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RNAi-directed downregulation of OsBADH2 results in aroma (2-acetyl-1-pyrroline production in rice (Oryza sativa L.  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromatic rice is popular worldwide because of its characteristic fragrance. Genetic studies and physical fine mapping reveal that a candidate gene (fgr/OsBADH2 homologous to betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase is responsible for aroma metabolism in fragrant rice varieties, but the direct evidence demonstrating the functions of OsBADH2 is lacking. To elucidate the physiological roles of OsBADH2, sequencing approach and RNA interference (RNAi technique were employed to analyze allelic variation and functions of OsBADH2 gene in aroma production. Semi-quantitative, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, as well as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS were conducted to determine the expression levels of OsBADH2 and the fragrant compound in wild type and transgenic OsBADH2-RNAi repression lines, respectively. Results The results showed that multiple mutations identical to fgr allele occur in the 13 fragrant rice accessions across China; OsBADH2 is expressed constitutively, with less expression abundance in mature roots; the disrupted OsBADH2 by RNA interference leads to significantly increased 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline production. Conclusion We have found that the altered expression levels of OsBADH2 gene influence aroma accumulation, and the prevalent aromatic allele probably has a single evolutionary origin.

Xiao Yingyong

2008-10-01

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Badh2, encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, inhibits the biosynthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, a major component in rice fragrance.  

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In rice (Oryza sativa), the presence of a dominant Badh2 allele encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH2) inhibits the synthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), a potent flavor component in rice fragrance. By contrast, its two recessive alleles, badh2-E2 and badh2-E7, induce 2AP formation. Badh2 was found to be transcribed in all tissues tested except for roots, and the transcript was detected at higher abundance in young, healthy leaves than in other tissues. Multiple Badh2 transcript lengths were detected, and the complete, full-length Badh2 transcript was much less abundant than partial Badh2 transcripts. 2AP levels were significantly reduced in cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-driven transgenic lines expressing the complete, but not the partial, Badh2 coding sequences. In accordance, the intact, full-length BADH2 protein (503 residues) appeared exclusively in nonfragrant transgenic lines and rice varieties. These results indicate that the full-length BADH2 protein encoded by Badh2 renders rice nonfragrant by inhibiting 2AP biosynthesis. The BADH2 enzyme was predicted to contain three domains: NAD binding, substrate binding, and oligomerization domains. BADH2 was distributed throughout the cytoplasm, where it is predicted to catalyze the oxidization of betaine aldehyde, 4-aminobutyraldehyde (AB-ald), and 3-aminopropionaldehyde. The presence of null badh2 alleles resulted in AB-ald accumulation and enhanced 2AP biosynthesis. In summary, these data support the hypothesis that BADH2 inhibits 2AP biosynthesis by exhausting AB-ald, a presumed 2AP precursor. PMID:18599581

Chen, Saihua; Yang, Yi; Shi, Weiwei; Ji, Qing; He, Fei; Zhang, Ziding; Cheng, Zhukuan; Liu, Xiangnong; Xu, Mingliang

2008-07-01

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Aroma components of American country ham.  

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The aroma-active compounds of American country ham were investigated by using direct solvent extraction-solvent assisted flavor evaporation (DSE-SAFE), dynamic headspace dilution analysis (DHDA), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results indicated the involvement of numerous volatile constituents in the aroma of country ham. For DHDA, 38 compounds were identified as major odorants, among them, 1-octen-3-one, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 1-nonen-3-one, decanal, and (E)-2-nonenal were the most predominant, having FD-factors >or= 125 in all 3 hams examined, followed by 3-methylbutanal, 1-hexen-3-one, octanal, acetic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, and Furaneol. For the DSE-SAFE method, the neutral/basic fraction was dominated by 1-octen-3-one, methional, guaiacol, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-decenal, p-cresol as well as 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, phenylacetaldehyde, and gamma-nonalactone. The acidic fraction contained mainly short-chain volatile acids (3-methylbutanoic acid, butanoic acid, hexanoic acid, and acetic acid) and Maillard reaction products (for example, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone). The above compounds identified were derived from lipid oxidation, amino acid degradation, and Maillard/Strecker and associated reactions. Both methods revealed the same nature of the aroma components of American country ham. PMID:18211346

Song, H; Cadwallader, K R

2008-01-01

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Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.  

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Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one. PMID:23414530

Majcher, Ma?gorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jele?, Henryk H

2013-03-20

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Influence of endogenous ferulic acid in whole wheat flour on bread crust aroma.  

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The influence of wheat flour type (refined (RWF)/whole (WWF)) on bread crust aroma was investigated. Differences were characterized by aroma extract dilution analysis and quantified utilizing stable isotope surrogate standards. For RWF breads, five aroma compounds were higher in concentration, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-phenylethanol, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, and 2,4-dihyroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, by 4.0-, 3.0-, 2.1-, 1.7-, and 1.5-fold, respectively, whereas three compounds were lower, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, and (E)-2-nonenal by 6.1-, 2.1-, and 1.8-fold, respectively. A trained sensory panel reported the perceived aroma intensity of characteristic fresh refined bread crust aroma was significantly higher in RWF compared to WWF crust samples. Addition of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-phenylethanol, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, and 2,4-dihyroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone to the WWF crust (at concentrations equivalent to those in the RWF crust) increased the intensity of the fresh refined bread crust aroma attribute; no significant difference was reported when compared to RWF crust. The liberation of ferulic acid from WWF during baking was related to the observed reduction in these five aroma compounds and provides novel insight into the mechanisms of flavor development in WWF bread. PMID:23106092

Moskowitz, Marlene R; Bin, Qing; Elias, Ryan J; Peterson, Devin G

2012-11-14

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Key aroma compounds in roasted in-shell peanuts.  

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An investigation by using an aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the aroma concentrates made from freshly roasted in-shell peanuts and stored peanuts revealed a total of 43 key aroma compounds, including 8 newly identified compounds in peanuts. Among them, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, exhibiting an earthy note, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, exhibiting a caramel-like note, were detected with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 4096 in the fresh peanuts, followed by 3,5-dimethyl-2-ethylpyrazine, exhibiting a nutty note, as having the next highest FD factor of 1024. A quantitative analysis of the key aroma compounds having high FD factors in the fresh peanuts and stored peanuts revealed that 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, and 3,5-dimethyl-2-vinylpyrazine significantly decreased during storage, while methyl 2-methyl-3-furyl disulfide, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol significantly increased. The sensory experiments revealed that the fresh peanuts presented strong roasty/meaty, popcorn-like, and nutty notes, as well as moderate spicy/burnt and caramel-like notes, whereas the stored peanuts presented significantly weak roasty/meaty and popcorn-like notes and a significantly strong spicy/burnt note. Based on the comparative AEDAs, the quantitative analysis, and the sensory analysis, it was concluded that the freshly roasted peanut aroma comprised the significant contributions of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol exhibiting a roasty/meaty note, and of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline exhibiting a popcorn-like note, and the lesser contribution of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol exhibiting a spicy/burnt note. In particular, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, which was only detected in the freshly roasted peanut aroma concentrate, might be an essential component describing the freshness of the roasted peanut aroma by its diffusive roasty/meaty note. PMID:23832337

Kaneko, Shu; Sakai, Ririka; Kumazawa, Kenji; Usuki, Manabu; Nishimura, Osamu

2013-01-01

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FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

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Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intens...

1998-01-01

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Characterization of the key aroma compounds in soy sauce using approaches of molecular sensory science.  

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Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to the volatiles isolated from a commercial Japanese soy sauce revealed 30 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-4096, among which 2-phenylethanol showed the highest FD factor of 4096, followed by 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (methional), the tautomers 4-hydroxy-5-ethyl-2-methyl- and 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HEMF), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HDF), and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolone), all showing FD factors of 1024. Thirteen odorants were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated as ratio of their concentrations and odor thresholds in water. Among them, 3-methylbutanal (malty), sotolone (seasoning-like), 4-HEMF (caramel-like), 2-methylbutanal (malty), methional (cooked potato), ethanol (alcoholic), and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity) showed the highest OAVs (>200). An aqueous model aroma mixture containing 13 odorants, which had been identified with the highest OAVs, in concentrations that occur in the soy sauce showed a good similarity with the overall aroma of the soy sauce itself. Heat treatment of the soy sauce resulted in a clear change of the overall aroma. Quantitation of selected odorants revealed a significant decrease in sotolone and, in particular, increases in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 4-HDMF, and 4-HEMF induced by heating. PMID:17602655

Steinhaus, Petra; Schieberle, Peter

2007-07-25

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Induction of satiation via aroma in dairy products  

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Sensory satiation is probably one of the most important factors in meal termination. In this paper, the use of aromas to induce satiation via dairy products is illustrated by means of two examples: the use of organic acids, obtained by fermentation; and altering the extent of retro-nasal aroma release. In a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised cross-over preload-test meal design, it was demonstrated that a dairy beverage fermented with propionic acid bacteria was perceived as more satia...

Ruijschop, R.; Boelrijk, A. E. M.; Giffel, M. C.; Graaf, C.; Westerterp-plantenga, M. S.

2009-01-01

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Optimising aroma quality in curry sauce products using in vivo aroma release measurements.  

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Reducing fat content in foods to meet consumers' preferences and to address the obesity issue is a key task for food manufacturers but simply reducing fat content affects aroma quality adversely. Measuring the aroma release from regular and low-fat samples during eating to rebalance the aroma release has proved successful in model systems. Here, the reformulation of the spice content in a low fat curry sauce is described. Volatile markers of the key spices (coriander, cumin and turmeric) were selected and used to measure aroma release in regular (10 g oil/100 g) and low (2.5 or 5 g oil/100 g) fat sauces. Regression models were used to adjust the ingredient formulation so that the aroma release profiles in vivo were the same for the regular and reduced oil curry sauces and sensory analysis showed no significant difference between these samples. Despite the complexity of spice aromas, rebalancing was successful. PMID:24679775

Hatakeyama, Jun; Davidson, James M; Kant, Avinash; Koizumi, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Fumiyo; Taylor, Andrew J

2014-08-15

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Fruity aromas production in solid state fermentation by the fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata  

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Solid state fermentation (SSF) has been studied for enzymes, antibiotics, alcohol production or for protein enrichment, but few papers report the production of aromas by such a process. In this work, the study of the production of fruity aromas in SSF by the fungus #Ceratocystis fimbriata$ is presented, with special interest in the nature of the support/substrate, the importance of added precursors in the medium and the aeration. The aromas were characterised by "sniffing" technique an GC hea...

Christen, Pierre; Revah, S.

1998-01-01

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Characterization of the aroma signature of styrian pumpkin seed oil ( Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca) by molecular sensory science.  

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Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a distillate prepared from an authentic Styrian pumpkin seed oil followed by identification experiments led to the characterization of 47 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192 among which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Among the set of key odorants, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline and another 20 odorants were identified for the first time as constituents of pumpkin seed oil. To evaluate the aroma contribution in more detail, 31 aroma compounds showing the highest FD factors were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds determined in sunflower oil, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated, and 26 aroma compounds were found to have an OAV above 1. Among them, methanethiol (sulfury), 2-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanal (malty), and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (roasted potato) reached the highest OAVs. Sensory evaluation of an aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 31 key odorants in the concentrations as determined in the oil revealed that the aroma of Styrian pumpkin seed oil could be closely mimicked. Quantitation of 11 key odorants in three commercial pumpkin seed oil revealed clear differences in the concentrations of distinct odorants, which were correlated with the overall aroma profile of the oils. PMID:23461409

Poehlmann, Susan; Schieberle, Peter

2013-03-27

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FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

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Full Text Available Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intensity was detected a few hours before or after the maximum respirometric activity. Sixteen compounds were separated by gas cromatography of the components present in the headspace and fifteen of them were identified as acid (1, alcohols (6, aldehyde (1, ketones (2 and esters (5.Este estudo explorou a versatilidade de Ceratocystis fimbriata de crescer e produzir aromas naturais sobre substratos de resíduos agro-industriais. Bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã, amaranto e soja em diferentes proporções compuseram os sete meios utilizados, mostrando ser substratos adequados para o crescimento e produção de aroma por este fungo em fermentação no estado sólido. Todos os meios contendo bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã e soja em sua composição proporcionaram um forte aroma frutal, enquanto, o meio de amaranto produziu um agradável aroma de abacaxi. A produção de aroma foi dependente do crescimento, visto que a máxima intensidade do aroma foi detectado poucas horas antes ou depois da atividade respiratória máxima. Foram detectados dezesseis compostos pela cromatografia de gás no headspace das culturas, e quinze deles foram identificados: 1 ácido, 6 alcoois, 1 aldeído, 2 cetonas e 5 ésteres.

Adriana Bramorski

1998-09-01

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FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo explorou a versatilidade de Ceratocystis fimbriata de crescer e produzir aromas naturais sobre substratos de resíduos agro-industriais. Bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã, amaranto e soja em diferentes proporções compuseram os sete meios utilizados, mostrando ser substratos adequados par [...] a o crescimento e produção de aroma por este fungo em fermentação no estado sólido. Todos os meios contendo bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã e soja em sua composição proporcionaram um forte aroma frutal, enquanto, o meio de amaranto produziu um agradável aroma de abacaxi. A produção de aroma foi dependente do crescimento, visto que a máxima intensidade do aroma foi detectado poucas horas antes ou depois da atividade respiratória máxima. Foram detectados dezesseis compostos pela cromatografia de gás no headspace das culturas, e quinze deles foram identificados: 1 ácido, 6 alcoois, 1 aldeído, 2 cetonas e 5 ésteres. Abstract in english Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth [...] medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intensity was detected a few hours before or after the maximum respirometric activity. Sixteen compounds were separated by gas cromatography of the components present in the headspace and fifteen of them were identified as acid (1), alcohols (6), aldehyde (1), ketones (2) and esters (5).

Adriana, Bramorski; Carlos R., Soccol; Pierre, Christen; Sergio, Revah.

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Evaluation of process parameters governing the aroma generation in three hazelnut cultivars (Corylus avellana L.) by correlating quantitative key odorant profiling with sensory evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of the world hazelnut crop is roasted, thus developing a unique aroma that depends on the cultivar used and on the roasting conditions applied. Although several studies have investigated the volatile fraction of different cultivars and have correlated the data with overall sensory profiles, studies establishing a correlation between key odorants among the bulk of odorless volatiles and the respective aroma profiles are not yet available. On the basis of recently published stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF-MS), differences in concentrations of key odorants in different hazelnut cultivars roasted under defined conditions were monitored and compared with sensory data obtained by projective mapping, aroma profile analysis, and triangle tests. The results showed that the aroma-active compounds 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, 5-methyl-(E)-2-hepten-4-one, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, 3,5-dimethyl-2-ethylpyrazine, and 2-furfurylthiol are appropriate marker odorants to differentiate the various nut aromas. In particular, the appreciated roasty, nutty aroma of optimally roasted hazelnuts was developed if both 5-methyl-(E)-2-hepten-4-one and 3-methyl-4-heptanone were >450 ?g/kg, whereas the sum of the two 2-acyl-1-pyrrolines and two pyrazines should not exceed 400 ?g/kg to avoid an over-roasted smell. Such a desired aroma can be obtained for each cultivar, but obviously specific roasting times, temperatures, and roasting techniques had to be applied. PMID:23663154

Kiefl, Johannes; Schieberle, Peter

2013-06-01

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Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products  

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Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried out at room temperature until the media reached pH value of 5. Samples were evaluated for sensory characteristics using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. In all media the target pH was reached after 68-71 hours of fermentation, depending on citrate level. Fermentation and the production of aroma compounds were more intensive in media that contained whey proteins compared to media with only casein. Increased citrate level had a positive influence on the aroma production. Citrate increased the initial pH of the media and acted as a buffer during fermentation, which lead to longer fermentation and prolonged production of aroma compounds. At pH around 5, the desired cultured aroma was the most intensive, whereas sour taste was less dominant. The substrate with 0.25% citrate and 0.1% whey proteins, at pH 5, was rated as best regarding its sensory characteristics.

Nevenka Mazi?

2008-08-01

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SUGARCANE BAGASSE AS SUPPORT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COCONUT AROMA BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION (SSF  

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Full Text Available Brazil is one of the major producers of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum in the world and consequently produces large quantities of waste such as sugarcane bagasse, which can be used as inert support for the production of aroma compounds by SSF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the centesimal composition and particle size distribution of sugar cane bagasse, as well as its applicability as support for the production of 6-pentyl-?-pyrone by SSF. Analyses were performed in triplicate to evaluate the levels of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and moisture in the waste. Also evaluated were the particle size distribution and morphology structure of the sugarcane bagasse. The aroma compound produced shows that the studied waste can be used for 6PP production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC 4042 by SSF process. By kinetic production of aroma it is concluded that the seventh day of fermentation yielded the largest production of the aroma compound, as published for other studies

Manoela Pessanha da Penha,

2012-04-01

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Production of aromas and fragrances through microbial oxidation of monoterpenes  

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Full Text Available Aromas and fragrances can be obtained through the microbial oxidation of monoterpenes. Many microorganisms can be used to carry out extremely specific conversions using substrates of low commercial value. However, for many species, these substrates are highly toxic, consequently inhibiting their metabolism. In this work, the conversion ability of Aspergillus niger IOC-3913 for terpenic compounds was examined. This species was preselected because of its high resistance to toxic monoterpenic substrates. Though it has been grown in media containing R-limonene (one of the cheapest monoterpenic hydrocarbons, which is widely available on the market, the species has not shown the ability to metabolize it, since biotransformation products were not detected in high resolution gas chromatography analyses. For this reason, other monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and camphor were used as substrates. These compounds were shown to be metabolized by the selected strain, producing oxidized compounds. Four reaction systems were used: a biotransformation in a liquid medium with cells in growth b with pre-grown cultures c with cells immobilized in a synthetic polymer network and d in a solid medium to which the substrate was added via the gas phase. The main biotransformation products were found in all the reaction systems, although the adoption of previously cultivated cells seemed to favor biotransformation. Cell immobilization seemed to be a feasible strategy for alleviating the toxic effect of the substrate. Through mass spectrometry it was possible to identify verbenone and alpha-terpineol as the biotransformation products of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, respectively. The structures of the other oxidation products are described.

H. F. Rozenbaum

2006-09-01

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Production of aromas and fragrances through microbial oxidation of monoterpenes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Aromas and fragrances can be obtained through the microbial oxidation of monoterpenes. Many microorganisms can be used to carry out extremely specific conversions using substrates of low commercial value. However, for many species, these substrates are highly toxic, consequently inhibiting their met [...] abolism. In this work, the conversion ability of Aspergillus niger IOC-3913 for terpenic compounds was examined. This species was preselected because of its high resistance to toxic monoterpenic substrates. Though it has been grown in media containing R-limonene (one of the cheapest monoterpenic hydrocarbons, which is widely available on the market), the species has not shown the ability to metabolize it, since biotransformation products were not detected in high resolution gas chromatography analyses. For this reason, other monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and camphor) were used as substrates. These compounds were shown to be metabolized by the selected strain, producing oxidized compounds. Four reaction systems were used: a) biotransformation in a liquid medium with cells in growth b) with pre-grown cultures c) with cells immobilized in a synthetic polymer network and d) in a solid medium to which the substrate was added via the gas phase. The main biotransformation products were found in all the reaction systems, although the adoption of previously cultivated cells seemed to favor biotransformation. Cell immobilization seemed to be a feasible strategy for alleviating the toxic effect of the substrate. Through mass spectrometry it was possible to identify verbenone and alpha-terpineol as the biotransformation products of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, respectively. The structures of the other oxidation products are described.

Rozenbaum, H. F.; Patitucci, M. L.; Antunes, O. A. C.; Pereira Jr, N..

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Media components and amino acid supplements influencing the production of fruity aroma by Geotrichum candidum Influência da composição do meio de cultivo e da suplementação com aminoácidos na produção de aroma frutal por Geotrichum candidum  

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The ability of Geotrichum candidum to produce fruity aroma in food grade sucrose, molasses, corn steep liquor and peptone based culture media was tested by sensory evaluation and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A strong and sweet fruity aroma was produced from molasses, with peptone or corn steep liquor stimulating aroma production. Molasses with peptone supplemented with leucine, valine, or alanine yielded better fruity aroma production and the presence of many esters was c...

Pinotti, T.; Carvalho, P. M. B.; Garcia, K. M. G.; Silva, T. R.; Allen Norton Hagler; Leite, S. G. F.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Media components and amino acid supplements influencing the production of fruity aroma by Geotrichum candidum Influência da composição do meio de cultivo e da suplementação com aminoácidos na produção de aroma frutal por Geotrichum candidum  

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Full Text Available The ability of Geotrichum candidum to produce fruity aroma in food grade sucrose, molasses, corn steep liquor and peptone based culture media was tested by sensory evaluation and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A strong and sweet fruity aroma was produced from molasses, with peptone or corn steep liquor stimulating aroma production. Molasses with peptone supplemented with leucine, valine, or alanine yielded better fruity aroma production and the presence of many esters was consistent with the fruity aroma production.Geotrichum candidum foi cultivado em diversos meios de cultura contendo sacarose ou melaço e milhocina ou peptona e a produção de aroma frutal foi verificada através de avaliação sensorial e cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas. Os meios contendo melaço, peptona e leucina, valina ou alanina apresentaram os melhores resultados e a presença de diversos ésteres foi consistente com a formação de aroma frutal.

T. Pinotti

2006-12-01

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Media components and amino acid supplements influencing the production of fruity aroma by Geotrichum candidum / Influência da composição do meio de cultivo e da suplementação com aminoácidos na produção de aroma frutal por Geotrichum candidum  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Geotrichum candidum foi cultivado em diversos meios de cultura contendo sacarose ou melaço e milhocina ou peptona e a produção de aroma frutal foi verificada através de avaliação sensorial e cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas. Os meios contendo melaço, peptona e leucina, valina [...] ou alanina apresentaram os melhores resultados e a presença de diversos ésteres foi consistente com a formação de aroma frutal. Abstract in english The ability of Geotrichum candidum to produce fruity aroma in food grade sucrose, molasses, corn steep liquor and peptone based culture media was tested by sensory evaluation and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A strong and sweet fruity aroma was produced from molasses, with pepton [...] e or corn steep liquor stimulating aroma production. Molasses with peptone supplemented with leucine, valine, or alanine yielded better fruity aroma production and the presence of many esters was consistent with the fruity aroma production.

T., Pinotti; P.M.B., Carvalho; K.M.G., Garcia; T.R., Silva; Allen Norton, Hagler; S.G.F., Leite.

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Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB) would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried o...

2008-01-01

24

Characterization of odor-active compounds in sweet-type Chinese rice wine by aroma extract dilution analysis with special emphasis on sotolon.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma characteristics of sweet-type Chinese rice wine were studied by sensory analysis, aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and quantitative analysis. Sensory evaluation demonstrated that a caramel-like note was the most distinctive characteristic for sweet-type Chinese rice wine. AEDA was carried out on the extract of a typical sweet-type Chinese rice wine sample. Thirty-nine odor-active regions were detected in the sample with a flavor dilution (FD) factor ?8, and 37 of these were further identified. Among them, sotolon and 2- and 3-methylbutanol showed the highest FD factor of 1024, followed by 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (tentatively identified), dimethyl trisulfide, 2-phenylethanol, and vanillin with a FD factor of 512. Sotolon was identified as a key aroma compound in Chinese rice wine for the first time. AEDA results indicated that sotolon (caramel-like/seasoning-like) was the potentially key contributor to the caramel-like descriptor of sweet-type Chinese rice wine. The concentration of sotolon in Chinese rice wine was further quantitated by Lichrolut-EN solid-phase extraction coupled with microvial insert large volume injection method. The content of sotolon ranged from 35.93 to 526.17 ?g/L, which was above its odor threshold (9 ?g/L) for all Chinese rice wine samples. The highest concentration of sotolon was found in the sweet-type Chinese rice wine, which highlighted the important aroma role of sotolon for this particular type of Chinese rice wine. PMID:24028662

Chen, Shuang; Wang, Dong; Xu, Yan

2013-10-01

25

Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus fruits possess unique aromas rarely found in other fruit species. While fruit flavor is composed of complex combinations of soluble and volatile compounds, several low-abundance sesquiterpenes, such as valencene, nootkatone, alpha-sinensal, and beta-sinensal, stand out in citrus as important flavor and aroma compounds. The profile of terpenoid volatiles in various citrus species and their importance as aroma compounds have been studied in detail, but much is still lacking in our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of their production. Here, we report on the isolation, functional expression, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a sesquiterpene synthase-encoding gene, involved in citrus aroma formation. The recombinant enzyme encoded by Cstps1 was shown to convert farnesyl diphosphate to a single sesquiterpene product identified as valencene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phylogenetic analysis of plant terpene synthase genes localized Cstps1 to the group of angiosperm sesquiterpene synthases. Within this group, Cstps1 belongs to a subgroup of citrus sesquiterpene synthases. Cstps1 was found to be developmentally regulated: transcript was found to accumulate only towards fruit maturation, corresponding well with the timing of valencene accumulation in fruit. Although citrus fruits are non-climacteric, valencene accumulation and Cstps1 expression were found to be responsive to ethylene, providing further evidence for the role of ethylene in the final stages of citrus fruit ripening. Isolation of the gene encoding valencene synthase provides a tool for an in-depth study of the regulation of aroma compound biosynthesis in citrus and for metabolic engineering for fruit flavor characteristics. PMID:14617067

Sharon-Asa, Liat; Shalit, Moshe; Frydman, Ahuva; Bar, Einat; Holland, Doron; Or, Etti; Lavi, Uri; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Eyal, Yoram

2003-12-01

26

QTL mapping of the production of wine aroma compounds by yeast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Wine aroma results from the combination of numerous volatile compounds, some produced by yeast and others produced in the grapes and further metabolized by yeast. However, little is known about the consequences of the genetic variation of yeast on the production of these volatile metabolites, or on the metabolic pathways involved in the metabolism of grape compounds. As a tool to decipher how wine aroma develops, we analyzed, under two experimental conditions, the production of 44 compounds by a population of 30 segregants from a cross between a laboratory strain and an industrial strain genotyped at high density. Results We detected eight genomic regions explaining the diversity concerning 15 compounds, some produced de novo by yeast, such as nerolidol, ethyl esters and phenyl ethanol, and others derived from grape compounds such as citronellol, and cis-rose oxide. In three of these eight regions, we identified genes involved in the phenotype. Hemizygote comparison allowed the attribution of differences in the production of nerolidol and 2-phenyl ethanol to the PDR8 and ABZ1 genes, respectively. Deletion of a PLB2 gene confirmed its involvement in the production of ethyl esters. A comparison of allelic variants of PDR8 and ABZ1 in a set of available sequences revealed that both genes present a higher than expected number of non-synonymous mutations indicating possible balancing selection. Conclusions This study illustrates the value of QTL analysis for the analysis of metabolic traits, and in particular the production of wine aromas. It also identifies the particular role of the PDR8 gene in the production of farnesyldiphosphate derivatives, of ABZ1 in the production of numerous compounds and of PLB2 in ethyl ester synthesis. This work also provides a basis for elucidating the metabolism of various grape compounds, such as citronellol and cis-rose oxide.

Steyer Damien

2012-10-01

27

Solid state fermentation of food waste mixtures for single cell protein, aroma volatiles and fat production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth of selected microorganisms of industrial interest (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus and kefir) by solid state fermentation (SSF) of various food industry waste mixtures was studied. The fermented products were analysed for protein, and nutrient minerals content, as well as for aroma volatile compounds by GC/MS. The substrate fermented by K. marxianus contained the highest sum of fat and protein concentration (59.2% w/w dm) and therefore it could be considered for utilisation of its fat content and for livestock feed enrichment. Regarding volatiles, the formation of high amounts of ?-pinene was observed only in the SSF product of kefir at a yield estimated to be 4 kg/tn of SSF product. A preliminary design of a biorefinery-type process flow sheet and its economic analysis, indicated potential production of products (enriched livestock feed, fat and ?-pinene) of significant added value. PMID:24128535

Aggelopoulos, Theodoros; Katsieris, Konstantinos; Bekatorou, Argyro; Pandey, Ashok; Banat, Ibrahim M; Koutinas, Athanasios A

2014-02-15

28

Encapsulation of Aroma  

Science.gov (United States)

Flavor is one of the most important characteristics of a food product, since people prefer to eat only food products with an attractive flavor (Voilley and Etiévant 2006). Flavor can be defined as a combination of taste, smell and/or trigeminal stimuli. Taste is divided into five basic ones, i.e. sour, salty, sweet, bitter and umami. Components that trigger the so-called gustatory receptors for these tastes are in general not volatile, in contrast to aroma. Aroma molecules are those that interact with the olfactory receptors in the nose cavity (Firestein 2001). Confusingly, aroma is often referred to as flavor. Trigeminal stimuli cause sensations like cold, touch, and prickling. The current chapter only focuses on the encapsulation of the aroma molecules.

Zuidam, Nicolaas Jan; Heinrich, Emmanuel

29

Isolation and Identification of Aspergillus oryzae and the Production of Soy Sauce with New Aroma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soy sauce is a dark brown salty liquid with a peculiar and a meaty taste. It is the chief savory-seasoning agent used in Oriental cookery, but it is becoming increasingly popular in many other regions of the world. The purpose of this study was to isolate Aspergillus oryzae strain from contaminated rice, soybean and wheat for using in soy sauce production with new aroma of thyme and dill. Samples of rice, soybeans and wheat assumed to be contaminated with Aspergillus oryzae were used in the isolation. Pure cultures obtained by culturing and subculturing on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA were maintained on PDA slant. All isolates were inoculated on Aspergillus flavus and Parasiticus agar (AFPA medium to differentiate them from Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus based on reverse color. These isolates and the reference strain were inoculated on Czapack Yeast Extract Agar (CYA and the macroscopic characteristics amongst these strains were compared. Slide cultures for these strains were prepared and their microscopic characteristics were compared. The preparation of the soy sauce was carried out by two stages. The first stage was Koji, which was prepared by mixing the isolates and the reference strain separately with steamed soybeans and the crushed millet was incubated for three days. The second stage involved the preparation of brine which consists of a koji and salt solution. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS program. The results of analysis of soy sauce encouraged the use of the isolates, especially the rice isolate in soy sauce production and the addition of dill or thyme gave a specific aroma to the final product.

Abboud Elkichaoui

2010-01-01

30

Isolation and Identification of Aspergillus oryzae and the Production of Soy Sauce with New Aroma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soy sauce is a dark brown salty liquid with a peculiar and a meaty taste. It is the chief savory-seasoning agent used in Oriental cookery, but it is becoming increasingly popular in many other regions of the world. The purpose of this study was to isolate Aspergillus oryzae strain from contaminated rice, soybean and wheat for using in soy sauce production with new aroma of thyme and dill. Samples of rice, soybeans and wheat assumed to be contaminated with Aspergillus oryzae were...

Tarek Elbashiti; Amal Fayyad; Abboud Elkichaoui

2010-01-01

31

Coffee residues as substrates for aroma production by Ceratocystis fimbriata in solid state fermentation Produção de aromas por Ceratocystis fimbriata em fermentaç??o no estado sólido utilizando resíduos da agroindústria do café como substratos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability of two different strains of Ceratocystis fimbriata for fruity aroma production by solid state fermentation (SSF was tested on coffee pulp and coffee husk complemented with glucose as substrates. Experiments were carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks and the experimental conditions were: 70% of initial moisture, 20% of glucose addition and pH 6.0. Aeration was made by passive diffusion through the gauze covering the flasks. Headspace analysis of the culture by gas chromatography (GC showed that 12 compounds were produced with coffee husk. Maximum total volatiles (TV concentration was reached after 72 h of culture with coffee husk as substrate (28 µmol.L-1.g-1. Ethyl acetate, ethanol and acetaldehyde were the major compounds produced, representing 84.7%, 7.6% and 2.0% of TV, respectively. A pre-treatment with heat (100ºC/ 40 min of substrates did not improve TV production. Respirometry analysis was used to determine the growth of the culture by measuring carbon dioxide produced. Results showed that the CO2 production follows the aroma production. This result shows the great potential for the use coffee pulp and coffee husk as substrates to microbial aroma production by solid state fermentation.Neste trabalho duas diferentes cepas de Ceratocystis fimbriata foram testadas para a produção de aromas frutais em fermentação no estado sólido (FES utilizando como substratos casca e polpa de café, suplementados com glicose. Os experimentos foram realizados em frascos Erlenmeyer de 250 mL. As condições experimentais foram: umidade inicial de 70%, adição de 20% de glicose e pH 6,0. Os frascos foram cobertos com gaze e a aeração ocorreu por difusão passiva. A análise do "headspace"da cultura foi feita por cromatografia gasosa e 12 compostos foram detectados utilizando a casca de café. A análise respirométrica foi realizada para o acompanhamento do crescimento do microrganismo pela determinação do dióxido de carbono produzido. A produção de ésteres caracterizou o aroma frutal da cultura. A concentração máxima de voláteis totais foi alcançada após 72 h de cultivo em casca de café (28 µmol.L-1.g-1. Os principais compostos produzidos foram acetato de etila, etanol e acetaldeído, representando 84,7%, 7,6% and 2,0% dos voláteis totais, respectivamente.

Adriane Bianchi Pedroni Medeiros

2003-07-01

32

Growth and aroma production by Staphylococcus xylosus, S- carnosus and S-equoum - a comparative study in model systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A laboratory medium inoculated with 20 different Staphylococcus strains was prepared in accordance with a full Factorial experimental design investigating the effect of temperature. pH, NaCl and glucose on growth. The 32 strains most suited to growth in a fermented meat environment were inoculated in sausage minces together with Pediococcus pentosaceus, incubated at 25 C for I week and the produced aroma compounds collected. The data were analysed by multiple linear regression and partial least squares regression analysis. The results showed that increasing pH and temperature from 4.6 to 6.0 and 10 to 26 C. respectively, increased growth of all strains with strong synergy between temperature and pH. Increasing salt concentration from 5% to 15% w/v decreased growth of most strains, but the effect of pH and temperature was much stronger than the effect of salt. Strains of S. carnosus were more salt tolerant than strains of S. equorum and S, xylosus, especially at high pH and temperature. Addition of glucose up to 0.5% w/v had no significant influence on growth of any of the strains. With regard to aroma production, species characteristics were detected. S. carnosus and S. xylosus were quite different regarding the overall aroma profiles, whereas the profiles of S. equorum lied somewhere in-between. Contrary to S. carnosus, S. xylosus and S. equorum did not produce 2-methyl-1-butanol. On the other hand, in particular, S. xylosus produced more 3-methyl-1-butanol. Except for one of the strains of S. equorum, S. xylosus and S. equorum formed more diacetyl, 2-butanone and acetoin and also more of the methyl-branched ketones arising from degradation of leucine, isoleucine and valine. S. carnosus produced more methyl-branched aldehydes, acids and corresponding esters from leucine, isoleucine and valine-compounds that have been correlated with fermented sausage maturity in former studies. S. equorum produced the least of the methyl-branched aldehydes.

Søndergaard, A.K.; Stahnke, Louise Heller

2002-01-01

33

?-carotene biotransformation to obtain aroma compounds Biotransformação de ?-caroteno para obtenção de compostos de aroma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Carotenoids are important constituents of food due to their color and because their degradation products generate important volatile compounds in foods. Aroma compounds derived from carotenoids are widely distributed in nature, and they are precursors of many important aromas in foods such as fruits and in flowers as well. They present high aromatic potential and are therefore of great interest to the industries of aromas and fragrances. In this study, more than 300 previously isolated microo...

Mariana Uenojo; Glaucia Maria Pastore

2010-01-01

34

Retronasal Aroma Release and Satiation: a Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In view of the epidemic of obesity, one of the aims of the food industry is to develop good-tasting food products that may induce an increased level of satiation, preventing consumers from overeating. This review focuses on the possibility of using aroma as a trigger for inducing or increasing satiation. Using a novel approach of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APcl-MS) in combination with olfactometry, the relative importance of different aroma concepts for satiat...

Ruijschop, R.; Boelrijk, A. E. M.; Graaf, C.; Westerterp-plantenga, M. S.

2009-01-01

35

Metabolic engineering of aroma components in fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants have the ability to produce a diversity of volatile metabolites, which attract pollinators and seed dispersers and strengthen plant defense responses. Selection by plant breeders of traits such as rapid growth and yield leads, in many cases, to the loss of flavor and aroma quality in crops. How the aroma can be improved without affecting other fruit attributes is a major unsolved issue. Significant advances in metabolic engineering directed at improving the set of volatiles that the fruits emit has been aided by the characterization of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of flavor and aroma compounds in some fruits. However, before this technology can be successfully applied to modulate the production of volatiles in different crops, further basic research is needed on the mechanisms that lead to the production of these compounds in plants. Here we review the biosynthesis and function of volatile compounds in plants, and the attempts that have been made to manipulate fruit aroma biosynthesis by metabolic engineering. In addition, we discuss the possibilities that molecular breeding offers for aroma enhancement and the implications of the latest advances in biotechnological modification of fruit flavor and aroma. PMID:24019257

Aragüez, Irene; Valpuesta, Victoriano

2013-10-01

36

Aroma profiles of vegetable oils varying in fatty acid composition vs. concentrations of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aroma compositions of oxidised sunflower oil, linseed oil and a blend thereof (85/15) were compared with frequently used indicators for primary and secondary lipid oxidation. Primary lipid oxidation was followed by the formation of conjugated dienes, secondary lipid oxidation by proponal and hexanal formation. Highest concentrations of conjugated dienes and propanal were measured in the linseed oil, followed by the blend and sunflower oil, respectively. Highest concentrations of hexanal w...

2000-01-01

37

Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew. Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discrimination of products; the concentration in the coffee brew was found to be the least discriminatory and concentration in the headspace above the roast and ground coffee was shown to be most discriminatory. Conclusions All approaches should be taken into consideration when classifying roast and ground coffee especially for alignment to sensory perception and consumer insight data as all offer markedly different discrimination abilities due to the variation in volatility, hydrophobicity, air-water partition coefficient and other physicochemical parameters of the key aroma compounds present.

Fisk Ian

2012-08-01

38

Food aroma affects bite size  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

de Wijk René A

2012-03-01

39

The effect of dispersion mechanisms on aroma delivery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dispersion of aroma compounds in food matrices is a common process in the production of many food products. However, the degrees of dispersion on the distribution and subsequent release of these compounds during consumption may have considerable consequences for perception of these flavours. This thesis investigates the effects of a range of dispersion techniques on the delivery and release of aroma compounds from several solid and semi-solid matrices which commonly contain added flavouri...

Pearson, Kris S. K.

2005-01-01

40

The Development of Aromas in Ruminant Meat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review provides an update on our understanding of the chemical reactions (lipid oxidation, Strecker and Maillard reactions, thiamine degradation) and a discussion of the principal aroma compounds derived from those reaction or other sources in cooked meat, mainly focused on ruminant species. This knowledge is essential in order to understand, control, and improve the quality of food products. More studies are necessary to fully understand the role of each compound in the overall cooked m...

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Acidification of grape marc for alcoholic beverage production: effects on indigenous microflora and aroma profile after distillation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grappa is an Italian alcoholic beverage obtained from distillation of grape marc, the raw material derived from separation of must during the winemaking process. Marc is stored for a period lasting from few days to several weeks, when fermentation of residual sugars occurs mainly by yeast activity. Many distilleries have adopted different solutions to manage this critical phase in order to avoid spoilage microorganisms: marc acidification is the most widely diffused. In this work, Prosecco grape pomace was acidified with sulphuric acid (to pH 2.9) and stored, whereas non-acidified grape marc was used as control (pH 3.9). Samples for microbiological analysis were collected at the beginning of the storage period, after 15 and 43days. At the beginning of the ensilage (time T0) the indigenous microflora was represented both by yeasts and bacteria at a concentration of about 10(6)cfu/g. During the first 15days, when the fermentation generally takes place, yeast population grew considerably (up to 10(7)cfu/g) in acidified grape marc, where bacterial population was maintained at low levels. Moreover, yeast populations recovered at the three sampling times in both treated and untreated marc were genetically characterised. This analysis showed that the species succession lead to non-Saccharomyces species dominance (in particular Issatchenkia and Pichia genera) in both conditions although acidified marc showed a lower percentage of Saccharomyces at any sampling time analysed, this meaning that non-Saccharomyces species were favoured in this environment. Gas chromatographic analysis showed a remarkable change in the aromatic profile of distilled grape marcs at the end of the storage, thus evidencing that concentration of monitored volatile compounds usually produced by microflora was generally lowered by the acidification treatment. This work demonstrates for the first time the strong effect of a persistent acidification treatment both on the microbiota of grape pomace and on the aromatic profile of the distillate. Indeed, the lowering of the pH caused significant changes in yeast-bacteria populations ratio and in yeast species turnover. These microbiological changes determine an improvement of the aromatic profile of the distillate, due to the reduction of the main volatile products associated with potential off-flavours. PMID:22056624

Bovo, Barbara; Nardi, Tiziana; Fontana, Federico; Carlot, Milena; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana

2012-01-16

42

Biodegradation of C5-C 8 fatty acids and production of aroma volatiles by Myroides sp. ZB35 isolated from activated sludge.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the effluents of a biologically treated wastewater from a heavy oil-refining plant, C5-C8 fatty acids including pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid, heptanoic acid, octanoic acid, and 2-methylbutanoic acid are often detected. As these residual fatty acids can cause further air and water pollution, a new Myroides isolate ZB35 from activated sludge was explored to degrade these C5-C8 fatty acids in this study. It was found that the biodegradation process involved a lag phase that became prolonged with increasing acyl chain length when the fatty acids were individually fed to this strain. However, when fed as a mixture, the ones with longer acyl chains were found to become more quickly assimilated. The branched 2-methylbutanoic acid was always the last one to be depleted among the five fatty acids under both conditions. Metabolite analysis revealed one possible origin of short chain fatty acids in the biologically treated wastewater. Aroma volatiles including 2-methylbutyl isovalerate, isoamyl 2-methylbutanoate, isoamyl isovalerate, and 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutanoate were subsequently identified from ZB35 extracts, linking the source of the fruity odor to these esters excreted by Myroides species. To our best knowledge, this is the first finding of these aroma esters in bacteria. From a biotechnological viewpoint, this study has revealed the potential of Myroides species as a promising source of aroma esters attractive for food and fragrance industries. PMID:24810320

Xiao, Zijun; Zhu, Xiankun; Xi, Lijun; Hou, Xiaoyuan; Fang, Li; Lu, Jian R

2014-05-01

43

The Development of Aromas in Ruminant Meat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review provides an update on our understanding of the chemical reactions (lipid oxidation, Strecker and Maillard reactions, thiamine degradation and a discussion of the principal aroma compounds derived from those reaction or other sources in cooked meat, mainly focused on ruminant species. This knowledge is essential in order to understand, control, and improve the quality of food products. More studies are necessary to fully understand the role of each compound in the overall cooked meat flavour and their possible effect in consumer acceptability.

María M. Campo

2013-06-01

44

Determination of Favorite Wine from Comparison of Wine Aroma Attributes  

Science.gov (United States)

The decision to choose the appropriate product matching the preference of each individual is based on the psychological impression of the adjective and the alternatives. The preference for a product group and physical condition also affect decision-making. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of differences in the preference of wine and changes in hunger level on the psychological and neuro-physiological aspects of decision-making where the subjects were asked to choose their most favorite wine after sniffing the aroma of several wines. The psychological aspects of decision-making while sniffing five different kinds of wine were evaluated by the analytical hierarchal process (AHP) method, while the neuro-physiological aspects were evaluated by measuring the level of oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations (O2Hb) in the process of smelling the wine aromas within three minutes compared to when the non-odor and alcoholic solutions were presented. AHP analysis showed that the adjective “Favorite” was given the highest importance and a white wine with a sweet aroma was the most favored wine, regardless of the wine preference. The normalized mean O2Hb levels in each minute showed that, in the case of the wine lovers, the time course of the O2Hb level, decreased when they sensed the wine aroma compared to when they sensed non-odor solutions, and, in non-wine lovers, the O2Hb levels remained at higher values compared to the smell of the non-odor solution when they sensed the aroma of the alcoholic solution. The results indicate that there are differences with regard to decision-making between the psychological and physiological aspects when people are made to choose their most favorite wine by sniffing wine aromas.

Koike, Takayuki; Kamimura, Hironobu; Shimada, Kouji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kaneki, Noriaki

45

Selective removal of methyl mercaptan in coffee aroma using oxidized microporous carbon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coffee aroma recovered from the extraction process of roasted coffee beans is used to improve the quality of soluble coffee products. Coffee aroma often has an irritating sulfurous odor. In the present work, it is experimentally elucidated that methyl mercaptan could be selectively removed from the coffee aroma-containing gas by the oxidized microporous carbon. Breakthrough curves of coffee aroma-containing gas on zeolite 5A, microporous carbon (MSC 5A), and MSC 5A oxidized with 13.2N HNO{sub 3} aqueous solution revealed that the adsorption capacity of methyl mercaptan on the oxidized carbon was 4.2 times of that on the zeolite. The loss of desired coffee aroma was decreased using the oxidized carbon in the removal of methyl mercaptan. (author)

Sakano, T. [Ajinomoto General Foods Inc., Tokyo (Japan). Central Research Laboratoties; Tamon, H.; Okazaki, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-10-01

46

Advances in Fruit Aroma Volatile Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fruits produce a range of volatile compounds that make up their characteristic aromas and contribute to their flavor. Fruit volatile compounds are mainly comprised of esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, lactones, terpenoids and apocarotenoids. Many factors affect volatile composition, including the genetic makeup, degree of maturity, environmental conditions, postharvest handling and storage. There are several pathways involved in volatile biosynthesis starting from lipids, amino acids, terpenoids and carotenoids. Once the basic skeletons are produced via these pathways, the diversity of volatiles is achieved via additional modification reactions such as acylation, methylation, oxidation/reduction and cyclic ring closure. In this paper, we review the composition of fruit aroma, the characteristic aroma compounds of several representative fruits, the factors affecting aroma volatile, and the biosynthetic pathways of volatile aroma compounds. We anticipate that this review would provide some critical information for profound research on fruit aroma components and their manipulation during development and storage.

Muna Ahmed Mohamed El Hadi

2013-07-01

47

Acute Effects of Complexity in Aroma Composition on Satiation and Food Intake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Compared to placebo, subjects felt significantly more satiated during aroma stimulation with the multicomponent strawberry aroma in the olfactometer-aided setting. Additionally, perceived satiation was significantly increased 10-15 min after consumption of the multicomponent strawberry-aromatized sweetened yogurt product in the ad libitum eating setting. There was no effect on the amount of strawberry-aromatized sweetened yogurt product consumed ad libitum. Apart from the differences in timin...

Ruijschop, R. M. A. J.; Boelrijk, A. E. M.; Burgering, M. J. M.; Graaf, C.; Westerterp-plantenga, M. S.

2010-01-01

48

Direct Aromaization of Methane  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thermal decomposition of methane offers significant potential as a means of producing higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of reaction is limited. Work in the literature previous to this project had shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds would significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon or heavier (Clo+) materials. This project studied the effect and optimization of the quenching process as a means of increasing the amount of value added products during the pyrolysis of methane. A reactor was designed to rapidly quench the free-radical combustion reaction so as to maximize the yield of aromatics. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts were studied as a means of lowering the reaction temperature. A lower reaction temperature would have the benefits of more rapid quenching as well as a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. It was the goal of the project to identify promising routes from methane to higher hydrocarbons based on the pyrolysis of methane.

George Marcelin

1997-01-15

49

Taste and aroma of fresh and stored mandarins.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last decade there has been a continuous rise in consumption of fresh easy-to-peel mandarins. However, mandarins are much more perishable than other citrus fruit, mainly due to rapid deterioration in sensory acceptability after harvest. In the current review we discuss the biochemical components involved in forming the unique flavor of mandarins, and how postharvest storage operations influence taste and aroma and consequently consumer sensory acceptability. What we perceive as mandarin flavor is actually the combination of basic taste, aroma and mouth-feel. The taste of mandarins is principally governed by the levels of sugars and acids in the juice sacs and the relative ratios among them, whereas the aroma of mandarins is derived from a mixture of different aroma volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, terpenes/hydrocarbons and esters. During postharvest storage and marketing there is a gradual decrease in mandarin sensory acceptability, which has been attributed to decreases in acidity and typical mandarin flavor, paralleling an accumulation of off-flavor. Biochemical analysis of volatile and non-volatile constituents in mandarin juice demonstrated that these changes in sensory acceptability were concomitant with decreases in acidity and content of terpenes and aldehydes, which provide green, piney and citrus aroma on the one hand, and increases in ethanol fermentation metabolism products and esters on the other, which are likely to cause 'overripe' and off-flavors. Overall, we demonstrate the vast importance of the genetic background, maturity stage at harvest, commercial postharvest operation treatments, including curing, degreening and waxing, and storage duration on mandarin sensory quality. PMID:20812381

Tietel, Zipora; Plotto, Anne; Fallik, Elazar; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Porat, Ron

2011-01-15

50

True cooking aroma or artefact. 15N gives the answer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to determine the respective contributions of the various nitrous precursor families in aroma preparations, the usually added amino acids were substituted with 15N isotope labelled homologous components. Results concerning isotope ratios for the volatile fraction nitrous components collected from poultry meat aromatic preparations, are presented. Terminal product labelling appears to allow for a better determination of the substrate and functional additive contributions. 4 figs., 6 refs

1994-01-01

51

Release and perception of aroma compounds during consumption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Key words: MS-Nose, in vivo aroma release, aroma perception, mouth model, artificial throat, liquid protocol, sweeteners, reversible protein-aroma interactions, emulsions, oil content, droplet size distribution, gel hardness, texture, cross-modal interactions.This thesis evaluated and validated the MS-Nose as a tool to measure aroma release during food consumption. Subsequently, the MS-Nose was used to enhance understanding of the interaction between release and perception of aroma during con...

Weel, K. G. C.

2004-01-01

52

Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew). Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered comp...

Fisk Ian; Kettle Alec; Hofmeister Sonja; Virdie Amarjeet; Kenny Javier

2012-01-01

53

PENGEMBANGAN AROMA DAN CITA RASA BAKSO DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN FLAVOR [Development of Aroma and Taste of Meat Ball Using Flavor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bakso is one of the most popular meat product in Indonesia. This research studied of effect of addition of falvor to the quality of meat ball. The analysis included physical characteristics (specific gravity, hardness, shear, elasticity and color organoleptic test. The results showed that : according to consumer preference, the most like flavour that added in the meat ball were the flavour of beef Q. 1.%, beef Q 1.5%, Beef WIN 1.5% and beef Fat WIN 1.0%. the use of flavor did not cause differences in physical characteristics like specific gravity, hardness, shear, alasticity and color a-value. The use flavour in creased the price of bakso between Rp 4.5,- to Rp 18,-. According to comparison test, meat ball with beef Q 1.5% has the best score compared with Bakso Lapang Tembak (BLT in aroma, and with Bakso Pedagang Keliling (BPK has the best score in aroma, test and texture.

Aulia 2

2001-08-01

54

A Comparative Analysis of the Influence of Human Salivary Enzymes on Odorant Concentration in Three Palm Wines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines’ odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs, respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA, and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD factor range of 4-256, and all were subsequently identified. Of the 46 odorants, 41 were identified in the Elaeis guineensis wine, 36 in Raphia hookeri wine and 29 in Borassus flabellifer wine. Among the odorants, the highest FD-factors were obtained from acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Among the 13 potent odorants identified, five aroma compounds are reported here as important contributors to palm wine aroma, namely 3-isobutyl-2-methoxy-pyrazine, acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methylbutylacetate and ethyl hexanoate. Meanwhile, salivary enzymic degradation of odorants was more pronounced among the aldehydes, esters and thiols.

Ola Lasekan

2013-09-01

55

Impact of Fruit Piece Structure in Yogurts on the Dynamics of Aroma Release and Sensory Perception  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma stimuli, which can influence nutritional and hedonic characteristics, as well as consumption behaviors. In yogurts, fruit preparation formulation can be a key factor to modulate aroma stimulation. In this context, the impact of size and hardness of fruit pieces in fat-free pear yogurts was studied. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was used to allow sensitive and on-line monitoring of volatile odorous compound release in the breath during consumption. In parallel, a trained panel used sensory profile and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS methods to characterize yogurt sensory properties and their dynamic changes during consumption. Results showed that the size of pear pieces had few effects on aroma release and perception of yogurts, whereas fruit hardness significantly influenced them. Despite the fact that yogurts presented short and similar residence times in the mouth, this study showed that fruit preparation could be an interesting formulation factor to enhance exposure time to stimuli and thus modify food consumption behaviors. These results could be taken into account to formulate new products that integrate both nutritional and sensory criteria.

Isabelle Souchon

2013-05-01

56

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in shiraz wine by quantitation, aroma reconstitution, and omission studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The key aroma compounds of premium Australian Shiraz wines from the warm Barossa Valley and cooler Margaret River regions were characterized. GC-Olfactometry was conducted to determine the most important volatile compounds, which were then quantitated. The wine from the Barossa Valley had higher concentrations of ethyl propanoate, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and oak-derived compounds, whereas the Margaret River wine contained above threshold concentrations of the 'cheesy' compounds 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid, as well as rotundone, the 'pepper'-smelling compound. The aromas were reconstituted by combining 44 aroma compounds, and sensory descriptive analysis was used to investigate the importance of the omission of several compounds, including DMS, rotundone, fatty acids, and ?-damascenone, and the influence of nonvolatiles was also assessed. The study showed that the aroma of the Shiraz wines could be reconstituted in both cases, with the changes in the nonvolatile fraction having a large influence. PMID:24745791

Mayr, Christine M; Geue, Jason P; Holt, Helen E; Pearson, Wes P; Jeffery, David W; Francis, I Leigh

2014-05-21

57

The aroma side of the Maillard reaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Maillard reaction in food produces, among others, a diversity of sensory-active compounds (aroma, taste, color). The resulting key aroma compounds are often present only in trace concentrations of 1 microg/kg to 1 mg/kg. Nevertheless, they contribute to the respective flavor because of their low odor-perception thresholds. While Maillard intermediates, such as Amadori compounds and deoxyosones, are formed at percentage levels during model reactions, the yield of aroma compounds, in particular nitrogen and sulfur-containing ones, is often as low as 0.001-0.01 mol%, thus indicating their formation through chemical side reactions. The elucidation of the relevant precursors in food and the identification of previously unknown intermediates can throw light on these minor pathways. Also, model reactions with isotopically labeled precursors are of great value in gaining insight into the relevant formation mechanisms. Several examples of these studies are illustrated including work to elucidate the role of the solvent glycerol in the formation of pyrazines, trials to reveal the relative significance of 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone as intermediate in the reaction between ribose and cysteine, and experiments to assess the proportional contribution of the precursors cysteine, xylose, and thiamine to the formation of the resulting aroma compounds in the thermal reaction. PMID:18079482

Cerny, Christoph

2008-04-01

58

Wine aroma improvement using a ?-glucosidase preparation from Aureobasidium pullulans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial ?-glucosidases have been used for the enhancement of wine aroma. Nevertheless, few enzymes are active in the conditions of winemaking. In this work, the production of a ?-glucosidase by an Aureobasidium pullulans strain (Ap-?-gl) isolated from grape ecosystems was evaluated. The maximum enzymatic synthesis using submerged fermentation was after 96 h of growth in complex media containing 20 g/L of cellobiose as the sole carbon source. The crude enzyme (Ap-?-gl) showed optimal pH at 5.5 and two peaks of optimum temperature (at 45 and 70 °C). It showed a wide range of pH stability, stability at low temperatures, and tolerance to ethanol, showing suitable characteristics for winemaking conditions. The hydrolysis of glycosidic terpenes by Ap-?-gl was studied, and its ability to efficiently release free terpenols was demonstrated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The enzymatic treatment notably increased the amount of monoterpenes, showing good prospects for its potential application for the development of aroma in wines. PMID:23233193

Baffi, Milla A; Tobal, Thaise; Lago, João Henrique Ghilardi; Boscolo, Maurício; Gomes, Eleni; Da-Silva, Roberto

2013-01-01

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Identification of impact aroma compounds in Eugenia uniflora L. (Brazilian Pitanga) leaf essential oil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O óleo essencial das folhas de Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) foi obtido a partir do arraste a vapor em aparelhagem de Clevenger e analisado por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas. As folhas foram colhidas e imediatamente extraídas durante cinco dias consecutivos, às 9 e 14h, [...] não sendo observada variação significativa no rendimento dos óleos extraídos no período. Furanodieno e seu produto de rearranjo, furanoelemeno (ou curzereno, num total de 50,2%), beta-elemeno (5,9%) e alfa-cadinol (4,7%) foram os constituintes majoritários. Pela técnica de cromatografia gasosa-olfatometria (CG-O), associada à análise por diluição de aroma AEDA (Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis), foi possível identificar nove substâncias ativas no aroma do óleo de pitanga, sendo que três foram consideradas como de maior impacto: furanodieno (juntamente com furanoelemeno, FD 1024), beta-elemeno (FD 256) e (E,E)-germacrona (FD 256). A mistura destas três substâncias, coletadas a partir do CG-sniffing port, levou a uma essência de pitanga de aroma bastante semelhante à fruta, de acordo com a avaliação por análise olfativa comparativa. Abstract in english The leaf essential oil of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) was extracted by Clevenger apparatus and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The leaves were collected and immediately extracted for five consecutive days at 9:00 am and 2:00 pm. No variance in the oil yields were observ [...] ed in the period. Furanodiene and its rearrangement product, furanoelemene (or curzerene, 50.2%), beta-elemene (5.9%) and alpha-cadinol (4.7%) were identified as the most abundant compounds. GC-Olfatometry (GC-O) associated to Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA) allowed the identification of nine active aroma compounds, where furanodiene (along with furanoelemene, FD 1024), beta-elemene (FD 256) and (E,E)-germacrone (FD 256) were characterized as the main impact aroma compounds in the odor of this essential oil. Those substances were collected through a sniffing port adapted on the GC allowing to obtain a typical essence of pitanga as indicated by comparative olfatometric analysis.

Melo, Rosineia M.; Corrêa, Vivian F. S.; Amorim, Ana Carolina L.; Miranda, Ana Luisa P.; Rezende, Claudia M..

60

Flavor perception and aroma release from model dairy desserts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six model dairy desserts, with three different textures and two sucrose levels, were equally flavored with a blend of four aroma compounds [ethyl pentanoate, amyl acetate, hexanal, and (E)-2-hexenal] and evaluated by a seven person panel in order to study whether the sensory perception of the flavor and the aroma release during eating varied with the textural characteristics or the sweetness intensity of the desserts. The sensory perception was recorded by the time intensity (TI) method, while the in vivo aroma release was simultaneously measured by the MS-nose. Considering the panel as a whole, averaged flavor intensity increased with sucrose level and varied with the texture of the desserts. Depending on the aroma compound, the averaged profile of in vivo aroma release varied, but for each aroma compound, averaged aroma release showed no difference with the sucrose level and little difference with the texture of the desserts. Perceptual sweetness-aroma interactions were the main factors influencing perception whatever the texture of the desserts. PMID:15161219

Lethuaut, Laurent; Weel, Koen G C; Boelrijk, Alexandra E M; Brossard, Chantal D

2004-06-01

 
 
 
 
61

Studies on the key aroma compounds in raw (unheated) and heated Japanese soy sauce.  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation using the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) technique of the aroma concentrate from a raw Japanese soy sauce and the heated soy sauce revealed 40 key aroma compounds including 7 newly identified compounds. Among them, 5(or 2)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone exhibited the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 2048, followed by 3-(methylthio)propanal, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone having FD factors from 128 to 512 in the raw soy sauce. Furthermore, comparative AEDAs, a quantitative analysis, and a sensory analysis demonstrated that whereas most of the key aroma compounds in the raw soy sauce were common in the heated soy sauce, some of the Strecker aldehydes and 4-vinylphenols contributed less to the raw soy sauce aroma. The model decarboxylation reactions of the phenolic acids during heating of the raw soy sauce revealed that although all reactions resulted in low yields, the hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were much more reactive than the hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives due to the stable reaction intermediates. Besides the quantitative analyses of the soy sauces, the estimation of the reaction yields of the phenolic compounds in the heated soy sauce revealed that although only the 4-vinylphenols increased during heating of the raw soy sauce, they might not mainly be formed as decarboxylation products from the corresponding hydroxycinnamic acids but from the other proposed precursors, such as lignin, shakuchirin, and esters with arabinoxylan. PMID:23521524

Kaneko, Shu; Kumazawa, Kenji; Nishimura, Osamu

2013-04-10

62

Non-Destructive Assessment of Aroma Volatiles from a Climacteric Near-Isogenic Line of Melon Obtained by Headspace Stir-Bar Sorptive Extraction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A climacteric aromatic near-isogenic line (NIL) of melon (Cucumis melo L.) SC3-5-1 contained an introgression of the non-climacteric Korean cultivar “Shongwan Charmi” accession PI 161375 (SC) in the genetic background of the non-climacteric cultivar “Piel de Sapo” (PS). The aroma production was monitored during ripening at 21 °C in intact fruit using headspace sorptive bar extraction (HSSE). Bars were composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and aromas were desorbed and analyzed by ga...

Juan Pablo Fernández-Trujillo; Noelia Dos-Santos; Rocío Martínez-Alcaraz; Inés Le Bleis

2013-01-01

63

Prediction of aged red wine aroma properties from aroma chemical composition. Partial least squares regression models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models able to predict some of the wine aroma nuances from its chemical composition have been developed. The aromatic sensory characteristics of 57 Spanish aged red wines were determined by 51 experts from the wine industry. The individual descriptions given by the experts were recorded, and the frequency with which a sensory term was used to define a given wine was taken as a measurement of its intensity. The aromatic chemical composition of the wines was determined by already published gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detector and GC-mass spectrometry methods. In the whole, 69 odorants were analyzed. Both matrixes, the sensory and chemical data, were simplified by grouping and rearranging correlated sensory terms or chemical compounds and by the exclusion of secondary aroma terms or of weak aroma chemicals. Finally, models were developed for 18 sensory terms and 27 chemicals or groups of chemicals. Satisfactory models, explaining more than 45% of the original variance, could be found for nine of the most important sensory terms (wood-vanillin-cinnamon, animal-leather-phenolic, toasted-coffee, old wood-reduction, vegetal-pepper, raisin-flowery, sweet-candy-cacao, fruity, and berry fruit). For this set of terms, the correlation coefficients between the measured and predicted Y (determined by cross-validation) ranged from 0.62 to 0.81. Models confirmed the existence of complex multivariate relationships between chemicals and odors. In general, pleasant descriptors were positively correlated to chemicals with pleasant aroma, such as vanillin, beta damascenone, or (E)-beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, and negatively correlated to compounds showing less favorable odor properties, such as 4-ethyl and vinyl phenols, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol, or phenylacetaldehyde. PMID:12696960

Aznar, Margarita; López, Ricardo; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

2003-04-23

64

Effects of retro-nasal aroma release on satiation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is suggested that the brain response of a food odour sensed retro-nasally is related to satiation. The extent of retro-nasal aroma release during consumption depends on the physical structure of a food, i.e. solid foods generate a longer, more pronounced retro-nasal aroma release than liquid foods. The aim of this study was to investigate if a beverage becomes more satiating when the retro-nasal aroma release profile coincides with the profile of a (soft) solid food. In a double-blind plac...

Ruijschop, R.; Boelrijk, A. E. M.; Ru, J. A.; Graaf, C.; Westerterp-plantenga, M.

2008-01-01

65

Investigation into the aroma of rosemary using multi-channel silicone rubber traps, off-line olfactometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Multi-channel polydimethylsiloxane rubber traps were used to sample the headspace of rosemary samples (two essential oils from different sources, one oleoresin and one dried herb) followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography -time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS) or GC-MS an [...] alyses. The aroma of different headspace samples was characterized using a custom-built olfactory apparatus. The differences between the aroma profiles were evident from bubble plots of the perceived aroma at different temperatures. The samples were heat-treated to simulate cooking of food products, and were then reassessed to determine any changes in the aroma profile. It was found that the intense menthol and cooling aromas subsided in all the samples with heating. GCxGC-TOFMS allowed for separation of the numerous components in the headspace samples. Many terpenes and aliphatics were thus tentatively identified and the relative peak areas were compared to better understand the mixture that contributes to the rosemary aroma.

van der Wat, Leandri; Dovey, Martin; Naudé, Yvette; Forbes, Patricia B.C..

66

Aroma-active compounds of miniature beefsteakplant (Mosla dianthera Maxim).  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile flavor compounds of miniature beefsteakplant (Mosla dianthera Maxim.) from Vietnam were analyzed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). Sixty-two compounds were identified by GC-MS. Of these, (+/-)-carvone and (+/-)-limonene were the most abundant, followed by (Z)-limonene oxide, beta-caryophyllene, and alpha-humulene. Twenty aroma-active compounds were detected by aroma extract dilution analysis conducted on two GC columns of different polarities (DB-5MS and DB-Wax). The most intense aroma-active compounds were linalool (floral/sweet/lemon), (-)-carvone (spearminty), and 1-octen-3-one (mushroom/earthy). Other predominant aroma-active compounds included (Z)-3-hexenol (grassy/leafy/metallic), (Z)-limonene oxide (lemon/floral), myrcene (plastic/sweet), (+)-limonene (orange/lemon), alpha-thujene (soy sauce/grassy), and (Z)-dihydrocarvone (spearminty/pepperminty). On the basis of the aroma characteristics and intensity, it was concluded that (-)-carvone was responsible for the characteristic aroma of miniature beefsteakplant. PMID:10898640

Kim, T H; Thuy, N T; Shin, J H; Baek, H H; Lee, H J

2000-07-01

67

Comparison of key aroma compounds in five different types of Japanese soy sauces by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA).  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation by the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) technique of the aroma concentrate from five different types of Japanese soy sauces, categorized according to Japan Agricultural Standards as Koikuchi Shoyu (KS), Usukuchi Shoyu (US), Tamari Shoyu (TS), Sai-Shikomi Shoyu (SSS), and Shiro Shoyu (SS), revealed 25 key aroma compounds. Among them, 3-ethyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione and 2'-aminoacetophenone were identified in the soy sauces for the first time. Whereas 3-(methylthio)propanal (methional) and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon) were detected in all of the soy sauce aroma concentrates as having high flavor dilution (FD) factors, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol was detected as having a high FD factor in only four of the soy sauces (KS, US, TS, and SSS). Furthermore, 5(or 2)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HEMF) and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HDMF), which were thought to be the key odorants in KS, were detected in KS, US, TS, and SSS, but the FD factors widely varied among them. The sensory evaluations demonstrated that the aroma descriptions of a cooked potato-like note and a caramel-like/seasoning-like note were evaluated as high scores with no significant differences among the five soy sauces. On the other hand, a burnt/spicy note was evaluated as having high scores in KS, TS, and SSS, but it was evaluated as having a low score in SS. The comparative AEDA experiments and the auxiliary sensory experiments demonstrated that the five different types of Japanese soy sauces varied in their key aroma compounds and aroma characteristics, and the key aroma compounds in KS might not always be highly contributing in the other types of Japanese soy sauces. PMID:22463595

Kaneko, Shu; Kumazawa, Kenji; Nishimura, Osamu

2012-04-18

68

AROMA: Automatic Generation of Radio Maps for Localization Systems  

CERN Multimedia

WLAN localization has become an active research field recently. Due to the wide WLAN deployment, WLAN localization provides ubiquitous coverage and adds to the value of the wireless network by providing the location of its users without using any additional hardware. However, WLAN localization systems usually require constructing a radio map, which is a major barrier of WLAN localization systems' deployment. The radio map stores information about the signal strength from different signal strength streams at selected locations in the site of interest. Typical construction of a radio map involves measurements and calibrations making it a tedious and time-consuming operation. In this paper, we present the AROMA system that automatically constructs accurate active and passive radio maps for both device-based and device-free WLAN localization systems. AROMA has three main goals: high accuracy, low computational requirements, and minimum user overhead. To achieve high accuracy, AROMA uses 3D ray tracing enhanced wi...

Eleryan, Ahmed; Youssef, Moustafa

2010-01-01

69

Identification and aroma impact of norisoprenoids in orange juice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four norisoprenoids, alpha-ionone, beta-ionone, beta-cyclocitral, and beta-damascenone, along with their putative carotenoid precursors, were identified in Valencia orange juice using time-intensity GC-O, GC-MS, and photodiode array HPLC. alpha-Ionone and beta-cyclocitral are reported in orange juice for the first time. GC-O aroma peaks were categorized into seven groups with similar sensory qualities: citrus/minty, metallic/mushroom/geranium, roasted/cooked/meaty/spice, fatty/soapy/green, sulfury/solventy/medicine, floral, and sweet fruity. The four norisoprenoids contributed approximately 8% of the total aroma intensity and 78% of the total floral aroma category. The putative carotenoid norisoprenoid precursors, alpha- and beta-carotene, alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin, and neoxanthin, were identified in the same orange juice using photodiode array HPLC retention times and spectral characteristics. PMID:15656678

Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Rouseff, Russell; Valim, M Filomena; Naim, Michael

2005-01-26

70

Caracterización anatómica del leño y evolución del crecimiento en ejemplares de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina en la Región Chaqueña, Argentina Wood anatomical description and growth in individuals of Acacia aroma and Acacia furcatispina in Chaco region, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La madera de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina se emplea para usos de escaso valor como postes, mangos de herramientas o combustible. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estudiar los caracteres anatómicos del leño de ambas especies y analizar el crecimiento de ejemplares aislados con la finalidad de determinar su potencialidad para usos de mayor valor. Se determinó que la madera de estas especies es dura, pesada y de porosidad difusa con tendencia a semicircular. Acacia furcatispina posee un leño con mayor porcentaje de elementos lignificados, mejores cualidades estéticas y mejor estado fitosanitario que el de A. aroma. Los defectos más frecuentes en estas especies fueron la formación de leño decolorado y pudriciones en la zona del duramen por ataque de hongos, asociados a la presencia de cicatrices de fuego. El espesor promedio de los anillos de crecimiento fue 2,1 mm (DE = 0,47 mm en A. aroma y 1,9 mm, (DE = 0,74 mm en A. furcatispina. Las curvas de incremento medio anual e incremento corriente anual del diámetro en A. aroma se interceptan a los 24 años mientras que las de A. furcatispina lo hacen a la edad de 10 años. Los resultados indicaron que A. furcatispina es una especie interesante para manejar en plantaciones debido a las cualidades de su madera, aunque permitiría obtener escuadrías menores. Su madera podría destinarse a usos particulares como parquets, tallas artísticas, entre otros. Acacia aroma es una especie apropiada para manejar con el objetivo de producción de leña debido a la capacidad de producir fustes y ramas de mayor diámetro y a que su estado fitosanitario limita su empleo para otros usos de mayor valor.The wood of Acacia aroma and Acacia furcatispina is employed for uses of little value such us posts, tools and firewood. The objectives of this work were to study anatomical characters of wood and to analyze the growth of isolated individuals with the purpose of determining their potential for uses of greater value. We determined that these species have high density and heavy wood, with diffuse porosity and tendency to semicircular. The wood of Acacia furcatispina has greater percentage of ligneous elements, better aesthetics qualities and health state than A. aroma. The most frequent defects in these species are rots within heartwood due to fungi attack, and discolorated wood formation, both related to fire scars. The mean width of the growth rings was 2.1 mm (DE = 0.47 mm in A. aroma and 1.9 mm (DE = 0.74 mm in A. furcatispina. In A. aroma, the curve of mean annual increment (IMA intercepted the curve of current annual increment (ICA for diameter at an age of 24 years, while in A. furcatispina it happened at 10 years. The results show that A. furcatispina is an interesting species to manage in plantations due to its wood qualities, although it would only allow small sized timber. This wood could be allocated for others uses such us parquets and artistic sculpture. Acacia aroma is a species suitable to manage for firewood production due to its capacity to produce greater diameter boles and branches, and to frequent wood decay that reduces its use for others more valuables uses.

Sandra Bravo

2006-01-01

71

Caracterización anatómica del leño y evolución del crecimiento en ejemplares de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina en la Región Chaqueña, Argentina / Wood anatomical description and growth in individuals of Acacia aroma and Acacia furcatispina in Chaco region, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La madera de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina se emplea para usos de escaso valor como postes, mangos de herramientas o combustible. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estudiar los caracteres anatómicos del leño de ambas especies y analizar el crecimiento de ejemplares aislados con la finalidad [...] de determinar su potencialidad para usos de mayor valor. Se determinó que la madera de estas especies es dura, pesada y de porosidad difusa con tendencia a semicircular. Acacia furcatispina posee un leño con mayor porcentaje de elementos lignificados, mejores cualidades estéticas y mejor estado fitosanitario que el de A. aroma. Los defectos más frecuentes en estas especies fueron la formación de leño decolorado y pudriciones en la zona del duramen por ataque de hongos, asociados a la presencia de cicatrices de fuego. El espesor promedio de los anillos de crecimiento fue 2,1 mm (DE = 0,47 mm) en A. aroma y 1,9 mm, (DE = 0,74 mm) en A. furcatispina. Las curvas de incremento medio anual e incremento corriente anual del diámetro en A. aroma se interceptan a los 24 años mientras que las de A. furcatispina lo hacen a la edad de 10 años. Los resultados indicaron que A. furcatispina es una especie interesante para manejar en plantaciones debido a las cualidades de su madera, aunque permitiría obtener escuadrías menores. Su madera podría destinarse a usos particulares como parquets, tallas artísticas, entre otros. Acacia aroma es una especie apropiada para manejar con el objetivo de producción de leña debido a la capacidad de producir fustes y ramas de mayor diámetro y a que su estado fitosanitario limita su empleo para otros usos de mayor valor. Abstract in english The wood of Acacia aroma and Acacia furcatispina is employed for uses of little value such us posts, tools and firewood. The objectives of this work were to study anatomical characters of wood and to analyze the growth of isolated individuals with the purpose of determining their potential for uses [...] of greater value. We determined that these species have high density and heavy wood, with diffuse porosity and tendency to semicircular. The wood of Acacia furcatispina has greater percentage of ligneous elements, better aesthetics qualities and health state than A. aroma. The most frequent defects in these species are rots within heartwood due to fungi attack, and discolorated wood formation, both related to fire scars. The mean width of the growth rings was 2.1 mm (DE = 0.47 mm) in A. aroma and 1.9 mm (DE = 0.74 mm) in A. furcatispina. In A. aroma, the curve of mean annual increment (IMA) intercepted the curve of current annual increment (ICA) for diameter at an age of 24 years, while in A. furcatispina it happened at 10 years. The results show that A. furcatispina is an interesting species to manage in plantations due to its wood qualities, although it would only allow small sized timber. This wood could be allocated for others uses such us parquets and artistic sculpture. Acacia aroma is a species suitable to manage for firewood production due to its capacity to produce greater diameter boles and branches, and to frequent wood decay that reduces its use for others more valuables uses.

Bravo, Sandra; Giménez, Ana; Moglia, Juana.

72

Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice. The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the calculation of the activity coefficients.

Haypek E.

2000-01-01

73

Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice). The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the c...

Haypek E.; Silva L.H.M.; Batista E.; Marques D. S.; Meireles M.A.A.; Meirelles A.J.A.

2000-01-01

74

Volatile Aroma Compounds in Various Brewed Green Teas  

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This study identifies and semi-quantifies aroma volatiles in brewed green tea samples. The objectives of this study were to identify using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) paired with a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) the common volatile compounds that may be responsible for aroma/flavor of the brewed liquor of a range of green tea samples from various countries as consumed and to determine if green teas from the same region have similarities in volatile composit...

Jeehyun Lee; Chambers, Delores H.; Edgar Chambers; Koushik Adhikari; Youngmo Yoon

2013-01-01

75

Evaluation of aroma active compounds in Tuber fruiting bodies by gas chromatography-olfactometry in combination with aroma reconstitution and omission test.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma active compounds of three Tuber fruiting bodies (i.e., Tuber himalayense, Tuber indicum, and Tuber sinense) were firstly systematically evaluated by instrumental gas chromatography-olfactometry combining with quantitative analysis, aroma reconstitution, and omission tests. Twelve aroma active compounds were characterized by aroma extract dilution analysis, and 3-(methylthio) propanal, 3-methylbutanal, and 1-octen-3-ol with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor (i.e., 1,024-2,048) were suggested as key contributors to the aroma. Odor activity value (OAV) was employed to determine the relative contribution of each compound to the aroma, and the compound with the highest FD factor also had the highest OAV (i.e., 10,234-242,951). Then, the synthetic blends of odorants (aroma reconstitution) were prepared with OAV larger than 15, and their aromas were very similar to the originals. Omission tests were carried out to verify the significance of 3-(methylthio) propanal, 1-octen-3-ol, and 3-methylbutanal as key compounds in the aroma of tested Tuber fruiting bodies. PMID:22246529

Liu, Rui-Sang; Li, Dao-Cheng; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Jie

2012-04-01

76

Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco in China: spatial distribution and association with climatic factors  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco (FCT) are classified into light, medium, and heavy in China. However, the spatial distribution of FCT aroma types and the relationships among aroma types, chemical parameters, and climatic variables were still unknown at national scale. In the current study, multi-year averaged chemical parameters (total sugars, reducing sugars, nicotine, total nitrogen, chloride, and K2O) of FCT samples with grade of C3F and climatic variables (mean, minimum and maximum temperatures, rainfall, relative humidity, and sunshine hours) during the growth periods were collected from main planting areas across China. Significant relationships were found between chemical parameters and climatic variables ( p < 0.05). A spatial distribution map of FCT aroma types were produced using support vector machine algorithms and chemical parameters. Significant differences in chemical parameters and climatic variables were observed among the three aroma types based on one-way analysis of variance ( p < 0.05). Areas with light aroma type had significantly lower values of mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures than regions with medium and heavy aroma types ( p < 0.05). Areas with heavy aroma type had significantly lower values of rainfall and relative humidity and higher values of sunshine hours than regions with light and medium aroma types ( p < 0.05). The output produced by classification and regression trees showed that sunshine hours, rainfall, and maximum temperature were the most important factors affecting FCT aroma types at national scale.

Yang, Chao; Wu, Wei; Wu, Shu-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Bin; Peng, Qing

2014-02-01

77

Characterization of the key odorants in light aroma type chinese liquor by gas chromatography-olfactometry, quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The light aroma type liquor is widely welcomed by consumers due to its pleasant fruity and floral aroma, particularly in northern China. To answer the puzzling question of which key aroma compounds are responsible for the typical aroma, three typical liquors were studied in this paper. A total of 66 aroma compounds were identified in three liquors by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), and 27 odorants were further screened out as the important odorants according to quantitative study and odor activity values (OAVs). For OAV calculation, odor thresholds of the odorants were determined in a hydroalcoholic solution at 46% ethanol by volume. The typical light type aroma dominated by fruity and floral notes was successfully simulated by dissolving these important odorants in the 46% vol hydroalcoholic solution in their natural concentrations. Omission experiments further confirmed ?-damascenone and ethyl acetate as the key odorants and revealed the significance of the entire group of esters, particularly ethyl lactate, geosmin, acetic acid, and 2-methylpropanoic acid, for the overall aroma of the light aroma type Chinese liquor. PMID:24909925

Gao, Wenjun; Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan

2014-06-25

78

Aroma components from dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sausages with and without Staphylococcus xylosus were manufactured with four replicates. Antibiotics and a fungicide to inhibit growth of naturally occuring microorganisms were added to the control sausages. The volatile compounds from the sausages were collected and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the effluent evaluated by sniffing and the sausages assessed by a trained panel. The study showed that sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus contained several fragrant esters that were not found in control sausages without microbial growth. Control sausages had an unpleasant, rancid odour compared to sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus, indicating that the esterase activity of Staphylococcus xylosus or other microorganisms is very important in order to obtain the proper fermented sausage aroma.Although sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus contained the highest amounts of free fatty acids, it seemed to be of no importance to aroma development. It is therefore questionable whether lipolytic activity of starter cultures has an influence on sausage flavour.

Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

1994-01-01

79

Discrimination of truffle fruiting body versus mycelial aromas by stir bar sorptive extraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) was applied in head space mode (HS), coupled with GC/MS, to compare the aroma profile of three truffle species. A total of 119 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified from the fruiting bodies, of which 70 were not yet described in truffles and 60 in fungi. VOCs profile showed a high intra- and inter-specific variability, with alcohols and sulfur compounds dominating the HS of Tuber borchii and, alcohols, aldehydes and aromatic compounds the HS of T. melanosporum and T. indicum. Despite these variations, eight VOCs markers could be identified allowing the discrimination of the three species. Additionally, T. borchii and T. melanosporum both distinguished themselves from T. indicum due to higher aroma content and larger variety of sulfur containing compounds. Mycelial VOCs production was also investigated under two cultural conditions and led to the identification of eight VOCs. On one side, seven of them were also detected in the fruiting body, confirming their mycelial origin. On the other side, the total absence of some class of compounds (i.e. sulfur) in the mycelium raises questions about their origins in the fruiting bodies and confirms deep metabolic changes between the reproductive (fruiting body) and vegetative (mycelium) stages. PMID:17574637

Splivallo, Richard; Bossi, Simone; Maffei, Massimo; Bonfante, Paola

2007-10-01

80

Influence of water quench cooling on degassing and aroma stability of roasted coffee.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coffee roasting experiments with air cooling versus water quench cooling were carried out on laboratory scale with a fluidized-bed hot air roasting system (200 g batch size) and on production scale with a rotating bowl roaster (320 kg batch size). Two series of coffees with different water contents resulted, which were stored at 25 degrees C under normal atmospheric conditions. Carbon dioxide desorption was followed and stability of selected aroma compounds was tested with headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and stable isotope labeled compounds as internal standards. Degassing is faster in water-quenched coffees with higher moisture content, but pore size distribution in the different coffee samples did not correlate with degassing behavior. Bean firmness, which increases with increasing moisture content, might have an influence on degassing. Air- and water-quenched coffees exhibit similar stability of most aroma compounds despite different degassing behavior. However, evolution of dimethyl trisulfide was different in coffees with increased water content. This suggests higher thiol oxidation rates, a factor that is cited to be related to a faster loss of freshness attributes. PMID:17616133

Baggenstoss, Juerg; Poisson, Luigi; Luethi, Regina; Perren, Rainer; Escher, Felix

2007-08-01

 
 
 
 
81

Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on volatile emission and aroma in cv. Anna apples.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapidly ripening summer apple cultivar Anna was treated with 0.1 micro L(-1) and 1 microL L(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP) at harvest and kept at 20 degrees C, or stored for 5 weeks at 0 degrees C and then transferred to 20 degrees C. Total volatiles were not reduced by treatment with 0.1 microL L(-1) MCP, but were 70% lower in fruits treated with 1 microL L(-1) MCP than in untreated fruits. Ethylene production was 50% and 95% inhibited by 0.1 microL L(-1) and 1 microL L(-1) MCP, respectively. The volatiles produced by fruit at harvest were predominantly aldehydes and alcohols, with some acetate esters as well as 2-methyl butyl acetate and beta-damascenone. During ripening, the acetate and butyrate esters increased greatly and alcohols and aldehydes decreased. MCP-treated apples retained more alcohols, aldehydes, and beta-damascenone volatiles than did untreated apples. Sensory evaluation found that control and 0.1 microL L(-1) treated apples developed more fruity, ripe, and overall aromas, but the preference was for the 1 microL L(-1) treated apples with a less ripe aroma. PMID:12105954

Lurie, Susan; Pre-Aymard, Claire; Ravid, Uzi; Larkov, Olga; Fallik, Elazar

2002-07-17

82

Aromas potentiality of tuna cooking juice concentrated by nanofiltration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tuna cooking juices contain high organic load preventing the rejection in the environment without treatment. But the effluents present an interesting fishy odour and it is worth recovering aroma compounds. In this work, two industrial tuna cooking juices were concentrated by nanofiltration. Nanofiltration performance was discussed in terms of permeation fluxes, organic matter retention and impact on the aromatic properties of juices. NF sharply decreases the global intensity of juices and mod...

Walha, Khaled; Ben Amar, Raja; Masse, Anthony; Bourseau, Patrick; Cardinal, Mireille; Cornet, Josiane; Prost, Carole; Jaouen, Pascal

2011-01-01

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Psychophysical evaluation of interactive effects between sweeteners and aroma compounds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The presence of intense sweeteners in a light soft drink influences the preferences for, and the flavour profiles of these drinks to various extents, depending on the aroma and sweeteners present. In this study equisweet mixtures of sweeteners were composed at 10% Sucrose Equivalent Value. The sucrose/maltitol and sucrose/aspartame mixtures were additive, whereas equisweet binary sucrose/Na-cyclamate mixtures and ternary sucrose/aspartame/Na-cyclamate mixtures revealed synergistic effects.The...

Nahon, D. F.

1999-01-01

84

Aroma and taste perceptions with Alzheimer disease and stroke.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemosensory disorders of smell or taste in humans have been attributed to various physiological and environmental factors including aging and disease conditions. Aroma and taste greatly condition our food preference, selection and, consumption; the decreased appetite in patients with known neurodegenerative diseases may lead to dietary restrictions that could negatively impact nutritional and health status. The decline in olfactory and gustatory systems in patients with Alzheimer disease and various types of stroke are described. PMID:23638935

Aliani, Michel; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Girgih, Abraham T; Pownall, Trisha L; Bugera, Jacqeline L; Eskin, Michael N A

2013-01-01

85

Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic `fingerprint` pattern representative of the vapor- phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The results to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

Barshick, S.-A.; Griest, W.H.; Vass, A.A.

1996-12-31

86

Chemical and Molecular Characterization of Fragrance in Black Glutinous Rice from Lao PDR  

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Full Text Available Fifty three accessions of lowland Black Glutinous Rice (BGR and three white rice varieties from Lao PDR were evaluated for variations in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP, a main aroma compound present in fragrant rice and a 257 bp genomic fragment associated with a gene encoding 2-AP. The objective of this study was to characterize the variation in aromatic characters of Lao BGR by using chemical and molecular techniques. Thirty six out of the 56 accessions had aromatic properties, containing 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP. The concentrations of 2-AP in unpolished samples were about 50% higher than those of the polished samples. The concentrations of 2-AP in BGR accessions were lower than those of white aromatic rice varieties in which 2-AP was highest in Kai Noi Leuang (0.688 ppm. Seventeen accessions and two of white rice (Kai Noi Leuang and TDK5 had a common 355 bp allele corresponding to that found in Calrose, a non-fragrant variety. A 257 bp allele was found in the 36 varieties of BGR and a local aromatic white rice variety, Hom Nang Nouan, sharing a common allele as in the fragrant variety KDML 105. Surprisingly, Kai Noi Leuang, a popular Lao local aromatic rice variety with the highest 2-AP concentration did not possess a 257 bp fragment which has been identified previously as a fragrant allele. This is the first study of the chemical and molecular aromatic properties of lowland BGR varieties of the Lao PDR and the data obtained will be valuable in screening other germplasm and in planning a breeding program in the country geared towards fragrant rices with superior agronomic properties.

C. Bounphanousay

2008-01-01

87

Characterization of the Volatile Substances and Aroma Components from Traditional Soypaste  

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Full Text Available In this study, the flavor substances of soypaste were extracted by a simultaneous distillation method and identified by GC-MS. The characteristic aroma components of soypaste were determined by the GC-O technique and the FD value of the characteristic aroma components was determined by AEDA method. It could be inferred that the aroma of the soypaste should be attributed to the presence of heterocyclic compounds and organic acids, with the heterocyclic compounds playing a prominent role.

Yan Zhang

2010-05-01

88

Influence of eggs on the aroma composition of a sponge cake and on the aroma release in model studies on flavored sponge cakes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of solvent-assisted flavor evaporation extraction (SAFE) and purge and trap in Tenax allowed the identification of more than 100 volatile compounds in a sponge cake (SC-e). Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) of the SAFE extracts of crumb and crust were achieved in order to determine the most potent odorants of SC-e. The change in the traditional dough formulation of SC-e in which eggs were substituted by baking powder (SC-b) as the leavening agent produced important changes in some key aroma compounds. The release curves of some aroma compounds-some of them generated during baking and others added in the dough-were followed by cumulative headspace analysis. In the flavored SC-b, the aroma release curves showed a plateau after 15 min of purge, while the release increased proportionally with the purge time in the flavored SC-e. In general, except for some of the aroma compounds with the highest log P values, the rate of release of most of the added and generated aroma compounds was significantly influenced by the changes in the cake formulation. The higher rates of release found for the aroma compounds in SC-b could contribute to explain its rapid exhaustion of aroma compounds in the purge and trap experiments and might lead to poorer sensorial characteristics of this cake during storage. PMID:17243698

Pozo-Bayón, Maria Angeles; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Pernin, Karine; Cayot, Nathalie

2007-02-21

89

KOMPONEN VOTALIT DANKARAKTERISASI KOMPONEN KUNCI AROMA BUAH ANDALIMAN (Zanthoxylum acanthoodium DC. [Colatile Aroma Constituents and Potent Odorant of Andaliman (Zanthoxylum acanthoodium DC. Fruit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Andaliman, a wild spice well known in Northem Sumatera, has a fresh citrusy and warm sweet peppery odor. This research was conducted to analyse pontent odorant from andaliman maceration extract using GC-MS, GC/O and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA method. Monoterpenes were the main constituens among the 24 identified components by GC-MS. Results od AEDA revealed that citronellal and limonene had the greatest impact on the aroma of andaliman with flavour dilution factor 128 and 32. ?-myrcene, 2-?-ocimene, linalool, ?-citronellol, neral, geraniol, gerabial, geranyl acetate, an unkwown compound, and a sesquiterpene also contributed to andaliman fresh citrusy and warm sweet peppery aroma.

Anton Apriyantono 1

2001-08-01

90

Evaluation of new aroma substances for feline minitablet formulation  

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Full Text Available Despite the global interest in companion animal pharmaceuticals, feline peroral medication still lacks tailor-made, palatable and voluntarily accepted pharmaceuticals with suitable size and attractive taste. As a consequence, treating cats with canine and even human pharmaceuticals has weakened patient compliance and treatment commitment, and has even left many pet cats untreated. In future, the companion animal pharmaceutical business will therefore particularly concentrate on cats and the rapid and economic development of palatable feline medication. Following this goal, the overall aim of this study was to facilitate voluntary drug administration to felines. Specifically we aimed to develop sophisticated and tailor-made feline pharmaceuticals, with the focus on flavours in minitablets. Since excipients should be easily obtained and suitable for formulation, we conducted rapid preformulation compatibility and stability screening tests of synthetic flavours with commonly used tableting excipients. On the basis of the feline carnivorous diet, L-methionine, L-leucine, L-proline and thiamine hydrochloride were presented as new aroma substances for the improvement of feline medication palatability. These flavours and a model substance for a bitter taste, denatonium benzoate, were systematically evaluated for their physicochemical properties, stability and physical compatibility. This was done with substances alone and in binary combinations of flavours and excipients. Stability and compatibility were examined employing DSC and XRPD. The results showed that L-proline and denatonium benzoate anhydrate were hygroscopic. Thiamine hydrochloride was incompatible with talc and sodium stearyl fumarate. The known incompatibility between the amines contained in aromas, and ?-lactose monohydrate was used in assessing method sensitivity. Overall, the study provided new information on the compatibility of novel aromas with the tableting excipients. The study also demonstrated the applicability of XRPD and DSC in the rapid evaluation of instability and incompatibility.

Jaana Hautala

2014-06-01

91

Influence of new generation fungicides on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth, grape must fermentation and aroma biosynthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of ten new generation fungicides (ametoctradin, benthiavalicarb-isopropyl, boscalid, cyazofamid, dimethomorph, fenhexamid, kresoxim-methyl, mepanipyrim, metrafenone, and pyraclostrobin) on the fermentative activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was initially evaluated in pasteurised red must. The presence of ametoctradin, dimethomorph and mepanipyrim seemed to affect sugars-to-ethanol yield in the stationary phase. The same fermentation experiments were carried out for these three fungicides in ecological red must from Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo. When ecological must was unfiltered, the fermentative activity of yeasts was unaffected by the presence of these selected fungicides. However, when ecological must was filtered beforehand, a slight decrease of biomass and ethanol production (in terms of biomass-to-ethanol yield and sugars-to-ethanol yield, respectively), as well as a decrease in fruity aroma, were registered with respect to the control wine. PMID:24176337

Noguerol-Pato, R; Torrado-Agrasar, A; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

2014-03-01

92

Inactivation of the panE gene in Lactococcus lactis enhances formation of cheese aroma compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydroxyacid dehydrogenases limit the conversion of ?-keto acids into aroma compounds. Here we report that inactivation of the panE gene, encoding the ?-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase activity in Lactococcus lactis, enhanced the formation of 3-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanol. L. lactis IFPL953?panE was an efficient strain producing volatile compounds related to cheese aroma. PMID:23524675

de Cadiñanos, Luz P Gómez; García-Cayuela, Tomás; Yvon, Mireille; Martinez-Cuesta, M Carmen; Peláez, Carmen; Requena, Teresa

2013-06-01

93

Postharvest vapour heat treatment as a phytosanitary measure influences the aroma volatiles profile of mango fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our objective was to determine the influence of postharvest vapour heat treatment (VHT) on qualitative and quantitative measurement of aroma volatiles during fruit ripening in mango (cv. Chausa) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). VHT (48°C for 20min) accelerated the process of fruit ripening leading to edible-soft stage within 4days after heat treatment against 8days in control. Reversible inhibition of aroma volatiles emission was observed in heat-treated fruit, with a significant alteration in aroma volatiles profiles at different stages of fruit ripening. The heat-induced increase in the rate of fruit ripening proceeded with a significant lag in the emission of aroma volatiles. The suppression of aroma volatiles at ripe stage in heat-treated fruit might adversely impact the consumer acceptance of fruit. PMID:24996349

Singh, Sukhvinder Pal; Saini, Manpreet Kaur

2014-12-01

94

Chemical and aroma determination of the pulp and seeds of murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L.  

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Full Text Available Murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L., Malpighiaceae, a small, tropical fruit, very popular in Brazil, has a strong fruity, rancid cheese aroma. High resolution gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry and aroma extract dilution analysis identified the most potent substances in its aroma as ethyl butanoate (fruity, sweet, ethyl hexanoate (fruity, 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom like, butyric acid (rancid, cheese, hexanoic acid (pungent, cheese and phenylethyl alcohol (floral. Its pulp is mainly composed of ethyl, methyl and phenylethyl esters and by carboxylic acids, terpenoids, delta-lactones and some sulfur compounds. Seed analysis also showed a buttery and oily cheese aroma and GC-MS revealed linoleic, oleic, stearic and palmitic acids as foremost components, while the aroma was associated to the butyric and hexanoic acids present in minor amounts.

Rezende Claudia M.

2003-01-01

95

Differential effects of exposure to ambient vanilla and citrus aromas on mood, arousal and food choice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost physiological sensors and semi-real life settings. Tests included physiological (heart rate, physical activity and response times, psychological (emotions and mood and behavioral (food choice measures in a semi-real life environment for 22 participants. Results Exposure to ambient citrus aroma increased physical activity (P P P P P Conclusions The test battery used in this study demonstrated aroma-specific physiological, psychological and behavioral effects of aromas with similar appeal and intensities, and similar food-related origins. These effects could be measured in (semi- real life environments for freely moving subjects using relatively inexpensive commercially available physiological sensors.

de Wijk René A

2012-12-01

96

Aroma interactions with starch : Induction of carbohydrate acting enzymes from Aspergillus nidulans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Starches are used to enhance aroma perception in low-fat foods. Aroma compounds can bind physically to the starch in grooves on the surface or they can form complexes inside amylose helices. This study has been divided into two parts: one part regarding binding of aromas to starches and their aroma-release, and another part regarding stimulation of a fungal secretome using different carbohydrates. In the first part, nine aromas and one aroma-mixture were mixed with nine different starches, including genetically modified starches. The objective of this sub-project was to bind aromas to the starches to 15 weight-percent. Aroma binding was tested on both amorphous starches and on native starch granules. A series of aldehydes and alcohols were also tested for binding to the starches. The aromas with the highest volatility were positively retained by starch, whereas for aromas with a lower volatility the starch had a negative effect on retention. No trends were observed that could relate aroma binding or retentionto physical qualities of the starch such as amylose or phosphate content. Still, the physical state of the starch was shown to influence retention of some aromas, possibly by diffusion through the outer layers of the starch granule or binding to grooves on the surface. Chemical reactivity of some of the aromas also influenced the retention. Analysing a series of aldehydes and alcohols revealed an influence of the size of the molecules on retention. Hexanal showed a remarkable drop in retention for all starches, and pentanol showed a favoured retention by native starch granules. The aroma compounds bound to the starch proved very difficult to release as only a minute fraction of the aroma added could be released from the starch, even under conditions favouring aroma release, as monitored by GC-MS and solvent extractions. Addition of water to the extraction lowered the amount of aroma released, and addition of a starch-degrading enzyme, α-amylase, did not significantly change the amount extracted. Studies by differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray scattering did not show complete complexation of aromas in the amylose helices, but instead changes were observed that could be evidence of partial complexation. This complexation is not exclusive to the amylose helices, but also appears to include interactions in the amylopectin double helices. In particular, one of the analysed aromas showed a very noticeable reduction in melting temperature, but showed only a minor reduction in melting enthalpy and no evidence of amylose complexation. Using an enzyme-discovery approach in the second sub-project, the industrially relevant fungus Aspergillus nidulans was stimulated with different carbohydrates. Stimulation with starch induced expression of starch-degrading enzymes, while stimulation with the hemicellulose xylan induced expression of xylanases. One particular hypothetical protein was ubiquitously expressed. This protein had no apparent homology with known proteins, but may iv be involved in attacking otherorganisms as a weak homology with other proteins involved in membrane attack was detected. Degradation of secreted proteins was observed in some cultures. Identification of a glycoside hydrolase family 61 using xylan as carbon-source was not successful despite previous evidence for the induction of this enzyme.

Jørgensen, Anders Dysted

2011-01-01

97

Changes in the key odorants of Italian Hazelnuts ( Coryllus avellana L. Var. Tonda Romana) induced by roasting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis on aroma distillates isolated from either raw Italian hazelnuts or a roasted hazelnut material produced thereof revealed 37 odor-active compounds in the raw nuts, whereas 46 aroma compounds were detected in the roasted nut material. 2-Methoxy-3-isopropylpyrazine and 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine as well as 5-methyl-4-heptanone predominated with the highest flavor dilution factors in the raw nuts, whereas 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, 2-furfurylthiol, and 2-thenylthiol as well as (Z)-2-octenal, (Z)-2-nonenal, and (Z)-2-decenal showed the highest odor activities in the roasted nuts. These odorants, as well as several others, were previously unknown in hazelnuts. In addition, the intensely seasoning-like smelling 3,5,5'-trimethyl-2(5H)-furanone was identified for the first time as a food aroma compound on the basis of a newly developed synthetic route and NMR measurements. PMID:20426421

Burdack-Freitag, Andrea; Schieberle, Peter

2010-05-26

98

Aroma Classification Using One-vs-One and One-vs-Rest Methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computational Intelligence used in pattern classification problem can be divided into two different parts, one based on Neural Network and the other based on Statistical Learning. The Statistical Learning discovered by Vapnik on 70-est decade. For the pattern classification, Vapnik developed hyperplane optimal separation, which is known as Support Vector Machines Method (SVM. In the beginning, SVM was designed only to solve binary classification problem, where data existing are classified into two classes. To classify data whose consist of more than two classes, the SVM method can not directly be used. There are several methods can be used to solve SVM multiclasses classification problem, they are One-vs-One Method and One-vs-Rest Method. Both of this methods are the extension of SVM binary classification, they will be discussed in this article so that we can see their performance in aroma classification process. Data of aroma used in this experiment is consisted of three classes of aroma, each of them has six classes. The division of this class is based on alcohol concentration mixed into each of those aromas. For example, for aroma A, there are six kinds of aroma A with different alcohol concentration: 0%, 15%, 25%, 30%, 45% and 75%. The performance of these methods is measured based on their ability to recognize and classify aroma, precisely and match with the right class or variety of data existed.

Benyamin Kusumoputro

2003-12-01

99

Alteração de sabor e aroma em tomates causada por impacto  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tomates (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, 'Solar Set' e 'Agriset-743', foram colhidos no estádio verde-maduro (100% da superfície com coloração verde e tratados com 100 miL L-1 de etileno gasoso a 20°C. Quando atingiram o estádio verde-rosado (menos do que 10% da superfície do fruto possui coloração vermelha ou amarelo-esverdeada, os frutos foram divididos em dois lotes. Um lote sofreu quedas de 40 cm de altura sobre uma superfície plana, rígida e lisa. Os frutos deste lote foram armazenados com os frutos-controle (que não sofreram dano mecânico a 20°C e 85-95% de umidade relativa. No estádio vermelho, os frutos inteiros foram homogeneizados e um teste de análise sensorial foi imediatamente conduzido. Os painelistas foram capazes de distinguir entre frutos com desordem fisiológica causada por impacto e frutos não-injuriados, indicando que esta injúria alterou de maneira significativa o sabor e o aroma dos tomates analisados.

Moretti Celso Luiz

2000-01-01

100

Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology : Sweeping gas versus vacuum membrane distillation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up. The data were compared to recovery of the aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). The flux of SGMD increased with an increase in temperature, feed flow rate o...

Bagger-jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Pinelo, Manuel; Varming, Camilla; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Influence of thermal treatment of wood on the aroma of a sugar cane spirit (cachaça) model-solution / Influência do termotratamento da madeira no aroma de uma solução-modelo de cachaça  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As bebidas alcoólicas são, geralmente, envelhecidas em tonéis de madeira fabricados a partir de espécies do gênero Quercus sp. Devido ao alto custo de aquisição e necessidade de importação, existe demanda por alternativas de uso de outras espécies nativas e da incorporação de novas tecnologias que a [...] umentem a competitividade da cachaça brasileira. Sabe-se que, com a aplicação de termotratamento, vários compostos são alterados, desenvolvem-se aromas, altera-se a coloração e as bebidas adquirem gostos mais agradáveis. Este trabalho mostra a diferença significativa entre soluções-modelo hidroalcoólicas de cachaça, envelhecidas em diferentes espécies de madeira, em suas formas termotratadas e não termotratadas, avaliadas em relação a seu aroma. O teste de aceitação aplicado verificou as soluções preferidas pelos provadores, nas condições determinadas do teste. Abstract in english The aging process of alcoholic beverages is generally conducted in wood barrels made with species from Quercus sp. Due to the high cost and the lack of viability of commercial production of these trees in Brazil, there is demand for new alternatives to using other native species and the incorporatio [...] n of new technologies that enable greater competitiveness of sugar cane spirit aged in Brazilian wood. The drying of wood, the thermal treatment applied to it, and manufacturing techniques are important tools in defining the sensory quality of alcoholic beverages after being placed in contact with the barrels. In the thermal treatment, several compounds are changed by the application of heat to the wood and various studies show the compounds are modified, different aromas are developed, there is change in color, and beverages achieve even more pleasant taste, when compared to non-treated woods. This study evaluated the existence of significant differences between hydro-alcoholic solutions of sugar cane spirits elaborated from different species of thermo-treated and non-treated wood in terms of aroma. An acceptance test was applied to evaluate the solutions preferred by tasters under specific test conditions.

Marta Helena Fillet, Spoto; Marcelo Machado, Leão; José Otávio Otávio, Brito.

102

Influence of thermal treatment on black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) juice aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of thermal treatment on black currant juice aroma was investigated in temperature and time ranges relevant for black currant juice concentration processes, namely, 45, 60, 75, and 90 degrees C. Forty-nine aroma compounds were quantified, and the thermal treatment resulted in concentration increases of most terpenes, aldehydes, furans, and phenols, whereas the concentration of esters slightly decreased. Higher temperatures and longer exposure times had larger effects on the aroma compounds. Odor triangle tests showed no sensory difference between pasteurized juice and juice heated at 60 degrees C, whereas juice heated at 90 degrees C differed significantly from pasteurized juice. It is concluded that a 90 degrees C thermal treatment of black currant juice, which is in the temperature range used for conventional evaporation of black currant juice, has an effect on the aroma and sensory properties. PMID:15675814

Varming, Camilla; Andersen, Mogens L; Poll, Leif

2004-12-15

103

Molecular and biochemical analysis of aroma in CSR10 x Taraori basmati derived Recombinant Inbred Lines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aroma or fragrance of Basmati rice is associated with the presence and content of chemical compound, 2-acetyl-1-pyrrolineand the trait is monogenic recessive. Several PCR-based co-dominant marker based on RG28 locus were developed, which can differentiate between fragrant and non-fragrant rice cultivars. For molecular and biochemical analysis of aroma, a mapping population comprising 208 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a diverse cross between CSR10 and Taraori Basmati through SSD method was used. RILs are among the best mapping populations, which provide a novel material for linkage mapping of genes/QTLs marker for various traits. Biochemical analysis of aroma was performed with the 1.7% KOH solution and molecular analysis of aroma was carried out with microsatellite markers present on chromosome 8 (BAD2, BADEX7-5, SCUSSR1 to determine the extent of association between trait, marker and chromosome 8. Among these markers, BAD2 amplified aroma specific alleles having 256 bp in 72 lines, BADEX7-5 with 95 bp in 74 lines and SCUSSR1 with 129 bp in 79 lines. Mentel test of significance detected by biochemical analysis of RILs (with 1.7 % KOH and molecular marker study revealed high degree (>90 % of association of aroma with the above mentioned markers, respectively. Some of the F10 lines amplified the heterozygous alleles for two sets of specific markers (BAD2 and SCUSSR-1 but did not show the presence of aroma as analyzed by chemical test. Aromatic and non-aromatic lines were almost common in three markers indicating association of markers with the trait and chromosome 8. The results revealed that these markers could be used for marker assisted selection and RIL population for mapping of aroma QTLs/genes.

Pummy Kumari, Uma Ahuja , Sunita Jain and R.K. Jain

2012-06-01

104

Long-term postharvest aroma evolution of tomatoes with the alcobaça (alc) mutation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The postharvest evolution of Penjar tomatoes has been studied in four accessions representative of the variability of the varietal type. The long-term shelf life of these materials, which carry the alc allele, was confirmed with 31.2–59.1% of commercial fruits after 6 months of effective conservation at room temperature and a limited loss of weight (21.1–27.9%). Aroma in Penjar tomatoes is differentiated from other tomato varieties by a characteristic ‘sharp-floral’ aroma descriptor. ...

Casals Missio, Joan; Cebolla Cornejo, Jaime; Rosello? Ripolle?s, Salvador; Beltra?n Arandes, Joaquim; Casan?as, F.; Nuez Vin?als, Fernando

2011-01-01

105

Aroma of some plants cultivated in Lithuania : Composition, processing and release  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, some factors affecting the aroma of some plants of the families Umbelliferae and Asteraceae were evaluated. The composition of the aromas is influenced by several factors: plant family, harvesting time, anatomical part of plant, method used to isolate volatiles, cultivar, fertilisers used for the growing of plant, cultivation site. The yield of caraway fruits varies over a wide range depending on fertiliser content, cultivation area and the cultivar itself. The trends for the a...

2000-01-01

106

Aroma constituents and alkylamides of red and green huajiao (Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Zanthoxylum schinifolium).  

Science.gov (United States)

Huajiao denotes the fruits of various species of Zanthoxylum in the plant family Rutaceare used for cooking. The two most commercially popular species are bungeanum (red huajiao) and schinifolium (green huajiao). Fresh huajiao has a very high content of essential oil, up to 11%, which is described as having fresh, spicy, floral, cooling, and green aroma notes. A comprehensive analysis of the essential oils by GC-MS using advanced peak deconvolution and data processing software, revealed many overlapping components. A total of 120 aroma compounds for each species has been found. In the essential oils, linalyl acetate (15%), linalool (13%), and limonene (12%) are the major components of red huajiao, whereas linalool (29%), limonene (14%), and sabinene (13%) are the major components of green huajiao. For estimation of the aroma contribution of individual components, a new concept, "aroma character impact value" (ACI), is introduced as the percentage of the ratio of the concentration of an aroma component to its odor threshold value. Despite the differences in major components, both species have six common compounds of top aroma character impact: linalool, alpha-terpineol, myrcene, 1,8-cineole, limonene, and geraniol. The tingling sensation of huajiao is caused mainly by the alkylamide hydroxy-alpha-sanshool. The tingling compound decomposes easily under hydrolytic conditions or under UV light. PMID:18271544

Yang, Xiaogen

2008-03-12

107

Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb : Effect of fermentation temperature and bakerâ??s yeast  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Understanding how the dough fermentation conditions influence the wheat bread production time and the bread aroma is important for the bread industry. The overall purpose of this PhD project is to investigate the effects of commercial bakerâ??s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion and aroma in bread crumb. In Paper I the effects of commercial bakerâ??s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion were investigated. Wheat doughs were fermented by seven commercial bakerâ??s yeasts (bakerâ??s yeast I to VII) at different yeast concentrations (2.88â?¢1014, 5.76â?¢1014 and 8.64â?¢ 1014 CFU/kg flour, corresponding to 20-40, 40-80 and 60-120 g/kg flour) and fermentation temperatures (5, 15, 25 and 35°C). Dough expansion was investigated by monitoring the dough height and the expansion profile was found to be described well by a first order kinetic model. The highest kinetic rate constants corresponding to the shortest fermentation times were found for doughs fermented at 25°C and the highest yeast concentration. Doughs fermented with commercial bakerâ??s yeast I, II, III and V had shorter fermentation times compared to fermentation with bakerâ??s yeast IV, VI and VII. The longest fermentation times were generally found for doughs fermented with all bakerâ??s yeasts at 5°C and the lowest yeast concentration (2.88â?¢1014 CFU/kg flour). In Paper II, III and V wheat breads were produced for volatile analysis. The dough samples were fermented to equal height and baked and the volatile compounds from the bread crumb were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling and analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A wide range of volatile compounds was identified in bread crumb, mainly originating from the activity of yeast and from oxidation of flour lipids. The dominating fermentation compounds were alcohols, aldehydes as well as 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin), esters and acids. Furthermore, oxidation of flour lipids was generating primarily aldehydes and ketones. Quantification of the volatile compounds in bread crumb was performed by multiple headspace extraction (Paper II, III and V). The compounds were evaluated according to their odour activity value (OAV). The most aroma active compounds (OAV > 6) identified in bread crumb were; (E)-2-nonanal (green, tallow), 3-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methyl-1-butanol (balsamic, alcoholic), nonanal (citrus), hexanal (green), 2,3-butanedione (buttery, caramel), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom) and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like). Esters were also identified in bread crumb (e.g. ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate) and they are of interest because of their fruity and pleasant odours, however the OAVâ??s of the esters were generally low (0.1 to 0.5). In Paper II the effects of yeast level (20, 40 and 60 g bakerâ??s yeast VII/kg flour) and fermentation temperature (5, 15 and 35ºC) on aroma in bread crumb were investigated. Fermentation with the highest yeast concentration (60 g/kg flour) resulted in bread containing the highest concentration of the majority of the compounds formed from yeast activity (e.g. 2,3-butanedione and phenylacetaldehyde), compared to doughs fermented at lower yeast concentrations (20 and 40 g/kg flour). A fermentation temIII perature at 5°C resulted in breads with the highest concentration of the three esters; ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate, compared to breads fermented at higher temperatures (15 and 35°C). Fermentation at 15 and 35°C resulted in breads with the highest concentration of many lipid oxidation compounds (e.g. heptanal and hexanal) compared to breads fermented at 5°C. In Paper III the effect of the type of commercial bakerâ??s yeast (bakerâ??s yeast I to VII, 2.88â?¢1014 yeast CFU/kg flour) on bread aroma was investigated. Breads fermented by commercial bakerâ??s yeast I to IV had the significantly highest concentration of 2,3-butanedione and 1-propanol compared to breads f

Birch, Anja Niehues

2013-01-01

108

Aroma enhancement and enzymolysis regulation of grape wine using ?-glycosidase  

Science.gov (United States)

Adding ?-glycosidase into grape wine for enhancing aroma was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Kramer sensory evaluation. Compared with the extract from control wines, the extract from enzyme-treated wines increased more aromatic compounds using steam distillation extraction (SDE) and GC-MS analyses. Theses aromatic compounds were as follows: 3-methyl-1-butanol formate, 3-pentanol, furfural, 3-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl-butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-butanoic acid ethyl ester, hexanoic acid, hexanoic acid ethyl ester, benzyl alcohol, octanoic acid, octanoic acid ethyl ester, dodecanoic acid, and ethyl ester. The enzymolysis regulation conditions, including enzymolysis temperature, enzymolysis time, and enzyme amount, were optimized through L9(34) orthogonal test. Kramer sensory evaluation was performed by an 11-man panel of judges. The optimum enzymolysis regulation conditions were found to be temperature of 45°C, enzymolysis time of 90 min, and enzyme amount of 58.32 U/mL grape wine, respectively. The Kramer sensory evaluation supported that the enzyme-treated wines produced a stronger fragrance.

Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

2014-01-01

109

Aroma enhancement and enzymolysis regulation of grape wine using ?-glycosidase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adding ?-glycosidase into grape wine for enhancing aroma was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Kramer sensory evaluation. Compared with the extract from control wines, the extract from enzyme-treated wines increased more aromatic compounds using steam distillation extraction (SDE) and GC-MS analyses. Theses aromatic compounds were as follows: 3-methyl-1-butanol formate, 3-pentanol, furfural, 3-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl-butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-butanoic acid ethyl ester, hexanoic acid, hexanoic acid ethyl ester, benzyl alcohol, octanoic acid, octanoic acid ethyl ester, dodecanoic acid, and ethyl ester. The enzymolysis regulation conditions, including enzymolysis temperature, enzymolysis time, and enzyme amount, were optimized through L9(3(4)) orthogonal test. Kramer sensory evaluation was performed by an 11-man panel of judges. The optimum enzymolysis regulation conditions were found to be temperature of 45°C, enzymolysis time of 90 min, and enzyme amount of 58.32 U/mL grape wine, respectively. The Kramer sensory evaluation supported that the enzyme-treated wines produced a stronger fragrance. PMID:24804072

Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

2014-03-01

110

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in pink guava (Psidium guajava L.) by means of aroma re-engineering experiments and omission tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seventeen aroma-active volatiles, previously identified with high flavor dilution factors in fresh, pink Colombian guavas (Psidium guajava L.), were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds in water, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated. High OAVs were determined for the green, grassy smelling (Z)-3-hexenal and the grapefruit-like smelling 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol followed by 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (black currant-like), hexanal (green, grassy), ethyl butanoate (fruity), acetaldehyde (fresh, pungent), trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel, sweet), cinnamyl alcohol (floral), methyl (2S,3S)-2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoate (fruity), cinnamyl acetate (floral), methional (cooked potato-like), and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (seasoning-like). Studies on the time course of odorant formation in guava puree or cubes, respectively, showed that (Z)-3-hexenal was hardly present in the intact fruits, but was formed very quickly during crushing. The aroma of fresh guava fruit cubes, which showed a very balanced aroma profile, was successfully mimicked in a reconstitute consisting of 13 odorants in their naturally occurring concentrations. Omission tests, in which single odorants were omitted from the entire aroma reconstitute, revealed (Z)-3-hexenal, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, hexanal, ethyl butanoate, cinnamyl acetate, and methional as the key aroma compounds of pink guavas. PMID:19254022

Steinhaus, Martin; Sinuco, Diana; Polster, Johannes; Osorio, Coralia; Schieberle, Peter

2009-04-01

111

Salt reduction in slow fermented sausages affects the generation of aroma active compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Slow fermented sausages with different salt content were manufactured: control (2.7% NaCl, S), 16% salt reduced (2.26% NaCl, RS) and 16% replaced by KCl (2.26% NaCl and 0.43% KCl, RSK). The effect of salt reduction on microbiology and chemical parameters, sensory characteristics, texture and volatile compounds was studied. The aroma compounds were identified by GC-MS and olfactometry analyses. Small salt reduction (16%) (RS) affected sausage quality producing a reduction in the acceptance of aroma, taste, juiciness and overall quality. The substitution by KCl (RSK) produced the same acceptability by consumers as for high salt (S) treatment except for the aroma that was not improved by KCl addition. The aroma was affected due to the reduction in sulfur and acids and the increase of aldehyde compounds. Aroma compounds that characterized the high salt treatment (S) were dimethyl trisulfide, 3-methyl thiophene, 2,3-butanedione, 2-nonanone and acetic acid. PMID:23261539

Corral, Sara; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mónica

2013-03-01

112

Aroma Stripping under various Forms of Membrane Distillation Processes: Experiments and modeling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Concentration of fruit juices by membrane distillation is an interesting process as it can be done at low temperature giving a gentle concentration process with little deterioration of the juices. Since the juices contains many different aroma compounds with a wide range of chemical properties such as volatility, activity coefficient and vapor pressure, it is important to know how these aroma compounds will eventually pass through the membrane. Experiments have been made on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up which can be operated in various types of MD configurations: Vacuum Membrane Distillation , Sweeping Gas Membrane Distillation , Direct Contact Membrane Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation. The influence of feed temperature and feed flow rate on the permeate flux and concentration factor for different types of aroma compounds have been measured for these MD configurations. A general transport model for the flux of water and aroma compounds have been derived and compared with the experimental data. A reasonable agreement between the modelling and the experiments could be obtained. From the modelling it was possible to explain the large different in permeate flux and concentration factor that was observed for the different MD configurations. This is highly related to the heat and mass transfer resistances in the membrane as well as in the boundary layers adjacent to the membrane surface and how the driving force develops along the length of the membrane.

Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

113

Aroma composition changes in early season grapefruit juice produced from thermal concentration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Differences in aroma components and total volatiles between a single unpasteurized Marsh grapefruit juice and its 65 Brix concentrate reconstituted to 10 Brix were examined using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-FID. Total volatiles (FID) in the reconstituted concentrate were reduced to less than 5% of initial values, but 57% of total aroma (GC-O) remained. Forty-one aroma-active compounds were observed in unpasteurized single strength juice, whereas 27 components were found in the unflavored reconstituted concentrate. Aroma-active compounds were classified into grapefruit/sulfury, sweet/fruity, fresh/citrusy, green/fatty/metallic, and cooked/meaty groups. Five of six components in the sweet/fruity and 14 of 18 green/fatty/metallic components survived thermal concentration. However, only 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone in the grapefruit/sulfury group, and linalool and nootkatone from the fresh/citrusy group, were found in the reconstituted concentrate. Methional was the only aroma compound in the cooked/meaty category found in both juice types. beta-Damascenone and 1-p-menthen-8-thiol were found only in the reconstituted concentrate. 4-Mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanol was found for the first time in grapefruit juice. PMID:11829649

Lin, Jianming; Rouseff, Russell L; Barros, Sandy; Naim, Michael

2002-02-13

114

Modelling aroma of three Italian red wines by headspace-mass spectrometry and potential functions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aromas of 41 samples of wine from two Italian regions, Piedmont and Tuscany, were analysed by headspace-mass spectrometry. Samples were from three Italian wines (Barbera, Dolcetto and Chianti) produced in the same vintage, from different grape varieties and producing zones. The headspace generating conditions were optimised by full factorial experimental design then chemometric techniques were applied to verify the discriminating power of headspace-mass spectrometry among the three wine aromas. The modelling method based on potential function, applied on the first nine significant components of the 201 measured m/z, revealed best discrimination among the three wine aromas: cross-validated mean prediction rate of 96.7% and mean prediction rate of 83.3% on external test sets were obtained. PMID:18420043

Armanino, Carla; Casolino, Maria Chiara; Casale, Monica; Forina, Michele

2008-05-01

115

Identification of aroma active compounds in orange essence oil using gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using GC-MS and GC-flame ionization detection (FID)/olfactometry, 95 volatile components were detected in orange essence oil, of which 55 were aroma active. In terms of FID peak area the most abundant compounds were: limonene, 94.5%; myrcene, 1%; valencene, 0.8%; linalool, 0.7%, and octanal, decanal, and ethyl butyrate, 0.3% each. One hundred percent of the aroma activity was generated by slightly more than 4% of the total volatiles. The most intense aromas were produced by octanal, wine lactone, linalool, decanal, beta-ionone, citronellal, and beta-sinensal. Potent aroma components reported for the first time in orange essence oil include: E-2-octenal, 1-octen-3-ol, Z-4-decenal, E,E-2,4-nonadienal, guaiacol, gamma-octalactone, and m-cresol. Over 20 compounds were identified for the first time in orange essence oil using MS, however, most did not exhibit aroma activity. PMID:12862384

Högnadóttir, Aslaug; Rouseff, Russell L

2003-05-23

116

Stomatal distribution, stomatal density and daily leaf movement in Acacia aroma (Leguminosae) Distribución y densidad estomática y movimiento diario de la hoja en Acacia aroma (Leguminosae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acacia aroma Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. grows in the Chacoan and Yungas Biogeographic Provinces, Argentina. It has numerous medicinal applications, sweet and edible fruits, and it may be used as forage. The objective of the present contribution was to analyse the stomatal distribution and stomatal density on the secondary leaflet surfaces, in different parts of the leaf, and at different tree crown levels, establishing the leaf movement and environmental condition relationships. The work was per...

Herna?ndez, Marcelo P.; Arambarrii, Ana M.

2010-01-01

117

Instrumental and sensory approaches for the characterization of compounds responsible for wine aroma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

More than 800 aromatic compounds have been identified in wine, some of them at the ng/l level. Wine, therefore, constitutes a very complex matrix, from which it is difficult to isolate a specific aroma character. Gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC–O) applied to wine extracts is used to characterize

Barbe, Jean-christophe; Pineau, Be?ne?dicte; Ferreira, Antonio Cesar Silva

2008-01-01

118

Effect of aroma and magnum hops extracts and paracetamol on antioxidant liver parameters in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hop varieties that are mainly grown in Serbia are Magnum (German variety) and Aroma, which is grown only in the Vojvodina region. About the use of hops extracts as an auxiliary remedy there are divergent opinions. Our findings indicate that extracts of Magnum and Aroma varieties, among the others, enhance and prolong the analgesic action of paracetamol. For this reason we undertook a study of the effects of these extracts alone and in combination with paracetamol, along with the action of paracetamol alone, on the activity of the antioxidant enzymes GSHPx, CAT, Px, XOD, GSHR, glutathione content, LPx intensity, as well as activities of AST and ALT. Paracetamol in the dose applied exerted no influence on the investigated parameters and neither did ethanolic extract of Magnum variety. On the other hand, ethanolic extract of Aroma hops caused a significant reduction of GSH content. In combination with paracetamol, extracts of both Magnum and Aroma varieties reduced significantly the LPx intensity, activities of CAT and GSHPx, as well as GSH content in the liver homogenate. A significant increase in the AST value with respect to control was also observed. These findings indicate the disturbance in the functioning of hepatocytes, probably by decelarating metabolism and elimination of paracetamol. PMID:19462927

Jakovljevic, Vida; Popovic, Mira; Raskovic, Aleksandar; Sabo, Ana; Horvat, Olga; Mitic, Radoslav; Vasic, Radica

2009-01-01

119

Identification of the key aroma compounds in cocoa powder based on molecular sensory correlations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Isolation of the volatile fraction from cocoa powder (50 g; 20% fat content) by a careful extraction/distillation process followed by application of an aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 35 odor-active constituents in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-4096. Among them, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel-like), 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (sweaty, rancid), dimethyl trisulfide (cooked cabbage), 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (potato-chip-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Quantitation of 31 key odorants by means of stable isotope dilution assays, followed by a calculation of their odor activity values (OAVs) (ratio of concentration to odor threshold) revealed OAVs>100 for the five odorants acetic acid (sour), 3-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanoic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, and 2-methylbutanal (malty). In addition, another 19 aroma compounds showed OAVs>1. To establish their contribution to the overall aroma of the cocoa powder, these 24 compounds were added to a reconstructed cocoa matrix in exactly the same concentrations as they occurred in the cocoa powder. The matrix was prepared from deodorized cocoa powder, which was adjusted to 20% fat content using deodorized cocoa butter. The overall sensory evaluation of this aroma recombinate versus the cocoa powder clearly indicated that the 24 compounds represented the typical sweet, cocoa-like odor of the real sample. PMID:16848541

Frauendorfer, Felix; Schieberle, Peter

2006-07-26

120

Identification of novel aroma-active thiols in pan-roasted white sesame seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Screening for aroma-active compounds in an aroma distillate obtained from freshly pan-roasted sesame seeds by aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 32 odorants in the FD factor range of 2-2048, 29 of which could be identified. The highest FD factors were found for the coffee-like smelling 2-furfurylthiol, the caramel-like smelling 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, the coffee-like smelling 2-thenylthiol (thiophen-2-yl-methylthiol), and the clove-like smelling 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol. In addition, 9 odor-active thiols with sulfurous, meaty, and/or catty, black-currant-like odors were identified for the first time in roasted sesame seeds. Among them, 2-methyl-1-propene-1-thiol, (Z)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (Z)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, and 4-mercapto-3-hexanone were previously unknown as food constituents. Their structures were confirmed by comparing their mass spectra and retention indices as well as their sensory properties with those of synthesized reference compounds. The relatively unstable 1-alkene-1-thiols represent a new class of food odorants and are suggested as the key contributors to the characteristic, but quickly vanishing, aroma of freshly ground roasted sesame seeds. PMID:20491509

Tamura, Hitoshi; Fujita, Akira; Steinhaus, Martin; Takahisa, Eisuke; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Schieberle, Peter

2010-06-23

 
 
 
 
121

Identification and formation of volatile components responsible for the characteristic aroma of mat rush (igusa).  

Science.gov (United States)

An aroma concentrate of the mat rush (igusa) was prepared by combining solvent extraction with the solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique. An aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) applied to the volatile fraction revealed 51 odor-active peaks with FD factors between 4(3) and 4(7). Among the perceived odorants, twelve peaks with the higher FD factors (>or=4(6)) were proved to be the most important components of the characteristic aroma in mat rush. Eleven odorants were identified or tentatively identified from the twelve peaks as methional, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-nonatrienal, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, isovaleric acid, methyl anthranirate, and vanillin. The FD factors of the odor-active peaks in dried mat rush were observed to be much higher than those in raw mat rush. This finding suggests that the drying process during manufacturing of the mat rush is one of the most important factors for the formation of the characteristic mat rush aroma. PMID:20530899

Kumazawa, Kenji; Sakai, Nao; Amma, Hiroko; Sakamoto, Satoshi; Kodama, Masaki; Wada, Yoshiyuki; Nishimura, Osamu

2010-01-01

122

Changes in key aroma compounds of Criollo cocoa beans during roasting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of a comparative aroma extraction dilution analysis on unroasted and roasted Criollo cocoa beans revealed 42 aroma compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 1-4096 for the unroasted and 4-8192 for the roasted cocoa beans. While the same compounds were present in the unroasted and roasted cocoa beans, respectively, these clearly differed in their intensity. For example, 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (rancid) and acetic acid (sour) showed the highest FD factors in the unroasted beans, while 3-methylbutanal (malty), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel-like), and 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (sweaty) were detected with the highest FD factors in the roasted seeds. Quantitation of 30 odorants by means of stable isotope dilution assays followed by a calculation of odor activity values (ratio of the concentration/odor threshold) revealed concentrations above the odor threshold for 22 compounds in the unroasted and 27 compounds in the roasted cocoa beans, respectively. In particular, a strong increase in the concentrations of the Strecker aldehydes 3-methylbutanal and phenylacetaldehyde as well as 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone was measured, suggesting that these odorants should contribute most to the changes in the overall aroma after roasting. Various compounds contributing to the aroma of roasted cocoa beans, such as 3-methylbutanoic acid, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, and 2-phenylethanol, were already present in unroasted, fermented cocoa beans and were not increased during roasting. PMID:18925740

Frauendorfer, Felix; Schieberle, Peter

2008-11-12

123

Aroma analysis and quality control of food using highly sensitive analytical methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis deals with the development of quality control methods for food based on headspace measurements by Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and with aroma analysis of food using PTR-MS and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O). An objective method was developed for the determination of a herb extract's quality; this quality was checked by a sensory analysis until now. The concentrations of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of 81 different batches were measured by PTR-MS. Based on the sensory judgment of the customer, characteristic differences in the emissions of 'good' and 'bad' quality samples were identified and a method for the quality control of this herb extract was developed. This novel method enables the producing company to check and ensure that they are only selling high-quality products and therefore avoid complaints of the customer. Furthermore this method can be used for controlling, optimizing and automating the production process. VOCs emitted by meat were investigated using PTR-MS to develop a rapid, non-destructive and quantitative technique for determination of the microbial contamination of meat. Meat samples (beef, pork and poultry) that were wrapped into different kinds of packages (air and vacuum) were stored in at 4oC for up to 13 days. The emitted VOCs were measured as a function of storage time and identified partly. The concentration of many of the measured VOCs, e.g. sulfur compounds like methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide, largely increased over the storage time. There were big differences in the emissions of normal air- and vacuum-packed meat. VOCs typically emitted by air-packaged meat were methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide, while ethanol and methanol were found in vacuum-packaged meat. A comparison of the PTR-MS results with those obtained by a bacteriological examination performed at the same time showed strong correlations (up to 99 %) between the concentrations of some of the VOCs, e.g. dimethylsulfide, and the bacteriological contamination. The concentration of these VOCs increased linearly with the bacterial numbers. This study is a first step towards replacing the time-consuming conventional microbiological analysis via plate counting by fast headspace air measurements where the bacterial spoilage can be determined within minutes instead of days. PTR-MS and GC-O techniques were used to define volatiles and odor active compounds released in the mouth during eating of ripe and unripe banana. The air exhaled through the nose was directly introduced into a PTR-MS and the time-intensity profiles of a series of volatiles were monitored on-line. The breath-by-breath temporal release pattern revealed various dynamic elements that are characteristic of the eating situation. During the eating of unripe banana we observed a gradual increase in 2E-hexenal and hexanal with ongoing mastication, until swallowing. No particular high concentrations were observed in the exhaled air just after swallowing (swallow breath). During the eating of a ripe banana, we observed isopentyl acetate and isobutyl acetate, compounds characteristic of banana aroma. In contrast, volatiles characteristic of unripe banana were largely absent. No gradual increase was observed with mastication, as present during the eating of unripe banana. In contrast, very prominent swallow peaks were observed. For GC-O analysis the volatile compounds contributing to the banana aroma were prepared in an artificial mouth system using three different mastication rates. Large differences were found in the number of odor active compounds of ripe and unripe bananas as well as for the investigated three different mastication rates (0, 26 and 52 min-1). Hexanal was the only compound that was detected by all six assessors for ripe and unripe bananas for each mastication frequency. Eighteen (seven) significant odor active compounds were detected in the odor profile of ripe (unripe) bananas with a mastication rate of 52 min-1, whereas with a mastication rate of 26 min-1

2003-01-01

124

Detection of Volatile Aroma Compounds of Morchella by Headspace Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS)  

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  This study was conducted at the Horticulture Department of Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey, in 2010 to determine the volatile aroma compounds of Morchella

Tas?kin, Hatira

2013-01-01

125

Some carbonyl compounds and free fatty acid composition of Afyon Kaymag? (clotted cream) and their effects on aroma and flavor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some carbonyl compounds (acetaldeyhde, acetone, butanone-2 and diacetyl), the lactic acid and free fatty acid compositions of Afyon kaymag?, produced from pure buffalo milk obtained from seven different farms, and their effects on aroma and flavor were investigated. Acetone was found in the highest amount of carbonyl compounds. Butyric, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were characteristic free fatty acids for Afyon Kaymag?. The effect of the investigated compounds on the aroma a...

S?enel, E.

2011-01-01

126

Concentration changes of aroma components in plain and probiotic yoghurt during storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, two types of yoghurt, plain yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt purchased from Croatian and Slovenian market, were stored for up to 25 days at two different temperatures (+4 ºC, +20 ºC. Samples were analyzed every 5 days and changes in acetaldehyde, ethanol and diacetyl content were determined. At the same time sensory evaluation was carried out. The aim of this study to show changes in concentrations of some flavor compounds and sensory quality in both yoghurt types during storage as a function of storage time and temperature. The results indicate that the equal changes in aroma compounds in both yoghurt types were result of the same microorganisms present in both yoghurt types (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus which have the greatest influence on the aroma, while the addition of other microorganisms has mostly probiotic effect.

Mirjana Hruškar

2005-01-01

127

Retention of aroma compounds from Mentha piperita essential oil by cyclodextrins and crosslinked cyclodextrin polymers.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the controlled release of aroma compounds from cyclodextrins (CDs) and CD polymers was studied by multiple headspace extraction (MHE) experiments. Mentha piperita essential oil was obtained by Soxhlet extraction and identification of the major compounds was performed by GC-MS analysis. Menthol, menthone, pulegone and eucalyptol were identified as the major components. Retention of standard compounds in the presence of different CDs and CD polymers has been realised by static headspace gas chromatography (SH-GC) at 25 °C in the aqueous or gaseous phase. Stability constants for standard compounds and for compounds in essential oil have been also determined with monomeric CD derivatives. The obtained results indicated the formation of a 1:1 inclusion complex for all the studied compounds. Molecular modelling was used to investigate the complementarities between host and guest. This study showed that ?-CDs were the most versatile CDs and that ?-CD polymers could perform the controlled release of aroma compounds. PMID:23265490

Ciobanu, A; Mallard, I; Landy, D; Brabie, G; Nistor, D; Fourmentin, S

2013-05-01

128

Antibacterial activity of extracts of Acacia aroma against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined usin [...] g agar diffusion and bioautographic methods. Among all assayed organic extracts only ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented highest activities against all tested Staphylococcus strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 2.5 to 10 mg/ml and from 2.5 to 5 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extracts show little antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus strains. The bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against S. aureus in correspondence with flavonoids and saponins. A. aroma would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for skin infections.

C.M., Mattana; S.E., Satorres; A., Sosa; M., Fusco; L.E., Alcaráz.

129

Expression profiling of genes involved in the formation of aroma in two peach genotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The expression profile of flavour-related genes during ripening was investigated in two peach genotypes, Bolero and OroA, which have been selected for their contrasting aroma/ripening behaviour. A new peach microarray containing 4776 oligonucleotide probes corresponding to a set of ESTs specifically enriched in secondary metabolism (?PEACH2.0) was designed to investigate transcriptome changes during three fruit ripening stages, revealing 1807 transcripts differentially expressed within and between the two genotypes. Differences in the expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of aroma compounds were detected during the ripening process within and between the two genotypes. In particular, a subset of 12 transcripts involved in metabolism of esters, norisoprenoids, phenylpropanoids and lactones, varied in expression during ripening and between Bolero and OroA. PMID:23043277

Pirona, R; Vecchietti, A; Lazzari, B; Caprera, A; Malinverni, R; Consolandi, C; Severgnini, M; De Bellis, G; Chietera, G; Rossini, L; Pozzi, C

2013-05-01

130

Distinctive exotic flavor and aroma compounds of some exotic tropical fruits and berries: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The characteristic flavor of exotic tropical fruits is one of their most attractive attributes to consumers. In this article, the enormous diversity of exotic fruit flavors is reviewed. Classifying some of the exotic fruits into two classes on the basis of whether esters or terpenes predominate in the aroma was also attempted. Indeed, as far as exotic tropical fruits are concerned, the majority of fruits have terpenes predominating in their aroma profile. Some of the fruits in this group are the Amazonian fruits such as pitanga, umbu-caja, camu-camu, garcinia, and bacuri. The ester group is made up of rambutan, durians, star fruit, snake fruit, acerola, tamarind, sapodilla, genipap, soursop, cashew, melon, jackfruit, and cupuacu respectively. Also, the role of sulphur-volatiles in some of the exotic fruits is detailed. PMID:22591343

Lasekan, Ola; Abbas, Kassim A

2012-01-01

131

Assessment of changes in the aroma and sensory profile of dawadawa due to modification in fermentation conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dawadawa is the most popular traditional condiment in West Africa and is produced by the fermentation of African locust bean seeds. Though the alkaline fermentation results in the production of a tasty condiment, it has a strong ammoniacal odour which some consumers find unattractive and offensive. This work was carried out to develop procedures for reducing the pungent odour of dawadawa in order to increase its popularity and market value especially amongst non-traditional users. Various treatments were applied to the fermenting locust bean seeds 15 hours into the fermentation which lasted for a total of 96 hours. Some treatments were also tested on the beans after fermentation. Treatments which were applied during fementation were fementation under conditions of limited oxygen, low temperature fermentation, irradiation by gamma radiation and steaming. Post-fermentation treatments were partial frying and roasting after fermentation. Samples were taken during fermentation and analyzed for Bacillus count on Nutrient Agar, pH, percentage titratable acidity, moisture content by the oven dry method, crude protein content by the kjeldhal method and texture by the texture analyzer. The final product was analyzed for aroma profile by GC-MS analysis using the Dynamic Headspace Sampling (DHS) method and also by descriptive sensory analysis by a semi-trained panel. Application of all the treatments applied during fermentation resulted in a ten to a hundredfold lower Bacillus counts compared to the control sample at various stages of fermentation. The reduction in the Bacillus activities resulted in a lower rise in pH giving final pH values of 6.8 to 7.53 compared to 8.37 in the control. The rise in pH was due to the proteolytic activity of the Bacillus species which break down the proteins into peptides and amino acids and subsequently utilize the amino acids to produce ammonia leading to the rise in pH. All the samples recorded a simultaneous increase in titratable acidity ranging from 0.006% to 0.037% in the control sample. The moisture content for all samples ranged from 54 to 73% with steaming for 10 minutes recording the highest value due to pick up of moisture during steaming. The protein content of all the samples increased during fermentation with final values which ranged between 30.42 to 37.64%. The texture of all the locust bean cotyledons softened during fermentation and the lowest value of hardness 15 was recorded for the limited oxygen sample and the highest value of 152 for the low temperature fermentation. The results of the instrumental textural analysis were supported by the assessment of the texture by the sensory panel which found the control sample to have the softest and smoothest texture due to the greater degree of fermentation of the control sample and which also results in the more pronounced ammoniacal odour. In the description sensory analysis, the panel assessed higher intensities of the descriptors which were considered undesirable/objectionable in the control sample than in the treated sample. These descriptors were stink fish ( momone), Koobi (salted/fermented tilapia) and sweaty sock. The more neutral/tolerant odour notes of rancid oil, fermented cocoa beans, smoked fish and palm kernel oil were higher in the treated sample. The aroma profile of dawadawa was affected by application of the treatments. Forty-nine aroma compounds in total were isolated form the differently treated dawadawa samples. They included mostly esters of acetic, butanoic and propanoic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, furans, sulfur compounds, pyrazines and a pyrrole. In spite of the known pungent smell of dawadawa, most of the aroma compounds identified were esters which are known for their fruity, pleasant odours. However, about 12 of aroma compounds identified such as the sulfur compounds-dimetyhl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide are reported to have strong pungent odours whilst 2,3-benzohyrrole is known to exhibit the charateristic odour of faeces. The levels of all but eight (2-Methlpropyl acetate; 2- Pentylfuran; 1-P

2013-01-01

132

Non-Destructive Assessment of Aroma Volatiles from a Climacteric Near-Isogenic Line of Melon Obtained by Headspace Stir-Bar Sorptive Extraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A climacteric aromatic near-isogenic line (NIL of melon (Cucumis melo L. SC3-5-1 contained an introgression of the non-climacteric Korean cultivar “Shongwan Charmi” accession PI 161375 (SC in the genetic background of the non-climacteric cultivar “Piel de Sapo” (PS. The aroma production was monitored during ripening at 21 °C in intact fruit using headspace sorptive bar extraction (HSSE. Bars were composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and aromas were desorbed and analyzed by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry. The aromatic profile was composed of 70 aromatic compounds plus 21 alkanes with a predominance of esters, particularly acetate (2-methylbutyl acetate, 2-methylpropyl acetate, hexyl acetate, and phenylmethyl acetate. Some compounds were severely affected by postharvest time. The acetate esters (3-methylbutyl acetate, butan-2-yl acetate and phenylmethyl acetate decreased with ripening and sulfur-derived compounds (S-methyl butanethioate and S-methyl 3-methylbutanethioate increased gradually with ripening. A few compounds increased at the senescence phase (propyl ethanoate. Other compounds such as hexadecanoic acid showed a marked decrease after harvest, some decreasing from a relative maximum at harvest (2-methylpropyl hexanoate; n-hexanoic acid; nonanoic acid.

Juan Pablo Fernández-Trujillo

2013-08-01

133

Study on Healing Environment Using Green, Blue and Red LED and Aroma  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we evaluated the effects of 1/f fluctuation of Green LED light emitted from the specific object by using psychological and physiological experimental tests of spectral electroencephalogram (EEG) topography. In addition, we also verified that the combination of appropriate aroma, blue LED light irradiation and music such as “Mozart: Serenade in Eine Kleine Nacht Musik” has improved mental healing conditions. We confirmed the possibility that the effect of “Healing” would be improved by the above mentioned environments.

Miyaho, Noriharu; Konno, Noriko; Shimada, Takamasa

134

Release of aroma compounds from dry-fermented sausages as affected by antioxidant and saliva addition  

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The effect of the addition of an antioxidant and saliva on the release of aroma compounds from dry fermented sausages was studied by extracting the headspace at different times using solid phase micro-extraction technique. The compounds were analysed by gas chromatography using a FID detector and identified by mass spectrometry. The addition of butylated hydroxytoluene to dry fermented sausages produced a significant reduction of the release of most of the volatile compounds indicating an oxi...

Flores Llovera, Mo?nica; Olivares Sevilla, Alicia

2008-01-01

135

Ability of Thermophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria To Produce Aroma Compounds from Amino Acids  

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Although a large number of key odorants of Swiss-type cheese result from amino acid catabolism, the amino acid catabolic pathways in the bacteria present in these cheeses are not well known. In this study, we compared the in vitro abilities of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Streptococcus thermophilus to produce aroma compounds from three amino acids, leucine, phenylalanine, and methionine, under mid-pH conditions of cheese ripening (pH 5.5), and we inve...

Helinck, Sandra; Le Bars, Dominique; Moreau, Daniel; Yvon, Mireille

2004-01-01

136

Effects of the origins of Botrytis cinerea on earthy aromas from grape broth media further inoculated with Penicillium expansum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthy "off" aromas from wine and grape juice are highly detrimental to the production of quality grape products. These volatile compounds are produced on grapes by Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum and/or a combination of P. expansum and B. cinerea strains. B. cinerea strains were isolated from different (a) vineyards in Spain and Portugal, (b) grape varieties (c) bunches (i.e., sound and botrytized) and (d) positions in the botrytized bunch (i.e., interior or exterior). A novel Headspace-Phase Microextraction (SPME) followed by Gas Chromatrography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) dedicated to analyze geosmin, methylisoborneol (MIB), 1-octen-3-ol, fenchone and fenchol in grape broth medium was used. Approximately 50% of the B. cinerea strains induced detectable geosmin. One strain accumulated significant amounts of anisoles, demonstrating that this contamination might already occur in the vineyard. Strains from the interior of Cainho grape bunches induced more geosmin and hence it may be possible to reduce this volatile in wine by avoiding using these grapes in case of B. cinerea attack. PMID:21569951

Morales-Valle, H; Silva, L C; Paterson, R R M; Venâncio, A; Lima, N

2011-08-01

137

Differentiation of the aromas of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines using sensory and instrumental analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aromas of six Merlot and three Cabernet Sauvignon wines of the 1996 vintage from the Bordeaux region were evaluated by sensory analysis. A panel of selected enology students was trained to assess 20 attributes previously generated for these wines by enologists of Bordeaux. Using statistical methods, this 20-attribute list was reduced to a 12-attribute list. The aroma profiles of the wines of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon were very close. Differentiation of the wines of these two varieties was significant only for the caramel descriptor, which was rated higher in the Merlot wines. Gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O) and GC/MS analyses were used to detect and identify the potent odorants with the caramel odor in the two most differentiated samples for this attribute, a Merlot wine and a Cabernet Sauvignon wine. Two odorant zones with this odor resulted in identification of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one (HDMF) and 4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methylfuran-3(2H)-one (HEMF). Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) method showed a higher dilution factor (FD) for HDMF in the Merlot wine extract than in the Cabernet Sauvignon extract. The HDMF levels determined in the wines studied using a stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) method were consistent with the results found by sensory analysis and GC/O; i.e., higher HDMF levels were present in the Merlot wines than in the Cabernet Sauvignon wines. PMID:11087489

Kotseridis, Y; Razungles, A; Bertrand, A; Baumes, R

2000-11-01

138

Retención de aroma durante el secado de extracto de café en un sistema cerrado  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Durante el secado de alimentos líquidos, componentes volátiles presentes en baja concentración que contribuyen al aroma y sabor del producto final son removidos junto con el agua. En consecuencia la calidad del producto final es considerablemente afectada por la cantidad de substancias volátiles que son retenidas durante el proceso de secado. En el extracto de café, por ejemplo, existen cientos de tales compuestos, la mayoría de ellos altamente volátiles por lo que se pierden cuando el extracto es transformado en polvo seco. Independientemente del método utilizado, parece ser imposible evitar completamente la perdida de compuestos volátiles durante el secado. Un método potencial para mejorar la retención del aroma durante el secado es utilizar un sistema que trabaje a ciclo cerrado. Con el propósito de estudiar este proceso una planta piloto que consiste de un secador por aspersión, un secador de lecho fluidizado vibratorio, un sistema de recuperación de vapores e intercambiadores de calor para recalentar el aire reciclado ha sido diseñada y esta en la fase final de instalación en la Facultad de Ingeniería Química de la Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, en Managua, para hacer un estudio del método potencial de recuperación de aroma del extracto de café. Este estudio tendrá como resultado no solo un café soluble de mejor calidad sino que además un método capaz de mejorar el procesamiento de muchos otros alimentos líquidos.

J.F. Vílchez

2006-01-01

139

Tomato fruits expressing a bacterial feedback-insensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase of the shikimate pathway possess enhanced levels of multiple specialized metabolites and upgraded aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit contains significant amounts of bioactive compounds, particularly multiple classes of specialized metabolites. Enhancing the synthesis and accumulation of these substances, specifically in fruits, are central for improving tomato fruit quality (e.g. flavour and aroma) and could aid in elucidate pathways of specialized metabolism. To promote the production of specialized metabolites in tomato fruit, this work expressed under a fruit ripening-specific promoter, E8, a bacterial AroG gene encoding a 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS), which is feedback-insensitive to phenylalanine inhibition. DAHPS, the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, links between the primary and specialized metabolism derived from aromatic amino acids. AroG expression influenced the levels of number of primary metabolites, such as shikimic acid and aromatic amino acids, as well as multiple volatile and non-volatile phenylpropanoids specialized metabolites and carotenoids. An organoleptic test, performed by trained panellists, suggested that the ripe AroG-expressing tomato fruits had a preferred floral aroma compare with fruits of the wild-type line. These results imply that fruit-specific manipulation of the conversion of primary to specialized metabolism is an attractive approach for improving fruit aroma and flavour qualities as well as discovering novel fruit-specialized metabolites. PMID:24006429

Tzin, Vered; Rogachev, Ilana; Meir, Sagit; Moyal Ben Zvi, Michal; Masci, Tania; Vainstein, Alexander; Aharoni, Asaph; Galili, Gad

2013-11-01

140

Characterization of the interaction between two food aroma components, alpha-pinene and ethyl butyrate, and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) packaging films as a function of environmental humidity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOHs) are well-known high oxygen barrier materials that are being used successfully in the design of packaging structures for oxygen-sensitive food or pharmaceutical products. Recently, there has been increasing interest in using EVOH materials to provide a high barrier to organic compounds as a means to reduce food aroma scalping. However, the barrier function of this family of materials diminishes significantly in humid environments, and it is supposed that so does the organic vapor barrier. In this work, a new sorption-based method to characterize the interaction between food aroma and polymer films for packaging as a function of relative humidity is presented and is used to determine the barrier to ethyl butyrate and alpha-pinene of EVOH at 23 degrees C. The results show that although EVOH is an excellent barrier to food aroma when dry, a property that even improves at low relative humidity (RH), the solubility and diffusivity of the compounds tested increase dramatically with humidity at medium to high water activities. However, even in the worst case (100% RH), EVOH outperforms low-density polyethylene (LDPE) as a barrier to organic vapors at least 500,000-fold. PMID:16131132

López-Carballo, Gracia; Cava, David; Lagarón, Jose M; Catalá, Ramón; Gavara, Rafael

2005-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Review: EXTRACTION OF HERBAL AROMA OILS FROM SOLID SURFACE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fragrance extraction refers to the extraction of aromatic compounds from raw materials, using methods such as distillation, solvent extraction, expression or enfleurage. The results of the extracts are either essential oils, absolutes, concretes or butters, depending on the amount of waxes in the extracted product. To a certain extent, all of these techniques tend to distort the odour of the aromatic compounds obtained from the raw materials. Heat, chemical solvents or exposure to oxygen in t...

2011-01-01

142

Olfactory and quantitative analysis of aroma compounds in elder flower (Sambucus nigra L.) drink processed from five cultivars.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fresh elder flowers (Sambucus nigra L.) were extracted with an aqueous solution containing sucrose, peeled lemon slices, tartaric acid, and sodium benzoate to make elder flower syrup. Aroma compounds emitted from the elder flower syrup were collected by the dynamic headspace technique and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 59 compounds were identified, 18 of which have not previously been detected in elder flower products. The concentrations of the identified volatiles were measured in five elder cultivars, Allesoe, Donau, Sambu, Sampo, and Samyl, and significant differences were detected among cultivars in the concentration levels of 48 compounds. The odor of the volatiles was evaluated by the GC-sniffing technique. cis-Rose oxide, nerol oxide, hotrienol, and nonanal contributed to the characteristic elder flower odor, whereas linalool, alpha-terpineol, 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one, and (Z)-beta-ocimene contributed with floral notes. Fruity odors were associated with pentanal, heptanal, and beta-damascenone. Fresh and grassy odors were primarily correlated with hexanal, hexanol, and (Z)-3-hexenol. PMID:10888553

Jørgensen, U; Hansen, M; Christensen, L P; Jensen, K; Kaack, K

2000-06-01

143

Characterization of the major aroma-active compounds in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi by application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma-active compounds present in tree-ripened fruits of the five mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometery (GC-O). Application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) afforded 54 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to ?2048, 16 of which are reported for the first time in mango. The results of the identification experiments in combination with the FD factors revealed 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone as an important aroma compound in all cultivars analyzed. Twenty-seven aroma-active compounds were present in at least one mango cultivar at an FD factor ?128. Clear differences in the FD factors of these odorants between each of the mango cultivars suggested that they contributed to the unique sensory profiles of the individual cultivars. PMID:24766361

Munafo, John P; Didzbalis, John; Schnell, Raymond J; Schieberle, Peter; Steinhaus, Martin

2014-05-21

144

De aromas e perfumes, o mercado da indústria do "cheiro" From aromas and perfumes, the market of the "smell" industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several flavors and fragrances (F&F companies hold the economic leadership in the market, although not always have also the leadership in patent applications. The ranking of technological production in the fragrance area still remains with industries while scientific knowledge is equally shared between industries and academia. Contextualizing Brazil in this scene, despite all scientific expertise gained over the years, brazilian technological park is still at the beginning of the production of technologies applied directly to the F&F industries. The dependence on foreign technologies is remarkable as indicated by the great trade deficit in this sector.

Marcelo Gomes Speziali

2012-01-01

145

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) using aroma extract dilution analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract of the dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica obtained by extraction with diethyl ether followed by sublimation in vacuo revealed 28 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 4-8192, all of which could be identified. The highest FD factor was found for linalol (floral), followed by (E)-beta-ocimene (flowery), alpha-farnesene (sweet, flowery), beta-pinene (terpeny), alpha-pinene (pine needle-like), myrtenol (flowery), and beta-phellandrene (terpeny). Vanillin (vanilla-like) and 3-ethylphenol (smoky, phenolic) showing somewhat lower FD factors (FD = 128) were detected for the first time as constituents of the dried fruit. PMID:10552646

Tairu, A O; Hofmann, T; Schieberle, P

1999-08-01

146

[Quantitative evaluation of the variation of aroma harmony in processed fruit and vegetable juices with gas chromatographic data].  

Science.gov (United States)

To develop a quantitative evaluation model for the variation of aroma harmony in processed fruit and vegetable juices, gas chromatographic data from juice samples were summed up by mathematic modeling. Based on the original fruit and vegetable juices, the total change in volatile compounds expressed in term of percentage between the treated samples by various processes and the original juice, that is, the deviation of samples, are calculated. They were then used to describe the total change of aroma compounds in the fruit and vegetable juices before and after the processing. To compare the influences of different processes on aroma harmony in fruit and vegetable juices, the samples were analyzed by gas chromatography under the same conditions and the data were obtained by comparing the deviations of the samples. The lemon juices concentrated either by freeze-concentration or by vacuum evaporation were compared against the original lemon juices. The results showed that the freeze-concentration well retained not only the absolute contents of aroma compounds but also the aroma harmony of natural lemons. PMID:16250459

Liu, Ling; Cui, Mingxue; Xue, Yi

2005-07-01

147

Total Aroma and other Quality Factors of Hugo Charentias Melons as Affected by Harvest Date and Refrigeration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to monitor the changes in the common quality parameters including aroma volatiles of Charentais melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Hugo fruit occurring after harvest and refrigeration in order to establish a proper harvest date. Fruit were harvested at three stages of development: early ripening, moderately ripe and ripe corresponding to 70, 75 and 80 Days after Sowing (DAS the seeds, respectively. Testing was performed immediately after harvest and after 5, 10 or 15 days holding under refrigeration at 7°C. External and internal color, firmness, Soluble Solids Content (SSC, Titratable Acidity (TA, weight and aroma were investigated. Date of harvest markedly impacted most of the quality parameters, while holding under refrigeration affected firmness and aroma. Seventy DAS fruit were firmer than 80 DAS, but the later acquired higher SSC and aroma concentration and a larger size. Seventy five DAS fruit were intermediate between both. Holding under refrigeration increased or decreased total aroma volatiles concentration, increased weight loss, decreased firmness, slightly affected color change and had no effect on SSC and TA. It can be concluded, therefore, that harvesting Charentais melons cv. Hugo at 80 DAS might best meet consumer preferences for fruit quality with some doubt that the fruit will withstand the handling and shipping stresses. While harvesting at 70 DAS might very well withstand the shipping stress, the fruit quality may not be acceptable to the consumers. Harvesting at 75 DAS might, therefore, meet both requirements.

N. El-Assi

2010-01-01

148

Fragrance Analysis among Recombinant Inbred Lines of Rice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aroma or fragrance of Basmati rice is associated with the presence of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. Aroma in Basmati is reported to be monogenic recessive. Several PCR-based co-dominant markers based on RG28 locus were developed which can differentiate between fragrant and non-fragrant rice cultivars. For analysis of aroma among RILs derived from a diverse cross between CSR 10 and Taraori Basmati through SSD method both molecular as well as biochemical methods were used to clearly distinguish aromatic and non-aromatic RILs of rice RG28 locus specific markers. Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs among various mapping populations provide a noble material for linkage of marker and trait. RILs were analyzed for polymorphism using RG28 locus specific primers (BAD2, BADEX7-5, SCUSSR1. Biochemical analysis of aroma was performed with the 1.7% KOH solution and molecular analysis of aroma was carried out with microsatellite markers present on chromosome 8 to determine the extent of association between trait, marker and chromosome 8. Out of these, BAD 2 amplified aroma specific alleles having 256 bp in 72 lines, BADEX7-5 with 95 bp in 74 lines and SCUSSR1 with 129 bp in 79 lines. Mental test of significance detected by biochemical analysis of RILs (with 1.7% KOH and molecular marker study revealed 97 , 95 and 90.1% of association of aroma with the markers, respectively. Some of the F10 lines amplified the heterozygous alleles by using the 2 sets of specific markers but did not show the presence of aroma as analyzed by chemical test. In Basmati, it seems that aroma is a complex trait and not as simple monogenic (3:1 as reported earlier. Aromatic and non-aromatic lines were almost common in three markers indicating association of markers with the trait and chromosome 8. The results revealed that these markers could be used for marker assisted selection and RIL population for mapping of aroma QTLs/genes.

R.K. Jain

2012-01-01

149

De aromas e perfumes, o mercado da indústria do "cheiro" / From aromas and perfumes, the market of the "smell" industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Several flavors and fragrances (F&F) companies hold the economic leadership in the market, although not always have also the leadership in patent applications. The ranking of technological production in the fragrance area still remains with industries while scientific knowledge is equally shared bet [...] ween industries and academia. Contextualizing Brazil in this scene, despite all scientific expertise gained over the years, brazilian technological park is still at the beginning of the production of technologies applied directly to the F&F industries. The dependence on foreign technologies is remarkable as indicated by the great trade deficit in this sector.

Marcelo Gomes, Speziali.

150

Antibacterial activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma Gill. ex Hook et Arn.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of seven ethanolic extracts and three aqueous extracts from various parts (leaves, stems and flowers) of A. aroma against 163 strains of antibiotic multi-resistant bacteria. The disc diffusion assay was performed to evaluate antibacterial activity of the A. aroma crude extracts, against several Gram-positive bacteria (E. faecalis, S. aureus, coagulase-negative stahylococci, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. aureus ATCC 29213, E. faecalis ATCC 29212) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli., K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, E. cloacae, S. marcescens, M morganii, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, S. maltophilia, E. coli ATCC 35218, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, E. coli ATCC 25922). All ethanolic extracts showed activity against gram-positive bacteria. Among all obtained extracts, only leaf and flower fluid extracts showed activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Based on this bioassay, leaf fluid extracts tended to be the most potent, followed by flower fluid extracts. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of extracts and antibiotics were comparatively determined by agar and broth dilution methods. Both extracts were active against S. aureus, coagulase-negative stahylococci, E. faecalis and E. faecium and all tested Gram-negative bacteria with MIC values from 0.067 to 0.308 mg/ml. In this study the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were identical or twice as high than the corresponding MIC for leaf extracts and four or eight times higher than MIC values for flower extracts. This may indicate a bactericidal effect. Stored extracts have similar antibacterial activity as recently obtained extracts. The A. aroma extracts of leaves and flowers may be useful as antibacterial agents against Gram- negative and Gram-positive antibiotic multi-resistant microorganisms. PMID:15120571

Arias, M E; Gomez, J D; Cudmani, N M; Vattuone, M A; Isla, M I

2004-05-28

151

Salt reduction in slow fermented sausages affects the generation of aroma active compounds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Slow fermented sausages with different salt content were manufactured: control (2.7% NaCl, S), 16% salt reduced (2.26% NaCl, RS) and 16% replaced by KCl (2.26% NaCl and 0.43% KCl, RSK). The effect of salt reduction on microbiology and chemical parameters, sensory characteristics, texture and volatile compounds was studied. The aroma compounds were identified by GC-MS and olfactometry analyses. Small salt reduction (16%) (RS) affected sausage quality producing a reduction in the acceptance of ...

Corral, Sara; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mo?nica

2013-01-01

152

Management of sheath blight of rice through essential oils, aroma compounds and plant extracts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Efficacy of thirteen essential oils and nine aroma compounds were tested against sheath blight ( Rhizoctonia solani) of rice on a susceptible variety Pusa...

Janki Kandhari, C. Devakumar

2011-01-01

153

Role of glutathione enriched inactive yeast preparations on the aroma of wines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[ES]: El efecto de preparados comerciales de levaduras secas inactivas ricos en glutatión (GSH-IDY) en la protección del aroma del vino durante su conservación ha sido investigado. Para ello, se elaboraron industrialmente dos vinos rosados a partir de uvas de la variedad Garnacha con y sin adición del preparado de GSH-IDY. La composición volátil se determinó a lo largo de la vida útil del vino (1 a 9 meses). Además en experimentos en vinos modelo, se estudió el efecto de diferentes ...

2010-01-01

154

Characterization of some Italian ornamental thyme by their aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aromatic profiles of five commercial thyme cultivars (T. vulgaris 'Silver Poise', T. vulgaris 'Erectus', T. vulgaris 'Faustini', T. x citriodorus 'Anderson's Gold', and T. x citriodorus 'Silver Queen'), cultivated in Italy, were defined both by their static headspaces (HS) and essential oils (EOs). In addition, a botanical garden sample of T. vulgaris was considered as reference material to evaluate the morphological and phytochemical differences from the selected market samples. Extractions of the volatile constituents of the different plant material were carried out by SPME (static headspace, HS) and hydrodistillation (HD) processes. GC-MS analysis provided the separation and identification of approximately 70 components in the HS samples and 50 in the hydrodistilled essential oils, accounting for more than 95% of the total. The typical main constituents of T. vulgaris were detected in all the EO samples, although qualitative and quantitative differences were found among the selected ornamental Thymus varieties. Thymol (50-55%) was the marker constituent for the three T. vulgaris cultivars, while geraniol (61-67%) characterized the essential oils of the two T. x citriodorus varieties. In all the analyzed essential oils, non-oxygenated (16-79%) and oxygenated (5-26%) monoterpenes were the typical volatile constituents. Specific target compounds (thymol, geraniol and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one) were selected to characterize the five thyme cultivars that are considered at present only as ornamental plants. A comparative evaluation of their EO quality was carried out in order to propose them as alternative sources of Italian raw plant material for industrial production. PMID:20334146

Bertoli, Alessandra; Sárosi, Szilvia; Bernáth, Jeno; Pistelli, Luisa

2010-02-01

155

Characterization of aroma compounds in Chinese rice wine Qu by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and headspace solid-phase microextraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma of Chinese rice wine Qu is one of the most important factors that influences the flavor of Chinese rice wine. To better understand the aroma of Qu, aroma compounds in four wheat Qus and two xiao Qus were identified by chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) after solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE). A total of 39 aroma compounds were characterized by GC-O. On the basis of aroma intensity, 1-hexanal, ethyl hexanoate, 1-octen-3-ol, and phenylacetaldehyde were found to be the most important aroma compounds in all six Qus. In addition, 3-methylbutanol and 2-phenylethanol also played an important role in the aroma of two xiao Qus. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was used for quantifying aroma compounds identified in the Qus. The method enabled limits of detection and quantification of <40.8 and <136.0 microg/L, respectively. Linearity and recovery were satisfied in all cases. Quantitative analysis revealed that volatiles of six Qus had a wide range of concentration. Principal component analysis applied to the data differentiated the six Qus well. PMID:20088505

Mo, Xinliang; Xu, Yan; Fan, Wenlai

2010-02-24

156

Aroma active volatiles in four southern highbush blueberry cultivars determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma active volatiles in four southern highbush blueberry cultivars ('Prima Dona', 'Jewel', 'Snow Chaser', and 'Kestrel') were determined using solid phase microextraction (SPME) in combination with gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and identified via GC-PFPD and GC-MS using retention indices of reference compounds and mass spectral data. The aromas of total, unseparated SPME extracts evaluated using GC-O were rated 8.2-9.0/10 for the four cultivars in terms of similarity to the original blueberry homogenates. In terms of GC-O aroma similarity, those aroma active volatile groups characterized as green, fruity, and floral were most intense. Of the 43 volatiles found to have aroma activity, 38 were identified and 13 had not been previously reported in blueberries. Although linalool and (E)-2-hexenal were common major aroma impact volatiles, dominant aroma-active volatiles were different for each cultivar. Principal component analysis confirmed that each cultivar possessed a unique aroma active profile as each cultivar was clustered into a separate score plot quadrant. PMID:24758568

Du, Xiaofen; Rouseff, Russell

2014-05-21

157

Definitive evidence for the actual contribution of yeast in the transformation of neutral precursors of grape aromas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were designed to demonstrate the actual contribution of yeast in the formation of the primary aroma during the vinification of neutral grapes. Ruché was chosen as the model wine to study because of its unique fragrance. A yeast strain specific for Ruché was selected using a new and rapid isolation method for red wines. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: Skins from nonaromatic white or red grapes apparently contain most of the primary aroma compounds that are revealed in the must only after contact with yeast cells under defined conditions. Similar results were obtained with the pulp and seeds fractions; however, the olfactory notes, although well characterized, differed from those obtained with skins alone. Clarification, filtration, and centrifugation of the pulp and seed fractions or sonification of the skins produce different and well-characterized olfaction notes during the contact with yeast. The primary aroma of nonaromatic white and red grapes contained in the skins can be revealed within 24-48 h of yeast contact in a synthetic nutrient medium (SNM). The primary aroma precursors extracted from the skins with methanol, water-saturated butanol, or aqueous buffer at pH 3.2, concentrated and eluted from a C18 resin column, can be transformed to the free form wine aroma markers within 6 h of contact with yeast cells in SNM. By contrast, prolonged maceration of the skins in aqueous alcoholic buffer at pH 3.2 or 1.1, at 50 or 70 degrees C did not release primary odors typical of wine. The individual primary aroma compounds, identified by GC-MS analysis in Ruché wine samples or in Ruché skin-yeast-SNM samples, could not explain the complexity of the typical Ruché wine odor. Only odors common to many wine varieties were identified by GC-olfactometry analysis. PMID:11714334

Delfini, C; Cocito, C; Bonino, M; Schellino, R; Gaia, P; Baiocchi, C

2001-11-01

158

Effects of bite size and duration of oral processing on retro-nasal aroma release - features contributing to meal termination.  

Science.gov (United States)

The brain response to a retro-nasally sensed food odour signals the perception of food and it is suggested to be related to satiation. It is hypothesised that consuming food either in multiple small bite sizes or with a longer durations of oral processing may evoke substantial oral processing per gram consumed and an increase in transit time in the oral cavity. This is expected to result in a higher cumulative retro-nasal aroma stimulation, which in turn may lead to increased feelings of satiation and decreased food intake. Using real-time atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-MS, in vivo retro-nasal aroma release was assessed for twenty-one young, healthy and normal-weight subjects consuming dark chocolate-flavoured custard. Subjects were exposed to both free or fixed bite size (5 and 15 g) and durations of oral processing before swallowing (3 and 9 s) in a cross-over design. For a fixed amount of dark chocolate-flavoured custard, consumption in multiple small bite sizes resulted in a significantly higher cumulative extent of retro-nasal aroma release per gram consumed compared with a smaller amount of large bite sizes. In addition, a longer duration of oral processing tended to result in a higher cumulative extent of retro-nasal aroma release per gram consumed compared with a short duration of oral processing. An interaction effect of bite size and duration of oral processing was not observed. In conclusion, decreasing bite size or increasing duration of oral processing led to a higher cumulative retro-nasal aroma stimulation per gram consumed. Hence, adapting bite size or duration of oral processing indicates that meal termination can be accelerated by increasing the extent of retro-nasal aroma release and, subsequently, the satiation. PMID:20836901

Ruijschop, Rianne M A J; Zijlstra, Nicolien; Boelrijk, Alexandra E M; Dijkstra, Annereinou; Burgering, Maurits J M; Graaf, Cees de; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

2011-01-01

159

Characterization of the key odorants in pan-fried white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) by means of molecular sensory science: comparison with the raw mushroom tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction isolated from pan-fried white mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus L.) revealed 40 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192, among which the caramel-like smelling 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one showed the highest FD factor of 8192, followed by 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn-like) and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one (seasoning-like). A total of 36 compounds are reported for the first time in processed mushrooms, and 25 odorants showing the highest FD factors were then quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated as ratio of their concentrations to their odor thresholds. Among them, 3-methylbutanal (malty), 3-(methylthio)propanal (cooked potato), and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn-like) showed the highest OAVs (>100) in the pan-fried mushrooms, followed by 1-octen-3-one, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one, phenylacetaldehyde, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one with OAVs >10. An aqueous aroma recombinate containing 13 odorants (OAV > 1) in their actual concentrations in the fried mushrooms showed a good similarity to the original aroma profile. The quantitation of the key odorants in raw mushrooms, identified with high FD factors during the AEDA, revealed that numerous odorants were quantitatively changed by the frying process, but in particular the concentrations of 2-phenylacetaldehyde and 3-methylbutanal were higher by factors of ?40 and 6, respectively, compared to the amounts in the processed mushrooms. The data suggested an enzymatic formation of both Strecker aldehydes by the cut mushroom tissue. In total, 26 odorants were newly identified in raw mushrooms. PMID:23581517

Grosshauser, Sonja; Schieberle, Peter

2013-04-24

160

S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides, alliinase and aroma in Leucocoryne.  

Science.gov (United States)

Levels of S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides, alliinase and enzymatically generated pyruvic acid were determined in the bulb, leaf and scape of five species and a natural hybrid of Leucocoryne (Liliaceae), a genus of ornamental geophytes indigenous to Chile. (+)-S-Methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (MCSO) was present in all plant parts of all species at levels between 0.09 and 1.41 mg g(-1) fr. wt. Trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (PRENCSO) was present in plant parts of three species only (L. angustipetala, L. oadorata and L. purpurea) at levels between 0.12 and 1.82 mg g(-1) fr. wt. No other S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides were detected. Alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) was detected in the leaf, bulb and scape of L. angustipetala and L. purpurea, only in the leaves of L. coquimbensis and L. purpurea x L. coquimbensis, and only in the bulb of L. odorata. Enzymatically generated pyruvic acid was detected in all plant parts of all species at levels between trace amounts and 5.33 micromol g(-1) fr. wt. As PRENCSO is produced only in Leucocoryne species exhibiting a strong and unpleasant onion-like aroma, it is probable that the enzymatic degradation of PRENCSO is the main cause of that aroma. Consequently, Leucocoryne cultivars should be selected in species and hybrids that lack the ability to synthesise PRENCSO. PMID:11065288

Lancaster, J E; Shaw, M L; Walton, E F

2000-09-01

 
 
 
 
161

Characterization of aroma-active compounds, sensory properties, and proteolysis in Ezine cheese.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ezine cheese is a white pickled cheese ripened in tinplate containers for at least 8 mo. A mixture of milk from goat, sheep, and cow is used to make Ezine cheese. Ezine cheese has geographical indication status. The purposes of this study were to determine and compare the changes in basic composition, aroma, and sensory characteristics, and proteolytic activity of Ezine cheese stored in tinplate containers and plastic vacuum packages during storage. Aroma-active compounds were determined by thermal desorption gas chromatography olfactometry. To evaluate the proteolytic activity, casein and nitrogen fractions were determined. The results indicated that compounds identified at high intensities were dimethyl sulfide, ethyl butyrate, hexanal, ethyl pentanoate, (Z)-4-heptenal, 1-octen-3-one, acetic acid, butyric acid, and p-cresol. Characteristic descriptive terms were cooked, whey, creamy, animal-like, sour, and salty. The level of proteolysis increased in Ezine cheese during storage. Ezine cheese can be ripened in small-size packaging after 3 mo of storage. Approximately 6 mo is sufficient to produce the characteristic properties of Ezine cheese. PMID:19700675

Yuceer, Y Karagul; Tuncel, B; Guneser, O; Engin, B; Isleten, M; Yasar, K; Mendes, M

2009-09-01

162

Analysis of the volatile aroma constituents of parental and hybrid clones of pepino (Solanum muricatum).  

Science.gov (United States)

The volatile constituents of 10 clones (4 parents with different flavors and 6 hybrids from selected crossings among these parents) of pepino fruit (Solanum muricatum) were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Odor-contributing volatiles (OCVs) were detected by GC-olfactometry-MS analyses and included 24 esters (acetates, 3-methylbutanoates, and 3-methylbut-2-enoates), 7 aldehydes (especially hexenals and nonenals), 6 ketones, 9 alcohols, 3 lactones, 2 terpenes, beta-damascenone, and mesifurane. Among these compounds, 17, of which 5 had not been reported previously in pepino, were found to contribute significantly to pepino aroma. OCVs can be assigned to three groups according to their odor quality: fruity fresh (acetates and prenol), green vegetable (C6 and C9 aldehydes), and exotic (lactones, mesifuran, and beta-damascenone). Quantitative and qualitative differences between clones for these compounds are clearly related to differences in their overall flavor impression. The positive value found for the hybrid-midparent regression coefficient for volatile composition indicates that an important fraction of the variation observed is inheritable, which has important implications in breeding for improving aroma. Significant and positive correlations were found between OCVs having common precursors or related pathways. PMID:15373407

Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Prohens, Jaime; Nitz, Siegfried; Nuez, Fernando

2004-09-01

163

Tomato phenylacetaldehyde reductases catalyze the last step in the synthesis of the aroma volatile 2-phenylethanol.  

Science.gov (United States)

The volatile compounds, 2-phenylacetaldehyde and 2-phenylethanol, are important for the aroma and flavor of many foods, such as ripe tomato fruits, and are also major constituents of scent of many flowers, most notably roses. While much work has gone into elucidating the pathway for 2-phenylethanol synthesis in bacteria and yeast, the pathways for synthesis in plants are not well characterized. We have identified two tomato enzymes (LePAR1 and LePAR2) that catalyze the conversion of 2-phenylacetaldehyde to 2-phenylethanol: LePAR1, a member of the large and diverse short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, strongly prefers 2-phenylacetaldehyde to its shorter and longer homologues (benzaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde, respectively) and does not catalyze the reverse reaction at a measurable rate; LePAR2, however, has similar affinity for 2-phenylacetaldehyde, benzaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde. To confirm the activity of these enzymes in vivo, LePAR1 and LePAR2 cDNAs were individually expressed constitutively in petunia. While wild type petunia flowers emit relatively high levels of 2-phenylacetaldehyde and lower levels of 2-phenylethanol, flowers from the transgenic plants expressing LePAR1 or LePAR2 had significantly higher levels of 2-phenylethanol and lower levels of 2-phenylacetaldehyde. The in vivo alteration of volatile emissions is an important step toward altering aroma volatiles in plants. PMID:17644147

Tieman, Denise M; Loucas, Holly M; Kim, Joo Young; Clark, David G; Klee, Harry J

2007-11-01

164

Effect of dehydration by sun or by oven on volatiles and aroma compounds of Trachanas
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Effet de la déshydratation au soleil ou en four sur les volatiles et composés d'arôme de Trachanas
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Trachanas is one of the most important traditional food products of Cyprus. It is made from fermented sheep or goat's milk or a mixture of both. The fermented milk is heated and crushed wheat is added to produce a porridge mixture. The mixture is then dried and stored in the form of "biscuits". Dehydration is performed either by sun, at a domestic level, or industrially using an oven. The objective of this study was to detect differences in aroma compounds of sun-dried or oven-dried Trachanas...

Carpino, Stefania; Rapisarda, Teresa; Belvedere, Giovanni; Papademas, Photis; Neocleous, Maria; Scadt, Iris; Pasta, Catia; Licitra, Giuseppe

2010-01-01

165

Stomatal distribution, stomatal density and daily leaf movement in Acacia aroma (Leguminosae Distribución y densidad estomática y movimiento diario de la hoja en Acacia aroma (Leguminosae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acacia aroma Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. grows in the Chacoan and Yungas Biogeographic Provinces, Argentina. It has numerous medicinal applications, sweet and edible fruits, and it may be used as forage. The objective of the present contribution was to analyse the stomatal distribution and stomatal density on the secondary leaflet surfaces, in different parts of the leaf, and at different tree crown levels, establishing the leaf movement and environmental condition relationships. The work was performed with fresh material and herbarium specimens, using conventional anatomical techniques. Stomatal distribution on the secondary leaflet surfaces was established, and differences in stomatal density among basal, medium and apical leaflets were found. A decrease in stomatal density from the lower level to the upper level of the tree crown would be connected with that. The stomatal distribution and density appear related to the secondary leaflet shape and its position on the secondary rachis, interacting with the daily secondary leaflets and leaf movement, and the weather conditions. It is interesting that the medium value of stomata density were found in the middle part of the leaf and at the middle level of the tree crown. Original illustrations are given.Acacia aroma crece en las Provincias Biogeográficas Chaqueña y de las Yungas, Argentina. Este árbol posee numerosas aplicaciones en medicina popular, sus frutos son comestibles y puede ser usada como forraje. Los objetivos de la presente contribución fueron: establecer la distribución y densidad de los estomas en el folíolo secundario, en distintos folíolos secundarios de la misma hoja y en los folíolos secundarios de las hojas de la parte basal, media y superior de la copa del árbol, estableciendo relaciones con el movimiento diario de las hojas y condiciones ambientales. Para el estudio se utilizó material fresco y ejemplares de herbario empleando técnicas de anatomía convencionales. Se estableció la distribución de los estomas sobre las superficies adaxial y abaxial del folíolo secundario. Se encontraron diferencias en la densidad de estomas entre los folíolos secundarios de la parte basal, media y apical de la hoja que están relacionadas a la posición de éstas en la copa del árbol. Dentro de la copa del árbol se encontró que la densidad de estomas decrece desde la parte basal hasta la parte superior. La distribución y densidad estomática estarían relacionadas a la forma del folíolo secundario y posición de éstos sobre el raquis, al movimiento diario de los folíolos secundarios y de la hoja interactuando con los factores ambientales. Cabe destacar que el valor medio de densidad de estomas se halló en la parte media de la hoja y en la parte media de la copa del árbol. El trabajo se acompaña con ilustraciones originales.

Marcelo P. Hernández

2010-12-01

166

NON-SMOKY GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASE1 Prevents the Release of Smoky Aroma from Tomato Fruit[W][OPEN  

Science.gov (United States)

Phenylpropanoid volatiles are responsible for the key tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum) aroma attribute termed “smoky.” Release of these volatiles from their glycosylated precursors, rather than their biosynthesis, is the major determinant of smoky aroma in cultivated tomato. Using a combinatorial omics approach, we identified the NON-SMOKY GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASE1 (NSGT1) gene. Expression of NSGT1 is induced during fruit ripening, and the encoded enzyme converts the cleavable diglycosides of the smoky-related phenylpropanoid volatiles into noncleavable triglycosides, thereby preventing their deglycosylation and release from tomato fruit upon tissue disruption. In an nsgt1/nsgt1 background, further glycosylation of phenylpropanoid volatile diglycosides does not occur, thereby enabling their cleavage and the release of corresponding volatiles. Using reverse genetics approaches, the NSGT1-mediated glycosylation was shown to be the molecular mechanism underlying the major quantitative trait locus for smoky aroma. Sensory trials with transgenic fruits, in which the inactive nsgt1 was complemented with the functional NSGT1, showed a significant and perceivable reduction in smoky aroma. NSGT1 may be used in a precision breeding strategy toward development of tomato fruits with distinct flavor phenotypes.

Tikunov, Yury M.; Molthoff, Jos; de Vos, Ric C.H.; Beekwilder, Jules; van Houwelingen, Adele; van der Hooft, Justin J.J.; Nijenhuis-de Vries, Mariska; Labrie, Caroline W.; Verkerke, Wouter; van de Geest, Henri; Viquez Zamora, Marcela; Presa, Silvia; Rambla, Jose Luis; Granell, Antonio; Hall, Robert D.; Bovy, Arnaud G.

2013-01-01

167

Rapid determination of floral aroma compounds of lilac blossom by fast gas chromatography combined with surface acoustic wave sensor.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel analytical method using fast gas chromatography combined with surface acoustic wave sensor (GC/SAW) has been developed for the detection of volatile aroma compounds emanated from lilac blossom (Syringa species: Syringa vulgaris variginata and Syringa dilatata). GC/SAW could detect and quantify various fragrance emitted from lilac blossom, enabling to provide fragrance pattern analysis results. The fragrance pattern analysis could easily characterize the delicate differences in aromas caused by the substantial difference of chemical composition according to different color and shape of petals. Moreover, the method validation of GC/SAW was performed for the purpose of volatile floral actual aroma analysis, achieving a high reproducibility and excellent sensitivity. From the validation results, GC/SAW could serve as an alternative analytical technique for the analysis of volatile floral actual aroma of lilac. In addition, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) GC-MS was employed to further confirm the identification of fragrances emitted from lilac blossom and compared to GC/SAW. PMID:18255083

Oh, Se Yeon; Shin, Hyun Du; Kim, Sung Jean; Hong, Jongki

2008-03-01

168

Detection of Volatile Aroma Compounds of Morchella by Headspace Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS  

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Full Text Available   This study was conducted at the Horticulture Department of Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey, in 2010 to determine the volatile aroma compounds of Morchella mushroom. Fresh samples of Morchella esculenta (Sample 1 and Morchella elata (Sample 2 were collected from Çanakkale (Sample 1 and Mersin (Sample 2 provinces in Turkey in the spring of 2010. Volatile aroma compounds were analyzed by headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS. A total of 31 aroma compounds were identified in the 2 analyzed samples: 7 alcohols, 7 esters, 7 ketones, 3 acids, 2 aldehydes, 1 terpene, phenol, 1-propanamine, geranyl linalool, and quinoline. Seventeen aroma components were identified in Sample 1, and 18 compounds were found in Sample 2. Phenol was determined as the major aroma compound in both Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 50.888% and 58.293% content, respectively. Alcohols, especially 1-octen-3-ol, were detected as the second major aroma components in Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 15.500% and 5.660% content, respectively. Carbamic acid, methyl ester was found only in Sample 1, at 11.379% content. The aroma components detected in the two samples differed. 1-Octadecanol; cyclooctylalcohol; trans-2-undecen-1-ol; butanoic acid, butyl ester (CAS; carbamic acid, methyl ester; 2-ethylhexyl-2-ethylhexanoate; phthalic acid, decyl isobutyl ester; 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate; decanal; nonanal; 7,9-di-tert-butyl-1-oxaspiro(4.5deca-6,9-diene-2,8-dione; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione; 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl; and trans-alpha-bisabolene were detected only in Sample 1. Ethanol; silanediol, 2-methylaminoethanol; L-alanine, ethyl ester; carbonic acid, dodecyl isobutyl ester; acetic acid; butanoic acid; 2,3,4H-pyran-4-one; 5,9-undecadien-2-one; cyclooctene; 2-cyclopenten-1-one; 1-propanamine; geranyl linalool; and quinoline were determined only in Sample 2.

Hatira TA?KIN

2013-05-01

169

Aroma extract dilution analysis of cv. Meeker (Rubus idaeus L.) red raspberries from Oregon and Washington.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aromas of cultivar Meeker red raspberry from Oregon and Washington were analyzed by aroma extract dilution analysis. Seventy-five aromas were identified [some tentatively (superscript T)] by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-retention index; 53 were common to both, and 22 have not been previously reported in red raspberry. Twenty-one compounds had an equivalent odor impact in both: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-(2H)-furanone, hexanal, 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one, (E)-beta-3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatrieneT, 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptaneT, 1-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1,3-cyclohexadien-1-yl)-2-buten-1-one, ethanoic acid, (Z)-3-hexenalT, 3-methylmercaptopropionaldehyde, (Z)-3-hexenol, 2,6-dimethyl-2,7-octadien-6-ol, butanoic acid, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, (E)-2-hexenal, hexyl formateT, 2,3-butanedione, heptanalT, thiacyclopentadieneT, cyclohexane carbaldehydeT, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-olT, and 4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone. Oregon Meeker had 14 odorants with higher flavor dilution (FD) factors than Washington Meeker: 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-oneT, 1-octanol, 5-isopropyl-2-methylcyclohexa-1,3-dieneT, 7-methyl-3-methylene-1,6-octadieneT, ethyl hexanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetateT, ethyl propanoate, 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanoneT, 2-methylbutanoic acid, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl cyclohexane carboxylateT, 2-methylthiacyclopentadieneT, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetateT, and 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-olT. Washington Meeker had 16 odorants with higher FD factors than Oregon Meeker: 5-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-(5H)-furanoneT, dimethyl sulfideT, 2-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-(2H)-furanoneT, 1-hexanolT, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-yl acetateT, methyl hexanoate, phenyl ethanoic acidT, neo-allo-3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatrieneT, 2-nonanoneT, 2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enyl)propan-2-olT, phenylmethanolT, 5-octanolideT, 2-phenylethanol, 1-isopropyl-4-methylenebicyclo[3.1.0]hexaneT, and 2-undecanone. PMID:15291490

Klesk, Keith; Qian, Michael; Martin, Robert R

2004-08-11

170

The electronic NOSE and its application to the manufacture of food products  

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The Electronic NOSE (Neotronics Olfactory Sensing Equipment) is an instrument which mimics the human olfactory sensory system. It analyses complex vapours and produces a simple output. In the food industry there are numerous examples where the aroma from the raw ingredients through to the final product are important. These aromas are currently analysed using human sensory panels or analytical equipment such as gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS).

Hodgins, Diana; Sirnmonds, Derek

1995-01-01

171

Aroma characterisation and UV elicitation of purple basil from different plant tissue cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to stressful environmental conditions can induce severe metabolic variations in basil (Ocimum basilicum) aroma. The aromatic profiles of Dark Opal and Red Rubim varieties (in vivo plants, in vitro shoots, callus, and suspension cultures) were investigated for the first time. The established calli represented the most interesting miniaturised aromatic plant systems, as they were able to emit many typical basil volatiles with very low amounts of phenylpropanoids (1-2%). The hydrocarbon monoterpenes and oxygenated volatiles emitted from calli of both varieties were greatly and conversely affected by UV-C and UV-B, in comparison with the non-irradiated samples. As calli of both varieties still maintained very low levels of phenylpropanoids even after UV elicitation, they might be regarded not only as efficient in vitro plant models to study volatile compounds under UV stress conditions, but also as safe aromatic biomass in comparison with in vivo basil plants. PMID:23790847

Bertoli, A; Lucchesini, M; Mensuali-Sodi, A; Leonardi, M; Doveri, S; Magnabosco, A; Pistelli, L

2013-11-15

172

Apparatus for the quantitative analysis of the aroma of french bread and its loss during storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the principles of static and dynamic headspace sampling, an apparatus was developed for the determination of the release of potent odorants from two types of baguette (industrial process or "intensifée" and traditional or "artisanal") differing in their odor profiles. We applied this apparatus to get an insight into the aroma changes of freshly baked French bread, which develops a stale off-flavor within four hours after baking. Model mixtures containing the odorants in the concentrations found by the headspace analysis were evaluated using the apparatus as an olfactometer. By comparing the odor profiles of the models with those of the baguettes, the quantitative data were confirmed. The results indicate that losses of methylpropanal, 2- and 3-methylbutanal and, on the other hand, an increase of hexanal and (E)-2-nonenal led to a stale off-flavor. Furthermore it was suggested that this apparatus is also suitable for precise flavor release studies of other foods. PMID:11548156

Zehentbauer, G; Grosch, W

2001-01-01

173

Identification of saffron aroma compound ?-isophorone (3,5,5-trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-one) in some V. vinifera grape varieties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carotenoid-derived aroma compounds play an important role in the composition of aroma and grapes, and consequently of wine. The volatile composition of forty-five grape varieties harvested in 2011 and 2012 was investigated by solid phase extraction of samples and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. In grape extracts of cultivars Barbera, Refosco dal Peducolo Rosso, Ribolla gialla and Rossese, the C9-norisoprenoid compound ?-isophorone (3,5,5-trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-one) was found and quantified. This carotenoid-derived compound is characterised by a saffron aroma and is here reported in grape for the first time. PMID:24128466

Panighel, Annarita; Maoz, Itay; De Rosso, Mirko; De Marchi, Fabiola; Dalla Vedova, Antonio; Gardiman, Massimo; Bavaresco, Luigi; Flamini, Riccardo

2014-02-15

174

Stomatal distribution, stomatal density and daily leaf movement in Acacia aroma (Leguminosae) / Distribución y densidad estomática y movimiento diario de la hoja en Acacia aroma (Leguminosae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Acacia aroma crece en las Provincias Biogeográficas Chaqueña y de las Yungas, Argentina. Este árbol posee numerosas aplicaciones en medicina popular, sus frutos son comestibles y puede ser usada como forraje. Los objetivos de la presente contribución fueron: establecer la distribución y densidad de [...] los estomas en el folíolo secundario, en distintos folíolos secundarios de la misma hoja y en los folíolos secundarios de las hojas de la parte basal, media y superior de la copa del árbol, estableciendo relaciones con el movimiento diario de las hojas y condiciones ambientales. Para el estudio se utilizó material fresco y ejemplares de herbario empleando técnicas de anatomía convencionales. Se estableció la distribución de los estomas sobre las superficies adaxial y abaxial del folíolo secundario. Se encontraron diferencias en la densidad de estomas entre los folíolos secundarios de la parte basal, media y apical de la hoja que están relacionadas a la posición de éstas en la copa del árbol. Dentro de la copa del árbol se encontró que la densidad de estomas decrece desde la parte basal hasta la parte superior. La distribución y densidad estomática estarían relacionadas a la forma del folíolo secundario y posición de éstos sobre el raquis, al movimiento diario de los folíolos secundarios y de la hoja interactuando con los factores ambientales. Cabe destacar que el valor medio de densidad de estomas se halló en la parte media de la hoja y en la parte media de la copa del árbol. El trabajo se acompaña con ilustraciones originales. Abstract in english Acacia aroma Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. grows in the Chacoan and Yungas Biogeographic Provinces, Argentina. It has numerous medicinal applications, sweet and edible fruits, and it may be used as forage. The objective of the present contribution was to analyse the stomatal distribution and stomatal dens [...] ity on the secondary leaflet surfaces, in different parts of the leaf, and at different tree crown levels, establishing the leaf movement and environmental condition relationships. The work was performed with fresh material and herbarium specimens, using conventional anatomical techniques. Stomatal distribution on the secondary leaflet surfaces was established, and differences in stomatal density among basal, medium and apical leaflets were found. A decrease in stomatal density from the lower level to the upper level of the tree crown would be connected with that. The stomatal distribution and density appear related to the secondary leaflet shape and its position on the secondary rachis, interacting with the daily secondary leaflets and leaf movement, and the weather conditions. It is interesting that the medium value of stomata density were found in the middle part of the leaf and at the middle level of the tree crown. Original illustrations are given.

Hernández, Marcelo P.; ArambarriI, Ana M..

175

Composição de voláteis e perfil de aroma e sabor de méis de eucalipto e laranja Volatile composition and aroma and flavor profiles of eucalyptus and orange honeys  

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Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram analisados os compostos voláteis de amostras de mel de eucalipto e laranja colhidos nos estados de São Paulo e de Minas Gerais. O isolamento dos voláteis foi realizado empregando-se uma técnica de ''headspace'' dinâmico, a separação efetuada por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução e a identificação por espectrometria de massas, Índices de Kovats e padrões, quando disponíveis. Foram identificados no mel de laranja o benzaldeído, o óxido cis de linalol, n-heptanal, 6-metil-5-hepten-2-ona, octanal e fenilacetaldeído, e em mel de eucalipto, o nonanal, 2-heptanona, 2-heptanol, octanol e nonanol. A caracterização sensorial desses méis foi obtida por Análise Descritiva Quantitativa e a aplicação de Análise dos Componentes Principais aos dados revelou que os descritores ''queimado'' e ''sabor residual'' caracterizam o mel de eucalipto, enquanto ''floral'' e ''cera'' caracterizam o mel de laranja. Entre os compostos identificados, o nonanal e o nonanol apresentaram contribuição sensorial importante ao mel de eucalipto, enquanto o fenilacetaldeído e o benzaldeído foram relacionados com os principais descritores do mel de laranja.Volatile compounds of orange and eucalyptus bee honeys from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais were isolated by a dynamic headspace technique and separated by high resolution gas chromatography. Volatile compounds were identified by gc-mass spectrometry and the Kovats Indices. Benzaldehyde, cis-linalool oxide, n-heptanal, 6 methyl-5-hepten-2-ona, octanal and phenylacetaldeyde were detected in orange honey. Nonanal, 2-heptanone, 2-heptanol, octanol and nonanol were identified in eucalyptus samples. Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and Principal Component Analysis revealed that orange honey can be sensorially characterized by ''waxy'' and ''floral'' descriptors, while eucalyptus honey by a ''burnt'' and ''after-taste''. Phenylacetaldeyde and benzaldehyde were related to these important descriptors in characterizing orange honey, as determined by sniffing, while nonanal and nonanol were found to be important contributors to the eucalyptus honey aroma.

Deborah Helena Markowicz Bastos

2002-08-01

176

Sensory profiles of breast meat from broilers reared in an organic niche production system and conventional standard broilers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Breast meat from broilers produced in very different production systems may vary considerable in sensory profile, which may affect consumer interests. In this study the aim was to evaluate differences in the sensory profiles of breast meat from five broiler products: two conventional standard products (A and B) and three organic niche genotypes (I657, L40 and K8) reared in an apple orchard. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 22 sensory attributes differed significantly between the products. The aroma attributes `chicken', `bouillon' and `fat' scored highest and the `iron/liver' aroma lowest for the niche products. The meat was more `tender', `short' and `crumbly' and less `hard' and `stringy' in the standard products than in one or more of the niche products. Product `I 657' was less `juicy' than the rest. Products `I 657' and `L 40' were more `cohesive' and tasted more `sourish' and less of `sweet/maize' than the standard products. The `overall liking' score was significantly higher for the `K 8' product than for the `Standard A' and `L 40' products. The `overall liking' score was significantly correlated with the scores for aroma and taste of `chicken', `umami/bouillon', `iron/liver' and `fat' aroma. CONCLUSION: The sensory profiles differed particularly between conventional standard broilers and organic niche broilers, although differences were also found between breeds. The present study indicates that aroma and taste attributes were more important for the assessors than meat `tenderness' for the overall liking of broiler meat.

Horsted, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Bodil Helene

2012-01-01

177

AROMA-AIRWICK: a CHLOE/CDC-3600 system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The AROMA-AIRWICK System for CHLOE, an automatic film scanning equipment built at Argonne by Donald Hodges, and the CDC-3600 computer is a system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks. AROMA-AIRWICK has been an outgrowth of the generally recognized need for the automatic processing of high energy physics data and the fact that the Argonne National Laboratory has been a center of serious spark chamber development in recent years.

Clark, R.K.

178

Investigation into the aroma of rosemary using multi-channel silicone rubber traps, off-line olfactometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Multi-channel polydimethylsiloxane rubber traps were used to sample the headspace of rosemary samples (two essential oils from different sources, one oleoresin and one dried herb) followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography – time of flight mass spectrometry(GCxGC-TOFMS) or GC-MS analyses. The aroma of different headspace samples was characterized using a custom-built olfactory apparatus. The differences between the aroma profiles were evident from bubble plots of ...

Wat, Leandri; Dovey, Martin; Naude, Yvette; Forbes, Patricia B. C.

2013-01-01

179

AROMA-AIRWICK: a CHLOE/CDC-3600 system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The AROMA-AIRWICK System for CHLOE, an automatic film scanning equipment built at Argonne by Donald Hodges, and the CDC-3600 computer is a system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks. AROMA-AIRWICK has been an outgrowth of the generally recognized need for the automatic processing of high energy physics data and the fact that the Argonne National Laboratory has been a center of serious spark chamber development in recent years

180

A powerful aromatic volatile thiol, 2-furanmethanethiol, exhibiting roast coffee aroma in wines made from several Vitis vinifera grape varieties.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical compound 2-furanmethanethiol (2FM), with a strong roast coffee aroma, has been identified in sweet white wines made from the Petit manseng grape variety, and in certain red Bordeaux wines (made from the Merlot, Cabernet franc, and Cabernet sauvignon grape varieties). This was done by extracting specific volatile thiols using p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. The 2FM has also been found in toasted oak used in barrel-making. All the Petit manseng sweet white wines and some of the red Bordeaux wines analyzed contained between a few ng/L and several dozen ng/L of 2FM. Taking into account its very low perception threshold (0.4 ng/L in a model hydro alcoholic environment), 2FM could therefore contribute to the roast coffee aroma of certain wines. PMID:10820097

Tominaga, T; Blanchard, L; Darriet, P; Dubourdieu, D

2000-05-01

 
 
 
 
181

Some carbonyl compounds and free fatty acid composition of Afyon Kaymag? (clotted cream and their effects on aroma and flavor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some carbonyl compounds (acetaldeyhde, acetone, butanone-2 and diacetyl, the lactic acid and free fatty acid compositions of Afyon kaymag?, produced from pure buffalo milk obtained from seven different farms, and their effects on aroma and flavor were investigated. Acetone was found in the highest amount of carbonyl compounds. Butyric, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were characteristic free fatty acids for Afyon Kaymag?. The effect of the investigated compounds on the aroma and flavor scores (AFS of Afyon Kaymag? was found to be 93.3%. Lactic acid was negatively correlated but was the second most important compound for the aroma and flavor of Afyon Kaymag? (R2 = 40%. The investigated carbonyl compounds explained only 3.2% of the variation in aroma and flavor of Afyon Kaymag?. Lactic acid, acetone, diacetyl, C4:0, C8:0, C12:0 and C18:0 had negative effects on the AFS, but acetaldehyde, butanone-2, C6:0, C10:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 were positively related to the AFS.

Se han investigado algunos compuestos carbonílicos (acetaldehido, acetona, 2-butanona y diacetil, el ácido láctico y la composición de los ácidos grasos libres de Afyon kaymagi (cuajada, producida sólo a partir de leche de búfalas obtenidas de siete granjas diferentes y sus efectos sobre el aroma y el sabor. Entre los compuestos carbonílicos, la acetona fué el que se encontró en mayor concentración. Butírico, esteárico, oleico, linoleico y linolénico son los ácidos grasos libres característicos de Afyon Kaymag?. El efecto de los compuestos investigados en las puntuaciones (AFS de aroma y sabor de Afyon Kaymag? se encontró que fué del 93,3%. El ácido láctico, segundo compuesto importante, se correlacionó negativamente con el aroma y el sabor de Afyon Kaymag? (R2 = 40%. Los compuestos carbonilos investigados explican sólo el 3,2% de la variación en el aroma y el sabor de Afyon Kaymag?. El ácido láctico, la acetona, diacetil, y los ácidos C4:0, C8:0, C12:0 y C18:0 tienen un efecto negativo en la AFS, pero el acetaldehído, la 2-butanona, y los ácidos C6:0, C10:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 y C18:3 están positivamente relacionados con el AFS.

?enel, E.

2011-12-01

182

Formulation and conservation of a pharmaceutical form with leaf extracts from Acacia aroma Gill. ex Hook et Arn  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Leaf fluid extracts of Acacia aroma GILL. ex Hook et Arn showed antibacterial activity against antibiotic multiresistant bacteria isolated from clinical samples, antioxidant and ant-inflammatory activities. Toxicological studies carried out on Artemia salina and Allium cepa attested none toxicity po [...] tential. The aim of this work was to elaborate a formulation of topical antibacterial hydrogel with Carbopol acrylic acid polymer containing an A. aroma fluid extract in order to compare with a hydrogel containing commercial antibiotic. The optimal extract concentration in this formulation was determined according to the values of minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration for Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant (F7) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (F352). Physical, chemical, rheological and microbiological stability was observed at least during one year. The hydrogel containing Acacia leaves fluid extract shows remarkable antibacterial effect with a broadspectrum efficacy against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria at low concentration.

M. E, Arias; J. D., Gomez; M., Vatuone; M. I., Isla.

183

Composição de voláteis e perfil de aroma e sabor de méis de eucalipto e laranja / Volatile composition and aroma and flavor profiles of eucalyptus and orange honeys  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho foram analisados os compostos voláteis de amostras de mel de eucalipto e laranja colhidos nos estados de São Paulo e de Minas Gerais. O isolamento dos voláteis foi realizado empregando-se uma técnica de ''headspace'' dinâmico, a separação efetuada por cromatografia gasosa de alta reso [...] lução e a identificação por espectrometria de massas, Índices de Kovats e padrões, quando disponíveis. Foram identificados no mel de laranja o benzaldeído, o óxido cis de linalol, n-heptanal, 6-metil-5-hepten-2-ona, octanal e fenilacetaldeído, e em mel de eucalipto, o nonanal, 2-heptanona, 2-heptanol, octanol e nonanol. A caracterização sensorial desses méis foi obtida por Análise Descritiva Quantitativa e a aplicação de Análise dos Componentes Principais aos dados revelou que os descritores ''queimado'' e ''sabor residual'' caracterizam o mel de eucalipto, enquanto ''floral'' e ''cera'' caracterizam o mel de laranja. Entre os compostos identificados, o nonanal e o nonanol apresentaram contribuição sensorial importante ao mel de eucalipto, enquanto o fenilacetaldeído e o benzaldeído foram relacionados com os principais descritores do mel de laranja. Abstract in english Volatile compounds of orange and eucalyptus bee honeys from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais were isolated by a dynamic headspace technique and separated by high resolution gas chromatography. Volatile compounds were identified by gc-mass spectrometry and the Kovats Indices. Benzaldehyde, ci [...] s-linalool oxide, n-heptanal, 6 methyl-5-hepten-2-ona, octanal and phenylacetaldeyde were detected in orange honey. Nonanal, 2-heptanone, 2-heptanol, octanol and nonanol were identified in eucalyptus samples. Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and Principal Component Analysis revealed that orange honey can be sensorially characterized by ''waxy'' and ''floral'' descriptors, while eucalyptus honey by a ''burnt'' and ''after-taste''. Phenylacetaldeyde and benzaldehyde were related to these important descriptors in characterizing orange honey, as determined by sniffing, while nonanal and nonanol were found to be important contributors to the eucalyptus honey aroma.

Deborah Helena Markowicz, Bastos; Maria Regina Bueno, Franco; Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira da, Silva; Natália Soares, Janzantti; Márcia O. M., Marques.

184

A sensory and chemical approach to the aroma of wooden aged Lourinhã wine brandy / Uma abordagem sensorial e química ao aroma de aguardentes vínicas envelhecidas da Lourinhã  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O envelhecimento das aguardentes vínicas em vasilhas de madeira provoca alterações profundas na composição físico-química e sensorial destas bebidas. Neste trabalho são estudados os odorantes em aguardentes vínicas da região da Lourinhã envelhecidas em diferentes condições. Para o efeito recorreu-se [...] à avaliação dos compostos odorantes por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução acoplada à olfactometria (GC-O), à quantificação de alguns dos compostos odorantes por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução acoplada a um detector de ionização de chama (GC-FID) e à avaliação sensorial das aguardentes. Os resultados de GC-O permitiram identificar 29 odorantes diferentes (álcoois, ésteres, ácidos e fenóis), uns originários do destilado e outros provenientes da madeira. A pesquisa de correlações entre a análise sensorial e a análise química confirmou a importância odorante de vários compostos com origem na madeira, designadamente a vanilina, os fenóis voláteis e os aldeídos furânicos. Estes compostos apresentaram importantes correlações com descritores sensoriais como a baunilha, fumo, torrado, frutos secos, madeira, os quais tem uma correlação positiva com a qualidade da aguardente. Abstract in english The maturation of wine brandies in wooden barrels origin many sensory and physical-chemical changes in these alcoholic beverages. This work studies the odorants in different aged brandies from Lourinhã. These brandies were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry (GC-O). A panel taster [...] profiled these brandies and the identified odorants were also quantified by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The GC-O results showed 29 identified odorants (alcohols, esters, acids and phenols). Some of them are proceeding from the distillate while others are extracted from the wood. The analysis of correlation between the sensory profiles and the odorant quantification pointed out the relevance of several wood compounds for the brandy aroma, namely the vanillin, volatile phenols and furanic aldehydes. These compounds presented important correlations with several olfactory attributes like vanilla, smoke, toasted, dried fruits, woody, which influence positively the quality of the brandies.

Ilda, Caldeira; R. Bruno de, Sousa; A. Pedro, Belchior; M. Cristina, Clímaco.

185

Eating behaviour and retro-nasal aroma release in normal-weight and overweight adults: a pilot study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eating rate and bite size are important factors affecting food intake, and we hypothesise the underlying role of oral sensory exposure in this. However, the latter currently lacks objective measuring parameters, but an interesting measure could be the extent of in vivo retronasal aroma release. Second, the literature is ambiguous about overweight subjects differing from normal-weight subjects in eating behaviour. Consequently, we investigated: (1) whether eating behaviour (food intake, eating...

Zijlstra, N.; Bukman, A. J.; Mars, M.; Stafleu, A.; Ruijschop, R. M. A. J.; Graaf, C.

2011-01-01

186

Composition and aroma compounds of Ragusano cheese: native pasture and total mixed rations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Raw milk from 13 cows fed TMR supplemented with native pasture and from 13 cows fed only TMR on one farm was collected separately 4 times with an interval of 15 d between collections. Two blocks (14 kg each) of cheese were made from each milk. The objective was to determine the influence of consumption of native plants in Sicilian pastures on the aroma compounds present in Ragusano cheese. Milk from cows that consumed native pasture plants produced cheeses with more odor-active compounds. In 4-mo-old cheese made from milk of pasture-fed cows, 27 odor-active compounds were identified, whereas only 13 were detected in cheese made from milk of total mixed ration-fed cows. The pasture cheeses were much more rich in odor-active aldehyde, ester, and terpenoid compounds than cheeses from cows fed only total mixed ration. A total of 8 unique aroma-active compounds (i.e., not reported in other cheeses evaluated by gas chromatography olfactory) were detected in Ragusano cheese made from milk from cows consuming native Sicilian pasture plants. These compounds were 2 aldehydes ([E,E]-2,4-octadienal and dodecanal), 2 esters (geranyl acetate and [E]-methyl jasmonate), 1 sulfur compound (methionol), and 3 terpenoid compounds (1-carvone, L(-) carvone, and citronellol). Geranyl acetate and (E)-methyl jasmonate were particularly interesting because these compounds are released from fresh plants as they are being damaged and are part of a possible plant defense mechanism against damage from insects. Most of the odor-active compounds that were unique in Ragusano cheese from pasture-fed cows appeared to be compounds created by oxidation processes in the plants that may have occurred during foraging and ingestion by the cow. Some odor-active compounds were consistently present in pasture cheeses that were not detected in the total mixed ration cheeses or in the 14 species of pasture plants analyzed. Either these compounds were present in other plants not analyzed, created in the rumen or in cheese after the pasture-plant material had been consumed, or the compounds were lost in the method of sample extraction used for the plant analysis (i.e., steam distillation) versus the solid-phase microextraction method used for the cheeses. This research has demonstrated clearly that some unique odor-active compounds found in pasture plants can be transferred to the cheese. PMID:15259216

Carpino, S; Mallia, S; La Terra, S; Melilli, C; Licitra, G; Acree, T E; Barbano, D M; Van Soest, P J

2004-04-01

187

Evaluation of genotype and environment effects on taste and aroma flavor components of Spanish fresh tomato varieties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taste and aroma related compounds have been analyzed in a collection of four traditional varieties and two tomato hybrids, representing a wide variability in fruit shape and color, grown in different environments: screenhouse and open field. Protected cultivation tended to show lower sugar concentration (fructose and glucose) but similar acid contents (citric, malic, and glutamic acids). The decreased levels of sucrose equivalents and the similar ratios of sucrose equivalents to citric or glutamic acid contents indicated that protected cultivation, despite being useful to reduce the incidence of pests and viral diseases, reduces the organoleptic quality. Additionally, it doubles the interaccession variability and increased the level of intra-accession variability. In the case of aroma, the genotypic effect was considerably higher than the environmental component on the 12 main volatiles analyzed. Only hexanal and methyl salicylate were significantly affected by environment, while 10 out of 12 volatiles were affected by the genotype. Biplot analysis showed that, even in considerably different environments, it is possible to identify genotype-dependent main aroma profiles. In the case of 13 background volatiles, the environment showed no significant effects and the genotypic effect was lower, though it is possible to identify genotypic trends in background notes. PMID:21344884

Cebolla-Cornejo, Jaime; Roselló, Salvador; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Serrano, Elena; Beltrán, Joaquim; Nuez, Fernando

2011-03-23

188

Phenolics, aroma profile, and in vitro antioxidant activity of Italian dessert passito wine from Saracena (Italy).  

Science.gov (United States)

A traditional sweet dessert wine from Saracena (Italy), made with nonmacerated local white grapes (Guarnaccia, Malvasia and Moscato), was analyzed for phenolics and aroma profile and antioxidant activities. The most abundant classes of phenols identified by high-performance liquid chromatography were hydroxybenzoic acids and flavan-3-ols, where gallic acid showed the highest content (376.5 mg/L). The analysis by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of superior alcohols (from iso-butanol and iso-amyl alcohol up to 2-phenylethanol) and their ethyl esters, terpenes (such as linalool), furfuryl compounds, and free fatty acids (up to palmitic acid) as the key odorants of this wine. The antioxidant activity, evaluated by different in vitro assays 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), and ?-carotene bleaching test), showed that passito wine had a radical scavenging activity (IC50 value of 0.03 v/v against DPPH·) and inhibited linoleic acid oxidation with an IC50 value of 0.4 v/v after 30 min of incubation. PMID:23574495

Loizzo, Monica R; Bonesi, Marco; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Boselli, Emanuele; Tundis, Rosa; Pugliese, Alessandro; Menichini, Francesco; Frega, Natale Giuseppe

2013-05-01

189

Aroma development in high pressure treated beef and chicken meat compared to raw and heat treated.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chicken breast and beef muscle were treated at 400 and 600 MPa for 15 min at 5 degrees C and compared to raw meat and a heated sample (100 degrees C for 15 min). Vacuum-packed beef meat with a smaller fraction of unsaturated fatty acids showed better oxidative stability during 14 days of cold storage, as shown by a low steady-state level of hydroperoxide values, than vacuum-packed chicken meat. Accordingly, the critical pressures of 400 MPa and 600 MPa for chicken breast and beef sirloin, respectively, were established. Volatiles released after opening of the meat bags or during storage of open meat bags, simulating consumer behaviour, were measured under conditions mimicking eating. Quantitative and olfactory analysis of pressurised meat gave a total of 46 flavour volatiles, mainly alcohols (11), aldehydes (15), and ketones (11), but all in low abundance after 14 days of storage. Overall, beef meat contained less volatiles and in lower abundance (factor of 5) compared to chicken meat. The most important odour active volatiles (GC-O) were well below the detection thresholds necessary to impart a perceivable off-flavour. Lipid oxidation was significantly accelerated during 24h of cold storage in both cooked chicken and beef when exposed to oxygen, while the pressurised and oxygen-exposed chicken and beef meat remained stable. Pressure treatment of beef and chicken did not induce severe changes of their raw aroma profiles. PMID:20554122

Schindler, Sabrina; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G; Orlien, Vibeke

2010-10-01

190

Radiation dose and storage temperature and period effects on the flavor and aroma of orange juice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effects of storage temperature and period on orange juice concentrates were studied for samples irradiated with 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy doses from a gamma-ray source as well as for untreated samples. All samples were stored at 0{sup 0} C, 5{sup 0} C and 25{sup 0} C for periods of 1,30, 60 and 90 days. Samples stored for more than one day underwent a diminution in storage attribute rating with corresponding increase in ratings for the bitterness, medicinal and cooked attributes. Storage at 0{sup 0} C and 5{sup 0} C seems to have smaller effects on the sweetness rating as well as on the oily, acid and medicinal flavor characteristics. Effect of radiation dose level on the flavor and aroma attributes depended on the storage temperature and time. In most cases, higher radiation levels are associated by lower orange attribute values and higher bitter medicinal and cooked ratings. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs.

Spoto, M.H.F.; Domarco, R.E.; Walder, J.M.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Scarminio, I.S. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Bruns, R.E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

1995-12-31

191

Influence of grape-harvesting steps on varietal thiol aromas in Sauvignon blanc wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intense tropical fruit aroma of Sauvignon blanc wines has been associated with the varietal thiols 3-mercaptohexanol (3MH), derived from odorless precursors in the grape, and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA), arising from 3MH during fermentation. Grapes and juice were sourced from five locations in Marlborough, New Zealand, taking hand-picked grapes and samples at four stages during the mechanical harvesting process and pressing, which were then fermented in replicated 750 mL bottles. With each set of juices, the highest concentrations of Cys-3MH and Glut-3MH were found in the juices pressed to 1 bar, but these juices produced wines with lower 3MH and 3MHA concentrations. With three of the juices, there was an increase in varietal thiol content for wines made from juices that had been machine harvested compared to the hand-picked samples, which matched earlier findings of lower 3MH and 3MHA levels in wines made from hand-picked grapes. Juices that were more oxidized, and which showed a higher absorbance at 420 nm, were found to produce wines with lower 3MH and 3MHA concentrations. PMID:21854044

Allen, Thomas; Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Girault, Melanie; Butler, Paul; Logan, Gerard; Jouanneau, Sara; Nicolau, Laura; Kilmartin, Paul A

2011-10-12

192

Isolation, expression, and characterization of a 13-hydroperoxide lyase gene from olive fruit related to the biosynthesis of the main virgin olive oil aroma compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

A full-length cDNA clone (OepHPL) coding for hydroperoxide lyase was isolated from olive fruit ( Olea europaea cv. Picual). The deduced amino acid sequence shows significant similarity to known plant hydroperoxide lyases and contains a N-terminal sequence that displays structural features of a chloroplast transit peptide. Genomic Southern blot analysis indicates that at least one copy of OepHPL is present in the olive genome. The recombinant hydroperoxide lyase was specific for 13-hydroperoxide derivatives of linolenic and linoleic acids but did not use 9-hydroperoxy isomers as substrates. Analyses of reaction products revealed that this enzyme produces primarily (Z)-hex-3-enal, which partially isomerizes to (E)-hex-2-enal, from 13-hydroperoxylinolenic acid and hexanal from 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid. Expression levels were measured in different tissues of Picual and Arbequina varieties, including mesocarp and seed during development and ripening of olive fruits. The involvement of this olive hydroperoxide lyase gene in the biosynthesis of virgin olive oil aroma compounds is discussed. PMID:20334343

Padilla, María N; Hernández, M Luisa; Pérez, Ana G; Sanz, Carlos; Martínez-Rivas, José M

2010-05-12

193

Sensory characteristics of European, dried, fermented sausages and the correlation to volatile profile  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the European FAIR-project: Control of Bioflavour and Safety in Northern and Mediterranean Fermented Meat Products (FAIR-CT97-3227) four different sausage types were manufactured in five replicates and characterised by sensory and analytical means. The objective of the present study was to characterise the flavour pattern of the FAIR sausages with regards to sensory perceived compounds and volatile/sensory profiles. According to gas chromatography-olfactometry the greatest differences between the Northern and Mediterranean sausages were attributed to coffee/roasted, phenolic and vinegar odours in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The compounds were 2-furfurylthiol, guaiacol, acetic acid and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. Sausages added garlic contained two specific odours with salami/onion-like notes. The odours were attributed to allylmercaptane and methylthiirane. Correlation of sensory and volatile profile showed that garlic flavour correlated with sulphur compounds from garlic, smoked flavour with most of the cyclic compounds (furanes, phenols etc.), acid flavour with the acids (acetic, butanoic and hexanoic acid), spice and piquante flavour with the terpenes, rancid flavour with hexanal, octanal, nonanal and decanal and maturity with ethyl esters and methyl-ketones.

Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller; Sunesen, Lars Oddershede

1999-01-01

194

Reconstitution of the flavor signature of Dornfelder red wine on the basis of the natural concentrations of its key aroma and taste compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

By application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction isolated from a Dornfelder red wine, 31 odor-active compounds were identified by means of HRGC-MS and comparison with reference compounds. A total of 27 odorants, judged with high FD factors by means of AEDA, was quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays, and acetaldehyde was determined enzymatically. In addition, 36 taste-active compounds were analyzed by means of HPLC-UV, HPLC-MS/MS, and ion chromatography. The quantitative data obtained for the identified aroma and taste compounds enabled for the first time the reconstruction of the overall flavor of the red wine. Sensory evaluation of both the aroma and taste profiles of the authentic red wine and the recombinate revealed that Dornfelder red wine was closely mimicked. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the high molecular weight fraction of red wine is essential for its astringent taste impression. By comparison of the overall odor of the aroma recombinate in ethanol with that of the total flavor recombinate containing all tastants, it was shown for the first time that the nonvolatile tastants had a strong influence on the intensity of certain aroma qualities. PMID:21744781

Frank, Stephanie; Wollmann, Nadine; Schieberle, Peter; Hofmann, Thomas

2011-08-24

195

Analytical method of free and conjugated neutral aroma components in tobacco by solvent extraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A reliable and simple method for quantitative analysis of free and conjugated neutral aroma components (including aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters and alkenes) in tobacco using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS) is described. Simple solvent extraction using methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) ensured extraction of the neutral aroma components in their free form. The components present as conjugates were isolated using MTBE extraction following acid-catalysed hydrolysis. The GC × GC-TOFMS analysis was performed to comprehensively identify different forms of neutral aroma components in tobacco. Compared with the conventional methods, our method not only simplified the process but also saved time and solvent. It also exhibited higher selectivity and sensitivity and demonstrated the following results: the limit of detection of the neutral aroma components varied from 0.006 ?g/g for 2-acetylfuran to 0.133 ?g/g for 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural, the relative standard deviations were from 0.5% to 6.8% and the recovery ranged from 82.4% to 118.2%. The optimized method was successfully employed to analyse real tobacco samples. Eighty-three neutral aroma components of interest were identified. PMID:23357748

Ding, Yu; Zhu, Lijun; Liu, Shaomin; Yu, Hanqing; Dai, Ya

2013-03-01

196

A Study of Inhalation of Peppermint Aroma on the Pain and Anxiety  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Considering the painfulness of labor and its resulting anxiety, and also, complications such as uterine dysfunction, prolonged labor, and unpleasant memories, the present study was performed aimed to investigate the effect of peppermint aroma on the level of pain and anxiety in the first stage of labor in nulliparous women.Methods: This research was done as a clinical trial study on 128 nulliparous women assigned into two groups (64 subjects in aromatherapy group and 64 subjects in control group. In aromatherapy group, mixtures containing 0.2ml essence of peppermint and 2ml normal saline impregnated gauze, and in the control group, only 2ml normal saline impregnated gauze were attached to their dress collar, and the administration was repeated every 30 minutes. Level of anxiety was measured in dilatations 3-4 and 8-10cm and the intensity of pain in dilatations 4-5, 6-7, and 8-10cm. The data were collected through demographic and obstetric questionnaire, observation checklist, spielberger anxiety questionnaire, and pain numerical rating scale. Results: In this study, the age, job, education, and gestational age were the same in both groups. Also, the level of anxiety was the same in both groups before the intervention, but after the intervention, anxiety level decreased in intervention group compared to control group (p<0.001. The mean pain score in the dilatations 4-5, 6-7, and 8-10cm decreased in intervention group compared to control group (p<0.001 for all.Conclusion: Aromatherapy with peppermint essence is recommended for the reduction of pain and anxiety level during labor due to its inexpensiveness, ease and non-invasiveness.

Giti Ozgoli

2013-07-01

197

Aroma biosynthesis in strawberry: s-adenosylmethionine:furaneol o-methyltransferase activity in ripening fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the most important volatile compounds in the aroma of strawberries are 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (Furaneol) and its methoxy derivative (methoxyfuraneol, mesifuran). Three strawberry varieties, Malach, Tamar, and Yael, were assessed for total volatiles, Furaneol, and methoxyfuraneol. The content of these compounds sharply increased during fruit ripening, with maximum values at the ripe stage. An enzymatic activity that transfers a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to Furaneol sharply increases during ripening of strawberry fruits. The in vitro generated methoxyfuraneol was identified by radio-TLC and GC-MS. The partially purified enzyme had a native molecular mass of approximately 80 kDa, with optimum activity at pH 8.5 and 37 degrees C. A high apparent K(m) of 5 mM was calculated for Furaneol, whereas this enzyme preparation apparently accepted as substrates other o-dihydroxyphenol derivatives (such as catechol, caffeic acid, and protocatechuic aldehyde) with much higher affinities (K(m) approximately 105, 130, and 20 microM, respectively). A K(m) for SAM was found to be approximately 5 microM, regardless of the acceptor used. Substrates that contained a phenolic group with only one OH group, such as p-coumaric and trans-ferulic acid, as well as trans-anol and coniferyl alcohol, were apparently not accepted by this activity. It is suggested that Furaneol methylation is mediated by an O-methyltransferase activity and that this activity increases during fruit ripening. PMID:12083877

Lavid, Noa; Schwab, Wilfried; Kafkas, Ebru; Koch-Dean, Margery; Bar, Einat; Larkov, Olga; Ravid, Uzi; Lewinsohn, Efraim

2002-07-01

198

Regulation of proline metabolism in mycobacteria and its role in carbon metabolism under hypoxia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genes with a role in proline metabolism are strongly expressed when mycobacterial cells are exposed to nutrient starvation and hypoxia. Here we show that proline metabolism in mycobacteria is mediated by the monofunctional enzymes ?(1) -pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (PruA) and proline dehydrogenase (PruB). Proline metabolism was controlled by a unique membrane-associated DNA-binding protein PruC. Under hypoxia, addition of proline led to higher biomass production than in the absence of proline despite excess carbon and nitrogen. To identify the mechanism responsible for this enhanced growth, microarray analysis of wild-type Mycobacterium smegmatis versus pruC mutant was performed. Expression of the DNA repair machinery and glyoxalases was increased in the pruC mutant. Glyoxalases are proposed to degrade methylglyoxal, a toxic metabolite produced by various bacteria due to an imbalance in intermediary metabolism, suggesting the pruC mutant was under methylglyoxal stress. Consistent with this notion, pruB and pruC mutants were hypersensitive to methylglyoxal. ?(1) -pyrroline-5-carboxylate is reported to react with methylglyoxal to form non-toxic 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, thus providing a link between proline metabolism and methylglyoxal detoxification. In support of this mechanism, we show that proline metabolism protects mycobacterial cells from methylglyoxal toxicity and that functional proline dehydrogenase, but not ?(1) -pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, is essential for this protective effect. PMID:22507203

Berney, Michael; Weimar, Marion R; Heikal, Adam; Cook, Gregory M

2012-05-01

199

Aromas florales y su interacción con los insectos polinizadores / Floral scents and their interaction with insect pollinators  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las plantas emplean diversas señales visuales y olfativas con la finalidad de atraer a los polinizadores que en su mayoría son insectos. Algunas plantas han desarrollado mecanismos, basándose en mensajes olfativos que los hacen únicos para sus polinizadores específicos. Estos mecanismos, así como la [...] s variaciones intra- e interespecíficas en el perfil de los aromas florales han evolucionado para determinadas especies. Los aromas florales son un conjunto de compuestos volátiles orgánicos y para su estudio hay varios métodos que requieren de técnicas que cada vez son más eficientes. El uso de estos aromas podría ser una opción en determinados sistemas de polinización, utilizándolos como atrayente de polinizadores o de depredadores y/o herbívoro para incrementar la producción y disminuir los daños por plagas. En este trabajo se revisan las distintas interacciones de los insectos y los aromas florales, los sistemas específicos planta-polinizador, los métodos de análisis, así como algunos patrones o tendencias de estas interacciones y su aplicación e importancia. Abstract in english Plants use visual and olfactory cues to attract pollinators and to allow them to detect the presence of flowers, which most of them are insects. Some plants have evolved with their pollinators, based on the olfactory messages, which make them unique for their specific pollinators. These mechanisms h [...] ave evolved in certain plants in relation to their pollinators, and there are also inter and intra-specific variation in fragrance cues which show specific chemical profile for each plant species, so insects attracted are specific to them. Most of the floral scents are organic compounds identified with techniques and methodologies which become more specific and efficient along the time. The application of floral scent could be used as a tool in pollination and pest management. In these studies, insect interaction with floral scent is reviewed and specificity of plant-pollinator, additionally the method of analysis, some patterns and trends in these interactions, the application and its importance are examined.

Julieta, Grajales-Conesa; Virginia, Meléndez-Ramírez; Leopoldo, Cruz-López.

200

Effects of bite size and duration of oral processing on retro-nasal aroma release - features contributing to meal termination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The brain response to a retro-nasally sensed food odour signals the perception of food and it is suggested to be related to satiation. It is hypothesised that consuming food either in multiple small bite sizes or with a longer durations of oral processing may evoke substantial oral processing per gram consumed and an increase in transit time in the oral cavity. This is expected to result in a higher cumulative retro-nasal aroma stimulation, which in turn may lead to increased feelings of sati...

Ruijschop, R. M. A. J.; Zijlstra, N.; Boelrijk, A. E. M.; Dijkstra, A.; Burgering, M. J. M.; Graaf, C.; Westerterp-plantenga, M. S.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Characterization of Aroma Active Compounds in Fruit Juice and Peel Oil of Jinchen Sweet Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by GC-MS and GC-O  

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Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC-O) were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve comp...

Yu Qiao; Bi Jun Xie; Yan Zhang; Yun Zhang; Gang Fan; Xiao Lin Yao; Si Yi Pan

2008-01-01

202

Studies on some precursors involved in meat flavour formation Estudos de alguns precursores envolvidos na formação do aroma cárneo  

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Full Text Available The effect of some precursors on the formation of meat flavour during heating has been investigated. A comparison of the influence of three different precursors, inosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-IMP, cysteine and thiamine, added to the meat systems, showed that formation of certain heterocyclic compounds, like sulfur-containing furans, dithiolanones and thiophenes, was significantly affected by changes in the concentration of precursors. However, aliphatic compounds, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols and ketones were not changed by these additions. Inosine-5'-monophosphate was established to be more effective than cysteine or thiamine in the formation of some "meaty" volatiles, i.e. the furanthiols, when its concentration was increased 10 times in raw meat.O efeito de alguns precursores na formação do aroma cárneo durante o aquecimento foi investigado. Estudos comparativos da influencia de três diferentes precursores, inosina-5'-monofosfato (5'-IMP, cisteína e tiamina, adicionados aos sistemas cárneos, mostrou que a formação de certos compostos heterocíclicos, como furanos sulfurados, ditiolanonas e tiofenos, foi significativamente afetada pelas mudanças de concentração dos precursores. Entretanto, compostos alifáticos, tais como: hidrocarbonetos, alcoois e cetonas não foram afetados por estas adições. Inosina-5'-monofosfato apresentou-se como o precursor mais eficiente na formação de alguns voláteis de aroma cárneo, como por exemplo os furanos sulfurados, quando aumentou-se em 10 vezes sua concentração na carne crua.

M.S. Madruga

1997-08-01

203

Studies on some precursors involved in meat flavour formation / Estudos de alguns precursores envolvidos na formação do aroma cárneo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O efeito de alguns precursores na formação do aroma cárneo durante o aquecimento foi investigado. Estudos comparativos da influencia de três diferentes precursores, inosina-5'-monofosfato (5'-IMP), cisteína e tiamina, adicionados aos sistemas cárneos, mostrou que a formação de certos compostos heter [...] ocíclicos, como furanos sulfurados, ditiolanonas e tiofenos, foi significativamente afetada pelas mudanças de concentração dos precursores. Entretanto, compostos alifáticos, tais como: hidrocarbonetos, alcoois e cetonas não foram afetados por estas adições. Inosina-5'-monofosfato apresentou-se como o precursor mais eficiente na formação de alguns voláteis de aroma cárneo, como por exemplo os furanos sulfurados, quando aumentou-se em 10 vezes sua concentração na carne crua. Abstract in english The effect of some precursors on the formation of meat flavour during heating has been investigated. A comparison of the influence of three different precursors, inosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-IMP), cysteine and thiamine, added to the meat systems, showed that formation of certain heterocyclic compoun [...] ds, like sulfur-containing furans, dithiolanones and thiophenes, was significantly affected by changes in the concentration of precursors. However, aliphatic compounds, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols and ketones were not changed by these additions. Inosine-5'-monophosphate was established to be more effective than cysteine or thiamine in the formation of some "meaty" volatiles, i.e. the furanthiols, when its concentration was increased 10 times in raw meat.

M.S., Madruga.

204

Effects of cross-linking, capsule wall thickness, and compound hydrophobicity on aroma release from complex coacervate microcapsules.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microcapsules were produced by complex coacervation with a gelatin-gum acacia wall and medium-chain-triglyceride core. Dry capsules were partially rehydrated and then loaded with model aroma compounds covering a range of volatility, hydrophobicity, and molecular structure. An experimental design was prepared to evaluate the effects of cross-linking, wall/core ratio, and volatile load level on aroma release from capsules in a hot, aqueous environment. The real-time release on rehydration was measured by monitoring the headspace of a vessel containing the capsules to proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Data collected showed no effects of cross-linking or wall/core ratio on volatile release in hot water for any of the volatiles studied. When comparing real-time release of the prepared coacervates to a spray-dried equivalent, there was no difference in the release from hot water but the release was slower when coacervates were added to ambient-temperature water. We found volatile release to be primarily determined by compound partition coefficients (oil/water and water/air) and temperature. PMID:19199587

Leclercq, Segolene; Milo, Christian; Reineccius, Gary A

2009-02-25

205

Characterization of the major odor-active compounds in Thai durian ( Durio zibethinus L. 'Monthong') by aroma extract dilution analysis and headspace gas chromatography-olfactometry.  

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An aroma extract dilution analysis applied on the volatile fraction isolated from Thai durian by solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation resulted in 44 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 1-16384, 41 of which could be identified and 24 that had not been reported in durian before. High FD factors were found for ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate (fruity; FD 16384), ethyl cinnamate (honey; FD 4096), and 1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethanethiol (roasted onion; FD 1024), followed by 1-(ethyldisulfanyl)-1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethane (sulfury, onion), 2(5)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5(2)-methylfuran-3(2H)-one (caramel), 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one (soup seasoning), ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity), ethyl butanoate (fruity), 3-methylbut-2-ene-1-thiol (skunky), ethane-1,1-dithiol (sulfury, durian), 1-(methylsulfanyl)ethanethiol (roasted onion), 1-(ethylsulfanyl)propane-1-thiol (roasted onion), and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one (caramel). Among the highly volatile compounds screened by static headspace gas chromatography-olfactometry, hydrogen sulfide (rotten egg), acetaldehyde (fresh, fruity), methanethiol (rotten, cabbage), ethanethiol (rotten, onion), and propane-1-thiol (rotten, durian) were found as additional potent odor-active compounds. Fourteen of the 41 characterized durian odorants showed an alkane-1,1-dithiol, 1-(alkylsulfanyl)alkane-1-thiol, or 1,1-bis(alkylsulfanyl)alkane structure derived from acetaldehyde, propanal, hydrogen sulfide, and alkane-1-thiols. Among these, 1-(propylsulfanyl)ethanethiol, 1-{[1-(methylsulfanyl)ethyl]sulfanyl}ethanethiol, and 1-{[1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethyl]sulfanyl}ethanethiol were reported for the first time in a natural product. PMID:23088286

Li, Jia-Xiao; Schieberle, Peter; Steinhaus, Martin

2012-11-14

206

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in the beverage prepared from Darjeeling black tea: quantitative differences between tea leaves and infusion.  

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By application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on the volatile fraction isolated from a black tea infusion (Darjeeling Gold Selection), vanillin (vanilla-like), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel), 2-phenylethanol (flowery), and (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-nonatrienal (oat-flake-like) were identified with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors among the 24 odor-active compounds detected in the FD factor range of 4-128. Quantitative measurements performed by means of stable isotope dilution assays and a calculation of odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold in water) revealed, in particular, the previously unknown tea constituent (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-nonatrienal as a key odorant in the infusion and confirmed the important role of linalool and geraniol for the tea aroma. An aroma recombinate performed by the 18 odorants for which OAVs > 1 were determined in their "natural" concentrations matched the overall aroma of the tea beverage. In the black tea leaves, a total of 42 odorants were identified, most of which were identical with those in the beverage prepared thereof. However, quantitative measurements indicated that, in particular, geraniol, but also eight further odorants were significantly increased in the infusion as compared to their concentration in the leaves. PMID:16448203

Schuh, Christian; Schieberle, Peter

2006-02-01

207

Direct atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation ion trap mass spectrometry for aroma analysis: Speed, sensitivity and resolution of isobaric compounds  

Science.gov (United States)

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) sources were developed for real time analysis of volatile release from foods using an ion trap (IT) mass spectrometer (MS). Key objectives were spectral simplicity (minimal fragmentation), response time and signal to noise ratio. The benefits of APCI-IT-MS were assessed by comparing the performance for in vivo and headspace analyses with that obtained using APCI coupled to a quadrupole mass analyser. Using MS-MS, direct APCI-IT-MS was able to differentiate mixtures of some C6 and terpene isobaric aroma compounds. Resolution could be achieved for some compounds by monitoring specific secondary ions. Direct resolution was also achieved with two of the three isobaric compounds released from chocolate with time as the sample was eaten.

Jublot, Lionel; Linforth, Robert S. T.; Taylor, Andrew J.

2005-06-01

208

Relationship of sensory and instrumental aroma measurements of dark chocolate as influenced by fermentation method, roasting and conching conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The investigation was undertaken to establish a relationship between key odorants and perceived flavor attributes of dark chocolate as influenced by cocoa fermentation method, roasting and conching conditions, using multivariate data analysis in an attempt to use one variable to predict the other. Eight of the sixteen flavor attributes used by a trained sensory panel to describe and quantify the intensity of attributes in the samples were significantly different (p?aroma compounds 5-methyl-2-phenyl-2-hexenal (sweet, roasted cocoa), ethyl-3-methylbutanoate and pentyl acetate (green, cucumber). Since fruit attribute was higher in unconched samples and astringent higher in unroasted samples, it may be possible to use the levels of these important aroma compounds as indicators of the sensory attributes fruit and astringent. PMID:24425997

Owusu, Margaret; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Heimdal, Hanne

2013-10-01

209

Sensory profile of breast meat from broilers reared in an organic niche production system and conventional standard broilers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Breast meat from broilers produced in very different production systems may vary considerable in sensory profile, which may affect consumer interests. In this study the aim was to evaluate differences in the sensory profiles of breast meat from five broiler products: two conventional standard products (A and B) and three organic niche genotypes (I657, L40 and K8) reared in an apple orchard. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 22 sensory attributes differed significantly between the products. The aroma attributes â??chickenâ??, â??bouillonâ?? and â??fatâ?? scored highest and the â??iron/liverâ?? aroma lowest for the niche products. The meat was more â??tenderâ??, â??shortâ?? and â??crumblyâ?? and less â??hardâ?? and â??stringyâ?? in the standard products than in one or more of the niche products. Product â??I 657â?? was less â??juicyâ?? than the rest. Products â??I 657â?? and â??L 40â?? were more â??cohesiveâ?? and tasted more â??sourishâ?? and less of â??sweet/maizeâ?? than the standard products. The â??overall likingâ?? score was significantly higher for the â??K 8â?? product than for the â??Standard Aâ?? and â??L 40â?? products. The â??overall likingâ?? score was significantly correlated with the scores for aroma and taste of â??chickenâ??, â??umami/bouillonâ??, â??iron/liverâ?? and â??fatâ?? aroma. CONCLUSION: The sensory profiles differed particularly between conventional standard broilers and organic niche broilers, although differences were also found between breeds. The present study indicates that aroma and taste attributes were more important for the assessors than meat â??tendernessâ?? for the overall liking of broiler meat.

Horsted, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Bodil Helene

2012-01-01

210

Relevance of nitrate and nitrite in dry-cured ham and their effects on aroma development  

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Potassium and sodium salts of nitrite (E 249 and E 250) and nitrate (E 251 and E 252) are authorised for use under certain levels in several foodstuffs such as non-heat-treated, cured and dried meat products, other cured meat products, canned meat products and bacon. The key point in the use of nitrate and nitrite as preservatives is to find a balance between ensuring the microbiological safety of the ham and keeping as low as possible the level of nitrosamines in the final product. Nitrites ...

2009-01-01

211

Stabilization of enzymes activities of lipoxygenase pathway by irradiation to improve the production of olive oil aroma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main purpose of this work was to improve the synthesis of volatile compounds leading to green note in olives and olive tree leaves by improving enzymes activities of lipoxygenase pathway. Lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxyde lyase (HPL) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities were tested in olives and olive tree leaves during maturation. The gamma irradiation effects on these samples were studied. LOX, HPL and ADH showed maximum activities at black stage for olives and in December for olive leaves. Those activities, from olives and Chemlali olive leaves, were improved after irradiation with 0,5KGy. For the case of Chetoui olive leaves, the irradiation treatment was unfavorable because it causes a loss in enzymes activities. (Author)

2009-01-01

212

Non starter lactic acid bacteria during cheese ripening: survival, growth and production of molecules potentially involved in aroma formation  

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I batteri lattici (LAB) costituiscono un gruppo eterogeneo di batteri tradizionalmente utilizzati nella produzione di formaggi. Essi possono svolgere diversi ruoli durante la caseificazione, gli starter LAB (SLAB) sono i protagonisti del processo di fermentazione, mentre i non starter LAB (NSLAB) esplicano il loro ruolo durante la maturazione del formaggio. Il lavoro di ricerca di questo dottorato si è focalizzato sullo studio del contributo dei NSLAB durante la stagionatura del formaggio. I...

2012-01-01

213

Relevance of nitrate and nitrite in dry-cured ham and their effects on aroma development  

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[EN] Potassium and sodium salts of nitrite (E 249 and E 250) and nitrate (E 251 and E 252) are authorised for use under certain levels in several foodstuffs such as non-heat-treated, cured and dried meat products, other cured meat products,

2009-01-01

214

Expression in Lactococcus lactis of functional genes related to amino acid catabolism and cheese aroma formation is influenced by branched chain amino acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Formation of cheese aroma compounds by Lactococcus lactis from amino acid catabolism depends on a complex network of reactions, which involve enzymes such as aminotransferases, dehydrogenases, lyases, and decarboxylases, among others. Based on the ability of some L. lactis strains to grow with low requirements of amino acids, we have studied in L. lactis IFPL730 the effect of the branched chain amino acid (BCAA) content on the expression of functional genes related to amino acid catabolism and aroma compound formation (araT, bcaT, kivD, ytjE and panE). L. lactis IFPL730 growth rate decreased under leucine, valine or isoleucine starvation but the strain reached similar viable counts at the stationary phase in all culture conditions studied. The level of expression of some genes encoding enzymes involved in amino acid catabolism changed significantly (P3-methylbutanol. PMID:23107499

García-Cayuela, Tomás; Gómez de Cadiñanos, Luz P; Peláez, Carmen; Requena, Teresa

2012-10-15

215

Principais substâncias responsáveis pelo aroma de mangas comerciais brasileiras identificadas por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução/olfatometria/espectrometria de massas  

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Full Text Available Six Brazilian commercial mangoes were analysed by HRGC-O-AEDA-MS, viz., Carlota, Haden, Espada, Coração de boi, Rubi and Tommy Atkins. All them showed ethyl butanoate as the main aroma character impact compound by AEDA evaluation. The ethyl esters of 2 and 3-methylbutanoic acids are also important, the main contribution in Carlota variety being 2(S enantiomer. In Rubi variety, both 2(R enantiomer and 3-methyl isomer contributes to the caprylic fruity note observed. In four varieties, viz., Haden, Espada, Rubi and Tommy Atkins, d-3-carene showed to be the second impact aroma compound presented. In Tommy Atkins variety, a-pinene also has a significant contribution, mainly due to its (1R,5R(+-enantiomer.

Lopes Diógenes C.

1999-01-01

216

Studies on the aroma of different species and strains of Pleurotus measured by GC/MS, sensory analysis and electronic nose  

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Full Text Available The aroma of several strains of Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Pleurotus djamor was studied by GC/MS. Three main mushrooms aroma constituents: 3-octanol, 3-octanone and 1-octen-3-ol were taken into account for quantitative measurements. The highest amount of 1-octen-3-ol was recorded in P. ostreatus, while considerably lower amounts in P. citrinopileatus. Sensory profile analysis as well as the electronic nose also varied between the three species of Pleurotus. Chiral gas chromatography showed the high optical purity of (R-(--1-octen-3-ol in P. ostreatus and P. djamor (the highest one in contrast to P. citrinopileatus. Carpophores of P. djamor was characterized relatively high dry matter and protein contents.

Renata Zawirska-Wojtasiak

2009-03-01

217

Gyromitra Mantar?n?n Uçucu Aroma Bile?enlerinin Tepe Bo?lu?u Gaz Kromotografisi Kütle Spektroskopisi (HS-GC/MS Tekni?i ile Belirlenmesi  

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Full Text Available Gyromitra mantar? ülkemizde ve birçok ülkede yenilebilir olarak de?erlendirilmekle beraber zehirli mantarlar aras?nda yer almaktad?r. Bu çal??ma, 2011 y?l?nda Türkiye’den toplanan Gyromitra mantar?n?n uçucu aroma bile?enlerinin belirlenmesi amac?yla Çukurova Üniversitesi Bahçe Bitkileri Bölümü’nde yap?lm??t?r. Çal??man?n materyalini Adana ilinden toplanm?? olan Gyromitra mantarlar? olu?turmu?tur. Uçucu aroma bile?enleri, Tepe Bo?lu?u Gaz Kromotografisi Kütle Spektroskopisi (Headspace Gas Kromotografi Mass Spectrometry, HS-GC/MS tekni?i ile belirlenmi?tir. Ara?t?rma sonucunda 24 farkl? uçucu aroma bile?eni tespit edilmi?tir. Tespit edilen aroma bile?enleri aras?nda fenol %47.10 oran ile en yüksek de?ere sahip olmu?tur. Fenol, Karbamik asit metil ester (%14.12, Asetik asit (%4.47, 1-Octen-3-ol (%4.14 ve Asit aldehit (%4.10 ile takip edilmi?tir. Fenol antioksidan bir bile?iktir ve anti kanserojen etkiye sahiptir. 1-Octen-3-ol mantarlarda yayg?n olarak bulunan alkollerdendir. Asetik Asit ve Asit aldehit ise zehirli bile?iklerdendir. Gyromitra mantar?nda fenol ve 1-Octen-3-ol oran?n?n yüksek ç?kmas? aromal? ve sa?l?k aç?s?ndan önemli bir mantar oldu?unu gösterse de, Asetik asit ve Asit aldehit gibi zehirli bile?ikler içermesi tüketilmesindeki risk faktörlerini art?rmaktad?r.

Hat?ra Ta?k?n

2013-12-01

218

Identification and quantitation of key aroma compounds formed in Maillard-type reactions of fructose with cysteamine or isothiaproline (1,3-thiazolidine-2-carboxylic acid).  

Science.gov (United States)

Fructose was reacted in the presence of either cysteamine (model A) or isothiaproline (model B) in aqueous buffer at 145 degrees C and pH 7.0. Application of an aroma extract dilution analysis on the bulk of the volatile compounds formed in model A revealed 5-acetyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-thiazine (19), N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1,3-thiazolidine (16), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (15), and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline (11) as the key aroma compounds among the 10 odorants detected. A similar set of aroma compounds was formed when isothiaproline was reacted (model B), but the flavor dilution factors were generally lower. Substitution of the buffer by silica gel/water (9 + 1 w/w) in both models and application of 150 degrees C for 10 min also gave the same key odorants from both thio compounds; however, under these conditions isothiaproline was the better precursor of, in particular, 19 and 11. Quantitative measurements performed by means of stable isotope dilution assays revealed a significant effect of the pH on odorant formation. For example, in model A, formation of 19 as well as of 11 was suppressed at pH values <5.0. A clear maximum was, however, found for 19 at pH 7.0 (approximately 1 mol % yield), whereas 11 increased with increasing pH from 7.0 to 9.0. PMID:12207481

Engel, Wolfgang; Schieberle, Peter

2002-09-11

219

Characterization of Aroma Active Compounds in Fruit Juice and Peel Oil of Jinchen Sweet Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck by GC-MS and GC-O  

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Full Text Available Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC-O were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve components were the odorants perceived in both samples. The aromatic compositions of fruit juice were more complex than that of peel oil. Ethyl butanoate, β-myrcene, octanal, linalool, α-pinene, and decanal were found to be responsible for the aromatic notes in fruit juice and peel oil. Nineteen components have been perceived only in the juice and ten compounds were described as aromatic components of only the peel oil by the panelists. These differences lead to the different overall aroma between fruit juice and peel oil.

Si Yi Pan

2008-06-01

220

Aroma character impact compounds in Kinokuni mandarin orange (Citrus kinokuni) compared with Satsuma mandarin orange (Citrus unshiu).  

Science.gov (United States)

The odor-active volatiles of Kinokuni mandarin (Citrus kinokuni Hort. ex Tanaka), an original mandarin orange in Japan, were characterized by a combination of instrumental and sensory analyses and compared with those of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch). An aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the polar fractions of Kinokuni and Satsuma mandarin peel oils identified five odorants in common as the most odor-active volatiles: (Z)-hex-3-enal, decanal, linalool, yuzuol, and (2E)-trans-4,5-epoxydec-2-enal. In addition, seven odorants were identified solely in Kinokuni mandarin as significant contributors: octanal, dodecanal, (2E,4E)-deca-2,4-dienal, geraniol, yuzunone, (2E,7Z)-trans-4,5-epoxydeca-2,7-dienal, and thymol. The odor-active volatiles in both the non-polar components of the peel oil and an extract of the juice prepared from Kinokuni mandarin were also identified. The (S)-isomer of linalool in Kinokuni mandarin peel oil was dominant in the enantiomeric distribution (92%), whereas the (R)-isomer was dominant in Satsuma mandarin peel oil (90%). PMID:20378969

Miyazawa, Norio; Fujita, Akira; Kubota, Kikue

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (?FIC) was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1?:?1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%), additive (48.9%), non-interactive (23.7%), and antagonistic (0.7%) interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1?:?1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender. PMID:23737850

de Rapper, Stephanie; Kamatou, Guy; Viljoen, Alvaro; van Vuuren, Sandy

2013-01-01

222

Effect of screwcap and cork closures on SO2 levels and aromas in a Sauvignon Blanc wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of a Sauvignon Blanc wine sealed under screwcap and cork was undertaken using different fill heights and initial levels of free SO2 (20, 25, and 30 mg/L) over 2 years. More SO2 was lost for wines under cork over the first 3 months, corresponding to a higher level of dissolved oxygen at bottling. From this time wines under cork and screwcap lost SO2 at a similar rate and retained dissolved CO2 equally well, indicating that both types of closure presented a similar effective barrier to gas movement. After 2 years in the bottle, the different treatments retained similar levels of the volatile thiols 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA) and 3-mercaptohexanol (3MH) responsible for fruity aromas, with initial SO2 levels having no effect, but the thiol concentrations were 18-23% lower under cork, which may be due to absorption of volatiles into the cork. Levels of polyphenols such as caftaric acid and the absorbance at 420 nm were the same for wines under cork and screwcap, whereas some indication was given that more oxidation occurred with a lower level of initial free SO2. Although the different treatments were not readily distinguished by a sensory panel, the data for individual wines showed a positive correlation between passion fruit descriptors and levels of 3MHA and 3MH. PMID:16366687

Brajkovich, Michael; Tibbits, Nigel; Peron, Guilaine; Lund, Cynthia M; Dykes, Stuart I; Kilmartin, Paul A; Nicolau, Laura

2005-12-28

223

New insights into the formation of aroma-active strecker aldehydes from 3-oxazolines as transient intermediates.  

Science.gov (United States)

2-Substituted-5-methyl-3-oxazolines, a novel class of aroma precursors that are able to release the respective Strecker aldehydes by hydrolysis, were identified. Hydrolysis can take place after the addition of water or with human saliva during mastication, respectively. 2-Isobutyl-, 2-sec-isobutyl-, 2-isopropyl, and 2-benzyl-5-methyl-3-oxazolines were synthesized and structurally identified by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the electron impact mode and in the chemical ionization mode as well as by one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments. With these compounds at hand, a variety of stability experiments were performed using headspace-GC-MS or proton transfer reaction-MS techniques on the basis of stable isotope dilution assays, proving the ability to release the respective Strecker aldehydes was dependent on the pH value as well as on the hydrolysis time. After the addition of water at 37 °C, for example, >70 mol % of 3-methylbutanal or >40 mol % of phenylacetaldehyde was liberated from a solution of 2-isobutyl-5-methyl-3-oxazoline or 2-benzyl-5-methyl-3-oxazoline, respectively, after 5 min. Furthermore, the presence of 2-isobutyl-5-methyl-3-oxazoline in dark chocolate containing 70% cocoa was proven by GC-MS. PMID:22656242

Granvogl, Michael; Beksan, Ersan; Schieberle, Peter

2012-06-27

224

Microstructure, physicochemistry, microbial populations and aroma compounds of ripened Cantal cheeses  

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In spite of its high production (18000 T yearly), very few studies have been devoted to Cantal, a French AOC ("Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée") cheese variety whose making process is close to that of Cheddar. To improve the knowledge of this type of cheese, two ripened Cantal cheeses issued from raw milk and two different industrial processes were biochemically, physicochemically, structurally and microbiologically characterised through the analysis of both cheese sectors and juices extrac...

Freitas, Isabelle; Pinon, Nicolas; Lopez, Christelle; Thierry, Anne; Maubois, Jean-louis; Lortal, Sylvie

2005-01-01

225

Relevance of nitrate and nitrite in dry-cured ham and their effects on aroma development  

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Full Text Available Potassium and sodium salts of nitrite (E 249 and E 250 and nitrate (E 251 and E 252 are authorised for use under certain levels in several foodstuffs such as non-heat-treated, cured and dried meat products, other cured meat products, canned meat products and bacon. The key point in the use of nitrate and nitrite as preservatives is to find a balance between ensuring the microbiological safety of the ham and keeping as low as possible the level of nitrosamines in the final product. Nitrites and nitrates are authorised as additives for dry-cured ham in the Directive 2006/52/EC of 5 July 2006 that modifies previous Council Directive 95/2/EC on food additives other than colours and sweeteners. The effect of nitrate and its reduction to nitrite in controlling the lipid oxidation process during the ham ripening is very important for the development of the characteristic cured flavour. The main benefits and drawbacks of the use of nitrites and nitrates in dry-cured ham and how these levels may affect its flavour are discussed in this manuscript.Las sales sódica y potásica del nitrito (E249 y E250 y del nitrato (E251 y E252 están autorizados para su uso en los productos cárnicos, secos, curados y no tratados por el calor, otros productos cárnicos curados, productos cárnicos enlatados y bacon. El punto esencial en el uso de nitrato y nitrito como conservantes consiste en encontrar un balance entre el aseguramiento de la seguridad microbiológica del jamón y mantener el nivel de nitrosaminas tan bajo como sea posible. Los nitratos y nitritos están autorizados como aditivos en el jamón curado según la Directiva Europea 2006/52/EC de 5 de Julio de 2006 que modificaba la previa Directiva Europea 95/2/EC de aditivos alimentarios distintos a los colorantes y edulcorantes. El efecto del nitrato y su reducción a nitrito para controlar la oxidación de los lípidos durante la maduración del jamón es muy importante para el desarrollo del característico flavor a curado. Se presentan en este manuscrito los principales beneficios y problemas del uso de los nitratos y nitritos en el jamón curado así como sus efectos en el flavor.

Flores, Mónica

2009-07-01

226

Alteração de sabor e aroma em tomates causada por impacto / Flavor alteration in tomato fruits due to internal bruising  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Tomates (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), 'Solar Set' e 'Agriset-743', foram colhidos no estádio verde-maduro (100% da superfície com coloração verde) e tratados com 100 miL L-1 de etileno gasoso a 20°C. Quando atingiram o estádio verde-rosado (menos do que 10% da superfície do fruto possui coloração [...] vermelha ou amarelo-esverdeada), os frutos foram divididos em dois lotes. Um lote sofreu quedas de 40 cm de altura sobre uma superfície plana, rígida e lisa. Os frutos deste lote foram armazenados com os frutos-controle (que não sofreram dano mecânico) a 20°C e 85-95% de umidade relativa. No estádio vermelho, os frutos inteiros foram homogeneizados e um teste de análise sensorial foi imediatamente conduzido. Os painelistas foram capazes de distinguir entre frutos com desordem fisiológica causada por impacto e frutos não-injuriados, indicando que esta injúria alterou de maneira significativa o sabor e o aroma dos tomates analisados. Abstract in english Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruits, 'Solar Set' and 'Agriset -- 743', were harvested at the mature-green stage of development and treated with 100 muL L-1 ethylene at 20°C. At the breaker stage, fruits were dropped from 40 cm height to induce internal bruising and stored along with undrop [...] ped fruits at 20°C and 85-95% RH. At the table-ripe stage, whole fruits were chopped in a food processor and a sensory analysis test was immediately performed. The experimental design employed was a completely randomized blocks scheme arranged with 22 panelists (blocks), 3 treatments (unbruised sample; bruised sample 1 and bruised sample 2) and 4 replicates (ten fruits each). Data were subjected to analysis of variance and differences among treatments were determined by the F test (P= 0.05). Panelists were able to distinguish between bruised and unbruised fruits which indicated that internal bruising caused by impact altered tomato flavor.

Moretti, Celso Luiz; Sargent, Steven Alonzo.

227

O AROMA AMBIENTAL E SUA RELAÇÃO COM AS AVALIAÇÕES E INTENÇÕES DO CONSUMIDOR NO VAREJO  

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Full Text Available The atmosphere of a store can be used to produce specific emotions that enhance purchase probability, and the ambient scent,artificially added, is among its dimensions. This article investigates the relationship between the presence of an ambient scent in a retail store, and customers’ evaluation of the store, its environment and products, as well as the behavioral intentions related to return and time spent in the store. The research design included an exploratory stage, examination of publications in the fields of physiology, psychology and consumer behavior, to provide the conceptual background and to formulate research hypothesis; and a causal stage, quasi-experiment,to verify the effects of scent presence. Semantic differential scales were employed for data collection. Descriptive statistics and hypothesistest were performed for data analysis and the results revealed that the scent presence did not improve the evaluations or the intent to return but retained the consumer longer in the store.

André Luiz Carvalho Nunes da Costa

2011-11-01

228

Influência da variedade, no sabor e aroma do leite de soja / Influence of soybean variety on the taste and flavor of soy milK  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de verificar a influência que a variedade da planta poderia exercer no sabor e aroma do leite de soja, preparado de acordo com as normas do chamado "Método DEC", modificado. A degustação das amostras foi realizada por uma equipe de provadores consti [...] tuída por 25 pessoas que antes nunca haviam experimentado o leite de soja. Foi empregada técnica especializada para evitar a influência de fatores estranhos à experiência e adotou-se o teste triangular para a apresentação das amostras, transformando-se depois a preferência de sabor e aroma numa escala de pontos. Preliminarmente foi necessário estudar a influência da descorticaçao na aceitação do produto, verificando-se que, pelo menos para a variedade Mojiana, adotada como padrão, o leite é de melhor sabor quando preparado com a prévia remoção das cascas. Os diversos testes realizados mostraram que a variedade Rio Grande apresentou melhor sabor e melhor aroma que as variedades Abura, Mojiana e Chosen, muito embora essas diferenças não tivessem atingido o limite da significância estatística. Abstract in english Laboratory experiments were accomplished to determine the influence of soybean variety npon the taste and flavor of soy milk prepared according to the so-called "DEC Method", modified, and the results are here reported. A special panel was organized with the personnel working at the Instituto Agronô [...] mico of Campinas, composed of 25 people who never had been submitted to such a test before and the results expressed in a numerical scale. A preliminary test to evaluate the influence of lhe skin (seed coat) on the tasle of soy milk has proved that for the case of the variety Mojiana the removal of the skin was necessary to approach to standard technique. The experimental data showed that taste improves when seed coats are removed right after maceration. These results were statistically significant. There was not any significant difference among the treatments in the laboratory trials with soy milk prepared from four different soybean varieties (Rio Grande, Ahura, Mojiana and Chosen) as far as taste and aroma are concerned, although the Rio Grande appeared as the leading variety in the average of both judgements.

Ruth dos Santos, Garruti; Lucinda Valverde Souza Queiróz de, Barros.

229

Influência da variedade, no sabor e aroma do leite de soja Influence of soybean variety on the taste and flavor of soy milK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de verificar a influência que a variedade da planta poderia exercer no sabor e aroma do leite de soja, preparado de acordo com as normas do chamado "Método DEC", modificado. A degustação das amostras foi realizada por uma equipe de provadores constituída por 25 pessoas que antes nunca haviam experimentado o leite de soja. Foi empregada técnica especializada para evitar a influência de fatores estranhos à experiência e adotou-se o teste triangular para a apresentação das amostras, transformando-se depois a preferência de sabor e aroma numa escala de pontos. Preliminarmente foi necessário estudar a influência da descorticaçao na aceitação do produto, verificando-se que, pelo menos para a variedade Mojiana, adotada como padrão, o leite é de melhor sabor quando preparado com a prévia remoção das cascas. Os diversos testes realizados mostraram que a variedade Rio Grande apresentou melhor sabor e melhor aroma que as variedades Abura, Mojiana e Chosen, muito embora essas diferenças não tivessem atingido o limite da significância estatística.Laboratory experiments were accomplished to determine the influence of soybean variety npon the taste and flavor of soy milk prepared according to the so-called "DEC Method", modified, and the results are here reported. A special panel was organized with the personnel working at the Instituto Agronômico of Campinas, composed of 25 people who never had been submitted to such a test before and the results expressed in a numerical scale. A preliminary test to evaluate the influence of lhe skin (seed coat on the tasle of soy milk has proved that for the case of the variety Mojiana the removal of the skin was necessary to approach to standard technique. The experimental data showed that taste improves when seed coats are removed right after maceration. These results were statistically significant. There was not any significant difference among the treatments in the laboratory trials with soy milk prepared from four different soybean varieties (Rio Grande, Ahura, Mojiana and Chosen as far as taste and aroma are concerned, although the Rio Grande appeared as the leading variety in the average of both judgements.

Ruth dos Santos Garruti

1960-01-01

230

Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae To Release 3-Mercaptohexan-1-ol during Fermentation through Overexpression of an S. cerevisiae Gene, STR3, for Improvement of Wine Aroma?  

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Sulfur-containing aroma compounds are key contributors to the flavor of a diverse range of foods and beverages. The tropical fruit characters of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc wines are attributed to the presence of the aromatic thiols 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH), 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol-acetate, and 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP). These volatile thiols are found in small amounts in grape juice and are formed from nonvolatile cysteinylated precursors during fermentation. In this st...

Holt, Sylvester; Cordente, Antonio G.; Williams, Simon J.; Capone, Dimitra L.; Jitjaroen, Wanphen; Menz, Ian R.; Curtin, Chris; Anderson, Peter A.

2011-01-01

231

Projective Mapping and Product Positioning of Deep Fat Fried Snack  

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A study was carried out to examine the quality parameters of commercially available popular deep-fried snack-Mu- rukku. Eight samples (four spicy and four salty) of most commonly consumed deep-fried snacks in India, viz., murukku (an extruded strands-like product made from the mixture of rice flour and black gram dhal flour) were analyzed for moisture, oil content, CIE instrumental color (L*a*b*), instrumental texture measurement (breaking strength of murukku strands), aroma finger printing b...

Ramasamy Ravi; Vivek Kumar Singh; Maya Prakash

2011-01-01

232

Terpene production in the peel of sweet orange fruits  

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Terpenoids constitute the largest and most diverse class of natural products. They are important factors for aroma and flavor, and their synthesis is basically done from two compounds: isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Isopentenyl diphosphate is synthesized through two different pathways, one that occurs in the cytoplasm and one in the plastid. With the sequencing of ESTs from citrus, we were able to perform in silico analyses on the pathways that lead to the synthesis of...

Takita, Marco A.; Berger, Irving J.; Ana Carolina Basílio-Palmieri; Borges, Kleber M.; Souza, Juliana M.; Targon, Maria L. N. P.

2007-01-01

233

Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma Estudo de compostos voláteis de ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin e estimativa da sua contribuição ao aroma  

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Full Text Available Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values (OAV. The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E-?-ionone, ?-dodecalactone, (Z-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, ?-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, ?-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z-3-hexenol, (Z-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, ?-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.As técnicas de extração-destilação simultâneas (SDE e de headspace-microextração em fase sólida (HS-SPME combinadas com GC-FID e GC-MS foram usadas para analisar compostos voláteis da ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin e para estimar os compostos de aroma mais ativos, pela aplicação de valores de atividade olfativa (OAV, considerando os compostos voláteis presentes no headspace da fruta. As análises levaram à identificação de 148 componentes, incluindo 58 ésteres, 23 terpenoides, 14 aldeídos, 11 álcoois, 10 cetonas, 9 alcanos, 7 ácidos, 4 lactonas, 3 fenóis e 9 outros compostos de diferentes estruturas. De acordo om os resultados de SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS e OAV, 2-metilbutanoato de etila, acetato de hexila, (E-2-nonenal, butanoato de etila, (E-2-decenal, hexanoato de etila, nonanal, decanal, (E-b-ionona, ?-dodecalactona, acetato de (Z-3-hexenila, acetato de pentila, linalool, ?-decalactona, acetato de butila, limoneno, acetato de propila, ?-decalactona, sulfeto de dietila, acetato de (E-2-hexenila, heptanoato de etila, (Z-3-hexenol, hexanoato de (Z-3-hexenila, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, pentanoato de etila, hexil 2-butanoato de metila, hexanoato de isopentila, 1-hexanol, ?-nonalactona, mirceno, acetato de octila, fenilacetaldeído, 1-butanol, acetato de isobutila, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, e nerol são compostos odoríficos característicos em ameixas frescas, já que foram encontrados em concentrações muito acima dos seus limiares de precepção olfativa.

Jorge Antonio Pino

2012-03-01

234

Oxidative stability of fermented meat products  

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Full Text Available Meat and meat products, which form a major part of our diet, are very susceptible to quality changes resulting from oxidative processes. Quality of fermented food products depends on the course of various physicochemical and biochemical processes. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products may be the result of enzymatic changes occurring as a result of activity of enzymes originating in tissues and microorganisms, as well as lipid peroxidation by free radicals. Primary and secondary products of lipid oxidation are extremely reactive and react with other components of meat, changing their physical and chemical properties. Oxidised proteins take on a yellowish, red through brown hue. Products of lipid and protein degradation create a specifi c fl avour and aroma ; furthermore, toxic substances (such as biogenic amines or new substances are formed as a result of interactions between meat components, e.g. protein-lipid or protein-protein combinations, as well as transverse bonds in protein structures. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products is a particularly diffi cult process. On the one hand it is essential, since the enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid oxidation creates fl avour and aroma compounds characteristic for ripening products; on the other hand excessive amounts or transformations of those compounds may cause the fermented meat product to become a risk to health.

Zbigniew J. Dolatowski

2012-06-01

235

Genotoxicity of brown-colored polymerization products formed in smoke flavors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Smoke aroma essences, which are prepared from smokehouse smoke by condensation and purification, are used for flavoring raw food products. The essences spontaneous decompose and produce brown-colored polymerization products, which may react with protein and be liberated within the acidic environment of the human stomach. The potential of these products to cause DNA damage was studied in two microbial and two in vivo assay systems. The polymerization products induced his+ reversion in Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 after metabolic activation by liver enzymes. There was no significant activity in a differential killing assay with repair-deficient strains of Escherichia coli WP2. In vivo tests demonstrated significant increases in the rate of sister chromatid exchanges in bone marrow cells of Chinese hamsters, but no increase in micronuclei was detectable. Thus, genotoxic components may be present in the brown-colored fractions of smoke aroma essences, but further study is needed. PMID:6356042

Pool, B L; Renner, H W; Baltes, W

1983-01-01

236

Effect of pH and Water Activity in Generation of Selected Meaty Aroma Compounds in a Meat Model System  

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Full Text Available Longissimus dorsi post rigor minced beef meat was washed repeatedly with 0.02 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.8 to obtain pigment-free muscle fibers. The resultant muscle fiber was freeze dried and used as a meat model system. The results were compared with or without an aqueous model system containing a mixture of cysteine, thiamine and ribose reaction mixture. Gas chromatography-Mass spectrophotometry was used to study the effect of pH and water activity on the generation of volatiles in model systems. Seven sulphur-containing meaty aroma volatiles were identified in the meat fiber model system by odour port analyser and the generated mass spectra. The generation of volatile in reaction mixture as well as in meat fiber model system were strongly influenced by pH. The intensity of 2-methyl tetrahydrothioph-ene-3-one was low (p?0.05 at lower pH. The generation of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol and bis-(2-methyl-3-furyl was more (p?0.05 in reaction mixture model system at a pH 5.5 and 6.5 than at lower pH. However, the increase in generation of 2-methyl thiophene in model systems studied was dependent (p?0.05 on the increase of pH. The volatiles, 2-methyl-4-5-dihydrothiophene, 2-methyl-3-(methylthio furan and 2-methyl-3-thiophenethiol were not detected at low pH in a meat fiber model system. However, their generation in reaction mixture and meat fiber containing reaction mixture system was observed. The formation of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol and bis-(2-methyl-3-furyl was favoured (p?0.05 by higher aw whereas, the formation of thiophene was maximum at aw 0.80. At higher aw, an inverse relationship between aw and quantity of thiophene was observed.

A.J. Taylor

2008-01-01

237

Biosynthesis of wine aroma: transcript profiles of hydroxymethylbutenyl diphosphate reductase, geranyl diphosphate synthase, and linalool/nerolidol synthase parallel monoterpenol glycoside accumulation in Gewürztraminer grapes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In developing grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berries, precursor volatile organic compounds (PVOCs) are largely stored as glycosides which may be hydrolyzed to release VOCs during fruit ripening, wine making, or aging. VOCs can be further transformed by yeast metabolism. Together, these processes contribute to complexity of wine aromas. Floral and citrus odors of many white wine varietals are attributed to monoterpenes and monoterpene alcohols, while phenolic compounds, norisoprenoids, and other volatiles also play important roles in determining aroma. We present an analysis of PVOCs stored as glycosides in developing Gewürztraminer berries during the growing season. We optimized a method for PVOC analysis suitable for small amounts of Muscat grapevine berries and showed that the amount of PVOCs dramatically increased during and after véraison. Transcript profiling of the same berry samples underscored the involvement of terpenoid pathway genes in the accumulation of PVOCs. The onset of monoterpenol PVOC accumulation in developing grapes was correlated with an increase of transcript abundances of early terpenoid pathway enzymes. Transcripts encoding the methylerythritol phosphate pathway gene 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase, as well as geraniol diphosphate synthase, were up-regulated preceding and during the increase in monoterpenol PVOCs. Transcripts for linalool/nerolidol synthase increased in later véraison stages. PMID:22824963

Martin, Diane M; Chiang, Angela; Lund, Steven T; Bohlmann, Jörg

2012-09-01

238

Evaluation of aroma differences between high-salt liquid-state fermentation and low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauces from China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two types of Chinese soy sauce, high-salt liquid-state fermentation soy sauce (HLFSS) and low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce (LSFSS), were used to investigate their differences in aroma profile by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). Results from descriptive sensory analysis showed that the alcoholic, cooked potato-like and caramel-like attributes were significantly higher in HLFSS, while LSFSS exhibited significantly higher sour and burnt attributes. In addition, aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) revealed 37 and 33 odour-active regions for HLFSS and LSFSS, respectively. Ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, phenylacetaldehyde, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 3-(methylthio)propanal detected in HLFSS showed the highest flavour dilution (FD) factors, while 3-methylbutanal, phenylacetaldehyde and ethyl propanoate possessed the highest FD factors in LSFSS. Therefore, the traditional Chinese soy sauce HLFSS contained more complex volatiles and exhibited a richer aromatic profile compared with LSFSS. PMID:24128458

Feng, Yunzi; Cai, Yu; Su, Guowan; Zhao, Haifeng; Wang, Chenxia; Zhao, Mouming

2014-02-15

239

Comparison of isolation methods for the determination of important aroma compounds in black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) juice, using nasal impact frequency profiling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of isolation method on the determination of important aroma compounds in black currant juice was investigated by surface of nasal impact frequency (SNIF) gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The applied methods were solvent extraction, static headspace, and purge and trap using 15 and 60 min of purge time. By the four methods, a total of 59 odors were observed, and, of these, 44 corresponded to compounds that could be identified. For the headspace methods increasing purge volumes resulted in recoveries of additional, less volatile compounds. The main compound groups recovered by the headspace methods were esters and terpenes, whereas compounds recovered by solvent extraction were not as dominated by fruity odors. For most compounds there was agreement between the size of the SNIF value obtained by GC-O and the amount of the measurable compound found by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PMID:15030225

Varming, Camilla; Petersen, Mikael A; Poll, Leif

2004-03-24

240

Study to elucidate formation pathways of selected roast-smelling odorants upon extrusion cooking.  

Science.gov (United States)

The formation pathways of the N-containing roast-smelling compounds 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-acetyl-1(or 3),4,5,6-tetrahydropyridine, and their structural analogues 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline and 2-propionyl-1(or 3),4,5,6-tetrahydropyridine were studied upon extrusion cooking using the CAMOLA approach. The samples were produced under moderate extrusion conditions (135 °C, 20% moisture, 400 rpm) employing a rice-based model recipe enriched with flavor precursors ([U-(13)C6]-D-glucose, D-glucose, glycine, L-proline, and L-ornithine). The obtained data indicate that the formation of these compounds upon extrusion follows pathways similar to those reported for nonsheared model systems containing D-glucose and L-proline. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline is formed (i) by acylation of 1-pyrroline via C2 sugar fragments (major pathway) and (ii) via ring-opening of 1-pyrroline incorporating C3 sugar fragments (minor pathway), whereas 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline incorporates exclusively C3 sugar fragments. 2-Acetyl-1(or 3),4,5,6-tetrahydropyridine and the corresponding propionyl analogue incorporate C3 and C4 sugar fragments, respectively. In addition, it has been shown that the formation of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in low-moisture systems depends on the pH value of the reaction mixture. PMID:23621440

Davidek, Tomas; Festring, Daniel; Dufossé, Thierry; Novotny, Ondrej; Blank, Imre

2013-10-30

 
 
 
 
241

Product which is fermented without lactose from a shake comprising non-vegetable dried fruits and/or orgeat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[EN] The invention relates to products which are fermented with probiotic lactic bacteria from milk or a shake comprising almonds (Prunus Amygdalus, var. dulcis), other non-vegetable dried fruits or orgeat obtained from chufa tubers (Cyperus esculentus). The inventive products deliver the nutritional benefits of the dried fruits, the orgeat and the added probiotic bacteria, with a unique flavour and a consistency, acidity and aroma similar to yoghurt. Optionally, if the sugar content is kept ...

Pe?rez Marti?nez, Gaspar; Miralles, Mari?a Del Carmen; Marti? Vidagany, Adolfo; Marti?nez Ortiz, Isabel

2010-01-01

242

Effect of the use of recent commercial fungicides [under good and critical agricultural practices] on the aroma composition of Monastrell red wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the paper, the effect of several fungicide residues (famoxadone, fenhexamid, fluquinconazole, kresoxim-methyl, quinoxyfen and trifloxystrobin) has been studied in relation to the aroma composition of Monastrell red wines in terms of each compound concentration and OAV (Odour Activity Value) values. Two fungicide treatments were carried out with authorized formulates following the manufacturer doses. The first one was carried out under good agricultural practices (GAP), obeying the preharvest interval, and the second one under critical agricultural practices (CAP), applying at the day of harvesting. The wines obtained in the thirteen trials (one control, six with treated grapes obeying the preharvest interval and six treated at the day of harvesting or at most unfavourable conditions) were analysed by stir bar sorptive extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS). The method proposed showed good linearity over the concentration range tested, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9 for all the analytes. The reproducibility and repeatability of the method was estimated between 1.0 and 18.52%. The detection and quantification limits of all analytes were lower than the concentration found in these Monastrell wines. The identified wine volatile compounds have been grouped according to: ethyl esters, acetates, C(6) compounds, terpenoids, acids and ethyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol and benzaldehyde, as individual level. As results, it was observed that all fungicide treatments significantly affect the wine aroma composition. Each group of compounds has been associated to sensorial descriptor series (fatty, floral, fruity, herbaceous, solvent, rose and vinous), resulting that the best sensory valuated wines were the ones treated with fluquinconazole and fenhexamid under GAP. PMID:18486646

Oliva, José; Zalacain, Amaya; Payá, Paula; Salinas, María Rosario; Barba, Alberto

2008-06-01

243

Production, chemical characterization, and sensory profile of a novel spirit elaborated from spent coffee ground  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study describes a process for the production of a spirit from spent coffee ground (SCG), the chemical composition, and sensory profile of this distillate. The process consisted in three steps starting with the extraction of aroma compounds by hydrothermal treatment of SCG, followed by the fermentation of this extract supplemented with sucrose to ethanol, and the fermented broth distillation. Seventeen volatile compounds were identified in the distillate (including alcohols, esters, aldeh...

Sampaio, Armando; Dragone, Giuliano; Vilanova, Mar; Oliveira, J. M.; Teixeira, J. A.; Mussatto, Solange I.

2013-01-01

244

Impact of lipase-mediated hydrolysis of castor oil on ?-decalactone production by Yarrowia lipolytica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

?-Decalactone is an industrially interesting peach-like aroma compound that can be produced biotechnologically through the biotransformation of ricinoleic acid. Castor oil (CO) is the raw material most used as the ricinoleic acid source. The effect of different CO concentrations on the ?-decalactone production by Yarrowia lipolytica was investigated in batch processing, and 30 g L?1 was found to be the optimal oil concentration. Under these conditions, cells were able to produce lipase bu...

Gomes, Nelma; Braga, Adelaide; Teixeira, J. A.; Belo, Isabel

2013-01-01

245

Peroxisomal ?-oxidation and Production of ?-decalactone by the Yeast Rhodotorula aurantiaca  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

?-Decalactone is a fruity aroma compound resulting from the peroxisomal ?-oxidation of ricinoleic acid by yeasts. During the ?-oxidation of fatty acids, the acyl-CoA oxidase and thioesterase play an important role. In R. aurantiaca, we demonstrated the presence of partial gene sequences homologous to acyl-CoA oxidase and thioesterase involved in the pathways synthesis of ?-decalactone. This preliminary work is expected to characterize the relationship between the ?-decalactone production...

Alchihab, Mohamed; Dubois-dauphin, Robin; Aguedo, Mario; Destain, Jacqueline; Thonart, Philippe

2010-01-01

246

OPTIMIZATION OF 6-PENTYL-ALPHA-PYRONE PRODUCTION BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION USING SUGARCANE BAGASSE AS RESIDUE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solid state fermentation (SSF has been used as a model for the study of metabolism and physiology of microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to enhance 6-PP production by Trichoderma harzianum 4040 in solid state fermentation using sugarcane bagasse as a residue. A fractional factorial design was used to select the components of the nutrient solution. The fermentation was carried out during 9 days, and the aroma extraction was done on the third, fifth, seventh, and ninth days using organic solvent. On the seventh day the major concentration of 6-PP was found. The variables glucose, sucrose, and MgSO4 were found to be significant statistically (p> 0.05 as components of the nutrient solution used in the production of 6-PP by filamentous fungi in SSF using sugarcane bagasse as a residue. GC-MS was used for quantification of 6-PP aroma.

Natalia C. Ladeira

2010-09-01

247

Evaluation of aroma differences between hand-squeezed juices from Valencia late and Navel oranges by quantitation of key odorants and flavor reconstitution experiments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-five odor-active compounds were quantified in hand-squeezed juices of Valencia late and Navel oranges using stable isotope dilution assays. Odor activity values (OAVs, ratio of the concentration to odor thresholds) based on odor thresholds in water were calculated for the entire set of aroma compounds in both varieties. It was shown that due to their high OAVs, the fruity-smelling esters ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl butanoate, (S)-ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, and 3a,4,5,7a-tetrahydro-3,6-dimethyl-2(3H)-benzofuranone (wine lactone), the grassy smelling (Z)-hex-3-enal, and the citrus-like decanal were the most potent odorants in both juices. The weaker fruity note in the Navel oranges was clearly correlated with significantly lower OAVs of all fruity-smelling esters but a higher OAV of (Z)-3-hexenal compared to Valencia late. Model solutions simulating the odor of both orange varieties confirmed the findings of the quantitation studies. PMID:11368609

Buettner, A; Schieberle, P

2001-05-01

248

Caracterização de melões transgênicos acc oxidase antisense e estudo bioquímico de álcool aciltransferases envolvidas na biossíntese de aromas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

L'augmentation de la production d'éthylène est une des principales causes de l'accélération du métabolisme post-récolte de melons "Cantaloups Charentais". Dans le but de prolonger la vie post-récolte de ces fruits, les melons ont été transformés avec un clone de l´ACC oxydase (pAP4) de pomme "Royal Gala", en orientation antisens. Trois transformants ont été obtenus et le clone montrant la plus importante réduction de la production d'éthylène, appelé AS3, a ét...

2007-01-01

249

High-cell-density fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the optimisation of mead production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mead is a traditional drink that contains 8%-18% (v/v) of ethanol, resulting from the alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey by yeasts. Mead fermentation is a time-consuming process and the quality of the final product is highly variable. Therefore, the present investigation had two main objectives: first, to determine the adequate inoculum size of two commercial wine-making strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the optimisation of mead fermentation; and second, to determine if an increase in yeast pitching rates in batch fermentations altered the resulting aroma profiles. Minor differences were detected in the growth kinetics between the two strains at the lowest pitching rate. With increasing pitching rates net growth of the strain ICV D47 progressively decreased, whereas for the QA23 the increasing inoculum size had no influence on its net growth. The time required to reach the same stage of fermentation ranged from 24 to 96 h depending on the inoculum size. The final aroma composition was dependent on the yeast strain and inoculum size. Fourteen of the twenty-seven volatile compounds quantified could contribute to mead aroma and flavour because their concentrations rose above their respective thresholds. The formation of these compounds was particularly pronounced at low pitching rates, except in mead fermented by strain ICV D47, at 10(6) CFUs/mL. The esters isoamyl acetate, ethyl octanoate and ethyl hexanoate were the major powerful odourants found in the meads. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that yeast strain and inoculum size can favourably impact mead's flavour and aroma profiles. PMID:23122509

Pereira, A P; Mendes-Ferreira, A; Oliveira, J M; Estevinho, L M; Mendes-Faia, A

2013-02-01

250

Greenhouse production in Macedonia - challenges and opportunities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greenhouse tomato makes the largest share of vegetable production in the World. The developments of biological sciences and high technology in the protected crops sector have enabled drastic increase in the yield and contributed to improvement of the fruit quality. Main indicators for the fruit quality still remain to be evaluated by appearance (shape, color, size) whereas the sensor traits (taste and aroma) are somehow neglected. Among the consumers there is general impression that tomatoes grown on substrates are artificial, plastic, tasteless products, compared to the “genuine” tomato raised on soil. On the other hand, Macedonian vegetables have a very good reputation in the region with their fresh recognizable taste and aroma. It will be a challenge in the future to preserve it. Limiting factors for profitable glass house production in the Republic of Macedonia are the extreme temperatures in winter and in summer time. For that reason, not only that the glass house capacities are under utilized, but the expensive tomato hybrids that are intended for at least 10 months cropping period cannot return the profit within the short cropping period of 3-4 months. The institutional and educational systems in Macedonia do not keep the pace with latest developments in the greenhouse industry. Some of the Macedonian operators have made large investments in greenhouse production to be able to follow the market demands. In the newly erected greenhouses in Macedonia on total area of 7 ha in two locations (Kocani and Gevgelija) tomato is grown on substrates and the production is completely atomized in regards to fertirigation, environment control etc. This technology gives room for larger plants density and consequently, higher yields per unit of area. However, the substrate cultivation is not entirely adopted by the operators and they are completely dependent on the services provided by the supplier. It is of crucial importance to support them in this initial period of new production in identifying the bottlenecks and providing eventually intervention for optimal usage of the new technology. (Author)

2013-01-01

251

Identification of wine aroma precursors in Moscato Giallo grape juice: a nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry tandem study.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, several aroma precursors present in Moscato Giallo grape juice were identified and characterized using LC-MS and NMR techniques. A preliminary separation of various fractions was obtained using adsorption on Amberlite(®) XAD resin and HPLC chromatography on a reverse phase column. Subsequently, U-HPLC with mass spectrometry allowed the identification of some compounds corresponding to mono- and disaccharides linked to terpenes. The MS-MS fragmentation step indicated which kind of glycosides, the moiety sequence and sometimes which kind of terpene were present. NMR enabled the correct identification of glycosides and terpene when the fraction analyzed was sufficiently concentrated and with few components. Twelve glycosidically bound terpenes were characterized: (E) and (Z)-furanosyl-linalooloxide-7-O-[?-D-apiofuranosyl-(1?6)-1-?-D-glucopyranoside], (E)-furanosyl-linalooloxide-7-O-[1-?-D-glucopyranoside], (Z)-8-hydroxylinalool-8-O-[1-?-D-glucopyranoside], 1,2-dihydroxylinalool-1-O-[1-?-D-glucopyranoside], linalool-3-O-[?-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1?6)-1-?-D-glucopyranoside], linalool-3-O-[?-L-apiofuranosyl-(1?6)-1-?-D-glucopyranoside], linalool-3-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)-1-?-D-glucopyranoside], nerol-1-O-?-D-apiofuranosyl-(1?6)-1-?-D-glucopyranoside, geraniol-1-O-[?-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1?6)-1-?-D-glucopyranoside], geraniol-1-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)-1-?-D-glucopyranoside], and a geranic acid disaccharide derivative. It is the first time that this kind of compounds are directly detected and identified in a mixture with these two techniques. PMID:24148483

Schievano, E; D'Ambrosio, M; Mazzaretto, I; Ferrarini, R; Magno, F; Mammi, S; Favaro, G

2013-11-15

252

Production of 6-pentyl-?-pyrone by trichoderma harzianum in solid-state fermentation Produção de 6-pentil-?-pirona por Trichoderma harzianum em fermentação em estado sólido  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many Trichoderma species are able to produce 6-pentyl-?-pyrone (6-PP), a lactone with coconut-like aroma. In the present work, several culture parameters were studied to enhance the production of 6-PP by Trichoderma harzianum 4040 in solid-state fermentation. Green coir powder added to a nutrient solution was used as support material for fermentation. A Plackett-Burman screening technique was applied, followed by a fractionary factorial design. The best culture conditions within the expe...

Aline de Souza Ramos; Sorele Batista Fiaux; Selma Gomes Ferreira Leite

2008-01-01

253

Effect of Initial Oxygen Concentration on Diacetyl and Acetoin Production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The production of aroma compounds (acetoin and diacetyl) in fresh unripened cheese by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis CNRZ 483 was studied at 30°C at different initial oxygen concentrations (0, 21, 50, and 100% of the medium saturation by oxygen). Regardless of the initial O2 concentration, maximal production of these compounds was reached only after all the citrate was consumed. Diacetyl and acetoin production was 0.01 and 2.4 mM, respectively, at 0% oxygen. Maximum ac...

Bassit, Nai?ma; Boquien, Clair-yves; Picque, Daniel; Corrieu, Georges

1993-01-01

254

Production of the sesquiterpenoid (+)-nootkatone by metabolic engineering of Pichia pastoris.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sesquiterpenoid (+)-nootkatone is a highly demanded and highly valued aroma compound naturally found in grapefruit, pummelo or Nootka cypress tree. Extraction of (+)-nootkatone from plant material or its production by chemical synthesis suffers from low yields and the use of environmentally harmful methods, respectively. Lately, major attention has been paid to biotechnological approaches, using cell extracts or whole-cell systems for the production of (+)-nootkatone. In our study, the yeast Pichia pastoris initially was applied as whole-cell biocatalyst for the production of (+)-nootkatone from (+)-valencene, the abundant aroma compound of oranges. Therefore, we generated a strain co-expressing the premnaspirodiene oxygenase of Hyoscyamus muticus (HPO) and the Arabidopsis thaliana cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) that hydroxylated extracellularly added (+)-valencene. Intracellular production of (+)-valencene by co-expression of valencene synthase from Callitropsis nootkatensis resolved the phase-transfer issues of (+)-valencene. Bi-phasic cultivations of P. pastoris resulted in the production of trans-nootkatol, which was oxidized to (+)-nootkatone by an intrinsic P. pastoris activity. Additional overexpression of a P. pastoris alcohol dehydrogenase and truncated hydroxy-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (tHmg1p) significantly enhanced the (+)-nootkatone yield to 208mgL(-1) cell culture in bioreactor cultivations. Thus, metabolically engineered yeast P. pastoris represents a valuable, whole-cell system for high-level production of (+)-nootkatone from simple carbon sources. PMID:24747046

Wriessnegger, Tamara; Augustin, Peter; Engleder, Matthias; Leitner, Erich; Müller, Monika; Kaluzna, Iwona; Schürmann, Martin; Mink, Daniel; Zellnig, Günther; Schwab, Helmut; Pichler, Harald

2014-07-01

255

Peroxisomal ?-oxidation and Production of ?-decalactone by the Yeast Rhodotorula aurantiaca  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?-Decalactone is a fruity aroma compound resulting from the peroxisomal ?-oxidation of ricinoleic acid by yeasts. During the ?-oxidation of fatty acids, the acyl-CoA oxidase and thioesterase play an important role. In R. aurantiaca, we demonstrated the presence of partial gene sequences homologous to acyl-CoA oxidase and thioesterase involved in the pathways synthesis of ?-decalactone. This preliminary work is expected to characterize the relationship between the ?-decalactone production and the transcription of these partial gene sequences of R. aurantiaca probably involved in the oxidation of ricinoleic acid.

Philippe THONART

2010-09-01

256

Projective Mapping and Product Positioning of Deep Fat Fried Snack  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was carried out to examine the quality parameters of commercially available popular deep-fried snack-Mu- rukku. Eight samples (four spicy and four salty of most commonly consumed deep-fried snacks in India, viz., murukku (an extruded strands-like product made from the mixture of rice flour and black gram dhal flour were analyzed for moisture, oil content, CIE instrumental color (L*a*b*, instrumental texture measurement (breaking strength of murukku strands, aroma finger printing by electronic nose and sensory quality. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA and results showed that sample ‘A’ had highest acceptance and sample D lowest acceptance scores. The results indicated that significant variations were observed in moisture content (2.21 - 3.35%, oil content (30.10 - 34.61% and textural parameters. Electronic nose technique was found useful in fingerprinting the aroma pattern of market samples in a short time. Descriptive sensory profiling coupled with principal component analysis showed the interrelationship among and between sensory, instrumental, chemical parameters.

Ramasamy Ravi

2011-08-01

257

Use of Probiotics in Fermented Meat Products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In spite of a negative judgements among consumers about meat and meat products, in human nutrition meat and meat products are important for nutrient components which they contain essential nutrients. Intensively produced fermented meat product such as sucuk in our country and lactic acid bacteria (LAB are used for production of various fermented sausages all over the world. LAB primarily used in order to increase the food safety of such products. LAB with probiotic properties have effect on product taste, flavour and aroma as well as the positive effects on functional and physiological properties. Positive effects of probiotics in human health and product properties in the absence of any adverse effects various cultures have been used for the production of probiotic fermented meat products. In the production of such products prepared dough which have meat and fat in the matrix form a suitable vehicle for probiotic cells. During production of products formation of lactic acid reduced the pH, during ripening conditions water activity reduced so these factors adversely affect viability of probiotic cells. For this reason protecting probiotic cultures from negative effects during exposure in the product and vitality of cells in human gastro-intestinal system to continue operating for consumption to be provided during the order process the cells are coated with microencapsuation. The use of probiotic microorganisms isolated from various foods is being investigated for the production of sausages. Studies on the effects of probiotics on human health of meat products are also needed. In this study the probiotic microorganisms used in the production of probiotic fermented sausages were investigated.

Recep Palamuto?lu

2014-05-01

258

Growth regulators and essential oil production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aroma and fragrance industry is a billion-dollar world market which grows annually. Essential oils comprise the majority of compounds used by these industries. These sets of metabolites are formed mainly by monoterpenes, which are products of the plants' secondary metabolism. Biosynthesized from [...] mevalonate and methylerythitol phosphate, the essential oil production depends not only on genetic factors and the developmental stage of plants, but also on environmental factors which could result in biochemical and physiological alterations in plants modifying the quantity and quality of the essential oil. These modifications impair aromatic plant production aimed at essential oil by reducing their quality. It is desirable to develop techniques of agronomical management to improve essential oil products and their specific compounds. Among other factors influencing essential oil production are plant growth regulators or plant hormones. Endogenous levels as well exogenous application could affect essential oil production and chemical composition. In this review we will present research in which plant growth regulators or their synthetic analogs were used and their effects on essential oil production.

Cláudia L, Prins; Ivo J. C, Vieira; Silvério P, Freitas.

259

Use and declaration of additives in meat products: New legal regulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the more important additives used in meat products, their functional characteristics, the permitted quantities and declaration in keeping with the new legal regulations. Additives important for meat products, according to their functional characteristics, can be preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers, emulsifying salts, acidity regulators, sequestrants, thickeners, gelling agents, modified starches, acids, colours, aroma enhancers, packaging gases and coating powders, and it must be pointed out that many additives have several functional characteristics at the same time. In stating additives in the list of contents of a product, the elementary functional characteristic of the additive is given with the E number or name of the additive in brackets; modified starches are declared as „starch" without giving the E number. The declaration does not state the quantity of the additive added to the product, or the biggest permitted quantity of the additive in the given product.

Vukovi? Ilija

2005-01-01

260

Innovative Integrated Wet Process for Virgin Coconut Oil Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the recent years, increased interest on the development of the Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO has been observed. This is to maximize the benefit of the multifunctional traditionally used coconut. VCO is rich in the Medium Chain Fatty Acids (MCFAs that have been shown to speed up the metabolism. Almost 50% of the fatty acid in virgin coconut oil is in form of lauric acid. This fatty acid has wide application as wide spectrum of antimicrobial substances against fungi, bacteria and viruses. Moreover, the fatty acid profile of coconut oil shares the similar characteristic with breast milk. The MCFAs in coconut oil are not stored in the body cells but rather processed directly in the liver where they are converted immediately into energy. The present study describes the process for VCO production through integrated wet process. The novel features of this process is the production of virgin coconut oil itself which can minimize the time, cost, energy and man power as well as can maximize the yield and improve the quality of coconut oil. The VCO obtained by this process contribute about 30-40% wt/wt of yield which is 10-20% higher than conventional method. The physical characteristics of VCO along this process shows that the VCO is colorless, retain fresh coconut aroma and sweet coconut taste with the highest content of lauric acid (49.85%. Besides that, the result also indicates the presence of vitamin E VCO. In general, the overall results for sensory analysis were acceptable in terms of aroma and taste of the product.

W.R.W. Sulaiman

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Terpene production in the peel of sweet orange fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Terpenoids constitute the largest and most diverse class of natural products. They are important factors for aroma and flavor, and their synthesis is basically done from two compounds: isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Isopentenyl diphosphate is synthesized through two different [...] pathways, one that occurs in the cytoplasm and one in the plastid. With the sequencing of ESTs from citrus, we were able to perform in silico analyses on the pathways that lead to the synthesis of terpenes as well as on the terpene synthases present in sweet orange. Moreover, expression analysis using real-time qPCR was performed to verify the expression pattern of a terpene synthase in plants. The results show that all the pathways for isopentenyl diphosphate are present in citrus and a high expression of terpene synthases seems to have an important role in the constitution of the essential oils of citrus.

Takita, Marco A.; Berger, Irving J.; Basílio-Palmieri, Ana Carolina; Borges, Kleber M.; Souza, Juliana M. de; Targon, Maria L.N.P..

262

Terpene production in the peel of sweet orange fruits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Terpenoids constitute the largest and most diverse class of natural products. They are important factors for aroma and flavor, and their synthesis is basically done from two compounds: isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Isopentenyl diphosphate is synthesized through two different pathways, one that occurs in the cytoplasm and one in the plastid. With the sequencing of ESTs from citrus, we were able to perform in silico analyses on the pathways that lead to the synthesis of terpenes as well as on the terpene synthases present in sweet orange. Moreover, expression analysis using real-time qPCR was performed to verify the expression pattern of a terpene synthase in plants. The results show that all the pathways for isopentenyl diphosphate are present in citrus and a high expression of terpene synthases seems to have an important role in the constitution of the essential oils of citrus.

Marco A. Takita

2007-01-01

263

Furan in food: headspace method and product survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been adapted for the efficient determination of furan in foods. Levels of furan in various foods were measured in order to identify the products that contribute most to the human intake of furan. Highest amounts were found in products that were heat treated in sealed containers such as jarred and canned food products and in crusty and dry products such as snacks, biscuits, bread crust, roasted wheat flour and roasted coffee beans. Of the analysed jarred baby food products those containing only meat and starch from rice and corn had low levels of furan. In addition, the fruit products showed similar low levels. Clearly higher concentrations were found in the vegetable and vegetable-meat products. For the adult population coffee seems to be an important product with respect to furan intake. Coffee brews from espresso-type machines had considerably higher amounts of furan than other coffee brews. This type of coffee is considered by experts to have the best coffee aroma. It is assumed that for regular coffee consumers coffee is the most important source of furan intake. PMID:17687703

Zoller, O; Sager, F; Reinhard, H

2007-01-01

264

Evaluation of fruit productivity and quality in Hass avocado submitted to 60Co gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evaluation of productivity, postharvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Hass avocado trees irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the ''La Labor'' Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologias del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300 %. In regard to postharvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO2/kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This mean that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and postharvest behavior of fruits. (Author)

1999-12-02

265

Study of effect of radiation on the parameters of quality of sterile males of Ceratitis Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and their improvement aroma therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this present work, we are interested in studying the various stages in the production of sterile males, the effect of different doses of irradiation on longevity, compatibility and competitiveness of these males. And the effect of exposure of adults and pupae of Ceratitis to different doses of essential oil of ginger on their compatibility and competitiveness. (Author)

2008-01-01

266

SPME analytical method for the determination of Hexanal in hazelnuts as indicator of the interaction of active packaging materials with food aroma compounds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Abstract Fatty foods are susceptible to lipid oxidation, which involves a quality deterioration of the product, since this process is responsible of generation of off-flavours. Hexanal has been reported to be a good indicator of the rancidity. A method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography and flame ionization detector method to determine hexanal formed in hazelnuts during storage was developed. The optimum conditions were the ...

2006-01-01

267

A Multi-Axis Best Fit to the Collider Supersymmetry Search: The Aroma of Stops and Gluinos at the \\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV LHC  

CERN Document Server

In Profumo di SUSY, we presented evidence that CMS&ATLAS may have already registered a handful of deftly camouflaged supersymmetry events at the LHC in the multijet channels. Here, we explore the prospect for corroboration of this suggestion from 5 additional CMS&ATLAS search strategies targeting the production of light stops & gluinos at lower jet counts, which variously depend on heavy flavor tagging and the inclusion or exclusion of associated leptons. The current operating phase of the 7TeV LHC is highly conducive to the production of gluinos & light stops, given the supersymmetric particle mass hierarchy M_t_1production for these seven search methodologies roundly ...

Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Walker, Joel W

2012-01-01

268

Bronquiolite associada à exposição a aroma artificial de manteiga em trabalhadores de uma fábrica de biscoitos no Brasil Bronchiolitis associated with exposure to artificial butter flavoring in workers at a cookie factory in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar quatro casos de bronquiolite decorrente de exposição a aroma artificial de manteiga em uma fábrica de biscoitos no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Descrevemos os achados clínicos, espirométricos e tomográficos nos quatro pacientes, assim como achados de biópsia pulmonar em um dos pacientes. RESULTADOS: Os quatro pacientes eram homens jovens, não fumantes, e desenvolveram obstrução persistente ao fluxo aéreo (relação VEF1/CVF reduzida e VEF1 de 25-44% do previsto após 1-3 anos de exposição a diacetil, sem a utilização de equipamentos de proteção individual, em uma fábrica de biscoitos. A TCAR mostrou achados indicativos de bronquiolite. Em um paciente, a biópsia pulmonar cirúrgica mostrou bronquiolite obliterante associada a células gigantes. CONCLUSÕES: A bronquiolite decorrente de exposição a flavorizantes artificiais deve ser considerada em trabalhadores com obstrução ao fluxo aéreo no Brasil.OBJECTIVE: To report the cases of four patients with bronchiolitis caused by exposure to artificial butter flavoring at a cookie factory in Brazil. METHODS: We described the clinical, tomographic, and spirometric findings in the four patients, as well as the lung biopsy findings in one of the patients. RESULTS: All four patients were young male nonsmokers and developed persistent airflow obstruction (reduced FEV1/FVC ratio and FEV1 at 25-44% of predicted after 1-3 years of exposure to diacetyl, without the use of personal protective equipment, at a cookie factory. The HRCT findings were indicative of bronchiolitis. In one patient, the surgical lung biopsy revealed bronchiolitis obliterans accompanied by giant cells. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchiolitis resulting from exposure to artificial flavoring agents should be included in the differential diagnosis of airflow obstruction in workers in Brazil.

Zaida do Rego Cavalcanti

2012-06-01

269

Bronquiolite associada à exposição a aroma artificial de manteiga em trabalhadores de uma fábrica de biscoitos no Brasil / Bronchiolitis associated with exposure to artificial butter flavoring in workers at a cookie factory in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Relatar quatro casos de bronquiolite decorrente de exposição a aroma artificial de manteiga em uma fábrica de biscoitos no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Descrevemos os achados clínicos, espirométricos e tomográficos nos quatro pacientes, assim como achados de biópsia pulmonar em um dos pacientes. RESUL [...] TADOS: Os quatro pacientes eram homens jovens, não fumantes, e desenvolveram obstrução persistente ao fluxo aéreo (relação VEF1/CVF reduzida e VEF1 de 25-44% do previsto) após 1-3 anos de exposição a diacetil, sem a utilização de equipamentos de proteção individual, em uma fábrica de biscoitos. A TCAR mostrou achados indicativos de bronquiolite. Em um paciente, a biópsia pulmonar cirúrgica mostrou bronquiolite obliterante associada a células gigantes. CONCLUSÕES: A bronquiolite decorrente de exposição a flavorizantes artificiais deve ser considerada em trabalhadores com obstrução ao fluxo aéreo no Brasil. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report the cases of four patients with bronchiolitis caused by exposure to artificial butter flavoring at a cookie factory in Brazil. METHODS: We described the clinical, tomographic, and spirometric findings in the four patients, as well as the lung biopsy findings in one of the patien [...] ts. RESULTS: All four patients were young male nonsmokers and developed persistent airflow obstruction (reduced FEV1/FVC ratio and FEV1 at 25-44% of predicted) after 1-3 years of exposure to diacetyl, without the use of personal protective equipment, at a cookie factory. The HRCT findings were indicative of bronchiolitis. In one patient, the surgical lung biopsy revealed bronchiolitis obliterans accompanied by giant cells. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchiolitis resulting from exposure to artificial flavoring agents should be included in the differential diagnosis of airflow obstruction in workers in Brazil.

Cavalcanti, Zaida do Rego; Albuquerque Filho, Alfredo Pereira Leite de; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro; Coletta, Ester Nei Aparecida Martins.

270

Transgenic Hybrid Poplar for Sustainable and Scalable Production of the Commodity/Specialty Chemical, 2-Phenylethanol  

Science.gov (United States)

Fast growing hybrid poplar offers the means for sustainable production of specialty and commodity chemicals, in addition to rapid biomass production for lignocellulosic deconstruction. Herein we describe transformation of fast-growing transgenic hybrid poplar lines to produce 2-phenylethanol, this being an important fragrance, flavor, aroma, and commodity chemical. It is also readily converted into styrene or ethyl benzene, the latter being an important commodity aviation fuel component. Introducing this biochemical pathway into hybrid poplars marks the beginnings of developing a platform for a sustainable chemical delivery system to afford this and other valuable specialty/commodity chemicals at the scale and cost needed. These modified plant lines mainly sequester 2-phenylethanol via carbohydrate and other covalently linked derivatives, thereby providing an additional advantage of effective storage until needed. The future potential of this technology is discussed. MALDI metabolite tissue imaging also established localization of these metabolites in the leaf vasculature.

Costa, Michael A.; Marques, Joaquim V.; Dalisay, Doralyn S.; Herman, Barrington; Bedgar, Diana L.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

2013-01-01

271

Chemometric studies of vinegars from different raw materials and processes of production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phenolic composition, aroma compounds, and organic acid content of 83 vinegars have been determined. Multivariate analysis techniques have been used to classify these vinegar samples according to raw material (white wine, red wine, apple, honey, alcohol, balsamic, and malt) and production process (with and without aging in wood). Cluster analysis grouped the samples according to production process. Only apple and balsamic vinegars were separated from wine vinegars. Alcohol, honey, and malt vinegars were grouped with no aged wine vinegars. Linear discriminate analysis allowed a 88% differentiation according to raw material and 100% according to aging in wood. Besides, from the results obtained, a major role of the volatile compounds in the differentiation of the vinegar samples according to their aging period in wood can be seen. PMID:12744665

Natera, Ramón; Castro, Remedios; de Valme García-Moreno, María; Hernández, María Jesús; García-Barroso, Carmelo

2003-05-21

272

Avaliação do uso de inibidores de etileno sobre a produção de compostos voláteis e de mangiferina em manga Evaluation of the use of ethylene inhibitors on production of volatile compounds and mangiferin in mango fruit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effects of two ethylene inhibitors, 1-methylcylopropene (1-MCP and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, on production of volatile compounds and mangiferin (a bioactive xanthone in 'Tommy Atkins' mango fruit were investigated. Volatile composition and mangiferin content, in treated and untreated fruits at three maturity, stages were determined by SPME-GC-MS and HPLC, respectively. These chromatographical analysis revealed that the volatile profiles and mangiferin concentrations were not significantly different, suggesting that the use of ethylene inhibitors does not affect the mango aroma and functional properties relative to this xanthone. Moreover, a simple, precise and accurate HPLC method was developed for quantifying mangiferin in mango pulp.

Kirley Marques Canuto

2010-01-01

273

Bioflavour production from orange peel hydrolysate using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rising trend of bioflavour synthesis by microorganisms is hindered by the high manufacturing costs, partially attributed to the cost of the starting material. To overcome this limitation, in the present study, dilute-acid hydrolysate of orange peel was employed as a low-cost, rich in fermentable sugars substrate for the production of flavour-active compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With this purpose, the use of immobilized cell technology to protect cells against the various inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate was evaluated with regard to yeast viability, carbon and nitrogen consumption and cell ability to produce flavour active compounds. For cell immobilization the encapsulation in Ca alginate beads was used. The results were compared with those obtained using free-cell system. Based on the data obtained immobilized cells showed better growth performance and increased ability for de novo synthesis of volatile esters of "fruity" aroma (phenylethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate and dodecanoate) than those of free cells. The potential for in situ production of new formulations containing flavour-active compounds derive from yeast cells and also from essential oil of orange peel (limonene, ?-terpineol) was demonstrated by the fact that bioflavour mixture was found to accumulate within the beads. Furthermore, the ability of the immobilized yeast to perform efficiently repeated batch fermentations of orange peel hydrolysate for bioflavour production was successfully maintained after six consecutive cycles of a total period of 240 h. PMID:23995224

Lalou, Sofia; Mantzouridou, Fani; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Bugarski, Branko; Levic, Steva; Nedovic, Victor

2013-11-01

274

Prospecting - production; Exploration - production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In year 2000, the expenses concerning the prospecting and production, should increase of more than ten percent, to reach 100 G dollars. This investments recovery can be explained by the petroleum prices recovery since the OPEC decision in march 1999 of reducing the production. This document analyzes the prospecting-production market with data on investments drilling and production. An estimation of the world reserves is also proposed, illustrated by the production in many countries. Another domain is dealt: the petroleum deposits geological 3-D simulation with the development, by T-Surf, of a new software already validated by Texaco. (A.L.B.)

Laherrere, J.

2001-04-01

275

Changes in the volatile compound production of fermentations made from musts with increasing grape content.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wine is a complex consumer product produced predominately by the action of yeast upon grape juice. Model must systems have proven to be ideal for studies into the effects of fermentation conditions on the production of certain wine volatiles. To clarify the contribution of grape juice to the production of wine volatiles, we have employed a model must system spiked with increasing amounts of grape juice (Riesling or Cabernet Sauvignon). The resulting fermented wines were analyzed by SPME-GC-MS and the data obtained grouped using ANOVA and cluster analyses to reveal those compounds that varied in concentration with reproducible trends relative to juice concentration. Such grouping highlights those compounds that are grape-dependent or for which production is modulated by grape composition. In some cases, increasing the proportion of grape juice in the fermentations stimulated the production of certain esters to levels between 2- and 140-fold higher than those seen in fermentations made with model grape juice media alone. The identification of the grape components responsible for the increased production of these wine volatiles will have implications for the impact of grape production and enology on wine flavor and aroma. PMID:20020683

Keyzers, Robert A; Boss, Paul K

2010-01-27

276

Spices and Condiments in Ghana: Their Utilization in Comminuted Meat Products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Local spices were collected from seven major markets across Ghana, compiled and identified by their Scientific, Common and Local names, properties, part used and area found. Seven fresh pork sausages prepared using differing compositions of these spices were sensorily evaluated in a pre-trial and four selected and further evaluated in triplicate to determine their acceptability. A 10 member panel assessed the external appearance of uncooked products, internal colour, aroma, taste and the overall acceptability of cooked products. The data was analysed as a completely randomized block design using the nonparametric analysis as employed in Friedman’s method and Wilcoxon’s signed rank test. A total of fourteen local spices were collected. A 1.52% level of inclusion of the different composite spice mixes in the products was acceptable. The prekese based product was significantly judged the most acceptable (P=.05 while the dawadawa based product the least acceptable. In conclusion, preparing Ready to use composite-spice mixes from local spices to promote comminuted meat processing among meat handlers is feasible but must be done safely in order to keep the health value of the meat products

Darkwa Sarah

2013-11-01

277

Utilization of concentrated cheese whey for the production of protein concentrate fuel alcohol and alcoholic beverages  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this investigation was to recover the major components of whey and to develop food applications for their incorporation/conversion into acceptable products of commercial value. Reconstituted dried sweet whey with 36% solids was ultrafiltered to yield a protein concentrate (WPC) and a permeate containing 24% lactose and 3.7% ash. Orange juice fortified up to 2.07% and chocolate milks fortified up to 5.88% total protein levels with WPC containing 45% total protein were acceptable to about 90% of a panel of 24 individuals. Fermentation of demineralized permeate at 30/sup 0/C with Kluyveromyces fragilis NRRL Y 2415 adapted to 24% lactose levels, led to 13.7% (v/v) ethanol in the medium at the end of 34 hours. Batch productivity was 3.2 gms. ethanol per liter per hour and conversion efficiency was 84.26% of the theoretical maximum. Alcoholic fermentation of permeate and subsequent distillation produced compounds with desirable aroma characters in such products. This study suggests that there is potential for the production of protein fortified non-alcoholic products and alcoholic beverages of commercial value from whey, thus providing a cost effective solution to the whey utilization problem.

Krishnamurti, R.

1983-01-01

278

Mediterranean dairy sheep and goat products and their quality. A critical review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sheep and goat edible products (mainly meat and dairy products) have interesting characteristics in their levels of flavour, taste, aromas and leanness as well as the specific composition of fats, proteins, amino and fatty acids. Their quality is very much linked to historical and cultural uniqueness right through the production, marketing and consumption chains. This refers, at least in the Mediterranean region, to farming systems with dominant extensive grazing situations, specific technologies and conditions for slaughtering as well as for the transformation processes of cheese-making and its maturing; they are also characterised by traditional nutritional habits of the consumers. While the organoleptic properties of the dairy products are very important, the sanitary aspects become more and more influential and tend to modify the accepted definitions of these products and their quality (e.g. non-pasteurised milk, production chains, hygiene, transformation methodologies, etc.). Today there are major research efforts to ameliorate the production aspects but also the quality of the products; better cheese yield with the work undertaken on alpha-s1-casein, flavour and taste of cheeses is improved by the work on lipolysis and the study of the molecules responsible for the taste of the cheeses, studies on the fattening level of animals including genetic variability, and a better understanding of the fat distribution on carcasses. The future evolution of these products is difficult to foresee. Will quality be the criterion which will give the market direction in the developed countries (standardised products and top quality special products)? In the developing regions will we be able to maintain the actual production which is well adapted to the local demand or will this not be handicapped by the fragility and marginalisation of the existing livestock farming systems and untenable rises in costs? PMID:11259871

Boyazoglu, J; Morand-Fehr, P

2001-04-01

279

Effects of gamma irradiation for inactivating Salmonella Typhimurium in peanut butter product during storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three types (A, B, and C) of peanut butter product with different water activities (0.18, 0.39, and 0.65 aw) inoculated with a 3-strain mixture of Salmonella Typhimurium were subjected to gamma irradiation (??Co) treatment, with doses ranging from 0 to 3 kGy. The inactivation of S. Typhimurium in the 3 types of treated peanut butter product over a 14 day storage period and the influence of storage temperature at 4 (refrigerated) and 25 °C (ambient), and peanut butter product formulation were investigated. Three types of peanut butter product inoculated with S. Typhimurium to a level of ca. 6.6 log CFU/g and subjected to gamma irradiation experienced significant (pbutter product to undetectable levels was 14, 5, and 5 days at 25°C after exposure to 3 kGy for products A, B, and C, respectively, and 7 days at 25 °C following exposure to 2 kGy for product C. During storage at 4 and 25 °C, survival of S. Typhimurium was lowest in product C compared to products A and B. Water activity (a(w)) of peanut butter product was likely the most critical factor affecting pathogen survival. When a(w) is reduced, radiolysis of water is reduced, thereby decreasing antimicrobial action. Overall, death was more rapid at 25 °C versus 4 °C for all peanut butter products during 14 day storage. Following gamma irradiation, acid values of peanut butter product were not significantly different from the control, and general observations failed to detect changes in color and aroma, even though lightness observed using a colorimeter was slightly reduced on day 0. The use of gamma irradiation has potential in preventing spoilage of post-packaged food by destroying microorganisms and improving the safety and quality of foods without compromising sensory quality. PMID:24321602

Ban, Ga-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

2014-02-01

280

The Nose Knows: Biotechnological Production of Vanillin  

Science.gov (United States)

Vanillin, the compound responsible for the well-known vanilla aroma, is almost exclusively produced via a chemical process, with only a small fraction extracted from natural sources, namely, the bean of the orchid "Vanilla planifolia". Research is being done towards a green chemistry process to obtain natural vanillin. A model biotechnological…

Winter, Remko T.; van Beek, Hugo L.; Fraaije, Marco W.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Enzymatic hydrolysis of fructans in the tequila production process.  

Science.gov (United States)

In contrast to the hydrolysis of reserve carbohydrates in most plant-derived alcoholic beverage processes carried out with enzymes, agave fructans in tequila production have traditionally been transformed to fermentable sugars through acid thermal hydrolysis. Experiments at the bench scale demonstrated that the extraction and hydrolysis of agave fructans can be carried out continuously using commercial inulinases in a countercurrent extraction process with shredded agave fibers. Difficulties in the temperature control of large extraction diffusers did not allow the scaling up of this procedure. Nevertheless, batch enzymatic hydrolysis of agave extracts obtained in diffusers operating at 60 and 90 degrees C was studied at the laboratory and industrial levels. The effects of the enzymatic process on some tequila congeners were studied, demonstrating that although a short thermal treatment is essential for the development of tequila's organoleptic characteristics, the fructan hydrolysis can be performed with enzymes without major modifications in the flavor or aroma, as determined by a plant sensory panel and corroborated by the analysis of tequila congeners. PMID:19473003

Avila-Fernández, Angela; Rendón-Poujol, Xóchitl; Olvera, Clarita; González, Fernando; Capella, Santiago; Peña-Alvarez, Araceli; López-Munguía, Agustín

2009-06-24

282

Hydrogen production  

Science.gov (United States)

The state of hydrogen production technology is evaluated. Specific areas discussed include: hydrogen production fossil fuels; coal gasification processes; electrolysis of water; thermochemical production of hydrogen; production of hydrogen by solar energy; and biological production of hydrogen. Supply options are considered along with costs of hydrogen production.

England, C.; Chirivella, J. E.; Fujita, T.; Jeffe, R. E.; Lawson, D.; Manvi, R.

1975-01-01

283

Characterisation of Maillard reaction products derived from LEKFD--a pentapeptide found in ?-lactoglobulin sequence, glycated with glucose--by tandem mass spectrometry, molecular orbital calculations and gel filtration chromatography coupled with continuous photodiode array.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maillard reaction peptides (MRPs) contribute to taste, aroma, colour, texture and biological activity. However, peptide degradation or the cross-linking of MRPs in the Maillard reaction has not been investigated clearly. A peptide of LEKFD, a part of ?-lactoglobulin, was heated at 110 °C for 24h with glucose and the reaction products were analysed by HPLC with ODS, ESI-MS, ESI-MS/MS and HPLC with gel-filtration column and DAD detector. In the HPLC fractions, an imminium ion of LEK*FD, a pyrylium ion or a hydroxymethyl furylium ion of LEK*FD, and KFD and EK were detected by ESI-MS. Therefore, those products may be produced by the Maillard reaction. The molecular orbital of glycated LEKFD at the lysine epsilon-amino residue with Schiff base form was calculated by MOPAC. HPLC with gel-filtration column showed cross-linking and degradation of peptides. PMID:24128561

Yamaguchi, Keiko; Homma, Takeshi; Nomi, Yuri; Otsuka, Yuzuru

2014-02-15

284

Evaluación de la calidad de productos lácteos por medio de la nariz electrónica / Assessment of dairy products quality by means of electronic nose  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La nariz electrónica, instrumento que utiliza un conjunto de sensores y un sistema de reconocimiento de patrones para el análisis cualitativo de aromas, ha encontrado numerosas aplicaciones en la industria alimentaria, gracias a su versatilidad. En este trabajo una breve descripción de la nariz elec [...] trónica, de su modo de operación y de sus ventajas y desventajas, ha sido realizada. Además, las principales aplicaciones de este instrumento en la industria de alimentos, con un énfasis especial en la industria láctea, han sido revisadas. Estas aplicaciones incluyen la detección de microorganismos en la leche, la identificación de aromas indeseados en la leche, la estimación del tiempo de vida útil de la leche y de varios tipos de quesos, la identificación de leche mastítica, la clasificación de quesos en función del tiempo de maduración, la diferenciación de quesos por origen geográfico y el control de la fermentación de la leche, entre otros. Los resultados de esta revisión indican que la nariz electrónica podría ser utilizada como un instrumento para un rápido control de calidad de los productos. Abstract in english The electronic nose, instrument that uses a group of sensors and a system of pattern recognition for the qualitative analysis of aroma, has found many applications in the food industry, because of its versatility. In this work a brief description of the electronic nose, its operation mode and its ad [...] vantages and disadvantages were carried out. Moreover, the main applications of this instrument in the food industry, with special emphasis on the dairy industry, have been reviewed. These applications include the detection of microorganisms in milk, the identification of off-flavours in milk, the shelf life of milk and various types of cheeses, the identification of mastitic milk, the classification of cheeses according to their time of ripening, the discrimination of cheeses by geographic origin and the control of the milk fermentation, among other. The results of this review indicate that electronic nose could be used as an instrument for the rapid quality control of dairy products.

Gutiérrez, Luis-Felipe.

285

productivity analysis  

Measurement error and data quality can also affect productivity estimates. .... \\more productive, and is a way of embodying new technology in the production \\process. • The DTI ... Chart 7 shows business investment in FDT manufacturing \\and in.

286

Product Charisma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Consumers are attracted by product designs that feel “alive” and that contain surprise elements. The right expressions in a product contribute to its attractiveness or “charisma”. Today, these intangible product attributes are an important way to differentiate a product from competitor's products. Companies in mature markets, especially, have a competitive advantage when they succeed in integrating “expressions” or “messages” into the product design that touches its user. This...

Gotzsch, Josiena

2002-01-01

287

VANILLIN PRODUCTION BY PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM GROWN ON GREEN COCONUT AGRO-INDUSTRIAL HUSK IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agro-industrial residues have become an important source for the production of chemical compounds using biological pathways, contributing to preservation of the environment and making the overall process economically supportable. Vanillin is a very important aromatic compound for the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the vanillin production by solid-state fermentation on green coconut residue using the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Solid-state fermentation was carried on a support of green coconut husk treated in two different ways: sun-dried and mechanical-pressed. A Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to screen the compounds of liquid medium culture of the vanillin production. Nineteen variables were studied to optimize the culture conditions, and eleven of them were significant. The screening improved the production of vanillin from 44.4 ?g/g of support to 52.5 ?g/g of support in 24 hours of fermentation. Sun-dried coconut husk was found to be superior to mechanical-pressed coconut husk for production of vanillin. HPLC was used for the quantification of vanillin aroma.

Elisabete dos Santos Barbosa

2008-11-01

288

Yeast genes involved in sulfur and nitrogen metabolism affect the production of volatile thiols from Sauvignon Blanc musts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two volatile thiols, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH), and 3-mercaptohexyl-acetate (3MHA), reminiscent of grapefruit and passion fruit respectively, are critical varietal aroma compounds in Sauvignon Blanc (SB) wines. These aromatic thiols are not present in the grape juice but are synthesized and released by the yeast during alcoholic fermentation. Single deletion mutants of 67 candidate genes in a laboratory strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were screened using gas chromatography mass spectrometry for their thiol production after fermentation of SB grape juice. None of the deletions abolished production of the two volatile thiols. However, deletion of 17 genes caused increases or decreases in production by as much as twofold. These 17 genes, mostly related to sulfur and nitrogen metabolism in yeast, may act by altering the regulation of the pathway(s) of thiol production or altering substrate supply. Deleting subsets of these genes in a wine yeast strain gave similar results to the laboratory strain for sulfur pathway genes but showed strain differences for genes involved in nitrogen metabolism. The addition of two nitrogen sources, urea and di-ammonium phosphate, as well as two sulfur compounds, cysteine and S-ethyl-L-cysteine, increased 3MH and 3MHA concentrations in the final wines. Collectively these results suggest that sulfur and nitrogen metabolism are important in regulating the synthesis of 3MH and 3MHA during yeast fermentation of grape juice. PMID:22684328

Harsch, Michael J; Gardner, Richard C

2013-01-01

289

Free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on whey protein as starter cultures for probiotic Feta-type cheese production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on whey protein as starter culture in probiotic Feta-type cheese production was evaluated. The probiotic cultures resulted in significantly higher acidity; lower pH; reduced counts of coliforms, enterobacteria, and staphylococci; and improved quality characteristics compared with cheese with no culture. Microbiological and strain-specific multiplex PCR analysis showed that both free and immobilized L. casei ATCC 393 were detected in the novel products at levels required for conferring a probiotic effect at the end of the ripening. The effect of starter culture on production of volatile compounds was investigated by the solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis technique. The immobilized cells resulted in an improved profile of aroma-related compounds and the overall high quality of the novel products was ascertained by the preliminary sensory test. Finally, the high added value produced by exploitation of whey, which is an extremely polluting industrial waste, was highlighted and assessed. PMID:24931523

Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Sidira, Marianthi; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

2014-08-01

290

Biotechnological process for obtaining new fermented products from cashew apple fruit by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Brazil, the use of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) to obtain new products by biotechnological process represents an important alternative to avoid wastage of a large quantity of this fruit, which reaches about 85% of the annual production of 1 million tons. This work focuses on the development of an alcoholic product obtained by the fermentation of cashew apple juice. The inoculation with two different strains of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae viz. SCP and SCT, were standardized to a concentration of 10(7 )cells ml(-1). Each inoculum was added to 1,500 ml of cashew must. Fermentation was performed at 28 ± 3°C and aliquots were withdrawn every 24 h to monitor soluble sugar concentrations, pH, and dry matter contents. The volatile compounds in fermented products were analyzed using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system. After 6 days, the fermentation process was completed, cells removed by filtration and centrifugation, and the products were stabilized under refrigeration for a period of 20 days. The stabilized products were stored in glass bottles and pasteurized at 60 ± 5°C/30 min. Both fermented products contained ethanol concentration above 6% (v v(-1)) while methanol was not detected and total acidity was below 90 mEq l(-1), representing a pH of 3.8-3.9. The volatile compounds were characterized by the presence of aldehyde (butyl aldehyde diethyl acetal, 2,4-dimethyl-hepta-2,4-dienal, and 2-methyl-2-pentenal) and ester (ethyl ?-methylbutyrate) representing fruity aroma. The strain SCT was found to be better and efficient and this produced 10% more alcohol over that of strain SCP. PMID:21069555

Araújo, Suzane Macêdo; Silva, Cristina Ferraz; Moreira, Jane Jesus Silveira; Narain, Narendra; Souza, Roberto Rodrigues

2011-09-01

291

Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

Demin Mirjana A.

2013-01-01

292

The influence of biosynthesized exopolysaccharides on some characteristics of fermented dairy products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the current technology of fermented milk products, the ability to form exopolysaccharides (EPS is a basic criterion to be used for the selection of starter cultures, together with their capacity to produce lactic acid, aroma substances, stability and texture. This paper aimed at screening lactic acid bacteria to be used as starter cultures for yogurt production based on their ability to biosynthesized exopolysaccharides. In case of the YF-L812 starter culture, the ability to synthesize EPS depended on the dry matter (DM of the milk: a quantity of 93 mg EPS/l was recorded for the whole milk reconstituted to 14.5% DM and 80 mg EPS/l for the sample reconstituted to 11.5% DM. The investigation at the microstructure level revealed that yogurt obtained from reconstituted milk to 14.5% DM had a dense network gel with a high syneresis phenomenon, whereas yogurt made from reconstituted milk to 11.5% DM formed a network gel with large alveolar cavity enough to hold the entire amount of whey.

INA VASILEAN

293

Avaliação do uso de inibidores de etileno sobre a produção de compostos voláteis e de mangiferina em manga / Evaluation of the use of ethylene inhibitors on production of volatile compounds and mangiferin in mango fruit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Effects of two ethylene inhibitors, 1-methylcylopropene (1-MCP) and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), on production of volatile compounds and mangiferin (a bioactive xanthone) in 'Tommy Atkins' mango fruit were investigated. Volatile composition and mangiferin content, in treated and untreated fruits a [...] t three maturity, stages were determined by SPME-GC-MS and HPLC, respectively. These chromatographical analysis revealed that the volatile profiles and mangiferin concentrations were not significantly different, suggesting that the use of ethylene inhibitors does not affect the mango aroma and functional properties relative to this xanthone. Moreover, a simple, precise and accurate HPLC method was developed for quantifying mangiferin in mango pulp.

Kirley Marques, Canuto; Manoel Alves de, Souza Neto; Deborah dos Santos, Garruti; Maria Auxiliadora Coêlho de, Lima.

294

Hydrogen Production  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation provides an introduction to the basics of hydrogen production. Advantages of using hydrogen, information on current global hydrogen production, primary uses for hydrogen and hydrogen production processes are introduced. The presentation consists of 26 slides and may be downloaded in Microsoft Power Point file format.

2012-09-05

295

Metabolic engineering of flavonoid biosynthesis in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) for enhancing the production of pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seit langer Zeit wird Hopfen (Humulus lupulus L.) von der Brauindustrie als Aroma- und Konservierungsmittel genutzt. Zudem wird Hopfen für medizinische Zwecke verwendet. In den letzten Jahren haben Xanthohumol und Desmethylxanthohumol aufgrund ihrer potenziellen krebsbekämpfenden Eigenschaften besondere Aufmerksamkeit erhalten.

2012-01-01

296

Process Optimization for Solid Extraction, Flavor Improvement and Fat Removal in the Production of Soymilk From Full Fat Soy Flakes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditionally soymilk has been made with whole soybeans; however, there are other alternative raw ingredients for making soymilk, such as soy flour or full-fat soy flakes. US markets prefer soymilk with little or no beany flavor. modifying the process or using lipoxygenase-free soybeans can be used to achieve this. Unlike the dairy industry, fat reduction in soymilk has been done through formula modification instead of by conventional fat removal (skimming). This project reports the process optimization for solids and protein extraction, flavor improvement and fat removal in the production of 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk from full fat soy flakes and whole soybeans using the Takai soymilk machine. Proximate analyses, and color measurement were conducted in 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk. Descriptive analyses with trained panelists (n = 9) were conducted using 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix lipoxygenase-free and high protein blend soy flake soymilks. Rehydration of soy flakes is necessary to prevent agglomeration during processing and increase extractability. As the rehydration temperature increases from 15 to 50 to 85 C, the hexanal concentration was reduced. Enzyme inactivation in soy flakes milk production (measured by hexanal levels) is similar to previous reports with whole soybeans milk production; however, shorter rehydration times can be achieved with soy flakes (5 to 10 minutes) compared to whole beans (8 to 12 hours). Optimum rehydration conditions for a 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk are 50 C for 5 minutes, 85 C for 5 minutes and 85 C for 10 minutes, respectively. In the flavor improvement study of soymilk, the hexanal date showed differences between undeodorized HPSF in contrast to triple null soymilk and no differences between deodorized HPSF in contrast to deodorized triple null. The panelists could not differentiate between the beany, cereal, and painty flavors. However, the panelists responded that the overall aroma of deodorized 8 {sup o}Brix triple null and HPSF soymilk are lower than the undeodorized triple null and HPSF soymilk. The triple null soymilk was perceived to be more bitter than the HPSF soymilk by the sensory panel due to oxidation on the triple null soy flakes. This oxidation may produce other aroma that was not analyzed using the GC but noticed by the panelists. The sensory evaluation results did show that the deodorizer was able to reduce the soymilk aroma in HPSF soymilk so it would be similar to triple null soymilk at 8 {sup o}Brix level. Regardless of skimming method and solids levels, the fat from the whole soybean milk was removed less efficiently than soy flake milk (7 to 30% fat extraction in contrast to 50 to 80% fat extraction respectively). In soy flake milk, less fat was removed as the % solid increases regardless of the processing method. In whole soybean milk, the fat was removed less efficiently at lower solids level milk using the commercial dairy skimmer and more efficient at lower solids level using the centrifuge-decant method. Based on the Hunter L, a, b measurement, the color of the reduced fat soy flake milk yielded a darker, greener and less yellow colored milk than whole soymilk ({alpha} < 0.05), whereas no differences were noticed in reduced fat soybean milk ({alpha} < 0.05). Color comparison of whole and skim cow's milk showed the same the same trend as in the soymilk.

Stanley Prawiradjaja

2003-05-31

297

Investigation of bias of hedonic scores when co-eliciting product attribute information using CATA questions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sensory and consumer scientists disagree on the practice of concurrently obtaining sensory information in hedonic tests. This is in part due to different mindsets about what consumers are able to do and evidence that such co-elicitation may bias hedonic scores. Check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions have been claimed to have a smaller effect on hedonic scores than other attribute such as just-about-right or intensity scales. In this research, nine studies using consumers as participants examined effects on hedonic product scores when sensory attribute information was co-elicited using CATA questions. The use of CATA concurrently with hedonic was benchmarked against concurrent attribute liking scores, attribute intensity scores and just-about-right scaling. Across a range of product categories (beer, fresh fruit, tea, flavoured water, crackers, savoury dips), only weak and transient evidence of bias of hedonic scores when concurrently using CATA questions was established. This effect was independent on whether samples, on average were moderately liked or moderately disliked, and replicated when samples were assessed partially by the sense of smell only or via full product assessment (appearance, aroma, flavour, taste, aftertaste, mouthfeel). The present research suggests that co-elicitation of hedonic scores and product attribute information using CATA questions may bias the hedonic scores, but not that it certainly will do so. This needs to be recognised, leading to more widespread acceptance that co-elicitation has merit. Investigators should decide on whether or not to co-elicit product attribute information using CATA questions on a case-by-case basis, acknowledging that bias may occur. Further research is needed to understand when/when not bias is likely to occur.

Jaeger, Sara R.; Giacalone, Davide

2013-01-01

298

A novel attractant for Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from a Concord grape product.  

Science.gov (United States)

An attractant for Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was developed from a commercial product called Sabor Uva containing processed Concord grape juice. The principal volatile components of Sabor Uva aroma were identified and an aqueous mixture of 15 components that was gas chromatographically similar to Sabor Uva was prepared. This mixture was equivalent to Sabor Uva in attractiveness by using wind-tunnel bioassays. After deleting chemicals that did not contribute to attractiveness, and increasing the concentrations of the remaining chemicals, the final attractant contained propylene glycol (90,000 ppm, vol/vol), acetic acid (4500), methyl anthranilate (1800), ethyl 2-methylpropionate (670), and one or both of the esters ethyl 3-methylbutyrate (44) and 2-methylbutyl propionate (44), in aqueous solution. This mixture was approximately 1.8X as attractive as Sabor Uva by indirect comparison. Deletion of propylene glycol, acetic acid, methyl anthranilate, or ethyl 2-methylpropionate from the mixture significantly decreased attractiveness. Deletion of either of the other two esters seemed to diminish attractiveness although effects were not statistically significant. Deletion of water from the mixture significantly decreased attractiveness. We conclude that propylene glycol, acetic acid, methyl anthranilate, water, and at least one or as many as all three of the methyl-branched esters are essential for complete attractiveness. PMID:21882683

Robacker, David C; Massa, Michelle J; Sacchetti, Patrizia; Bartelt, Robert J

2011-08-01

299

Actividad fermentativa de Hanseniaspora uvarum y su importancia en la producción de bebidas fermentadas / Fermentative activity of Hanseniaspora uvarum and its importance in production of fermented beverages  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudió la actividad fermentativa de Hanseniaspora uvarum RIVE 6-2-2 con el objetivo de evaluar su importancia en los procesos de producción de bebidas fermentadas. La cepa se cultivó en frascos Erlenmeyer conteniendo jugo de manzana esterilizado y sin aroma, y se determinaron los compuestos quím [...] icos de importancia sensorial producidos durante la fermentación en cultivo agitado (200 min-1) y estático (sin agitación). Los resultados mostraron que la cepa fue capaz de producir etanol hasta 4,02±0,1v/v% en cultivo estático a 28 °C. La agitación del medio de cultivo incrementó la producción de alcoholes superiores (hasta 488,2 mg/L) y ácido acético (468,0±10,2 mg/L) comparado al cultivo estático, mientras que por el contrario, la producción de etil acetato y glicerol (189,0±12,0 mg/L y 3,2±0,3 g/L) resultó ser mayor que en cultivo agitado (142,0±8,0 mg/L y 2,3±0,25 g/L) respectivamente. Cultivos bacth realizados adicionalmente reportaron una tasa de crecimiento (?) de 0,05 h-1 y producción de pequeñas cantidades de compuestos típicamente encontrados en la fermentación alcohólica. Los mejores resultados, en términos de calidad organoléptica (aroma, sabor y olor), se obtuvieron en la fermentación en cultivo estático. El control de la aireación del medio de fermentación es una herramienta importante para controlar la síntesis de compuestos de importancia sensorial en la producción de bebidas fermentadas. Abstract in english The fermentation activity of Hanseniaspora uvarum RIVE 6-2-2 was studied with the purpose of evaluating its importance in the production process of fermented beverages. The strain was cultured in Erlenmeyer flasks, which contained sterilized and odorless apple juice, and the chemical compounds of se [...] nsorial importance produced during fermentation in shaken (200 min-1), and static (without shaking) cultures at 28 ºC were determined. The results showed that the strains were capable of producing ethanol up to 4.20±0.1v/v% in static cultures at 28 ºC. Shaking of the culture medium increased the superior alcohol production (up to 488.2 mg/L) and acetic acid (468.0± 10.2 mg/L), when compared with the static culture; on the other hand, the production of ethyl acetate and glycerol (189.0±12.0 mg/L and 3.2±0.3 g/L) was higher in static than in shaken cultures (142.0±8.0 mg/L and 2.3±0.25 g/L), respectively. Additional batch cultures reported a growth rate (µ) of 0.05 h-1 and production of small amounts of compounds typically found in alcoholic fermentation. The best results, in terms of organoleptic qualities (aroma, taste and smell), were found in the static culture fermentation. The aeration control of the fermentation medium is an important tool for controlling the synthesis of sensorial importance compounds in the production of fermented beverages.

Waldir Estela, Escalante; Mojmír, Rychtera; Karel, Melzoch; Beatriz, Hatta Sakoda; Elena, Quillama Polo; Zulema, Ludeña Cervantes; Victor, Sarmiento Casavilca; Guadalupe, Chaquilla Quilca.

300

Enhanced ethyl caproate production of Chinese liquor yeast by overexpressing EHT1 with deleted FAA1.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fruity odor of Chinese liquor is largely derived from ester formation. Ethyl caproate, an ethyl ester eliciting apple-like flavor, is one of the most important esters in the strong aromatic Chinese liquor (or Luzhou-flavor liquor), which is the most popular and best-selling liquor in China. In the traditional fermentation process, ethyl caproate in strong aromatic liquor is mainly produced by aroma-producing yeast, bacteria, and mold with high esterification abilities in a mud pit at later fermentation stages at the expense of both fermentation time and grains rather than by the ethanol-fermenting yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To increase the production of ethyl caproate by Chinese liquor yeast (S. cerevisiae AY15) and shorten the fermentation period, we constructed a recombinant strain EY15 by overexpressing EHT1 (encoding ethanol hexanoyl transferase), in which FAA1 (encoding acyl-CoA synthetases) was deleted. In liquid fermentation of corn hydrolysate and solid fermentation of sorghum, ethyl caproate production by EY15 was remarkably increased to 2.23 and 2.83 mg/L, respectively, which were 2.97- and 2.80-fold higher than those of the parental strain AY15. Furthermore, an increase in ethyl octanoate (52 and 43 %) and ethyl decanoate (61 and 40 %) production was observed. The differences in fermentation performance between EY15 and AY15 were negligible. This study resulted in the creation of a promising recombinant yeast strain and introduced a method that can be used for the clean production of strong aromatic Chinese liquor by ester-producing S. cerevisiae without the need for a mud pit. PMID:24370880

Chen, Yefu; Li, Feng; Guo, Jian; Liu, Guangxin; Guo, Xuewu; Xiao, Dongguang

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
301

Quality changes during storage of cooked and sliced meat products measured with PTR-MS and HS-GC-MS.  

Science.gov (United States)

The changes in the VOC composition of industrially produced saveloy were measured with Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and HeadSpace Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) during a six weeks storage period. A decrease in the volatile organic compounds contributing to the fresh aroma of saveloy was the main change observed with both PTR-MS and HS-GC-MS. Samples of four other types of cooked and sliced meat product were measured with PTR-MS in the middle and at the end of the four week shelf-life period. These measurements showed an increase in m/z 69, 71, 87 and 89 for the pork loin and in m/z 61 for the herbal saveloy samples. These ions were assigned to the microbial spoilage markers: acetic acid, 2- and 3-methylbutanol, 2- and 3-methylbutanal, diacetyl and acetoin. Overall, this study shows that PTR-MS has potential for quality control of cooked and sliced meat products. PMID:23747622

Holm, E S; Adamsen, A P S; Feilberg, A; Schäfer, A; Løkke, M M; Petersen, M A

2013-10-01

302

Perfil aromático e qualidade química da carne de caprinos Saanen alimentados com diferentes níveis de concentrado Aroma profile and chemical quality of goat Saanen meat fed with different levels of concentrate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do nível de concentrado na dieta sobre a qualidade da carne de caprinos machos Saanen não-castrados. Foram utilizados 15 cabritos com peso vivo inicial de 16 ± 0,3 kg e 4 meses de idade alimentados com dietas formuladas com 80, 65 ou 50% de concentrado até que atingissem 22 kg de peso vivo médio final. As rações foram formuladas para promover ganho de peso de 150 g/animal/dia. Nas 15 paletas caprinas, foram avaliados a composição centesimal, a cor, a textura, o pH, o perfil lipídico e o perfil de componentes voláteis. Os níveis de concentrado e volumoso utilizados na alimentação dos caprinos Saanen não influenciaram os parâmetros químicos e físico-químicos de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, colesterol, fosfolipídios, pH, Aw, a*, b*, L* da carne. No entanto, a concentração de gordura, os percentuais de ácidos graxos insaturados (mono e poli e a textura da carne diferiram significativamente entre os níveis de concentrado usados. Tanto na análise qualitativa quanto na quantitativa de componentes voláteis, o extrato da carne de caprinos alimentados com 50% de concentrado apresentou melhor qualidade aromática. A relação 50:50 volumoso:concentrado foi a mais viável para a alimentação de caprinos machos Saanen para abate aos 22 kg de peso vivo, considerando os aspectos de redução de custo e qualidade química e aromática da carne caprina produzida.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the levels concentrate of the diet on meat quality of no castrated male kid Saanen goats. Fifteen male goat with initial 16 ± 0.3 kg BW and four months old were fed diets formulated with 80, 65 e 50 of concentrate up to the animals reached a final a 22 kg BW. The rations were formulated to promote a weight gain of 150g/anim.day. Centesimal composition, colour, texture, lipid and volatile components profile were evaluated in fifteen goat shoulders. The concentrate and forage levels used in the feeding of male kid Saanen goats did not influenced the chemical and physical-chemical parameters of humidity, ashes, proteins, cholesterol, phospholipids, pH, Aw, a*, b*, L* of goat meat. However, the concentration of fat, the percentages of unsaturated fatty acid (mono and poly and the texture of meat were affected by the used concentrate levels. In both qualitative and quantitative of volatile components analysis, the extract of the goat meat fed with 50% of concentrate showed better aromatic quality. The use of 50:50 forage to concentre ratio was most viable for the feeding male kid Saanen goats slaughtered at 22 kg BW, considering both the aspects of reducing cost of production and chemical and aromatic quality of the produced goat meat.

Marta Suely Madruga

2008-05-01

303

Perfil aromático e qualidade química da carne de caprinos Saanen alimentados com diferentes níveis de concentrado / Aroma profile and chemical quality of goat Saanen meat fed with different levels of concentrate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do nível de concentrado na dieta sobre a qualidade da carne de caprinos machos Saanen não-castrados. Foram utilizados 15 cabritos com peso vivo inicial de 16 ± 0,3 kg e 4 meses de idade alimentados com dietas formuladas com 80, 65 ou 50% de conc [...] entrado até que atingissem 22 kg de peso vivo médio final. As rações foram formuladas para promover ganho de peso de 150 g/animal/dia. Nas 15 paletas caprinas, foram avaliados a composição centesimal, a cor, a textura, o pH, o perfil lipídico e o perfil de componentes voláteis. Os níveis de concentrado e volumoso utilizados na alimentação dos caprinos Saanen não influenciaram os parâmetros químicos e físico-químicos de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, colesterol, fosfolipídios, pH, Aw, a*, b*, L* da carne. No entanto, a concentração de gordura, os percentuais de ácidos graxos insaturados (mono e poli) e a textura da carne diferiram significativamente entre os níveis de concentrado usados. Tanto na análise qualitativa quanto na quantitativa de componentes voláteis, o extrato da carne de caprinos alimentados com 50% de concentrado apresentou melhor qualidade aromática. A relação 50:50 volumoso:concentrado foi a mais viável para a alimentação de caprinos machos Saanen para abate aos 22 kg de peso vivo, considerando os aspectos de redução de custo e qualidade química e aromática da carne caprina produzida. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the levels concentrate of the diet on meat quality of no castrated male kid Saanen goats. Fifteen male goat with initial 16 ± 0.3 kg BW and four months old were fed diets formulated with 80, 65 e 50 of concentrate up to the animals reac [...] hed a final a 22 kg BW. The rations were formulated to promote a weight gain of 150g/anim.day. Centesimal composition, colour, texture, lipid and volatile components profile were evaluated in fifteen goat shoulders. The concentrate and forage levels used in the feeding of male kid Saanen goats did not influenced the chemical and physical-chemical parameters of humidity, ashes, proteins, cholesterol, phospholipids, pH, Aw, a*, b*, L* of goat meat. However, the concentration of fat, the percentages of unsaturated fatty acid (mono and poly) and the texture of meat were affected by the used concentrate levels. In both qualitative and quantitative of volatile components analysis, the extract of the goat meat fed with 50% of concentrate showed better aromatic quality. The use of 50:50 forage to concentre ratio was most viable for the feeding male kid Saanen goats slaughtered at 22 kg BW, considering both the aspects of reducing cost of production and chemical and aromatic quality of the produced goat meat.

Madruga, Marta Suely; Galvão, Mércia de Sousa; Costa, Roberto Germano; Beltrão, Sandra Elisabeth Santiago; Santos, Neube Michel dos; Carvalho, Fernanda Monteiro de; Viaro, Vaneska Delgado.

304

ABLEDATA: Products  

Science.gov (United States)

... desktop and laptop computers and other kinds of information technology. Major Categories : Software, Hardware, Computer Accessories. Controls Products ... people with disabilities to drive or ride in cars, vans, trucks and buses. Major Categories : Mass Transit ...

305

Product Evaluation  

Product Evaluation Over the last few years the NLS has developed a facility for testing and the development of biotechnology sensors for environmental monitoring. Current projects include an ammonia sensor.

306

Phytosanitary products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of a series of directories of Quebec universities, industrial and governmental agencies in Quebec actively involved in research and development of phytosanitary products or services derived from or associated with biomass products. This directory contained standardized entries for 79 organizations from the agriculture, forestry and environmental sectors, active in fields ranging from genetic engineering, fertilizers, crop diseases and pest management, forestry management, harvesting methods and bioconversion. Each entry provided information about major fields of research interest, principal technologies utilized, major equipment, personnel, and name and address of person to be contacted for further information. tabs

1995-01-01

307

Dilepton production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The general features of dilepton production from nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed. Estimates are made of the thermal production rates arising from incoherent nucleon-nucleon scattering and from two-pion annihilation. It may be possible to infer the pion dispersion relation in hot and dense nuclear matter by measuring the invariant mass distribution of back-to-back electrons and positrons in the center of mass frame in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Comparison to the recent data on p + Be -> e/sup +/e/sup -/X at 4.9 GeV from the Bevalac is made.

Gale, C.; Kapusta, J.

1989-05-01

308

Product liability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In these days of increasing legal actions against the medical profession, it is important for doctors to take heed of new regulations which affect the practice of medicine. The new Consumer Protection Act of 1987 covers product liability. This chapter stresses the importance for doctors of following the guidelines already laid down by the profession.

1991-01-01

309

Production balance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In terms of the environment, the year 2011 was balanced in the company Slovenske elektrarne. The trend of a high share of electricity production from nuclear and hydro power plants persisted; therefore, a greater part of electricity supplies (88.5%) was not loaded by emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere. (author)

2012-04-01

310

A Compact and Low Cost Electronic Nose for Aroma Detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article explains the development of a prototype of a portable and a very low-cost electronic nose based on an mbed microcontroller. Mbeds are a series of ARM microcontroller development boards designed for fast, flexible and rapid prototyping. The electronic nose is comprised of an mbed, an LCD display, two small pumps, two electro-valves and a sensor chamber with four TGS Figaro gas sensors. The performance of the electronic nose has been tested by measuring the ethanol content of wine ...

Miguel Macías Macías; Enrique Agudo, J.; Antonio García Manso; Carlos Javier García Orellana; Horacio Manuel González Velasco; Ramón Gallardo Caballero

2013-01-01

311

Aroma in rice : genetic analysis of a quantitative trait  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Une nouvelle approche a permis de cartographier pour la première fois un gène majeur et 2 QTL contrôlant l'arôme du grain chez le riz. Elle impliquait la combinaison de deux techniques, la quantification des composés volatils des eaux de cuisson par CPG et la cartographie par marqueurs moléculaires. Quatre types de marqueurs moléculaires ont été utilisés (RFLP, RAPD, STS, isozymes). L'évaluation et la cartographie ont été faites sur une population d'haploïdes doublés qui confé...

Lorieux, Mathias; Petrov, M.; Huang, N.; Guiderdoni, E.; Ghesquie?re, Alain

1996-01-01

312

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF AMYLASE PRODUCING YEASTS IN ‘TELLA’ (ETHIOPIAN LOCAL BEER AND THEIR AMYLASE CONTRIBUTION FOR ‘TELLA’ PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ‘Tella’ is local beer which is used in most part of Ethiopia. It is made from cereals, such as barley, wheat, maize and other crops. Rhamnus prinoides is also used to provide a special aroma and flavor as well as antiseptic agent. The objective of this study is to determine the contribution of amylases from tella yeast isolates and compare with the role of amylase from malt. House hold ‘tella’ samples were collected and plated on starch agar and then amylase positive isolates of yeast were identified by folding iodine solution over the starch agar. Amylase assay and activities were investigated by standard methods and compared with amylase from malt. According to this study, the activity of amylases which was extracted from yeast isolates was very low and may have no contribution in the conversion of starch into fermentable sugars. Thus, it is better to avoid such organisms from ‘tella’ fermentation in order to discriminate unwanted bio-products. In conclusion, the substrates and ingredients should be sterilized and introduced into the fermentation system aseptically.

Berhanu Andualem

2013-08-01

313

Physico-Chemical Characterization of Brew during the Brewing Corn Malt in the Production of Maize Beer in Congo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study consists in the production of a traditional beer from maize in the Congo. The traditional method of brewing corn malt has three main stages: malting corn, brewing corn malt and fermentation. During the brewing corn malt, endogenous amylase activity is destroyed during the stiffening of the starch to about 80°C. A pre-cooking of the mash is necessitated to promote amylolyse at 50°C with an exogenous enzyme. The use of a preparation of ?-amylase can liquefy the mash and produce a sweet wort (average density = 12.5° Balling rich in dextrin corresponding to an apparent extract of 4° Balling in beer. The rising profile of the pH of the corn malt mash, from mashing to extract the wort does not affect the pH of the beer produced. This beer, slightly alcoholic (3.6% ethanol, is characterized by a nomal acid pH (pH = 4.15 on average and a brown color (25 EBC units. Its slight bitterness (21 EBU and the fine aroma of a beer closer barley produced industrially in the Congo.

P. Diakabana

2013-06-01

314

D-meson production by muons in the COMPASS experiment at CERN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the physics goals of the COMPASS experiment at CERN was to measure the contribution of gluons to the nucleon spin. To achieve this, it was proposed to scatter polarized 160 GeV/c muons on a polarized deuteron target and to detect D mesons in the final state. The underlying process in this D meson production is supposed to be the Photon-Gluon Fusion (PGF), where a virtual photon emitted by the muon interacts with a gluon from the target nucleon, producing a charm-anticharm quark pair. Fragmentation of a charm (anticharm) quark leads with high probability to the creation of a D{sup 0} or D{sup *} meson, which COMPASS detects via the D{sup 0}{yields}K{pi} and D{sup *}{yields}D{sup 0}{pi}{yields}K{pi}{pi} decay modes. From the longitudinal cross section spin asymmetries of the D meson production and theoretical predictions for the PGF cross section, the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin has been measured by the COMPASS experiment. The results presented in the thesis are the following. Based on data from the year 2004 a total visible cross section of 1.8{+-}0.4 nb, for the D{sup *} meson production, has been measured, with the error being dominated by systematic effects. It is validated that the D mesons are indeed produced through the PGF process, by comparison of measured D meson kinematic distributions to the ones predicted by a theory (AROMA generator). A good agreement was found for the distribution shapes, which confirms that PGF plays a major role. However, a 20% difference was found in the number of produced D{sup 0} and D{sup 0} mesons (and for the D{sup *+} and D{sup *-} mesons as well) which is significantly larger than predicted by AROMA. Kinematic distributions of D{sup 0} and D{sup *} mesons were compared with the background and also with the nearby K{sup *}{sub 2}(1430){sup 0} resonance, using all longitudinal data taken in 2002-2006. The particle-antiparticle asymmetry has been studied as a function of several kinematic variables. The 20% excess of mesons decaying into K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} over mesons decaying into K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} was observed for all three mesons. The behavior of the D{sup 0}/D{sup 0} (and D{sup *+}/D{sup *-}) asymmetries as a function of virtual photon energy suggests that associated production of D{sup *-}{lambda}{sup +}{sub c} or D{sup 0}{lambda}{sup +}{sub c} may be responsible for the observed effect. The longitudinal double spin asymmetries have been studied for the D{sup 0}, D{sup *} and K{sup *}{sub 2}(1430){sup 0} mesons separately for particle, antiparticle and for the sum of particle and antiparticle. It was found that the asymmetries extracted for D{sup 0} and D{sup *} mesons are compatible with zero. A 3-sigma deviation from zero asymmetry was observed for the K{sup *}{sub 2}(1430){sup 0} meson. An investigation of the K{sup *}{sub 2}(1430){sup 0} double spin asymmetry reveals a dependence as function of the Bjorken x{sub Bj} variable. (orig.)

Zvyagin, Alexander

2011-01-21

315

Lepton Production  

CERN Multimedia

*Participation in Soft Photon Study .ce HELIOS Collaboration This experiment aims to settle open questions in the hadronic production of electrons, muons and neutrinos. Prominent among these are e/@m universality, the contribution of charm decay to lepton pair production, and the ``anomalous'' low mass pairs.\\\\ \\\\ The experimental design aims to optimize the combination of: .point begin electron identification .point muon identification .point missing energy measurement for neutrinos .point vertex identification (for @t @= @t^c^h^a^r^m). .point end \\\\ \\\\ The major components of the apparatus are shown in the figure. In the vertex region a proton beam of transverse size @=50~@m impinges on a beryllium target of diameter 50~@m, and high precision tracking in the vertex region is achieved by silicon strip detectors. Charged particle momenta are measured using a dipole magnet and high resolution drift chambers. Electrons are identified by the combination of the transition radiation detector and the finely segment...

2002-01-01

316

Tequila production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tequila is obtained from the distillation of fermented juice of agave plant, Agave tequilana, to which up to 49% (w/v) of an adjunct sugar, mainly from cane or corn, could be added. Agave plants require from 8 to 12 years to mature and during all this time cleaning, pest control, and slacken of land are required to produce an initial raw material with the appropriate chemical composition for tequila production. Production process comprises four steps: cooking to hydrolyze inulin into fructose, milling to extract the sugars, fermentation with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert the sugars into ethanol and organoleptic compounds, and, finally, a two-step distillation process. Maturation, if needed, is carried out in white oak barrels to obtain rested or aged tequila in 2 or 12 months, respectively. PMID:7736598

Cedeño, M

1995-01-01

317

Hydrogen production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Possible means of producing hydrogen are discussed. Emphasis is given on the electrolytic hydrogen production from water electrolysis, at large scale, via the use of renewable electricity (solar, wind, tidal, etc.). Its storage, transport and possible end-uses are also considered.Discutem-se processos de obtenção de hidrogénio. Em particular, considera-se a produção electrolítica de hidrogénio em meio aquoso, à escala industrial, e à custa de energia eléctrica renovável (solar,...

2010-01-01

318

Production of vanillin: a biotechnological opportunity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural aroma compounds are of major interest to the food and fragrance industry. Vanillin (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) was isolated from the vanilla beans in 1816 and its world consumption has reached today about 12000 tons per year. But only approximately 50 tons per year are extracted from vanilla pods (Vanilla planifolia). The remainder is provided by synthetic vanillin. This review is about alternative processes to produce natural vanillin de novo or by biotransformation using biotechnological methods involving enzymes, microorganisms and plant cells. (author)

2005-01-01

319

Production of 6-pentyl-?-pyrone by trichoderma harzianum in solid-state fermentation Produção de 6-pentil-?-pirona por Trichoderma harzianum em fermentação em estado sólido  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many Trichoderma species are able to produce 6-pentyl-?-pyrone (6-PP, a lactone with coconut-like aroma. In the present work, several culture parameters were studied to enhance the production of 6-PP by Trichoderma harzianum 4040 in solid-state fermentation. Green coir powder added to a nutrient solution was used as support material for fermentation. A Plackett-Burman screening technique was applied, followed by a fractionary factorial design. The best culture conditions within the experimental domain studied were (100 g support-1: sucrose, 3 g; NaNO3, 0.24 g; (NH42SO4, 0.18 g; KH2PO4, 0.1 g; inoculum concentration, 2.2 x 10(6 spores; moisture level, 55%. The temperature established was 28ºC. The fermentation under the selected conditions led to a 6-PP production six times higher (5.0 mg/g dry matter than the initial one (0.8 mg/g dry matter after seven days of cultivation.Muitas espécies do gênero Trichoderma são capazes de produzir a substância 6-pentil-?-pirona (6-PP, uma lactona com aroma característico de coco. No presente trabalho, vários parâmetros de cultura foram estudados para aumentar a produção de 6-PP por Trichoderma harzianum 4040 em fermentação em estado sólido. Pó da casca de coco verde adicionado à uma solução nutriente foi usado como material de suporte para a fermentação. Um planejamento experimental de varredura segundo a técnica de Plackett-Burman foi aplicado, seguido de um planejamento fatorial fracionário. No domínio experimental estudado, as melhores condições de cultura foram (100 g suporte-1: sacarose, 3 g; NaNO3, 0,24 g; (NH42SO4, 0,18 g; KH2PO4, 0,1 g; produção do inóculo, 2,2 x 10(6 esporos; umidade, 55%. A temperatura estabelecida foi de 28ºC. Esse estudo conduziu à concentração de 6-PP seis vezes maior (5,0 mg/g de matéria seca do que a inicial (0,8 mg/g de matéria seca após sete dias de cultivo.

Aline de Souza Ramos

2008-12-01

320

Production of 6-pentyl-?-pyrone by trichoderma harzianum in solid-state fermentation / Produção de 6-pentil-?-pirona por Trichoderma harzianum em fermentação em estado sólido  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Muitas espécies do gênero Trichoderma são capazes de produzir a substância 6-pentil-?-pirona (6-PP), uma lactona com aroma característico de coco. No presente trabalho, vários parâmetros de cultura foram estudados para aumentar a produção de 6-PP por Trichoderma harzianum 4040 em fermentação em [...] estado sólido. Pó da casca de coco verde adicionado à uma solução nutriente foi usado como material de suporte para a fermentação. Um planejamento experimental de varredura segundo a técnica de Plackett-Burman foi aplicado, seguido de um planejamento fatorial fracionário. No domínio experimental estudado, as melhores condições de cultura foram (100 g suporte)-1: sacarose, 3 g; NaNO3, 0,24 g; (NH4)2SO4, 0,18 g; KH2PO4, 0,1 g; produção do inóculo, 2,2 x 10(6) esporos; umidade, 55%. A temperatura estabelecida foi de 28ºC. Esse estudo conduziu à concentração de 6-PP seis vezes maior (5,0 mg/g de matéria seca) do que a inicial (0,8 mg/g de matéria seca) após sete dias de cultivo. Abstract in english Many Trichoderma species are able to produce 6-pentyl-?-pyrone (6-PP), a lactone with coconut-like aroma. In the present work, several culture parameters were studied to enhance the production of 6-PP by Trichoderma harzianum 4040 in solid-state fermentation. Green coir powder added to a nutrie [...] nt solution was used as support material for fermentation. A Plackett-Burman screening technique was applied, followed by a fractionary factorial design. The best culture conditions within the experimental domain studied were (100 g support)-1: sucrose, 3 g; NaNO3, 0.24 g; (NH4)2SO4, 0.18 g; KH2PO4, 0.1 g; inoculum concentration, 2.2 x 10(6) spores; moisture level, 55%. The temperature established was 28ºC. The fermentation under the selected conditions led to a 6-PP production six times higher (5.0 mg/g dry matter) than the initial one (0.8 mg/g dry matter) after seven days of cultivation.

Ramos, Aline de Souza; Fiaux, Sorele Batista; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira.

 
 
 
 
321

Product Configuration Systems and Productivity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Twelve companies have been interviewed with the purpose to get information about technical, economic and organisational matters in respect of Product Configuration Systems (PCS).Combinations of qualitative interviews and quantitative scoring have been used in ranking expected and realized results from implementing PCS. The three highest aggregated scoring expected benefits are: 1)improved quality in specifications, 2)lower turnaround time, 3)less resource intensity.

Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

2004-01-01

322

Hydrogen production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Discutem-se processos de obtenção de hidrogénio. Em particular, considera-se a produção electrolítica de hidrogénio em meio aquoso, à escala industrial, e à custa de energia eléctrica renovável (solar, vento, marés, etc.). Fazem-se ainda algumas previsões acerca do armazenamento, transporte e possív [...] eis aplicações do hidrogénio electrolítico. Abstract in english Possible means of producing hydrogen are discussed. Emphasis is given on the electrolytic hydrogen production from water electrolysis, at large scale, via the use of renewable electricity (solar, wind, tidal, etc.). Its storage, transport and possible end-uses are also considered. [...

César A. C., Sequeira; Diogo M. F., Santos.

323

Concrete products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increased strength and durability in concrete products can be achieved through the addition of fly ash during the manufacturing process. The properties of concrete are enhanced by fly ash. The benefits include cost and the environment. Fly ash is normally defined as finely divided residue resulting from the combustion of pulverized coal, carried from the combustion chamber to the furnace by exhaust gas. The main applications of fly ash in concrete products are ready mix concrete, bridge decks and support footing, precast structures, blocks and bricks, and pipes. The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) has published standards to ensure that the desired physical properties of the concrete are achieved and the standards are found in CSA A23.1, detailing the engineering materials and mix proportions. The type of fly ash to be used for specific properties is important. Finishing and curing operations must be performed with care. The free lime generated by cement hydration reacts with fly ash, forming additional calcium silicate hydrate. Permeability of the concrete is reduced since the calcium silicate hydrate fills the void resulting from the cement pour. Some of the benefits to be derived from fly ash in concrete are: water reduction, improved workability, high ultimate strength, improved pumpability, and reduced heat of hydration. In addition, the life cycle costs are lower, and great strength is obtained. An environmental benefit results from the reduction of natural resource consumption.

Anon

2002-01-01

324

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For ... Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Identifying Recalled Products ...

325

Modifying coffee quality by chemical manipulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chemical modification was applied to a coffee process by-product, silver skin, as well as raw coffee beans, with the aim to improve their aroma quality. Heat treatment in combination with sugar addition or enzyme treatment was applied to silver skin to encourage Maillard reactions. The manipulation applied to silver skin, however, did not give satisfactory results as the treatments neither caused significant increase in coffee aroma levels, nor yielded coffee aroma with quality resembling tha...

Chiralertpong, Ariya

2010-01-01

326

Evaluation of fruit productivity and quality in Hass avocado submitted to {sup 60}Co gamma radiation; Evaluacion de productividad y calidad de fruta en aguacate Hass sometido a radiacion gamma de {sup 60}Co  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluation of productivity, postharvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Hass avocado trees irradiated with {sup 60} Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the ''La Labor'' Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologias del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300 %. In regard to postharvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO{sub 2}/kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This mean that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and postharvest behavior of fruits. (Author)

Cruz T, E. De la; Ibanez P, J.; Mijares O, P.; Garcia A, J.M. [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Biologia, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

1999-07-01

327

Formulação de "chocolate" de cupuaçu e reologia do produto líquido / Formulation of cupuassu "chocololate" and rheology of liquid product  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O "chocolate" de cupuaçu é um produto cujo processo de fabricação consiste na transformação das amêndoas de cupuaçu (sementes após o beneficiamento) em um derivado com sabor, textura, odor e aparência semelhantes ao do chocolate elaborado com cacau. Este produto pode ser processado nas formas de pó [...] e tabletes (meio amargo, ao leite e branco). O cupuaçu é um fruto cilíndrico, sendo que no seu interior possui sementes recobertas inteiramente por uma massa branca e bastante espessa. O presente trabalho apresenta formulações de "chocolates" de cupuaçu (meio amargo, ao leite e branco), em que a fase gordurosa se compõe de mistura de gordura de cupuaçu e manteiga de cacau, juntamente com parâmetros reológicos do produto líquido. Utilizaram-se os sensores vane e cilindro concêntrico para a determinação reológica. Os produtos obtidos apresentaram similaridades com chocolates tradicionais em aroma e nos parâmetros reológicos a 40 ºC, com maior maciez. Abstract in english Cupuassu "chocolate" is a product whose process of manufacture consists to transform cupuassu seeds (after fermentation, toasting and grinding) in derived one with flavour, texture, odor and appearance similar to chocolate elaborated with cocoa. It could be processed as powder and tablets (semi swee [...] t, milk and white types). Cupuassu is a cylindrical fruit, and in its interior there are seeds involved by a white and thick mass. This work intends to show formulations of cupuassu chocolates (semi sweet, milk and white types), where the fatty phase is blends of cupuassu fat and cocoa butter (1 to 5.9 %), and the flow behaviour of the product was evaluated using the vane and coaxial cylinder sensors at 40 ºC. The products obtained were very similar to the tablets of traditional chocolates in flavour and rheological parameters at 40 ºC, with flow properties of soft chocolate.

Lannes, Suzana Caetano da Silva; Medeiros, Magda Leite; Amaral, Renata Lira.

328

Formulação de "chocolate" de cupuaçu e reologia do produto líquido Formulation of cupuassu "chocololate" and rheology of liquid product  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O "chocolate" de cupuaçu é um produto cujo processo de fabricação consiste na transformação das amêndoas de cupuaçu (sementes após o beneficiamento em um derivado com sabor, textura, odor e aparência semelhantes ao do chocolate elaborado com cacau. Este produto pode ser processado nas formas de pó e tabletes (meio amargo, ao leite e branco. O cupuaçu é um fruto cilíndrico, sendo que no seu interior possui sementes recobertas inteiramente por uma massa branca e bastante espessa. O presente trabalho apresenta formulações de "chocolates" de cupuaçu (meio amargo, ao leite e branco, em que a fase gordurosa se compõe de mistura de gordura de cupuaçu e manteiga de cacau, juntamente com parâmetros reológicos do produto líquido. Utilizaram-se os sensores vane e cilindro concêntrico para a determinação reológica. Os produtos obtidos apresentaram similaridades com chocolates tradicionais em aroma e nos parâmetros reológicos a 40 ºC, com maior maciez.Cupuassu "chocolate" is a product whose process of manufacture consists to transform cupuassu seeds (after fermentation, toasting and grinding in derived one with flavour, texture, odor and appearance similar to chocolate elaborated with cocoa. It could be processed as powder and tablets (semi sweet, milk and white types. Cupuassu is a cylindrical fruit, and in its interior there are seeds involved by a white and thick mass. This work intends to show formulations of cupuassu chocolates (semi sweet, milk and white types, where the fatty phase is blends of cupuassu fat and cocoa butter (1 to 5.9 %, and the flow behaviour of the product was evaluated using the vane and coaxial cylinder sensors at 40 ºC. The products obtained were very similar to the tablets of traditional chocolates in flavour and rheological parameters at 40 ºC, with flow properties of soft chocolate.

Suzana Caetano da Silva Lannes

2002-12-01

329

Use of Optical Oxygen Sensors in Non-Destructively Determining the Levels of Oxygen Present in Combined Vacuum and Modified Atmosphere Packaged Pre-Cooked Convenience-Style Foods and the Use of Ethanol Emitters to Extend Product Shelf-Life  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O2 sensors were used to non-destructively monitor O2 levels in commercially packed pre-cooked, convenience modified atmosphere packaging (MAP foods. A substantial level of O2 (>15% was present in packs resulting in a shorter than expected shelf-life, where the primary spoilage mechanism was found to be mould. Various combinations of vacuum (0–0.6 MPa and gas flush (0.02–0.03 MPa (30% CO2/70% N2 settings were assessed as treatments that result in the desired shelf-life (28 days. This was achieved using the combined treatment of vacuum 0.35 MPa and gas flush 0.02 MPa which resulted in a reduction of 6%–9% O2 in all three samples (battered sausages (BS, bacon slices (BA, and meat and potato pies (PP. Reduced O2 levels reflect the microbial quality of products, which has been successfully reduced. Duplicate samples of all product packs were produced using ethanol emitters (EE to see if shelf-life could be further extended. Results showed a further improvement in shelf-life to 35 days. Sensory analysis showed that ethanol flavour and aroma was not perceived by panellists in two of the three products assessed. This study demonstrates how smart packaging technologies, both intelligent and active, can be used to assist in the modification of conventional packaging systems in order to enhance product quality and safety and through the extension of product shelf-life.

Andreas W. Hempel

2013-11-01

330

On Demand Product Development Customized For Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ultimate intention of this thesis was to analyze the present product development and production process at the client organization and to develop methods to improve the agility of the product development and production process. Thus the organization can be ready for on demand product development and corresponding customization in production by maintaining enough agility. The overall study will help the organization to comprehend the present process improvement potentials and guideline to ...

2012-01-01

331

From seed production to seedling establishment: Important steps in an invasive process  

Science.gov (United States)

It is widely accepted that exotic invasive species are one of the most important ecological and economic problems. Reproductive and establishment traits are considered key features of a population expansion process, but few works have studied many of these simultaneously. This work examines how large the differences are in reproductive and establishment traits between two Fabaceae, the exotic invasive, Gleditsia triacanthos and the native, Acacia aroma. Gleditsia is a serious leguminous woody invader in various parts of the world and Acacia is a common native tree of Argentina. Both species have similar dispersal mechanisms and their reproductive phenology overlaps. We chose 17 plants of each species in a continuous forest of the Chaco Serrano Forest of Córdoba, Argentina. In each plant we measured fruit production, fruit removal (exclusion experiments), seed predation (pre- and post-dispersal), seed germination, seed bank (on each focal tree, three sampling periods during the year), and density of seedlings (around focal individuals and randomly in the study site). Gleditsia presented some traits that could favour the invasion process, such as a higher number of seeds per plant, percentage of scarified seed germination and density of seedlings around the focal individuals, than Acacia. On the other hand, Gleditsia presented a higher percentage of seed predation. The seed bank was persistent in both species and no differences were observed in fruit removal. This work highlights the importance of simultaneously studying reproductive and establishment variables involved in the spreading of an exotic invasive species. It also gives important insight into the variables to be considered when planning management strategies. The results are discussed from the perspective of some remarkable hypotheses on invasive species and may contribute to rethinking some aspects of the theory on invasive species.

Ferreras, Ana Elisa; Galetto, Leonardo

2010-03-01

332

Uso de açúcares em produtos panificados Sugar effect on bakery products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pão é um produto popular consumido na forma de lanches ou com refeições e apreciado devido a sua aparência, aroma, sabor, preço e disponibilidade. Depois de produzidos, os pães sofrem transformações que levam rapidamente à perda de crocância e ao endurecimento. Este processo tem impacto econômico grande, obrigando os produtores a trabalharem com data de validade curta, promoções, retorno de produtos não comercializados e aumento nos custos de produção e distribuição. A maioria dos produtos panificados apresenta algum tipo de açúcar que, além do enriquecimento calórico, funciona como melhorador de sabor, cor, plasticidade, conservação e auxiliar na fermentação. Neste estudo utilizou-se formulação padronizada, substituindo-se a sacarose da formulação inicial por outros açúcares (frutose líquida e cristalina, dextrose anidra, mel e açúcar invertido, mantendo-se o teor de sólidos totais e o de água. O tempo e a temperatura de assamento foram fixados em 8min e 225ºC. Foram elaboradas análises de textura (dureza, umidade, volume, sensorial e vida-de-prateleira. Os resultados mostraram que a utilização de açúcares com características umectantes, se utilizados em quantidade adequada à formulação, podem melhorar a maciez e prolongar a vida-de-prateleira dos pães.Bread is a popular product consumed as a sandwich or during mealtime and appreciated by its appearance, flavor, taste, price and availability. After its production take place changes that leads to loss of crust crispness and increase of crumb firmness. Staling has a significant economic impact that lead the manufacturers to reduce the shelf-life, increase store discounts, production and distribution costs. The majority of bakery products contain some type of sugar which as font of energy improve flavor, color, softness, conservation and fermentation aid. A control bread formula was used changing sucrose from the original formula to different sweeteners (syrup and dry fructose, anhydrous dextrose, honey and inverted sugar, keeping the sweetness, and the amounts of total solids and water. The time and temperature of the oven were fixed in 8 minutes and 225ºC. Texture (firmness, moisture, volume, sensory analysis and shelf-life were evaluated. The results showed that it can be used in bread production different kinds of sugars alone or in combination to improve softness and shelf life of bread.

Mauricio Sergio Esteller

2004-12-01

333

Uso de açúcares em produtos panificados / Sugar effect on bakery products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pão é um produto popular consumido na forma de lanches ou com refeições e apreciado devido a sua aparência, aroma, sabor, preço e disponibilidade. Depois de produzidos, os pães sofrem transformações que levam rapidamente à perda de crocância e ao endurecimento. Este processo tem impacto econômico gr [...] ande, obrigando os produtores a trabalharem com data de validade curta, promoções, retorno de produtos não comercializados e aumento nos custos de produção e distribuição. A maioria dos produtos panificados apresenta algum tipo de açúcar que, além do enriquecimento calórico, funciona como melhorador de sabor, cor, plasticidade, conservação e auxiliar na fermentação. Neste estudo utilizou-se formulação padronizada, substituindo-se a sacarose da formulação inicial por outros açúcares (frutose líquida e cristalina, dextrose anidra, mel e açúcar invertido), mantendo-se o teor de sólidos totais e o de água. O tempo e a temperatura de assamento foram fixados em 8min e 225ºC. Foram elaboradas análises de textura (dureza), umidade, volume, sensorial e vida-de-prateleira. Os resultados mostraram que a utilização de açúcares com características umectantes, se utilizados em quantidade adequada à formulação, podem melhorar a maciez e prolongar a vida-de-prateleira dos pães. Abstract in english Bread is a popular product consumed as a sandwich or during mealtime and appreciated by its appearance, flavor, taste, price and availability. After its production take place changes that leads to loss of crust crispness and increase of crumb firmness. Staling has a significant economic impact that [...] lead the manufacturers to reduce the shelf-life, increase store discounts, production and distribution costs. The majority of bakery products contain some type of sugar which as font of energy improve flavor, color, softness, conservation and fermentation aid. A control bread formula was used changing sucrose from the original formula to different sweeteners (syrup and dry fructose, anhydrous dextrose, honey and inverted sugar), keeping the sweetness, and the amounts of total solids and water. The time and temperature of the oven were fixed in 8 minutes and 225ºC. Texture (firmness), moisture, volume, sensory analysis and shelf-life were evaluated. The results showed that it can be used in bread production different kinds of sugars alone or in combination to improve softness and shelf life of bread.

Esteller, Mauricio Sergio; Yoshimoto, Rosa Maria de Oliveira; Amaral, Renata Lira; Lannes, Suzana Caetano da Silva.

334

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Archived ... Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol ? - Resources for You ...

335

Urinary incontinence products  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many products to help you manage urinary incontinence . You can decide which product to choose based ... clean and dry your skin. WHERE TO BUY URINARY INCONTINENCE PRODUCTS You can find most products at your ...

336

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates ... Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Identifying ...

337

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Archived Content The content on this page ... Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol ? - Resources ...

338

Definición de la categoría "Producto Campesino" en base a preferencias de consumidores del Gran Santiago / Definition of "Peasant Product" category based preferences of consumers in Santiago  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Parte de la Política de Fomento Productivo, orientada al sector de la Agricultura Familiar Campesina, en Chile y otros países de América Latina, propone la elaboración y comercialización de productos tradicionales, cuyo público objetivo son consumidores dispuestos a pagar un mayor precio en comparac [...] ión a las versiones más industriales, debido a sus atributos particulares, no obstante, el desconocimiento de la información que los consumidores disponen de tales atributos, o la manera en que la emplean para juzgar su calidad, hace necesario investigar la forma en que los consumidores juzgan y comparan la calidad de los productos de origen campesino, razón por la cual, el objetivo del presente estudio es generar una definición de categoría que agrupe a los productos de origen campesino, particularmente a los productos procesados. La información empleada corresponde a fuentes secundarias e información primaria, que fue obtenida por medio de seis sesiones de grupos focales y una encuesta, aplicada a una muestra de 660 personas, de estrato socioeconómico ABC1 y C2, que consumen o han consumido productos de origen campesino. Se determinaron atributos relacionados con la materia prima, al producto terminado, al proceso de elaboración y al productor. Los resultados sugieren que los consumidores definen su compra principalmente por la información entregada en la etiqueta, fijándose en el origen del producto y materias primas utilizadas. Debido a ello, fue posible definir que la categoría de productos procesados campesinos, son aquellos que son elaborados directamente por el productor, con uso intensivo de mano de obra, en base a una receta casera-tradicional, utilizando la materia prima de la temporada y proveniente del lugar de elaboración, con un color, aroma y sabor del producto lo más parecida a la materia prima y nutricionalmente beneficiosa para la salud, todo esto acompañado por inocuidad y calidad en sus procesos. Abstract in english Part of Development strategy aimed to support small farmers of in Chile and different Latin American countries, have proposed elaboration and selling of traditional food products, whose target are those consumers willing to pay a higher price compared to industrial food due to its particular quality [...] attributes, nevertheless, lack of knowledge about which information consumers have about such attributes nor consumers' judgment on traditional food quality, makes necessary to propose a category definition grouping food products made by peasants, and particularly processed food products. Information used in this study was reviewed secondary sources and primary data, through six focus groups and surveys, in this case, we defined a sample size of 660 people of socioeconomic ABC1 and C2, which use or have used products from the countryside. Attributes were identified related to the raw material, finished product, the process of development and producer. Results suggest that consumers purchase decision making is mainly defined by label information, specifically origin of the product and raw materials used for its elaboration. From results of this study, it is possible to define category of peasants processed food products, as those that are made directly by the producer, with intensive use of labor, based on a traditional homemade recipe-using raw materials of the season and from the processing site, with a color, aroma and taste of the product as close to raw materials and nutritionally beneficial to health, all accompanied by safety and quality in their processes.

Sáez Tonacca, Luis; Sandoval Moraga, Sandra; Ganga Muñoz, M. Angélica.

339

Current state of and perspectives on cocoa production in Mexico / Situación actual y perspectivas de la producción de cacao en México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish O. Díaz-José, J. Aguilar-Ávila, R. Rendón-Medel y V.H. Santoyo-Cortés. 2013. Situación actual y perspectivas de la producción de cacao en México. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(2):279-289. El cacao es uno de los recursos agrícolas y culturales más importantes del trópico húmedo mexicano. Actualmente, el sistema [...] cacao enfrenta una crisis productiva sin precedentes debido a varios factores, entre ellos: la presencia de moniliasis (Moniliphthora roreri), abandono de plantaciones y baja rentabilidad en las fincas. El propósito de este trabajo fue formular un plan de mediano plazo para el desarrollo de la cacaocultura en México, a través de la caracterización y construcción de un Mapa de Ruta Tecnológica (MRT). Mediante un modelo econométrico, se analizaron las estadísticas productivas nacionales e internacionales. Se aplicaron 185 encuestas a productores y se realizaron 82 entrevistas a actores clave de la cadena productiva. Los resultados evidencian que durante el periodo 2000-2011, México presenta una tendencia contraria en el crecimiento de la actividad con respecto a la mayoría de las naciones productoras de cacao y su producción disminuyó 43.7%. El MRT indica que el periodo para la ejecución del plan es de seis años e involucra acciones de manejo integrado de plagas, incorporación de buenas prácticas agrícolas y de manejo, mejoramiento genético participativo, generación de sistemas de calidad y promoción del cacao nacional. Esto requiere de la participación de todos los actores involucrados en la cadena productiva, con el propósito de llevar a las fincas hacia la producción especializada de cacao mexicano fino de aroma. Abstract in english O. Díaz-José, J. Aguilar-Ávila, R. Rendón-Medel, and V.H. Santoyo-Cortés. 2013. Current state of and perspectives on cocoa production in Mexico. Cien. Inv. Agr.40(2): 279-289. Cocoa is one of the principal agricultural and cultural resources of the humid Mexican tropics. At present, the cocoa system [...] is facing an unprecedented production crisis in relation to several factors, including the presence of frosty pod rot (Moniliophthora roreri), plantation neglect and low farm profitability. The aim of this study was to formulate a medium-term plan for cocoa production in Mexico by constructing a Technology Roadmap (TRM). Using an econometric model, production statistics were analyzed for national and international data. Producers participated in 185 surveys, and 82 interviews were performed with key actors in the production chain. The results showed that from 2000-2011, Mexico's cocoa production decreased by 43.7%, contrary to the increase seen in most cocoa producing nations during that time. The TRM indicates that a six-year period is needed to implement the plan, which would involve integration of pest management, introduction of good agricultural practices and management, participation in breeding, improvement of quality and promotion of national cocoa. These actions require the participation of all production chain stakeholders to encourage farmers to take part in the specialized production of Mexican fine aroma cocoa.

Díaz-José, Oscar; Aguilar-Ávila, Jorge; Rendón-Medel, Roberto; Santoyo-Cortés, V. Horacio.

340

Definición de la categoría "Producto Campesino" en base a preferencias de consumidores del Gran Santiago Definition of "Peasant Product" category based preferences of consumers in Santiago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Parte de la Política de Fomento Productivo, orientada al sector de la Agricultura Familiar Campesina, en Chile y otros países de América Latina, propone la elaboración y comercialización de productos tradicionales, cuyo público objetivo son consumidores dispuestos a pagar un mayor precio en comparación a las versiones más industriales, debido a sus atributos particulares, no obstante, el desconocimiento de la información que los consumidores disponen de tales atributos, o la manera en que la emplean para juzgar su calidad, hace necesario investigar la forma en que los consumidores juzgan y comparan la calidad de los productos de origen campesino, razón por la cual, el objetivo del presente estudio es generar una definición de categoría que agrupe a los productos de origen campesino, particularmente a los productos procesados. La información empleada corresponde a fuentes secundarias e información primaria, que fue obtenida por medio de seis sesiones de grupos focales y una encuesta, aplicada a una muestra de 660 personas, de estrato socioeconómico ABC1 y C2, que consumen o han consumido productos de origen campesino. Se determinaron atributos relacionados con la materia prima, al producto terminado, al proceso de elaboración y al productor. Los resultados sugieren que los consumidores definen su compra principalmente por la información entregada en la etiqueta, fijándose en el origen del producto y materias primas utilizadas. Debido a ello, fue posible definir que la categoría de productos procesados campesinos, son aquellos que son elaborados directamente por el productor, con uso intensivo de mano de obra, en base a una receta casera-tradicional, utilizando la materia prima de la temporada y proveniente del lugar de elaboración, con un color, aroma y sabor del producto lo más parecida a la materia prima y nutricionalmente beneficiosa para la salud, todo esto acompañado por inocuidad y calidad en sus procesos.Part of Development strategy aimed to support small farmers of in Chile and different Latin American countries, have proposed elaboration and selling of traditional food products, whose target are those consumers willing to pay a higher price compared to industrial food due to its particular quality attributes, nevertheless, lack of knowledge about which information consumers have about such attributes nor consumers' judgment on traditional food quality, makes necessary to propose a category definition grouping food products made by peasants, and particularly processed food products. Information used in this study was reviewed secondary sources and primary data, through six focus groups and surveys, in this case, we defined a sample size of 660 people of socioeconomic ABC1 and C2, which use or have used products from the countryside. Attributes were identified related to the raw material, finished product, the process of development and producer. Results suggest that consumers purchase decision making is mainly defined by label information, specifically origin of the product and raw materials used for its elaboration. From results of this study, it is possible to define category of peasants processed food products, as those that are made directly by the producer, with intensive use of labor, based on a traditional homemade recipe-using raw materials of the season and from the processing site, with a color, aroma and taste of the product as close to raw materials and nutritionally beneficial to health, all accompanied by safety and quality in their processes.

Luis Sáez Tonacca

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Product lines for digital information products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Digital information products are an important class of widely used digital products, whose core benefit is the delivery of information or education (e.g., electronic books, online newspapers, e-learning courses).

Pankratius, Victor

2007-01-01

342

Labour productivity and rice production in Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we examine the significance of labour productivity and use of inputs in explaining technical efficiency of rice production in Bangladesh. We find that higher labour productivity can stimulate high efficiency gains, but increased use of inputs (except land) induces negative marginal effect on technical efficiency. While more use of land, improved seeds and fertilizers contributes to the rate of labour-productivity induced marginal efficiency gain, any additional labour depresses ...

Selim, Sheikh

2010-01-01

343

Productivity, components of automated production systems viewed  

Science.gov (United States)

The developmet and expanded use of robotics was initiated to increase labor productivity, ensure stable high quality instruments and necessary safety equipment, and to reduce the cost of products. Robotics was introduced to cold stamping machining, loading and unloading, transport and warehousing, etc. Approximately 200 robots were introduced which replaced 50 people. Robotics and robotized technology applied to industrial plants for automation flexible production systems, increase productivity, quality improvement, and reduction of manpower is discussed.

Letsik, V. I.

1986-03-01

344

Absorbent hygiene products - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules  

... Absorbent Hygiene Products are a subset of products from UN CPC/division 32/subclass 32193: toilet paper, handkerchiefs, towels, serviettes, napkins for babies, tampons, and similar household, sanitary or hospital articles, and articles of apparel, of paper pulp, paper, cellulose wadding or ... Detailed information Replacing : PCR 2007:06 Absorbent hygiene products (de-registered) Name: Absorbent hygiene products CPC Code(s): 32193 Toilet paper, handkerchiefs, towels, serviettes, napkins for babies, tampons, and similar household, sanitary or hospital articles, and articles of apparel, of paper pulp, paper, cellulose ...

345

Product Category Rules - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules  

...vegetables, pulses and potatoes 2012-08-28 Fruits and nuts, except kiwi fruit 2012-08-24 Bakery products 2012-04-17 Wood particle and fibreboards 2012-03-09 On-line text based information, on-line books ... 2012-01-09 Books, in print 2011-12-22 Builders' joinery and carpentry of wood 2011-12-19 Electricity, steam and hot/cold water generation and distrib... ...stones and minerals Textile and leather productsFurniture and other transportable goods Forestry, wood and paper productsPlastic, glass and chemical products Metals and metal ...

346

Cement - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules  

... Cement - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules /en/PCR/Detail/ Log on to environdec Remember me Not a member? Register here!... Login Using EPDs Creating EPDs Product Category Rules (PCR) En Español In Italiano På Svenska Türkçe V Ceštine Subscribe to our newsletter ...Register Sitemap Login PCR Search What are Product Category Rules? PCR Development PCR Forum Search Comment this PCR Post Using EPDs PCR Search ...Cement Search Pcr Cement PCR information This document provides Product Category Rules (PCR) for the assessment of the environmental performance of UN ...

347

Beer - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules  

... Beer - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules Beer - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules Log on to environdec Remember ...Development PCR Forum Search Comment this PCR Post Using EPDs PCR Search Beer Search Pcr Beer PCR information This document provides Product Category Rules ...PCR) for the assessment of the environmental performance of UN CPC 2431 Beer made from malt and the declaration of this performance by an EPD.... Detailed information Name: Beer CPC Code(s): 2431 Beer made from malt Approval date: 2011-12-01 Registration No: 2011:21 ...

348

The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk colour, egg albumen, sensory properties, fatty acid and carotenoid composition of the egg yolk. 2. A total of 5 dietary treatments were tested for 5 weeks, consisting of a basal organic feed plus 120 g/ hen.d of the following forage materials: 1) maize silage (control), 2) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced increased significantly with the kale treatment. 4. The egg shell strength tended to be higher with the kale treatment, andegg yolk colour was significantly more red with the kale treatment and more yellow with basil and kale treatments. The albumen DM content and albumen gel strength were lowest with the thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and -carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange xanthophyll, tended to be higher in kale and eggs from hens receiving kale. 5. In conclusion, forage material, especially basil and kale, resulted in increased egg production and eggs of high and differentiable quality.

Hammershøj, Marianne; Steenfeldt, Sanna

2012-01-01

349

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ... Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos ...

350

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ... Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos ...

351

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices ... Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Identifying Recalled Products Search the Consumer Updates Section ...

352

Flavored Tobacco Product Facts  

Science.gov (United States)

... around other flavored tobacco products like bidis and hookahs have found that young smokers report choosing flavored ... want to be reminded of bubblegum.” 8 Health Effects All tobacco products, including flavored tobacco products are ...

353

Micro Products - Product Development and Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Innovation within the field of micro and nano technology is to a great extent characterized by cross-disciplinary skills. The traditional disciplines like e.g. physics, biology, medicine and engineering are united in a common development process that can only take place in the presence of multi-disciplinary competences. One example is sensors for chemical analysis of fluids, where chemistry, biology and flow mechanics all influence the design of the product and thereby the industrial fabrication of the product [1]. On the technological side the development has moved very fast, primarily driven by the need of the electronics industry to create still smaller chips with still larger capacity. Therefore the manufacturing technologies connected with micro/nano products in silicon are relatively highly developed compared to the technologies used for manufacturing micro products in metals, polymers and ceramics. For all technologies, however, it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production of micro products. As the products through product development processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing.

Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

2003-01-01

354

Miembros - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules  

... Miembros - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules Miembros - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules Log on to environdec Remember ...EPD® Declaración climática Contacto Search Uso de EPDs El Sistema Internacional EPD® Miembros Organizaciones de todo el mundo participan en el Sistema Internacional EPD&174...; Miembros en el Sistema Internacional EPD Es posible que las organizaciones o asociaciones que estén interesados ó tengan un valioso y profundo conocimiento de ...PCR y ACV participen como miembros y formen parte del futuro desarrollo del Sistema Internacional de EPD®. Los miembros están invitados a ...

355

PDT (Product Data Technology), Production and Society  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Information and communication technology (ICT) constitute a genuine technical revolution by enabling a dynamic and flexible support or automation of knowledge and information work. Bearing in mind that products are frozen knowledge, ICT as known will change the way we produce products dramatically. The use of ICT in engineering of products constitutes product data technology (PDT).This paper presents a a basic platform for an understanding the ongoing revolution with focus on the PDT-area taking outset in the fundamental elements of knowledge and information work: creation, transformation, transmission, storing, and retrieval of knowledge and information.

Vesterager, Johan

1997-01-01

356

Product variety and reliability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Murthy et al. [Murthy DNP, Rausand M, Virtanen S. Investment in new product reliability, Reliability Engineering and System Safety (accepted for publication)] proposed an approach to decide on product reliability in the context of new product development and identified two tasks for execution as part of the overall process. In this paper, we focus on the first task-determining the product reliability requirements.

2009-10-01

357

Thermophilic Biohydrogen Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dark fermentative hydrogen production at thermophilic conditions is attractive process for biofuel production. From thermodynamic point of view, higher temperatures favor biohydrogen production. Highest hydrogen yields are always associated with acetate, or with mixed acetate- butyrate type fermentation. On the contrary the hydrogen yield decreases, with increasing concentrations of lactate, ethanol or propionate. Major factors affecting dark fermentative biohydrogen production are organic lo...

2011-01-01

358

Rain Forest Products  

Science.gov (United States)

Students move from lab station to lab station observing samples of products from the Rain Forest. At each station they record the name of the product, write a description and sketch a diagram of the product. For homework, students prepare an advertisement for the Rain Forest and its products

Meg Milani (South San Francisco High School REV)

1994-07-30

359

Product variety and reliability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Murthy et al. [Murthy DNP, Rausand M, Virtanen S. Investment in new product reliability, Reliability Engineering and System Safety (accepted for publication)] proposed an approach to decide on product reliability in the context of new product development and identified two tasks for execution as part of the overall process. In this paper, we focus on the first task-determining the product reliability requirements.

Murthy, D.N.P. [Division of Mechanical Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)], E-mail: p.murthy@uq.edu.au; Hagmark, P.-E.; Virtanen, S. [Institute of Machine Design and Operation, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland)

2009-10-15

360

Successful product realization strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

Product realization is the process of defining, designing, developing, and delivering products to the market. While the main thrust of this JTEC panel was to conduct a complete investigation of the state of Japanese low-cost electronic packaging technologies, it is very difficult to totally separate the development of technology and products from the product realization process. Japan's electronics firms adhere to a product realization strategy based on a strong customer focus, a consistent commitment to excellence in design, and a cost-effective approach to technology commercialization. The Japanese product-pull strategy has been a successful driver and influencing factor in every aspect of the product development cycle.

Peeples, John; Boulton, William R.

1995-02-01

 
 
 
 
361

Probiotic fermented dairy products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

Adnan Tamime

2003-04-01

362

Probiotic fermented dairy products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

2003-01-01

363

How Products Are Made  

Science.gov (United States)

How Products Are Made explains and details the manufacturing process of a wide variety of products, from daily household items to complicated electronic equipment and heavy machinery. The site provides descriptions of the step-by-step assembly and manufacturing process (complemented with illustrations and diagrams). Background information is also provided, such as how the item works, who invented the product, raw materials used, product applications, by-products, possible future developments, quality-control procedures, etc.

364

Framework of product experience:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we introduce a general framework for product experience that applies to all affective responses that can be experienced in human-product interaction. Three distinct components or levels of product experiences are discussed: aesthetic experience, experience of meaning, and emotional experience. All three components are distinguished in having their own lawful underlying process. The aesthetic level involves a product’s capacity to delight one or more of our sensory modalities....

Desmet, P.; Hekkert, P.

2007-01-01

365

Replacing an Existing Product's Production Within a Similar Product Production by Using a Replacement Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Existing processes for specific products cannot sustain operational profitably over a long period. The product’s price is not much higher than the raw material costs and it is necessary to make certain modifications by using savings or replacements during product production. In our case, the production of methanol having a low market value would be replaced by the production of dimethyl ether (DME. This would create greater demand, especially from the environmental perspective, and can be achieved by using replacement technique. We want to keep and transfer as many of the existing units from the previous production to the new production. Dimethyl ether is an organic compound with the formula CH3OCH3.  It is a colourless gas that is a useful precursor to other organic compounds, and an aerosol propellant. DME can act as a clean fuel when burned in engines properly optimized for DME. The direct production of DME would be cheaper than indirect when applied for new buildings. The same applies for retrofits, or the replacing of existing methanol - specific production – a similar DME product plant would be more rational for the direct production of DME, because of greater efficiency, productivity of DME production, profit, and for 20 % more electricity generation.

Key words: Dimetyl ether; Replacement; Methanol process; Indirect method; Direct method; Retrofit

Anita Kova? Kralj

2011-12-01

366

Making Product Customization Profitable  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The main result presented in this paper is the Framework for Product Family Master Plan. This framework supports the identification of a product architecture for companies that customize products and services. The framework has five coherent aspects, the market, product assortment, supply-production, organization and work processes. One of the unique results is that these aspects are linked, which make it possible to make explicit recommendations for an architecture (the way a product family should be structured with clear interfaces), architecture elements and consequences. By means of a case study it is shown that the potential EBIT (Earning Before Interests and Taxes) improvement of the case company is 10%.

Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

2010-01-01

367

Integrated Product Policy (IPP)  

...Integrated Product Policy (IPP) Published on EurActiv (http://www.euractiv.com) Source URL: http://www.euractiv....com/ sustainability/integrated-product-policy-ipp/article-117512 Integrated Product Policy (IPP) Published: 21 September 2006 | Updated: 07 November 2012 On ...June 2003, the Commission finally adopted its long-awaited Communication on Integrated Product Policy (IPP) opting for a more voluntary approach to greener products. ... IPP seeks to minimise environmental degradation caused by products throughout their whole life-cycle. Milestones In its Communication, the Commission presented the following ...

368

Productivity Management Program: Manual  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has an ongoing effort to maximize productivity, including its Productivity Management Program (PMP), Manpower Management Survey Program (MMSP) and the Manpower utilization Reporting System (MURS). The productivity effort has three major goals: to develop quantitative and qualitative measures against which the productivity of individual organizations and functions can be measured; to provide a systematic process by which managers can measure their productivity and incorporate the results in formal reporting systems to Departmental management, the Office of Management and Budget, Congress and other appropriate bodies; and to promote productivity improvement.

1988-01-01

369

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Section Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food ...

370

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Archived Content The content ... Consumers Consumer Updates Section Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food ...

371

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices ... Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol ? - Resources for You Sign up for Consumer Updates ...

372

Electric motor product roadmaps  

Oct 15, 2009 ... heating and lighting products; electric motors; domestic and office appliances ... \\with motors include resource depletion (including precious metals in ... the metal \\products machinery & equipment sector, the chemicals sector, ...

373

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... may have a recalled product. There are many numbers and dates on the foods, drugs, cosmetics, and ... products must be removed from the market, these numbers and dates can also help identify them quickly. - ...

374

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... explains how FDA manages product recalls. - For More Information FDA 101: Product Recalls - From First Alert to ... FoodSafety.gov: Your Gateway to Federal Food Safety Information - Page Last Updated: 12/07/2013 Note: If ...

375

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Recall Information for Consumers Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts Recalled Product Photos on Flickr - - Related Consumer Updates FDA 101: Product Recalls - From First Alert to Effectiveness Checks [ARCHIVED] Start at the Store: ...

376

Annex 1: Productivity measure  

This measure of rural productivity has been developed in conjunction with the \\Office for National Statistics' ... Government-supported trainees (from DfES and \\DWP) and ... Productivity in R80, compared to regional; performance = 100. 80. \\80. ×.

377

Product Life Cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

In this media-rich lesson featuring LOOP SCOOPS videos, students think about where materials in everyday products come from, and learn that knowing about product life cycles can help us make decisions that reduce waste and pollution.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-11-30

378

PRODUCTION SYSTEM ORGANIZATION OF THE WOOD PRODUCT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the chapter the basic information about the company producing wooden product for home, garden, as well as windows, doors and floors, was presented. The object of the research is the sandbox with a fixed roof, which is produced by this company. Production process depicted technologically was presented. In the research the BOST survey – Toyota management principles in questions was used, E4 area, connected with the 3rd Toyota management principle and characteristics of respo...

Borkowski, Stanis?aw; Ingaldi, Manuela; Jagusiak-kocik, Marta

2013-01-01