonar media/índice cardiaco y la presión extrapolada al eje de cero flujo se obtuvo en 40 enfermos respirando [...] aire ambiente, oxígeno 99.5% e hidralazina. Se obtuvieron dos grupos de acuerdo a criterios de "respuesta vasodilatadora aguda", respondedores (n = 20) y no respondedores (n = 20). Se analizó este criterio versus el propuesto por la Task Force de la Sociedad Europea de Cardiología en la población respondedora. Resultados: La presión arterial pulmonar media/Índice cardiaco se ubicó de forma anormal en el diagrama de presión-flujo de la cohorte total, (p Abstract in english Objectives: We analyze exercise-derived mean pulmonary artery pressure/cardiac index relationship to expand the concepts regarding its nature and to better identify "responders" in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension patients. Methods: Mean pulmonary artery pressure/cardiac index relationship [...] and extrapolated pressure to zero flow were obtained in 40 patients' breathing room air, oxygen 99.5% and hydralazine. The hemodynamic characteristics were analyzed for the cohort and separate for responders (n = 20) and non responders (n = 20) according to the acute response to vasodilator. We tested this previous criteria versus the Task Force on diagnosis and treatment prescribed by the European Society of Cardiology. Results: The mean pulmonary arterial pressure/cardiac index was located abnormally in the pressure-flow diagram of the total cohort (p 40 mmHg mean pulmonary arterial pressure. Pressures were 34 ± 3 vs. 45 ± 4 mm Hg and slopes 1.14 (95% CI: 0.67 - 1.61) vs. 2.22(95% CI: 1.35 - 3.09) mm Hg/L min/m², p

  8. Metabólitos séricos da vitamina D não se correlacionam com pressão arterial em adolescentes There are no association between vitamin D metabolites and blood pressure in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Santarosa Emo Peters

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a associação entre o estado nutricional da vitamina D, a adiposidade e a pressão arterial (PA em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada avaliação antropométrica, da composição corporal, da ingestão alimentar, de medidas bioquímicas e aferição da PA de 205 adolescentes, com média de idade de 18,2 anos. RESULTADOS: Destes, 12,19% apresentaram PA elevada. O nível sérico médio da 25OHD foi 29,2(0,8 ng/mL, e 62% dos adolescentes apresentaram insuficiência de vitamina D. Não foi encontrada correlação significativa entre a PAS e a PAD com a 25OHD e a 1,25(OH2D. Houve correlação negativa entre a PAD com os níveis séricos de adiponectina, e tanto a PAS quanto a PAD apresentaram correlação positiva com a circunferência da cintura em ambos os sexos. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve relação entre os níveis séricos de vitamina D e a PA. Porém, a gordura visceral apresenta risco potencial para elevação da PA em adolescentes.OBJETIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between serum levels of vitamin D and blood pressure (BP in adolescents. METHODS: The anthropometric measurements, body composition, dietary intake, blood pressure and biochemical measurements was undertaken. RESULTS: Two hundred and five adolescents, 106 boys and 99 girls, mean aged 18.2 years old, participate of the study. Elevated BP was observed in 12.19% of the adolescents. Mean 25OHD concentration was 29.2(0.8 ng/mL. Vitamin D insufficiency was observed in 62% of adolescents. There were no correlation between systolic and diastolic BP with 25OHD and 1,25(OH2D concentration. An inverse correlation between adiponectin and diastolic BP was observed and positive significant correlation was observed between waist circumference with systolic and diastolic BP in both boys and in girls. In conclusion, no relationships between vitamin D levels and blood pressure were observed. CONCLUSION: However, the intra-abdominal adiposity offers potential risk to BP elevation in adolescents.

  9. Noxious Stimulation Reduces Blood Pressure But Not Flow in the Internal Carotid Artery as Measured in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Oi, Kumiko; Yamada, Yoshiaki

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine effects on blood flow by alteration of blood pressure resulting from noxious stimuli. The experiment was carried out in anesthetized and paralyzed rabbits. Blood pressure was measured through a teflon catheter inserted in the common carotid artery (CCA). Blood flow at the CCA, internal carotid artery (ICA), or external carotid artery (ECA) was measured using an electromagnetic flowmeter placed at the CCA. The effects of pinching and electrical stimuli ...

  10. Effects of an exercise program on blood pressure in patients with treated hypertension and chronic Chagas' heart disease / Efeitos de um programa de exercícios na pressão arterial de pacientes com hipertensão controlada e cardiopatia chagásica crônica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia Rosa de, Oliveira; Andréa Silvestre de, Sousa; Bráulio, Santos; Paloma Hargreaves, Fialho; Carla Cristiane Soares dos, Santos; Juliana Rega de, Oliveira; Marcus Vinícius, Souza.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos prévios descrevem um desequilíbrio do sistema nervoso autônomo na doença de Chagas causando maior atividade simpática, o que poderia influenciar na gênese da hipertensão arterial. No entanto, pacientes submetidos a exercícios físicos regulares poderiam contrapor esta condição, vi [...] sto que o exercício provoca respostas fisiológicas através de adaptações autonômicas e hemodinâmicas que influenciam positivamente o sistema cardiovascular. O presente estudo se propõe a avaliar os efeitos da reabilitação cardíaca sobre a pressão arterial em pacientes hipertensos com cardiopatia chagásica crônica. MÉTODOS: Foram recrutados 17 pacientes submetidos a um programa regular de exercícios durante 24 semanas, sendo utilizado monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial (MAPA) antes e após o treinamento. Foi descrita a diferença da pressão arterial sistólica (PAS), pressão arterial diastólica (PAD) e pressão arterial média (PAM) do início ao fim estudo. RESULTADOS: As pressões foram avaliadas de forma geral e nos períodos de vigília e sono, respectivamente: PAS (p=0,34; 0,23; 0,85), PAD (p=0,46; 0,44; 0,94) e PAM (p=0,41; 0,30; 0,97). CONCLUSÕES: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na variação da pressão arterial após o período de reabilitação cardíaca de 24 semanas, no entanto, evidenciamos que o treinamento físico é seguro em pacientes com cardiopatia chagásica crônica, não ocorrendo aumento da pressão arterial. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Previous studies describe an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system in Chagas' disease causing increased sympathetic activity, which could influence the genesis of hypertension. However, patients undergoing regular physical exercise could counteract this condition, considering that [...] exercise causes physiological responses through autonomic and hemodynamic changes that positively affect the cardiovascular system. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an exercise program on blood pressure in hypertensive patients with chronic Chagas' heart disease. METHODS: We recruited 17 patients to a 24-week regular exercise program and used ambulatory blood pressure monitoring before and after training. We determined the differences in the systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean blood pressure (MBP) from the beginning to the end of the study. RESULTS: The blood pressures were evaluated in general and during periods of wakefulness and sleep, respectively: SBP (p = 0.34; 0.23; 0.85), DBP (p = 0.46; 0.44; 0.94) and MBP (p = 0.41; 0.30; 0.97). CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistically significant change in blood pressure after the 24-week exercise program; however, we concluded that physical training is safe for patients with chronic Chagas' disease, with no incidence of increase in blood pressure.

  11. EFFECT OF MORNING AND EVENING RAMIPRIL TAKING ON AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE PROFILE IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Gorbunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare antihypertensive effect of ramipril monotherapy at morning and evening taking.Material and methods. 22 patients (10 men, 12 women; aged 62,1±1,9 y.o. with arterial hypertension of 1-2 stage were involved into the open randomized crossover study. Patients were randomized into 2 groups depending on ramipril taking time (morning or evening. Ambulatory blood pressure (BP monitoring (ABPM was performed. Patients of both groups were comparable in basic clinical characteristics and initial ABPM indices. Analysis of peak and phase characteristics of 24 hour BP profile was used as well as standard evaluation. Treatment duration was 3 weeks. Ramipril dose titration was made in 1,5 weeks. The average daily dose of ramipril was 6,1 mg in the morning taking, and 5,0 mg in the evening taking.Results. 20 patients finished study completely. 24 hour initial level of systolic (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP was 141,5±1,6/85,3±1,1 mm Hg. After ramipril monotherapy with evening taking BP reduced to 132,6±1,6/79,8±1,1 mm Hg (p<0,001 and with morning taking – to 131,8±1,6/79,2±1,1 mm Hg (p<0,001. Evening ramipril taking led to significant improvement of 24 hour BP profile. Night SBP/DBP reduction became deeper from 7,7±1,2/11,5±1,3% to 12,5±1,2/19,1±1,3 % (p<0,01. Morning taking did not have significant influence on these indices. Ramipril did not result in clinically significant hypotension including night one.Conclusion. Evening ramipril taking is effective and safe. It can be recommended to patients with insufficient night BP dipping (non dippers. 

  12. Heterozygous disruption of activin receptor-like kinase 1 is associated with increased arterial pressure in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Núñez, María; Riolobos, Adela S.; Castellano, Orlando; Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; de los Ángeles Sevilla, María; Oujo, Bárbara; Pericacho, Miguel; Cruz-Gonzalez, Ignacio; Pérez-Barriocanal, Fernando; ten Dijke, Peter; López-Novoa, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK-1) is a type I cell-surface receptor for the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) family of proteins. Hypertension is related to TGF-?1, because increased TGF-?1 expression is correlated with an elevation in arterial pressure (AP) and TGF-? expression is upregulated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of ALK-1 in regulation of AP using Alk1 haploinsufficient mice (Alk1+/?). We observed that systolic and diastolic AP were significantly higher in Alk1+/? than in Alk1+/+ mice, and all functional and structural cardiac parameters (echocardiography and electrocardiography) were similar in both groups. Alk1+/? mice showed alterations in the circadian rhythm of AP, with higher AP than Alk1+/+ mice during most of the light period. Higher AP in Alk1+/? mice is not a result of a reduction in the NO-dependent vasodilator response or of overactivation of the peripheral renin-angiotensin system. However, intracerebroventricular administration of losartan had a hypotensive effect in Alk1+/? and not in Alk1+/+ mice. Alk1+/? mice showed a greater hypotensive response to the ?-adrenergic antagonist atenolol and higher concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma than Alk1+/+ mice. The number of brain cholinergic neurons in the anterior basal forebrain was reduced in Alk1+/? mice. Thus, we concluded that the ALK-1 receptor is involved in the control of AP, and the high AP of Alk1+/? mice is explained mainly by the sympathetic overactivation shown by these animals, which is probably related to the decreased number of cholinergic neurons. PMID:26398936

  13. Oscillometric blood pressure measurement: a simple method in screening for peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels; Bruce, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Blood pressure at the ankle level is a reliable indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and the ankle brachial index (ABI) is a useful non-invasive screening tool for the early detection of atherosclerosis. In the first part of the study, systolic blood pressures obtained by oscillometry and plethysmography were compared in 80 subjects referred for possible vascular disease. In the second part of the study, 31 general practitioners enrolled 1258 consecutive patients aged more than 60 year...

  14. Association of vitamin D status with arterial blood pressure and hypertension risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Cavadino, Alana; Berry, Diane J; Jorde, Rolf; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Lu, Chen; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Heerspink, Hiddo J Lambers; Tikkanen, Emmi; Eriksson, Joel; Wong, Andrew; Mangino, Massimo; Jablonski, Kathleen A; Nolte, Ilja M; Houston, Denise K; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; van der Most, Peter J; Pasko, Dorota; Zgaga, Lina; Thiering, Elisabeth; Vitart, Veronique; Fraser, Ross M; Huffman, Jennifer E; de Boer, Rudolf A; Schöttker, Ben; Saum, Kai-Uwe; McCarthy, Mark I; Dupuis, Josée; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Sebert, Sylvain; Pouta, Anneli; Laitinen, Jaana; Kleber, Marcus E; Navis, Gerjan; Lorentzon, Mattias; Jameson, Karen; Arden, Nigel; Cooper, Jackie A; Acharya, Jayshree; Hardy, Rebecca; Raitakari, Olli; Ripatti, Samuli; Billings, Liana K; Lahti, Jari; Osmond, Clive; Penninx, Brenda W; Rejnmark, Lars; Lohman, Kurt K; Paternoster, Lavinia; Stolk, Ronald P; Hernandez, Dena G; Byberg, Liisa; Hagström, Emil; Melhus, Håkan; Ingelsson, Erik; Mellström, Dan; Ljunggren, Osten; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; McLachlan, Stela; Theodoratou, Evropi; Tiesler, Carla M T; Jula, Antti; Navarro, Pau; Wright, Alan F; Polasek, Ozren; Wilson, James F; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Heinrich, Joachim; Campbell, Harry; Price, Jacqueline F; Karlsson, Magnus; Lind, Lars; Michaëlsson, Karl; Bandinelli, Stefania; Frayling, Timothy M; Hartman, Catharina A; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt; Eriksson, Johan G; Florez, Jose C; Spector, Tim D; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kuh, Diana; Humphries, Steve E; Cooper, Cyrus; Ohlsson, Claes; März, Winfried; de Borst, Martin H; Kumari, Meena; Kivimaki, Mika; Wang, Thomas J; Power, Chris; Brenner, Hermann; Grimnes, Guri; van der Harst, Pim; Snieder, Harold; Hingorani, Aroon D; Pilz, Stefan; Whittaker, John C; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hyppönen, Elina

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration is associated with high arterial blood pressure and hypertension risk, but whether this association is causal is unknown. We used a mendelian randomisation approach to test whether 25(OH)D concentration is causally associated with blood pressure and hypertension risk. METHODS: In this mendelian randomisation study, we generated an allele score (25[OH]D synthesis score) based on variants of genes that affect 25(OH)D synthesis or s...

  15. Association of vitamin D status with arterial blood pressure and hypertension risk: a mendelian randomisation study.

    OpenAIRE

    Vimaleswaran, KS; Cavadino, A.; Berry, DJ; Jorde, R.; Dieffenbach, AK; Lu, C (Chuang); Heerspink, HJ; Tikkanen, E; Eriksson, J.; Wong, A.; Mangino, M; Jablonski, KA; Nolte, IM; Houston, DK; Ahluwalia, TS

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration is associated with high arterial blood pressure and hypertension risk, but whether this association is causal is unknown. We used a mendelian randomisation approach to test whether 25(OH)D concentration is causally associated with blood pressure and hypertension risk. METHODS: In this mendelian randomisation study, we generated an allele score (25[OH]D synthesis score) based on variants of genes that affect 25(OH)D synthesis o...

  16. Closure of digital arteries in high vascular tone states as demonstrated by measurement of systolic blood pressure in the fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krähenbühl, B; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    also remained normal. In the high vascular tone state, a large transmural pressure difference must apparently be established before the digital arteries are forced open. The lowered opening pressure constitutes a manifestation of the closure phenomenon of the digital arteries described in patients with...

  17. Association of vitamin D status with arterial blood pressure and hypertension risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Cavadino, Alana; Berry, Diane J; Jorde, Rolf; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Lu, Chen; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Heerspink, Hiddo J Lambers; Tikkanen, Emmi; Eriksson, Joel; Wong, Andrew; Mangino, Massimo; Jablonski, Kathleen A; Nolte, Ilja M; Houston, Denise K; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; van der Most, Peter J; Pasko, Dorota; Zgaga, Lina; Thiering, Elisabeth; Vitart, Veronique; Fraser, Ross M; Huffman, Jennifer E; de Boer, Rudolf A; Schöttker, Ben; Saum, Kai-Uwe; McCarthy, Mark I; Dupuis, Josée; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Sebert, Sylvain; Pouta, Anneli; Laitinen, Jaana; Kleber, Marcus E; Navis, Gerjan; Lorentzon, Mattias; Jameson, Karen; Arden, Nigel; Cooper, Jackie A; Acharya, Jayshree; Hardy, Rebecca; Raitakari, Olli; Ripatti, Samuli; Billings, Liana K; Lahti, Jari; Osmond, Clive; Penninx, Brenda W; Rejnmark, Lars; Lohman, Kurt K; Paternoster, Lavinia; Stolk, Ronald P; Hernandez, Dena G; Byberg, Liisa; Hagström, Emil; Melhus, Håkan; Ingelsson, Erik; Mellström, Dan; Ljunggren, Osten; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; McLachlan, Stela; Theodoratou, Evropi; Tiesler, Carla M T; Jula, Antti; Navarro, Pau; Wright, Alan F; Polasek, Ozren; Wilson, James F; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Heinrich, Joachim; Campbell, Harry; Price, Jacqueline F; Karlsson, Magnus; Lind, Lars; Michaëlsson, Karl; Bandinelli, Stefania; Frayling, Timothy M; Hartman, Catharina A; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt; Eriksson, Johan G; Florez, Jose C; Spector, Tim D; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kuh, Diana; Humphries, Steve E; Cooper, Cyrus; Ohlsson, Claes; März, Winfried; de Borst, Martin H; Kumari, Meena; Kivimaki, Mika; Wang, Thomas J; Power, Chris; Brenner, Hermann; Grimnes, Guri; van der Harst, Pim; Snieder, Harold; Hingorani, Aroon D; Pilz, Stefan; Whittaker, John C; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hyppönen, Elina

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration is associated with high arterial blood pressure and hypertension risk, but whether this association is causal is unknown. We used a mendelian randomisation approach to test whether 25(OH)D concentration is causally associated with...

  18. Effect of an iso-osmolar contrast medium on pulmonary arterial pressure at pulmonary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, H.; Kumazaki, T.; Ito, K.; Tajima, N.; Gemma, K.; Ebata, K. (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-03-01

    A clinical comparison of the effects on pulmonary arterial pressure induced by contrast media with various osmolalities, iohexol 140 mg I/ml (300 mosm/kg H{sub 2}O), iohexol 300 mg I/ml (690 mosm/kg H{sub 2}O), and diatrizoate 292 mg I/ml (1480 mosm/kg H{sub 2}O) following selective pulmonary angiography was made in 12 patients with normal pulmonary arterial pressure. A double-blind crossover study was performed and the contrast media were administered in random order. The pulmonary arterial pressure was recorded continuously before, during, and for 3 min after the injection. The effect of iohexol 140 on the pulmonary arterial pressure was significantly less marked than that of diatrizoate 292, whereas no statistical significance was shown between iohexol 140 and iohexol 300. These results indicate that iso-osmolar contrast medium (iohexol 140), as well as iohexol 300, would be better tolerated than diatrizoate 292, and is therefore a safer contrast medium for selective pulmonary angiography. (orig.).

  19. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Flexibility Techniques: Acute Effects on Arterial Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, William L.; Craft-Hamm, Kelley

    1988-01-01

    The effects of stretching techniques on arterial blood pressure (ABP) were studied in three groups of 20 men each. Each group performed one of three proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques. Results are presented. The study indicates that the benefits of stretching may outweigh the risk of elevated ABP. (JL)

  20. Pressure profile and morphology of the arteries along the giraffe limb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Kristine Hovkjær; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Brøndum, Emil Toft; Aalkjær, Christian; Hasenkam, John Michael; Smerup, Morten Holdgaard; Wang, Tobias; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Baandrup, Ulrik Thorngren

    2011-01-01

    Giraffes are the tallest animals on earth and the effects of gravity on their cardiovascular system have puzzled physiologists for centuries. The authors measured arterial and venous pressure in the foreleg of anesthetized giraffes, suspended in upright standing position, and determined the ratio...

  1. Noninvasive arterial blood pressure waveform monitoring using two- element ultrasound system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Joohyun; Pietrangelo, Sabino J; Lee, Hae-Seung; Sodini, Charles G

    2015-04-01

    This work details noninvasive arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveform estimation based on an arterial vessel cross-sectional area measurement combined with an elasticity measurement of the vessel, represented by pulse wave velocity (PWV), using a two-element ultrasound system. The overall ABP waveform estimation is validated in a custom-designed experimental setup mimicking the heart and an arterial vessel segment with two single element transducers, assuming a constant hemodynamic system. The estimation of local PWV using the flow-area method produces unbiased elasticity estimation of the tube in a pressure waveform comparison. The measured PWV using 16 cardiac cycles of data is 8.47 + 0.63 m/s with an associated scaling error of -1.56 + 14.0% in a direct pressure waveform comparison, showing negligible bias error on average. The distension waveform obtained from a complex cross-correlation model estimator (C3M) reliably traces small pressure changes reflected by the diameter change. The excellent agreement of an estimated pressure waveform to the reference pressure waveform suggests the promising potential of a readily available, inexpensive, and portable ABP waveform monitoring device. PMID:25881355

  2. Validação do monitor de medida de pressão arterial Omron HEM 742 em adolescentes / Validation of the omron HEM 742 blood pressure monitoring device in adolescents / Validación del monitor de medida de presión arterial Omron HEM 742 en adolescentes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diego Giulliano Destro, Christofaro; Rômulo Araújo, Fernandes; Aline Mendes, Gerage; Marcelo José, Alves; Marcos Doederlein, Polito; Arli Ramos de, Oliveira.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A medida precisa da pressão arterial é fundamental para a investigação científica ou decisão clínica. Nesse sentido, é importante verificar valores fornecidos por equipamentos eletrônicos. OBJETIVO: Validar o monitor Omron HEM 742 de medida de pressão arterial em adolescentes, segundo os [...] critérios sugeridos pela British Hypertension Society. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 150 adolescentes com idades entre 10 e 16 anos. O monitor automático Omron HEM 742 foi conectado em Y com equipamento auscultatório de coluna de mercúrio, e realizaram-se três avaliações simultâneas, calculando-se as diferenças entre os dois equipamentos. Para verificar a relação entre ambos, utilizaram-se o coeficiente de correlação intraclasse e a plotagem de Bland-Altman (concordância). A especificidade e a sensibilidade do aparelho foram determinadas pela curva ROC. RESULTADOS: A comparação entre as medidas acusou uma diferença menor ou igual a 5 mmHg em 67,3% dos valores sistólicos e 69,3% dos valores diastólicos; uma diferença menor ou igual a 10 mmHg ocorreu em 87,3% e 90,6% dos valores sistólicos e diastólicos, respectivamente; e uma diferença menor ou igual a 15 mmHg em 96,6% dos valores sistólicos e 97,3% dos diastólicos. Esses resultados indicam grau A segundo o protocolo da British Hypertension Society. Observou-se ainda elevada concordância nos valores obtidos por meio do monitor automático, e verificou-se que esse equipamento é capaz de identificar a presença ou a ausência da pressão arterial elevada. CONCLUSÃO: O monitor Omron HEM 742 mostrou-se válido para medidas de pressão arterial em adolescentes, conforme os critérios sugeridos pela British Hypertension Society. Abstract in spanish FUNDAMENTO: La medida precisa de la presión arterial es fundamental para la investigación científica o decisión clínica. En este sentido, es importante que se verifique valores provenientes de equipos electrónicos. OBJETIVO: Validar el monitor Omron HEM 742 de medida de presión arterial en adolescen [...] tes, de acuerdo con los criterios sugeridos por British Hypertension Society. MÉTODOS: Participaron del estudio 150 adolescentes con edades entre 10 y 16 años. Se conectó el monitor automático Omron HEM 742 en Y con equipo de auscultación de columna de mercurio, y se realizaron tres evaluaciones simultáneas, calculándose las diferencias entre los dos equipos. Para verificarse la relación entre ambos, se utilizó el coeficiente de correlación intraclase y el método de Bland-Altman (concordancia). Se determinó la especificidad y la sensibilidad del aparato por medio de la curva ROC. RESULTADOS: La comparación entre las medidas evidenció una diferencia menor o igual a 5 mmHg en el 67,3% de los valores sistólicos y el 69,3% de los valores diastólicos; una diferencia Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Accurate blood pressure measurement is fundamental for scientific investigation or clinical decision-making. In this sense, it is important to verify the values provided by electronic devices. OBJECTIVE: To validate the Omron HEM 742 blood pressure monitoring device in adolescents accord [...] ing to criteria suggested by the British Hypertension Society. METHODS: A total of 150 adolescents aged between 10 and 16 years participated in the study. The automated Omron HEM 742 monitor was connected in Y to the mercury column auscultatory device, then three simultaneous measurements were taken, and the differences between the readings of the two devices were calculated. The intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plot (agreement) were used to verify the relationship between both devices. Specificity and sensitivity of the device were determined by using the ROC curve. RESULTS: The comparison between the measurements showed an equal to or lower than 5mmHg difference in 67.3% of the systolic values, and 69.3% of the diastolic values; an equal to or lower than 10mmHg difference occurred in 87.3% and 90.6% of the systolic and diastolic values, respectively;

  3. Noninvasive assessment of arterial compliance of human cerebral arteries with short inversion time arterial spin labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnert, Esther A H; Murphy, Kevin; Hall, Judith E; Wise, Richard G

    2015-03-01

    A noninvasive method of assessing cerebral arterial compliance (AC) is introduced in which arterial spin labeling (ASL) is used to measure changes in arterial blood volume (aBV) occurring within the cardiac cycle. Short inversion time pulsed ASL (PASL) was performed in healthy volunteers with inversion times ranging from 250 to 850?ms. A model of the arterial input function was used to obtain the cerebral aBV. Results indicate that aBV depends on the cardiac phase of the arteries in the imaging volume. Cerebral AC, estimated from aBV and brachial blood pressure measured noninvasively in systole and diastole, was assessed in the flow territories of the basal cerebral arteries originating from the circle of Willis: right and left middle cerebral arteries (RMCA and LMCA), right and left posterior cerebral arteries (RPCA and LPCA), and the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). Group average AC values calculated for the RMCA, LMCA, ACA, RPCA, and LPCA were 0.56%±0.2%, 0.50%±0.3%, 0.4%±0.2%, 1.1%±0.5%, and 1.1%±0.3% per mm?Hg, respectively. The current experiment has shown the feasibility of measuring AC of cerebral arteries with short inversion time PASL. PMID:25515216

  4. Avaliação de influências sociais e econômicas sobre a pressão arterial de adolescentes de escolas públicas e privadas: um estudo epidemiológico / Assessment of social and economic influences on blood pressure of adolescents in public and private schools: an epidemiological study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando Antonio de, Almeida; Henrique Pinheiro, Konigsfeld; Lígia Maria de Oliveira, Machado; Andréa Farias, Canadas; Evelyn Yuri Okumura, Issa; Roberto Hernandes, Giordano; Ricardo Augusto de Miranda, Cadaval.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Anteriormente, a alta prevalência de hipertensão arterial em alunos do Ensino Médio de Sorocaba, em São Paulo, foi descrita. Neste estudo, em nova amostra de alunos da mesma faixa etária, oriundos de escolas públicas e privadas, foi avaliado se as diferenças socioeconômicas e o modo de v [...] ida podem influenciar os valores da pressão arterial. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo epidemiológico, inserido entre as atividades de um trabalho comunitário, em que estudantes de Medicina fazem palestras para alunos do Ensino Médio, objetivando estimular hábitos de vida saudáveis e a prevenção primária da hipertensão arterial. Em amostra aleatória de 410 alunos do segundo ano do Ensino Médio (209 de escolas públicas e 201 de escolas privadas), foram determinados o peso, a altura e a pressão arterial, e foi aplicado um questionário epidemiológico e socioeconômico. RESULTADOS: Não há diferenças estatísticas entre os alunos das escolas públicas e privadas quanto à distribuição de sexo, ao índice de massa corporal (IMC), à pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica, à prevalência de hipertensão arterial (16,3%), à porcentagem de fumantes (5,9%), à atividade física regular e aos antecedentes familiares de hipertensão arterial. Nas escolas públicas há maior porcentagem de afro-descendentes, os alunos trabalham fora de casa com maior frequência e têm menor renda familiar. Nas escolas públicas e privadas, os homens têm maior prevalência de hipertensão arterial e a média da pressão arterial é maior que nas mulheres. O IMC tem correlação positiva com a pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica. CONCLUSÕES: A hipertensão arterial e outros fatores de risco cardiovasculares têm início precoce e necessitam de intervenções educativas para a prevenção primária. Fatores socioeconômicos não influenciam a pressão arterial na adolescência. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The high prevalence of hypertension in high school students in Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil, has already been described. In this study, within a new sample of high school students from public and private schools, we evaluated if socioeconomic and lifestyle influence on blood pressure va [...] lues. METHODS: This is an epidemiological study, which is part of the activities of a community-based work conducted by medical students. They give speeches to high school students aiming at stimulating a healthy lifestyle and primary prevention of hypertension. In a random sample of 410 students in junior high school (209 from public schools and 201 from private schools), we determined the weight, height, and blood pressure, furthermore, a questionnaire identifying epidemiological and socioeconomic status was applied. RESULTS: No statistical differences were found among students from public and private schools regarding the distribution of gender, body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, prevalence of hypertension (16.3%), percentage of smokers (5.9%), regular physical activity, and family history of hypertension. In public schools, there is a higher percentage of African descendents students and a higher percentage of students who also work due to low family income. Men from public and private schools have higher prevalence of hypertension, and their mean blood pressure is higher than in women. BMI has a positive correlation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors have an early beginning and require educational interventions for primary prevention. Socioeconomic factors do not affect blood pressure in adolescence.

  5. A new non-invasive method using pulse oximetry for the assessment of arterial toe pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, P; Blohmé, G; Fowelin, J; Eriksson, J W

    1996-07-01

    We evaluated a novel, simple non-invasive method to assess systolic arterial toe pressures (ATP). It was employed in 63 subjects, of which 37 had suspected or established lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD) and 26 did not. 48 of the subjects had diabetes and 15 were non-diabetic. Pulsatile toe blood flow was monitored with a regular pulse oximeter (Biox 3700TM, BOC Ohmeda, Helsingborg, Sweden) (POX) with the sensor on the tip of the great toe. A small blood pressure cuff was placed around the proximal part of the toe and was connected to a sphygmomanometer (TycosTM, Levimed AB, Höganäs, Sweden). Systolic pressure was estimated as the cuff pressure at which pulsatile blood flow ceased during cuff inflation. Toe pressure measurement was obtained, in parallel, using the established strain gauge plethysmographic technique. There was a good concordance between the two methods (linear regression: r = 0.93; y = 1.1 x x-6.4; y = pressure obtained with the pulse oximeter, x = pressure obtained with strain gauge, in mmHg). However, patients with very low systolic toe pressures, < 20 mmHg, could not be reproducibly assessed using the POX method. In conclusion, the POX method was found to be a simple and reliable method for the estimation of systolic toe pressures, at least for those above the severely ischemic level. It may provide an easily accessible and cost-effective means of vascular assessment at the bedside, as well as for out-patients. PMID:8842580

  6. The giraffe kidney tolerates high arterial blood pressure by high renal interstitial pressure and low glomerular filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Wang, T; Brøndum, E; Østergaard, Kristine Hovkjær; Baandrup, Ulrik; Hørlyck, A; Hasenkam, J M; Smerup, Morten Holdgaard; Funder, J; Marcussen, Niels; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Grøndahl, Carsten; Pedersen, Michael; Agger, P; Candy, G; Aalkjær, Christian; Bie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The tallest animal on earth, the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is endowed with a mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) twice that of other mammals. The kidneys reside at heart level and show no sign of hypertension-related damage. We hypothesized that a species-specific evolutionary adaption in the giraffe kidney allows normal for size renal haemodynamics and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) despite a MAP double that of other mammals. METHODS: Fourteen anaesthetized giraffes were ins...

  7. The giraffe kidney tolerates high arterial blood pressure by high renal interstitial pressure and low glomerular filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, Mads; Wang, Tobias; Brøndum, Emil; Østergaard, Kristine H; Baandrup, Ulrik; Hørlyck, Arne; Hasenkam, J Michael; Smerup, Morten; Funder, Jonas; Marcussen, Niels; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Bertelsen, Mads F; Grøndahl, Carsten; Pedersen, Michael; Agger, Peter; Candy, Geoffrey; Aalkjaer, Christian; Bie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The tallest animal on Earth, the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is endowed with a mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) twice that of other mammals. The kidneys reside at heart level and show no sign of hypertension related damage. We hypothesized that a species-specific evolutionary adaption in the giraffe kidney allows normal for size renal hemodynamics and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) despite a MAP double that of other mammals. METHODS: Fourteen anaesthetized giraffes were inst...

  8. Elevated Plasma Endothelin-1 and Pulmonary Arterial Pressure in Children Exposed to Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Vincent, Renaud; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Barragán-Mejía, Gerardo; Garrido-García, Luis; Camacho-Reyes, Laura; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Paredes, Rogelio; Romero, Lina; Osnaya, Hector; Villarreal-Calderón, Rafael; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Hazucha, Milan J.; Reed, William

    2007-01-01

    Background Controlled exposures of animals and humans to particulate matter (PM) or ozone air pollution cause an increase in plasma levels of endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor that regulates pulmonary arterial pressure. Objectives The primary objective of this field study was to determine whether Mexico City children, who are chronically exposed to levels of PM and O3 that exceed the United States air quality standards, have elevated plasma endothelin-1 levels and pulmonary arterial pressures. Methods We conducted a study of 81 children, 7.9 ± 1.3 years of age, lifelong residents of either northeast (n = 19) or southwest (n = 40) Mexico City or Polotitlán (n = 22), a control city with PM and O3 levels below the U.S. air quality standards. Clinical histories, physical examinations, and complete blood counts were done. Plasma endothelin-1 concentrations were determined by immunoassay, and pulmonary arterial pressures were measured by Doppler echocardiography. Results Mexico City children had higher plasma endothelin-1 concentrations compared with controls (p < 0.001). Mean pulmonary arterial pressure was elevated in children from both northeast (p < 0.001) and southwest (p < 0.05) Mexico City compared with controls. Endothelin-1 levels in Mexico City children were positively correlated with daily outdoor hours (p = 0.012), and 7-day cumulative levels of PM air pollution < 2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) before endothelin-1 measurement (p = 0.03). Conclusions Chronic exposure of children to PM2.5 is associated with increased levels of circulating endothelin-1 and elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure. PMID:17687455

  9. Acute nitric oxide synthase inhibition and endothelin-1-dependent arterial pressure elevation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RobertRapoport

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Key evidence that endogenous nitric oxide (NO inhibits the continuous, endothelin (ET-1-mediated drive to elevate arterial pressure includes demonstrations that ET-1 mediates a significant component of the pressure elevated by acute exposure to NO synthase (NOS inhibitors. This review examines the characteristics of this pressure elevation in order to elucidate potential mechanisms associated with the negative regulation of ET-1 by NO and, thereby, provide potential insight into the vascular pathophysiology underlying NO dysregulation. We surmise that the magnitude of the ET-1-dependent component of the NOS inhibitor-elevated pressure is 1 independent of underlying arterial pressure and other pressor pathways activated by the NOS inhibitors and 2 dependent on relatively higher NOS inhibitor dose, release of stored and de novo synthesized ET-1, and ETA receptor-mediated increased vascular resistance. Major implications of these conclusions include: 1 the marked variation of the ET-1-dependent component, i.e., from 0-100% of the pressure elevation, reflects the NO-ET-1 regulatory pathway. Thus, NOS inhibitor-mediated, ET-1-dependent pressure elevation in vascular pathophysiologies is an indicator of the level of compromised/enhanced function of this pathway; 2 NO is a more potent inhibitor of ET-1-mediated elevated arterial pressure than other pressor pathways, due in part to inhibition of intravascular pressure-independent release of ET-1. Thus, the ET-1-dependent component of pressure elevation in vascular pathophysiologies associated with NO dysregulation is of greater magnitude at higher levels of compromised NO.

  10. Cambios en la presión arterial en un grupo de voluntarios normotensos después del consumo de diferentes dosis de café filtrado / Changes in blood pressure in a group of normotense volunteers after consumption or different doses of filtered coffee

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gloria M, Agudelo; Claudia M, Velásquez; Olga L, Cardona; Mauricio, Duque; Myriam, Posada; Vanesa, Pineda; Leonor E, Suárez.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available No es clara la asociación entre el consumo de café y los cambios en los niveles de presión arterial; si bien algunos estudios muestran una correlación positiva, otros no logran confirmarla. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el cambio en los niveles de presión arterial en un grupo de volunta [...] rios normotensos sometidos al consumo de diferentes dosis de café filtrado. Se trata de un estudio prospectivo, clínico controlado, en el cual se conformaron cuatro grupos y se sometieron por un período de seis semanas al consumo de diferentes cantidades de café filtrado: el grupo uno no consumió café, el grupo dos consumió 200 mL, el tres 400 mL y el cuatro 600 mL. Antes y al final de la intervención, en cada sujeto se midieron los niveles de presión arterial; en el grupo control se midió la concentración de cafeína antes, durante y al final de la intervención. Los resultados mostraron grupos comparables por género, edad e índice de masa corporal, sin diferencias significativas en las condiciones basales. Después de la intervención, la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica no mostró diferencia intragrupos, excepto en el grupo cuatro en el cual disminuyó significativamente (p=0,006) la presión arterial diastólica. Entre grupos los cambios en los niveles de presión sistólica y diastólica no fueron significativos (p=0,510 y 0,430 respectivamente). En conclusión, el consumo de diferentes dosis de café filtrado no ocasionó en sujetos normotensos cambios significativos en los niveles de presión arterial; el grupo que se abstuvo de tomar café no mostró disminución significativa de la presión arterial. Abstract in english The association between coffee consumption and changes in blood pressure values is not clear yet. Although some studies show a positive correlation, others fail to confirm it. The aim of this study was to determine changes in blood pressure values in a group of normotense volunteers submitted to con [...] sumption of different doses of filtered coffee. This is a prospective clinical controlled study in which four groups were conformed and were submitted during a period of six weeks to consumption of different doses of filtered coffee: group one did not have coffee, group two consumed 200 mL, group three 400 mL and group four 600 mL. Blood pressure values were measured before and at the end of the intervention in each subject; in the control group coffeine concentration was measured before, during and at the end of the intervention. The results showed comparable groups by gender, age and body mass index, without significant differences in basal conditions. After the intervention, systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not show any difference between the groups, with the exception of group four in which diastolic blood pressure diminished significantly (p=0.006). Between the groups, the changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were not significant (p=0.510 and 0.430 respectively). In conclusion, consumption of different doses of filtered coffee did not cause significant changes in blood pressure values; the group that did not have coffee did not show significant lowering of blood pressure values.

  11. Cambios en la presión arterial en un grupo de voluntarios normotensos después del consumo de diferentes dosis de café filtrado Changes in blood pressure in a group of normotense volunteers after consumption or different doses of filtered coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria M Agudelo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available No es clara la asociación entre el consumo de café y los cambios en los niveles de presión arterial; si bien algunos estudios muestran una correlación positiva, otros no logran confirmarla. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el cambio en los niveles de presión arterial en un grupo de voluntarios normotensos sometidos al consumo de diferentes dosis de café filtrado. Se trata de un estudio prospectivo, clínico controlado, en el cual se conformaron cuatro grupos y se sometieron por un período de seis semanas al consumo de diferentes cantidades de café filtrado: el grupo uno no consumió café, el grupo dos consumió 200 mL, el tres 400 mL y el cuatro 600 mL. Antes y al final de la intervención, en cada sujeto se midieron los niveles de presión arterial; en el grupo control se midió la concentración de cafeína antes, durante y al final de la intervención. Los resultados mostraron grupos comparables por género, edad e índice de masa corporal, sin diferencias significativas en las condiciones basales. Después de la intervención, la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica no mostró diferencia intragrupos, excepto en el grupo cuatro en el cual disminuyó significativamente (p=0,006 la presión arterial diastólica. Entre grupos los cambios en los niveles de presión sistólica y diastólica no fueron significativos (p=0,510 y 0,430 respectivamente. En conclusión, el consumo de diferentes dosis de café filtrado no ocasionó en sujetos normotensos cambios significativos en los niveles de presión arterial; el grupo que se abstuvo de tomar café no mostró disminución significativa de la presión arterial.The association between coffee consumption and changes in blood pressure values is not clear yet. Although some studies show a positive correlation, others fail to confirm it. The aim of this study was to determine changes in blood pressure values in a group of normotense volunteers submitted to consumption of different doses of filtered coffee. This is a prospective clinical controlled study in which four groups were conformed and were submitted during a period of six weeks to consumption of different doses of filtered coffee: group one did not have coffee, group two consumed 200 mL, group three 400 mL and group four 600 mL. Blood pressure values were measured before and at the end of the intervention in each subject; in the control group coffeine concentration was measured before, during and at the end of the intervention. The results showed comparable groups by gender, age and body mass index, without significant differences in basal conditions. After the intervention, systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not show any difference between the groups, with the exception of group four in which diastolic blood pressure diminished significantly (p=0.006. Between the groups, the changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were not significant (p=0.510 and 0.430 respectively. In conclusion, consumption of different doses of filtered coffee did not cause significant changes in blood pressure values; the group that did not have coffee did not show significant lowering of blood pressure values.

  12. Evaluation of accuracy of invasive and non-invasive blood pressure monitoring in relation to carotid artery pressure in anaesthetised ponies

    OpenAIRE

    Gent, Thomas C.; Schwarz, Andrea; Hatz, Lea-Annina; Gozalo-Marcilla, Miguel; Stijn, Schauvliege; Gasthuys, Frank; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula

    2015-01-01

    Invasive blood pressure measurement (IBP) using peripheral arteries is a commonly used technique in equine anaesthesia, although the accuracy has not been demonstrated. Non-invasive blood pressure monitoring (NIBP) may be indicated for field anesthesia, short procedures and foal anaesthesia. In the present report, the agreement of various IBP and NIBP measuring sites compared to carotid artery pressure was tested in anaesthetised experimental ponies. Six ponies were anaesthetised in lateral r...

  13. Prediction of pressure difference and velocity profile in steady flow through axi-symmetric deposited arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulations of blood flow through plaque deposited arteries at different Reynolds numbers have been performed to investigate the impact of atherosclerosis on pressure drop and velocity profile at down stream. The predicated results are presented in terms of non-dimensional pressure isobars and velocity profiles at distinct Reynolds numbers and various levels of deposition at downstream of the artery segment. The scaled non-dimensional graph of pressure drop is also illustrated. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equation in the axi-symmetric frame of reference is solved numerically by employing FEM (Finite Element Method). Semi-implicit Taylor-Galerkin/pressure-correction scheme has been utilized to obtain steady state solutions. The effects of atherosclerosis on hemodynamic factors have been investigated. The results show that blockage disturbs the flow field in the wake of plaque deposited arteries and the trend of pressure and velocity is increasing as level of deposition or Reynolds number increases. The application of this research work can be utilised in the field of cardio vascular disease, design of device and further planning towards treatment. (author)

  14. El curso de la hemodiálisis está asociado a cambios en el umbral de dolor y en las relaciones entre presión arterial y dolor / Haemodialysis course is associated to changes in pain threshold and in the relations between arterial pressure and pain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.A., Reyes del Paso; C.M., Perales Montilla.

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La presión arterial se asocia negativamente con la percepción del dolor. Objetivos: En este estudio se comparan el dolor y las relaciones entre presión arterial y umbral doloroso al inicio y final de la hemodiálisis. Métodos: 14 pacientes con trastorno renal crónico bajo diálisis parti [...] ciparon en el estudio. Los umbrales de dolor fueron evaluados mediante algometría de presión de forma bilateral en dos puntos «gatillo»: la segunda costilla y la rodilla. La presión arterial y los umbrales de dolor se evaluaron: 1) 15 minutos después del inicio de la diálisis, y 2) 30 minutos antes de su final. Resultados: La presión arterial no cambió significativamente durante la diálisis. Se observó una disminución significativa del umbral de dolor en la segunda costilla izquierda y en la rodilla izquierda y derecha desde el inicio al final de la hemodiálisis. Al inicio de la diálisis no se obtuvieron correlaciones significativas entre presión arterial y dolor, mientras que al final de la diálisis la presión arterial se correlacionó positivamente con los umbrales de dolor (rs entre 0,552 y 0,806). Conclusiones: La hemodiálisis se asocia a cambios en la sensibilidad al dolor y en las relaciones entre presión arterial y dolor, y sugiere una modificación en el mecanismo de inhibición aferente del dolor originado a nivel cardiovascular. Como posibles explicaciones de este efecto se discuten los cambios que produce la hemodiálisis en las funciones cognitivo-perceptivas, en la regulación autonómica cardiovascular y en la habituación de variables relacionadas con el estrés. Abstract in english Antecedents: Arterial pressure is negatively associated to pain perception. Objectives: In this study, pain and the relations between arterial pressure and pain threshold were compared at the beginning and end of the heamodialysis. Methods: 14 patients with chronic renal disease participated in the [...] study. Pain thresholds were evaluated with pressure algometry bilaterally at two tender points: the second rib and the knee. Arterial pressure and pain thresholds were assessed twice: 1) 15 min alter dialysis onset and 2) 30 min before dialysis ended. Results: Arterial pressure remains unchanged through the dialysis. The course of dialysis was associated to a decrease in pain threshold in the second left rib and left and right knees. At the beginning of dialysis arterial pressure were uncorrelated with pain, while at the end of the dialysis both systolic and diastolic arterial pressure were strongly associated to pain thresholds (rs between 0.552 and 0.806): increased arterial pressure was associated to lower pain in terms of increased threshold. Conclusions: Heamodialysis is associated to changes in pain sensitivity and in the relationships between arterial pressure and pain, suggesting a modification in the ascending pain inhibition system arising from the cardiovascular system. Possible explanations of this effect include the changes produced by heamodialysis in cognitive-perceptive functions, in autonomic cardiovascular regulation, and in the habituation of stress-related variables.

  15. Blood pressure and lipid profile in young women: the role of anthropometric measurement / Pressão arterial e perfil lipídico em mulheres jovens: o papel da avaliação antropométrica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Custódio, Rubira; Ana Paula Fernandes de Angelis, Rubira; Lucas De Angelis, Rubira; Milton Carlos Martins, Lima; Roberto Jorge da Silva, Franco; Fernanda Marciano, Consolim-Colombo.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Composição corporal tem importância fundamental para a qualidade de vida e é um forte preditor de mortalidade e morbidade nos seres humanos. A identificação e o monitoramento da quantidade de gordura corporal têm recebido atenção especial no que se refere aos aspectos relacionados com a promoção da [...] saúde, não apenas de suas ações na prevenção e no controle das doenças cardiovasculares, mas também pela sua associação com fatores de risco, especialmente em níveis de lipídeos plasmáticos e da pressão arterial. Foi investigado a relação entre o índice de massa corporal (IMC) e percentual de gordura corporal (% GC) pela bioimpedância elétrica (BIA), com os níveis de pressão arterial (sistólica e diastólica) e lipídeos séricos (CT, HDL-c, LDL-c, VLDL-c, TG). Em um grupo de 57 mulheres (com idades entre 18 e 26 anos de idade), a obesidade foi detectada em cinco e 19 mulheres, IMC (? 30 kg/m2) e % BF (? 30%), respectivamente. IMC e % GC foram positivamente correlacionados com a pressão arterial (sistólica e diastólica), e altamente significativos no grupo dos obesos pelo % GC. Além disso, o IMC e % GC foram significativamente correlacionados com todos os lipídios e frações de lipoproteínas VLDL-C e triglicérides, respectivamente. Estes resultados sugerem que o % GC é um bom indicador de “obesidade oculta” em indivíduos com índice de massa corporal normal. Que o uso associado de IMC e % GC para melhor avaliar a obesidade pode melhorar o estudo dos níveis de pressão arterial e alterações de lipídios que é geralmente associada à obesidade. Abstract in english Body composition has fundamental importance in the quality of life and is a powerful predictor of mortality and morbidity in humans. The identification and monitoring of the amount of body fat have been receiving special attention in aspects related to health promotion, not just for its actions in t [...] he prevention and in the control of cardiovascular diseases but also for their induction and association with risk factors, especially in the plasmatic lipid levels and arterial pressure. It was investigated the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (%BF) by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with the blood pressure levels (systolic and diastolic) and serum lipids (TC, HDL-c, LDL-c, VLDL-c, TG). In a group of fifty seven women (aged 18 to 26 years old ), obesity was detected in 5 and 19 women by BMI (? 30 kg/m2) and %BF (? 30%), respectively. BMI and % BF were positively correlated with blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), and highly significant in the obese group by %BF. Moreover, BMI and % BF were significantly correlated with all lipids and lipoprotein fractions VLDL-c and triglyceride, respectively. These results suggest that %BF is a good indicator of “occult obesity” in subjects with normal body mass index. The associated use of BMI and %BF to better evaluate obesity may improve the study of blood pressure levels and serum lipid changes that are commonly associated with obesity.

  16. Arterial compliance in patients with cirrhosis: stroke volume-pulse pressure ratio as simplified index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, S; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, E; Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2001-01-01

    Arterial function may be altered in patients with cirrhosis. We determined compliance of the arterial tree (C(1)) in relation to systemic and splanchnic hemodynamic derangement and clinical variables. C(1) and the stroke volume-pulse pressure index (SV/PP) were significantly higher (+62% and +40%, respectively; P < 0.001) in cirrhotic patients (n = 49) than in control subjects (n = 19), and a close correlation between C(1) and SV/PP was found in both cirrhotic patients (r = 0.86, P < 0.001) and ...

  17. A variedade da dieta é fator protetor para a pressão arterial sistólica elevada Dietary variety is a protective factor for elevated systolic blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Prado de Oliveira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A dieta influencia diretamente a hipertensão arterial (HAS, que é um dos principais fatores de risco da doença cardiovascular. OBJETIVO: Associar a HAS com fatores dietéticos de adultos clinicamente selecionados para programa de mudança de estilo de vida. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal composto por 335 indivíduos, com idade entre 44 e 65 anos, clinicamente selecionados para um programa de mudança de estilo de vida. Foram avaliados os dados antropométricos (IMC, % de gordura e circunferência abdominal, os componentes bioquímicos (concentrações plasmáticas de glicose, triglicerídeos, colesterol total, HDL-c e LDL-c e a dieta, por meio do recordatório de 24 horas. A qualidade da dieta foi avaliada pelo Índice de Alimentação Saudável. A pressão arterial foi mensurada de acordo com a V Diretriz Brasileira de Hipertensão Arterial e classificada de acordo com o NCEP-ATPIII. A regressão logística foi realizada para determinar a probabilidade de alterações na PAS e PAD de acordo com a ingestão dietética. Adotou-se como significante o valor de p BACKGROUND: Diet directly influences systemic arterial hypertension (SAH, which is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To associate hypertension with dietary factors in adults clinically selected for a change-of-lifestyle program. METHODS: Cross-sectional study comprising 335 individuals, aged between 44 and 65 years, clinically selected for a change-of-lifestyle program. We evaluated anthropometric data (BMI, %body fat and waist circumference, biochemical components (plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-c and diet, through the 24-hour recall method. The quality of the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index. Blood pressure was measured according to the V Brazilian Guidelines on Hypertension and classified according to NCEP-ATPIII. Logistic regression was performed to determine the likelihood of changes in SBP and DBP according to dietary intake. The level of significance was set at p <0.05. RESULTS: There was a positive correlation between diastolic blood pressure and sugar and cholesterol intake, and a negative one with intake of fiber, portions of oil and fats and diet quality. Dietary variety with ? 8 food items showed a protective effect for alterations in systolic blood pressure, OR = 0.361 (0.148 to 0.878. CONCLUSION: A greater dietary variety had a protective effect on the systolic blood pressure.

  18. Respuesta ortostática de la tensión arterial de pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson inicial / Orthostatic response of blood pressure in patients with early Parkinson's disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mayela, Rodríguez-Violante; Amin, Cervantes-Arriaga; Daniela, García-Ibarra; Teresa, Corona.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la respuesta ortostática de la tensión arterial de forma no invasiva en pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson inicial leve a moderada atendidos en el Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía. Método: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal con grupo control. Se incluyeron [...] pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson de menos de 5 años de evolución y severidad leve a moderada así como controles sanos. Se excluyeron sujetos con diabetes mellitus, hipertensión arterial o diagnóstico de disautonomía. Se realizaron mediciones de la tensión arterial en posición supina, y posteriormente a los3y5minde asumir bipedestación. Resultados: Se incluyeron 70 sujetos con enfermedad de Parkinson y 145 controles. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en género y edad entre ambos grupos. No hubo diferencias en el cambio de la tensión arterial sistólica entre los grupos a los 3 min pero sí a los 5min (p = 0.03). En el caso de la tensión diastólica existió diferencia entre ambos grupos a los 3 y 5min (p = 0.02 y p = 0.007). Conclusión: Los pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson inicial presentan diferencias en la respuesta ortostática con respecto a controles sanos, siendo de mayor relevancia a los 5 min de bipedestación. Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate orthostatic blood pressure response in patients with early Parkinson's disease and mild to moderate disease treated at the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery. Method: A cross-sectional study with control group was carried out. Patients with Parkinson's disease wi [...] th a disease duration of less than 5 years and mild to moderate severity along with healthy controls of the same age group were included. Those subjects with diabetes mellitus, hypertension or diagnosis of dysautonomia were excluded. Blood pressure was measured in supine position as well as after 3 and 5 min of standing. Results: Seventy subjects with Parkinson's disease and 145 controls were included. There were no statistically significant differences in gender and age between both groups. There was no difference in systolic blood pressure change between groups at 3 minutes but at 5 minutes a statistically significant difference was found (P = .03). For diastolic blood pressure a difference between both groups was present at three and five minutes (P = .02 and P = .007). Conclusion: Patients with early Parkinson's disease have differences in orthostatic responses compared to healthy controls, these differences are more relevant at 5 minutes of standing.

  19. Resposta da pressão arterial ao esforço em adolescentes: influência do sobrepeso e obesidade / Blood pressure response to physical exertion in adolescents: influence of overweight and obesity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana, Carletti; Anabel Nunes, Rodrigues; Anselmo José, Perez; Dalton Valentim, Vassallo.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A resposta aguda da pressão arterial ao esforço tem sido utilizada como indicador de risco para o desenvolvimento de hipertensão arterial. Os fatores associados com essa resposta precisam ser esclarecidos a fim de se intervir na prevenção da doença hipertensiva. OBJETIVO: Descrever o com [...] portamento das variáveis cardiovasculares ao esforço agudo em adolescentes com excesso de peso, por meio de teste cardiopulmonar. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída de 104 adolescentes (56 meninos e 48 meninas), divididos nos grupos de sobrepeso/obesos (GSO) e eutróficos (GE). Foram aferidas variáveis antropométricas (peso, estatura e IMC), de composição corporal (dobra cutânea) e variáveis hemodinâmicas de pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) e diastólica (PAD) e freqüência cardíaca (FC), no repouso e no esforço máximo do teste cardiopulmonar. RESULTADOS: No grupo masculino, identificaram-se maiores valores de pressão arterial sistólica de repouso para o GSO, quando comparados com o GE (113 ± 13 vs 106 ± 8 mmHg; p = 0,009), a PAS pré-exercício (120 ± 14 vs 109 ± 10 mmHg; p = 0,003) e de PAS na carga máxima de trabalho (156 ± 20 vs 146 ± 14 mmHg; p = 0,03). No grupo feminino, apenas a PAS pré-exercício foi superior no grupo de sobrepeso, quando isso foi comparado com as eutróficas (114 ± 11 vs 106 ± 10 mmHg; p = 0,009). CONCLUSÃO: A resposta pressórica durante o exercício foi mais exacerbada em adolescentes obesos quando comparada com àquela obtida em eutróficos, o que indica maior reatividade ao estresse físico. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The acute blood pressure response to physical exertion has been used as an indicator of the risk of developing hypertension. The factors associated with this response need to be clarified for timely intervention in preventing hypertensive disease. OBJECTIVE: To describe the response of c [...] ardiovascular variables to acute physical exertion in overweight adolescents using cardiopulmonary exercise testing. METHODS: The sample consisted of 104 adolescents (56 boys and 48 girls), divided into two groups: the obese/overweight group (OOG) and the eutrophic group (EG). The following variables were measured: anthropometric (weight, height, and BMI), body composition (skin fold thickness), as well as hemodynamic variables such as systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), and heart rate (HR), at rest and at maximal physical exertion during the cardiopulmonary test. RESULTS: In the male group, the greatest values of systolic arterial pressure at rest were recorded in the OOG as compared to the EG (113 ± 13 vs 106 ± 8 mmHg; p = 0.009), pre-exertion SAP (120 ± 14 vs 109 ± 10 mmHg; p = 0.003), and SAP during maximal exertion conditions (156 ± 20 vs 146 ± 14 mmHg; p = 0.03). In the female group, only pre-exertion SAP was higher in the overweight group as compared to the eutrophic girls (114 ± 11 vs 106 ± 10 mmHg; p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: The response of arterial blood pressure during physical exercise was most exacerbated in obese adolescents as compared to eutrophic teens, suggesting greater reactivity to physical exertion.

  20. Healing of ulcers on the feet correlated with distal blood pressure measurements in occlusive arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P; Lassen, N A

    1980-01-01

    The frequency of healing in subchronic ulcers in 66 feet in 62 patients with arterial occlusive disease was correlated with the systolic digital blood pressure (SDBP) and the systolic ankle blood pressure (SABP), both measured with a strain gauge, and with the skin perfusion pressure on the heel (SPPH) as measured with a photocell. Thirty-two patients (35 feet with ulcerations) had diabetes mellitus. The treatment was conservative. In 42 feet the ulcers healed after an average period of 5.8 mont...

  1. Sacral pressure sore reconstruction - the pedicled superior gluteal artery perforator flap

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Hurbungs; H., Ramkalawan.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report the use of the pedicled superior gluteal artery perforator (SGAP) fasciocutaneous flap as a reliable surgical option for sacral pressure sore reconstruction. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted between September 2008 and September 2010 of 10 patients with stage 3 or 4 sac [...] ral pressure sores treated with a unilateral pedicled SGAP flap. RESULTS: All flaps survived completely with no complications in 9 patients. One patient had a haematoma below the flap that was easily drained. No recurrence of the bedsore occurred during follow-up. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the pedicled SGAP fasciocutaneous flap is a reliable surgical option for sacral pressure sore reconstruction.

  2. The compliance of the porcine pulmonary artery depends on pressure and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornet, L; Jansen, J R; Nijenhuis, F C; Langewouters, G J; Versprille, A

    1998-11-01

    1. The influence of mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mean Ppa) on dynamic (Cd) and pseudo-static compliance (Cps) of the pulmonary artery was studied at a constant and a changing heart rate. Cd is the change in cross-sectional area (CSA) relative to the change in Ppa throughout a heart cycle. Cps is the change in mean CSA relative to the change in mean Ppa. If Cd is known, pulmonary blood flow can be computed from the Ppa using a windkessel model. We investigated whether Cps can be interchanged with Cd. 2. In nine anaesthetized pigs, we determined the mean CSA and Cd of the pulmonary artery at various Ppa levels, ranging from approximately 30 to 10 mmHg, established by bleeding. Two series of measurements were carried out, one series at a spontaneously changing heart rate (n = 9) and one series at a constant heart rate (n = 6). To determine CSA a conductance method was used. 3. Cps depended on pressure. The mean CSA versus mean Ppa curves were sigmoid and steepest in the series with the increasing heart rate (established by bleeding). The CSA versus Ppa loop during a heart cycle, giving Cd, was approximately linear and almost closed. The Cd versus mean Ppa relationship was bell shaped. Its width was smaller if the heart rate increased during the series of measurements. The pressure, where Cd was maximum, was higher at higher heart rates. Furthermore, the maximum Cd was not affected by the heart rate. 4. Because the pulmonary artery constricts with increasing heart rate, Cps will be overestimated during procedures where heart rate increases. Cd should be determined on a beat-to-beat basis to calculate flow because it changes with mean pulmonary arterial pressure and heart rate. PMID:9769432

  3. Variations in Arterial Blood Pressure after Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovtzer, Mordecai M.; Pinnggera, Wulf; Katz, Fred H.; Corman, Jacques L.; Robinette, John; Lanois, Bernard; Halgrimson, Charles G.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The course of hypertension within the first 2 months after kidney transplantation was correlated with renal function, plasma renin activity (PRA), and the daily maintenance dose of prednisone in 18 homograft recipients. During acute rejection blood pressure (BP) closely correlated with PRA. Patients with normal homograft function showed an increase in BP early after transplantation which in most returned to normal 3–8 weeks later. In the latter group no correlation could be found between the level of BP and PRA, however the BP correlated closely with the dose of prednisone. These observations suggest that during acute rejection the increase in BP may at least partly be mediated by a renal pressor mechanism, whereas with normal renal function the high dose of glucocorticoids may play an important role in the development of hypertension. PMID:4581920

  4. Blood pressure variability in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats during endothelin A receptor inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girchev, R; Markova, P

    2004-01-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar rats were treated with the endothelin(A) (ET(A)) receptor antagonist BQ-123 16.4 nmol/kg.min i.v. at an infusion rate of 25 microl/min for 50 min. Blood pressure was measured in the femoral artery with a Gould/Statham P23ID transducer connected to the computerized data acquisition system Biopac MP100WS. Values of interpulse interval, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure were determined in every heart cycle. Spectrum analysis of systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure and interpulse interval variabilities was performed using fast Fourier transform algorithm. In contrast to normotensive rats, BQ-123 infusion in SHR increased mid-frequency band in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (p < 0.05). The baroreflex sensitivity obtained by the alpha-coefficient in the mid-frequency region (square root of the relation PMFIPI/PMFSAP in msec/mmHg) did not differ between Wistar and SHR before and during BQ-123 administration. Endogenous endothelin acting via endothelin(A) receptors modulates the effects of the sympathetic nervous system on the variations of systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure in the hypertensive state. This interrelation between endogenous endothelin and the sympathetic nervous system is not dependent on the arterial baroreflex and is most likely to be realized locally on the vessel level. PMID:14988738

  5. Associação entre a Incisura Diastólica das Artérias Uterinas e a Histologia do Leito Placentário em Grávidas com Pré-eclâmpsia Association between Diastolic Notch of Uterine Artery and the Histology of the Placental Bed in Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Amélia Lopes Pessoa de Aguiar

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a associação entre a presença da incisura diastólica nas artérias uterinas maternas e as alterações histopatológicas dos vasos útero-placentários. Métodos: estudo transversal incluindo 144 pacientes com gestação única interrompida por via abdominal entre a 27ª e a 41ª semana. Destas, 84 gestações estavam associadas à pré-eclâmpsia e 60 não apresentaram intercorrências clínicas. Neste grupo realizou-se dopplerfluxometria de ambas as artérias uterinas e biópsia do leito placentário. Resultados: das 144 pacientes, 88 (61% tiveram o fragmento da biópsia considerado representativo do leito placentário. A incisura diastólica estava presente em 40 (70% dos casos de alterações fisiológicas inadequadas e ausente em 28 (90% dos casos de alterações fisiológicas presentes (p=0,05. A dopplerfluxometria apresentou sensibilidade de 70%, especificidade de 90% e valores preditivos positivo e negativo de 44 e 97%, respectivamente. A associação entre a presença de incisura diastólica bilateral das artérias uterinas e arteriopatia decidual também foi significativa (dos 25 casos de arteriopatia decidual a incisura estava presente em 24, p=0,05. A sensibilidade da dopplerfluxometria foi de 96%, especificidade de 70% e valores preditivos positivo e negativo de 26 e 99%, respectivamente, ao passo que para a arteriolosclerose a dopplerfluxometria apresentou sensibilidade de 80%, especificidade de 55% e valores preditivos positivo e negativo de 17 e 96%, respectivamente. Conclusões: a incisura diastólica nas artérias uterinas maternas é indicador seguro de vasculopatia no leito placentário. A adequada invasão trofoblástica do leito placentário, revelada por histologia típica de alterações fisiológicas, resulta na ausência de incisura diastólica bilateral das artérias uterinas maternas.Purpose: to evaluate the association between the presence of diastolic notch in the maternal uterine arteries, and the histopathological changes of the uteroplacental vessels. Methods: transversal study of 144 women with single pregnancy interrupted by cesarean section between 27 and 41 weeks. In this sample, 84 had pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and the other 60 were normal. In this group, Doppler study of both uterine arteries and placental bed biopsy was performed. Results: of the total of 144 patients, 88 patients (61% had a biopsy fragment that was considered representative of the placental bed. The diastolic notch was present in 40 patients (70% of the total of cases with inadequate physiologic alterations and absent in 28 patients (90% of the total of cases with physiologic alterations (p=0.0000. The Doppler study showed 70% sensitivity, 90% specificity, 44% positive predictive value and 97% negative predictive value. The association between bilateral diastolic notch of uterine arteries and acute atherosis in the placental bed was also significant (24 out of 25 cases -- p=0.000. The Doppler study showed 96% sensitivity, 70% specificity, 26% positive predictive value and 99% negative predictive value, while for arteriolosclerosis its results were 80% sensitivity, 55% specificity, 17% positive predictive value and 96% negative predictive value. Conclusions: the diastolic notch in the maternal uterine is a safe indicator of pathological vessel alteration in the placental bed. The adequate trophoblast migration into the myometrium, revealed by physiologic changes, results in the absence of bilateral diastolic notch of the maternal uterine arteries.

  6. Comparação entre os valores da pressão arterial central e braquial de pacientes com hipertensão arterial submetidos à cineangiocoronariografia / Comparison between the central and brachial blood pressure values in patients with hypertension undergoing cineangiocoronarography

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruno Bordin, Pelazza; Cesar Augusto Saldanha, Rosa; Sebastião Rodrigues, Ferreira Filho.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Durante o envelhecimento, a pressão arterial sistólica (PS) e a pressão de pulso (PP) se elevam gradativamente, consequente à redução da elasticidade arterial. A medida da pressão arterial sistêmica (PAS) aferida na raiz da aorta tem sido considerada como um determinante independente da [...] mortalidade cardiovascular superior aos valores PAS braquial. OBJETIVO: Comparar os valores da PAS central e PAS braquial em portadores de hipertensão arterial nas diversas faixas etárias. MÉTODO: Avaliamos a PAS central na raiz da aorta e a PAS braquial no braço esquerdo pelo método oscilométrico em 244 pacientes com hipertensão submetidos à cineangiocoronariografia. Foram constituídos cinco grupos de pacientes: Grupo I, 39-49 anos, n = 36; Grupo II, 50-59 anos, n = 67; Grupo III, 60-69 anos, n = 69; Grupo IV, 70-79 anos, n = 46; e o Grupo V, > 80 anos, n = 26. RESULTADOS: Ao comparar a PS central versus PS braquial, foi possível encontrar significância a partir dos 50 anos de vida. Não encontramos diferença estatística entre a pressão diastólica central versus diastólica braquial, exceto nos pacientes com idade entre 60-69 anos. Na comparação entre a PP central e PP braquial, observamos que a PP central foi significativamente maior (entre 11 a 15 mmHg) em todos os pacientes com idade superior a 50 anos. CONCLUSÃO: Com o envelhecimento, os valores das PS e de PP, aferidas diretamente na raiz da aorta, são superiores àqueles obtidos por método indireto na artéria braquial. Essas diferenças são significantes a partir dos 50 anos de idade. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Systolic blood pressure (SP) and pulse pressure (PP) rise gradually during the aging process as a consequence of a reduction in arterial elasticity. The measure of systemic arterial pressure (SAP) taken at the root of the aorta has been considered an independent determinant of cardiova [...] scular mortality superior to the values of brachial SAP. AIM: To compare the values of SAP central to those of braquial SAP in patients of different age brackets who have systemic hypertension. METHOD: We evaluated the central SAP at the root of the aorta and the brachial SAP in the left arm using the ocillometric method 244 hypertensive patients who had been submitted to cineangiocoronarography. Five groups of patients were constituted: Group I, 39-49 years-old (y.o.), n = 36; Group II, 50-59 y.o., n = 67; Group III, 60-69 y.o., n = 69; Group IV, 70-79 y.o., n = 46; Group V, > 80 y.o., n = 26. RESULTS: When central SP was compared to brachial SP, it was possible to find significance in patients who were 50 y.o and upwards. It was not possible to find a statistical difference between central diastolic pressure and brachial except in patients between the ages of 60-69 y.o. When comparing central to brachial PP, we observed that central PP was significantly greater (between 11 and 15 mmHg) in all patient above the age of 50 y.o. CONCLUSION: In older people, the values of SP and PP, taken directly at the root of the aorta, are superior to those obtained by indirect means from the brachial artery. These differences are significant from the age of 50 y.o. onwards.

  7. Accuracy of Doppler ultrasound in evaluating changes of left ventricular diastolic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S; Tak, T; Kawanishi, D T; Rahimtoola, S H; Chandraratna, P A

    1990-07-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of an increase in preload caused by contrast medium (Renografin-75) on Doppler echocardiographic indices of left ventricular diastolic properties, left ventricular pressure using a catheter tip micromanometer and pulsed-Doppler measurement of transmitral flow signals were measured simultaneously in 15 patients with coronary artery disease pre- and post-left ventricular angiography. After left ventricular angiography, changes in indices determined from left ventricular pressure were significant: left ventricular end-diastolic pressure increased from 17 +/- 2 mmHg to 24 +/- 2 mmHg (mean +/- SE) (P less than 0.001), maximum -dP/dt increased from 1,129 +/- 63 to 1,307 +/- 90 mmHg/sec (P less than 0.005), and time constant decreased from 73 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 1 msec (P less than 0.01). Changes in Doppler-derived indices were also significant: A/E ratio decreased from 0.99 +/- 0.08 to 0.81 +/- 0.07 (P less than 0.01), peak velocity of early diastolic filling increased from 0.61 +/- 0.03 to 0.79 +/- 0.03 M/sec (P less than 0.01), and deceleration rate increased from 3.1 +/- 0.2 to 4.6 +/- 0.2 M/sec 2 (P less than 0.01). Changes in Doppler echocardiographic indices (DR, acceleration half time, deceleration half time, and A/E ratio) were accompanied by changes in time constant and maximum -dP/dt after left ventricular angiography. However, the correlations between changes in hemodynamic indices and changes in Doppler echocardiographic indices were poor (r = 0.06 to 0.67).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10149211

  8. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, P. A.; Shafqat, K.; Pal, S. K.

    2007-10-01

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse oximeters showed gradual decrease of saturations during induced hypoperfusion which demonstrate the direct relation between blood volumes (PPG amplitudes), arterial vessel stenosis and blood oxygen saturation. The custom made pulse oximeter was found to be more sensitive to SpO2 changes than the commercial pulse oximeter especially at high occluding pressures.

  9. Surgical and histopathological effects of topical Ankaferd hemostat on major arterial vessel injury related to elevated intra-arterial blood pressure

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    A. Tulga Ulus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the surgical and histopathological hemostatic effects of topical Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS on major arterial vessel injury related to elevated intra-arterial blood pressure in an experimental rabbit model.Materials and Methods: The study included 14 New Zealand rabbits. ABS was used to treat femoral artery puncture on 1 side in each animal and the other untreated side served as the control. Likewise, for abdominal aortic puncture, only 50% of the aortic injuries received topical liquid ABS and the others did not (control. The experiment was performed under conditions of normal arterial blood pressure and was repeated with a 50% increase in blood pressure. Histopathological analysis was performed in all of the studied animals.Results: Mean bleeding time in the control femoral arteries was 105.0±18.3 s, versus 51.4±9.8 s (p<0.05 in those treated with ABS. Mean blood loss from the punctured control femoral arteries was 5.0±1.5 mg and 1.6±0.4 mg from those treated with ABS (p<0.05. Histopathological examination of the damaged arterial structures showed that ABS induced red blood cell aggregates.Conclusion: ABS administered to experimental major arterial vessel injury reduced both bleeding time and blood loss under conditions of normal and elevated intra-arterial blood pressure. ABS-induced erythroid aggregation was prominent at the vascular tissue level. These findings will inform the design of future experimental and clinical studies on the anti-bleeding and vascular repairing effects of the novel hemostatic agent ABS.

  10. The giraffe kidney tolerates high arterial blood pressure by high renal interstitial pressure and low glomerular filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, Mads; Wang, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The tallest animal on Earth, the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is endowed with a mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) twice that of other mammals. The kidneys reside at heart level and show no sign of hypertension related damage. We hypothesized that a species-specific evolutionary adaption in the giraffe kidney allows normal for size renal hemodynamics and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) despite a MAP double that of other mammals. METHODS: Fourteen anaesthetized giraffes were instrumented with vascular and bladder catheters to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). Renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure (RIHP) was assessed by inserting a needle into the medullary parenchyma. Doppler ultrasound measurements provided renal artery resistive index (RI). Hormone concentrations as well as biomechanical, structural, and histological characteristics of vascular and renal tissues were determined. RESULTS: GFR averaged 342±99 ml min(-1) and ERPF 1252±305 ml min(-1) . RIHP varied between 45 and 140 mmHg. Renal pelvic pressure was 39±2 mmHg and renal venous pressure 32±4 mmHg. A valve-like structure at the junction of the renal and vena cava generated a pressure drop of 12±2 mmHg. RI was 0.27. The renal capsule was durable with a calculated burst pressure of 600 mmHg. Plasma renin and AngII were 2.6±0.5 mIU/l and 9.1±1.5 pg/ml, respectively. CONCLUSION: In giraffes, GFR, ERPF and RI appear much lower than expected based on body mass. A strong renal capsule supports a RIHP which is >10-fold that of other mammals effectively reducing the net filtration pressure and protecting against the high MAP. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Arterial pressure changes monitoring with a new precordial noninvasive sensor

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    Faita Francesco

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a cutaneous force-frequency relation recording system based on first heart sound amplitude vibrations has been validated. A further application is the assessment of Second Heart Sound (S2 amplitude variations at increasing heart rates. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between second heart sound amplitude variations at increasing heart rates and hemodynamic changes. Methods The transcutaneous force sensor was positioned in the precordial region in 146 consecutive patients referred for exercise (n = 99, dipyridamole (n = 41, or pacing stress (n = 6. The curve of S2 peak amplitude variation as a function of heart rate was computed as the increment with respect to the resting value. Results A consistent S2 signal was obtained in all patients. Baseline S2 was 7.2 ± 3.3 mg, increasing to 12.7 ± 7.7 mg at peak stress. S2 percentage increase was + 133 ± 104% in the 99 exercise, + 2 ± 22% in the 41 dipyridamole, and + 31 ± 27% in the 6 pacing patients (p Conclusion S2 recording quantitatively documents systemic pressure changes.

  12. Body height and arterial pressure in seated and supine young males during +2 G centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvedsen, Sine K; Eiken, Ola; Kölegård, Roger; Petersen, Lonnie G; Norsk, Peter; Damgaard, Morten

    2015-11-01

    It is known that arterial pressure correlates positively with body height in males, and it has been suggested that this is due to the increasing vertical hydrostatic gradient from the heart to the carotid baroreceptors. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that a higher gravito-inertial stress induced by the use of a human centrifuge would increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) more in tall than in short males in the seated position. In short (162-171 cm; n = 8) and tall (194-203 cm; n = 10) healthy males (18-41 yr), brachial arterial pressure, heart rate (HR), and cardiac output were measured during +2G centrifugation, while they were seated upright with the legs kept horizontal (+2Gz). In a separate experiment, the same measurements were done with the subjects supine (+2Gx). During +2Gz MAP increased in the short (22 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.0001) and tall (23 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.0001) males, with no significant difference between the groups. HR increased more (P < 0.05) in the tall than in the short group (14 ± 2 vs. 7 ± 2 bpm). Stroke volume (SV) decreased in the short group (26 ± 4 ml, P = 0.001) and more so in the tall group (39 ± 5 ml, P < 0.0001; short vs. tall, P = 0.047). During +2Gx, systolic arterial pressure increased (P < 0.001) and SV (P = 0.012) decreased in the tall group only. In conclusion, during +2Gz, MAP increased in both short and tall males, with no difference between the groups. However, in the tall group, HR increased more during +2Gz, which could be caused by a larger hydrostatic pressure gradient from heart to head, leading to greater inhibition of the carotid baroreceptors. PMID:26290109

  13. Body height and arterial pressure in seated and supine young males during +2 G centrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedsen, Sine Kongsbak; Eiken, Ola

    2015-01-01

    It is known that arterial pressure correlates positively with body height in males and it has been suggested that this is due to the increasing vertical hydrostatic gradient from the heart to the carotid baroreceptors. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that a higher gravitoinertial stress induced by the use of a human centrifuge would increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) more in tall than in short males in the seated position. In short (162-171cm, n=8) and tall (194-203cm, n=10) healthy males (18-41y), brachial arterial pressure, heart rate (HR) and cardiac output were measured during +2G centrifugation, while they were seated upright with the legs kept horizontal (+2Gz). In a separate experiment, the same measurements were done with the subjects supine (+2Gx). During +2Gz MAP increased in the short (22±2 mmHg, p<0.0001) and tall (23±2 mmHg, p<0.0001) males, with no significant difference between the groups. HR increased more (p<0.05) in the tall than in the short group (14±2 versus 7±2 bpm). Stroke volume (SV) decreased in the short group (26±4 mL, p=0.001) and more so in the tall group (39±5 mL, p<0.0001; short vs tall p=0.047). During +2GX, systolic arterial pressure increased (p<0.001) and SV (p=0.012) decreased in the tall group only. In conclusion, during +2Gz MAP increased in both short and tall males with no difference between the groups. However, in the tall group HR increased more during +2Gz which could be caused by a larger hydrostatic pressure gradient from heart to head leading to greater inhibition of the carotid baroreceptors.

  14. Skin perfusion pressure measured with a photo sensor in an air-filled plastic balloon: validity and reproducibility on the lower leg in normal subjects and patients suspected of obliterative arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Levin; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg

    2011-01-01

    An inflatable small plastic bag including a photo sensor was constructed for measurement of skin perfusion pressure avoiding the rim of the photo sensor over bony and tendineous surfaces of the tibia below the knee, at the ankle, and on the dorsal forefoot. Compression was obtained using a conical blood pressure cuff with continuous decrease from suprasystolic arm pressure. The validity of skin perfusion pressure with the new device was compared to that of isotope washout below the knee in normal subjects and in patients with an ischemic forefoot with acceptable agreement. The method had a high reproducibility within and between days in normal subjects. Compared to systolic arterial pressure measured using a strain gauge with a cuff on the ankle in normal subjects and patients with intermittent claudication the new device showed blood pressure in the skin closer to the diastolic pressure. The new pressure device thus had acceptable validity and reproducibility for estimation of the skin perfusion pressure andcan be used on bony and tendineous sites on the lower limb in regions where critical wound healing is frequent, e.g. ankle and forefoot.

  15. Exercise-Echocardiography–Derived Pulmonary Artery Pressure Slope in Borderline and Mild to Moderate Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser M. Ammash

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Examine pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP response to exercise in isolated borderline and mild to moderate pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH.Methods: Doppler stress echocardiography was performed in 32 healthy volunteers with resting PASP of 29 mm Hg or less, 39 with resting PASP between 30 and 40 mm Hg, and 7 with resting PASP between 41 and less than 60 mm Hg. All subjects had otherwise normal echocardiograms.Results: Rate of increase in PASP with exercise was positively associated with resting PASP (P 0.001, increased age (P 0.001, and estrogen use among women (P = 0.001. On multivariate analysis, PASP slope was independently related (P = 0.03 to resting PASP and inversely associated with exercise time (P 0.001.Conclusions: Patients with borderline and mild to moderate resting PAH have an exaggerated PASP response to exercise. PASP slope is a strong independent predictor of exercise time. Outcome studies are needed to determine the prognostic significance of this finding.

  16. Correlação entre as pressões parciais de co2 no ar expirado e no sangue arterial, em porcas submetidas a pneumoperitônio / Correlation between the expired air co2 partial pressure and the arterial co2 pressure in pigs under pneumoperitonium

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Carlos, Valezi; Jorge, Mali Junior; Rodrigo Gomes de, Oliveira; Laerte H., Storti.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: As cirurgias realizadas por via laparoscópica, que utilizam CO2 para realização do pneumoperitônio, cursam com hipercarbia. Esta alteração pode ser estimada pela pressão parcial de CO2 no ar expirado. Este trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de determinar se há correlação entre pressão [...] parcial de CO2 arterial e pressão parcial de CO2 no ar expirado nas cirurgias por via laparoscópica. MÉTODO: Distribuíram-se 20 porcas em dois grupos: sem pneumoperitônio e com pneumoperitônio de 12 mmHg de pressão intra-abdominal. Foram medidas a pressão endotraqueal, saturação arterial de O2, pressão parcial de CO2 no ar expirado, pH e pressão parcial de CO2 arteriais. RESULTADOS: Após a realização do pneumoperitônio foi encontrado aumento significativo da pressão endotraqueal, da pressão parcial de CO2 no ar expirado e pressão parcial de CO2 arterial. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de ter ocorrido aumento nas pressões parciais de CO2 tanto arterial quanto no ar expirado, não houve correlação linear entre elas, não se podendo estimar em cirurgias por via laparoscópica a pressão parcial de CO2 arterial pela pressão parcial de CO2 no ar expirado. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The use of CO2 to promote pneumoperitoneun in laparoscopic surgeries causes hipercarbia. Expired air CO2 partial pressure may estimate this change.The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a correlation between arterial CO2 partial pressure and expired air CO2 partial pre [...] ssure during laparoscopic surgeries. METHODS: Twenty female pigs were assigned to two groups: one without pneumoperitoneun and another with a 12 mmHg intra abdominal pressure. Endotracheal pressure, arterial CO2 saturation, expired air CO2 partial pressure, pH and arterial CO2 partial pressure were determined. RESULTS: After performing pneumoperitoneun there was a marked increase in endotracheal pressure, expired air CO2 partial pressure and arterial CO2 partial pressure. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of the increase in both CO2 arterial partial pressure and expired air partial pressure, there was no linear correlation between them, so that it is not possible to estimate arterial CO2 partial pressure by the expired air CO2 partial pressure during laparoscopic surgeries.

  17. Estado nutricional y presión arterial de adolescentes escolares / Nutritional status and blood pressure in adolescent students

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco, Cossio-Bolaños; Wilbert, Cossio-Bolaños; Adriana Araya, Menacho; Rossana, Gómez Campos; Yuri Muniz da, Silva; Carlos Pablos, Abella; Miguel, de Arruda.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La obesidad es el principal factor de riesgo para la hipertensión arterial y se encuentra asociada a una mayor morbilidad, tanto a corto como a largo plazo. Objetivos. Comparar los indicadores antropométricos y de presión arterial en función del estado nutricional, verificar la asociac [...] ión entre el estado nutricional y la presión arterial, y determinar la prevalencia de hipertensión en función del estado nutricional de adolescentes de ambos sexos. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal en 499 escolares adolescentes de 11-15 años. Se valoraron las medidas de peso, estatura, índice de masa corporal (IMC), porcentaje de grasa y presión arterial. Se utilizó el IMC para clasificar en categorías (normopeso, sobrepeso y obesos) y la prevalencia de hipertensión se determinó a través de valores superiores del percentilo 95. Resultados. De acuerdo con la clasificación según el IMC, el 81% de las mujeres y el 76,5% de los varones mostraron normopeso. El 15,7% de las mujeres y el 15,5% de los varones evidenciaron sobrepeso; y el 8% de los varones y el 3,3% de las mujeres presentaron obesidad. Según la clasificación de la presión arterial, se observó hipertensión en los varones (6,4%) y en las mujeres (9%). Hubo asociación entre el estado nutricional y la presión arterial (varones: ?²= 53,48; y mujeres: ?² = 85,21). Conclusión. Se determinó que los adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad presentaron mayor adiposidad corporal y presión arterial que sus similares normopesos. A su vez, se verificó una asociación entre el estado nutricional y la presión arterial en ambos sexos. La prevalencia de hipertensión fue mayor a medida que aumentaba el IMC. Abstract in english Introduction. Obesity is the main risk factor for arterial hypertension andis associatedwitha higher morbidity, both in the short and long term. Objectives. To compare anthropometric and blood pressure indicators in terms of the nutritional status, to verify the relationship between nutritional stat [...] us and blood pressure, and to establish the prevalence of hypertension in terms of the nutritional status in both male and female adolescents. Methods. Cross-sectional, descriptive study on 499 adolescent students aged 11-15 years old. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), fat percentage, and blood pressure were measured and assessed. The BMI was used to classify participants (normal weight, overweight, obese), and the prevalence of hypertension was determined using values above the 95th percentile. Results. As per the BMI classification, 81% of girls and 76.5% ofboys had normal weight, 15.7% of girls and 15.5% of boys were overweight, and 3.3% of girls and 8% of boys were obese. As per the blood pressure classification, hypertension was observed in 6.4% of boys and in 9% of girls. A relationship was found between nutritional status and blood pressure (boys: c2= 53.48; girls: c2= 85.21). Conclusion. Overweight and obese adolescents had more body fat and a higher blood pressure than normal weight adolescents. Also, a relationship was determined betweennutritional status and blood pressure in both male and female students. The higher the BMI, the higher the prevalence of hypertension.

  18. Efeitos de exercícios aquáticos sobre a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e a pressão arterial em hipertensas / Effects of aquatic exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure in hypertensive women

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lisiane, Piazza; Marice Regina, Menta; Cristiano, Castoldi; José Basileu Caon, Reolão; Rodrigo, Schmidt; Leonardo, Calegari.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo visou avaliar a influência de um programa de exercícios aquáticos sobre a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e a pressão arterial em mulheres hipertensas. Dez hipertensas participaram do programa de exercícios aquáticos - aeróbicos, de fortalecimento, alongamento e relaxamento - duas vezes por sem [...] ana durante 7 semanas, totalizando 14 sessões. Foram avaliadas pelo teste de esforço cardiorrespiratório antes e após o desenvolvimento do programa. A pressão arterial foi mensurada ao repouso e aos 10, 20 e 30 minutos após o exercício em cada sessão. As variáveis cardiorrespiratórias não apresentaram alterações significativas após o programa, tanto dos valores de limiar de anaerobiose quanto os do pico de esforço. As pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média de repouso permaneceram estáveis no decorrer do programa. Entretanto, no período pós-exercício, os níveis da pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) e média (PAM) foram significativamente menores, quando comparados aos valores pré-exercício: houve redução média de 6,43 mmHg da PAS e 3,08 mmHg da PAM aos 30 minutos pós-exercício. Assim, o programa de exercícios aquáticos proposto não promove ganho aeróbico efetivo, mas os resultados sugerem que exercícios aquáticos como os propostos, em intensidade próxima ao limiar de anaerobiose, desencadeiam redução dos níveis de pressão arterial no período pós-exercício, em mulheres hipertensas. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to assess the influence of an aquatic exercise program on cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure in hypertensive women. Ten hypertensive women took part in the study. The program consisted of aquatic aerobic, strengthening, and stretching exercises in intensity near t [...] he anaerobic threshold, besides relaxation, twice a week during 7 weeks, totalling 14 sessions. They were assessed by cardiorespiratory exercise testing before and after program development. Blood pressure was measured at rest before and at 10, 20, and 30 minutes after exercise, at the end of each session. After the hydrotherapy program, cardiorespiratory ranges did not show significant changes, neither at the anaerobic threshold nor at the effort peak. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean (MBP) blood pressure at rest remained stable all through the program. However, SBP and MBP levels at 30-minute rest after exercises, at the end of the program, were significantly lower when compared to pre-exercise ones: there was a mean 6,43 mmHg SBP decrease and a 3,08 mmHg MBP decrease. The hydrotherapy program thus did not promote effective aerobic increase, but results suggest that the proposed exercises, performed at near-anaerobic threshold, may reduce post-exercise SBP and MBP levels in hypertensive women.

  19. Efeitos de exercícios aquáticos sobre a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e a pressão arterial em hipertensas Effects of aquatic exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure in hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Piazza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo visou avaliar a influência de um programa de exercícios aquáticos sobre a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e a pressão arterial em mulheres hipertensas. Dez hipertensas participaram do programa de exercícios aquáticos - aeróbicos, de fortalecimento, alongamento e relaxamento - duas vezes por semana durante 7 semanas, totalizando 14 sessões. Foram avaliadas pelo teste de esforço cardiorrespiratório antes e após o desenvolvimento do programa. A pressão arterial foi mensurada ao repouso e aos 10, 20 e 30 minutos após o exercício em cada sessão. As variáveis cardiorrespiratórias não apresentaram alterações significativas após o programa, tanto dos valores de limiar de anaerobiose quanto os do pico de esforço. As pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média de repouso permaneceram estáveis no decorrer do programa. Entretanto, no período pós-exercício, os níveis da pressão arterial sistólica (PAS e média (PAM foram significativamente menores, quando comparados aos valores pré-exercício: houve redução média de 6,43 mmHg da PAS e 3,08 mmHg da PAM aos 30 minutos pós-exercício. Assim, o programa de exercícios aquáticos proposto não promove ganho aeróbico efetivo, mas os resultados sugerem que exercícios aquáticos como os propostos, em intensidade próxima ao limiar de anaerobiose, desencadeiam redução dos níveis de pressão arterial no período pós-exercício, em mulheres hipertensas.The aim of this study was to assess the influence of an aquatic exercise program on cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure in hypertensive women. Ten hypertensive women took part in the study. The program consisted of aquatic aerobic, strengthening, and stretching exercises in intensity near the anaerobic threshold, besides relaxation, twice a week during 7 weeks, totalling 14 sessions. They were assessed by cardiorespiratory exercise testing before and after program development. Blood pressure was measured at rest before and at 10, 20, and 30 minutes after exercise, at the end of each session. After the hydrotherapy program, cardiorespiratory ranges did not show significant changes, neither at the anaerobic threshold nor at the effort peak. Systolic (SBP, diastolic (DBP, and mean (MBP blood pressure at rest remained stable all through the program. However, SBP and MBP levels at 30-minute rest after exercises, at the end of the program, were significantly lower when compared to pre-exercise ones: there was a mean 6,43 mmHg SBP decrease and a 3,08 mmHg MBP decrease. The hydrotherapy program thus did not promote effective aerobic increase, but results suggest that the proposed exercises, performed at near-anaerobic threshold, may reduce post-exercise SBP and MBP levels in hypertensive women.

  20. Atrial distension, arterial pulsation, and vasopressin release during negative pressure breathing in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pump, B; Damgaard, M; Gabrielsen, A; Bie, P; Christensen, N J; Norsk, P

    2001-01-01

    During an antiorthostatic posture change, left atrial (LA) diameter and arterial pulse pressure (PP) increase, and plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) is suppressed. By comparing the effects of a 15-min posture change from seated to supine with those of 15-min seated negative pressure breathing in...... eight healthy males, we tested the hypothesis that with similar increases in LA diameter, suppression of AVP release is dependent on the degree of increase in PP. LA diameter increased similarly during the posture change and negative pressure breathing (-9 to -24 mmHg) from between 30 and 31 +/- 1 to 34...... +/- 1 mm (P <0.05). The increase in PP from 38 +/- 2 to 44 +/- 2 mmHg (P <0.05) was sustained during the posture change but only increased during the initial 5 min of negative pressure breathing from 36 +/- 3 to 42 +/- 3 mmHg (P <0.05). Aortic transmural pressure decreased during the posture change and...

  1. LEFT ATRIAL VOLUME INDEX (LAVI IN THE EVALUATION OF LEFT VENTRICULAR DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malladi Srinivasa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although cardiac performance is traditionally focused on Ejection fraction an index of systolic function , diastolic function has been found to play an important role in morbidity and mortality. Diastolic heart failure constitutes about 20 - 40% admissions of heart failure. Left atrium is directly exposed to LV pressures in diastole. Chronic sustained elevation of elevated diastolic filling pressures result in left atrial remodeling resulting in its enlargement. Traditionally left atrial size is determined from the parasternal long axis vie w at end systole. However the left atrial volume is a better measure of LA size and provides better prognostic value. The influence of body surface area is corrected by dividing LA volume by body surface area to get LA volume index ( LAVI. The normal value for all age groups is 22 ± 6 ml/m . 1 AIM: To measure the left atrial volume and diastolic function in 60 subjects and to study the correlation between left atrial volume and diastolic dysfunction METHODS: 60 subjects ( 40 with diastolic dysfunction and 20 c ontrols referred to the echocardiography were studied. All subjects underwent trans thoracic echocardiography and Doppler imaging Diastolic filling was categorized as normal (grade 0 impaired relaxation (grade 1 , pseudo normal pattern (grade 2 , restric tive filling (grade 3. LA volume is measured by biplane area length method and indexed to BSA ( LAVI Results : Among diastolic dysfunction group , 25(62.5% had Grade 1 diastolic dysfunction , 6(15% have grade 2 and 9(22.5% had grade3 diastolic dysfunction . Progressive increase in LAVI was seen with increasing severity of diastolic dysfunction. Mean LAVI in normal persons was 23.49±4.009 ml/ sqm and in patients with diastolic dysfunction , it was 29.38±4.45 , 39.44±8.19 , 44.33±5.54 ml/sqm in grade 1 , grade2 and grade3 diastolic dysfunctions groups respectively.

  2. Diferencia elevada de presión arterial interbraquial: Frecuencia y factores clínicos y demográficos / High difference of inter-arm blood pressure measurements: frequency and clinical and demographic factors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    David, Hurtado de Mendoza; Roberto, Pineda-Reyes; Jacsel, Suárez; Wilfredo, Mormontoy; Félix, Medina.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La diferencia elevada de presión arterial interbraquial (DEPAI) podría predecir eventos cardiovasculares adversos. Objetivos: Conocer la frecuencia de DEPAI y describir factores clínicos y demográficos relacionados. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Muestra aleatoria de 211 pacien [...] tes de un hospital público de Lima. Se tomó la presión arterial tres veces, de forma simultánea en ambos brazos, con dos tensiómetros automáticos OMROM HEM-705CP propiamente calibrados, estando el paciente en posición sentada, con un reposo previo de cinco minutos. Se recolectaron datos demográficos y clínicos. Se estableció la DEPAI sistólica (?10 mm Hg y ? 20 mm Hg) y diastólica (? 10 mm Hg). Se consideró las tres tomas y sólo las dos últimas. Se empleó las pruebas de Chi Cuadrado o Exacta de Fisher y el coeficiente de correlación puntual biserial para variables cualitativas y cuantitativas, respectivamente. Resultados: La edad promedio fue 48,92 ± 16,75 años. El 67,3% fue de sexo femenino. 23,08% de los participantes fueron obesos; 19,23%, hipertensos y 13,42%, fumadores. Según los punto de corte y cantidad de medidas consideradas, las frecuencias de DEPAI sistólica fueron 40,38%, 30,29%, 15,88% y12,98%; y las de DEPAI diastólica 13% y 10,1%. Hubo correlación entre DEPAI y HTA e IMC (p Abstract in english High difference of inter-arm blood pressure (HDIABP) measurements could predict adverse cardiovascular events. Objectives: To determine the frequency of HDIABP and to describe clinical and demographic factors related to it. Methods: Cross sectional study. A random sample of 211 patients from a publi [...] c hospital in Lima was taken. Blood pressure was measured three times, simultaneously in both arms with two automated sphygmomanometers OMROM HEM705CP properly calibrated, with the patient seated with at least 5 minutes of previous resting. Clinical and demographic data were collected. Systolic HDIABP was defined as ? 10 mmHg and ? 20 mmHg, and diastolic HDIABP as ? 10 mmHg. Chi square test and Fisher´s exact test were used, as well as the correlation coefficient for qualitative and quantitative data. Results: Mean age was 48.92 ± 16.75 years; 67.3% were females; 23.08% were obese; 19.23% had blood hypertension and 13.42% were smokers. The frequencies of systolic and diastolic HDIABP were 40.38%, 30.29%, 15.88%, 12.98% and 13%, 10.1%. There was correlation between HDIABP and body mass index (p

  3. Percutaneous renal artery stenting reduces arterial blood pressure, but what about renal function? A single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Dervişoğlu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effects of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTRA/S on arterial blood pressure and renal function.Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients undergoing PTRA/S at our institution between December 2003 and September 2006 was done. Follow-up data were derived from hospital records. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (EGFR was used as the marker of renal function. To evaluate the pre- and post-procedure values in individual patients the paired t test and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used.Results: Thirty-six patients (16 women, 30 men; mean age 59±15 years, range: 25-83 years underwent 43 PTRA/S interventions at our institution. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.3±8.6 (range 2-28 months. We observed no significant change in EGFR from pre-procedure to that obtained at follow-up (71.4±40.2 mL/min vs.73.3±39.0 mL/min; p=0.483. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP, however, was reduced significantly: pre-procedure MABP-123±22 mmHg; post-procedure follow-up value of 101±14 mmHg (p <0.001. The mean number of antihypertensive medications used at the time of intervention was 2.1±1.0 (range: 0-4, whereas at follow-up, this number had decreased to 1.3±1.0 (range: 0-4; p<0.001. In patients with renal impairment (EGFR ≤59 mL/min, 41% showed improvement, 29% showed no change and 29% demonstrated deterioration in EGFR. Conclusion: PTRA/S may preserve renal function, especially in patients with pre-procedural impaired renal function.

  4. Model Predictive Control of Drug Infusion System for Mean Arterial Pressure Regulation of Critical Care Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Nirmala

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients recovering in critical care units are continuously monitored for their hemodynamic states and accordingly given proper medication. The widely monitored hemodynamic variable is the Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP, which is regulated by infusion of vasoactive drugs like Sodium Nitroprusside (SNP. Presently, physicians check the patients’ MAP at regular intervals. This task is time-consuming and if automated, allows the physicians to attend to other critical parameters, which cannot be measured. Automation of the drug infusion based on the MAP would lead to continuous regulation of the hemodynamic variable enabling speedier recovery. This study attempts to automate the regulation of the drug infusion system using a model predictive controller. The controller’s performance was tested for three types of patient models. The controller tracks the set point changes and maintains the mean arterial pressure within the required values.

  5. Leave-one-out prediction error of systolic arterial pressure time series under paced breathing

    CERN Document Server

    Ancona, N; Marinazzo, D; Nitti, L; Pellicoro, M; Pinna, G D; Stramaglia, S

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we show that different physiological states and pathological conditions may be characterized in terms of predictability of time series signals from the underlying biological system. In particular we consider systolic arterial pressure time series from healthy subjects and Chronic Heart Failure patients, undergoing paced respiration. We model time series by the regularized least squares approach and quantify predictability by the leave-one-out error. We find that the entrainment mechanism connected to paced breath, that renders the arterial blood pressure signal more regular, thus more predictable, is less effective in patients, and this effect correlates with the seriousness of the heart failure. The leave-one-out error separates controls from patients and, when all orders of nonlinearity are taken into account, alive patients from patients for which cardiac death occurred.

  6. Validade de um monitor digital de pulso para mensuração de pressão arterial em comparação com um esfigmomanômetro de mercúrio / Validity of a wrist digital monitor for blood pressure measurement in comparison to a mercury sphygmomanometer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana M. B., Menezes; Samuel C., Dumith; Ricardo B., Noal; Ana Paula, Nunes; Fernanda I., Mendonça; Cora L. P., Araújo; Marta A., Duval; Paulo E., Caruso; Pedro C., Hallal.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Medidas válidas da pressão arterial, em situações clínicas e na comunidade, são essenciais para a monitoração dessa variável em nível populacional. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a validade de um monitor digital de pulso para mensuração da pressão arterial em adolescentes, em comparação com um esfigm [...] omanômetro de mercúrio. MÉTODOS: Um estudo de validação foi realizado na cidade de Pelotas, região sul do Brasil. A pressão arterial foi medida duas vezes, utilizando-se dois esfigmomanômetros diferentes: um aparelho digital de pulso OMRON e um aparelho de mesa BD de mercúrio. Metade da amostra foi medida primeiro através do manômetro digital e depois pelo de mercúrio, enquanto a outra metade foi avaliada na ordem inversa. A concordância entre as duas medidas foi avaliada através do método de Bland & Altman. RESULTADOS: 120 adolescentes com idade entre 14 e 15 anos foram incluídos no estudo (50% de cada sexo). A pressão sistólica média entre os meninos foi de 113,7 mmHg (DP 14,2) usando o manômetro de mercúrio e 115,5 mmHg (DP 15,2) usando o aparelho digital. Os valores equivalentes para a pressão diastólica foram 61,5 mmHg (DP 9,9) e 69,6 mmHg (10,2), respectivamente. Entre as meninas, a pressão sistólica média foi de 104,7 mmHg (DP 10,1) usando o manômetro de mercúrio e 102,4 mmHg (DP 11.9) usando o aparelho digital. Os valores equivalentes para a pressão diastólica foram 60,0 mmHg (DP 10,4) e 65,7 mmHg (DP 7,7), respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: O manômetro digital apresentou alta concordância com o manômetro de mercúrio para medir a pressão arterial sistólica. A concordância foi menor para a pressão arterial diastólica. O uso de equações de correção pode ser uma alternativa para estudos utilizando esse monitor digital de pulso em adolescentes. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Valid measurements of blood pressure, both at clinical and community settings, are essential for monitoring this variable at the population level. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of a wrist digital monitor for measuring blood pressure among adolescents in comparison to a mercury sphy [...] gmomanometer. METHODS: A validation study was carried out in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Blood pressure was measured twice using two different sphygmomanometers; an OMRON wrist digital and a desktop BD mercury one. Half of the sample was measured first with the digital manometer and subsequently with the mercury one, whereas the remaining half was evaluated in the opposite order. Agreement between both measures was evaluated using the Bland and Altman method. RESULTS: 120 adolescents aged 14 to 15 years were included (50% of each sex). Mean systolic blood pressure among boys was 113.7 mmHg (SD 14.2) when using the mercury manometer and 115.5 mmHg (SD 15.2) when using the digital one. Equivalent values for diastolic blood pressure were 61.5 mmHg (SD 9.9) and 69.6 mmHg (10.2), respectively. Among girls, the mean systolic blood pressure was 104.7 mmHg (SD 10.1) when using the mercury manometer and 102.4 mmHg (SD 11.9) when using the digital device. Values for diastolic blood pressure were 60.0 mmHg (SD 10.4) and 65.7 mmHg (SD 7.7), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The digital device showed a high level of agreement with the mercury manometer when measuring systolic blood pressure. The level of agreement was lower for diastolic blood pressure. The use of correction equations may be an alternative for studies using this wrist digital monitor in adolescent patients.

  7. Oxidative Stress is Associated with Increased Pulmonary Artery Systolic Pressure in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasemzadeh, Nima; Patel, Riyaz S.; Eapen, Danny J.; Veledar, Emir; Kassem, Hatem Al; Manocha, Pankaj; Khayata, Mohamed; Zafari, A. Maziar; Sperling, Laurence; Jones, Dean P.; Quyyumi, Arshed A.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the development of pulmonary hypertension in experimental models, but this association in humans is unknown. We investigated the relationship between pulmonary artery systolic pressure measured by echocardiography and plasma aminothiol oxidative stress markers, with the hypothesis that oxidative stress will be higher in those with pulmonary hypertension. A group of 347 patients aged 65±12 years from the Emory Cardiovascular Biobank underwent echocardiographic a...

  8. Fourier Analysis of Peripheral Blood Pressure and Flow in Intraoperative Assessment of Infrainguinal Arterial Reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheshmedzhiev Mihail V.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess infrainguinal arterial reconstructions by intraoperative flowmetry under the distal anastomosis using a fast Fourier transformation; calculate and compare the amplitude ratios of peripheral arterial blood pressure and volume flow before and after drug-induced vasodilation of occluded bypass grafts and bypass grafts that have been patent at least for 1 year. To find what magnitude of the change of these ratios indicate a long-term patency of the bypass grafting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We compared the results of the intraoperative flowmetry tests of 97 patients with infrainguinal arterial reconstructions. The patients were divided into two groups based on the graft status: the grafts in 49 patients were patent for at least a year, and 48 patients had failed bypass. We used a fast Fourier transform (FFT of the pressure and blood flow waves and compared the ratios of their amplitudes before and after administration of a vasodilator drug into the graft. Comparing the ratios obtained before and those after administration of the drug we quantified their change in each group and analysed them. RESULTS: After a drug-induced vasodilation, the blood pressure and flow amplitude ratios for the group with compromised reconstructions were less than 1.9 times smaller than those before drug infusion, while for the group with bypass grafts that had been functional for at least 12 months the ratios declined by more than 1.9≈2 times. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of the change of amplitude ratios of the peripheral pressure and volume flow after drug-induced vasodilation can be used to make an assessment of the bypass graft and the distal arterial segment.

  9. The association between arterial stiffness and left ventricular filling pressure in an apparently healthy Korean population

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Hack-Lyoung; Im Moon-Sun; Seo Jae-Bin; Chung Woo-Young; Kim Sang-Hyun; Kim Myung-A; Zo Joo-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate the association between arterial stiffness and left ventricular filling pressure in an apparently healthy Korean population. Methods A total of 115 healthy subjects without known cardiovascular risk factors or overt heart disease who underwent both transthoracic echocardiography and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) measurement at the same day during their routine check-ups were analyzed. Results The mean age of study subjec...

  10. Small artery structure adapts to vasodilatation rather than to blood pressure during antihypertensive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Ole N; Buus, Niels H; Larsen, Mogens L; Mulvany, Michael J; Christensen, Kent L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Correction of the abnormal structure of resistance arteries in essential hypertension may be an important treatment goal in addition to blood pressure (BP) reduction. We investigated how this may be achieved in a prospective clinical study. METHODS: Plethysmography was used to measure forearm resting vascular resistance (Rrest) and minimum vascular resistance (Rmin) as a measure of vascular structure. Two different groups of patients with essential hypertension were examined at baseli...

  11. Methodological aspects of toe blood pressure measurements for evaluation of arterial insuffiency in patients with diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Påhlsson, Hans-Ivar

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a growing health problem in the aging population of the western world with prevalence figures around 6-7%, which are increasing fast. Treatment of this disease is complex and expensive for society. One of the most feared DM complications is foot ulcerations. As a causative factor for this complication peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is second only to neuropathy in importance, and screening for PAD is vital to prevent amputation. Toe blood pressure...

  12. Frequency dependent effect of selective biphasic left vagus nerve stimulation on heart rate and arterial pressure

    OpenAIRE

    MATEJ PODBREGAR; IVAN RADAN; TOMISLAV MIRKOVIC; IVAN KNEŽEVI?; BORUT GERŠAK; JANEZ ROZMAN

    2012-01-01

    Activation of the parasympathetic pathway leads to negative chronotropic, dromotropic, and inotropic changes of heart function. The ability to selectively stimulate certain superficial compartments of peripheral nerves has been demonstrated previously. The aim of the present study was to find a clinically acceptable selective biphasic vagus nerve stimulation technique, which could allow gradual regulation of heart rate and systemic arterial pressure. In two patients, the left vagus nerve was...

  13. Body height and arterial pressure in seated and supine young males during +2 G centrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedsen, Sine Kongsbak; Eiken, Ola; Kölegård, Roger; Petersen, Lonnie Grove; Norsk, Peter

    2015-01-01

    the groups. HR increased more (p<0.05) in the tall than in the short group (14±2 versus 7±2 bpm). Stroke volume (SV) decreased in the short group (26±4 mL, p=0.001) and more so in the tall group (39±5 mL, p<0.0001; short vs tall p=0.047). During +2GX, systolic arterial pressure increased (p<0.001) and...

  14. Effects of intrathecal kynurenate on arterial pressure during chronic osmotic stress in conscious rats

    OpenAIRE

    Veitenheimer, Britta; Osborn, John W

    2012-01-01

    Increased plasma osmolality elevates mean arterial pressure (MAP) through activation of the sympathetic nervous system, but the neurotransmitters released in the spinal cord to regulate MAP during osmotic stress remain unresolved. Glutamatergic neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla project to sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord and are likely activated during conditions of osmotic stress; however, this has not been examined in conscious rats. This study investigated wh...

  15. Effects of Vascular Nitric Oxide Bioactivity and Vascular Ageing on Arterial Blood Pressure and Flow Waveforms

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Anthony A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of blood pressure and flow waveforms may lead to improved diagnosis of arterial dysfunction and disease. This thesis describes experiments to investigate the characteristic alteration of peripheral waveforms produced by stimulated release of vascular nitric oxide (an effect that is attenuated by endothelial dysfunction) and the changes that occur with age. In vivo experiments were conducted in anaesthetised rabbits and in vitro experiments employed a polyurethane model of the huma...

  16. Neural set point for the control of arterial pressure: role of the nucleus tractus solitarius

    OpenAIRE

    Valentinuzzi Max E; Zanutto B Silvano; Segura Enrique T

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Physiological experiments have shown that the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) can not be regulated after chemo and cardiopulmonary receptor denervation. Neuro-physiological information suggests that the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is the only structure that receives information from its rostral neural nuclei and from the cardiovascular receptors and projects to nuclei that regulate the circulatory variables. Methods From a control theory perspective, to answer if t...

  17. Levels of pressure for adolescent students and risk indicators for arterial hypertension - a descriptive study

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Georgina Macêdo de Sousa; Selma Fernanda Silva Arruda

    2006-01-01

    This transversal, descriptive, and analytical study attempts to identify the levels of pressure for a determined population of adolescent students and the risk indicators of significant association for arterial hypertension. The research was developed in a public school of the capital of the state of Maranhão, Brazil, with a sample size of 302 adolescent students. The data was collected using questionnaires with open and closed questions. Of the total number of adolescents who participated, 2...

  18. Cardiac index and pulmonary arterial blood pressure during exercise in cases of suspected latent heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results studying hemodynamics during maximum physical load (veloeriometry when sitting) for 24 patients examined to avoid heart failure are presented. 19 patients were subjected to coronaroangiography and contrast ventriculography, and 12 patients - to myocardium scintigraphy with 99mTc-pyrophosphate. It is shown that registration of diaslotic pressure in a pulmonary artery and in a cardiac index permits to diagnose failure in the miocardic function of patients with different heart diseases

  19. Fiabilidade da medição da Tensão Arterial: revisão teórica / Validity of arterial blood pressure measurement: theoretical review / La fiabilidad de la medida de presión arterial: revisión teórica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mónica, Santos; Cláudia, Gomes.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A hipertensão arterial é um dos problemas de saúde pública mais importantes, sobretudo nos países desenvolvidos. É razoavelmente comum, facilmente diagnosticada e tem prognóstico reservado quando não tratada. Efectuou-se a pesquisa através das bases de dados EBSCO (Academic Search Premier, Sport dis [...] kus e a Medline), utilizando as palavras/ expressões- chave: “validation, accuracy, blood pressure measurement, reproducibility, sphygmomanometer, mercury, oscillometer e dinamap”. Os critérios de selecção basearam-se na pertinência, metodologia e data mais recente de elaboração. O instrumento considerado gold standart é o Esfigmomanómetro (EM); contudo, o mercúrio é tóxico para o ambiente, pelo que surgiu a necessidade da sua substituição por instrumentos com outra tecnologia. Além disso, acredita-se que 50% dos EM não estão em condições de serem utilizados. Braçadeiras menores que o desejável sobrestimam a Tensão Arterial (TA). Acredita-se também que 23% dos profissionais de saúde nunca tenham calibrado os seus instrumentos e que 40% não se recorde da data em que o fez; em 2/3 tal procedimento tinha ocorrido há mais de um ano, apesar de ser simples e pouco dispendioso. Recomenda-se uma calibração anual. Abstract in spanish La hipertensión es uno de los problemas de salud pública más importantes, sobre todo en los países desarrollados. Es bastante común, fácil de diagnosticar y tiene pronóstico reservado si no es tratada. Se llevó a cabo una investigación a través de las bases de datos EBSCO (Academic Search Premier, S [...] port diskus e a Medline), utilizando las palabras/expresiones clave: “validation, accuracy, blood pressure measurement, reproducibility, sphygmomanometer, mercury, oscillometer e dinamap”. Los criterios de selección se basaron en la pertinencia, la metodología y la fecha más reciente de elaboración. El instrumento considerado gold standart es el esfigmómetro (EM); sin embargo, el mercurio es tóxico para el medio ambiente, de ahí que surgiera la necesidad de su sustitución por instrumentos con otra tecnología. Además, se cree que el 50% de EM no está en condiciones de ser utilizado. Las abrazaderas menores de lo deseable sobrestiman la tensión arterial (TA). También se cree que el 23% de los profesionales de la salud nunca ha calibrado sus instrumentos y que el 40% no se acuerda de la fecha en la que lo ha hecho; 2/3 habían hecho esta prueba hace más de un año a pesar de ser simple y poco dispendiosa. Se recomienda una calibración anual. Abstract in english Arterial hypertension is one of the most important public health problems, especially in developed countries. It is reasonably common, easy to diagnose and has a limited prognosis when not treated. The research was done using the keywords: validation, accuracy, blood pressure measurement, reproducib [...] ility, sphygmomanometer, mercury, oscillometer e dinamap” in “Academic Search Premier, Sport diskus and Medline”; selecting the articles by methodology, relevance and publication date. The “gold standard” instrument is the sphygmomanometer; however, mercury is toxic, and so it must be substituted by other technology. In addition, 50% of sphygmomanometers are not in good condition for clinical use. Cuffs smaller than necessary over-estimate arterial blood pressure. It seems that 23% of health professionals have never calibrated the sphygmomanometer and 40% of the others did not remember when they did this; in 2/3 this situation has continued for longer than one year, despite being cheap and simple. Annual calibration is recommended.

  20. Frecuencia de la hipertensión arterial y su relación con algunas variables clínicas en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 / High blood pressure frequency and its relation to some clinical variables in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Valdés Ramos; Niurka, Bencosme Rodríguez.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con 300 pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 ingresados en el Centro de Atención al Diabético de Bayamo, Granma, en el período comprendido entre octubre de 2007 y mayo de 2008, con el objetivo de conocer la frecuencia de hipertensión arterial y su relación con al [...] gunas variables clínicas en estos casos. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de cada uno de ellos para obtener datos de los aspectos siguientes: edad, sexo, color de la piel, hábitos tóxicos, edad al comienzo de la diabetes, estado nutricional, circunferencia de la cintura, tensión arterial y complicaciones crónicas de la diabetes. Se encontró hipertensión arterial en 210 pacientes (70 %); de ellos, 57 (27,1 %) presentaron hipertensión sistólica aislada, 39 (18,5 %) hipertensión diastólica, y 114 (54,4 %) hipertensión sistodiastólica. La hipertensión arterial se presentó desde el inicio de la diabetes en el 62,9 %. El 76,1 % de los pacientes hipertensos tenían sobrepeso u obesidad (P=0,0557). Resultó significativa la asociación entre la hipertensión arterial y la cardiopatía isquémica (p= 0,0117). En relación con el ictus y la insuficiencia arterial periférica, aunque la mayoría de los casos eran hipertensos, no llegó a ser estadísticamente significativo (p= 0,8261, p= 0,8600). El 71,1 % de los pacientes con retinopatía diabética y el 75 % con nefropatía diabética eran hipertensos (p= 0,8261, p= 0,8600). Se concluye que la hipertensión arterial tiene una elevada incidencia en los pacientes con diabetes mellitas tipo 2, porque está presente en un porcentaje importante desde el diagnóstico de la diabetes y se asocia significativamente a la presencia de cardiopatía isquémica. Abstract in english A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in 300 patients with type 2 diabetes admitted in Diabetes Care Center of Bayamo, Granma province between October, 2007 and May, 2008 to know the high blood pressure frequency and its relation to some clinical variables in these cases. Medical rec [...] ords of each patient were reviewed to obtain data on the following features: age, sex, skin color, toxic habits, arterial pressure, and chronic complications of diabetes. High blood pressure was present in 210 patients (70 %), from them 57 (27.1 %) had isolated systolic hypertension, 39 (18.5 %) diastolic hypertension, and 114 (54.4 %) systolic-diastolic hypertension. Arterial hypertension was present from onset of diabetes in 62.9 %. The 76.1 % of hypertensive patients had overweight or obesity (p= 0.0557). The relationship was significant between arterial hypertension and ischemic heart disease (p = 0.0117). With regard to ictus and peripheral arterial failure, although most of cases were hypertensive, there was not statistic significance (p= 0.8261, p= 0.8600). The 71,1 % of patients presenting with diabetic retinopathy and the 75 % with diabetic nephropathy were hypertensive (p= 0.8261, p= 0.8600). We conclude that arterial hypertension shows a high incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus due to its presence in a significant percentage from the diabetes diagnosis and it is markedly associated with presence of ischemic heart disease.

  1. Frecuencia de la hipertensión arterial y su relación con algunas variables clínicas en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 High blood pressure frequency and its relation to some clinical variables in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Valdés Ramos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con 300 pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 ingresados en el Centro de Atención al Diabético de Bayamo, Granma, en el período comprendido entre octubre de 2007 y mayo de 2008, con el objetivo de conocer la frecuencia de hipertensión arterial y su relación con algunas variables clínicas en estos casos. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de cada uno de ellos para obtener datos de los aspectos siguientes: edad, sexo, color de la piel, hábitos tóxicos, edad al comienzo de la diabetes, estado nutricional, circunferencia de la cintura, tensión arterial y complicaciones crónicas de la diabetes. Se encontró hipertensión arterial en 210 pacientes (70 %; de ellos, 57 (27,1 % presentaron hipertensión sistólica aislada, 39 (18,5 % hipertensión diastólica, y 114 (54,4 % hipertensión sistodiastólica. La hipertensión arterial se presentó desde el inicio de la diabetes en el 62,9 %. El 76,1 % de los pacientes hipertensos tenían sobrepeso u obesidad (P=0,0557. Resultó significativa la asociación entre la hipertensión arterial y la cardiopatía isquémica (p= 0,0117. En relación con el ictus y la insuficiencia arterial periférica, aunque la mayoría de los casos eran hipertensos, no llegó a ser estadísticamente significativo (p= 0,8261, p= 0,8600. El 71,1 % de los pacientes con retinopatía diabética y el 75 % con nefropatía diabética eran hipertensos (p= 0,8261, p= 0,8600. Se concluye que la hipertensión arterial tiene una elevada incidencia en los pacientes con diabetes mellitas tipo 2, porque está presente en un porcentaje importante desde el diagnóstico de la diabetes y se asocia significativamente a la presencia de cardiopatía isquémica.A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in 300 patients with type 2 diabetes admitted in Diabetes Care Center of Bayamo, Granma province between October, 2007 and May, 2008 to know the high blood pressure frequency and its relation to some clinical variables in these cases. Medical records of each patient were reviewed to obtain data on the following features: age, sex, skin color, toxic habits, arterial pressure, and chronic complications of diabetes. High blood pressure was present in 210 patients (70 %, from them 57 (27.1 % had isolated systolic hypertension, 39 (18.5 % diastolic hypertension, and 114 (54.4 % systolic-diastolic hypertension. Arterial hypertension was present from onset of diabetes in 62.9 %. The 76.1 % of hypertensive patients had overweight or obesity (p= 0.0557. The relationship was significant between arterial hypertension and ischemic heart disease (p = 0.0117. With regard to ictus and peripheral arterial failure, although most of cases were hypertensive, there was not statistic significance (p= 0.8261, p= 0.8600. The 71,1 % of patients presenting with diabetic retinopathy and the 75 % with diabetic nephropathy were hypertensive (p= 0.8261, p= 0.8600. We conclude that arterial hypertension shows a high incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus due to its presence in a significant percentage from the diabetes diagnosis and it is markedly associated with presence of ischemic heart disease.

  2. Altered frequency characteristics of sympathetic nerve activity after sustained elevation in arterial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, D E; Fels, R J; Kenney, M J

    1998-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that sustained elevation in mean arterial pressure (MAP) alters the frequency-domain characteristics of efferent sympathetic nerve discharge (SND) after the return of MAP to control levels. Renal, lumbar, and splanchnic SND were recorded before, during, and after a 30-min increase in MAP produced by phenylephrine (PE) infusion in alpha-chloralose-anesthetized, spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats. The following observations were made. 1) The basic cardiac-locked pattern of renal, lumbar, and splanchnic SND bursts was altered after sustained elevation in MAP, demonstrating prolonged effects on the neural circuits involved in entraining efferent SND to the cardiac cycle. Importantly, discharge bursts in afferent baroreceptor nerve activity remained pulse-synchronous after sustained increases in arterial pressure. 2) The frequency-domain relationships between the activity in sympathetic nerve pairs were altered after sustained elevation in MAP, suggesting a transformation from a system of tightly coupled neural circuits to one of multiple generators exerting selective control over SND. 3) The most prominent reduction in SND power after sustained elevation in MAP occurred in the frequency band containing the cardiac cycle, indicating that the prolonged suppression of SND after sustained increases in arterial pressure is due primarily to the selective inhibition of cardiac-related SND bursts. We conclude that sustained elevation in MAP profoundly affects the neural circuits responsible for the frequency components of basal SND in SH rats. PMID:9530235

  3. Intensidades de treinamento resistido e pressão arterial de idosas hipertensas - um estudo piloto / Resistance training intensities and blood pressure of hypertensive older women - a pilot study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eline Silva da, Cunha; Patrícia Angélica de, Miranda; Silva, Nogueira; Eduardo Caldas, Costa; Eliane Pereira da, Silva; Gardênia Maria Holanda, Ferreira.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Observa-se que a literatura apresenta uma lacuna acerca da intensidade ideal de treinamento resistido para idosos hipertensos, os poucos estudos existentes utilizam treinamentos com diferentes intensidades. OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito de duas intensidades de treinamento resistido sobre [...] a pressão arterial de idosas hipertensas controladas. Métodos: Dezesseis idosas hipertensas, controladas por medicação anti-hipertensiva, foram divididas em dois grupos através de sorteio. Nove pacientes foram submetidas a treinamento resistido moderado (G1) e sete, a treinamento resistido leve (G2). As pacientes realizaram oito semanas de treinamento resistido, com frequência de três vezes por semana em dias alternados, no período vespertino. Os exercícios realizados foram respectivamente: leg press, supino reto, extensão de joelhos, puxada frontal, flexão de joelhos, abdução de ombro, abdução unilateral de quadril com cross over e rosca direta com barra. RESULTADOS: As pacientes do G1 apresentaram redução tanto nos valores de repouso da pressão arterial diastólica (PAD) p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The optimum intensity of resistance training for hypertensive elderly has not been studied yet and the few studies in the literature used training with distinct intensities. Objective: To verify the effect of two resistance training intensities on blood pressure (BP) of elderly women wit [...] h controlled hypertension. METHODS: Sixteen older women with hypertension controlled by anti-hypertensive drug were randomly divided into two groups. Nine patients were submitted to moderate resistance training (G1) and seven patients were submitted to mild resistance training (G2). The patients underwent eight weeks of resistance training, with frequency of three times per week on alternate days in the afternoon. The exercises performed were: leg press, bench press, knee extension, lat pull-down, knee flexion, shoulder abduction, standing cable hip abduction and biceps curl. RESULTS: G1 patients presented reduction in both resting values in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) p

  4. Re-evaluation of Pre-pump Arterial Pressure to Avoid Inadequate Dialysis and Hemolysis: Importance of Prepump Arterial Pressure Monitoring in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Eriko; Nagai, Kojiro; Takeuchi, Risa; Noda, Yasuhiro; Makino, Tomomi; Chikata, Yusuke; Hann, Michael; Yoshimoto, Sakiya; Ono, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Sayo; Tamaki, Masanori; Murakami, Taichi; Matsuura, Motokazu; Abe, Hideharu; Doi, Toshio

    2015-07-01

    Prepump arterial pressure (PreAP) is monitored to avoid generating excessive negative pressure. The National Kidney Foundation K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for vascular access recommend that PreAP should not fall below -250?mm?Hg because excessive negative PreAP can lead to a decrease in the delivery of blood flow, inadequate dialysis, and hemolysis. Nonetheless, these recommendations are consistently disregarded in clinical practice and pressure sensors are often removed from the dialysis circuit. Thus far, delivered blood flow has been reported to decrease at values more negative than -150?mm?Hg of PreAP. These values have been analyzed by an ultrasonic flowmeter and not directly measured. Furthermore, no known group has evaluated whether PreAP-induced hemolysis occurs at a particular threshold. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the importance of PreAP in the prediction of inadequate dialysis and hemolysis. By using different diameter needles, human blood samples from healthy volunteers were circulated in a closed dialysis circuit. The relationship between PreAP and delivered blood flow or PreAP and hemolysis was investigated. We also investigated the optimal value for PreAP using several empirical monitoring methods, such as a pressure pillow. Our investigation indicated that PreAP is a critical factor in the determination of delivered blood flow and hemolysis, both of which occured at pressure values more negative than -150?mm?Hg. With the exception of direct pressure monitoring, commonly used monitoring methods for PreAP were determined to be ineffective. We propose that the use of a vacuum monitor would permit regular measurement of PreAP. PMID:25940509

  5. The origin of Korotkoff sounds and the accuracy of auscultatory blood pressure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbs, Charles F

    2015-12-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that the sharper, high frequency Korotkoff sounds come from resonant motion of the arterial wall, which begins after the artery transitions from a buckled state to an expanding state. The motions of one mass, two nonlinear springs, and one damper, driven by transmural pressure under the cuff, are used to model and compute the Korotkoff sounds according to principles of classical Newtonian physics. The natural resonance of this spring-mass-damper system provides a concise, yet rigorous, explanation for the origin of Korotkoff sounds. Fundamentally, wall stretching in expansion requires more force than wall bending in buckling. At cuff pressures between systolic and diastolic arterial pressure, audible vibrations (> 40 Hz) occur during early expansion of the artery wall beyond its zero pressure radius after the outward moving mass of tissue experiences sudden deceleration, caused by the discontinuity in stiffness between bucked and expanded states. The idealized spring-mass-damper model faithfully reproduces the time-domain waveforms of actual Korotkoff sounds in humans. Appearance of arterial sounds occurs at or just above the level of systolic pressure. Disappearance of arterial sounds occurs at or just above the level of diastolic pressure. Muffling of the sounds is explained by increased resistance of the artery to collapse, caused by downstream venous engorgement. A simple analytical model can define the physical origin of Korotkoff sounds, suggesting improved mechanical or electronic filters for their selective detection and confirming the disappearance of the Korotkoff sounds as the optimal diastolic end point. PMID:26553392

  6. [Responses of cerebral arteries to the changes in cerebral perfusion pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, S; Kobayashi, S; Yamashiata, K; Murata, A; Kitani, M

    1989-08-01

    The responsiveness of cerebral pial arteries and arterioles to changes in systemic arterial blood pressure (SAP) was investigated. Using 9 cats anesthetized with chloralose and urethane, direct, simultaneous measurements of pial arterial pressure (PAP) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were made during changes in SAP. SAP was varied between 25 and 140 mmHg by the hemorrhage and blood infusion methods. After a partial craniotomy. PAP was measured with a micropipette connected to a servo-controlled micropressure recording system. Punctured pial arteries were grouped into three types according to their diameters, 1A (291 +/- 33 microns), 2A (16 +/- 26 microns), and 3A (70 +/- 10 microns). CBF on the exposed cortex was measured with hydrogen clearance method. The PAPs measured were a linear function of SAP; PAP (1A) = 0.73/SAP-6.6 (r = 0.96), PAP (2A) = 0.62 X SAP-6.6 (r = 0.90), PAP (3A) = 0.61 X SAP-6.4 (r = 0.93). The result indicates that PAPs are entirely dependent on SAP and that SAP induced changes in PAPs are less in the smaller pial arteries. Regional CBF remained constant (55 +/- 4 ml/100 g/min) between 60 and 140 mmHg of SAP. A significant decrease in CBF was observed below 60 mmHg of SAP. Cerebrovascular resistances were calculated segmentally using the following formulas; large vessel resistances (LVR) = (SAP-PAP(1A]/CBF, middle vessel resistance = (PAP (1A)-PAP (3A]/CBF, and small vessel resistance = PAP (3A)/CBF. The changes in LVR, MVR, and SVR were almost identical between 70 and 140 mmHg of SAP. Below 70 mmHg of SAP, SVR showed the greatest decrease in resistance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2803837

  7. Exercício físico controla pressão arterial e melhora qualidade de vida / Exercise control blood pressure and improvement quality of life

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daiana Cristine, Bündchen; Isabel de Castro, Schenkel; Rafaella Zulianello dos, Santos; Tales de, Carvalho.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Para o tratamento correto da hipertensão arterial, é plausível a hipótese de que diante da prática regular de exercícios físicos estes pacientes não necessitariam de fármacos anti-hipertensivos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do tratamento exclusivo com exercício físico na pressão arterial ( [...] PA) e qualidade de vida (QV) de hipertensos. MÉTODO: Ensaio clínico com 32 hipertensos sedentários, 55±9 anos, que estavam sob tratamento farmacológico (TF) aleatoriamente alocados em Grupo Exercício (GE) e Grupo Controle (GC). No GE, 18 indivíduos (50% mulheres) após pelo menos dez dias de interrupção do TF iniciaram programa de exercício de dez semanas, 3x/semana, 30 minutos de exercício aeróbio seguidos por exercícios resistidos, enquanto 14 do GC (57% mulheres) se mantiveram sob TF. Foi verificada PA sistólica (PAS) e diastólica (PAD) no início e final do estudo pelo método auscultatório clássico e QV pelo questionário MINICHAL. Os dados foram expressos por M±DP, usou-se teste t de Student, U de Mann-Whitney e Wilcoxon, considerando-se p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Hypertension can be correctly treated when exercise is regularly practiced and hence, patients would not need anti-hypertensive drugs. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of treatment exclusively with exercise on blood pressure (BP) and quality of life (QL) of hypertensive subjects. METHODS: [...] Clinical trial with 32 sedentary hypertensive subjects, aged 55 ± 9 years, under pharmacological treatment (PT) randomly allocated to Exercise Group (EG) and Control Group (CG). At EG, 18 subjects (50% women) at least 10 days after the cessation of PT started the exercise program of 10 weeks, 3x/week, 30 minutes of aerobic exercise followed by resistance exercises, while 14 CG (57% women) remained under PT. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was evaluated by auscultation at the beginning and end and QL was evaluated using the questionnaire MINICHAL. Data were expressed as mean ± SD and statistical analysis was performed using t test, Mann Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests. RESULTS: At the beginning and end of the study, no significant differences in were observed in BP between groups. Within groups, BP in EG remained similar to the values before drugs were removed (SBP 132.2 ± 13.3 x 134.4 ± 10 mmHg, DBP 85.0 ± 9 x 85.3 ± 10 mmHg p = ns) and the CG (SBP 127.2 ± 19 x 130.2 ± 16 mmHg, DBP 82.1 ± 16 x 85.3 ± 12 mmHg p = ns).For QL, no inter-group difference was observed in scores at the beginning and end; intra-group significant improvement in the emotional aspect of the EG (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: The anti-hypertensive therapy with exercise only in comparison to conventional pharmacological treatment allowed the same BP control and better QL perception.

  8. Similarities and Differences between the Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of Diastolic and Systolic Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuo Komamura

    2013-01-01

    Pathophysiology of heart failure has been considered to be a damaged state of systolic function of the heart followed by a state of low cardiac output that is, systolic heart failure. Even if systolic function is preserved, left ventricular filling in diastole can be impeded and resulted in elevation of filling pressure and symptoms of heart failure. This kind of heart failure is called diastolic heart failure. Nowadays, diastolic heart failure is referred to as heart failure with preserved e...

  9. La hipertensión arterial como causa de mortalidad The high blood pressure as a cause of death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Ferrer Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la hipertensión arterial constituye el factor de riesgo mayor sobre la morbilidad y mortalidad de causa cardiovascular, estimado a través de los certificados de defunción. Objetivo: evaluar la repercusión de este factor de riesgo como causa de mortalidad. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo de los pacientes fallecidos con hipertensión arterial entre el 2002 y 2007. Las variables estudiadas fueron: edad, sexo, color de la piel, causa directa de muerte, causa básica de muerte, causa contribuyente de muerte y correlación clínica/patológica. Resultados: se encontró que el 9,1 % de los fallecidos eran hipertensos, el grupo de edad más afectado fue el de 65 a 74 años (23,4 % y la edad promedio fue de 65 años. En 248 fallecidos existió coincidencia diagnóstica total en la causa directa de muerte (74,6 % y en 236 en la causa básica de muerte (71,0 %. La hipertensión arterial constituyó la causa básica de muerte en el 59,3 % y la causa contribuyente de muerte en el 18,97 %. En más de la mitad de los casos, la hipertensión arterial participó en los mecanismos de muerte a través de la causa básica de muerte y causa contribuyente de muerte. Conclusiones: la hipertensión arterial constituye un determinante causal en la mortalidad y progresión del daño vascular aterosclerótico.Introduction: high blood pressure is a major risk factor on the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular origin according to the death certificate, Objective: to assess the repercussion of this risk factor as cause of death. Methods: a retrospective and descriptive study was conducted in patients deceased with high blood pressure between 2002 and 2007. Study variables were: age, sex, skin color, direct cause of death, basic cause of death, contributing cause of death and clinical/pathological correlation. Results: there found that the 9.1 % of deceases were hypertensive, the more involved age group was that of 65-74 years (23.4 % and the mean age was of 65 years. In 248 deceased there was a total diagnostic coincidence in relation to the direct cause of death (74.6 % and in 236 deceased in the basic cause of death (71.0 %. High blood pressure was the basic cause of death in the 59.3 % and the contributing cause of death in the 18.97 %. In more than a half of cases, high blood pressure was involved in the death mechanisms through the basic and the contributing cause of death. Conclusions: High blood pressure is a causal determinant factor in the mortality and the progression of atherosclerotic vascular damage.

  10. Concurrent determinants of blood pressure among adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study Determinantes contemporâneos da pressão arterial em adolescentes: a visita de 11 anos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. B. Menezes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate concurrent risk factors for high blood pressure in adolescents. This is a prospective cohort study including 4,452 adolescents born in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 1993. Blood pressure was measured before and after the interview, and the mean value was used in the analyses. Mean systolic blood pressure was 101.9mmHg (SD = 12.3 and mean diastolic pressure was 63.4mmHg (SD = 9.9. Adolescents with black skin had higher blood pressure than those with white skin. Mean systolic pressure among subjects in the top quartile of body mass index (BMI was 11.6mmHg higher than among those in the lowest quartile. Mean systolic pressure among postmenarcheal girls was 5.4mmHg higher than among premenarcheal girls. Similar trends were found for diastolic arterial pressure. Our findings suggest that blood pressure control must begin already in childhood and adolescence.O objetivo do presente artigo foi avaliar fatores associados com a pressão arterial de adolescentes. Trata-se de estudo de coorte prospectivo, incluindo 4.452 adolescentes nascidos em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, em 1993. A pressão arterial foi medida no início e final da entrevista com aparelho digital, sendo o valor médio utilizado nas análises. A pressão arterial sistólica média foi de 101,9mmHg (DP = 12,3 e a diastólica foi de 63,4mmHg (DP = 9,9. Adolescentes com pele preta apresentaram valores mais elevados de pressão arterial sistólica do que os de pele branca. Adolescentes no quartil superior do índice de massa corporal (IMC apresentaram uma pressão sistólica média 11,6mmHg maior do que aqueles no quartil inferior. Meninas que já menstruaram apresentaram uma pressão sistólica média 5,4mmHg maior em comparação às demais. Os resultados foram similares para a pressão arterial diastólica. O controle da pressão arterial elevada deve ser iniciado desde a infância e adolescência.

  11. Arterial pressure profile in patients with cirrhosis : Fourier analysis of arterial pulse in relation to pressure level, stroke volume, and severity of disease: on the reduction of afterload in the hyperdynamic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Fuglsang, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with cirrhosis have cardiovascular dysfunction and altered mechanical properties of large and small arteries. This study was undertaken in order to analyze the arterial pressure curve in relation to mean arterial pressure level, stroke volume, and severity of liver disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one patients with cirrhosis (Child-Turcotte classes A/B/C = 13/15/13) were studied during a hemodynamic investigation of portal hypertension. Fifteen patients without liver disease served as controls. We applied fast Fourier analysis to quantify the pressure components of the arterial curve, the harmonic Fourier coefficients (HFC). RESULTS: Mean arterial pressure was significantly reduced (91 vs. 98 mmHg, p < 0.001) and stroke volume was significantly increased (94 vs. 78 ml, p < 0.001) in patients with cirrhosis versus controls. The HFC were significantly lower in patients with cirrhosis than in controls (-15 to -24%, p < 0.002), except for the fourth HFC, which was significantly increased (+28%, p < 0.02). In contrast to controls, which showed a highly significant effect of the level of arterial pressure on their HFC (p < 0.001), patients with cirrhosis did not show pressure or stroke volume dependence on their HFC, indicating an overall compliant and slow reflective arterial vascular bed. The initial rise in pulse pressure (dP/dt) was inversely related to the Child-Turcotte score (p < 0.05), and the HFC were borderline significantly related to this score (p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: The arterial pulsation in cirrhosis is qualitatively changed with reduced pulse reflections, which may protect against manifest cardiac failure in patients with advanced cirrhosis.

  12. Radioisotope method for assessing skin blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of measuring the skin blood pressure (SBP) evolved by Holstein and Lassen is described. The method is based on determination of the force of pressure causing blockade of Na 131I clearance from the site of its intradermal injection. Using this method it was found that in the lower extremities in healthy subjects the SBP approached the diastolic pressure measured by the conventional method in the brachial artery. On the other hand in patients with obliterative arteriosclerosis and in Buerger's disease the SBP was considerably lower than the diastolic arterial pressure. The authors think that the method gives a good insight into the state of blood supply to the extremities in healthy subjects and in peripheral vascular failure. (author)

  13. Respuesta de la frecuencia cardiaca y presión arterial en la fase II del programa de rehabilitación cardiaca en Costa Rica / Heart rate and blood pressure response in phase II cardiac rehabilitation program in Costa Rica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel, Wong-On; Severita, Carrillo-Barrantes; Milena, Molina-Astúa; Christian, Vargas-Quesada; Sofía, Chaverri Flores.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir el comportamiento de la frecuencia cardiaca y presión arterial en pacientes participantes de la fase II del programa de rehabilitación cardiaca del Centro Nacional de Rehabilitación. Métodos: 175 pacientes portadores de enfermedad arterial coronaria admitidos en la fase II del pr [...] ograma de rehabilitación cardiaca, del Centro Nacional de Rehabilitación, entre junio de 2009 y junio de 2011, con una duración de 12 semanas. Se les midió la frecuencia cardiaca y la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica antes del ejercicio y 3 minutos después de finalizado, con seguimiento a 2 años plazo. Resultados: de los 175 pacientes, 134 (76,1%) fueron hombres, con edad promedio de 59,3 años. La frecuencia cardiaca posterior al ejercicio mostró un aumento promedio de 7,9 latidos/ min (13,3%), la presión arterial sistólica una disminución en promedio de 7,80 mmHg (6,98 %) y la presión arterial diastólica mostró un incremento de 2,25 mmHg (3,15 %) el primer mes; 0,71 mmHg (1,24%) el segundo mes y -1,62 mmHg (-1,24%) el tercer mes. A los 2 años se localizó a 121 pacientes de los cuales 10 pacientes sufrieron algún tipo de re-intervención cardiaca y 2 siguen a la espera de un nuevo procedimiento; 88 (72%) se mantienen haciendo ejercicio. No se encontró relación entre el comportamiento de la frecuencia cardiaca y la presión arterial con la incidencia de nuevos eventos o re-intervenciones. Conclusión: el estudio muestra cambios producidos por el ejercicio progresivo en la frecuencia cardiaca y la presión arterial, en un programa de rehabilitación cardiaca fase II. Se encontró un alto porcentaje de adherencia al ejercicio y baja incidencia de eventos a 2 años plazo. Abstract in english Aim: To describe the behavior of heart rate and blood pressure in patients participating in stage II of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Program at the National Rehabilitation Center. Methods: 175 patients with coronary artery disease admitted in phase II of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Program at the Natio [...] nal Rehabilitation Center between June 2009 and June 2011, and a 12-week duration. We recorded heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure before and 3 minutes after exercise; with follow-up after 2 years. Results: Out of the 175 patients, 134 (76.1%) were men, with a mean age of 59.3 years old. Heart rate after exercise showed an average increase of 7.9 b/m (13.3%). Systolic blood pressure showed an average decrease of 7.80 mmHg (6.98%) and diastolic blood pressure showed an increase of 2.25 mmHg (3.15%) in the first month, 0.71 mmHg (1.24%) in the second month, and -1.62 mmHg (-1.24%) in the third month. After 2 years we found 121 patients, 10 of them had suffered some kind of cardiac re-intervention and 2 were still waiting for a new procedure; 88 (72%) continue doing exercise. No relationship was found between behavior of heart rate and of blood pressure and the incidence of new cardiac events or re-interventions. Conclusion: This study describes changes in heart rate and blood pressure as a result of progressive exercise in a phase II cardiac rehabilitation program. We found a high percentage of adherence to exercise and a low incidence of events after 2 years.

  14. Hydrostatic Pressure Independently Increases Elastin and Collagen Co-expression in Small-diameter Engineered Arterial Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Crapo, Peter M.; Wang, Yadong

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix production increase with hydrostatic pressure in vitro. We have engineered highly compliant small-diameter arterial constructs by culturing primary adult arterial SMCs under pulsatile perfusion on tubular, porous, elastomeric scaffolds composed of poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS). This study investigates the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the biological and mechanical properties of...

  15. Reverse end-diastolic flow in a fetus with a rare liver malformation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Torre Renato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We describe a case of early and persistent reverse end-diastolic flow in the middle cerebral artery in a fetus with severe ascites. These features are associated with a rare liver malformation known as ductal plate malformation. Case presentation A 28-year-old Caucasian woman was referred to our high-risk obstetric unit at 24 weeks' gestation for fetal ascites detected during a routine ultrasound examination. During her hospitalization we performed medical investigations, including a fetal paracentesis, to detect the etiology of fetal ascites. The cause of fetal ascites (then considered non-immune or idiopathic was not evident, but a subsequent ultrasound examination at 27 weeks' gestation showed a reverse end-diastolic flow in the middle cerebral artery without any other Doppler abnormalities. A cesarean section was performed at 28 weeks' gestation because of the compromised fetal condition. An autopsy revealed a rare malformation of intrahepatic bile ducts known as ductal plate malformation. Conclusion Persistent reverse flow in the middle cerebral artery should be considered a marker of adverse pregnancy outcome. We recommend careful ultrasound monitoring in the presence of this ultrasonographic sign to exclude any other cause of increased intracranial pressure. To better understand the nature of these ultrasonographic signs, additional reports are deemed necessary. In fact in our case, as confirmed by histopathological examination, the fetal condition was extremely compromised due to failure of the fetal liver. Ductal plate malformation altered the liver structures causing hypoproteinemia and probably portal hypertension. These two conditions therefore explain the severe hydrops that compromised the fetal situation.

  16. Influence of physical exercise and sodium intake on arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy in rats

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    Santos Bruno Mello Rodrigues dos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence shows that cardiac hypertrophy (CH is a risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. Several stimuli may cause CH-like manifestations and promote volume or pressure overload. Exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy is an expected adaptation to regular exercise training. Salt intake has been shown to be the most important determinant of blood pressure in different populations. The purpose of the present work was to verify the influence of physical exercise and sodium intake on the blood pressure and myocardium. The study was performed on 36 rats divided into six groups: Group I (diet without salt overload, Group II (diet without salt overload and swimming, Group III (diet with 2.5% NaCl solution and swimming, Group IV (diet with 5% NaCl solution and swimming, Group V (diet with 2.5% NaCl solution without exercise, Group VI (diet with 5% NaCl solution without exercise. The arterial pressure was significantly lower in Group I when compared with Group IV. The ratio of cardiac mass/body mass was increased in Groups III and IV. In conclusion, there was evidence that exercise training and NaCl intake promotes arterial hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy.

  17. Profunda Femoris Artery Perforator Propeller Flap: A Valid Method to Cover Complicated Ischiatic Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglione, Caterina; Bolletta, Elisa; Pierangeli, Marina; Di Benedetto, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We report the case of a 50-year-old paraplegic man with a complicated grade III/IV ischiatic pressure sore treated with a propeller flap based on the first perforator of the profunda femoris artery. Our aim was to surgically reconstruct an ischiatic pressure sore in a patient with ankylosis using a fasciocutaneous perforator propeller flap obtained from the posterior region of the thigh. Our decision to perform a profunda femoris artery perforator propeller flap reconstruction was mainly due to the anatomical contiguity of the flap with the site of the lesion and the good quality of the skin harvested from the posterior region of the thigh. The use of the perforator fasciocutaneous flap represents a muscle-sparing technique, providing a better long-term result in surgical reconstruction. The choice of the 180-degree propeller flap was due to its ability to provide a good repair of the pressure ulcer and to pass over the ischiatic prominence in the patient in the forced decubitus position. The operatory course did not present any kind of complication. Using this reconstructive treatment, we have obtained complete coverage of the ischiatic pressure sore. PMID:26495200

  18. Profunda Femoris Artery Perforator Propeller Flap: A Valid Method to Cover Complicated Ischiatic Pressure Sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, Alessandro; Tartaglione, Caterina; Bolletta, Elisa; Pierangeli, Marina; Di Benedetto, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old paraplegic man with a complicated grade III/IV ischiatic pressure sore treated with a propeller flap based on the first perforator of the profunda femoris artery. Our aim was to surgically reconstruct an ischiatic pressure sore in a patient with ankylosis using a fasciocutaneous perforator propeller flap obtained from the posterior region of the thigh. Our decision to perform a profunda femoris artery perforator propeller flap reconstruction was mainly due to the anatomical contiguity of the flap with the site of the lesion and the good quality of the skin harvested from the posterior region of the thigh. The use of the perforator fasciocutaneous flap represents a muscle-sparing technique, providing a better long-term result in surgical reconstruction. The choice of the 180-degree propeller flap was due to its ability to provide a good repair of the pressure ulcer and to pass over the ischiatic prominence in the patient in the forced decubitus position. The operatory course did not present any kind of complication. Using this reconstructive treatment, we have obtained complete coverage of the ischiatic pressure sore. PMID:26495200

  19. PREDICTION OF BLOOD PATTERN IN S-SHAPED MODEL OF ARTERY UNDER NORMAL BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azrul Hisham Mohd Adib

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Athletes are susceptible to a wide variety of traumatic and non-traumatic vascular injuries to the lower limb. This paper aims to predict the three-dimensional flow pattern of blood through an S-shaped geometrical artery model. This model has created by using Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI software. The modeling of the geometrical S-shaped artery is suitable for understanding the pattern of blood flow under constant normal blood pressure. In this study, a numerical method is used that works on the assumption that the blood is incompressible and Newtonian; thus, a laminar type of flow can be considered. The authors have compared the results with a previous study with FSI validation simulation. The validation and verification of the simulation studies is performed by comparing the maximum velocity at t = 0.4 s, because at this time, the blood accelerates rapidly. In addition, the resulting blood flow at various times, under the same boundary conditions in the S-shaped geometrical artery model, is presented. The graph shows that velocity increases linearly with time. Thus, it can be concluded that the flow of blood increases with respect to the pressure inside the body.

  20. Evaluación y diagnóstico de la Hipertensión Arterial Assessment and diagnosis of high blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Sellén Crombet

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La hipertensión arterial es un factor de riesgo cuyo diagnóstico se establece por una simple variable numérica aunque se ha comprobado que es un síndrome multifactorial que produce alteraciones sistémicas, complicaciones y muerte. Su definición ha variado con el tiempo y el mayor conocimiento. Es importante la medición correcta de la presión arterial, conocer su variabilidad y su fisiopatología donde la teoría genética del sistema renina angiotensina aldosterona ha demostrado ser la que predomina. La clasificación y la estratificación del riesgo cardiovascular son elementos importantes cuando se realiza una cuidadosa historia clínica del paciente que unido a los exámenes de laboratorio, permiten descartar y tratar las causas de HTA secundarias. En el presente estudio se analizan todos estos factores y se discute sobre prehipertensión.High blood pressure is a risk factor where diagnosis is made by means of a simple numerical variable although it was confirmed that it is a multifactorial syndrome producing systemic alterations, complications and death. Its definition has changed with time and a great knowledge. It is important correct measurement of arterial pressure, to know its variability, and its physiopathology where genetic theory of rennin-angiotensin aldosterone system has shows to be the predominant one. Classification and stratification of cardiovascular risk are significant elements when we make a careful medical record of patient, and joined with lab examinations allows us to rule out and to treat the causes of a secondary HBP. In present study all factors are analyzed and pre-hypertension stage is discussed.

  1. Pressure load-sensing assessments of the right ventricular outflow tract and main pulmonary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barka, N; Kopcak, M; Kelly, T; Schendel, M; Hill, A; Grangaard, R; Allen, N; Shecterle, L; St Cyr, J

    2011-01-01

    Surgical repairs for congenital right ventricular outflow tract disease have commonly required multiple procedures because of hemodynamic failures from previous operations. Over the past decade, the percutaneous placement of stented valve prostheses in a failed right ventricular outflow tract conduit to restore acceptable pulmonary valve function has produced acceptable results; however, the incidence of stent fractures post-implantation in these stented valve prostheses has aroused concerns. In order to investigate this problem, sequential, pressure load-sensing assessments throughout the right ventricular outflow tract and into the main pulmonary artery would be required to effectively evaluate the degree of physiological loading along these sites. Customarily, to perform these assessments, multiple cardiopulmonary bypass procedures, as well as multiple pulmonary arteriotomies would be required, both of which carry their own risks. Owing to these risks, we developed a successful surgical technique for sequential load-sensing evaluations throughout the right ventricular outflow tract and main pulmonary artery using a single cardiopulmonary bypass session and one pulmonary arteriotomy. This technique successfully provided a means to prevent multiple arteriotomies and bypass sessions without complications while obtaining reproducible data in evaluating pressure load-sensing states throughout the right ventricular outflow tract and main pulmonary artery in adult sheep. PMID:21345007

  2. Correlation Between Upper Airways Obstructive Indexes in Adenotonsilar Hypertrophy with Mean Pulmonary Arterial Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Khadivi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertrophied tonsils and adenoids may cause upper airway obstruction and cardio-pulmonary complications due to pulmonary arterial hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP and selected adenotonsilar hypertrophy indexes. Materials and Methods: Thirty two patients with upper-airway obstruction resulting from hypertrophied tonsils and adenoids were included in our study. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure was measured by a non-invasive method using color doppler echocardiography. Upper airway obstruction was evaluated by clinical OSA (obstructive sleep apnea scoring and also adenoidal-nasopharyngeal (A/N ratio in the lateral neck radiography. Results: Fifty percent of the patients with a normal OSA score, 20% of those with a suspected OSA score and also 50% of cases with OSA had pulmonary hypertension (mPAP>20mmHg which was not statistically significant  (P=0.198.  Mean Adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio in patients with a normal mPAP (mPAP?20mmHg was 0.61±0.048 and it was 0.75±0.09 in those with pulmonary hypertension; the difference was statistically significant (P=0.016. Conclusion: It seems that A/N ratio could be used as a predicting factor for increased mPAP in children with upper airway obstruction and a pediatric cardiologist consultation may be necessary before some surgical interventions.

  3. Amino Acid Intakes Are Inversely Associated with Arterial Stiffness and Central Blood Pressure in Women12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Amy; MacGregor, Alex; Welch, Ailsa; Chowienczyk, Phil; Spector, Tim; Cassidy, Aedín

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although data suggest that intakes of total protein and specific amino acids (AAs) reduce blood pressure, data on other cardiovascular disease risk factors are limited. Objective: We examined associations between intakes of AAs with known mechanistic links to cardiovascular health and direct measures of arterial stiffness, central blood pressure, and atherosclerosis. Methods: In a cross-sectional study of 1898 female twins aged 18–75 y from the TwinsUK registry, intakes of 7 cardioprotective AAs (arginine, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, and tyrosine) were calculated from food-frequency questionnaires. Direct measures of arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis included central systolic blood pressure (cSBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), augmentation index (AI), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and intima–media thickness (IMT). ANCOVA was used to assess the associations between endpoints of arterial stiffness and intake (per quintile), adjusting for potential confounders. Results: In multivariable analyses, higher intakes of total protein and 7 potentially cardioprotective AAs were associated with lower cSBP, MAP, and PWV. Higher intakes of glutamic acid, leucine, and tyrosine were most strongly associated with PWV, with respective differences of ?0.4 ± 0.2 m/s (P-trend = 0.02), ?0.4 ± 0.2 m/s (P-trend = 0.03), and ?0.4 ± 0.2 m/s (P-trend = 0.03), comparing extreme quintiles. There was a significant interaction between AA intakes and protein source, and higher intakes of AAs from vegetable sources were associated with lower central blood pressure and AI. Higher intakes of glutamic acid, leucine, and tyrosine from animal sources were associated with lower PWV. Conclusions: These data provide evidence to suggest that intakes of several AAs are associated with cardiovascular benefits beyond blood pressure reduction in healthy women. The magnitude of the observed associations was similar to those previously reported for other lifestyle factors. Increasing intakes of these AAs could be an important and readily achievable way to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:26203100

  4. [Effects of fentanyl on left ventricular diastolic function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, T

    1989-10-01

    Effects of fentanyl on left ventricular diastolic function were investigated in chronically instrumented dogs. An electromagnetic mitral flow probe was placed in the left atrium and a micromanometer was placed in the left atrium as well as in the left ventricle to measure ventricular pressure (LVP), left atrial pressure (LAP), derivative of left ventricular pressure (dp/dt), mitral flow (MIF) and ECG in conscious resting dogs. Following induction of anesthesia with thiopental (15-20 mg.kg-1) and vecuronium (0.1 mg.kg-1), fentanyl (10, 50 and 100 mcg.kg-1) was administered at 30 min intervals. The direct measurement of phasic MIF was used to obtain a set of diastolic indices: peak rapid filling period (PRFR), filling volume (FV), FV due to atrial contraction (FV-A), isovolumic relaxation period (IVRP) and diastolic filling period (DFP). Each diastolic index during conscious resting state was compared with that obtained during fentanyl anesthesia using paired t-test. There were no significant changes in those diastolic indices under fentanyl (10, 50 and 100 mcg.kg-1) anesthesia except PRFR and dp/dt under fentanyl 10 mcg.kg-1 which decreased. Although heart rate decreased about 50% under fentanyl, IVRP and PRFR did not increase significantly, but DFP (P less than 0.05) and FV (P less than 0.01) increased significantly. DFP correlated well with RR interval under conscious resting state under fentanyl anesthesia (r = 0.992 and r = 0.967). This study suggests that in the absence of surgical stress, fentanyl does not impair left ventricular diastolic function. PMID:2585697

  5. Intensidades de treinamento resistido e pressão arterial de idosas hipertensas - um estudo piloto Resistance training intensities and blood pressure of hypertensive older women - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Silva da Cunha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Observa-se que a literatura apresenta uma lacuna acerca da intensidade ideal de treinamento resistido para idosos hipertensos, os poucos estudos existentes utilizam treinamentos com diferentes intensidades. OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito de duas intensidades de treinamento resistido sobre a pressão arterial de idosas hipertensas controladas. Métodos: Dezesseis idosas hipertensas, controladas por medicação anti-hipertensiva, foram divididas em dois grupos através de sorteio. Nove pacientes foram submetidas a treinamento resistido moderado (G1 e sete, a treinamento resistido leve (G2. As pacientes realizaram oito semanas de treinamento resistido, com frequência de três vezes por semana em dias alternados, no período vespertino. Os exercícios realizados foram respectivamente: leg press, supino reto, extensão de joelhos, puxada frontal, flexão de joelhos, abdução de ombro, abdução unilateral de quadril com cross over e rosca direta com barra. RESULTADOS: As pacientes do G1 apresentaram redução tanto nos valores de repouso da pressão arterial diastólica (PAD p BACKGROUND: The optimum intensity of resistance training for hypertensive elderly has not been studied yet and the few studies in the literature used training with distinct intensities. Objective: To verify the effect of two resistance training intensities on blood pressure (BP of elderly women with controlled hypertension. METHODS: Sixteen older women with hypertension controlled by anti-hypertensive drug were randomly divided into two groups. Nine patients were submitted to moderate resistance training (G1 and seven patients were submitted to mild resistance training (G2. The patients underwent eight weeks of resistance training, with frequency of three times per week on alternate days in the afternoon. The exercises performed were: leg press, bench press, knee extension, lat pull-down, knee flexion, shoulder abduction, standing cable hip abduction and biceps curl. RESULTS: G1 patients presented reduction in both resting values in diastolic blood pressure (DBP p<0.03 and mean arterial pressure (MAP p<0.03. G2 presented decrease in resting values of MAP (p<0.03 and a tendency to decrease in DBP (p<0.06. Magnitude of values decrease in both groups was higher than the ones reported in the literature. CONCLUSION: Both light and moderate training promoted cardiovascular benefits, even when initiated at old age. Moreover, both can be indicated as supporting treatment for older women with hypertension controlled by medication.

  6. Assesment of Right Ventricular Diastolic Function in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease

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    Hasibe Yemenici

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD is a systemic disease characterised by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. Right ventricular diastolic function (rvdf was investigated in COPD.Material and Methods: Study groups consisted of 40 patients with COPD and 24 healthy controls. All subjects performed respiratory function test and doppler echocardiography. Results: There was no statistical difference between patient and control groups with respect to tricuspid annular systolic velocity (S, tricuspid annulus early diastolic filling velocity (E and tricuspid annulus late diastolic velocity (A (p>0.05. For E/A ratio and İVRT, there was a statistical difference between groups (p=0.05, p=0.0001. There was a positive correlation between FEV1 and E/A ratio (r=0.409, p=0.009. There was no statistically significant correlation between other parameters of Echocardiography (Echo, RFT and arterial blood gas (ABG analysis comparisons. Decrease in E and E/A ratio in COPD whose SatO2≤%90 was statistically significant compared to patients with SatO2>%90 (p=0.002. Decreases in E and E/A rates were significant between COPD cases with PH (pulmonary artery pressure PABsis>30 mmHg, and those without PH (p=0.016, p=0.01. There was no statistically significant correlation between PABsis and FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. There was a negative correlation between PABsis and pO2, and positive correlation between PABsis and pCO2 (p=0.006, p=0.029. There was a positive correlation between FEV1, pO2 and satO2 (p=0.018, p=0.001. Conclusion: As a result, we concluded that, in order to evulate right ventricular functions in COPD cases, we must not only consider systolic functions but also examining the diastolic functions is important. Doppler-Echo proved to be favorable in evaluating rvdf in all COPD patients.

  7. A STUDY OF LEFT VENTRICULAR DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION IN HYPERTENSION

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    Ravi Keerthy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRTODUCTION: Hypertension is one of the major non communica b le disease among the adult population . Hypertension is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries . Hypertension is the leading cause of ischemic heart disease , heart failure and stroke . (1 In spite of having target organ damage , hypertens ion remains asymptomatic in majority of population . Diastolic dysfunction and left ventricular hypertrophy are the early evidence of hypertensive heart disease , both of which may remain silent . (2 Heart failure is a common and often lethal complication of chronic hypertension . Based on extensive research , it has become possible to focus on individual factors that cause or contribute to the syndrome of chronic heart failure . OBJECTIVE: Main objective of the study of to find out the incidence of left ventricu lar diastolic dysfunction . METERIALS AND METHODS: All hypertensive patient with systolic blood pressure of more than 140 and or diastolic blood pressure of more than 90 are included in the study . Data was collected from history , clinical examination , ECG , Echo . Coronary angiogram was done in few patients to rule out ischemic heart disease . LV dime n sions were obtained by M - mode echo from apical and parasternal windows . Diastolic dysfunction was measured by Doppler echo . RESULTS: 85patients were considered fo r the study . 62 patients had diastolic dysfunction , 40 patients had LVH . Of the 62 patients , 28 had isolated diastolic dysfunction and 34 patients had both systolic and diastolic dysfunction . Ejection fraction was ranging from 50 - 77% . Early peak velocity r anged from40cms/secto 120cms/sec with a mean of 71 . 21+/ - 16 . 81cms/sec in patients with diastolicdys function , l ate atrial velocity ranged from 50cms/sec to 150cms/sec with a mean of102 . 66cmd/sec+/ - 19 . 13cms/sec . E/A ratio ranged from 0 . 41 to 1 . 8 with a mean of 0 . 69+/ - 0 . 14 . CONCLUSION: Since in the introduction of non - invasive methods such as radionuclide vetriculogram and doppler echocardiography , these techniques have become the modalities of choice for the assessment of left ventricular diastolic dy sfunction . These have advantages of ease of performance repeatability ( 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 It was concluded from the study that incidence of diastolic d ysfunction is72% . 32% had isolated Diastolicdys function and the rest had LVH along with diastolic dysfunction . LV diastolic dysfunction can manifest both as backward failure and forward failure . Diastolicdys function correlated well with the severity of diastolic blood pressure as well as with the duration of hypertension . Doppler echocardiography is an easily avai lable non - invasive technique today , can utilized for early detection of LV diastolic dysfunction . Early detection and more aggressive management of hypertension prevents the long term complications .

  8. Nurse Home Visity with Educational Activities in the arterial pressure treatment

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    Maria de Fátima Mantovani

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims: to compare the maintenance of the arterial pressure levels on Arterial Hypertension bearings, followed and monitored with educational activities in family (cases or individualized (control, visited at home monthly and bimonthly respectively. 30 users enrolled in the Hyper tense Treatment Programme have been followed since October 2005, aged between 18 e 65 years old. The data analysis shows that, in the case group 64% kept the weight and the abdominal circumference and 29% reduced these variables; 50% has done regular physical exercises; and, 75% has done medical treatment. In the control group: 38% has presented an increasing on weight and abdominal circumference; 28% started doing regular physical exercises; and, 100% joined the medicament therapy. It was verified improvement adhesion to the treatment and other therapeutical measures, besides the maintenance and the parameters reduction in both groups.

  9. Evaluation of a new arterial pressure-based cardiac output device requiring no external calibration

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    Amann Matthias

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several techniques have been discussed as alternatives to the intermittent bolus thermodilution cardiac output (COPAC measurement by the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC. However, these techniques usually require a central venous line, an additional catheter, or a special calibration procedure. A new arterial pressure-based cardiac output (COAP device (FloTrac™, Vigileo™; Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA only requires access to the radial or femoral artery using a standard arterial catheter and does not need an external calibration. We validated this technique in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU using COPAC as the method of reference. Methods We studied 20 critically ill patients, aged 16 to 74 years (mean, 55.5 ± 18.8 years, who required both arterial and pulmonary artery pressure monitoring. COPAC measurements were performed at least every 4 hours and calculated as the average of 3 measurements, while COAP values were taken immediately at the end of bolus determinations. Accuracy of measurements was assessed by calculating the bias and limits of agreement using the method described by Bland and Altman. Results A total of 164 coupled measurements were obtained. Absolute values of COPAC ranged from 2.80 to 10.80 l/min (mean 5.93 ± 1.55 l/min. The bias and limits of agreement between COPAC and COAP for unequal numbers of replicates was 0.02 ± 2.92 l/min. The percentage error between COPAC and COAP was 49.3%. The bias between percentage changes in COPAC (?COPAC and percentage changes in COAP (?COAP for consecutive measurements was -0.70% ± 32.28%. COPAC and COAP showed a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.58 (p PAC and ?COAP was 0.46 (p Conclusion Although the COAP algorithm shows a minimal bias with COPAC over a wide range of values in an inhomogeneous group of critically ill patients, the scattering of the data remains relative wide. Therefore, the used algorithm (V 1.03 failed to demonstrate an acceptable accuracy in comparison to the clinical standard of cardiac output determination.

  10. Acompanhamento da pressão arterial: estudo com crianças e adolescentes com história familiar de hipertensão / Blood pressure tracking: study with children and adolescents with familial history of hypertension / Acompañamiento de la presión arterial: investigación con niños y adolescentes con historia familiar de hipertensión

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Emilia Soares, Chaves; Thelma Leite de, Araujo; Tahissa Frota, Cavalcante; Nirla Gomes, Guedes; Rafaella Pessoa, Moreira.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar a evolução dos percentis de pressão arterial em crianças e adolescentes com história familiar de hipertensão arterial. Estudo longitudinal desenvolvido em uma comunidade de Fortaleza, Ceará. A pressão arterial foi avaliada em cinco encontros domiciliares, de janeiro de 2004 a d [...] ezembro de 2006. Grupo de 141 participantes, dos quais 92 crianças e 49 adolescentes. Das crianças, 67,4% permaneceram sem alterações dos percentis de pressão arterial em todas as avaliações; dos adolescentes, 65,3% permaneceram nesta condição. A maior parte dos indivíduos mantiveram seus valores e percentis de pressões arteriais sistólica e diastólica elevados, e muitos que não apresentavam inicialmente alterações passaram a mostrá-las no decorrer do acompanhamento. Confirma-se a necessidade de monitoração da pressão arterial rotineira de crianças e adolescentes tanto para a detecção precoce como para a prevenção de complicações. Abstract in spanish El objetivo fue analizar la evolución de los percentiles de presión arterial en niños y adolescentes con historia familiar de hipertensión arterial. Estudio longitudinal en una comunidad de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. La presión arterial fue evaluada en cinco encuentros en los sitios, de enero de 2004 [...] a diciembre de 2006. El grupo fue de 141 participantes, de los cuales 92 niños y 49 adolescentes. De los niños, 67,4% permanecieron sin alteraciones de los percentiles de presión arterial en todas las evaluaciones; de los adolescentes, 65,3% permanecieron en ésta condición. La mayor parte de los individuos mantenieron sus valores y percentiles de presión arterial sistólica y presión arterial diástolica muy altos, y muchos que no presentaban inicialmente alteraciones, pasaron a señalalas en el decurrir del acompañamiento. Así, se comprueba la necesidad de monitoración de la presión arterial rutinera de niños y adolescentes tanto para la detección como para la prevención de complicaciones. Abstract in english The purpose of this study is to analyze the evolution of the percentiles of blood pressure in children and adolescents with familial history of arterial hypertension. This is a longitudinal study developed in a community in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. The blood pressure was evaluated in five home visi [...] ts from January, 2004 to December, 2006. The group was composed of 141 participants, of which 92 were children and 49 adolescents. Of the children, 67,4% remained with no alterations of the percentiles of blood pressure in all the evaluations; of the adolescents, 65,3% remained in the same condition. Most individuals kept their values and percentiles of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, and many that did not initially present alterations started to show some during the follow up. As a result, routine monitoring of blood pressure of children and adolescents proves necessary for the early detection and prevention of complications.

  11. Evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function of CAD patients by radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the early and late left ventricular diastolic function in coronary artery disease (CAD), technetium-99m gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography was performed in 27 patients with CAD, including 8 old myocardial infarction (group GM), 19 non-myocardial infarction (group GN), and 12 control subjects (group G1). Parameters of diastolic function was obtained from second derivative analysis of time-activity curve. In GM group, indexes of systolic and diastolic function was significantly depressed than those of GN and G1 group (P<0.0001)

  12. Oscillometric continuous blood pressure sensing for wearable health monitoring system

    OpenAIRE

    Gelao, Gennaro; Marani, Roberto; Vittorio M.N. Passaro; Perri, Anna Gina

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an acquisition chain for the measurement of blood arterial pressure based on the oscillometric method. This method does not suffer from any limitation as the well-known auscultatory method and it is suited for wearable health monitoring systems. The device uses a pressure sensor whose signal is filtered, digitalized and analyzed by a microcontroller. Local analysis allows the evaluation of the systolic and diastolic pressure values which can be used ...

  13. Monitorização residencial da pressão arterial e monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial versus medida de pressão arterial no consultório Home blood pressure measurement and ambulatory blood pressure measurement versus office blood pressure measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Marco A.M. Gomes; Angela M.G. Pierin; Carlos A. Segre; Décio Mion Jr.

    1998-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Comparar a monitorização residencial da pressão arterial (MRPA) e monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial (MAPA) com os registros de consultório e correlacionar o índice de massa de ventrículo esquerdo (IMVE) com a MRPA e medida de consultório. MÉTODOS: Protocolo 1 - Sessenta e oito hipertensos (58±12 anos, 37 mulheres) realizaram: a) MRPA durante 7 dias; b) MAPA de 24h; e c) medida da pressão arterial no consultório, pelo médico. Protocolo 2 - 41 hipertensos (48 ± 14 anos, ...

  14. Variaciones de riesgo en valores de tensión arterial en pacientes hipertensos durante procedimientos odontológicos / Risk changes in blood pressure in hypertensive patients during dental procedures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gloria C, Aranzazu-Moya; Ronald Y, Delgado-Jaimes; María P, Pieschacón-Gutierrez.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las variaciones de Tensión Arterial (TA) de origen fisiológico son frecuentes; sin embargo, los procedimientos durante la consulta odontológica podrían generar variaciones a valores de riesgo de TA que pueden alterar el estado sistémico, o generar complicaciones médicas que comprometen [...] la integridad del paciente. Objetivo: Identificar factores que generan variaciones de riesgo de la Tensión Arterial durante los procedimientos odontológicos en pacientes hipertensos y no hipertensos. Materiales y métodos: Se diseñó un estudio observacional descriptivo, en 108 pacientes. Se evaluaron tanto hipertensos como no hipertensos, incluidos por un muestreo probabilístico por conglomerados; se evaluaron variables sociodemográficas, presión arterial antes, durante y después del procedimiento, factores de riesgo cardiovascular y aquellas dependientes del procedimiento. Los datos se procesaron en el programa SPSS 21, utilizando medidas de tendencia central y dispersión, desviación estándar (DE) e intervalos de confianza (IC), frecuencias, chi 2, T test, diferencia de medias, ANOVA de una vía y medidas repetidas. Resultados: La edad media fue 62,3 años con DE 12,5 años; 42(38,9%) fueron no hipertensos y 66(61,1%) hipertensos. Las variaciones de presión sistólica mayor a 20mmHg y diastólica mayor a 10mmHg se presentaron en mayor porcentaje en los hipertensos con control errático. Así mismo las variaciones fueron superiores en mujeres y en procedimientos sin uso de anestésico. Según el tipo de hipertensión, se encontraron diferencias entre el grupo de sanos con los grupos control errático, mal control y sin control. Al aplicar un modelo lineal de medidas repetidas, se encontraron diferencias en las tres mediciones en los diferentes tipos de hipertensión. Conclusiones: Los factores relacionados a variaciones de riesgo fueron el control errático, sexo femenino y duración del procedimiento. Abstract in english Introduction: Physiologic changes in blood pressure are frequent, nevertheless dental procedures could trigger an increase in blood pressure, which may alter the state or even generate systemic vascular injury or medical complications, that compromise patient integrity. Objectives: To identify facto [...] rs, which produce risk variations of blood pressure levels during dental procedures in hypertensive and no hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was made in 108 patients; including hypertensive and non-hypertensive patients. Sociodemographic variables were assessed, blood pressure values; before, during and after procedure, cardiovascular risk factors and those dependent of the procedure. Patients were selected using the cluster probability method. The data were processed at SPSS 21, using central tendency measures and dispersion, standard deviation and confidence interval, frequencies, chi2, T test, mean difference, one-way ANOVA and repeated measures. Results: The mean age was 62.3 years with SD 12,5 years, 42 (38.9%) without hypertension and 66(61.1%) hypertensive patients. Changes in systolic pressure greater than 20mmHg in systolic and 10mmHg in diastolic, was present in greater percentage of hypertensive patients with erratic control, in women and procedures without the use of anesthetic. Depending on the type of hypertension, differences were found between the group of healthy control, erratic control group, poorly controlled and uncontrolled group. By applying a linear model repeated measures, we found differences in the measurements of arterial pressure in different types of hypertension. Conclusions The factors related with risk variations in blood pressure occurred in erratic control hypertension patients, women and duration of the procedure.

  15. Influência do índice de massa corporal e da circunferência abdominal na pressão arterial sistêmica de crianças Influence of body mass index and abdominal circumference on children's systemic blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Nunes Iampolsky

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os níveis pressóricos em crianças e relacioná-los ao índice de massa corporal e à circunferência abdominal. MÉTODOS: Por meio de estudo prospectivo e transversal, avaliaram-se 1.408 escolares com idade entre cinco anos e dez anos e 11 meses, matriculados em escolas públicas do Município de Santo André. Foram coletados: peso ao nascer; peso e estatura, expressos como escore Z do índice de massa corporal (ZIMC e estatura para idade (ZEI. A pressão arterial (medida única foi aferida pelo mesmo examinador. Considerou-se: desnutrição quando ZIMC+2, baixa estatura se ZEIP90 para sexo e idade e pressão arterial elevada quando superior ao percentil 90 para sexo, idade e estatura. A análise estatística incluiu o teste do qui-quadrado e o cálculo da Odds Ratio, adotando-se como significante o valor de pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate blood pressure levels in children, relating them to body mass index and abdominal circumference. METHODS: This cross-sectional prospective study enrolled 1.408 school children, aged between five and ten years and 11 months, in the municipality of Santo Andre, São Paulo, Brazil. The following variables were evaluated: birth weight, weight and height, expressed as body mass index Z score (ZBMI and height to age Z score (ZH, and waist circumference (WC. Blood pressure was measured once by the same physician. Malnutrition was considered when ZBMI +2, short stature when ZH P90 for age and gender, and increased blood pressure when >P90 for age, gender and height. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and Odds Ratio, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: Mean age was seven years old, and 51% were females. High systolic blood pressure levels were observed in 19% and elevated diastolic blood pressure in 12%. Short stature, malnutrition, obesity and increased abdominal circumference were diagnosed in 2.6%, 3.1%, 7.3% and 13.4%, respectively, of the studied population. The presence of obesity was strongly associated with high systolic (OR 2.1, 95%IC 1.3-3.3; p<0.001 and diastolic blood pressure (OR 2.6, 95%IC 1.6-4.3; p<0.001. Increased abdominal circumference was also an important risk factor for high systolic blood pressure (OR 1.6; 95%IC 1.0-2.5; p=0.027. CONCLUSIONS: High blood pressure in children is associated with obesity and increased abdominal circumference.

  16. Determinants of global left ventricular peak diastolic filling rate during rest and exercise in normal volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early peak diastolic filling rate (PFR) of the left ventricle (LV) is said to be a sensitive index of LV dysfunction in patients with coronary disease, hypertension and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Radionuclide (RN0 multigated PFR was measured in 20 normal volunteers (13 males, 7 females, mean age 31 yrs., range 20-43) at rest and during supine bicycle exercise conducted to a symptomatic end-point. At rest, RN PFR was 3.4 +- SD 0.4 end-diastolic vols./sec (range 3.1 - 3.6). During exercise all normal volunteers had a progressive and numerically and statistically significant increase in PFR. Stepwise multiple linear regression (BMPD2R) was applied to the rest and exercise PFR data to develop a linear model describing the main determinants of the RN PFR. The potential independent variables which were included in the model were heart rate (HR), ejection fraction (EF), systolic arterial pressure, systolic ejection rate and exercise stage. Ranking of variables for prediction of RN PFR, and exclusion of less important variables, was done by F value criteria. The final multivariate equation was: LVPFR = -3.84437 + 0.03834 HR + 0.07537 LVEF. The model fit was highly significant (p<0.001), and accounted for 89 per cent of variability in the PFR. The authors conclude that the left ventricular peak filling rate is critically determined by heart rate and by ejection fraction at rest and during exercise

  17. Determinants of global left ventricular peak diastolic filling rate during rest and exercise in normal volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filiberti, A.W.; Bianco, J.A.; Baker, S.P.; Doherty; Nalivaika, L.A.; King, M.A.; Alpert, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Early peak diastolic filling rate (PFR) of the left ventricle (LV) is said to be a sensitive index of LV dysfunction in patients with coronary disease, hypertension and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Radionuclide (RN0 multigated PFR was measured in 20 normal volunteers (13 males, 7 females, mean age 31 yrs., range 20-43) at rest and during supine bicycle exercise conducted to a symptomatic end-point. At rest, RN PFR was 3.4 +- SD 0.4 end-diastolic vols./sec (range 3.1 - 3.6). During exercise all normal volunteers had a progressive and numerically and statistically significant increase in PFR. Stepwise multiple linear regression (BMPD2R) was applied to the rest and exercise PFR data to develop a linear model describing the main determinants of the RN PFR. The potential independent variables which were included in the model were heart rate (HR), ejection fraction (EF), systolic arterial pressure, systolic ejection rate and exercise stage. Ranking of variables for prediction of RN PFR, and exclusion of less important variables, was done by F value criteria. The final multivariate equation was: LVPFR = -3.84437 + 0.03834 HR + 0.07537 LVEF. The model fit was highly significant (p<0.001), and accounted for 89 per cent of variability in the PFR. The authors conclude that the left ventricular peak filling rate is critically determined by heart rate and by ejection fraction at rest and during exercise.

  18. Left ventricular diastolic filling in patients with systemic hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the prevalence and significance of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in mild to moderate systemic hypertension (HT), cardiac blood pool imagings with Tc-99 m were obtained in 10 normal subjects and 27 patients with HT. The patients with HT did not show any evidence of coronary heart disease, renal insufficiency, cerebrovascular accident or diabetes mellitus. They were divided into 3 groups; (1) HT-1 (n=10): without evidence of echocardiographic (UCG) and electrocardiographic (ECG) left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), (2) HT-2 (n=8): with evidence of ECG-LVH without UCG-LVH, (3) HT-3 (n=9): with evidence of UCG-LVH. UCG-LVH was defined when posterior or interventricular septal tall thickness exceeded 13 mm at end-diastole. From UCG findings LV mass was calculated and from UCG findings and auscultating brachial systolic pressure LV peak-systolic wall stress (WS) was obtained. Cardiac blood pool imagings were performed at modified LAO at rest and during exercise stress. Indices of LV systolic function (rest ejection fraction, mean ejection rate during the first third of ejection and exercise ejection fraction response) were essentially similar in normal subjects and all HT groups. In contrast, LV diastolic filling rate during the first third of diastole (1/3 FR mean) decreased significantly in any group of HT, and it was prominent in HT-3. In patients with HT, 1/3 FR mean did not correlate with blood pressure, LV peak-systolic WS, LV systolic functions and LV end-diastolic volume. But it correlated inversely with LV mass (r=-0.84). These results suggest that impairment of early diastolic LV filling can be detected before systolic cardiac impairment and LVH develop, and it is, at least in part, relate to the LV mass. (author)

  19. Ex Vivo and in Silico Study of Human Common Carotid Arteries Pressure Response in Physiological and Inverted State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechna, A.; Cie?licki, K.; Lombarski, L.; Ciszek, B.

    2015-02-01

    Arterial walls are a multilayer structures with nonlinear material characteristics. Furthermore, residual stresses exist in unloaded state (zero-pressure condition) and they affect arterial behavior. To investigate these phenomena a number of theoretical and numerical studies were performed, however no experimental validation was proposed and realized yet. We cannot get rid of residual stresses without damaging the arterial segment. In this paper we propose a novel experiment to validate a numerical model of artery with residual stresses. The inspiration for our study originates from experiments made by Dobrin on dogs' arteries (1999). We applied the idea of turning the artery inside out. After such an operation the sequence of layer is reversed and the residual stresses are re-ordered. We performed several pressure-inflation tests on human Common Carotid Arteries (CCA) in normal and inverted configurations. The nonlinear responses of arterial behavior were obtained and compared to the numerical model. Computer simulations were carried out using the commercial software which applied the finite element method (FEM). Then, these results were discussed.

  20. Relation between arterial pressure, dietary sodium intake, and renin system in essential hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Parfrey, P. S.; Markandu, N D; Roulston, J. E.; JONES, B. E.; Jones, J. C.; MacGregor, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    Forty-one patients with mild essential hypertension, 36 patients with severe hypertension, and 28 normotensive subjects were studied on a high sodium intake of 350 mmol/day for five days and low sodium intake of 10 mmol/day for five days. The fall in mean arterial pressure on changing from the high-sodium to the low-sodium diet was 0.7 +/- 1.7 mm Hg in normotensive subjects, 8 +/- 1.4 mm Hg in patients with mild hypertension, and 14.5 +/- 1.4 mm Hg in patients with severe hypertension. The fa...

  1. Sildenafil and diastolic dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction in patients with preserved ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads J; Ersbøll, Mads; Axelsson, Anna; Gustafsson, Finn; Hassager, Christian; Køber, Lars; Borlaug, Barry A; Boesgaard, Søren; Skovgaard, Lene T; Møller, Jacob E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diastolic dysfunction is frequently seen after myocardial infarction and is characterized by a disproportionate increase in filling pressure during exercise to maintain stroke volume. We hypothesized that sildenafil would reduce filling pressure during exercise in patients with diasto...... unchanged in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Sildenafil did not decrease filling pressure at rest or during exercise in post-myocardial infarction patients with diastolic dysfunction. However, there were effects on secondary end points, which require further studies....

  2. Finding events of electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure signals via discrete wavelet transform with modified scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, A; Homaeinezhad, M R; Akraminia, M; Davaeeha, M

    2010-01-01

    A robust electrocardiogram (ECG) wave detection-delineation algorithm that can be applied to all ECG leads is developed in this study on the basis of discrete wavelet transform (DWT). By applying a new simple approach to a selected scale obtained from DWT, this method is capable of detecting the QRS complex, P-wave, and T-wave as well as determining parameters such as start time, end time, and wave sign (upward or downward). In the proposed method, the selected scale is processed by a sliding rectangular window of length n and the curve length in each window is multiplied by the area under the absolute value of the curve. In the next step, an adaptive thresholding criterion is conducted on the resulted signal. The presented algorithm is applied to various databases including the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database, European ST-T database, QT database, CinC Challenge 2008 database as well as high-resolution Holter data gathered in the DAY Hospital. As a result, the average values of sensitivity and positive prediction Se = 99.84 per cent and P+ = 99.80 per cent were obtained for the detection of QRS complexes with an average maximum delineation error of 13.7, 11.3, and 14.0 ms for the P-wave, QRS complex, and T-wave respectively. The presented algorithm has considerable capability in cases of a low signal-to-noise ratio, high baseline wander, and in cases where QRS complexes and T-waves appear with abnormal morphologies. Especially, the high capability of the algorithm in the detection of the critical points of the ECG signal, i.e. the beginning and end of the T-wave and the end of the QRS complex was validated by the cardiologist and the maximum values of 16.4 and 15.9 ms were recognized as absolute offset error of localization respectively. Finally, in order to illustrate an alternative capability of the algorithm, it is applied to all 18 subjects of the MIT-BIH polysomnographic database and the end-systolic and end-diastolic points of the blood pressure waveform were extracted and values of sensitivity and positive prediction Se = 99.80 per cent and P+ = 99.86 per cent were obtained for the detection of end-systolic, end-diastolic pulses. PMID:20225455

  3. Diagnóstico y prevalencia de hipertensión arterial en menores de 19 años en la ciudad de Colima Diagnosis and prevalence of high blood pressure in children aged under 19 in Colima City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Cervantes

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial en menores de 19 años de Colima, Colima, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal realizado en 1992 a partir de las mediciones de la tensión arterial (TA de 400 menores, distribuidos por sexo y edad. Se calcularon: promedio, varianza y Anova por edad; coeficientes de correlación y determinación entre edad y TA; se compararon los grupos con pruebas t de Student, F y U de Mann-Whitney con Z para sexos seleccionados según la curva de distribución; asimismo, se calculó percentil 95 para definir cifras anormales. RESULTADOS: El coeficiente de correlación es lineal, el de determinación lo confirma, se distinguen con pOBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of high blood pressure among young children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, conducted in 1992 in Colima City, Mexico. Blood pressure readings were obtained from 400 children aged under 19. Statistical analysis consisted of calculation of means, variance, and Anova by group age. Association between age and blood pressure was assessed with correlation and determination coefficients. Comparisons by sex were made using Student's t, F, Mann-Whitney's U, and Z tests. Percentile 95th was used to define normal figures. RESULTS: A lineal correlation coefficient was found and confirmed by the determination coefficient. Groups where this association was statistically significant at p<0.01 were: a children aged under 2; b children from 2 to 13 years of age; and c those over 13 years of age. High blood pressure figures for each group were: a 92/50 mm/Hg; 110/70 mm/Hg; and 133/84 mm/Hg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of high blood pressure in younger children may be 8% for systolic pressure and 9% for diastolic pressure.

  4. Effect of beta-1-blocker, nebivolol, on central aortic pressure and arterial stiffness in patients with essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Soanker

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Nebivolol 5 mg demonstrated antihypertensive efficacy in patients with essential hypertension by reducing not only peripheral brachial pressures, but also significantly reducing central aortic pressures, augmentation index, and carotid femoral pulse wave velocity, which is the marker of arterial stiffness.

  5. Diastolic Heart Failure: A Concise Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Fahad; TK, Luqman-Arafath; Enweluzo, Chijioke; Dutta, Simanta; Zaeem, Misbah

    2013-01-01

    The concept of “diastolic” heart failure grew out of the observation that many patients who have the symptoms and signs of heart failure had an apparently normal left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction. Thus it was assumed that since systolic function was “preserved” the problem must lie in diastole, although it is not clear by whom or when this assumption was made. Nevertheless, many guidelines followed on how to diagnose “diastolic” heart failure backed up by indicators of diastolic dysfunction derived from Doppler echoardiography. Diastolic heart failure is associated with a lower annual mortality rate of approximately 8% as compared to annual mortality of 19% in heart failure with systolic dysfunction, however, morbidity rate can be substantial. Thus, diastolic heart failure is an important clinical disorder mainly seen in the elderly patients with hypertensive heart disease. Early recognition and appropriate therapy of diastolic dysfunction is advisable to prevent further progression to diastolic heart failure and death. There is no specific therapy to improve LV diastolic function directly. Medical therapy of diastolic dysfunction is often empirical and lacks clear-cut pathophysiologic concepts. Nevertheless, there is growing evidence that calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers, ACE-inhibitors and ARB as well as nitric oxide donors can be beneficial. Treatment of the underlying disease is currently the most important therapeutic approach. PMID:23986796

  6. Monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial e diabete melito tipo 2 Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Bauermann Leitão

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS é um dos principais fatores de risco para a instalação e progressão das complicações crônicas do diabetes melito (DM tipo 2. A medida da pressão arterial (PA através da monitorização ambulatorial da PA (MAPA apresenta melhor correlação com o desenvolvimento de lesões em órgãos-alvo do que a medida no consultório. Além disso, permite a avaliação de parâmetros pressóricos distintos como as médias das PAs sistólica e diastólica das 24 h, do dia e da noite, cargas pressóricas e ausência do descenso noturno, além da identificação de pacientes com HAS do avental branco e mascarada. Os pacientes com DM apresentam maiores médias de PA diurna e noturna do que os sem DM. Além disso, um terço do pacientes normotensos com DM tipo 2 apresentam HAS mascarada, que está associada a um aumento da albuminúria e da espessura das paredes do ventrículo esquerdo. Por outro lado, a prevalência e o efeito da HAS do avental branco nos pacientes com DM ainda não foram adequadamente avaliados. A determinação da ausência do descenso noturno da PA não acrescenta informação às medidas da PA nas 24 h, no dia ou na noite, mas a medida da PA noturna parece ser relevante na retinopatia do DM. Em conclusão, a determinação da PA através da MAPA é capaz de estratificar de forma mais adequada os pacientes em risco para o desenvolvimento das complicações crônicas do DM e tornou-se um instrumento indispensável para o controle efetivo da PA nestes pacientes.Hypertension is one of the main risk factors for the onset and progression of chronic complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Ambulatory blood pressure (BP monitoring (ABPM provides a better correlation with target organ lesions than BP obtained in the office. Furthermore, it allows the evaluation of distinct BP parameters such as the 24-h, daytime and nighttime systolic and diastolic BP means, BP loads and the absence of nocturnal drop of BP, as well as the identification of white-coat and masked hypertension. DM patients have higher daytime and nighttime BP means than non-DM patients. In addition, one third of normotensive type 2 DM patients have masked hypertension, which is associated with an increase in albuminuria and in left ventricle wall thickness. On the other hand, the prevalence and effect of white-coat hypertension in type 2 DM patients have not yet been properly evaluated. The absence of nocturnal drop of BP does not add information to the 24 h, daytime or nighttime BP measurements, but the nighttime BP means seem to be relevant in DM retinopathy. In conclusion, BP determination by ABPM allows better patient risk stratification for the development of DM chronic complications and is an essential instrument for effective BP control in these patients.

  7. Application of Static Pressure Change in Estimation of Elastic Parameters of Rabbit’s Artery by Doppler Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nikanjam

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds/Objectives : Noninvasive evaluation of elastic properties of vessel wall is hampered by the absence of methods to directly asse ss local elasticity. In order to invasively record the static pressure of carotid artery dur ing cardiac cycle in rabbit s and compare it with noninvasive technique, T–shaped tubes have been designed and constructed and calibrated. A noninvasive method to measure static pressure in arteries and finally estimate the elasticity of vessels is provided. Materials and Methods: In male white rabbits, we estimated the static pressure changes in carotid artery noninvasively by measuring blood flow velocities throughout cardiac cycle using Color Doppler Ultrasound. The blood flow ve locities were converted to static pressure changes by using energy conservation low. The st atic pressure changes of arterial wall were estimated. These parameters were compared wi th measured actual static pressure changes using a T-shaped tube, that was inserted into the carotid artery and the static pressure change was measured in the side br anch of the tube. The elastic parameters in both methods were calculated and compared by pa ired t-test statistical analysis. Results: Statistical analysis of static pressure c hanges and elastic parameters in both methods showed that there was no significant difference between the two methods. Conclusion: By applying this noninvasive approach, we can estimate elastic parameters in arteries of normal people and patients with, or at risk of developing atherosclerosis for determination of disease extent. We propose this noninvasive method as an accurate and safe way suitable for screening of large popula tions of young and symptom-free individuals.

  8. Doppler flow velocity waveforms of human fetal ductus arteriosus and branch pulmonary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J Y; Park, J D; Jung, M J; Kim, H S

    1997-10-01

    Doppler waveforms of the human fetal ductus arteriosus and the branch pulmonary artery are distinct in their shape and might reflect fetal cardiovascular hemodynamics and vessel wall characteristics. The waveform of ductus arteriosus had two peaks, a higher one in systole and a lower one in diastole. Both peaks had slow acceleration and deceleration and looked like two narrow base isosceles triangles. This unique waveform might be due to vessel wall characteristics and an instantaneous pressure gradient between the main pulmonary artery and descending aorta. The waveform of the branch pulmonary artery showed very steep acceleration with the onset of ejection followed by steep decline, then low velocity flow during diastole. The characteristic shape of the branch pulmonary artery might be related to high vascular resistance, decreased capacitance and the earlier reflection wave of pulmonary vessels. PMID:9364298

  9. Left and right ventricular diastolic function in hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this prospective study was the assessment of left ventricular and right ventricular diastolic function in patients on hemodialysis (HD) and the correlation of this function with the duration of HD. The study included 42 patients (22 females and 20 males) with chronic renal failure (CRF), treated with HD, and 40 healthy subjects (24 females and 16 males) with no history of cardiovascular disease and with normal renal function, who constituted the control group. The groups were matched for age and sex. All study patients and control subjects unde went detailed history taking and physical examination. They also underwent electrocardiogram, echocardiography and biochemical and hematological blood analyses. Significant differences were noted between the two groups in the two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography findings concerning aortic root dimension, transverse diameter of the left atrium, thickness of the inter-ventricular septum, thickness of the left ventricular posterior wall, left ventricular diastolic diameter, left ventricular systolic diameter, shortening fraction, ejection fraction as well as findings from the pulse Doppler study, including E wave, A wave, E/A ratio, deceleration time of E wave (DT-E), acceleration time of E wave (AT-E), tricuspid E and A waves (E tr and A tr ) and E tr /A tr , ratio. There were significant changes in HD patients without arterial hypertension as well in the control group subjects. Our study suggests that the left ventricular and left atrial dimensions as well as the left ventricular wall thickness are augmented in patients with CRF treated with HD compared with the control group. Additionally, the left and right ventricular diastolic function is also reduced in these patients. These differences were also noted in patients with CRF without arterial hypertension. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction had no correlation with the duration of HD (Author).

  10. Intervenções em Dieta e Pressão Arterial na América Latina - Revisão Sistemática e Meta-Análise / Dietary Interventions and Blood Pressure in Latin America - Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Caroline Cantalejo, Mazzaro; Flávia Caroline, Klostermann; Bruna Olandoski, Erbano; Nicolle Amboni, Schio; Luiz César, Guarita-Souza; Marcia, Olandoski; José Rocha, Faria-Neto; Cristina Pellegrino, Baena.

    2014-04-29

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Pressão arterial elevada é o principal fator de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. Baixos índices de controle da pressão arterial em populações latino-americanas reforçam a necessidade de reunir evidências sobre terapias eficazes. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito das intervenções de mo [...] dificações de dietas sobre pressão arterial em populações latino-americanas. Métodos: Revisão sistemática. Foram pesquisadas diversas bases de dados (MEDLINE-PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS e BVS) e realizada busca manual até abril de 2013. Foram incluídos estudos paralelos de intervenções em dieta em populações adultas da América Latina reportando pressão arterial (em mmHg) antes e após a intervenção. Resultados: Dos 405 estudos encontrados, 10 ensaios clínicos randomizados foram incluídos e divididos em 3 subgrupos, de acordo com a dieta proposta como intervenção. Houve redução não significativa da pressão arterial sistólica nos subgrupos de substituição mineral -4,82 (IC 95%: -11,36 a 1,73 mmHg) e padrões complexos -3,17 (IC 95%: -7,62 a 1,28 mmHg). Para a pressão arterial diastólica, com exceção do subgrupo de dietas hiperproteicas, todos os subgrupos apresentaram redução significativa, com -4,66 (IC 95%: -9,21 a -0,12 mmHg) e -4,55 (IC 95%: -7,04 a -2,06 mmHg) para substituição mineral e padrões complexos, respectivamente. Conclusão: A evidência disponível sobre os efeitos de alterações de dieta na pressão arterial em populações latino-americanas indica um efeito homogêneo, porém não significativo, para pressão arterial sistólica. Estudos maiores e com maior rigor metodológico são necessários para construção de evidência robusta. Abstract in english Background: High blood pressure is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Low blood pressure control rates in Latin American populations emphasize the need for gathering evidence on effective therapies. Objective: To evaluate the effects of dietary interventions on blood pressure in [...] Latin American populations. Methods: Systematic review. Electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS and VHL) were searched and manual search for studies published up to April 2013 was performed. Parallel studies about dietary interventions in Latin American adult populations assessing arterial blood pressure (mm Hg) before and after intervention were included. Results: Of the 405 studies identified, 10 randomized controlled trials were included and divided into 3 subgroups according to the proposed dietary intervention. There was a non-significant reduction in systolic blood pressure in the subgroups of mineral replacement (-4.82; 95% CI: -11.36 to 1.73) and complex pattern diets (-3.17; 95% CI: -7.62 to 1.28). Regarding diastolic blood pressure, except for the hyperproteic diet subgroup, all subgroups showed a significant reduction in blood pressure: -4.66 mmHg (95% CI: -9.21 to -0.12) and -4.55 mmHg (95% CI: -7.04 to -2.06) for mineral replacement and complex pattern diets, respectively. Conclusion: Available evidence on the effects of dietary changes on blood pressure in Latin American populations indicates a homogeneous effect of those interventions, although not significant for systolic blood pressure. Samples were small and the quality of the studies was generally low. Larger studies are required to build robust evidence.

  11. Patient Directed Perfusion Pressure on Bypass, an Analogy from Electrical Engineering—A New Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Warwick, Richard; Poole,Robert; Palmer, Kenneth; Johnson, Ian; Poullis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Organ ischemia, particularly mesenteric and renal, can occur despite a seemingly adequate perfusion flow and pressure during a period of cardiopulmonary bypass. The blood pressure to run bypass at remains a contentious issue. We present the concept that perfusion pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass should be patient specific, depending on an individual’s resting pre-procedural blood pressure. Four simulated arterial traces with variable morphology, but identical systolic and diastolic bloo...

  12. Moderately elevated intracranial pressure produces greater cross-filling of the anterior communicating artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi C; Young, Robert J; Jones, Kevin; Koh, Elsie; Lien, Ruby J; Kagetsu, Nolan J

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether moderately elevated intracranial pressure is associated with greater cross-filling of the anterior communicating artery on diagnostic cerebral angiography. A retrospective study of 12 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage was performed. Data on sequential cerebral angiograms and clinical data were used to indirectly estimate intracranial pressure (ICP). Cross-filling of the anterior communicating artery (ACom) was recorded according to our scoring system. Our study included 12 patients with mean age 43 ± 11 yrs. Six patients demonstrated greater ICP associated with greater cross-filling of the ACom on initial angiogram. One patient had greater ICP with greater cross-filling on follow-up angiogram secondary to infarction and midline shift. Two patients had lower ICP yet greater cross-filling on follow-up angiogram due to higher injection rate and volume. One patient with no change in ICP demonstrated the same degree of cross-filling. A markedly elevated ICP is traditionally associated with no cross-filling across the ACom. We propose a counter-intuitive model in which moderately elevated ICP produces greater cross-filling of the ACom. This diagnostic angiographic finding should make the angiographer consider that the patient has moderately elevated ICP, and facilitate more timely clinical management. PMID:25196611

  13. Effects of physical training on pulmonary arterial pressure during exercise under hypobaric hypoxia in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimura, Osamu; Sakai, Akio

    1991-12-01

    In this investigation, we assessed the effects of physical training on exercise-induced systemic and pulmonary hemodynamic changes under hypobaric hypoxia in catheter-implanted rats. We made continuous measurements of pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures during progressive treadmill exercises under hypobaric hypoxia (equivalent to altitudes of 2500 and 5500 m) in 46 control and 41 trained rats. Trained rats were exercised on two running schedules: 4 weeks (4-trained) and 6 weeks (6-trained). Both these groups of trained rats were exercised for the same length of running time each day. The increase in resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure(overline {P_{pa} } ) with increasing equivalent altitude was lower in the two trained groups than in the control group. The increase in(overline {P_{pa} } ) with progressive intensity of exercise was lower in the 6-trained than in the 4-trained and control groups at 610 and 2500 m. The 6-trained rats showed higher pH, P a CO 2 and O2 saturation in their blood than did the control group, whereas the P a O 2 was less. Lung tissue cyclic AMP concentration at rest was higher in the 6-trained than in the control group. Finally, it may be noted that exercise-induced lung tissue vasodilator responses seem to be enhanced in well-trained rats under both normobaric normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia. This study indicates that exercise training may be useful in preventing pulmonary hypertension resulting from both hypoxia and exercise.

  14. [Clinical- functional assessment of organoprotective efficacy of enalapril and telmisartan in patients with arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarchenko, I P; Pozdniakova, N V; Morozova, O I; Petrushin, I A; Sekerko, S A

    2011-01-01

    Effect of enalapril and telmisartan on hemodynamic indices, structural-functional parameters of the left ventricle, and vasomotor function of arterial endothelium was studied in 49 patients (mean age 48.3+/-3.2 years) with 1-2 degree arterial hypertension (AH) and abnormal relaxation type of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Enalapril was given to 24 and telmisartan to 25 patients. Examination included 24-hour arterial pressure monitoring, echocardiography, duplex scanning of the left brachial artery. At the background of therapy with enalapril target levels of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure (AP) were achieved in 79.2 and 70.85% of patients. This was associated with 54.2% reduction of number of non-dippers and night peakers. Therapy with telmisartan (30 weeks) besides effective AP control provided normalization of 24-hour AP profile in 90% of patients with pathological circadian rhythm. This was accompanied by improvement of vasomotor endothelial function of arteries, positive dynamics of structural-functional parameters of the left heart chambers, improvement of indices of left ventricular diastolic function. PMID:21623715

  15. Measuring Partial Pressure of Ammonia in Arterial or Venous Blood VS total Ammonia Levels in Hepatic Encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Asif Mehmood; Tariq Waseem; Malik Asif Humayun; Farina Zia Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To find out the correlation between clinical grade of hepaticencephalopathy and different serum ammonia levels, namely,serum arterial ammonia, serum venous ammonia, partial pressureof ammonia in arterial plasma and partial pressure of ammonia invenous plasma.METHODS: After informed consent from patients or their relatives,100 patients in hepatic encephalopathy due to advanced liver disease,were examined for their clinical grade of hepatic encephalopathywithin 24 hours of admission. Fasti...

  16. Concordance between side-stream end-tidal carbon dioxide and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure in respiratory service setting

    OpenAIRE

    Law, GTS; Wong, CY; Kwan, CW; Wong, FP; Tse, HN; Wong, KY

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the correlation and concordance between end-tidal carbon dioxide and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure, and confirm the experience of the general consensus among service environments. DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: Two respiratory service units in Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred respiratory patients were recruited, in whom 219 sets of observations were recorded. Patients deemed to require arterial blood gas determination also had the...

  17. Effects of Age on Arterial Stiffness and Blood Pressure Variables in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Untreated Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Soo Kyung; Cho, Sang Ki; KIM, KYE HUN; Cho, Jae Yeong; YOON, HYUN JU; Yoon, Nam Sik; Hong, Young Joon; Park, Hyung Wook; Kim*, Ju Han; AHN, YOUNGKEUN; Jeong, Myung Ho; CHO, JEONG GWAN; Park, Jong Chun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives To investigate the impact of age on arterial stiffness and blood pressure (BP) variables in newly diagnosed untreated hypertension (HT). Subjects and Methods A total of 144 patients with newly diagnosed untreated HT were divided into two groups: young group (age ≤50 years, n=71), and old group (age >50 years, n=73). BP variables were measured on office or 24 hours ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). Parameters of arterial stiffness were measured on pulse wave velocity (...

  18. Pressão diastólica final do ventrículo esquerdo e síndromes coronarianas agudas / Left ventricular end diastolic pressure and acute coronary syndromes / Presión diastólica final del ventrículo izquierdo y síndromes coronarios agudos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério, Teixeira; Carolina, Lourenço; Rui, Baptista; Elisabete, Jorge; Paulo, Mendes; Fátima, Saraiva; Silvia, Monteiro; Francisco, Gonçalves; Pedro, Monteiro; Maria J., Ferreira; Mário, Freitas; Luís, Providência.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Há falta de dados sobre o impacto prognóstico da pressão diastólica final do ventrículo esquerdo (PDFVE) sobre as síndromes coronarianas agudas (SCA). OBJETIVO: Avaliar a PDFVE e suas implicações prognósticas em pacientes com SCA. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, longitudinal e contínuo de 1 [...] .329 pacientes com SCA de um único centro, realizado entre 2004 e 2006. A função diastólica foi determinada através da PDFVE. A população foi dividida em dois grupos: Grupo A - PDFVE 26,5 mmHg (n = 226). RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças significantes entre os grupos em relação aos fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, histórico médico e terapia médica durante a admissão. Nos pacientes do grupo A, a SCA sem elevação do segmento ST foi mais frequente, bem como angiogramas coronários normais. A mortalidade hospitalar foi similar entre os grupos, mas a sobrevida de um ano foi maior entre os pacientes do grupo A (96,9 vs 91,2%, log rank p = 0,002). Em um modelo multivariado de regressão de Cox, uma PDFVE > 26,5 mmHg (RR 2,45, IC95% 1,05 - 5,74) permaneceu um preditor independente para mortalidade de um ano, quando ajustado para idade, fração de ejeção sistólica do VE, SCA com elevação do segmento ST, pico da troponina, glicemia na admissão hospitalar e diuréticos após 24 horas. Além disso, uma PDFVE > 26,5 mmHg foi um preditor independente de uma futura rehospitalização por IC congestiva (RR 6,65 IC95% 1,74 - 25,5). CONCLUSÃO: Em nossa população selecionada, a PDFVE apresentou uma influência prognóstica significante. Abstract in spanish FUNDAMENTO: Hay falta de datos sobre el impacto pronóstico de la presión diastólica final del ventrículo izquierdo (PDFVI) sobre los síndromes coronarios agudos (SCA). OBJETIVO: Evaluar la PDFVI y sus implicaciones pronósticas en pacientes con SCA. MÉTODOS: Estudio prospectivo, longitudinal y contin [...] uo de 1.329 pacientes con SCA de un único centro, realizado entre 2004 y 2006. La función diastólica fue determinada a través de la PDFVI. La población fue dividida en dos grupos: Grupo A - PDFVI 26,5 mmHg (n = 226). RESULTADOS: No hubo diferencias significativas entre los grupos en relación a los factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular, historia médica y terapia médica durante la admisión. En los pacientes del grupo A, la SCA sin elevación del segmento ST fue más frecuente, así como angiogramas coronarios normales. La mortalidad hospitalaria fue similar entre los grupos, pero la sobrevida de un año fue mayor entre los pacientes del grupo A (96,9 vs 91,2%, log rank p = 0,002). En un modelo multivariado de regresión de Cox, una PDFVI > 26,5 mmHg (RR 2,45, IC95% 1,05 -5,74) permaneció un predictor independiente para mortalidad de un año, cuando fue ajustado para edad, fracción de eyección sistólica del VI, SCA con elevación del segmento ST, pico de la troponina, glicemia en la admisión hospitalaria y diuréticos después de 24 horas. Además de eso, una PDFVI > 26,5 mmHg fue un predictor independiente de una futura rehospitalización por IC congestiva (RR 6,65 IC95% 1,74 - 25,5). CONCLUSIÓN: En nuestra población seleccionada, la PDFVI presentó una influencia pronóstica significativa. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Data is lacking in the literature regarding the prognostic impact of left ventricular-end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) across acute coronary syndromes (ACS). OBJECTIVE: To assess LVEDP and its prognostic implications in ACS patients. METHODS: Prospective, longitudinal and continuous study [...] of 1329 ACS patients from a single center between 2004 and 2006. Diastolic function was determined by LVEDP. Population was divided in two groups: A - LVEDP 26.5 mmHg (n = 226). RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups with respect to risk factors for cardiovascular disease, medical history and medical therapy during admission. In group A, patients with non-ST elevation ACS were more frequent, as well as normal coronary angiograms. In-hospital mortality was

  19. Neural reflex regulation of arterial pressure in pathophysiological conditions: interplay among the baroreflex, the cardiopulmonary reflexes and the chemoreflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Vasquez

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of arterial pressure at levels adequate to perfuse the tissues is a basic requirement for the constancy of the internal environment and survival. The objective of the present review was to provide information about the basic reflex mechanisms that are responsible for the moment-to-moment regulation of the cardiovascular system. We demonstrate that this control is largely provided by the action of arterial and non-arterial reflexes that detect and correct changes in arterial pressure (baroreflex, blood volume or chemical composition (mechano- and chemosensitive cardiopulmonary reflexes, and changes in blood-gas composition (chemoreceptor reflex. The importance of the integration of these cardiovascular reflexes is well understood and it is clear that processing mainly occurs in the nucleus tractus solitarii, although the mechanism is poorly understood. There are several indications that the interactions of baroreflex, chemoreflex and Bezold-Jarisch reflex inputs, and the central nervous system control the activity of autonomic preganglionic neurons through parallel afferent and efferent pathways to achieve cardiovascular homeostasis. It is surprising that so little appears in the literature about the integration of these neural reflexes in cardiovascular function. Thus, our purpose was to review the interplay between peripheral neural reflex mechanisms of arterial blood pressure and blood volume regulation in physiological and pathophysiological states. Special emphasis is placed on the experimental model of arterial hypertension induced by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME in which the interplay of these three reflexes is demonstrable

  20. Fatores Prognósticos para o Óbito Perinatal em Gestações com Diástole Zero ou Reversa na Dopplervelocimetria das Artérias Umbilicais Prognostic Parameters for Perinatal Death in Pregnancies with Absent or Reversed End-Diastolic Flow Velocity in the Umbilical Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Mieko Yamamoto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: estudar os fatores prognósticos para o óbito perinatal em gestações com diagnóstico de diástole zero (DZ ou reversa (DR na dopplervelocimetria das artérias umbilicais. Métodos: foram analisadas retrospectivamente 204 gestantes com DZ ou DR, sendo realizados os exames de cardiotocografia, perfil biofísico fetal, índice do líquido amniótico e dopplervelocimetria do ducto venoso e das artérias umbilicais, uterinas, aorta e cerebral média. Em 170 casos foi aplicado o modelo de regressão logística para determinar a variável com melhor acurácia na predição do óbito perinatal. Resultados: a mortalidade foi de 28 casos de óbito fetal (13,7% e 45 de óbito pós-natal (22,1%. Houve correlação significativa entre os óbitos e as variáveis analisadas. A proporção de óbitos no grupo com recém-nascidos de peso inferior a 1.000 g foi de 74,7% e no grupo com idade gestacional inferior a 31 semanas, de 66,3%. Na regressão logística, o peso do recém-nascido foi a melhor variável capaz de predizer o óbito perinatal (pPurpose: to study the prognostic parameters for perinatal death in pregnancies with absent or reversed end-diastolic flow velocity on umbilical artery dopplervelocimetry. Methods: two hundred and four pregnancies were retrospectively reviewed. The methods used were cardiotocography, fetal biophysical profile, amniotic fluid index and dopplervelocimetry of ductus venosus, fetal aorta, middle cerebral artery, umbilical arteries and uterine artery. The logistic regression model was applied to one hundred and seventy cases in order to determine the most accurate variable for predicting perinatal death. Results: the mortality rates were: 28 cases of intrauterine fetal death (13.7% and 45 neonatal deaths (22.1%. A statistically significant correlation was found between death and the studied variables. The perinatal death rate in the group with birth weight below 1,000 g was 74.7%, and in the group with gestational age at delivery below 31 weeks it was 66.3%. By logistic regression, birth weight was the most accurate variable for predicting perinatal death, and a probability curve for death according to this variable was obtained. Conclusions: absent or reversed end-diastolic flow velocity in the umbilical arteries is a severe fetal condition, where the risk of perinatal death is mainly related to birth weight and a gestational age at delivery below 31 weeks.

  1. Continuous Non-Invasive Arterial Pressure Technique Improves Patient Monitoring during Interventional Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Siebig, Felix Rockmann, Karl Sabel, Ina Zuber-Jerger, Christine Dierkes, Tanja Brünnler, Christian E. Wrede

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Close monitoring of arterial blood pressure (BP is a central part of cardiovascular surveillance of patients at risk for hypotension. Therefore, patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic procedures with the use of sedating agents are monitored by discontinuous non-invasive BP measurement (NIBP. Continuous non-invasive BP monitoring based on vascular unloading technique (CNAP®, CN Systems, Graz may improve patient safety in those settings. We investigated if this new technique improved monitoring of patients undergoing interventional endoscopy. Methods: 40 patients undergoing interventional endoscopy between April and December 2007 were prospectively studied with CNAP® in addition to standard monitoring (NIBP, ECG and oxygen saturation. All monitoring values were extracted from the surveillance network at one-second intervals, and clinical parameters were documented. The variance of CNAP® values were calculated for every interval between two NIBP measurements. Results: 2660 minutes of monitoring were recorded (mean 60.1±34.4 min/patient. All patients were analgosedated with midazolam and pethidine, and 24/40 had propofol infusion (mean 90.9±70.3 mg. The mean arterial pressure for CNAP® was 102.4±21.2 mmHg and 106.8±24.8 mmHg for NIBP. Based on the first NIBP value in an interval between two NIBP measurements, BP values determined by CNAP® showed a maximum increase of 30.8±21.7% and a maximum decrease of 22.4±28.3% (mean of all intervals. Discussion: Conventional intermittent blood pressure monitoring of patients receiving sedating agents failed to detect fast changes in BP. The new technique CNAP® improved the detection of rapid BP changes, and may contribute to a better patient safety for those undergoing interventional procedures.

  2. Control neural de la circulación periférica y de la presión arterial / Neural control of the peripheral circulation and blood pressure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruno, Estañol; Manuel, Porras-Betancourt; Gustavo, Sánchez-Torres; Raúl, Martínez-Memije; Oscar, Infante; Horacio, Sentíes-Madrid.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En el siglo XIX, Claude Bernard descubrió la acción del sistema nervioso sobre el control de la circulación periférica. A principios del siglo XX, Ewald Hering descubrió el barorreceptor arterial y estudió el control reflejo de la frecuencia cardiaca y de la tensión arterial. Cowley y Guyton demostr [...] aron que la denervación de los barorreceptores de la carótida y de la aorta produce cambios persistentes en la tensión arterial en el animal experimental. El sistema nervioso autónomo es el principal regulador neural de la circulación y de la tensión arterial a corto plazo y latido a latido y ejerce su función mediante diversos reflejos que regulan el tono vasomotor, la frecuencia cardiaca y el gasto cardiaco. Con los nuevos métodos no invasivos que miden la tensión arterial latido a latido como el Finapres y con los métodos de medición de la variabilidad espectral de la frecuencia cardiaca y la tensión arterial, es posible en la actualidad medir muchas de las variables que regulan la circulación periférica y la tensión arterial. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión del control neural de la tensión arterial y de la frecuencia cardiaca, una breve reseña histórica y datos obtenidos con la medición de la tensión arterial latido a latido de manera no invasiva utilizando el sistema conocido como Finapres. Abstract in english In the XIX century Claude Bernard discovered the action of the nervous system on the peripheral circulation. In the first half of the XX century Ewald Hering discovered the baro-receptor and the reflex control of the heart rate and blood pressure. Cowley and Guyton demonstrated that that sino-aortic [...] denervation induces persistent changes in the blood pressure in the dog. The autonomic nervous system is mainly responsible for the regulation of the circulation and blood pressure in the short term on a beat to beat basis. It controls the vasomotor tone, the heart rate and the cardiac output. With the advent of non invasive methods that measure the blood pressure on a beat to beat basis (Finapres) and with the methods of measurement of the variability of the blood pressure in the frequency domain (spectral analysis) we can currently measure many variables including heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, peripheral resistances and the baroreceptor sensitivity and make some inferences about their control mechanisms. These variables can be measured at rest in the supine position, standing up, during rhythmic breathing and during the Valsalva maneuver. In this article we present a review of the neural control of the blood pressure and heart rate.

  3. A comparative study of arterial stiffness indices between smokers & non smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Prabha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Arterial stiffening is recognized as a critical precursor of cardiovascular disease (CVD. CVD is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Smoking is one of the modifiable risk factor for CVD. Lifestyle modification is clinical efficacious therapeutic interventions for preventing and treating arterial stiffening. Arterial stiffness can be measured from Digital Volume Pulse which is economical, easier, non-invasive & less time consuming method (Finger Photoplethysmography. Hence, the current study is designed to compare the Arterial Stiffness Indices between smokers & non smokers. Materials & Methods: The study involved fifty five non smokers & fifty five smokers within the age group of 30-50 years. Subjects’ height, weight and baseline value of Blood pressure, Pulse rate and Peripheral Pulse Wave were recorded in both non smokers & smokers. From Peripheral pulse wave, arterial stiffness indices were calculated. Arterial Stiffness Index (SI = Patients Height (h/ Transit time (?TDVP [Transit time (?TDVP ? Time delay between systolic peak & Diastolic peak] Reflection Index (RI = Magnitude of Diastolic peak / Magnitude of Systolic Peak × 100 Results: Arterial Stiffness Index & Reflection Index were highly significantly in smoker than non smokers, p<0.001. Conclusion: The increased arterial stiffness indices in smoker suggests that the cigarette smoke damages vascular endothelium, which can lead to increased arterial stiffness and consequently to overall deterioration of the cardiovascular system condition. Non invasive measurements of arterial stiffness will aid the optimal stratification of CVD risk in an apparently healthy population.

  4. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacoeconomic aspects of application of antihypertensive preparations of various groups in patients with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurkina T.V.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available At the background of the therapy for 3 months with Perindopril, Telmisartan and Bisoprolol, the patients with arterial hypertension were noted to decrease systolic and diastolic arterial pressure. The preparations under investigation had different effects on electrolyte metabolism. Therapy with Telmisartan turned out to have the least effect on electrolyte metabolism. Microalbuminuria is a risk factor in patients with arterial hypertension and may influence on the basic blood electrolyte balance. Bisoprolol should be recommended as the most preferable therapy for arterial hypertension from the pharmacoeconomic point of view. In order to control morning systolic arterial pressure the preference should be given to Perindopril, while for controlling evening systolic arterial pressure the preference should be given to Telmisartan

  5. Redução da pressão arterial, da IMC e da glicose após treinamento aeróbico em idosas com diabete tipo 2 / Decrease in blood pressure, body mass index and glycemia after aerobic training in elderly women with type 2 diabetes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Zaranza, Monteiro; Cássio Ricardo Vaz, Fiani; Maria Cristina Foss de, Freitas; Maria Lúcia, Zanetti; Milton César, Foss.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O processo de envelhecimento associa-se ao desenvolvimento de várias doenças, que podem ser amenizadas pela prática de atividades físicas. O treinamento aeróbico é um meio efetivo para manter e melhorar as funções cardiovasculares. Além disso, desempenha um papel fundamental na prevenção [...] e tratamento de diversas doenças crônico-degenerativas, em especial o diabete melito. OBJETIVO: Verificar os efeitos de 13 semanas de treinamento aeróbico sobre a pressão arterial, o índice de massa corpórea e a glicemia em idosas com diabete tipo 2. MÉTODOS: Onze mulheres idosas diabéticas (61,0 ± 9,1 anos de idade), sedentárias, realizaram 13 semanas de treinamento aeróbico, compondo o grupo G2. Onze idosas (60,2 ± 6,8 anos de idade) controladas não realizaram exercícios físicos durante a pesquisa, constituindo o grupo-controle (G1). O grupo G1 foi submetido somente a orientações educativas uma vez na semana, e o grupo G2, a caminhadas três vezes na semana. RESULTADOS: Houve redução significativa da glicemia e da pressão arterial diastólica nos dois grupos. Não foram encontradas reduções significativas no IMC após o treinamento aeróbico em ambos os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Treze semanas de treinamento aeróbico foi suficiente para promover reduções significativas na pressão arterial diastólica e glicemia, portanto, esse tipo de exercício reduz os fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares e metabólicas. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The aging process is associated with the development of several diseases, which can be attenuated by the practice of physical activities. Aerobic training is an effective method to maintain and improve cardiovascular function. Additionally, it has a crucial role in the prevention and tre [...] atment of several chronic-degenerative diseases, especially diabetes mellitus. }OBJECTIVE: To verify the effect of a 13-week aerobic training program on blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI) and glycemia levels in elderly women with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). METHODS: Eleven sedentary elderly women with DM2, aged 61.0 ± 9.1 years, were submitted a 13-week aerobic training program, constituting group G2. Eleven controlled elderly women (aged 60.2 ± 6.8 years) were not submitted to the aerobic training, constituting the control group (G1). G1 attended educational lectures once a week, whereas G2 walked three times a week. RESULTS: Both groups presented a significant decrease in glycemia and diastolic blood pressure levels. No significant decreases in BMI were observed after the aerobic training in either group. CONCLUSION: The 13-week aerobic training program was enough to promote significant decrease in the diastolic blood pressure and glycemia levels; therefore, this type of exercise training decreases the risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

  6. Relação da temperatura da solução de diálise e a hipotensão arterial sintomática observada durante sessões de hemodiálise em pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica Relación de la temperatura de la solution de diálisis y la hipotensión arterial sintomática observada durante sesiones de hemodialisis en pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica Relationship between dialysis solution temperature and symptomatic low blood pressure during hemodialysis for end stage renal disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia Beltrame Soares

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizado estudo prospectivo em um grupo de 21 pacientes portadores de insuficiência renal crônica que apresentavam hipotensão arterial no decorrer da hemodiálise. Avaliada a pressão arterial durante duas sessões com dialisato a 35(9C e duas a 37°C, observou-se que as pressões sistólica e diastólica, nas temperaturas estudadas, mostraram diferenças estatisticamente significativas quando comparadas aos valores iniciais pré-diálise, queda progressiva das pressões com prevalência de episódios hipotensivos na 3(5 e 4(5 horas de tratamento em ambas temperaturas, diminuição de 7,69% das hipotensões com dialisato a 35ºC e importante queixa de sensação de frio, tornando o tratamento desconfortável.Realizado estudio prospectivo en un grupo de 21 pacientes portadores de insuficiencia renal crónica que presentaban hipotensión arterial en el decorrer de la hemodiálisis. Evaluada la presión arterial durante dos sesiones con dialisato a 35° C y dos a 37° C se observó que las presiones sistolica y diastólica, en las temperaturas estudiadas, mostraron diferencias estadisticamente significativas cuando comparadas a los valores iniciales predialisis, caída progresiva de las presiones con prevalencia de episodios hipotensivos en la 3(9 y 4(5 horas de tratamiento en ambas temperaturas. Disminuición de 7,69% de las hipotensiones con dialisato a 35°C e importante queja de sensación de frio, tornando el tratamiento desconfortable.This prospective study was designed to evaluate hypotension in a group of 21 end stage renal disease patients (ESRD on hemodialysis, with syntomatic low blood pressure. The arterial blood pressure was recorded at 4 consecutive dialysis sessions, two at 35°C and two at 37°C dialysate temperature. In both situations, systolic and diastolic pressures, measured during dialysis, were different from the pre-dialysis value, with progressive lowering up to the end of the procedure. Cold dialysis did not protect from lowering the blood pressure in an amount similar to that occuring at 37°C.

  7. Algunas consideraciones sobre la hipertensión arterial en la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 Some considerations related to arterial high blood pressure in Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Yanes Quesada

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión del tema relacionado con la hipertensión arterial en el paciente diabético tipo 2, con el objetivo de actualizar algunos elementos particulares en este grupo de pacientes. Se plantea que su prevalencia es considerablemente más alta que en la población no diabética, donde la hiperinsulinemia y la disfunción endotelial cobran un papel protagónico en su etiopatogenia. La hipertensión arterial en estos pacientes clínicamente se manifiesta como un patrón non dipper, lo que incrementa la morbimortalidad por esta entidad. El tratamiento medicamentoso es habitualmente necesario, y se usan como drogas de primera línea los inhibidores de la enzima convertidora, los antagonistas de los receptores de angiotensina ll y los calcioantagonistas, aunque se pueden utilizar también los diuréticos tiacídicos a dosis bajas.Authors made a review of the topic related to arterial high blood pressure in the patient presenting with Type 2 diabetes mellitus to update some particular elements in this group of patients. We propose that its prevalence is higher than that present in non-diabetic population, where the hyperinsulinism and the endothelial dysfunction have a leading role in its ethiopathogenesis. The arterial high blood pressure in these patients clinically is manifested as a non-dipper pattern increasing the morbidity and mortality. Drug therapy is commonly necessary and as first line-drugs are used the converting-enzyme inhibitors, the agiotensin-II receptors antagonists, and the antagonists-calcium, although the low-dose thiacidic diuretics.

  8. Algunas consideraciones sobre la hipertensión arterial en la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 / Some considerations related to arterial high blood pressure in Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel Ángel, Yanes Quesada; Marelys, Yanes Quesada; Raúl, Calderín Bouza; Jeddú, Cruz Hernández; Joel, Brooks Durrutí.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión del tema relacionado con la hipertensión arterial en el paciente diabético tipo 2, con el objetivo de actualizar algunos elementos particulares en este grupo de pacientes. Se plantea que su prevalencia es considerablemente más alta que en la población no diabética, donde la h [...] iperinsulinemia y la disfunción endotelial cobran un papel protagónico en su etiopatogenia. La hipertensión arterial en estos pacientes clínicamente se manifiesta como un patrón non dipper, lo que incrementa la morbimortalidad por esta entidad. El tratamiento medicamentoso es habitualmente necesario, y se usan como drogas de primera línea los inhibidores de la enzima convertidora, los antagonistas de los receptores de angiotensina ll y los calcioantagonistas, aunque se pueden utilizar también los diuréticos tiacídicos a dosis bajas. Abstract in english Authors made a review of the topic related to arterial high blood pressure in the patient presenting with Type 2 diabetes mellitus to update some particular elements in this group of patients. We propose that its prevalence is higher than that present in non-diabetic population, where the hyperinsul [...] inism and the endothelial dysfunction have a leading role in its ethiopathogenesis. The arterial high blood pressure in these patients clinically is manifested as a non-dipper pattern increasing the morbidity and mortality. Drug therapy is commonly necessary and as first line-drugs are used the converting-enzyme inhibitors, the agiotensin-II receptors antagonists, and the antagonists-calcium, although the low-dose thiacidic diuretics.

  9. The vascular Ca2+-sensing receptor regulates blood vessel tone and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepelmann, Martin; Yarova, Polina L; Lopez-Fernandez, Irene; Davies, Thomas S; Brennan, Sarah C; Edwards, Peter J; Aggarwal, Abhishek; Graca, Joao; Rietdorf, Katja; Matchkov, Vladimir V; Fenton, Robert A; Chang, Wenhan; Krssak, Martin; Stewart, Andrew; Broadley, Kenneth J; Ward, Donald T; Price, Sally A; Edwards, D H; Kemp, Paul J; Riccardi, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    aortae. Accordingly, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures of KO animals were significantly reduced compared to WT, as measured by both tail cuff and radiotelemetry. This hypotension was mostly pronounced during the animals' active phase and was not rescued by either NO-synthase inhibition with L...

  10. Validação do monitor de medida de pressão arterial Omron HEM 742 em adolescentes Validación del monitor de medida de presión arterial Omron HEM 742 en adolescentes Validation of the omron HEM 742 blood pressure monitoring device in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A medida precisa da pressão arterial é fundamental para a investigação científica ou decisão clínica. Nesse sentido, é importante verificar valores fornecidos por equipamentos eletrônicos. OBJETIVO: Validar o monitor Omron HEM 742 de medida de pressão arterial em adolescentes, segundo os critérios sugeridos pela British Hypertension Society. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 150 adolescentes com idades entre 10 e 16 anos. O monitor automático Omron HEM 742 foi conectado em Y com equipamento auscultatório de coluna de mercúrio, e realizaram-se três avaliações simultâneas, calculando-se as diferenças entre os dois equipamentos. Para verificar a relação entre ambos, utilizaram-se o coeficiente de correlação intraclasse e a plotagem de Bland-Altman (concordância. A especificidade e a sensibilidade do aparelho foram determinadas pela curva ROC. RESULTADOS: A comparação entre as medidas acusou uma diferença menor ou igual a 5 mmHg em 67,3% dos valores sistólicos e 69,3% dos valores diastólicos; uma diferença menor ou igual a 10 mmHg ocorreu em 87,3% e 90,6% dos valores sistólicos e diastólicos, respectivamente; e uma diferença menor ou igual a 15 mmHg em 96,6% dos valores sistólicos e 97,3% dos diastólicos. Esses resultados indicam grau A segundo o protocolo da British Hypertension Society. Observou-se ainda elevada concordância nos valores obtidos por meio do monitor automático, e verificou-se que esse equipamento é capaz de identificar a presença ou a ausência da pressão arterial elevada. CONCLUSÃO: O monitor Omron HEM 742 mostrou-se válido para medidas de pressão arterial em adolescentes, conforme os critérios sugeridos pela British Hypertension Society.FUNDAMENTO: La medida precisa de la presión arterial es fundamental para la investigación científica o decisión clínica. En este sentido, es importante que se verifique valores provenientes de equipos electrónicos. OBJETIVO: Validar el monitor Omron HEM 742 de medida de presión arterial en adolescentes, de acuerdo con los criterios sugeridos por British Hypertension Society. MÉTODOS: Participaron del estudio 150 adolescentes con edades entre 10 y 16 años. Se conectó el monitor automático Omron HEM 742 en Y con equipo de auscultación de columna de mercurio, y se realizaron tres evaluaciones simultáneas, calculándose las diferencias entre los dos equipos. Para verificarse la relación entre ambos, se utilizó el coeficiente de correlación intraclase y el método de Bland-Altman (concordancia. Se determinó la especificidad y la sensibilidad del aparato por medio de la curva ROC. RESULTADOS: La comparación entre las medidas evidenció una diferencia menor o igual a 5 mmHg en el 67,3% de los valores sistólicos y el 69,3% de los valores diastólicos; una diferencia BACKGROUND: Accurate blood pressure measurement is fundamental for scientific investigation or clinical decision-making. In this sense, it is important to verify the values provided by electronic devices. OBJECTIVE: To validate the Omron HEM 742 blood pressure monitoring device in adolescents according to criteria suggested by the British Hypertension Society. METHODS: A total of 150 adolescents aged between 10 and 16 years participated in the study. The automated Omron HEM 742 monitor was connected in Y to the mercury column auscultatory device, then three simultaneous measurements were taken, and the differences between the readings of the two devices were calculated. The intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plot (agreement were used to verify the relationship between both devices. Specificity and sensitivity of the device were determined by using the ROC curve. RESULTS: The comparison between the measurements showed an equal to or lower than 5mmHg difference in 67.3% of the systolic values, and 69.3% of the diastolic values; an equal to or lower than 10mmHg difference occurred in 87.3% and 90.6% of the systolic and diastolic values, respectively; an equal to or lower than 15mmHg difference was found in 96.6% o

  11. Diastolic Heart Failure: A Concise Review

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Fahad; TK, Luqman-Arafath; Enweluzo, Chijioke; Dutta, Simanta; Zaeem, Misbah

    2013-01-01

    The concept of “diastolic” heart failure grew out of the observation that many patients who have the symptoms and signs of heart failure had an apparently normal left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction. Thus it was assumed that since systolic function was “preserved” the problem must lie in diastole, although it is not clear by whom or when this assumption was made. Nevertheless,...

  12. Clinical significance of inter-arm pressure difference and ankle-brachial pressure index in patients with suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although measuring blood pressure at the bilateral brachia is common in medical practice, its clinical significance in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been fully clarified. The method of this study was to define the significance of inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference in patients with suspected CAD, and to assess the relationship between inter-arm pressure difference and CAD, simultaneous brachial and ankle blood pressure measurements and stress myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed in 386 consecutive patients with suspected CAD, excluding those with previous myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization. Subclavian artery stenosis, defined as ?15 mmHg inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference, was found in 27 patients (7%). Age (65±12 vs 65±11 years), male sex (21/27 vs 244/359), prevalence of hypertension (63% vs 56%), hypercholesterolemia (63% vs 62%), diabetes mellitus (33% vs 38%), cigarette smoking (44% vs 41%) and family history of CAD (15% vs 12%) were similar between patients with subclavian artery stenosis and those without. The incidence of decreased ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) was higher (37% vs 12%, p=0.001), and percentage ischemic myocardium as assessed by SPECT was greater (9.0±8.5% vs 5.6±6.6%, p=0.05) in patients with subclavian artery stenosis than in those without. Furthermore, significant correlations were observed between inter-arm pressure difference and percentage ischemic myocardium (r=0.13; p=0.01), and ABI (r=-0.26, p<0.0001). Among 386 patients, 283 underwent coronary angiography, and 63% of those who had inter-arm blood pressure difference had CAD. Furthermore, 83% of those CAD patients had multi-vessel CAD, which is regarded as a high-risk subset for subsequent cardiac events. Inter-arm pressure difference is often found in patients with suspected CAD, and is associated with significant CAD and peripheral artery disease. Thus, inter-arm pressure difference may be regarded as a simple marker for coronary and peripheral artery diseases. (author)

  13. On the Effect of Apex Geometry on Wall Shear Stress and Pressure in a 2-D Arterial Bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Anne; Haljasmaa, Igor; Galdi, Giovanni

    2000-11-01

    There is strong evidence to support the hypothesis that vascular geometry plays an important role in the initiation and development of cerebral aneurysms as well as other vascular diseases through its influence on hemodynamics. Cerebral aneurysms are nearly always found at arterial bifurcations in and near the Circle of Willis. It is commonly believed that the cause of initiation and development of cerebral aneurysms is at least indirectly related to the effect of hemodynamic wall pressure and shear stress on the arterial tissue at arterial bifurcations. In this work, we use analytical and numerical approaches to investigate the hypothesis that local geometric factors can have a significant impact on the magnitude and spatial gradients of wall pressure and shear stress at the apex of arterial bifurcations. We find that sharp corners such as those at arterial bifurcations and the juncture between grafted vessels can be a source of localized high wall pressure and shear stress. In fact, it can be shown analytically that perfectly sharp corners (zero radius of curvature) will lead to unbounded magnitudes of shear stress and pressure . As the radius of curvature is increased (the corner is rounded), the maximum in magnitude in wall shear stress shifts away from the apex to the lateral sides of the bifurcation. Significantly, the unbounded pressure and shear stress at perfectly sharp corners are unrelated to the fluid inertia. As shown here, the large values of pressure and shear stress which have previously been reported in studies in sharp corner models (zero radius of curvature) are grid dependent approximations for unbounded pressure and shear stress.

  14. A simple model of cerebral blood flow dependence on arterial blood pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that the dependence of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) on mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) can be described with a simple model having the following assumptions. Below certain MABP (denoted as MABP1) there are no autoregulatory or feedback mechanisms influencing CBF. Between MABP1 and MABP2 (MABP at which breakthrough accurs) there is a linear (on MABP) dependent feedback with a sloap depending very much on the individual considered. The classical autoregulation model with a plateau in between MABP1 and MABP2 is a particular case of this model. The model describes well the experiments performed on dogs (Harper 1966), for which the individual feedback sloap parameter varied to great extent, indicating the importance of mesurments on individuals against averaged mesurments (or measurments on diffent individuals) which superficially support the classical autoregulation. New effect of decreased CBF, while increasing MABP, was observed.

  15. Arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow variability: friend or foe? A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarolineAliceRickards

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Variability in arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow has traditionally been interpreted as a marker of cardiovascular decompensation, and has been associated with negative clinical outcomes across varying time scales, from impending orthostatic syncope to an increased risk of stroke. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that increased hemodynamic variability may, in fact, be protective in the face of acute challenges to perfusion, including significant central hypovolemia and hypotension (including hemorrhage, and during cardiac bypass surgery. This review presents the dichotomous views on the role of hemodynamic variability on clinical outcome, including the physiological mechanisms underlying these patterns, and the potential impact of increased and decreased variability on cerebral perfusion and oxygenation. We suggest that reconciliation of these two apparently discrepant views may lie in the time scale of hemodynamic variability; short time scale variability appears to be cerebroprotective, while mid to longer term fluctuations are associated with primary and secondary end-organ dysfunction.

  16. Reflex control of arterial pressure and heart rate in short-term streptozotocin diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dall'Ago

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Impaired baroreflex sensitivity in diabetes is well described and has been attributed to autonomic diabetic neuropathy. In the present study conducted on acute (10-20 days streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats we examined: 1 cardiac baroreflex sensitivity, assessed by the slope of the linear regression between phenylephrine- or sodium nitroprusside-induced changes in arterial pressure and reflex changes in heart rate (HR in conscious rats; 2 aortic baroreceptor function by means of the relationship between systolic arterial pressure and aortic depressor nerve (ADN activity, in anesthetized rats, and 3 bradycardia produced by electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve or by the iv injection of methacholine in anesthetized animals. Reflex bradycardia (-1.4 ± 0.1 vs -1.7 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg and tachycardia (-2.1 ± 0.3 vs -3.0 ± 0.2 bpm/mmHg were reduced in the diabetic group. The gain of the ADN activity relationship was similar in control (1.7 ± 0.1% max/mmHg and diabetic (1.5 ± 0.1% max/mmHg animals. The HR response to vagal nerve stimulation with 16, 32 and 64 Hz was 13, 16 and 14% higher, respectively, than the response of STZ-treated rats. The HR response to increasing doses of methacholine was also higher in the diabetic group compared to control animals. Our results confirm the baroreflex dysfunction detected in previous studies on short-term diabetic rats. Moreover, the normal baroreceptor function and the altered HR responses to vagal stimulation or methacholine injection suggest that the efferent limb of the baroreflex is mainly responsible for baroreflex dysfunction in this model of diabetes.

  17. Reflex control of arterial pressure and heart rate in short-term streptozotocin diabetic rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Dall' Ago; V.O.K., Silva; K.L.D., De Angelis; M.C., Irigoyen; R., Fazan Jr.; H.C., Salgado.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Impaired baroreflex sensitivity in diabetes is well described and has been attributed to autonomic diabetic neuropathy. In the present study conducted on acute (10-20 days) streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats we examined: 1) cardiac baroreflex sensitivity, assessed by the slope of the linear [...] regression between phenylephrine- or sodium nitroprusside-induced changes in arterial pressure and reflex changes in heart rate (HR) in conscious rats; 2) aortic baroreceptor function by means of the relationship between systolic arterial pressure and aortic depressor nerve (ADN) activity, in anesthetized rats, and 3) bradycardia produced by electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve or by the iv injection of methacholine in anesthetized animals. Reflex bradycardia (-1.4 ± 0.1 vs -1.7 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg) and tachycardia (-2.1 ± 0.3 vs -3.0 ± 0.2 bpm/mmHg) were reduced in the diabetic group. The gain of the ADN activity relationship was similar in control (1.7 ± 0.1% max/mmHg) and diabetic (1.5 ± 0.1% max/mmHg) animals. The HR response to vagal nerve stimulation with 16, 32 and 64 Hz was 13, 16 and 14% higher, respectively, than the response of STZ-treated rats. The HR response to increasing doses of methacholine was also higher in the diabetic group compared to control animals. Our results confirm the baroreflex dysfunction detected in previous studies on short-term diabetic rats. Moreover, the normal baroreceptor function and the altered HR responses to vagal stimulation or methacholine injection suggest that the efferent limb of the baroreflex is mainly responsible for baroreflex dysfunction in this model of diabetes.

  18. Avaliação comparativa entre a anestesia geral com halotano e isoflurano sobre a pressão arterial em cães Comparartive evaluation of the general anesthesia with halothane and isoflurane on the arterial pressure in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Corrêa Natalini

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available As alterações produzidas pelo halotano e isoflurano sobre as pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média foram avaliadas em 34 caninos de ambos os sexos e de diferentes pesos corporais e raças, todos submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos ortopédicos, divididos em dois grupos de 17 animais, submetidos a jejum prévio de 12 horas antes da indução anestésica. Os animais de ambos os grupos receberam sulfato de atropina 0,04mg/kg, associado ao sulfato de morfina 1,5mg/kg, administrados por via intramuscular e indução anestésica com propofol 6mg/kg por via intravenosa e a anestesia geral foi mantida com halotano no grupo I e o isoflurano no grupo II. Em ambos os grupos, o óxido nitroso na proporção 2:1 com oxigênio foi utilizado como gás diluente do anestésico volátil. Decorridos 15 minutos do início da anestesia volátil, as pressões sistólica, diastólica e média foram mensuradas pelo método oscilométrico indireto até o período de 90 minutos. Observou-se que as pressões arteriais sistólica e diastólica do grupo II foi maior a partir dos 45 minutos de manutenção com os anestésicos voláteis, não ocorrendo diferença significativa na freqüência cardíaca. Conclui-se que a manutenção anestésica com isoflurano produz valores de pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica superiores à manutenção com halotano que causou hipotensão arterial dos 45 aos 75 minutos de anestesia volátil.Changes in arterial systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure were evaluated and compared in 34 dogs anesthetized with halothane or isoflurane and submitted to orthopedic surgeries. Two groups were formed each with 17 dogs. These animals were fasted for 12 hours before anesthesia induction. Anesthetic technique was premedication with 0.04mg/kg atropine intramuscular combined 1.5mg/kg morphine intramuscular. Anesthesia was induced with 6.0mg/kg propofol intravenously. Anesthesia was maintained with halothane in group I and isoflurane in group II. In both groups, nitrous oxide and oxygen in a 2:1 ratio was used as diluent for the inhalant. After 15 minutes of inhalation anesthesia, arterial blood pressures were recorded with a noninvasive blood pressure monitor in 15 minutes intervals for 90 minutes. Statistical analyses showed that there was a significant difference in systolic and diastolic pressures after 45 minutes. Differences in heart rate were not significant. In dos, general anesthesia with isoflurane maintained higher arterial blood pressures than those anesthetized with halothane which produced arterial hipotension from 45 to 75 minutes of anesthesia.

  19. Continuous estimates of dynamic cerebral autoregulation: influence of non-invasive arterial blood pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temporal variability of parameters which describe dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA), usually quantified by the short-term relationship between arterial blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), could result from continuous adjustments in physiological regulatory mechanisms or could be the result of artefacts in methods of measurement, such as the use of non-invasive measurements of BP in the finger. In 27 subjects (61 ± 11 years old) undergoing coronary artery angioplasty, BP was continuously recorded at rest with the Finapres device and in the ascending aorta (Millar catheter, BPAO), together with bilateral transcranial Doppler ultrasound in the middle cerebral artery, surface ECG and transcutaneous CO2. Dynamic CA was expressed by the autoregulation index (ARI), ranging from 0 (absence of CA) to 9 (best CA). Time-varying, continuous estimates of ARI (ARI(t)) were obtained with an autoregressive moving-average (ARMA) model applied to a 60 s sliding data window. No significant differences were observed in the accuracy and precision of ARI(t) between estimates derived from the Finapres and BPAO. Highly significant correlations were obtained between ARI(t) estimates from the right and left middle cerebral artery (MCA) (Finapres r = 0.60 ± 0.20; BPAO r = 0.56 ± 0.22) and also between the ARI(t) estimates from the Finapres and BPAO (right MCA r = 0.70 ± 0.22; left MCA r = 0.74 ± 0.22). Surrogate data showed that ARI(t) was highly sensitive to the presence of noise in the CBFV signal, with both the bias and dispersion of estimates increasing for lower values of ARI(t). This effect could explain the sudden drops of ARI(t) to zero as reported previously. Simulated sudden changes in ARI(t) can be detected by the Finapres, but the bias and variability of estimates also increase for lower values of ARI. In summary, the Finapres does not distort time-varying estimates of dynamic CA obtained with a sliding window combined with an ARMA model, but further research is needed to confirm these findings in healthy subjects and to assess the influence of different physiological manoeuvres

  20. Incidence of chronic heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with hypertension and isolated mild diastolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzy?kiewicz, Halina; Konduracka, Ewa; Gajos, Grzegorz; Janion, Marianna

    2016-02-01

    INTRODUCTION    Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) is still a challenge in clinical practice. The prognosis of patients with HFPEF is similar to or only slightly better than that of patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). Impaired relaxation is the mildest form of diastolic dysfunction, which should not be accompanied by symptoms of HFPEF. OBJECTIVES    The aim of the study was to assess the incidence of chronic HFPEF in patients with hypertension and isolated mild diastolic dysfunction. PATIENTS AND METHODS    It was a cross-sectional study including 210 patients (mean age, 56.11 ±6.24 years; women, 58%) with isolated abnormalities of left ventricular relaxation and arterial hypertension. In addition, we identified patients with type 2 diabetes to compare the incidence of HFPEF between patients with and without diabetes. HFPEF was diagnosed when clinical symptoms of HF were present simultaneously with echocardiographic markers of elevated left ventricular diastolic pressure, pulmonary congestion on chest X-ray, or elevated serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels. RESULTS    HFPEF was diagnosed in 42% of the patients with impaired relaxation. An elevated left atrial volume index (>34 ml/m²) was observed in 38% of the patients; E/e' ratio exceeding 8, in 37%; elevated BNP levels, in 39%; and pulmonary congestion on chest X-ray, in 41%. Independent predictors of HFPEF were age, systolic blood pressure of 140 mmHg or higher, type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and an estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m². In diabetic patients, a positive correlation was found between an insulin dose (>80 units/day) and BNP levels. CONCLUSIONS    Patients with isolated relaxation abnormalities constitute a clinically heterogeneous group because some of these individuals present with symptoms of HFPEF and a simultaneous increase in BNP levels. Therefore, the question of whether diastolic dysfunction is mild should be readdressed, and it should be emphasized that these patients have a serious prognosis with the risk of HF. In diabetic patients, a positive correlation between high insulin doses and BNP levels requires further research. PMID:26810565

  1. Validação do esfigmomanômetro aneroide Missouri para medir pressão arterial em pacientes com câncer Validation of Missouri aneroid sphygmomanometer to measure blood pressure in patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Azevedo São Leão Ferreira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Os esfigmomanômetros auscultatórios de coluna de mercúrio para medida de pressão arterial (PA vêm sendo banidos dos serviços de saúde em razão do risco de poluição e acidentes ambientais com o mercúrio. Os aparelhos aneroides poderiam ser uma alternativa. OBJETIVO: Validar o aparelho aneroide Missouri® de medida de pressão arterial em pacientes com câncer segundo o protocolo da European Society of Hypertension (ESH. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 33 pacientes internados ou em acompanhamento ambulatorial no Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo, da FMUSP. Foram realizadas nove medidas sequenciais da pressão arterial por três observadores treinados e cegados, sendo intercaladas as medidas com os aparelhos de coluna de mercúrio e aneroide. As diferenças entre os valores das pressões arteriais sistólicas (PAS e diastólicas (PAD do aparelho teste com o de mercúrio foram classificadas segundo o protocolo da ESH. RESULTADOS: O equipamento Missouri® passou por todas as três fases exigidas pelo protocolo da ESH para PAS e PAD, sendo aprovado em todas. A média da diferença entre o teste e mercúrio foi de 0,62 (DP=4,53 e 0,06 (DP=6,57 mmHg para a PAS e PAD, respectivamente. Não foi observada associação entre as diferenças nas medidas da PA com sexo, idade, índice de massa corpórea e circunferência e comprimento braquial. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram que o aparelho aneroide Missouri® atende às recomendações de acurácia da ESH para a medida da PAS e PAD, podendo ser utilizado para substituir o esfigmomanômetro de mercúrio.BACKGROUND: Auscultatory mercury sphygmomanometers to measure blood pressure (BP have been banned from health services because of risk of pollution and environmental accidents with mercury. Aneroid appliances could be an alternative. OBJECTIVE: To validate the MissouriTM aneroid device for blood pressure measurement in cancer patients according to the protocol of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH. METHODS: 33 patients hospitalized or under outpatient care at the Cancer Institute of the State of São Paulo, FMUSP, were evaluated. Three trained and blinded observers performed nine sequential blood pressure measurements interspersed with the mercury sphygmomanometers. The differences between the values of systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of the test device with the mercury sphygmomanometer were classified according to the ESH protocol. RESULTS: The MissouriTM equipment underwent all three phases required by the ESH Protocol for SBP and DBP, and it was approved in all of the phases. The average difference between the test device and the mercury sphygmomanometer was 0.62 (SD = 4.53 and 0.06 (SD = 6.57 mmHg for SBP and DBP, respectively. No association was found between the differences in BP measurements with sex, age, body mass index and arm circumference and length. CONCLUSION: The results revealed that the aneroid MissouriTM device meets ESH accuracy recommendations for the measurement of SBP and DBP, and it can be used to replace the mercury sphygmomanometer.

  2. Dependence of P-wave dispersion on mean arterial pressure as an independent hemodynamic variable in school children / Dependencia de la dispersión de la onda P en la presión arterial media como variable hemodinámica independiente en niños en edad escolar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elibet, Chávez; Emilio F, González; María del Carmen, Llanes; Merlin, Garí Llanes; Yosvany, Garc.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Introducción: La relación entre la disfunción diastólica y la dispersión de la onda P (PWD) en el electrocardiograma se ha estudiado durante algún tiempo. En este sentido, la ecocardiografía se está convirtiendo en una herramienta de diagnóstico para mejorar la estratificación de riesgo en l [...] a hipertensión leve. Objetivo: Determinar la dependencia de las PWD en el electrocardiograma de las variables ecocardiográficas en una población pediátrica. Métodos: De un total de 565 niños de tres escuelas primarias, fueron estudiados 515 niños. Fueron excluidos del estudio, aquellos niños cuyos padres se negaron a participar, y los niños con enfermedades congénitas conocidas. Se les realizó electrocardiograma de superficie de 12 derivaciones y se realizaron 4 tomas de presión arterial. Fueron medidas las ondas P del electrocardiograma y calculada su dispersión. Se realizó ecocardiografía para medidas estructurales y Doppler pulsado del flujo mitral. Resultados Se demuestra correlación significativa entre la PWD y la tensión arterial media para prehipertensos e hipertensos r= 0.32, p Abstract in english Abstract Introduction: The relationship between diastolic dysfunction and P-wave dispersion (PWD) in the electrocardiogram has been studied for some time. In this regard, echocardiography is emerging as a diagnostic tool to improve risk stratification for mild hypertension. Objective: To determine t [...] he dependence of PWD on the electrocardiogram and on echocardiographic variables in a pediatric population. Methods: Five hundred and fifteen children from three elementary schools were studiedfrom a total of 565 children. Those whose parents did not want them to take part in the study, as well as those with known congenital diseases, were excluded. Tests including 12-lead surface ECGs and 4 blood pressure (BP) measurements were performed. Maximum and minimum P-values were measured, and the PWD on the electrocardiogram was calculated. Echocardiography for structural measurements and the pulsed Doppler of mitral flow were also performed. Results: A significant correlation in statistical variables was found between PWD and mean BP for pre-hypertensive and hypertensive children, i.e., r= 0.32, p

  3. Neural set point for the control of arterial pressure: role of the nucleus tractus solitarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentinuzzi Max E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiological experiments have shown that the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP can not be regulated after chemo and cardiopulmonary receptor denervation. Neuro-physiological information suggests that the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS is the only structure that receives information from its rostral neural nuclei and from the cardiovascular receptors and projects to nuclei that regulate the circulatory variables. Methods From a control theory perspective, to answer if the cardiovascular regulation has a set point, we should find out whether in the cardiovascular control there is something equivalent to a comparator evaluating the error signal (between the rostral projections to the NTS and the feedback inputs. The NTS would function as a comparator if: a its lesion suppresses cardiovascular regulation; b the negative feedback loop still responds normally to perturbations (such as mechanical or electrical after cutting the rostral afferent fibers to the NTS; c perturbation of rostral neural structures (RNS to the NTS modifies the set point without changing the dynamics of the elicited response; and d cardiovascular responses to perturbations on neural structures within the negative feedback loop compensate for much faster than perturbations on the NTS rostral structures. Results From the control theory framework, experimental evidence found currently in the literature plus experimental results from our group was put together showing that the above-mentioned conditions (to show that the NTS functions as a comparator are satisfied. Conclusions Physiological experiments suggest that long-term blood pressure is regulated by the nervous system. The NTS functions as a comparator (evaluating the error signal between its RNS and the cardiovascular receptor afferents and projects to nuclei that regulate the circulatory variables. The mean arterial pressure (MAP is regulated by the feedback of chemo and cardiopulmonary receptors and the baroreflex would stabilize the short term pressure value to the prevailing carotid MAP. The discharge rates of rostral neural projections to the NTS would function as the set point of the closed and open loops of cardiovascular control. No doubt, then, the RNS play a functional role not only under steady-state conditions, but also in different behaviors and pathologies.

  4. [Synchonization of the blood flow rate in arterial with the changing rate of space of blood pressure with time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shenghua; Qin, Renjia

    2012-10-01

    In physiology-related books, there are many relationship curves about blood flow rate in arteries and blood pressure changes with time, but there are not much explanation about such relationship. This is the very the question that the present article tries to answer. We clarified the relations between blood flow rate and blood pressure gradient using the experimental curves as the basis, using Poiseuille Law and relative knowledge of phisics and mathematics, and using analysis and reasoning. Based on the study, it can be concluded that in every course of cardiac cycle, the blood flow rate of any section in artery blood vessel is roughly synchronized with changing rate of space and time of the blood pressure, but blood flow rate is not synchronized with blood pressure. PMID:23198422