WorldWideScience

Sample records for aroma 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline production

  1. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline - key aroma compound in Mediterranean dried sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    2000-01-01

    In a study characterising sausage types from various parts of Europe, ten Mediterranean and Northern European fermented, dried sausages were compared using static headspace gas chromatography-olfactometry and a sniffing panel of five members. The greatest difference between the Northern and Southern types were attributed to a burned coffee odour from smoke in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The two compounds were 2-furfurylthiol and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. An analysis of five dried, moulded sausages showed that the surface edge of the sausages contained higher amounts of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline than the core, indicating that the mould growing on the surface of Mediterranean products produces 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline.

  2. Mechanism of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthesis in Bassia latifolia Roxb. flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Wakte, Kantilal V.; Kad, Trupti D.; Zanan, Rahul L.; Nadaf, Altafhusain B.

    2011-01-01

    The flowers of Bassia latifolia are known to contain 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), the compound responsible for pleasant aroma in basmati and other scented rice. Four growth stages of Bassia flowers were identified and 2AP contents were analysed in each stage. It was found that 2AP (3.30 ppm) gets synthesized only in fleshy corolla of mature flowers (fourth stage). The activity of ?-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase (AADH); an enzyme responsible for synthesis of ?-aminobutyricacid (GABA) from...

  3. Single kernel method for detection of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in aromatic rice germplasm using SPME-GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTRODUCTION Aromatic rice or fragrant rice, (Oryza sativa L.), has a strong popcorn-like aroma due to the presence of a five-membered N-heterocyclic ring compound known as 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP). To date, existing methods for detecting this compound in rice require the use of several kernels. ...

  4. Mechanism of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthesis in Bassia latifolia Roxb. flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakte, Kantilal V; Kad, Trupti D; Zanan, Rahul L; Nadaf, Altafhusain B

    2011-07-01

    The flowers of Bassia latifolia are known to contain 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), the compound responsible for pleasant aroma in basmati and other scented rice. Four growth stages of Bassia flowers were identified and 2AP contents were analysed in each stage. It was found that 2AP (3.30 ppm) gets synthesized only in fleshy corolla of mature flowers (fourth stage). The activity of ?-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase (AADH); an enzyme responsible for synthesis of ?-aminobutyricacid (GABA) from ?-aminobutyraldehyde (GABald) was assessed in these four stages. The AADH activity was absent in the fourth stage. It was concluded that ceased activity of AADH in fourth stage flowers leads to the accumulation of ?-aminobutyraldehyde which is cyclised spontaneously to ?(1)-pyrroline, the key precursor of 2AP. ?(1)-pyrroline further reacts unenzymatically with methylglyoxal to form 2AP. PMID:23573014

  5. HS-SPME-GC-FID method for detection and quantification of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10702 mediated 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Yogita; Khare, Puja; Patra, D D; Nadaf, Altafhusain B

    2014-01-01

    A rapid micro-scale solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) procedure coupled with gas-chromatography with flame ionized detector (GC-FID) was used to extract parts per billion levels of a principle basmati aroma compound "2-acetyl-1-pyrroline" (2-AP) from bacterial samples. In present investigation, optimization parameters of bacterial incubation period, sample weight, pre-incubation time, adsorption time, and temperature, precursors and their concentrations has been studied. In the optimized conditions, detection of 2-AP produced by Bacillus cereus ATCC10702 using only 0.5 g of sample volume was 85 ?g/kg. Along with 2-AP, 15 other compounds produced by B. cereus were also reported out of which 14 were reported for the first time consisting mainly of (E)-2-hexenal, pentadecanal, 4-hydroxy-2-butanone, n-hexanal, 2-6-nonadienal, 3-methoxy-2(5H) furanone and 2-acetyl-1-pyridine and octanal. High recovery of 2-AP (87 %) from very less amount of B. cereus samples was observed. The method is reproducible fast and can be used for detection of 2-AP production by B. cereus. PMID:25196224

  6. Stabilization of the potent odorant 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and structural analogues by complexation with zinc halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ming-Chih; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2014-09-01

    2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) and the structurally similar compounds 6-acetyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine (ATHP, along with its tautomer 6-acetyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine), 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (2PP), and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline (2A2T) are well-known potent odorants in various food products. However, due to the highly unstable nature of these compounds, especially 2AP and ATHP, they are scarcely used commercially in flavor formulations. A novel and attractive method for the stabilization of these potent odorants in dry powder form is presented. Coordination of 2AP, ATHP, 2PP, and 2A2T to zinc ions (ZnI2, ZnBr2, or ZnCl2) resulted in the formation in high yields of stable crystalline complexes, which upon hydration release the free odorant. Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the coordination complexes. 2AP contains donor atoms, which coordinate (with covalent character) through both the heterocyclic nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen atoms to the zinc ion. This is also the case for ATHP and 2PP, but not for 2A2T, because the sulfur group in 2A2T provides a third possible donor site. Stability studies showed that the 2AP-ZnI2 complex (with 14% loading) maintained >94% retention of 2AP after 3 months of storage at ambient temperature in a dry environment. Meanwhile, the ATHP-ZnI2 complex was similarly stable and retained 89% of the ATHP after 3 months of storage. This stabilization technology may enable the commercial use of this powerful aroma compound as a flavoring agent. PMID:25147956

  7. Effect of timing and duration of salt treatment during growth of a fragrant rice variety on yield and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, proline, and GABA Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonlaphdecha, Janchai; Maraval, Isabelle; Roques, Sandrine; Audebert, Alain; Boulanger, Renaud; Bry, Xavier; Gunata, Ziya

    2012-04-18

    In greenhouse experiments, Aychade, a fragrant rice variety, was grown under one level of salt solution (EC of 3800 ± 400 ?S·cm(-1)) sufficient to induce salt stress in rice. Timing and duration of salt solution application varied according to the growth stages. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), a characteristic flavor compound of fragrant rice as well as biogenetically related compounds, proline, and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were quantified. Salt treatments induced 2AP synthesis in the leaves, but the increase was often higher in the vegetative phase. This increase was correlated with proline level but not with that of GABA. Interestingly the grains from all the salt treated plants contained significantly higher levels of 2AP (733-998 ?g·kg(-1)) than those from the control (592 ?g·kg(-1)). The highest 2AP synthesis occurred when the plants were subjected to salt treatment during whole vegetative or reproductive phases. However in the latter case crop yield decreased significantly. PMID:22404867

  8. New short and general synthesis of three key Maillard flavour compounds: 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline, 6-acetyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine and 5-acetyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-1,4-thiazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblander, Jurgen; Van Aeken, Sam; Adams, An; De Kimpe, Norbert; Abbaspour Tehrani, Kourosch

    2015-02-01

    A new general synthetic route towards three key Maillard flavour compounds, namely 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 6-acetyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine and 5-acetyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-1,4-thiazine, was developed. The key step in the process is the methylenation reaction of azaheterocyclic carboxylic esters by means of dimethyltitanocene, giving rise to intermediate vinyl ethers which can be considered as excellent and stable precursors for the title compounds, as a simple acidic treatment of these precursors suffices to release the characteristic Maillard flavours. PMID:25172717

  9. Mousy off-flavor of wine: precursors and biosynthesis of the causative N-heterocycles 2-ethyltetrahydropyridine, 2-acetyltetrahydropyridine, and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline by Lactobacillus hilgardii DSM 20176.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Peter J; Henschke, Paul A

    2002-11-20

    The N-heterocyclic bases, 2-ethyltetrahydropyridine (1), 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2), and 2-acetyltetrahydropyridine (3) are associated with the occurrence of mousy off-flavor in wine. The biosynthesis of these N-heterocycles by the wine lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus hilgardii DSM 20176, was studied by high-cell-density incubation in combination with a minimal chemically defined N-heterocycle assay medium. The key components of the defined N-heterocycle assay medium included D-fructose, ethanol, L-lysine, L-ornithine, and mineral salts. N-heterocycle formation was quantitatively determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The formation of 2 and 3 required the concomitant availability of a fermentable carbohydrate (D-fructose), ethanol, and iron (Fe(2+)). In addition, L-ornithine stimulated the formation of 2 and repressed 3 formation, whereas L-lysine stimulated the formation of 3 and repressed 2 formation. Incorporation of d(6)-ethanol into the acetyl side chain of 2 and 3, and of d(4)-acetaldehyde into the acetyl side chain of 3, confirmed that ethanol and acetaldehyde could serve as major side chain precursors. A pathway for the formation of 2 and 3 by heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria is proposed involving the interaction of accumulated C-2 intermediates from the heterolactic pathway and N-heterocyclic intermediates derived from the metabolism of L-ornithine and L-lysine. PMID:12428963

  10. Comparison of key aroma compounds in cooked brown rice varieties based on aroma extract dilution analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezussek, Magnus; Juliano, Bienvenido O; Schieberle, Peter

    2002-02-27

    The aroma compounds present in cooked brown rice of the three varieties Improved Malagkit Sungsong (IMS), Basmati 370 (B 370), and Khaskhani (KK), and of the variety Indica (German supermarket sample), were identified on the basis of aroma extract dilution analyses (AEDA). A total of 41 odor-active compounds were identified, of which eleven are reported for the first time as rice constituents. 2-Amino acetophenone (medicinal, phenolic), which was up to now unknown in rice aroma, exhibited the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor among the 30 to 39 odor-active compounds detected in all four varieties. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline, exhibiting an intense popcorn-like aroma-note, was confirmed as a further key aroma constituent in IMS, B 370, and KK, but was not important in Indica. Differences in the FD factors between the varieties were found for the previously unknown rice aroma compound 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (Sotolon; seasoning-like), which was higher in B 370 than in IMS and KK. In IMS, a yet unknown, spicy smelling component with a very high FD factor could be detected, which contributed with lower FD factors to the overall aromas of B 370 and KK, and was not present in Indica. The latter variety, which was available on the German market, differed most in its overall aroma from the three Asian brown rices. PMID:11853489

  11. Comparison of aroma active and sulfur volatiles in three fragrant rice cultivars using GC-olfactometry and GC-PFPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Rouseff, Russell L

    2014-07-01

    Aroma volatiles from three cooked fragrant rice types (Jasmine, Basmati and Jasmati) were characterised and identified using SPME GC-O, GC-PFPD and confirmed using GC-MS. A total of 26, 23, and 22 aroma active volatiles were observed in Jasmine, Basmati and Jasmati cooked rice samples. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline was aroma active in all three rice types, but the sulphur-based, cooked rice character impact volatile, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline was aroma active only in Jasmine rice. Five additional sulphur volatiles were found to have aroma activity: dimethyl sulphide, 3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, dimethyl trisulphide, and methional. Other newly-reported aroma active rice volatiles were geranyl acetate, ?-damascone, ?-damascenone, and ?-ionone, contributing nutty, sweet floral attributes to the aroma of cooked aromatic rice. The first two principal components from the principal component analysis of sulphur volatiles explained 60% of the variance. PC1 separated Basmati from the other two cultivars and PC2 completely separated Jasmine from Jasmati cultivars. PMID:24518308

  12. High-quality Italian rice cultivars: chemical indices of ageing and aroma quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griglione, Alessandra; Liberto, Erica; Cordero, Chiara; Bressanello, Davide; Cagliero, Cecilia; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Bicchi, Carlo; Sgorbini, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    The volatile fractions of six Italian high-quality rice cultivars were investigated by HS-SPME-GC-MS to define fingerprinting and identify chemical markers and/or indices of ageing and aroma quality. In particular, four non-aromatic (Carnaroli, Carnise, Cerere and Antares) and two aromatic (Apollo and Venere) rices, harvested in 2010 and 2011, were monitored over 12months. Twenty-five aroma components were considered and, despite considerable inter-annual variability, some of them showed similar trends over time, including 2-(E)-octenal as a marker of ageing for all cultivars, and heptanal, octanal and 2-ethyl hexanol as cultivar-specific indicators. The area ratios 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline/1-octen-3-ol, for Venere, and 3-methyl-1-butanol/2-methyl-1-butanol, for Apollo, were also found to act as ageing indices. Additional information on release of key-aroma compounds was also obtained from quantitation and its dependence on grain shape and chemical composition. Heptanal/1-octen-3-ol and heptanal/octanal ratios were also defined as characterising the aroma quality indices of the six Italian rice cultivars investigated. PMID:25442558

  13. Production of aroma compounds from whey using Wickerhamomyces pijperi

    OpenAIRE

    Izawa, Naoki; Kudo, Miyuki; Nakamura, Yukako; Mizukoshi, Harumi; Kitada, Takahiro; SONE, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    The production of aroma compounds by the microbial fermentation of whey was studied. Seven strains of the yeast Wickerhamomyces pijperi were used for the fermentation of glucose-added whey (whey-g). Twelve aroma compounds (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl propionate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl benzoate) were identified in the fermented broth using headspace gas chromatography mass...

  14. Production of aroma compounds from whey using Wickerhamomyces pijperi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Naoki; Kudo, Miyuki; Nakamura, Yukako; Mizukoshi, Harumi; Kitada, Takahiro; Sone, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    The production of aroma compounds by the microbial fermentation of whey was studied. Seven strains of the yeast Wickerhamomyces pijperi were used for the fermentation of glucose-added whey (whey-g). Twelve aroma compounds (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl propionate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl benzoate) were identified in the fermented broth using headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. The major components were ethyl acetate (several tens to hundreds ppm), acetaldehyde (several tens ppm) and isoamyl alcohol (about 10 ppm). The strong fruity odor of ethyl benzoate (about 1 ppm) was detected in the broth of W. pijperi YIT 8095 and YIT 12779. The balance of aroma compounds produced was varied depending on the media used, and ethyl benzoate was only produced when using whey-g. The variation in the production of the aroma compounds over time using W. pijperi YIT 12779 at various culture temperatures (from 15-30°C) was also studied. From the results we propose that W. pijperi could be used as a novel microorganism for production of aroma compounds from whey. PMID:25897405

  15. Optimising aroma quality in curry sauce products using in vivo aroma release measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Jun; Davidson, James M; Kant, Avinash; Koizumi, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Fumiyo; Taylor, Andrew J

    2014-08-15

    Reducing fat content in foods to meet consumers' preferences and to address the obesity issue is a key task for food manufacturers but simply reducing fat content affects aroma quality adversely. Measuring the aroma release from regular and low-fat samples during eating to rebalance the aroma release has proved successful in model systems. Here, the reformulation of the spice content in a low fat curry sauce is described. Volatile markers of the key spices (coriander, cumin and turmeric) were selected and used to measure aroma release in regular (10 g oil/100 g) and low (2.5 or 5 g oil/100 g) fat sauces. Regression models were used to adjust the ingredient formulation so that the aroma release profiles in vivo were the same for the regular and reduced oil curry sauces and sensory analysis showed no significant difference between these samples. Despite the complexity of spice aromas, rebalancing was successful. PMID:24679775

  16. Application of an Effective Statistical Technique for an Accurate and Powerful Mining of Quantitative Trait Loci for Rice Aroma Trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestan Hashemi, Farahnaz Sadat; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Mohamed, Mahmud Tengku Muda; Rahim, Harun A; Latif, Mohammad Abdul; Aslani, Farzad

    2015-01-01

    When a phenotype of interest is associated with an external/internal covariate, covariate inclusion in quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses can diminish residual variation and subsequently enhance the ability of QTL detection. In the in vitro synthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), the main fragrance compound in rice, the thermal processing during the Maillard-type reaction between proline and carbohydrate reduction produces a roasted, popcorn-like aroma. Hence, for the first time, we included the proline amino acid, an important precursor of 2AP, as a covariate in our QTL mapping analyses to precisely explore the genetic factors affecting natural variation for rice scent. Consequently, two QTLs were traced on chromosomes 4 and 8. They explained from 20% to 49% of the total aroma phenotypic variance. Additionally, by saturating the interval harboring the major QTL using gene-based primers, a putative allele of fgr (major genetic determinant of fragrance) was mapped in the QTL on the 8th chromosome in the interval RM223-SCU015RM (1.63 cM). These loci supported previous studies of different accessions. Such QTLs can be widely used by breeders in crop improvement programs and for further fine mapping. Moreover, no previous studies and findings were found on simultaneous assessment of the relationship among 2AP, proline and fragrance QTLs. Therefore, our findings can help further our understanding of the metabolomic and genetic basis of 2AP biosynthesis in aromatic rice. PMID:26061689

  17. FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana, Bramorski; Carlos R., Soccol; Pierre, Christen; Sergio, Revah.

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo explorou a versatilidade de Ceratocystis fimbriata de crescer e produzir aromas naturais sobre substratos de resíduos agro-industriais. Bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã, amaranto e soja em diferentes proporções compuseram os sete meios utilizados, mostrando ser substratos adequados par [...] a o crescimento e produção de aroma por este fungo em fermentação no estado sólido. Todos os meios contendo bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã e soja em sua composição proporcionaram um forte aroma frutal, enquanto, o meio de amaranto produziu um agradável aroma de abacaxi. A produção de aroma foi dependente do crescimento, visto que a máxima intensidade do aroma foi detectado poucas horas antes ou depois da atividade respiratória máxima. Foram detectados dezesseis compostos pela cromatografia de gás no headspace das culturas, e quinze deles foram identificados: 1 ácido, 6 alcoois, 1 aldeído, 2 cetonas e 5 ésteres. Abstract in english Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth [...] medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intensity was detected a few hours before or after the maximum respirometric activity. Sixteen compounds were separated by gas cromatography of the components present in the headspace and fifteen of them were identified as acid (1), alcohols (6), aldehyde (1), ketones (2) and esters (5).

  18. FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bramorski

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intensity was detected a few hours before or after the maximum respirometric activity. Sixteen compounds were separated by gas cromatography of the components present in the headspace and fifteen of them were identified as acid (1, alcohols (6, aldehyde (1, ketones (2 and esters (5.Este estudo explorou a versatilidade de Ceratocystis fimbriata de crescer e produzir aromas naturais sobre substratos de resíduos agro-industriais. Bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã, amaranto e soja em diferentes proporções compuseram os sete meios utilizados, mostrando ser substratos adequados para o crescimento e produção de aroma por este fungo em fermentação no estado sólido. Todos os meios contendo bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã e soja em sua composição proporcionaram um forte aroma frutal, enquanto, o meio de amaranto produziu um agradável aroma de abacaxi. A produção de aroma foi dependente do crescimento, visto que a máxima intensidade do aroma foi detectado poucas horas antes ou depois da atividade respiratória máxima. Foram detectados dezesseis compostos pela cromatografia de gás no headspace das culturas, e quinze deles foram identificados: 1 ácido, 6 alcoois, 1 aldeído, 2 cetonas e 5 ésteres.

  19. Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Mazi?

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried out at room temperature until the media reached pH value of 5. Samples were evaluated for sensory characteristics using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. In all media the target pH was reached after 68-71 hours of fermentation, depending on citrate level. Fermentation and the production of aroma compounds were more intensive in media that contained whey proteins compared to media with only casein. Increased citrate level had a positive influence on the aroma production. Citrate increased the initial pH of the media and acted as a buffer during fermentation, which lead to longer fermentation and prolonged production of aroma compounds. At pH around 5, the desired cultured aroma was the most intensive, whereas sour taste was less dominant. The substrate with 0.25% citrate and 0.1% whey proteins, at pH 5, was rated as best regarding its sensory characteristics.

  20. SUGARCANE BAGASSE AS SUPPORT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COCONUT AROMA BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION (SSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Pessanha da Penha,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the major producers of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum in the world and consequently produces large quantities of waste such as sugarcane bagasse, which can be used as inert support for the production of aroma compounds by SSF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the centesimal composition and particle size distribution of sugar cane bagasse, as well as its applicability as support for the production of 6-pentyl-?-pyrone by SSF. Analyses were performed in triplicate to evaluate the levels of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and moisture in the waste. Also evaluated were the particle size distribution and morphology structure of the sugarcane bagasse. The aroma compound produced shows that the studied waste can be used for 6PP production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC 4042 by SSF process. By kinetic production of aroma it is concluded that the seventh day of fermentation yielded the largest production of the aroma compound, as published for other studies

  1. Characterization of odor-active compounds in sweet-type Chinese rice wine by aroma extract dilution analysis with special emphasis on sotolon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Wang, Dong; Xu, Yan

    2013-10-01

    The aroma characteristics of sweet-type Chinese rice wine were studied by sensory analysis, aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and quantitative analysis. Sensory evaluation demonstrated that a caramel-like note was the most distinctive characteristic for sweet-type Chinese rice wine. AEDA was carried out on the extract of a typical sweet-type Chinese rice wine sample. Thirty-nine odor-active regions were detected in the sample with a flavor dilution (FD) factor ?8, and 37 of these were further identified. Among them, sotolon and 2- and 3-methylbutanol showed the highest FD factor of 1024, followed by 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (tentatively identified), dimethyl trisulfide, 2-phenylethanol, and vanillin with a FD factor of 512. Sotolon was identified as a key aroma compound in Chinese rice wine for the first time. AEDA results indicated that sotolon (caramel-like/seasoning-like) was the potentially key contributor to the caramel-like descriptor of sweet-type Chinese rice wine. The concentration of sotolon in Chinese rice wine was further quantitated by Lichrolut-EN solid-phase extraction coupled with microvial insert large volume injection method. The content of sotolon ranged from 35.93 to 526.17 ?g/L, which was above its odor threshold (9 ?g/L) for all Chinese rice wine samples. The highest concentration of sotolon was found in the sweet-type Chinese rice wine, which highlighted the important aroma role of sotolon for this particular type of Chinese rice wine. PMID:24028662

  2. Development of a single kernel analysis method for detection of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in aromatic rice germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in conjunction with GC/MS was used to distinguish non-aromatic rice (Oryza sativa, L.) kernels from aromatic rice kernels. In this method, single kernels along with 10 µl of 0.1 ng 2,4,6-Trimethylpyridine (TMP) were placed in sealed vials and heated to 80oC for 18...

  3. Environmental stress and aroma production during wine fermentation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.C., Fairbairn; A.Y., Smit; D., Jacobson; B.A., Prior; F.F., Bauer.

    Full Text Available The sensory description of wine uses the widest range of descriptive terminology of all food products, reflecting the complex nature of a product whose character depends on the balance of hundreds of individual flavour-active compounds. There are many tools that can influence flavour profiles or win [...] e styles, one of which is the choice of a specific yeast strain. Yeasts contribute to wine flavour by producing volatile metabolites with different flavour profiles. The impact of changing environmental conditions on the production of flavour compounds by yeast strains remains largely unexplored. This is the first study investigating the impact of two mild fermentation stresses, hyperosmotic and temperature stress, on aroma production in synthetic must by commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains. Hyperosmotic stress was imposed by cultivation of the yeast for 21 days in the must containing either 0.3 or 0.5 M sorbitol. The transient temperature stresses were applied for 16 h at 8° or 37°C for either two or eight days after commencement of the fermentation. Greater glycerol and acetic acid levels were produced by most yeasts when only hyperosmotic stress was applied. Hyperosmotic and temperature stress conditions produced a limited number of significant changes to the profile of the esters, higher alcohols and volatile fatty acids. These changes differed significantly for each strain and stress treatment, suggesting that the fermentation conditions can significantly alter the aromatic profile of a wine, although these stress impacts cannot be predicted in general. The changes to the aromatic profile are specific to each individual wine yeast strain.

  4. Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products

    OpenAIRE

    Nevenka Mazi?; Rajka Božani?

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB) would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried o...

  5. Production of coconut aroma by fungi cultivation in solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alberto, Aráujo Alvaro; Pastore, Gláucia M; Berger, Ralf G

    2002-01-01

    The production of 6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone (6-PP), an unsaturated D-lactone with a strong coconut-like aroma was studied and compared with liquid and solid substrates. A fungi strain that produces coconut aroma compound was selected. The liquid medium of the submerged culture was used to impregnate a solid support of sugarcane bagasse in SSF (Solid State Fermentation). This substrate was adequate for growth and aroma production; the concentration obtained using SSF was higher than using liquid fermentation process. In the present work, it is demonstrated that, by solid-state-fermentation process, it is possible to produce 6-PP. The amount of 6-PP produced using a solid state substrate, following a 5 d culture, was 3 mg/g dry matter. Therefore, the amount of 6-PP produced during solid-state-fermentation process is higher than that reported in literature for submerged process. PMID:12018298

  6. SUGARCANE BAGASSE AS SUPPORT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COCONUT AROMA BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION (SSF)

    OpenAIRE

    Manoela Pessanha da Penha,; Maria Helena Miguez da Rocha-Leão,; Selma Gomes Ferreira Leite

    2012-01-01

    Brazil is one of the major producers of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) in the world and consequently produces large quantities of waste such as sugarcane bagasse, which can be used as inert support for the production of aroma compounds by SSF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the centesimal composition and particle size distribution of sugar cane bagasse, as well as its applicability as support for the production of 6-pentyl-?-pyrone by SSF. Analyses were performed in triplicate to e...

  7. QTL mapping of the production of wine aroma compounds by yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steyer Damien

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wine aroma results from the combination of numerous volatile compounds, some produced by yeast and others produced in the grapes and further metabolized by yeast. However, little is known about the consequences of the genetic variation of yeast on the production of these volatile metabolites, or on the metabolic pathways involved in the metabolism of grape compounds. As a tool to decipher how wine aroma develops, we analyzed, under two experimental conditions, the production of 44 compounds by a population of 30 segregants from a cross between a laboratory strain and an industrial strain genotyped at high density. Results We detected eight genomic regions explaining the diversity concerning 15 compounds, some produced de novo by yeast, such as nerolidol, ethyl esters and phenyl ethanol, and others derived from grape compounds such as citronellol, and cis-rose oxide. In three of these eight regions, we identified genes involved in the phenotype. Hemizygote comparison allowed the attribution of differences in the production of nerolidol and 2-phenyl ethanol to the PDR8 and ABZ1 genes, respectively. Deletion of a PLB2 gene confirmed its involvement in the production of ethyl esters. A comparison of allelic variants of PDR8 and ABZ1 in a set of available sequences revealed that both genes present a higher than expected number of non-synonymous mutations indicating possible balancing selection. Conclusions This study illustrates the value of QTL analysis for the analysis of metabolic traits, and in particular the production of wine aromas. It also identifies the particular role of the PDR8 gene in the production of farnesyldiphosphate derivatives, of ABZ1 in the production of numerous compounds and of PLB2 in ethyl ester synthesis. This work also provides a basis for elucidating the metabolism of various grape compounds, such as citronellol and cis-rose oxide.

  8. Encapsulation of Aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidam, Nicolaas Jan; Heinrich, Emmanuel

    Flavor is one of the most important characteristics of a food product, since people prefer to eat only food products with an attractive flavor (Voilley and Etiévant 2006). Flavor can be defined as a combination of taste, smell and/or trigeminal stimuli. Taste is divided into five basic ones, i.e. sour, salty, sweet, bitter and umami. Components that trigger the so-called gustatory receptors for these tastes are in general not volatile, in contrast to aroma. Aroma molecules are those that interact with the olfactory receptors in the nose cavity (Firestein 2001). Confusingly, aroma is often referred to as flavor. Trigeminal stimuli cause sensations like cold, touch, and prickling. The current chapter only focuses on the encapsulation of the aroma molecules.

  9. Bioconversion of lutein using a microbial mixture--maximizing the production of tobacco aroma compounds by manipulation of culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Maldonado-Robledo, Gabriela; Ortiz, Marco Antonio; Díaz-Avalos, Carlos; Sanchez, Sergio

    2005-08-01

    The generation of aroma compounds by carotenoid cleavage in the 9-10 position was studied, due to the importance of these compounds in the flavor and fragrance industry. The bioconversion of the carotenoid lutein to C(13) norisoprenoids utilizing a microbial mixture composed of Trichosporon asahii and Paenibacillus amylolyticus was carried out by a fermentation process. Applying an experimental design methodology, the effects of nutritional factors on the production of aroma compounds present in the tobacco profile were studied. After an assessment of the significance of each nutritional factor, the levels of the variables yielding the maximum response were calculated. Glucose, tryptone, and yeast extract exerted a strong negative effect over the objective function, with glucose being the strongest. Lutein possessed a positive effect over the tobacco aroma production, while sodium chloride and trace elements showed no influence over the process. The yield attained after culture medium manipulation was almost ten-fold higher, compared with the base medium; and the aroma mixture was characterized as: 7,8-dihydro-beta-ionol (95.2%), 7,8-dihydro-beta-ionone (3.7%), and beta-ionone (1.1%). PMID:15660215

  10. Behaviour and hormonal status in healthy rats on a diet rich in Maillard reaction products with or without solvent extractable aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebeková, Katarína; Klenovics, Kristína Simon; Boor, Peter; Celec, Peter; Behuliak, Michal; Schieberle, Peter; Heidland, August; Palkovits, Miklós; Somoza, Veronika

    2012-02-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRPs) are generated upon thermal processing of foods, modifying their colour and flavour. We asked whether aroma compounds generated via Maillard-type reactions modulate the in vivo effects of MRP-rich diets (MRPD). Male Wistar rats were fed for 3weeks either with a standard rat chow, an aroma compounds containing MRPD comprising 25% bread crust, or an aroma-extracted MRPD. In contrast to standard rat chow, consumption of MRPDs affected glucose control, induced hyper-leptinemia and hyper-adiponectinemia. Plasma adipokines were significantly higher in rats on aroma containing MRPD in comparison with those consuming aroma-extracted MRPD. Consumption of both MRPDs significantly increased the expression of the insulin receptor in the olfactory bulb, and mildly in the hypothalamus. Administration of the aroma containing MRPD significantly increased the leptin receptor expression in the olfactory bulb, and in the hypothalamus. Under both MRPDs, strong expression of c-fos indicated an increased neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb. Neuronal activity in brain areas involved in the central regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis was more pronounced in rats fed by the aroma containing MRPD. In conclusion, short-term consumption of a MRPD fortified with bread crust, particularly if containing solvent extractable volatile aroma compounds, affected the leptin-induced central signalling of anorexigenic/orexigenic hormones, and the neuronal activity in the central nervous system. Behavioural changes and altered glucose control were more evident in rats on the aroma containing MRPD. Our data suggest that volatile aroma compounds in foods might affect endocrine signalling and neuronal regulation of metabolism. PMID:22019827

  11. Genetic analysis of the metabolic pathways responsible for aroma metabolite production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styger, Gustav; Jacobson, Dan; Prior, Bernard A; Bauer, Florian F

    2013-05-01

    During alcoholic fermentation, higher alcohols, esters, and acids are formed from amino acids via the Ehrlich pathway by yeast, but many of the genes encoding the enzymes have not yet been identified. When the BAT1/2 genes, encoding transaminases that deaminate amino acids in the first step of the Ehrlich pathway are deleted, higher metabolite formation is significantly decreased. Screening yeast strains with deletions of genes encoding decarboxylases, dehydrogenases, and reductases revealed nine genes whose absence had the most significant impact on higher alcohol production. The seven most promising genes (AAD6, BAT2, HOM2, PAD1, PRO2, SPE1, and THI3) were further investigated by constructing double- and triple-deletion mutants. All double-deletion strains showed a greater decrease in isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, isobutyric, and isovaleric acid production than the corresponding single deletion strains with the double-deletion strains in combination with ?bat2 and the ?hom2-?aad6 strain revealing the greatest impact. BAT2 is the dominant gene in these deletion strains and this suggests the initial transaminase step of the Ehrlich pathway is rate-limiting. The triple-deletion strains in combination with BAT2 (?bat2-?thi3-?aad6 and ?bat2-?thi3-?hom2) had the greatest impact on the end metabolite production with the exception of isoamyl alcohol and isovaleric acid. The strain deleted for two dehydrogenases and a reductase (?hom2-?pro2-?aad6) had a greater effect on the levels of these two compounds. This study contributes to the elucidation of the Ehrlich pathway and its significance for aroma production by fermenting yeast cells. PMID:23111598

  12. [Changes in amino acid and fatty acid contents as well as activity of some related enzymes in apple fruit during aroma production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Lan-Chun; Sun, Jian-She; Di, Bao

    2005-12-01

    Aroma volatiles from apple (Malus domestica Borkh. var. Starkrimson) fruit at different stages of maturity were collected by solid adsorbent-Tenax-GC and determined by thermodesorption and GC-MS. Production of propyl acetate, butyl acetate, ethyl 2-methyl-butanoate and total ester volatiles and changes in concentration of the precursors of aroma biosynthsis--free amino acids and fatty acids and activities of lipoxygenases (LOX) and alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT) in apple fruits during ripening were studied. The results showed that propyl acetate and total esters were very low when the endogenous ethylene formation of the fruit was very low. At the stage of the increase in ethylene production, the rate of formation of propyl acetate and total esters increased. Butyl acetate appeared at the beginning of ethylene rise and increased thereafter. Ethyl 2-methyl-butanoate was produced at the beginning of climacteric stage and then increased sharply (Figs.1). These facts suggest that the aroma production is closely related to ethylene production. Among the 14 free amino acids detected in fruit, isoleucine which is considered to be the biosynthetic precursor of some branched chain esters showed a great increase during fruit ripening while the others decreased or remained stable (Table 1). The accumulation of isoleucine suggested that isoleucine supply in fruit may not limit the biosynthesis of esters with branched chain alkyl groups. Concentrations of free fatty acids such as palmitic, linolenic, oleic, linoleic, stearic acids increased before the increase of aroma production, decreased with the increase of aroma production and showed an increase at postclimacteric stages (Fig.2). LOX activity increased at climacteric stages and declined rapidly thereafter. AAT activity increased sharply at the early stage of fruit maturity when the aroma was very low and remained at a stable high level during fruit ripening (Fig.3) indicating that the AAT activity is not the limiting factor for aroma formation in apple fruit. PMID:16361796

  13. Coffee residues as substrates for aroma production by Ceratocystis fimbriata in solid state fermentation Produção de aromas por Ceratocystis fimbriata em fermentaç??o no estado sólido utilizando resíduos da agroindústria do café como substratos

    OpenAIRE

    Adriane Bianchi Pedroni Medeiros; Pierre Christen; Sevastianos Roussos; Juliana Carine Gern; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

    2003-01-01

    The ability of two different strains of Ceratocystis fimbriata for fruity aroma production by solid state fermentation (SSF) was tested on coffee pulp and coffee husk complemented with glucose as substrates. Experiments were carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks and the experimental conditions were: 70% of initial moisture, 20% of glucose addition and pH 6.0. Aeration was made by passive diffusion through the gauze covering the flasks. Headspace analysis of the culture by gas chromatography...

  14. Aminoacid metabolism and the production of wine aroma compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Arau?jo, Leandro Dias

    2012-01-01

    Os produtos do metabolismo de aminoácidos por leveduras Saccharomyces cerevisiae durante a fermentação alcoólica têm um impacto relevante no perfil sensorial de vinhos. Com o objetivo de estudar a influência da composição de aminoácidos do meio na formação da base do aroma típico de vinho, meios sintéticos contendo diferentes compostos nitrogenados foram fermentados por S. cerevisiae. Em um primeiro experimento, cinco meios de composições distintas quanto à fonte de azoto fora...

  15. Combined effects of nutrients and temperature on the production of fermentative aromas by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollero, Stéphanie; Bloem, Audrey; Camarasa, Carole; Sanchez, Isabelle; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Dequin, Sylvie; Mouret, Jean-Roch

    2015-03-01

    Volatile compounds produced by yeast during fermentation greatly influence the organoleptic qualities of wine. We developed a model to predict the combined effects of initial nitrogen and phytosterol content and fermentation temperature on the production of volatile compounds. We used a Box-Behnken design and response surface modeling to study the response of Lalvin EC1118® to these environmental conditions. Initial nitrogen content had the greatest influence on most compounds; however, there were differences in the value of fermentation parameters required for the maximal production of the various compounds. Fermentation parameters affected differently the production of isobutanol and isoamyl alcohol, although their synthesis involve the same enzymes and intermediate. We found differences in regulation of the synthesis of acetates of higher alcohols and ethyl esters, suggesting that fatty acid availability is the main factor influencing the synthesis of ethyl esters whereas the production of acetates depends on the activity of alcohol acetyltransferases. We also evaluated the effect of temperature on the total production of three esters by determining gas-liquid balances. Evaporation largely accounted for the effect of temperature on the accumulation of esters in liquid. Nonetheless, the metabolism of isoamyl acetate and ethyl octanoate was significantly affected by this parameter. We extended this study to other strains. Environmental parameters had a similar effect on aroma production in most strains. Nevertheless, the regulation of the synthesis of fermentative aromas was atypical in two strains: Lalvin K1M® and Affinity™ ECA5, which produces a high amount of aromatic compounds and was obtained by experimental evolution. PMID:25412578

  16. Linking gene regulation and the exo-metabolome: A comparative transcriptomics approach to identify genes that impact on the production of volatile aroma compounds in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Florian F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Omics' tools provide novel opportunities for system-wide analysis of complex cellular functions. Secondary metabolism is an example of a complex network of biochemical pathways, which, although well mapped from a biochemical point of view, is not well understood with regards to its physiological roles and genetic and biochemical regulation. Many of the metabolites produced by this network such as higher alcohols and esters are significant aroma impact compounds in fermentation products, and different yeast strains are known to produce highly divergent aroma profiles. Here, we investigated whether we can predict the impact of specific genes of known or unknown function on this metabolic network by combining whole transcriptome and partial exo-metabolome analysis. Results For this purpose, the gene expression levels of five different industrial wine yeast strains that produce divergent aroma profiles were established at three different time points of alcoholic fermentation in synthetic wine must. A matrix of gene expression data was generated and integrated with the concentrations of volatile aroma compounds measured at the same time points. This relatively unbiased approach to the study of volatile aroma compounds enabled us to identify candidate genes for aroma profile modification. Five of these genes, namely YMR210W, BAT1, AAD10, AAD14 and ACS1 were selected for overexpression in commercial wine yeast, VIN13. Analysis of the data show a statistically significant correlation between the changes in the exo-metabome of the overexpressing strains and the changes that were predicted based on the unbiased alignment of transcriptomic and exo-metabolomic data. Conclusion The data suggest that a comparative transcriptomics and metabolomics approach can be used to identify the metabolic impacts of the expression of individual genes in complex systems, and the amenability of transcriptomic data to direct applications of biotechnological relevance.

  17. Lipases microbianas na produção de ésteres formadores de aroma Lipases biocatalysis in the production of flavor esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela A. Macedo

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram testadas cinco lipases microbianas produzidas no Laboratório de Bioquímica de Alimentos-FEA-UNICAMP, quanto à capacidade de catalisar a síntese de ésteres formadores de aroma por esterificação em meio isento de solvente orgânico. A natureza da enzima assim como o tamanho da cadeia dos ácidos afetaram as taxas de conversão obtidas.Os melhores resultados obtidos foram 88 % de conversão na síntese de laurato de isoamila e 72% para propionato de isoamila pela lipase de Rhizopus sp após 24 horas de incubação, seguido de 82% de conversão na síntese de acetato de isopropila por Alcaligenes sp após 24 horas de incubação.Five lipases produced at UNICAMP were screened for their ability to synthesize flavor esters by esterification in organic solvent free system. The nature of the enzyme, as well as the chain length of the acyl donor used affected the product yields. Lipase from Rhizopus sp and Alcaligenes sp gave the best overall yield (88 and 82%.

  18. Growth and aroma production by Staphylococcus xylosus, S- carnosus and S-equoum - a comparative study in model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØndergaard, A.K.; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory medium inoculated with 20 different Staphylococcus strains was prepared in accordance with a full Factorial experimental design investigating the effect of temperature. pH, NaCl and glucose on growth. The 32 strains most suited to growth in a fermented meat environment were inoculated in sausage minces together with Pediococcus pentosaceus, incubated at 25 C for I week and the produced aroma compounds collected. The data were analysed by multiple linear regression and partial least squares regression analysis. The results showed that increasing pH and temperature from 4.6 to 6.0 and 10 to 26 C. respectively, increased growth of all strains with strong synergy between temperature and pH. Increasing salt concentration from 5% to 15% w/v decreased growth of most strains, but the effect of pH and temperature was much stronger than the effect of salt. Strains of S. carnosus were more salt tolerant than strains of S. equorum and S, xylosus, especially at high pH and temperature. Addition of glucose up to 0.5% w/v had no significant influence on growth of any of the strains. With regard to aroma production, species characteristics were detected. S. carnosus and S. xylosus were quite different regarding the overall aroma profiles, whereas the profiles of S. equorum lied somewhere in-between. Contrary to S. carnosus, S. xylosus and S. equorum did not produce 2-methyl-1-butanol. On the other hand, in particular, S. xylosus produced more 3-methyl-1-butanol. Except for one of the strains of S. equorum, S. xylosus and S. equorum formed more diacetyl, 2-butanone and acetoin and also more of the methyl-branched ketones arising from degradation of leucine, isoleucine and valine. S. carnosus produced more methyl-branched aldehydes, acids and corresponding esters from leucine, isoleucine and valine-compounds that have been correlated with fermented sausage maturity in former studies. S. equorum produced the least of the methyl-branched aldehydes.

  19. The impact of cold storage and ethylene on volatile ester production and aroma perception in 'Hort16A' kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Catrin S; Marsh, Ken B; Winz, Robert A; Harker, Roger F; Wohlers, Mark W; White, Anne; Goddard, Matthew R

    2015-02-15

    Fruit esters are regarded as key volatiles for fruit aroma. In this study, the effects of cold storage on volatile ester levels of 'Hort16A' (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var chinensis) kiwifruit were examined and the changes in aroma perception investigated. Cold storage (1.5°C) for two or four months of fruit matched for firmness and soluble solids concentration resulted in a significant reduction in aroma-related esters such as methyl/ethyl propanoate, methyl/ethyl butanoate and methyl/ethyl hexanoate. Levels of these esters, however, were restored by ethylene treatment (100ppm, 24h) before ripening. A sensory panel found that "tropical" and "fruit candy" aroma was stronger and "green" odour notes less intensively perceived in kiwifruit which were ethylene-treated after cold storage compared to untreated fruit. The key findings presented in this study may lead to further work on the ethylene pathway, and innovative storage and marketing solutions for current and novel fruit cultivars. PMID:25236191

  20. Food aroma affects bite size

    OpenAIRE

    de Wijk René A; Polet Ilse A; Boek Wilbert; Coenraad Saskia; Hf, Bult Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near t...

  1. ?-carotene biotransformation to obtain aroma compounds / Biotransformação de ?-caroteno para obtenção de compostos de aroma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana, Uenojo; Glaucia Maria, Pastore.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoides são importantes constituintes de alimentos por sua coloração e por seus produtos de degradação gerarem compostos voláteis em alimentos. Compostos de aromas derivados de carotenoides estão distribuídos na natureza, constituem precursores de aromas importantes em alimentos como frutas e e [...] m flores. Apresentam alto potencial aromático e, por isso, são de grande interesse para as indústrias de aromas e fragrâncias. Neste trabalho, mais de 300 microrganismos foram selecionados pelo método da placa, de acordo com sua capacidade de degradar carotenoides presentes no meio de cultura. Cerca de 80 linhagens apresentaram capacidade de produção de aromas e 7 cepas apresentaram descritores e intensidades de aromas de interesse, segundo um painel não treinado de provadores, sendo selecionadas e submetidas à fermentação submersa para produção de compostos aromas derivados de ?-caroteno. ?-Ionona foi o principal produto obtido da degradação de ?-caroteno, encontrado em maiores concentrações nas linhagens CS1 (34,0 mg.L-1) e CF9 (42,4 mg.L-1) em 72 e 24 horas de fermentação nos meios de cultura sem e com pré-inóculo, respectivamente. Os compostos ?-damascona e pseudoionona foram encontrados em baixas concentrações, 1,1,6-trimetil-1,2,3,4-tetraidronaftaleno (TTN) foi tentativamente identificado e apocarotenoides, provavelmente obtidos da clivagem da parte central do carotenoide, foram detectados. Abstract in english Carotenoids are important constituents of food due to their color and because their degradation products generate important volatile compounds in foods. Aroma compounds derived from carotenoids are widely distributed in nature, and they are precursors of many important aromas in foods such as fruits [...] and in flowers as well. They present high aromatic potential and are therefore of great interest to the industries of aromas and fragrances. In this study, more than 300 previously isolated microorganisms with potential for biotransformation of ?-carotene present in the culture medium were selected using the plate method; about 80 strains presented capacity to produce aroma compounds and 7 strains were selected by an untrained panel of tasters to generate aroma compounds. The ?-ionone was the main compound produced by CS1 (34.0 mg.L-1) and CF9 (42.4 mg.L-1) microorganisms at 72 and 24 hours of fermentation, cultured with and without pre-inoculation, respectively. The ?-damascone and pseudoionone were found in low concentrations, 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen (TTN) was tentatively identified and other compounds such as apocarotenoids, apparently obtained from the cleavage of the central part of the carotenoid, were detected.

  2. ?-carotene biotransformation to obtain aroma compounds Biotransformação de ?-caroteno para obtenção de compostos de aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Uenojo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are important constituents of food due to their color and because their degradation products generate important volatile compounds in foods. Aroma compounds derived from carotenoids are widely distributed in nature, and they are precursors of many important aromas in foods such as fruits and in flowers as well. They present high aromatic potential and are therefore of great interest to the industries of aromas and fragrances. In this study, more than 300 previously isolated microorganisms with potential for biotransformation of ?-carotene present in the culture medium were selected using the plate method; about 80 strains presented capacity to produce aroma compounds and 7 strains were selected by an untrained panel of tasters to generate aroma compounds. The ?-ionone was the main compound produced by CS1 (34.0 mg.L-1 and CF9 (42.4 mg.L-1 microorganisms at 72 and 24 hours of fermentation, cultured with and without pre-inoculation, respectively. The ?-damascone and pseudoionone were found in low concentrations, 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen (TTN was tentatively identified and other compounds such as apocarotenoids, apparently obtained from the cleavage of the central part of the carotenoid, were detected.Carotenoides são importantes constituintes de alimentos por sua coloração e por seus produtos de degradação gerarem compostos voláteis em alimentos. Compostos de aromas derivados de carotenoides estão distribuídos na natureza, constituem precursores de aromas importantes em alimentos como frutas e em flores. Apresentam alto potencial aromático e, por isso, são de grande interesse para as indústrias de aromas e fragrâncias. Neste trabalho, mais de 300 microrganismos foram selecionados pelo método da placa, de acordo com sua capacidade de degradar carotenoides presentes no meio de cultura. Cerca de 80 linhagens apresentaram capacidade de produção de aromas e 7 cepas apresentaram descritores e intensidades de aromas de interesse, segundo um painel não treinado de provadores, sendo selecionadas e submetidas à fermentação submersa para produção de compostos aromas derivados de ?-caroteno. ?-Ionona foi o principal produto obtido da degradação de ?-caroteno, encontrado em maiores concentrações nas linhagens CS1 (34,0 mg.L-1 e CF9 (42,4 mg.L-1 em 72 e 24 horas de fermentação nos meios de cultura sem e com pré-inóculo, respectivamente. Os compostos ?-damascona e pseudoionona foram encontrados em baixas concentrações, 1,1,6-trimetil-1,2,3,4-tetraidronaftaleno (TTN foi tentativamente identificado e apocarotenoides, provavelmente obtidos da clivagem da parte central do carotenoide, foram detectados.

  3. PENGOLAHAN BERAS WANGI BUATAN METODE DAN RETENSI SENYAWA AROMA [Processing of Artificial Fragrant Rice The Method and Aroma Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filli Pratama

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Processing of artificial fragrant rice in which one or more aroma compounds were introduced into raw milled rice were studied. The end product, which is potentially marketable, showed no visible difference in appearance from the untreated rice, and the cooked product showed perceivable aroma to the consumers. The aromatisation process used liquid carbon dioxide as a vehicle to deliver the aroma. Five aroma compounds of eugenol, iso-eugenol, methyl eugenol, cinnamyl alcohol, and cinnamaldehyde were used as model compounds. The results showed that liquid carbon dioxide at a pressure of 8 MPa and an equilibration time of 5 minutes were found to be the optimum conditions for imparting the aroma compounds into the rice. The retention of the model aroma compounds in rice were in the range of 33% to 50%. The aroma carrier was found to be able to carry the model compounds into the core of rice. This was significant, as it potentially provided a longer period for the aroma compounds to remain in the rice.

  4. Fragrance Analysis among Recombinant Inbred Lines of Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, R. K.; Sunita Jain; Uma Ahuja; Pummy Kumari

    2012-01-01

    The aroma or fragrance of Basmati rice is associated with the presence of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. Aroma in Basmati is reported to be monogenic recessive. Several PCR-based co-dominant markers based on RG28 locus were developed which can differentiate between fragrant and non-fragrant rice cultivars. For analysis of aroma among RILs derived from a diverse cross between CSR 10 and Taraori Basmati through SSD method both molecular as well as biochemical methods were used to clearly distinguish aro...

  5. Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces uvarum differ from Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the production of aroma-active higher alcohols and acetate esters using their amino acidic precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribny, Jiri; Gamero, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Querol, Amparo

    2015-07-16

    Higher alcohols and acetate esters are important flavour and aroma components in the food industry. In alcoholic beverages these compounds are produced by yeast during fermentation. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most extensively used species, other species of the Saccharomyces genus have become common in fermentation processes. This study analyses and compares the production of higher alcohols and acetate esters from their amino acidic precursors in three Saccharomyces species: Saccharomyces kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces uvarum and S. cerevisiae. The global volatile compound analysis revealed that S. kudriavzevii produced large amounts of higher alcohols, whereas S. uvarum excelled in the production of acetate esters. Particularly from phenylalanine, S. uvarum produced the largest amounts of 2-phenylethyl acetate, while S. kudriavzevii obtained the greatest 2-phenylethanol formation from this precursor. The present data indicate differences in the amino acid metabolism and subsequent production of flavour-active higher alcohols and acetate esters among the closely related Saccharomyces species. This knowledge will prove useful for developing new enhanced processes in fragrance, flavour, and food industries. PMID:25886016

  6. Food aroma affects bite size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

  7. The effect of dispersion mechanisms on aroma delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Kris S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Dispersion of aroma compounds in food matrices is a common process in the production of many food products. However, the degrees of dispersion on the distribution and subsequent release of these compounds during consumption may have considerable consequences for perception of these flavours. This thesis investigates the effects of a range of dispersion techniques on the delivery and release of aroma compounds from several solid and semi-solid matrices which commonly contain added flavouri...

  8. The Development of Aromas in Ruminant Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Campo, Mari?a M.; Ana Escudero; Resconi, Virginia C.

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an update on our understanding of the chemical reactions (lipid oxidation, Strecker and Maillard reactions, thiamine degradation) and a discussion of the principal aroma compounds derived from those reaction or other sources in cooked meat, mainly focused on ruminant species. This knowledge is essential in order to understand, control, and improve the quality of food products. More studies are necessary to fully understand the role of each compound in the overall cooked m...

  9. Combined heterogeneous distribution of salt and aroma in food enhances salt perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emorine, Marion; Septier, Chantal; Andriot, Isabelle; Martin, Christophe; Salles, Christian; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry

    2015-05-13

    Aroma-taste interactions and heterogeneous spatial distribution of tastants were used as strategies for taste enhancement. This study investigated the combination of these two strategies through the effect of heterogeneous salt and aroma distribution on saltiness enhancement and consumer liking for hot snacks. Four-layered cream-based products were designed with the same total amount of sodium and ham aroma but varied in their spatial distribution. Unflavoured products containing the same amount of salt and 35% more salt were used as references. A consumer panel (n = 82) rated the intensity of salty, sweet, sour, bitter and umami tastes as well as ham and cheese aroma intensity for each product. The consumers also rated their liking for the products in a dedicated sensory session. The results showed that adding salt-associated aroma (ham) led to enhancement of salty taste perception regardless of the spatial distribution of salt and aroma. Moreover, products with a higher heterogeneity of salt distribution were perceived as saltier (p < 0.01), whereas heterogeneity of ham aroma distribution had only a marginal effect on both aroma and salty taste perception. Furthermore, heterogeneous products were well liked by consumers compared to the homogeneous products. PMID:25856503

  10. Acidification of grape marc for alcoholic beverage production: effects on indigenous microflora and aroma profile after distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Barbara; Nardi, Tiziana; Fontana, Federico; Carlot, Milena; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana

    2012-01-16

    Grappa is an Italian alcoholic beverage obtained from distillation of grape marc, the raw material derived from separation of must during the winemaking process. Marc is stored for a period lasting from few days to several weeks, when fermentation of residual sugars occurs mainly by yeast activity. Many distilleries have adopted different solutions to manage this critical phase in order to avoid spoilage microorganisms: marc acidification is the most widely diffused. In this work, Prosecco grape pomace was acidified with sulphuric acid (to pH 2.9) and stored, whereas non-acidified grape marc was used as control (pH 3.9). Samples for microbiological analysis were collected at the beginning of the storage period, after 15 and 43days. At the beginning of the ensilage (time T0) the indigenous microflora was represented both by yeasts and bacteria at a concentration of about 10(6)cfu/g. During the first 15days, when the fermentation generally takes place, yeast population grew considerably (up to 10(7)cfu/g) in acidified grape marc, where bacterial population was maintained at low levels. Moreover, yeast populations recovered at the three sampling times in both treated and untreated marc were genetically characterised. This analysis showed that the species succession lead to non-Saccharomyces species dominance (in particular Issatchenkia and Pichia genera) in both conditions although acidified marc showed a lower percentage of Saccharomyces at any sampling time analysed, this meaning that non-Saccharomyces species were favoured in this environment. Gas chromatographic analysis showed a remarkable change in the aromatic profile of distilled grape marcs at the end of the storage, thus evidencing that concentration of monitored volatile compounds usually produced by microflora was generally lowered by the acidification treatment. This work demonstrates for the first time the strong effect of a persistent acidification treatment both on the microbiota of grape pomace and on the aromatic profile of the distillate. Indeed, the lowering of the pH caused significant changes in yeast-bacteria populations ratio and in yeast species turnover. These microbiological changes determine an improvement of the aromatic profile of the distillate, due to the reduction of the main volatile products associated with potential off-flavours. PMID:22056624

  11. Biodegradation of C5-C 8 fatty acids and production of aroma volatiles by Myroides sp. ZB35 isolated from activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zijun; Zhu, Xiankun; Xi, Lijun; Hou, Xiaoyuan; Fang, Li; Lu, Jian R

    2014-05-01

    In the effluents of a biologically treated wastewater from a heavy oil-refining plant, C5-C8 fatty acids including pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid, heptanoic acid, octanoic acid, and 2-methylbutanoic acid are often detected. As these residual fatty acids can cause further air and water pollution, a new Myroides isolate ZB35 from activated sludge was explored to degrade these C5-C8 fatty acids in this study. It was found that the biodegradation process involved a lag phase that became prolonged with increasing acyl chain length when the fatty acids were individually fed to this strain. However, when fed as a mixture, the ones with longer acyl chains were found to become more quickly assimilated. The branched 2-methylbutanoic acid was always the last one to be depleted among the five fatty acids under both conditions. Metabolite analysis revealed one possible origin of short chain fatty acids in the biologically treated wastewater. Aroma volatiles including 2-methylbutyl isovalerate, isoamyl 2-methylbutanoate, isoamyl isovalerate, and 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutanoate were subsequently identified from ZB35 extracts, linking the source of the fruity odor to these esters excreted by Myroides species. To our best knowledge, this is the first finding of these aroma esters in bacteria. From a biotechnological viewpoint, this study has revealed the potential of Myroides species as a promising source of aroma esters attractive for food and fragrance industries. PMID:24810320

  12. The fgr gene responsible for rice fragrance was restricted within 69kb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Saihua; Wu, Juan; Yang, Yi; Shi, Weiwei; Xu, Mingliang

    2006-10-01

    From more than 100 volatile flavor components, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) stands out as the key component of aroma in both basmati- and jasmine-style fragrant rice. It has been reported that a single recessive gene (fgr) on chromosome 8 is responsible for the production of 2AP. Our initial mapping efforts with SSR markers confirmed the previous mapping result, and placed the fgr locus between RM8264 and RM3459 with the physical distance of ?800kb. The fgr region was then saturated with high-density markers developed by exploiting sequence diversities between indica and japonica rice subspecies. After mapping with segregant populations consisting of totally 2891 individuals, the fgr locus was restricted to an interval of 69kb flanked by the left marker L02 and the right marker L06. Furthermore, the fgr locus was confirmed by simultaneous investigation of both genotypes and 2AP levels for the key recombinants and their offspring. Sequence analysis of the fgr region revealed three candidate genes encoding respective eukaryotic-type carbonic anhydrase, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase beta chain, and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. The result presented here would pave the way for both cloning and marker-assisted selection of the fgr gene. PMID:25193648

  13. Sensory and instrumental analysis of food aromas

    OpenAIRE

    Bult, J.H.F.

    2006-01-01

    Food aromas are generally perceived as unitary aromas, i.e. fried potatoes smell like fried potatoes and roasted coffee smells like roasted coffee. Nonetheless, nearly all food aromas are produced by a multitude of volatile components that contribute to an extensive collection of aromas in various compositions. Of the hundreds of volatiles released from fried potatoes and roasted coffee a major se!ection does not produce an odour, many others do produce an odour that contributes to one of bot...

  14. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in beef extract using aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Yukiko; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Hirai, Sachi; Masuzawa, Takuya; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2014-05-01

    Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of an ether extract prepared from beef extract (BE) and subsequent identification experiments led to the determination of seven aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 32-128. Omission experiments to select the most aroma-active compounds from the seven aroma compounds suggested that 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-methylbutanoic acid, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone were the main active compounds contributing to the aroma of BE. Aroma recombination, addition, and omission experiments of the four aroma compounds in taste-reconstituted BE showed that each compound had an individual aroma profile. A comparison of the overall aroma between this recombination mixture and BE showed a high similarity, suggesting that the key aroma compounds had been identified successfully. PMID:24486684

  15. The Development of Aromas in Ruminant Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Campo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an update on our understanding of the chemical reactions (lipid oxidation, Strecker and Maillard reactions, thiamine degradation and a discussion of the principal aroma compounds derived from those reaction or other sources in cooked meat, mainly focused on ruminant species. This knowledge is essential in order to understand, control, and improve the quality of food products. More studies are necessary to fully understand the role of each compound in the overall cooked meat flavour and their possible effect in consumer acceptability.

  16. The development of aromas in ruminant meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resconi, Virginia C; Escudero, Ana; Campo, María M

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an update on our understanding of the chemical reactions (lipid oxidation, Strecker and Maillard reactions, thiamine degradation) and a discussion of the principal aroma compounds derived from those reaction or other sources in cooked meat, mainly focused on ruminant species. This knowledge is essential in order to understand, control, and improve the quality of food products. More studies are necessary to fully understand the role of each compound in the overall cooked meat flavour and their possible effect in consumer acceptability. PMID:23749162

  17. Sulfur Aroma Compounds in Coffee: Origin and Degradation [Compostos Sulfurados no Aroma do Café: Origem e Degradação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais M. Uekane

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Flavor is a physiological sensation with the contribution from many of our senses.Taste and aroma are determinant in food and beverages and can lead consumers to reject or accept a product. The beverage obtained from roasted and ground coffee is one of the most popular in the world. In roasted coffee over 100 sulfur compounds have been identified, and its origin is only partially understood. The attractive aroma of a freshly prepared coffee beverage is not persistent and, in particular, the intensity of the roasted-sulfur aroma decreases rapidly. This loss impacts on beverage consumption and its mechanism is still poorly understood. This article is focused in a compilation of scientific literature, regarding formation and degradation mechanisms proposed for sulfur compounds in coffee beverage, in order to contribute to a better comprehension of the phenomena.

  18. Selective removal of methyl mercaptan in coffee aroma using oxidized microporous carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakano, T. [Ajinomoto General Foods Inc., Tokyo (Japan). Central Research Laboratoties; Tamon, H.; Okazaki, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-10-01

    Coffee aroma recovered from the extraction process of roasted coffee beans is used to improve the quality of soluble coffee products. Coffee aroma often has an irritating sulfurous odor. In the present work, it is experimentally elucidated that methyl mercaptan could be selectively removed from the coffee aroma-containing gas by the oxidized microporous carbon. Breakthrough curves of coffee aroma-containing gas on zeolite 5A, microporous carbon (MSC 5A), and MSC 5A oxidized with 13.2N HNO{sub 3} aqueous solution revealed that the adsorption capacity of methyl mercaptan on the oxidized carbon was 4.2 times of that on the zeolite. The loss of desired coffee aroma was decreased using the oxidized carbon in the removal of methyl mercaptan. (author)

  19. Differential effects of the aromas of Salvia species on memory and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Lucy; Rouse, Michelle; Wesnes, Keith A; Moss, Mark

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the potential for the aromas of the essential oils of Salvia species to affect cognition and mood in healthy adults. Research has demonstrated that orally administered Salvia officinalis and Salvia lavandulaefolia are capable of modulating cognition and mood. The active compounds in the herbal products might also be present in the aromas and so produce similar effects. In an independent groups design, three conditions, S. officinalis aroma, S. lavandulaefolia aroma and no aroma were employed. One hundred and thirty-five healthy volunteers acted as participants, with 45 in each condition. Cognitive performance was assessed via the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) System. Bond-Lader mood scales measured the participants' mood on three dimensions before and after the cognitive tasks. Data analysis revealed that the S. officinalis aroma group performed significantly better than the control group on the quality of memory and secondary memory primary outcome factors from the test battery. The Alert mood measure displayed significant differences between both aromas and the control condition. These findings suggest that the aromas of essential oils of Salvia species reproduce some but not all of the effects found following oral herb administration, and that interesting dissociations occur between subjective and objective responses. PMID:20589925

  20. Aroma therapy and medfly SIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of the main findings of the research program on the biological competence of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (med fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and the development and implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest is presented. The potential application of aroma therapy to improve the mating success of sterile med fly males is studied. The report assumes a loosely chronological framework as it documents progression along two experimental scales: the number of males simultaneously exposed to ginger root oil, starting with small groups of 25 males and ending with rooms with nearly 200 million males; the experimental arena used to test the effects of aroma therapy, progressing from standard field-cages to large field enclosures to the open field. In addition, brief comments are offered regarding the potential negative effects of GRO exposure, the mechanisms underlying GRO-mediated improvement in male mating success, and the financial costs of GRO aroma therapy. (MAC)

  1. Aroma therapy and medfly SIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelly, Todd E., E-mail: todd.e.shelly@aphis.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-APHIS), HI (United States). Animal and Plant Health Inspection

    2006-07-01

    A summary of the main findings of the research program on the biological competence of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (med fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and the development and implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest is presented. The potential application of aroma therapy to improve the mating success of sterile med fly males is studied. The report assumes a loosely chronological framework as it documents progression along two experimental scales: the number of males simultaneously exposed to ginger root oil, starting with small groups of 25 males and ending with rooms with nearly 200 million males; the experimental arena used to test the effects of aroma therapy, progressing from standard field-cages to large field enclosures to the open field. In addition, brief comments are offered regarding the potential negative effects of GRO exposure, the mechanisms underlying GRO-mediated improvement in male mating success, and the financial costs of GRO aroma therapy. (MAC)

  2. A comparative analysis of the influence of human salivary enzymes on odorant concentration in three palm wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasekan, Ola

    2013-01-01

    The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines' odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA) and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs), respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD) factor range of 4-256, and all were subsequently identified. Of the 46 odorants, 41 were identified in the Elaeis guineensis wine, 36 in Raphia hookeri wine and 29 in Borassus flabellifer wine. Among the odorants, the highest FD-factors were obtained from acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Among the 13 potent odorants identified, five aroma compounds are reported here as important contributors to palm wine aroma, namely 3-isobutyl-2-methoxy-pyrazine, acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methylbutylacetate and ethyl hexanoate. Meanwhile, salivary enzymic degradation of odorants was more pronounced among the aldehydes, esters and thiols. PMID:24071987

  3. A Comparative Analysis of the Influence of Human Salivary Enzymes on Odorant Concentration in Three Palm Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Lasekan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines’ odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs, respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA, and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD factor range of 4-256, and all were subsequently identified. Of the 46 odorants, 41 were identified in the Elaeis guineensis wine, 36 in Raphia hookeri wine and 29 in Borassus flabellifer wine. Among the odorants, the highest FD-factors were obtained from acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Among the 13 potent odorants identified, five aroma compounds are reported here as important contributors to palm wine aroma, namely 3-isobutyl-2-methoxy-pyrazine, acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methylbutylacetate and ethyl hexanoate. Meanwhile, salivary enzymic degradation of odorants was more pronounced among the aldehydes, esters and thiols.

  4. Aroma formation by immobilized yeast cells in fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedovi?, V; Gibson, B; Mantzouridou, T F; Bugarski, B; Djordjevi?, V; Kaluševi?, A; Paraskevopoulou, A; Sandell, M; Šmogrovi?ová, D; Yilmaztekin, M

    2015-01-01

    Immobilized cell technology has shown a significant promotional effect on the fermentation of alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and cider. However, genetic, morphological and physiological alterations occurring in immobilized yeast cells impact on aroma formation during fermentation processes. The focus of this review is exploitation of existing knowledge on the biochemistry and the biological role of flavour production in yeast for the biotechnological production of aroma compounds of industrial importance, by means of immobilized yeast. Various types of carrier materials and immobilization methods proposed for application in beer, wine, fruit wine, cider and mead production are presented. Engineering aspects with special emphasis on immobilized cell bioreactor design, operation and scale-up potential are also discussed. Ultimately, examples of products with improved quality properties within the alcoholic beverages are addressed, together with identification and description of the future perspectives and scope for cell immobilization in fermentation processes. PMID:25267117

  5. Aroma compounds in Japanese sweet rice wine (Mirin) screened by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Shu; Kumazawa, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-nine key aroma compounds were newly identified or tentatively identified in the aroma concentrate of Japanese sweet rice wine (Mirin) by an aroma extract dilution analysis technique based on the 68 detected peaks. Among them, 3-(methylthio)propanal, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, 3-methylbutanoic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol were detected with the highest FD factors in this study. PMID:25391446

  6. Aroma compounds in fresh cut pomegranate arils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum). Although arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing actual compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Since most commercial usage of pomegranates in...

  7. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in pork soup stock by using an aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Yukiko; Osanai, Hiroki; Masuzawa, Takuya; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2014-01-01

    The aroma extract dilution analysis of an extract prepared from pork stock and subsequent experiments led to the identification of 15 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution factor range of 64-2048. Omission experiments to select the most aroma-active compounds from the 15 odor compounds suggested acetol, octanoic acid, ?-decalactone, and decanoic acid as the main active compounds contributing to the aroma of pork stock. Aroma recombination, addition, and omission experiments of these four aroma compounds in taste-reconstituted pork stock showed that each compound had an individual aroma profile. A comparison of the overall aroma between this recombined mixture and pork stock showed strong similarity, suggesting that the key aroma compounds had been successfully identified. PMID:25036494

  8. Comparative quantitative analysis of headspace volatiles and their association with BADH2 marker in non-basmati scented, basmati and non-scented rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathure, Sarika V; Jawali, Narendra; Thengane, Ratnakar J; Nadaf, Altafhusian B

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, 91 Indian rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, belonging to non-basmati scented (77), basmati (9) and non-scented (5) categories, were quantitatively analysed for 23 headspace volatiles. In addition, the BADH2 marker related to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) synthesis is validated among the cultivars representing these categories. The non-basmati scented cultivars (15) excelled in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) content compared to basmati cultivars. The major aroma volatile (2AP) correlated positively with 1-tetradecene and indole, and negatively with benzyl alcohol. On the basis of nonanal, octanal, decanal and 1-octen-3-ol contents, basmati cultivars were different from non-scented cultivars. Benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, 2-amino acetophenone, indole, 1-hexanol and nonanoic acid exhibited significant variation among rice categories under study. This study reports 16 non-basmati scented cultivars with variations in the BADH2 locus rendering a marker based on 8bp deletion in BADH2 as unsuitable for MAS in rice cultivars under study. PMID:24001856

  9. The effect of Yucca schidigera extract on canine and feline faecal volatiles occurring concurrently with faecal aroma amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, J A; Kershaw, S J; Taylor, A J; Linforth, R S

    1997-01-01

    Addition of Yucca schidigera extract (YSE) products to canine or feline diets improved faecal aroma as monitored by a human panel. Odour port-gas chromatography (GC) indicated different odour component types in dog faecal volatiles and, in particular, 'faecal'-type odours due to methyl sulfides. GC-mass spectrometry demonstrated several chemical compound classes present in faecal volatiles and quantitation in the cat indicated apparently significant changes in the concentrations of several compounds on YSE treatment, although these were not necessarily aroma components. The potential for direct YSE alteration of aroma perception in a mixture of volatiles, possibly by binding, was demonstrated. PMID:9368959

  10. Investigation of sunlight-induced deterioration of aroma of pummelo (Citrus maxima) essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Ni, Hui; Yang, Yuanfan; Wu, Ling; Cai, Hui-nong; Xiao, An-feng; Chen, Feng

    2014-12-10

    Deterioration of aromas of pummelo essential oil (EO) induced by sunlight was compared to those induced by heat and oxygen exposure using the techniques of sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis. The sunlight-exposed EO was found to possess an oily off-flavor odor, which was significantly different from its counterparts induced by oxygen and heat. The strong oily note of the sunlight-exposed EO was attributed to the existence of linalool oxides and limonene oxides, as well as the lack of neral and geranial, for which UV sunlight was revealed to be the critical contributor causing the chemical reactions for the aroma changes. The results demonstrated that UV sunlight could significantly affect the aroma of the pummelo EO, providing valuable information that will benefit the production and storage of EO-based aromatic products. PMID:25438994

  11. Characteristic Aroma Compounds from Different Pineapple Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Ming Sun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic aroma volatile compounds from different parts of cayenne pineapple were analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The main volatile compounds were esters, terpenes, ketones and aldehydes. The number and content of aroma compounds detected in pulp were higher than those found in core. In pulp, the characteristic aroma compounds were ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl hexanoate, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H-furanone (DMHF, decanal, ethyl 3-(methylthiopropionate, ethyl butanoate, and ethyl (E-3-hexenoate; while in core the main compounds were ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl hexanoate and DMHF. The highest odor units were found to correspond to ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, followed by ethyl hexanoate and DMHF. The odor units found for pulp were higher than those for core.

  12. Impact of fruit piece structure in yogurts on the dynamics of aroma release and sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesurolle, Joshua; Saint-Eve, Anne; Déléris, Isabelle; Souchon, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma stimuli, which can influence nutritional and hedonic characteristics, as well as consumption behaviors. In yogurts, fruit preparation formulation can be a key factor to modulate aroma stimulation. In this context, the impact of size and hardness of fruit pieces in fat-free pear yogurts was studied. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to allow sensitive and on-line monitoring of volatile odorous compound release in the breath during consumption. In parallel, a trained panel used sensory profile and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) methods to characterize yogurt sensory properties and their dynamic changes during consumption. Results showed that the size of pear pieces had few effects on aroma release and perception of yogurts, whereas fruit hardness significantly influenced them. Despite the fact that yogurts presented short and similar residence times in the mouth, this study showed that fruit preparation could be an interesting formulation factor to enhance exposure time to stimuli and thus modify food consumption behaviors. These results could be taken into account to formulate new products that integrate both nutritional and sensory criteria. PMID:23698054

  13. Impact of Fruit Piece Structure in Yogurts on the Dynamics of Aroma Release and Sensory Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Souchon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma stimuli, which can influence nutritional and hedonic characteristics, as well as consumption behaviors. In yogurts, fruit preparation formulation can be a key factor to modulate aroma stimulation. In this context, the impact of size and hardness of fruit pieces in fat-free pear yogurts was studied. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was used to allow sensitive and on-line monitoring of volatile odorous compound release in the breath during consumption. In parallel, a trained panel used sensory profile and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS methods to characterize yogurt sensory properties and their dynamic changes during consumption. Results showed that the size of pear pieces had few effects on aroma release and perception of yogurts, whereas fruit hardness significantly influenced them. Despite the fact that yogurts presented short and similar residence times in the mouth, this study showed that fruit preparation could be an interesting formulation factor to enhance exposure time to stimuli and thus modify food consumption behaviors. These results could be taken into account to formulate new products that integrate both nutritional and sensory criteria.

  14. Characterization of aroma compounds of chinese "Wuliangye" and "Jiannanchun" liquors by aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenlai; Qian, Michael C

    2006-04-01

    Aroma compounds in Chinese "Wuliangye" liquor were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) after fractionation. A total of 132 odorants were detected by GC-O in Wuliangye liquor on DB-wax and DB-5 columns. Of these, 126 aromas were identified by GC-mass spectrometry (MS). Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was further employed to identify the most important aroma compounds in "Wuliangye" and "Jiannanchun" liquors. The results showed that esters could be the most important class, especially ethyl esters. Various alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, alkylpyrazines, furan derivatives, lactones, and sulfur-containing and phenolic compounds were also found to be important. On the basis of flavor dilution (FD) values, the most important aroma compounds in Wuliangye and Jiannanchun liquors could be ethyl butanoate, ethyl pentanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, butyl hexanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, hexanoic acid, and 1,1-diethoxy-3-methylbutane (FD > or = 1024). These compounds contributed to fruity, floral, and apple- and pineapple-like aromas with the exception of hexanoic acid, which imparts a sweaty note. Several pyrazines, including 2,5-dimethyl-3-ethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, and 3,5-dimethyl-2-pentylpyrazine, were identified in these two liquors. Although further quantitative analysis is required, it seems that most of these pyrazine compounds had higher FD values in Wuliangye than in Jiannanchun liquor, thus imparting stronger nutty, baked, and roasted notes in Wuliangye liquor. PMID:16569063

  15. Characterization of the potent odorants contributing to the characteristic aroma of Chinese green tea infusions by aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Ryoko; Kumazawa, Kenji

    2014-08-20

    The volatile fractions of three famous Chinese green tea cultivar infusions (Longjing, Maofeng, and Biluochun) were prepared by a combination of the adsorptive column method and the SAFE techniques. The aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) applied to the volatile fractions revealed 58 odor-active peaks with flavor dilution (FD) factors between 4(1) and 4(7). Forty-six of the odorants, which included six odorants that have not been reported in the literature in Chinese green tea (2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-ethenyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, cis-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-ethylguaiacol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 3-phenylpropionic acid), were identified or tentatively identified by GC-MS and GC-O. Among the perceived odorants, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, coumarin, vanillin, geraniol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 2-methoxyphenol showed high FD factors in all of the cultivars, irrespective of the cultivar or harvesting season, suggesting that these seven odorants are essential for the aroma of Chinese green tea. On the other hand, the contents of the odorants, FD factors of which were uneven between the cultivars, were suggested to influence the characteristic aroma of each cultivar. In addition, the formation mechanism of (E)-isoeugenol, one of the odorants which have not been reported in the literature with a high FD factor common to all the cultivars, was investigated, and it was suggested that the (E)-isoeugenol content of the tea products has a close correlation with the manufacturing process of the tea leaves. PMID:25088347

  16. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in cooked grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) by application of aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayhan, Gonca Gul; Selli, Serkan

    2011-01-26

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of wild grey mullet ( Mugil cephalus ) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE) was representative of grey mullet odor. A total of 50 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in grey mullet. Aldehydes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in grey mullet. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of fish sample. A total of 29 aroma-active compounds were detected in aromatic extract of grey mullet, of which 24 were identified. On the basis of the flavor dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma active compounds identified in the extract were (Z)-4-heptenal and nonanal, which were described as the strong cooked fish and green-fruity odor, respectively. PMID:21186818

  17. Factors influencing the aroma composition of Chardonnay wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambetta, Joanna M; Bastian, Susan E P; Cozzolino, Daniel; Jeffery, David W

    2014-07-16

    Chardonnay is one of the oldest and most widely distributed wine grape cultivars and is of commercial importance for the world's wine-producing nations. It is an extremely flexible variety that has adapted to different regions with varied weather and soil characteristics. Somewhat uniquely among white wines, Chardonnay lends itself to a wide variety of production styles, which can be tailored to the target market. Techniques such as skin maceration, barrel and stainless steel fermentation, use of selected or indigenous yeasts, malolactic fermentation, and aging in barrels with or without lees are all applicable and lead to different compositional outcomes. A number of research papers have been published with a view to understanding Chardonnay composition and quality as well as the impact of different enological techniques on the final product. This review summarizes current knowledge, explaining the influence of viticultural and production techniques on aroma composition, and poses directions for further research into Chardonnay wines. PMID:24954266

  18. Healing of pain by music and aroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To see the alteration and modification by music and aroma of the brain activity at the moment of pain stimulus, authors studied 3D images by dynamic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with continuous intravenous 99mTc-HMPAO (hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime) method that they had developed. The radiopharmaceutical was i.v. injected at a constant infusion rate of 1,110 MBq/30 ml/30 min and dynamic SPECT was performed for 30 min at every 2 min interval with the gamma camera GCA 7200A/UI 2-head SPECT system (Toshiba) to make the time-activity curve of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). During the infusion, pain stimulus was given by clipping the tip of third finger for 3 sec repeatedly for 2 min. Subjects, healthy normal or with disease, were 18 cases with no healing, 14 with music and 32 with aroma. Pain alone or plus pop music induced rCBF increase in wide regions of the brain while slow-paced music or calm aroma (rose and lavender) suppressed the rCBF increase by pain in the lateral margin of frontal lobe. These changes were thought to be related to healing effects. (T.I.)

  19. Retenção de aroma na secagem em atmosferas normal e modificada: desenvolvimento do sistema de estudo / Aroma retention in drying with normal and modified atmosphere: development of a study system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcilio Machado, Morais; Maria Aparecida, Silva.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Na secagem de determinados alimentos, como frutas, juntamente com a água há também a evaporação de outras substâncias voláteis presentes em quantidades menores. Por isso, torna-se interessante considerar nos estudos de secagem a evaporação, além da água, desses outros componentes voláteis. A modific [...] ação da atmosfera tem sido utilizada em armazenamento, principalmente de vegetais, mas pode também ser estendida à secagem, pois pode influenciar a perda de voláteis responsáveis pelas características sensoriais do produto final. No presente trabalho, é apresentado um sistema de secagem previamente desenvolvido, no qual a atmosfera de secagem pode ser modificada pela adição de gases ou líquidos. Desenvolveu-se um sistema-modelo a partir da composição química básica do abacaxi e da adição de outros compostos, contendo um dos principais componentes do aroma desta fruta (hexanoato de etila). Além disso, também foi desenvolvida a metodologia analítica de determinação do aroma no sistema-modelo e no abacaxi, a partir dos estudos de extração de aromas e de análise cromatográfica gasosa. O aroma presente no sistema-modelo foi extraído em hexano e os componentes voláteis do aroma do abacaxi foram extraídos em éter etílico Abstract in english In the drying of some foods such as fruits, besides water there is also the evaporation of other volatile substances present in lesser amounts. Therefore, it is interesting to consider the evaporation of volatile components other than water in drying studies. The modification of atmosphere has been [...] used for storage only, especially for vegetables, but it can be extended to drying since it can influence the loss of volatile components responsible for the sensorial characteristics of the final product. In the present study, a drying system previously developed, in which the drying atmosphere can be modified by the addition of gases or liquids, was presented. A model-system was developed from the basic chemical composition of pineapple and the addition of other compounds containing one of the main aroma components (ethyl hexanoate). An analytical methodology for determing the aroma components present in the model-system and in the pineapple was developed from the studies of aroma extraction and gas chromatography. The aroma present in the model-system was extracted with hexane, and the volatile aroma components of the pineapple were extracted with ethylic ether

  20. Characterization and evaluation of coconut aroma produced by Trichoderma viride EMCC-107 in solid state fermentation on sugarcane bagasse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hoda Hanem Mohamed, Fadel; Manal Gomaa, Mahmoud; Mohsen Mohamed Selim, Asker; Shereen Nazeh, Lotfy.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Sugarcane bagasse was shown to be an adequate substrate for the growth and aroma production by Trichoderma species. In the present work the ability of Trichoderma viride EMCC-107 to produce high yield of coconut aroma in solid state fermentation (SSF) by using sugarcane bagasse as solid s [...] ubstrate was evaluated. The produced aroma was characterized. Results Total carbohydrates comprised the highest content (43.9% w/w) compared with the other constituents in sugarcane bagasse. The sensory and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the highest odor intensity and maximum yield of volatiles were perceived at the 5th d of induction period. The unsaturated lactone, 6-pentyl-?-pyrone (6-PP), was the major identified volatile compound. Saturated lactones, ?-octalactone, ?-nonalactone, ?-undecalactone, ?-dodecalactone and ?-dodecalactone, were also identified in the coconut aroma produced during the induction period (12 d). A quite correlation was found between the composition and odor profile of the produced aroma. The effect of varying the concentration of sugarcane bagasse on 6-PP production and biomass growth was evaluated. The results revealed high 6-PP production at 4.5 g sugarcane bagasse whereas the biomass showed significant (P

  1. Characterisation of aroma profiles of commercial soy sauce by odour activity value and omission test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunzi; Su, Guowan; Zhao, Haifeng; Cai, Yu; Cui, Chun; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Mouming

    2015-01-15

    Twenty-seven commercial soy sauces produced through three different fermentation processes (high-salt liquid-state fermentation soy sauce, HLFSS; low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce, LSFSS; Koikuchi soy sauce, KSS) were examined to identify the aroma compounds and the effect of fermentation process on the flavour of the soy sauce was investigated. Results showed that 129 volatiles were identified, of which 41 aroma-active components were quantified. The types of odorants occurring in the three soy sauce groups were similar, although their intensities significantly differed. Many esters and phenols were found at relatively high intensities in KSS, whereas some volatile acids only occurred in LSFSS. Furthermore, 23 aroma compounds had average OAVs>1, among which 3-methylbutanal, ethyl acetate, 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-methylbutanal and 3-(methylthio)propanal exhibited the highest average OAVs (>100). In addition, omission tests verified the important contribution of the products resulting from amino acid catabolism to the characteristic aroma of soy sauce. PMID:25148982

  2. Identification of fruity aroma-producing compounds from Chryseobacterium sp. isolated from the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Anil; Srinivas, T N R; Prasad, A R; Shivaji, S

    2011-08-01

    A fruity aroma-producing strain WG4 was isolated from a water sample collected from the Western Ghats, India. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain WG4 indicated that Chryseobacterium indologenes, a member of the family 'Flavobacteriaceae' is the closest related species with a pair-wise sequence similarity of 98.6%. Strain WG4 produces a fruity aroma when grown on nutrient or trypticase soy agar plates. The fruity aroma is more when the strain WG4 is grown on agar plates compared to their growth in broth. The aromatic compounds produced by the strain WG4 were identified as ester compounds and were confirmed as ethyl-2-methylbutyrate and ethyl-3-methylbutyrate based on Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and using standard reference compounds. Even after repeated subcultures strain WG4 produced the same aroma in high intensity. Thus, strain WG4 could serve as a source for the production of these flavour compounds. PMID:21667308

  3. Aroma interactions with starch : Induction of carbohydrate acting enzymes from Aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Anders Dysted

    2012-01-01

    Starches are used to enhance aroma perception in low-fat foods. Aroma compounds can bind physically to the starch in grooves on the surface or they can form complexes inside amylose helices. This study has been divided into two parts: one part regarding binding of aromas to starches and their aroma-release, and another part regarding stimulation of a fungal secretome using different carbohydrates. In the first part, nine aromas and one aroma-mixture were mixed with nine different starches,...

  4. Identification of impact aroma compounds in Eugenia uniflora L. (Brazilian Pitanga) leaf essential oil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosineia M., Melo; Vivian F. S., Corrêa; Ana Carolina L., Amorim; Ana Luisa P., Miranda; Claudia M., Rezende.

    Full Text Available O óleo essencial das folhas de Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) foi obtido a partir do arraste a vapor em aparelhagem de Clevenger e analisado por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas. As folhas foram colhidas e imediatamente extraídas durante cinco dias consecutivos, às 9 e 14h, [...] não sendo observada variação significativa no rendimento dos óleos extraídos no período. Furanodieno e seu produto de rearranjo, furanoelemeno (ou curzereno, num total de 50,2%), beta-elemeno (5,9%) e alfa-cadinol (4,7%) foram os constituintes majoritários. Pela técnica de cromatografia gasosa-olfatometria (CG-O), associada à análise por diluição de aroma AEDA (Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis), foi possível identificar nove substâncias ativas no aroma do óleo de pitanga, sendo que três foram consideradas como de maior impacto: furanodieno (juntamente com furanoelemeno, FD 1024), beta-elemeno (FD 256) e (E,E)-germacrona (FD 256). A mistura destas três substâncias, coletadas a partir do CG-sniffing port, levou a uma essência de pitanga de aroma bastante semelhante à fruta, de acordo com a avaliação por análise olfativa comparativa. Abstract in english The leaf essential oil of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) was extracted by Clevenger apparatus and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The leaves were collected and immediately extracted for five consecutive days at 9:00 am and 2:00 pm. No variance in the oil yields were observ [...] ed in the period. Furanodiene and its rearrangement product, furanoelemene (or curzerene, 50.2%), beta-elemene (5.9%) and alpha-cadinol (4.7%) were identified as the most abundant compounds. GC-Olfatometry (GC-O) associated to Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA) allowed the identification of nine active aroma compounds, where furanodiene (along with furanoelemene, FD 1024), beta-elemene (FD 256) and (E,E)-germacrone (FD 256) were characterized as the main impact aroma compounds in the odor of this essential oil. Those substances were collected through a sniffing port adapted on the GC allowing to obtain a typical essence of pitanga as indicated by comparative olfatometric analysis.

  5. Metabolomics in melon: A new opportunity for aroma analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Allwood, J. William; Cheung, William; Xu, Yun; Mumm, Roland; de Vos, Ric C. H.; Deborde, Catherine; Biais, Benoit; Maucourt, Mickael; Berger, Yosef; Schaffer, Arthur A.; Rolin, Dominique; Moing, Annick; Hall, Robert D; Goodacre, Royston

    2014-01-01

    Melon fruit value is highly influenced by aroma. A simple and robust method of trapping volatile organic compounds combined with detection via thermal desorption (TD)-GC–MS has been developed. Principal component analysis of aroma profiles permitted the characterisation of distinct and closely related melon cultivars according to aromatic quality and shelf life.

  6. Aroma Compounds Prevision using Artificial Neural Networks Influence of Newly Indigenous Saccharomyces SPP in White Wine Produced with Vitis Vinifera Cv Siria

    OpenAIRE

    Caldeira, A. Teresa; Martins, M Rosário; Cabrita, Maria João; Ambrósio, Cristina; Arteiro, José; José NEVES; Vicente, Henrique

    2010-01-01

    Commercial yeasts strains of Saccharomyces cerevisae are frequently used in white wine production as starters in fermentation process, however, these strains can affect the wine characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three strains of Saccharomyces spp. (var. 1, 2 and 3) on wine aroma compounds produced in microvinification assays. Microvinification assays were carried out with Vitis vinifera cv Síria grapes using the strains in study as starters. Aroma compounds ...

  7. Olive oil phenolic compounds affect the release of aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; Villani, Veronica; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-08-15

    Twelve aroma compounds were monitored and quantified by dynamic headspace analysis after their addition in refined olive oil model systems with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) biophenols to simulate EVOO aroma. The influence of polyphenols on aroma release was studied under simulated mouth conditions by using human saliva, and SPME-GC/MS analysis. While few differences were observed in orthonasal assay (without saliva), interesting results were obtained for retronasal aroma. Biophenols caused generally the lowest headspace release of almost all volatile compounds. However, only ethyl esters and linalool concentrations were significantly lower in retronasal than orthonasal assay. Saliva also caused higher concentration of hexanal, probably due to hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) action on linoleyl hydroperoxides. Epicatechin was compared to EVOO phenolics and the behaviour was dramatically different, likely to be due to salivary protein-tannin binding interactions, which influenced aroma headspace release. These results were also confirmed using two extra virgin olive oils. PMID:25794752

  8. Chemical composition of volatile aroma metabolites and their glycosylated precursors that can uniquely differentiate individual grape cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaste, Manoj; Narduzzi, Luca; Carlin, Silvia; Vrhovsek, Urska; Shulaev, Vladimir; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-12-01

    Every grape cultivar has its own unique genetic characteristics, leading to the production of a different secondary metabolite profile. Aroma is one of the most important aspects in terms of the quality of grapes and previous studies have assigned specific aromas to particular grape cultivars. In this study we present the molecular profiling of volatile aroma metabolites and their precursors in ten selected genotypes, including six Vitis vinifera cultivars, two American species (Arizonica Texas, Vitis cinerea) and two interspecific crosses. Chemical profiling was achieved through combined use of two orthogonal techniques, GC-MS and LC-HRMS, before and after enzymatic hydrolysis. The results show that both free and glycosidically bound aroma precursors behave differently in each different grape cultivar and species. As many as 66 free aroma volatile molecules (originally existing and released after hydrolysis) were profiled through GC-MS analysis, while 15 glycosylated precursors of volatiles were identified through LC-HRMS and correlation with GC-MS data. PMID:26041197

  9. Chemical characterization of the aroma of Grenache rosé wines: aroma extract dilution analysis, quantitative determination, and sensory reconstitution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vicente; Ortín, Natalia; Escudero, Ana; López, Ricardo; Cacho, Juan

    2002-07-01

    The aroma of a Grenache rosé wine from Calatayud (Zaragoza, Spain) has been elucidated following a strategy consisting of an aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), followed by the quantitative analysis of the main odorants and the determination of odor activities values (OAVs) and, finally, by a series of reconstitution and omission tests with synthetic aroma models. Thirty-eight aroma compounds were found in the AEDA study, 35 of which were identified. Twenty-one compounds were at concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds. An aroma model prepared by mixing the 24 compounds with OAV > 0.5 in a synthetic wine showed a high qualitative similarity with the aroma of the rosé wine. The addition of compounds with OAV 10 was very different from that of the wine. Omission tests revealed that the most important odorant of this Grenache rosé wine was 3-mercapto-1-hexanol, with a deep impact on the wine fruity and citric notes. The synergic action of Furaneol and homofuraneol also had an important impact on wine aroma, particularly in its fruity and caramel notes. The omission of beta-damascenone, which had the second highest OAV, caused only a slight decrease on the intensity of the aroma model. Still weaker was the sensory effect caused by the omission of 10 other compounds, such as fatty acids and their ethyl esters, isoamyl acetate, and higher alcohols. PMID:12083881

  10. Effect of added thiamine on the key odorant compounds and aroma of cooked ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Caroline; Mercier, Frédéric; Tournayre, Pascal; Martin, Jean-Luc; Berdagué, Jean-Louis

    2015-04-15

    This study shows that thiamine plays a major role in the formation of three key odorants of cooked ham: 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-methyl-3-methyldithiofuran, and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulphide. Analyses revealed that under identical cooking conditions, the productions of these three aroma compounds increase in a closely intercorrelated way when the dose of thiamine increases. Using a specific 2-methyl-3-furanthiol extraction-quantification method, it was possible to relate the amounts of thiamine added in model cooked hams to the amounts of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol produced in the cooking process. Sensory analyses highlighted the role of thiamine as a precursor of cooked ham aroma. PMID:25466091

  11. Characterization of the most aroma-active compounds in cherry tomato by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Serkan; Kelebek, Hasim; Ayseli, Mehmet Turan; Tokbas, Habip

    2014-12-15

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by liquid-liquid extraction was representative of tomato odour. A total of 49 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in fresh cherry tomato. Aldehydes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in cherry tomato, followed by alcohols. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of tomato sample. A total of 21 aroma-active compounds were detected in aromatic extract of fresh tomato, of which 18 were identified. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma-active compounds identified in the extract were (Z)-3-hexenal (FD=1024) and (E)-2-hexenal (FD=256), which were described as the strong green-grassy and green-leafy odour, respectively. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and fructose, respectively. PMID:25038709

  12. Investigation into the aroma of rosemary using multi-channel silicone rubber traps, off-line olfactometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandri, van der Wat; Martin, Dovey; Yvette, Naudé; Patricia B.C., Forbes.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi-channel polydimethylsiloxane rubber traps were used to sample the headspace of rosemary samples (two essential oils from different sources, one oleoresin and one dried herb) followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography -time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS) or GC-MS an [...] alyses. The aroma of different headspace samples was characterized using a custom-built olfactory apparatus. The differences between the aroma profiles were evident from bubble plots of the perceived aroma at different temperatures. The samples were heat-treated to simulate cooking of food products, and were then reassessed to determine any changes in the aroma profile. It was found that the intense menthol and cooling aromas subsided in all the samples with heating. GCxGC-TOFMS allowed for separation of the numerous components in the headspace samples. Many terpenes and aliphatics were thus tentatively identified and the relative peak areas were compared to better understand the mixture that contributes to the rosemary aroma.

  13. Comparison of key aroma compounds in five different types of Japanese soy sauces by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Shu; Kumazawa, Kenji; Nishimura, Osamu

    2012-04-18

    An investigation by the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) technique of the aroma concentrate from five different types of Japanese soy sauces, categorized according to Japan Agricultural Standards as Koikuchi Shoyu (KS), Usukuchi Shoyu (US), Tamari Shoyu (TS), Sai-Shikomi Shoyu (SSS), and Shiro Shoyu (SS), revealed 25 key aroma compounds. Among them, 3-ethyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione and 2'-aminoacetophenone were identified in the soy sauces for the first time. Whereas 3-(methylthio)propanal (methional) and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon) were detected in all of the soy sauce aroma concentrates as having high flavor dilution (FD) factors, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol was detected as having a high FD factor in only four of the soy sauces (KS, US, TS, and SSS). Furthermore, 5(or 2)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HEMF) and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HDMF), which were thought to be the key odorants in KS, were detected in KS, US, TS, and SSS, but the FD factors widely varied among them. The sensory evaluations demonstrated that the aroma descriptions of a cooked potato-like note and a caramel-like/seasoning-like note were evaluated as high scores with no significant differences among the five soy sauces. On the other hand, a burnt/spicy note was evaluated as having high scores in KS, TS, and SSS, but it was evaluated as having a low score in SS. The comparative AEDA experiments and the auxiliary sensory experiments demonstrated that the five different types of Japanese soy sauces varied in their key aroma compounds and aroma characteristics, and the key aroma compounds in KS might not always be highly contributing in the other types of Japanese soy sauces. PMID:22463595

  14. The ameliorating effect of Yucca schidigera extract on canine and feline faecal aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, J A; Kershaw, S J

    1997-01-01

    Addition of Yucca schidigera extract (YSE) products to canine or feline diets improved the character and reduced the intensity of faecal aroma as monitored by a human panel. The general condition of the animals was not adversely affected as monitored by faecal pH, food retention time, and blood cell counts. Blood urea increased significantly in YSE-treated cats, possibly due to the saponins of YSE affecting gut wall permeability. This finding contrasts with previously published reports of a reduction in blood urea on the addition of sarsaponin (from YSE) to rat diets and of YSE products to poultry and cattle diets. PMID:9368958

  15. Analysis of neutral volatile aroma components in Tilsit cheese using a combination of dynamic headspace technique, capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilsit cheese is made by the influence of lab ferment and starter cultures on milk. The ripening is done by repeated inoculation of the surface of the Tilsit cheese with yeasts and read smear cultures. This surface flora forms the typical aroma of the Tilsit cheese during the ripening process. The aim of the work was to receive general knowledge about the kind and amount of the neutral volatile aroma components of Tilsit cheese. Beyond this the ability of forming aroma components by read smear cultures and the dispersion of these components in cheese was to be examined. The results were intended to evaluate the formation of aroma components in Tilsit cheese. The semi-quantitative analyses of the aroma components of all samples were done by combining dynamic headspace extraction, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In this process the neutral volatile aroma components were extracted by dynamic headspace technique, adsorbed on a trap, thermally desorbed, separated by gas chromatography, detected and identified by mass spectrometry. 63 components belonging to the chemical classes of esters, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols and sulfur containing substances as well as aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons were found in the analysed cheese samples of different Austrian Tilsit manufacturing plants. All cheese samples showed a qualitative equal but quantitative varied spectrum of aroma components. The cultivation of pure cultures on a cheese agar ivation of pure cultures on a cheese agar medium showed all analysed aroma components to be involved in the biochemical metabolism of these cultures. The ability to produce aroma components greatly differed between the strains and it was not possible to correlate this ability with the taxonomic classification of the strains. The majority of the components had a non-homogeneous concentration profile in the cheese body. This was explained by effects of diffusion and temporal and spatial different forming of components by the metabolism of the surface flora during ripening. Therefore the conclusion can be drawn that part of the components are formed by the starter cultures and are homogeneous spread in the cheese body at the beginning of the ripening. On the one hand the metabolism of the read smear bacteria and yeasts leads to a reduction of the components. Hereby the concentration gradient is compensated by diffusion of aroma components from the inside to the surface. On the other hand products of the metabolism of the surface flora diffuse into the cheese body. The quantity of the coefficient of diffusion varies timewise and spatially. The concentration profile is influenced not only by the diffusion but also by the shifting of the composition of the surface flora during the ripening period. (author)

  16. Influence of strawberry yogurt composition on aroma release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jennifer B; Reineccius, Gary A; Knighton, W Berk; Grimsrud, Eric P

    2004-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine how yogurt ingredients affect aroma release in the mouth during eating. A model strawberry flavor consisting of ethyl butanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, (Z)-hex-3-enol, 2-methylbutanoic acid, 5-hexylhydro-2(3H)-furanone, and 3-methyl-3-phenylglycidic acid ethyl ester was added to unflavored, unsweetened yogurt that had different added sweeteners and hydrocolloids. In all, 12 yogurt formulations were examined to determine the effects of gelatin, modified food starch, pectin, sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and aspartame on aroma release. Aroma release was monitored by breath-by-breath analysis (proton-transfer reaction-mass spectrometry) during eating of the test yogurts. Results showed aroma release of the ethyl butanoate, (Z)-hex-3-enol, and ethyl 3-methylbutanoate to be suppressed by sweeteners, with 55 DE high-fructose corn syrup having the greatest effect. Addition of thickening agents had no significant effect on the aroma release profiles of the compounds under study. PMID:15453698

  17. Caracterización anatómica del leño y evolución del crecimiento en ejemplares de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina en la Región Chaqueña, Argentina / Wood anatomical description and growth in individuals of Acacia aroma and Acacia furcatispina in Chaco region, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Bravo; Ana, Giménez; Juana, Moglia.

    Full Text Available La madera de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina se emplea para usos de escaso valor como postes, mangos de herramientas o combustible. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estudiar los caracteres anatómicos del leño de ambas especies y analizar el crecimiento de ejemplares aislados con la finalidad [...] de determinar su potencialidad para usos de mayor valor. Se determinó que la madera de estas especies es dura, pesada y de porosidad difusa con tendencia a semicircular. Acacia furcatispina posee un leño con mayor porcentaje de elementos lignificados, mejores cualidades estéticas y mejor estado fitosanitario que el de A. aroma. Los defectos más frecuentes en estas especies fueron la formación de leño decolorado y pudriciones en la zona del duramen por ataque de hongos, asociados a la presencia de cicatrices de fuego. El espesor promedio de los anillos de crecimiento fue 2,1 mm (DE = 0,47 mm) en A. aroma y 1,9 mm, (DE = 0,74 mm) en A. furcatispina. Las curvas de incremento medio anual e incremento corriente anual del diámetro en A. aroma se interceptan a los 24 años mientras que las de A. furcatispina lo hacen a la edad de 10 años. Los resultados indicaron que A. furcatispina es una especie interesante para manejar en plantaciones debido a las cualidades de su madera, aunque permitiría obtener escuadrías menores. Su madera podría destinarse a usos particulares como parquets, tallas artísticas, entre otros. Acacia aroma es una especie apropiada para manejar con el objetivo de producción de leña debido a la capacidad de producir fustes y ramas de mayor diámetro y a que su estado fitosanitario limita su empleo para otros usos de mayor valor. Abstract in english The wood of Acacia aroma and Acacia furcatispina is employed for uses of little value such us posts, tools and firewood. The objectives of this work were to study anatomical characters of wood and to analyze the growth of isolated individuals with the purpose of determining their potential for uses [...] of greater value. We determined that these species have high density and heavy wood, with diffuse porosity and tendency to semicircular. The wood of Acacia furcatispina has greater percentage of ligneous elements, better aesthetics qualities and health state than A. aroma. The most frequent defects in these species are rots within heartwood due to fungi attack, and discolorated wood formation, both related to fire scars. The mean width of the growth rings was 2.1 mm (DE = 0.47 mm) in A. aroma and 1.9 mm (DE = 0.74 mm) in A. furcatispina. In A. aroma, the curve of mean annual increment (IMA) intercepted the curve of current annual increment (ICA) for diameter at an age of 24 years, while in A. furcatispina it happened at 10 years. The results show that A. furcatispina is an interesting species to manage in plantations due to its wood qualities, although it would only allow small sized timber. This wood could be allocated for others uses such us parquets and artistic sculpture. Acacia aroma is a species suitable to manage for firewood production due to its capacity to produce greater diameter boles and branches, and to frequent wood decay that reduces its use for others more valuables uses.

  18. AROMA: Automatic Generation of Radio Maps for Localization Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Eleryan, Ahmed; Youssef, Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    WLAN localization has become an active research field recently. Due to the wide WLAN deployment, WLAN localization provides ubiquitous coverage and adds to the value of the wireless network by providing the location of its users without using any additional hardware. However, WLAN localization systems usually require constructing a radio map, which is a major barrier of WLAN localization systems' deployment. The radio map stores information about the signal strength from different signal strength streams at selected locations in the site of interest. Typical construction of a radio map involves measurements and calibrations making it a tedious and time-consuming operation. In this paper, we present the AROMA system that automatically constructs accurate active and passive radio maps for both device-based and device-free WLAN localization systems. AROMA has three main goals: high accuracy, low computational requirements, and minimum user overhead. To achieve high accuracy, AROMA uses 3D ray tracing enhanced wi...

  19. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Gonda, Itay; Bar, Einat; Portnoy, Vitaly; Lev, Shery; Burger, Joseph; Schaffer, Arthur A.; Tadmor, Ya'akov; Gepstein, Shimon; Giovannoni, James J; Katzir, Nurit; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2010-01-01

    The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty acids, carotenoids, amino acids, and terpenes. Although amino acids are known precursors of aroma compounds in the plant kingdom, the initial steps in the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles have received little attention. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino acids and ?-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds bearing the ...

  20. Impact of Fruit Piece Structure in Yogurts on the Dynamics of Aroma Release and Sensory Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Isabelle Souchon; Anne Saint-Eve; Isabelle Déléris; Joshua Mesurolle

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma stimuli, which can influence nutritional and hedonic characteristics, as well as consumption behaviors. In yogurts, fruit preparation formulation can be a key factor to modulate aroma stimul...

  1. Feasibility and application of a retronasal aroma-trapping device to study in vivo aroma release during the consumption of model wine-derived beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Moreno-Arribas, Maria Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, Maria Ángeles

    2014-07-01

    New types of wine-derived beverages are now in the market. However, little is known about the impact of ingredient formulation on aroma release during consumption, which is directly linked to consumer preferences and liking. In this study, the optimization and validation of a retronasal aroma-trapping device (RATD) for the in vivo monitoring of aroma release was carried out. This device was applied to assess the impact of two main ingredients (sugar and ethanol) in these types of beverages on in vivo aroma release. Two aroma-trapping materials (Lichrolut and Tenax) were firstly assayed. Tenax provided higher recovery and lower intra- and inter-trap variability. In in vivo conditions, RATD provided an adequate linear range (R (2) > 0.91) between 0 and 50 mg L(-1) of aroma compounds. Differences in the total aroma release were observed in equally trained panelists. It was proven that the addition of sugar (up to 150 mg kg(-1)) did not have effect on aroma release, while ethanol (up to 40 mg L(-1)) enhanced the aroma release during drinking. The RATD is a useful tool to collect real in vivo data to extract reliable conclusions about the effect of beverage components on aroma release during consumption. The concentration of ethanol should be taken into consideration for the formulation of wine-derived beverages. PMID:25473493

  2. Carotenoides, capacidad antioxidante y compuestos volátiles del aroma durante la maduración de jitomate / Carotenoid content, antioxidant capacity and volatile compounds of the aroma during tomato ripening

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O, López-Vidal; H, Escalona-Buendía; C, Pelayo-Zaldívar; J, Cruz-Salazar; JM, Villa-Hernández; F, Rivera-Cabrera; O, Villegas-Torres; I, Alia-Tejacal; L J, Pérez-Flores; F, Díaz de León-Sánchez.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El jitomate acumula altos niveles de carotenoides durante su maduración. Éstos, además de su función como pigmentos, nutrientes y antioxidantes, son precursores de algunos compuestos volátiles importantes en el aroma de estos frutos. Por ello, en este trabajo se estudió la capacidad antioxidante, lo [...] s niveles de licopeno y ?-caroteno y la producción de sustancias aromáticas provenientes de la vía de carotenoides en frutos de jitomate de la variedad 7705, en diferentes estados de maduración. Los resultados mostraron un aumento significativo (p Abstract in english During ripening, tomato fruit accumulates high levels of carotenoids. These compounds, besides their function as pigments, nutrients and antioxidants, are precursors of some important volatile compounds for the development of the characteristic aroma of these fruits. In the present work, the antioxi [...] dant capacity, lycopene and ?-carotene levels, and the production of aromatic substances derived from the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway were analyzed in the tomato cultivar 7705 at different ripening stages. Results showed a significant (p

  3. Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haypek E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice. The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the calculation of the activity coefficients.

  4. Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Haypek E.; Silva L.H.M; Batista E.; Marques D. S.; Meireles M.A.A.; Meirelles A.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice). The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the c...

  5. Aroma quality assessment of Korean fermented red pepper paste (gochujang) by aroma extract dilution analysis and headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Mo; Baek, Hyung-Hee

    2014-02-15

    The objective of this study was to assess aroma quality of gochujang using purge and trap, simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE), and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), followed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Nineteen and 28 aroma-active compounds were detected by aroma extract dilution analysis of purge and trap and SDE, respectively. Diallyl disulfide and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine played a significant role in the aroma quality of gochujang. Twelve aroma-active compounds were detected by HS-SPME-GC-O based on sample dilution analysis. Methional, diallyl disulfide, and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine were the most intense aroma-active compounds. 3-Isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine was identified for the first time in gochujang. PMID:24128505

  6. Feasibility and application of a retronasal aroma-trapping device to study in vivo aroma release during the consumption of model wine-derived beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Mun?oz-gonza?lez, Carolina; Rodri?guez-bencomo, Juan Jose?; Moreno-arribas, Maria Victoria; Pozo-bayo?n, Maria A?ngeles

    2014-01-01

    New types of wine-derived beverages are now in the market. However, little is known about the impact of ingredient formulation on aroma release during consumption, which is directly linked to consumer preferences and liking. In this study, the optimization and validation of a retronasal aroma-trapping device (RATD) for the in vivo monitoring of aroma release was carried out. This device was applied to assess the impact of two main ingredients (sugar and ethanol) in these types of beverages on...

  7. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT OAK CHIPS ON AROMA COMPOUNDS IN WINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Fran?áková

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oak wood has considerable influence on amount of aroma compounds in wine. During the time, when wine is in contact with oak wood, compounds typical for wood diffuse into wine and enrich its aromatic complexity. Concentration of diffused aroma compounds in wine depends on several factors as contact time, storage conditions, wine properties, geographical origin and toasting degree of oak wood. Because of very small quantities of volatile aroma compounds in wine, it is necessary to use sensitive method as gas chromatography with appropriate sample preparation, to concentrate and analyse the relevant volatiles. In our work, four different wines and eight chips samples with different geographic origin and degree of toasting were used. With GC-MS following substances were determined in wines after 30 days of maceration with oak chips: furfural, 5-methylfurfural, guaiacol, 4-ethylguaiacol, eugenol, isoeugenol, cis- and trans-whiskey lactones, 4-ethylphenol. Our results show, that the degree of toasting influences the concentration of furfural, guaiacol and cis- and trans- whiskeylactone. Higher toasting leads to an increase of furfural and guaiacol and a decrease of cis- and trans-whiskeylactone in wine. The highest increase of volatile aroma compounds was determined in wine samples with French oak chips with intense toasting. We did not find any specific, definite differences among chips with different geographic origin.

  8. Aroma extract dilution analysis of a beeflike process flavor from extruded enzyme-hydrolyzed soybean protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, H H; Kim, C J; Ahn, B H; Nam, H S; Cadwallader, K R

    2001-02-01

    Aroma-active compounds from a beeflike process flavor, produced by extrusion of enzyme-hydrolyzed vegetable protein (E-HVP), were analyzed using aroma extract dilution analysis. The number of aroma-active compounds and the aroma intensity were increased by the addition of aroma precursors prior to extrusion. The most intense compound was 2-methyl-3-furanthiol having a cooked rice/vitamin-like/meaty aroma note. Several sulfur-containing furans, such as 2-methyl-3-(methylthio)furan, 2-methyl-3-(methyldithio)furan, and bis(2-methylfuryl)disulfide, were detected with high flavor dilution (FD) factors. Some pyrazines, such as 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,6-diethylpyrazine, and 3,5-diethyl-2-methylpyrazine, also had high FD factors. It is hypothesized that sulfur-containing amino acids and thiamin were important precursors in aroma formation in process flavor from E-HVP. PMID:11262030

  9. Improving the performance of an electronic nose by wine aroma training to distinguish between drip coffee and canned coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Kouki; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Shimizu, Nobuo; Ikeda, Keiichi; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    Coffee aroma, with more than 600 components, is considered as one of the most complex food aromas. Although electronic noses have been successfully used for objective analysis and differentiation of total coffee aromas, it is difficult to use them to describe the specific features of coffee aroma (i.e., the type of smell). This is because data obtained by electronic noses are generally based on electrical resistance/current and samples are distinguished by principal component analysis. In this paper, we present an electronic nose that is capable of learning the wine related aromas using the aroma kit "Le Nez du Vin," and the potential to describe coffee aroma in a similar manner comparable to how wine experts describe wine aroma. The results of our investigation showed that the aromas of three drip coffees were more similar to those of pine and honey in the aroma kit than to the aromas of three canned coffees. Conversely, the aromas of canned coffees were more similar to the kit coffee aroma. In addition, the aromatic patterns of coffees were different from those of green tea and red wine. Although further study is required to fit the data to human olfaction, the presented method and the use of vocabularies in aroma kits promise to enhance objective discrimination and description of aromas by electronic noses. PMID:25587981

  10. Improving the Performance of an Electronic Nose by Wine Aroma Training to Distinguish between Drip Coffee and Canned Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Fujioka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee aroma, with more than 600 components, is considered as one of the most complex food aromas. Although electronic noses have been successfully used for objective analysis and differentiation of total coffee aromas, it is difficult to use them to describe the specific features of coffee aroma (i.e., the type of smell. This is because data obtained by electronic noses are generally based on electrical resistance/current and samples are distinguished by principal component analysis. In this paper, we present an electronic nose that is capable of learning the wine related aromas using the aroma kit “Le Nez du Vin,” and the potential to describe coffee aroma in a similar manner comparable to how wine experts describe wine aroma. The results of our investigation showed that the aromas of three drip coffees were more similar to those of pine and honey in the aroma kit than to the aromas of three canned coffees. Conversely, the aromas of canned coffees were more similar to the kit coffee aroma. In addition, the aromatic patterns of coffees were different from those of green tea and red wine. Although further study is required to fit the data to human olfaction, the presented method and the use of vocabularies in aroma kits promise to enhance objective discrimination and description of aromas by electronic noses.

  11. Improving the Performance of an Electronic Nose by Wine Aroma Training to Distinguish between Drip Coffee and Canned Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Kouki; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Shimizu, Nobuo; Ikeda, Keiichi; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    Coffee aroma, with more than 600 components, is considered as one of the most complex food aromas. Although electronic noses have been successfully used for objective analysis and differentiation of total coffee aromas, it is difficult to use them to describe the specific features of coffee aroma (i.e., the type of smell). This is because data obtained by electronic noses are generally based on electrical resistance/current and samples are distinguished by principal component analysis. In this paper, we present an electronic nose that is capable of learning the wine related aromas using the aroma kit “Le Nez du Vin,” and the potential to describe coffee aroma in a similar manner comparable to how wine experts describe wine aroma. The results of our investigation showed that the aromas of three drip coffees were more similar to those of pine and honey in the aroma kit than to the aromas of three canned coffees. Conversely, the aromas of canned coffees were more similar to the kit coffee aroma. In addition, the aromatic patterns of coffees were different from those of green tea and red wine. Although further study is required to fit the data to human olfaction, the presented method and the use of vocabularies in aroma kits promise to enhance objective discrimination and description of aromas by electronic noses. PMID:25587981

  12. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology : Sweeping gas versus vacuum membrane distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-JØrgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up. The data were compared to recovery of the aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). The flux of SGMD increased with an increase in temperature, feed flow rate or sweeping gas flow rate. Increased temperature and feed flow rate also increased the concentration factors (Cpermeate/Cfeed) of the aroma compounds. At 45°C the most volatile and hydrophobic aroma compounds obtained the highest concentration factors: 12.1–9.3 (black currant juice) and 17.2–12.8 (model solution). With black currant juice a volume reduction of 13.7% (vol.%) at 45°C, 400L/h, resulted in an aroma recovery of 73–84vol.% for the most volatile compounds. Compared to VMD, the aroma recovery with SGMD was less influenced by the feed flow rate but more influenced by the temperature. Higher fluxes were achieved during concentration by VMD and this reduced the operation time, which in turn reduced the degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevanceHigh temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption. This study gives important clues about the fate of berry juice aroma compounds and polyphenols during concentration by MD, and identifies the main factors influencing the aroma recovery efficiency with MD. Both SGMD and VMD are promising techniques for gentle stripping of berry juice aroma compounds and deserve further consideration as alternative techniques for gentle aroma stripping in industrial fruit juice processing.

  13. Influence of thermal treatment of wood on the aroma of a sugar cane spirit (cachaça model-solution Influência do termotratamento da madeira no aroma de uma solução-modelo de cachaça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Helena Fillet Spoto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aging process of alcoholic beverages is generally conducted in wood barrels made with species from Quercus sp. Due to the high cost and the lack of viability of commercial production of these trees in Brazil, there is demand for new alternatives to using other native species and the incorporation of new technologies that enable greater competitiveness of sugar cane spirit aged in Brazilian wood. The drying of wood, the thermal treatment applied to it, and manufacturing techniques are important tools in defining the sensory quality of alcoholic beverages after being placed in contact with the barrels. In the thermal treatment, several compounds are changed by the application of heat to the wood and various studies show the compounds are modified, different aromas are developed, there is change in color, and beverages achieve even more pleasant taste, when compared to non-treated woods. This study evaluated the existence of significant differences between hydro-alcoholic solutions of sugar cane spirits elaborated from different species of thermo-treated and non-treated wood in terms of aroma. An acceptance test was applied to evaluate the solutions preferred by tasters under specific test conditions.As bebidas alcoólicas são, geralmente, envelhecidas em tonéis de madeira fabricados a partir de espécies do gênero Quercus sp. Devido ao alto custo de aquisição e necessidade de importação, existe demanda por alternativas de uso de outras espécies nativas e da incorporação de novas tecnologias que aumentem a competitividade da cachaça brasileira. Sabe-se que, com a aplicação de termotratamento, vários compostos são alterados, desenvolvem-se aromas, altera-se a coloração e as bebidas adquirem gostos mais agradáveis. Este trabalho mostra a diferença significativa entre soluções-modelo hidroalcoólicas de cachaça, envelhecidas em diferentes espécies de madeira, em suas formas termotratadas e não termotratadas, avaliadas em relação a seu aroma. O teste de aceitação aplicado verificou as soluções preferidas pelos provadores, nas condições determinadas do teste.

  14. Influence of thermal treatment of wood on the aroma of a sugar cane spirit (cachaça) model-solution / Influência do termotratamento da madeira no aroma de uma solução-modelo de cachaça

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta Helena Fillet, Spoto; Marcelo Machado, Leão; José Otávio Otávio, Brito.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As bebidas alcoólicas são, geralmente, envelhecidas em tonéis de madeira fabricados a partir de espécies do gênero Quercus sp. Devido ao alto custo de aquisição e necessidade de importação, existe demanda por alternativas de uso de outras espécies nativas e da incorporação de novas tecnologias que a [...] umentem a competitividade da cachaça brasileira. Sabe-se que, com a aplicação de termotratamento, vários compostos são alterados, desenvolvem-se aromas, altera-se a coloração e as bebidas adquirem gostos mais agradáveis. Este trabalho mostra a diferença significativa entre soluções-modelo hidroalcoólicas de cachaça, envelhecidas em diferentes espécies de madeira, em suas formas termotratadas e não termotratadas, avaliadas em relação a seu aroma. O teste de aceitação aplicado verificou as soluções preferidas pelos provadores, nas condições determinadas do teste. Abstract in english The aging process of alcoholic beverages is generally conducted in wood barrels made with species from Quercus sp. Due to the high cost and the lack of viability of commercial production of these trees in Brazil, there is demand for new alternatives to using other native species and the incorporatio [...] n of new technologies that enable greater competitiveness of sugar cane spirit aged in Brazilian wood. The drying of wood, the thermal treatment applied to it, and manufacturing techniques are important tools in defining the sensory quality of alcoholic beverages after being placed in contact with the barrels. In the thermal treatment, several compounds are changed by the application of heat to the wood and various studies show the compounds are modified, different aromas are developed, there is change in color, and beverages achieve even more pleasant taste, when compared to non-treated woods. This study evaluated the existence of significant differences between hydro-alcoholic solutions of sugar cane spirits elaborated from different species of thermo-treated and non-treated wood in terms of aroma. An acceptance test was applied to evaluate the solutions preferred by tasters under specific test conditions.

  15. Influence of water quench cooling on degassing and aroma stability of roasted coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggenstoss, Juerg; Poisson, Luigi; Luethi, Regina; Perren, Rainer; Escher, Felix

    2007-08-01

    Coffee roasting experiments with air cooling versus water quench cooling were carried out on laboratory scale with a fluidized-bed hot air roasting system (200 g batch size) and on production scale with a rotating bowl roaster (320 kg batch size). Two series of coffees with different water contents resulted, which were stored at 25 degrees C under normal atmospheric conditions. Carbon dioxide desorption was followed and stability of selected aroma compounds was tested with headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and stable isotope labeled compounds as internal standards. Degassing is faster in water-quenched coffees with higher moisture content, but pore size distribution in the different coffee samples did not correlate with degassing behavior. Bean firmness, which increases with increasing moisture content, might have an influence on degassing. Air- and water-quenched coffees exhibit similar stability of most aroma compounds despite different degassing behavior. However, evolution of dimethyl trisulfide was different in coffees with increased water content. This suggests higher thiol oxidation rates, a factor that is cited to be related to a faster loss of freshness attributes. PMID:17616133

  16. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, T L; Waters, D L E; Henry, R J

    2009-03-01

    Plant betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases (BADHs) have been the target of substantial research, especially during the last 20 years. Initial characterisation of BADH as an enzyme involved in the production of glycine betaine (GB) has led to detailed studies of the role of BADH in the response of plants to abiotic stress in vivo, and the potential for transgenic expression of BADH to improve abiotic stress tolerance. These studies have, in turn, yielded significant information regarding BADH and GB function. Recent research has identified the potential for BADH as an antibiotic-free marker for selection of transgenic plants, and a major role for BADH in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline-based fragrance associated with jasmine and basmati style aromatic rice varieties. PMID:19228319

  17. Volatile Compounds in Honey: A Review on Their Involvement in Aroma, Botanical Origin Determination and Potential Biomedical Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy E. Manyi-Loh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs in honey are obtained from diverse biosynthetic pathways and extracted by using various methods associated with varying degrees of selectivity and effectiveness. These compounds are grouped into chemical categories such as aldehyde, ketone, acid, alcohol, hydrocarbon, norisoprenoids, terpenes and benzene compounds and their derivatives, furan and pyran derivatives. They represent a fingerprint of a specific honey and therefore could be used to differentiate between monofloral honeys from different floral sources, thus providing valuable information concerning the honey’s botanical and geographical origin. However, only plant derived compounds and their metabolites (terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene compounds and their derivatives must be employed to discriminate among floral origins of honey. Notwithstanding, many authors have reported different floral markers for honey of the same floral origin, consequently sensory analysis, in conjunction with analysis of VOCs could help to clear this ambiguity. Furthermore, VOCs influence honey’s aroma described as sweet, citrus, floral, almond, rancid, etc. Clearly, the contribution of a volatile compound to honey aroma is determined by its odor activity value. Elucidation of the aroma compounds along with floral origins of a particular honey can help to standardize its quality and avoid fraudulent labeling of the product. Although only present in low concentrations, VOCS could contribute to biomedical activities of honey, especially the antioxidant effect due to their natural radical scavenging potential.

  18. Manipulation of flavour and aroma compound sequestration and release using a glycosyltransferase with specificity for terpene alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yauk, Yar-Khing; Ged, Claire; Wang, Mindy Y; Matich, Adam J; Tessarotto, Lydie; Cooney, Janine M; Chervin, Christian; Atkinson, Ross G

    2014-10-01

    Glycosides are an important potential source of aroma and flavour compounds for release as volatiles in flowers and fruit. The production of glycosides is catalysed by UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) that mediate the transfer of an activated nucleotide sugar to acceptor aglycones. A screen of UGTs expressed in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) identified the gene AdGT4 which was highly expressed in floral tissues and whose expression increased during fruit ripening. Recombinant AdGT4 enzyme glycosylated a range of terpenes and primary alcohols found as glycosides in ripe kiwifruit. Two of the enzyme's preferred alcohol aglycones, hexanol and (Z)-hex-3-enol, contribute strongly to the 'grassy-green' aroma notes of ripe kiwifruit and other fruit including tomato and olive. Transient over-expression of AdGT4 in tobacco leaves showed that enzyme was able to glycosylate geraniol and octan-3-ol in planta whilst transient expression of an RNAi construct in Actinidia eriantha fruit reduced accumulation of a range of terpene glycosides. Stable over-expression of AdGT4 in transgenic petunia resulted in increased sequestration of hexanol and other alcohols in the flowers. Transgenic tomato fruit stably over-expressing AdGT4 showed changes in both the sequestration and release of a range of alcohols including 3-methylbutanol, hexanol and geraniol. Sequestration occurred at all stages of fruit ripening. Ripe fruit sequestering high levels of glycosides were identified as having a less intense, earthier aroma in a sensory trial. These results demonstrate the importance of UGTs in sequestering key volatile compounds in planta and suggest a future approach to enhancing aromas and flavours in flowers and during fruit ripening. PMID:25088478

  19. Aroma enhancement and enzymolysis regulation of grape wine using ?-glycosidase

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Adding ?-glycosidase into grape wine for enhancing aroma was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Kramer sensory evaluation. Compared with the extract from control wines, the extract from enzyme-treated wines increased more aromatic compounds using steam distillation extraction (SDE) and GC-MS analyses. Theses aromatic compounds were as follows: 3-methyl-1-butanol formate, 3-pentanol, furfural, 3-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl-butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-butanoic ...

  20. Psychophysical evaluation of interactive effects between sweeteners and aroma compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Nahon, D. F.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of intense sweeteners in a light soft drink influences the preferences for, and the flavour profiles of these drinks to various extents, depending on the aroma and sweeteners present. In this study equisweet mixtures of sweeteners were composed at 10% Sucrose Equivalent Value. The sucrose/maltitol and sucrose/aspartame mixtures were additive, whereas equisweet binary sucrose/Na-cyclamate mixtures and ternary sucrose/aspartame/Na-cyclamate mixtures revealed synergistic effects.The...

  1. Aromas potentiality of tuna cooking juice concentrated by nanofiltration

    OpenAIRE

    Walha, Khaled; Ben Amar, Raja; Masse, Anthony; Bourseau, Patrick; Cardinal, Mireille; Cornet, Josiane; Prost, Carole; Jaouen, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Tuna cooking juices contain high organic load preventing the rejection in the environment without treatment. But the effluents present an interesting fishy odour and it is worth recovering aroma compounds. In this work, two industrial tuna cooking juices were concentrated by nanofiltration. Nanofiltration performance was discussed in terms of permeation fluxes, organic matter retention and impact on the aromatic properties of juices. NF sharply decreases the global intensity of juices and mod...

  2. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in Turkish olive oils from different geographic origins by application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesen, Songul; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2014-01-15

    The aroma and aroma-active compounds of olive oils obtained from Nizip Yaglik (NY) and Kilis Yaglik (KY) cultivars and the effect of the geographical area (southern Anatolian and Aegean regions) on these compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). For this purpose, two oil samples were obtained from their native geographical area including NY from Nizip province and KY from Kilis province (southern Anatolian region of Turkey). Another two oils of the same cultivar, NY-Bornova (NY-B) and KY-Bornova (KY-B), were obtained from the Olive Oil Research Center-Bornova, Izmir province (Aegean region of Turkey) to compare geographical effect on aroma and aroma-active compounds. Simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE) with dichloromethane was used for extraction of volatile components. SDE gave a highly representative aromatic extract of the studied olive oil based on the sensory analysis. Totals of 61, 48, 59, and 48 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in olive oils obtained from NY, NY-B, KY, and KY-B cultivars, respectively. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profile of native region oils was discriminately different from those of Bornova region oils. Aldehydes and alcohols were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in the oil samples. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of olive oils. The number of aroma-active compounds in native region oils was higher than in Bornova region oils. Within the compounds, aldehydes and alcohols were the largest aroma-active compounds in all olive oils. PMID:24387707

  3. Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barshick, S.-A.; Griest, W.H.; Vass, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic `fingerprint` pattern representative of the vapor- phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The results to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

  4. Development of a Time-Intensity Evaluation System for Consumers: Measuring Bitterness and Retronasal Aroma of Coffee Beverages in 106 Untrained Panelists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotow, Naomi; Moritani, Ami; Hayakawa, Yoshinobu; Akutagawa, Akihito; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Kobayakawa, Tatsu

    2015-06-01

    In order to develop products that are acceptable to consumers, it is necessary to incorporate consumers' intentions into products' characteristics. Therefore, investigation of consumers' perceptions of the taste or smell of common beverages provides information that should be useful in predicting market responses. In this study, we sought to develop a time-intensity evaluation system for consumer panels. Using our system, we performed time-intensity evaluation of flavor attributes (bitterness and retronasal aroma) that consumers perceived after swallowing a coffee beverage. Additionally, we developed quantitative evaluation methods for determining whether consumer panelists can properly perform time-intensity evaluation. In every trial, we fitted an exponential function to measured intensity data for bitterness and retronasal aroma. The correlation coefficients between measured time-intensity data and the fitted exponential curves were greater than 0.8 in about 90% of trials, indicating that we had successfully developed a time-intensity system for use with consumer panelists, even after just a single training trial using a nontrained consumer. We classified participants into two groups based on their consumption of canned coffee beverages. Significant difference was observed in only AUC of sensory modality (bitterness compared with retronasal aroma) among conventional TI parameters using two-way ANOVA. However, three-way ANOVA including a time course revealed significant difference between bitterness and retronasal aroma in the high-consumption group. Moreover, the high-consumption group more easily discriminated between bitterness and retronasal aroma than the low-consumption group. This finding implied that manufacturers should select consumer panelists who are suitable for their concepts of new products. PMID:25943978

  5. Aroma-active ester profile of ale beer produced under different fermentation and nutritional conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiralal, Lettisha; Olaniran, Ademola O; Pillay, Balakrishna

    2014-01-01

    A broad range of aroma-active esters produced during fermentation are vital for the complex flavour of beer. This study assessed the influence of fermentation temperature, pH, and wort nutritional supplements on the production of yeast-derived ester compounds and the overall fermentation performance. The best fermentation performance was achieved when wort was supplemented with 0.75 g/l l-leucine resulting in highest reducing sugar and FAN (free amino nitrogen) utilization and ethanol production. At optimum fermentation pH of 5, 38.27% reducing sugars and 35.28% FAN was utilized resulting in 4.07% (v/v) ethanol. Wort supplemented with zinc sulphate (0.12 g/l) resulted in 5.01% ethanol (v/v) production and 54.32% reducing sugar utilization. Increase in fermentation temperature from 18°C to room temperature (± 22.5°C) resulted in 17.03% increased ethanol production and 14.42% and 62.82% increase in total acetate ester concentration and total ethyl ester concentration, respectively. Supplementation of worth with 0.12 g/l ZnSO4 resulted in 2.46-fold increase in both isoamyl acetate and ethyl decanoate concentration, while a 7.05-fold and 1.96-fold increase in the concentration of isoamyl acetate and ethyl decanoate, respectively was obtained upon 0.75 g/l l-leucine supplementation. Wort supplemented with l-leucine (0.75 g/l) yielded the highest beer foam head stability with a rating of 2.67, while highest yeast viability was achieved when wort was supplemented with 0.12 g/l zinc sulphate. Results from this study suggest that supplementing wort with essential nutrients required for yeast growth and optimizing the fermentation conditions could be an effective way of improving fermentation performance and controlling aroma-active esters in beer. PMID:23845914

  6. Study on aroma components of osmanthus by absorption wire gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aroma components of fresh osmanthus are captured by absorption wires. The fragrant components absorbed in the wires are desorbed immediately at 358 degree C in Curie-point pyrolyzed, and then led into GC/MS to analyze. As a result, 41 aroma compounds such as ?-linalool, linalooloxide, ?-ocimene etc. in osmanthus are detected qualitatively by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. This method can be used to analyze the change of aroma compounds of fresh flowers while blossoming

  7. Characterization of the Volatile Substances and Aroma Components from Traditional Soypaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the flavor substances of soypaste were extracted by a simultaneous distillation method and identified by GC-MS. The characteristic aroma components of soypaste were determined by the GC-O technique and the FD value of the characteristic aroma components was determined by AEDA method. It could be inferred that the aroma of the soypaste should be attributed to the presence of heterocyclic compounds and organic acids, with the heterocyclic compounds playing a prominent role.

  8. Genetic analysis and gene fine mapping of aroma in rice (Oryza sativa L. Cyperales, Poaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Shu Xia Sun; Fang Yuan Gao; Xian Jun Lu; Xian Jun Wu; Xu Dong Wang; Guang Jun Ren; Hong Luo

    2008-01-01

    We investigated inheritance and carried out gene fine mapping of aroma in crosses between the aromatic elite hybrid rice Oryza sativa indica variety Chuanxiang-29B (Ch-29B) and the non-aromatic rice O. sativa indica variety R2 and O. sativa japonica Lemont (Le). The F1 grains and leaves were non-aromatic while the F2 non-aroma to aroma segregation pattern was 3:1. The F3 segregation ratio was consistent with the expected 1:2:1 for a single recessive aroma gene in Ch-29B. Linkage analysis betw...

  9. Characterization of potent odorants in male giant water bug (Lethocerus indicus Lep. and Serv.), an important edible insect of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatbenjakul, Patthamawadi; Intarapichet, Kanok-Orn; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-02-01

    Potent odorants in frozen fresh (FFB) and salted boiled (SBB) male giant water bugs (Lethocerus indicus), or 'Maengdana' in Thai, were characterized by application of direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Twenty and 27 potent odorants were detected in FFB and SBB, respectively. Most odorants were lipid-derived compounds, including the two most abundant volatile components (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenyl butanoate, which contributed banana-like odours. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, responsible for popcorn-like odours, were detected in SBB only. An aroma reconstitution model of SBB was constructed in an oil-in-water emulsion matrix using 12 selected potent odorants based on the results of AEDA, accurate compound quantification and the calculated odour-activity values (OAV). Omission studies were carried out to verify the significance of esters, particularly (E)-2-hexenyl acetate was determined to be an important character-impact odorant in male giant water bug aroma. PMID:25172758

  10. KOMPONEN VOTALIT DANKARAKTERISASI KOMPONEN KUNCI AROMA BUAH ANDALIMAN (Zanthoxylum acanthoodium DC. [Colatile Aroma Constituents and Potent Odorant of Andaliman (Zanthoxylum acanthoodium DC. Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Apriyantono 1

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Andaliman, a wild spice well known in Northem Sumatera, has a fresh citrusy and warm sweet peppery odor. This research was conducted to analyse pontent odorant from andaliman maceration extract using GC-MS, GC/O and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA method. Monoterpenes were the main constituens among the 24 identified components by GC-MS. Results od AEDA revealed that citronellal and limonene had the greatest impact on the aroma of andaliman with flavour dilution factor 128 and 32. ?-myrcene, 2-?-ocimene, linalool, ?-citronellol, neral, geraniol, gerabial, geranyl acetate, an unkwown compound, and a sesquiterpene also contributed to andaliman fresh citrusy and warm sweet peppery aroma.

  11. Chemical and aroma determination of the pulp and seeds of murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia M., Rezende; Sandra R. G., Fraga.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available O murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L., Malpighiaceae) é uma pequena fruta tropical de intenso aroma frutal e semelhante a queijo rançoso. Aplicando a cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução-olfatometria acoplada a espectrometria de massas e usando técnica de diluição de aroma ("Aroma extract dilution an [...] alysis"), as substâncias de maior impacto no aroma do murici foram identificadas como sendo: butanoato de etila (frutal, doce), hexanoato de etila (frutal), 1-octeno-3-ol (odor semelhante a cogumelo), ácido butírico (queijo rançoso), ácido hexanóico (pungente, queijo) e 2-feniletanol (floral). A polpa da fruta é principalmente composta por ésteres etílicos, metílicos e feniletílicos, juntamente com ácidos carboxílicos, terpenos, delta-lactonas e algumas substâncias sulfuradas. As sementes, que apresentaram um aroma semelhante ao de óleo rançoso, também lembrando queijo, tem como componentes majoritários os ácidos linoleico, oleico, esteárico e palmítico. Seu aroma foi associado aos ácidos butírico e hexanóico, ambos minoritários. Abstract in english Murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L., Malpighiaceae), a small, tropical fruit, very popular in Brazil, has a strong fruity, rancid cheese aroma. High resolution gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry and aroma extract dilution analysis identified the most potent substances in its aroma as eth [...] yl butanoate (fruity, sweet), ethyl hexanoate (fruity), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom like), butyric acid (rancid, cheese), hexanoic acid (pungent, cheese) and phenylethyl alcohol (floral). Its pulp is mainly composed of ethyl, methyl and phenylethyl esters and by carboxylic acids, terpenoids, delta-lactones and some sulfur compounds. Seed analysis also showed a buttery and oily cheese aroma and GC-MS revealed linoleic, oleic, stearic and palmitic acids as foremost components, while the aroma was associated to the butyric and hexanoic acids present in minor amounts.

  12. Evaluation of new aroma substances for feline minitablet formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana Hautala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the global interest in companion animal pharmaceuticals, feline peroral medication still lacks tailor-made, palatable and voluntarily accepted pharmaceuticals with suitable size and attractive taste. As a consequence, treating cats with canine and even human pharmaceuticals has weakened patient compliance and treatment commitment, and has even left many pet cats untreated. In future, the companion animal pharmaceutical business will therefore particularly concentrate on cats and the rapid and economic development of palatable feline medication. Following this goal, the overall aim of this study was to facilitate voluntary drug administration to felines. Specifically we aimed to develop sophisticated and tailor-made feline pharmaceuticals, with the focus on flavours in minitablets. Since excipients should be easily obtained and suitable for formulation, we conducted rapid preformulation compatibility and stability screening tests of synthetic flavours with commonly used tableting excipients. On the basis of the feline carnivorous diet, L-methionine, L-leucine, L-proline and thiamine hydrochloride were presented as new aroma substances for the improvement of feline medication palatability. These flavours and a model substance for a bitter taste, denatonium benzoate, were systematically evaluated for their physicochemical properties, stability and physical compatibility. This was done with substances alone and in binary combinations of flavours and excipients. Stability and compatibility were examined employing DSC and XRPD. The results showed that L-proline and denatonium benzoate anhydrate were hygroscopic. Thiamine hydrochloride was incompatible with talc and sodium stearyl fumarate. The known incompatibility between the amines contained in aromas, and ?-lactose monohydrate was used in assessing method sensitivity. Overall, the study provided new information on the compatibility of novel aromas with the tableting excipients. The study also demonstrated the applicability of XRPD and DSC in the rapid evaluation of instability and incompatibility.

  13. Post-harvest ripening increase cultivar specific sensory and analytical aroma profile in apple juice : a study of four commercial cultivars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Vega, Mabel Virginia; Varming, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Apples are normally produced with focus on the fresh fruit marked, which imply high priority on storability and shelf life. The fruits used for juice are normally those discarded along the post-harvest chain. If the main goal is changed to production of high-quality juice with emphasis on single cultivar characteristic flavours, focus can be on optimal fruit ripening for flavour development. To investigate the juice quality potentials during post-harvest ripening, four apple cultivars: ‘Aroma’, ‘Holsteiner Cox’, ‘Ingrid Marie’ and ‘Rajka’ were sampled and juiced after 5 and 10 days of post-harvest storage at room temperature (20°C). The soluble solids content (SSC) of ‘Ingrid Marie’ fruits increased most, and after 10 days, it had the lowest starch content of the four cultivars studied. The mid-to-late season cultivars ‘Ingrid Marie’, ‘Holsteiner Cox’ and ‘Rajka’ had higher SSC/acidity ratio than the middle early season ‘Aroma’ ‘and all of them showed an increase of the ratio SSC/acidity during storage’. The volatile compound measurements (GC-MS) of the juices indicated that particularly ‘Holsteiner Cox’ and ‘Ingrid Marie’ have the ability to produce fruity volatile compounds like ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, 2-methylpropyl acetate, butyl acetate, hexyl acetate, hexanal, ethyl propanoate, pentyl acetate and ethyl 2-metylbutanoate exhibiting remarkable changes during ripening. These volatile compounds may explain the post-harvest development of interesting fruity nuances perceived by the sensory panel. The terms ‘apricot’, ‘peach’ and ‘pineapple’ were used to describe the odour and flavour properties of these cultivar juices in the sensory analysis. ‘Aroma’ apples ranked high on ‘citrus’, ‘red berries’ and ‘pear’ flavour descriptors after 5 days of storage, whereas ‘Rajka’ showed the weakest aroma profile of the group of cultivars. To exploit the aroma and sensory potential fully, apple cultivars should be further investigated in regards to effects of delayed harvest and different post-harvest treatments.

  14. AROMAS E SABORES: UMA ABORDAGEM GEOGRÁFICA NA EDUCAÇÃO AMBIENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Maria Cabral Benaduce

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa explorar as possiblidades presentes nos sentidos paladar, olfato e/ou tato dentro do ensino da ciência geográfica com abordagem para a Educação Ambiental, levando discentes e educadores a (re inventar saberes e fazeres na educação básica. Dentro da oficina intitulada de “geografia dos aromas e sabores” os alunos participantes do Programa Institucional de Bolsa de Iniciação à Docência explorarão a sensibilidade propiciada por parte dos sentidos humanos na compreensão da ampla interdependência global a qual estamos vivendo, levando-os a percepção do quando se torna importante pensarmos em uma conscientização coletiva sobre o meio ambiente e sobre nossas práticas cotidianas.

  15. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty-acids, carotenoids, amino-acids as well as terpenes. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino- and a-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds be...

  16. Deficit Irrigation during Berry Development: Impact on Aroma Composition of Merlot Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of irrigation on wine grape composition and wine aroma has been investigated extensively and is still of interest today because of the complexity of wine aroma. Merlot is one of the most popular red wines in the world and is well suited to cultivation in eastern Washington, southwestern ...

  17. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Kusumaningrum*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

  18. Differential effects of exposure to ambient vanilla and citrus aromas on mood, arousal and food choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost physiological sensors and semi-real life settings. Tests included physiological (heart rate, physical activity and response times, psychological (emotions and mood and behavioral (food choice measures in a semi-real life environment for 22 participants. Results Exposure to ambient citrus aroma increased physical activity (P P P P P Conclusions The test battery used in this study demonstrated aroma-specific physiological, psychological and behavioral effects of aromas with similar appeal and intensities, and similar food-related origins. These effects could be measured in (semi- real life environments for freely moving subjects using relatively inexpensive commercially available physiological sensors.

  19. Different beers with different hops. Relevant compounds for their aroma characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Takako; Tsuchiya, Fumihiko; Ishimaru, Mariko; Oka, Kaneo; Komura, Hajime

    2013-05-22

    Hop-derived aroma characteristics in beer are very important for the quality of beer. This study compared the differences of hop aroma characteristics and the compounds contained in beer by changing the variety of hops applying the idea of "food metabolomics" on the GC×GC/TOF-MS analysis data, to clarify which aroma compounds contribute to the differences of hop aroma profiles indicated by sensory descriptors. As a result, by focusing only on hop-derived compounds, 67 compounds were strongly correlated with one or more of the sensory descriptors. Furthermore, the odor descriptions of each key compound corresponded well to each sensory descriptor. Thus, these compounds are likely to be the key compounds explaining the differences of hop aroma characteristics in beer. This study led to the suggestion that understanding the relationship between the comprehensive nontarget analysis by GC×GC-TOF/MS and organoleptic evaluation using PCA is effective in estimating the key compounds. PMID:23627300

  20. A question of scent: lavender aroma promotes interpersonal trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellaro, Roberta; van Dijk, Wilco W.; Paccani, Claudia Rossi; Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2015-01-01

    A previous study has shown that the degree of trust into others might be biased by inducing either a more “inclusive” or a more “exclusive” cognitive-control mode. Here, we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by environmental factors, such as odors, that are likely to impact cognitive-control states. Arousing olfactory fragrances (e.g., peppermint) are supposed to induce a more exclusive, and calming olfactory fragrances (e.g., lavender) a more inclusive state. Participants performed the Trust Game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor) transfers to another participant (the trustee), while being exposed to either peppermint or lavender aroma. All participants played the role of trustor. As expected, participants transferred significantly more money to the alleged trustee in the lavender as compared to the peppermint and control (no aroma) conditions. This observation might have various serious implications for a broad range of situations in which interpersonal trust is an essential element, such as cooperation (e.g., mixed-motives situations), bargaining and negotiation, consumer behavior, and group performance. PMID:25628577

  1. A question of scent: lavender aroma promotes interpersonal trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellaro, Roberta; van Dijk, Wilco W; Paccani, Claudia Rossi; Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2014-01-01

    A previous study has shown that the degree of trust into others might be biased by inducing either a more "inclusive" or a more "exclusive" cognitive-control mode. Here, we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by environmental factors, such as odors, that are likely to impact cognitive-control states. Arousing olfactory fragrances (e.g., peppermint) are supposed to induce a more exclusive, and calming olfactory fragrances (e.g., lavender) a more inclusive state. Participants performed the Trust Game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor) transfers to another participant (the trustee), while being exposed to either peppermint or lavender aroma. All participants played the role of trustor. As expected, participants transferred significantly more money to the alleged trustee in the lavender as compared to the peppermint and control (no aroma) conditions. This observation might have various serious implications for a broad range of situations in which interpersonal trust is an essential element, such as cooperation (e.g., mixed-motives situations), bargaining and negotiation, consumer behavior, and group performance. PMID:25628577

  2. Aroma Volatile Compounds from Two Fresh Pineapple Varieties in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Bin Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds from two pineapples varieties (Tainong No.4 and No.6 were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. In the Tainong No. 4 and No. 6 pineapples, a total of 11 and 28 volatile compounds were identified according to their retention time on capillary columns and their mass spectra, and quantified with total concentrations of 1080.44 µg·kg?1 and 380.66 µg·kg?1 in the Tainong No.4 and No. 6 pineapples, respectively. The odor active values (OAVs of volatile compounds from pineapples were also calculated. According to the OAVs, four compounds were defined as the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 4 pineapple, including furaneol, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid methyl ester, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester and ?-octalactone. The OAVs of five compounds including ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, methyl-2-methylbutyrate, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl hexanoate and decanal were considered to be the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 6 pineapple.

  3. Aroma interactions with starch : Induction of carbohydrate acting enzymes from Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Anders Dysted

    2011-01-01

    Starches are used to enhance aroma perception in low-fat foods. Aroma compounds can bind physically to the starch in grooves on the surface or they can form complexes inside amylose helices. This study has been divided into two parts: one part regarding binding of aromas to starches and their aroma-release, and another part regarding stimulation of a fungal secretome using different carbohydrates. In the first part, nine aromas and one aroma-mixture were mixed with nine different starches, including genetically modified starches. The objective of this sub-project was to bind aromas to the starches to 15 weight-percent. Aroma binding was tested on both amorphous starches and on native starch granules. A series of aldehydes and alcohols were also tested for binding to the starches. The aromas with the highest volatility were positively retained by starch, whereas for aromas with a lower volatility the starch had a negative effect on retention. No trends were observed that could relate aroma binding or retentionto physical qualities of the starch such as amylose or phosphate content. Still, the physical state of the starch was shown to influence retention of some aromas, possibly by diffusion through the outer layers of the starch granule or binding to grooves on the surface. Chemical reactivity of some of the aromas also influenced the retention. Analysing a series of aldehydes and alcohols revealed an influence of the size of the molecules on retention. Hexanal showed a remarkable drop in retention for all starches, and pentanol showed a favoured retention by native starch granules. The aroma compounds bound to the starch proved very difficult to release as only a minute fraction of the aroma added could be released from the starch, even under conditions favouring aroma release, as monitored by GC-MS and solvent extractions. Addition of water to the extraction lowered the amount of aroma released, and addition of a starch-degrading enzyme, ?-amylase, did not significantly change the amount extracted. Studies by differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray scattering did not show complete complexation of aromas in the amylose helices, but instead changes were observed that could be evidence of partial complexation. This complexation is not exclusive to the amylose helices, but also appears to include interactions in the amylopectin double helices. In particular, one of the analysed aromas showed a very noticeable reduction in melting temperature, but showed only a minor reduction in melting enthalpy and no evidence of amylose complexation. Using an enzyme-discovery approach in the second sub-project, the industrially relevant fungus Aspergillus nidulans was stimulated with different carbohydrates. Stimulation with starch induced expression of starch-degrading enzymes, while stimulation with the hemicellulose xylan induced expression of xylanases. One particular hypothetical protein was ubiquitously expressed. This protein had no apparent homology with known proteins, but may iv be involved in attacking otherorganisms as a weak homology with other proteins involved in membrane attack was detected. Degradation of secreted proteins was observed in some cultures. Identification of a glycoside hydrolase family 61 using xylan as carbon-source was not successful despite previous evidence for the induction of this enzyme.

  4. Genetic analysis and gene fine mapping of aroma in rice (Oryza sativa L. Cyperales, Poaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shu Xia, Sun; Fang Yuan, Gao; Xian Jun, Lu; Xian Jun, Wu; Xu Dong, Wang; Guang Jun, Ren; Hong, Luo.

    Full Text Available We investigated inheritance and carried out gene fine mapping of aroma in crosses between the aromatic elite hybrid rice Oryza sativa indica variety Chuanxiang-29B (Ch-29B) and the non-aromatic rice O. sativa indica variety R2 and O. sativa japonica Lemont (Le). The F1 grains and leaves were non-aro [...] matic while the F2 non-aroma to aroma segregation pattern was 3:1. The F3 segregation ratio was consistent with the expected 1:2:1 for a single recessive aroma gene in Ch-29B. Linkage analysis between simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and the aroma locus for the aromatic F2 plants mapped the Ch-29B aroma gene to a chromosome 8 region flanked by SSR markers RM23120 at 0.52 cM and RM3459 at 1.23 cM, a replicate F2 population confirming these results. Three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones cover chromosome 8 markers RM23120 and RM3459. Our molecular mapping data from the two populations indicated that the aroma locus occurs in a 142.85 kb interval on BAC clones AP005301 or AP005537, implying that it might be the same gene reported by Bradbury et al (2005a; Plant Biotec J. 3:363-370). The flanking markers Aro7, RM23120 and RM3459 identified by us could greatly accelerate the efficiency and precision of aromatic rice breeding programs.

  5. Aroma Classification Using One-vs-One and One-vs-Rest Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyamin Kusumoputro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational Intelligence used in pattern classification problem can be divided into two different parts, one based on Neural Network and the other based on Statistical Learning. The Statistical Learning discovered by Vapnik on 70-est decade. For the pattern classification, Vapnik developed hyperplane optimal separation, which is known as Support Vector Machines Method (SVM. In the beginning, SVM was designed only to solve binary classification problem, where data existing are classified into two classes. To classify data whose consist of more than two classes, the SVM method can not directly be used. There are several methods can be used to solve SVM multiclasses classification problem, they are One-vs-One Method and One-vs-Rest Method. Both of this methods are the extension of SVM binary classification, they will be discussed in this article so that we can see their performance in aroma classification process. Data of aroma used in this experiment is consisted of three classes of aroma, each of them has six classes. The division of this class is based on alcohol concentration mixed into each of those aromas. For example, for aroma A, there are six kinds of aroma A with different alcohol concentration: 0%, 15%, 25%, 30%, 45% and 75%. The performance of these methods is measured based on their ability to recognize and classify aroma, precisely and match with the right class or variety of data existed.

  6. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in beef and pork vegetable gravies á la chef by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christlbauer, Monika; Schieberle, Peter

    2009-10-14

    By application of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on an aroma distillate isolated from a freshly prepared, stewed beef/vegetable gravy, 52 odor-active compounds were detected in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 4-4096. On the basis of high FD factors in combination with the results of the identification experiments, 3-(methylthio)propanal (cooked potato), 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol (gravy-like), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (deep-fried, fatty), 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (lovage-like), vanillin (vanilla-like), (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal (deep-fried), and (E)-2-undecenal (metallic) are suggested as key contributors to the aroma of the gravy. To get an insight into the role of the vegetables as sources of gravy odorants, a beef gravy was prepared without vegetables. The AEDA results revealed that, in particular, onions and leek are important sources of gravy aroma compounds, adding particularly the very potent, gravy-like smelling 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol to the overall aroma profile. Further compounds that were clearly derived from the vegetables and, thus, are important modifiers of the overall aroma were 4-vinyl-2-methoxyphenol, (E)-beta-damascenone, beta-ionone, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, and 2-(sec-butyl)-3-methoxypyrazine. Interestingly, none of the key odorants detected in the gravy can be assumed to be formed from a reaction between beef and vegetable constituents. A comparison of the odorants in the beef/vegetable gravy with a gravy prepared according to the same procedure, but substituting beef by pork meat, indicated that most of the aroma compounds were identical-although different in FD factors-but the tallowy smelling 12-methyltridecanal was detected as key odorant only in the beef/vegetable gravy. PMID:19807161

  7. Stochastic modelling of Listeria monocytogenes single cell growth in cottage cheese with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from aroma producing cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-07-01

    A stochastic model was developed for simultaneous growth of low numbers of Listeria monocytogenes and populations of lactic acid bacteria from the aroma producing cultures applied in cottage cheese. During more than two years, different batches of cottage cheese with aroma culture were analysed for pH, lactic acid concentration and initial concentration of lactic acid bacteria. These data and bootstrap sampling were used to represent product variability in the stochastic model. Lag time data were estimated from observed growth data (lactic acid bacteria) and from literature on L. monocytogenes single cells. These lag time data were expressed as relative lag times and included in growth models. A stochastic model was developed from an existing deterministic growth model including the effect of five environmental factors and inter-bacterial interaction [Østergaard, N.B, Eklöw, A and Dalgaard, P. 2014. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 188, 15-25]. Growth of L. monocytogenes single cells, using lag time distributions corresponding to three different stress levels, was simulated. The simulated growth was subsequently compared to growth of low concentrations (0.4-1.0CFU/g) of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese, exposed to similar stresses, and in general a good agreement was observed. In addition, growth simulations were performed using population relative lag time distributions for L. monocytogenes as reported in literature. Comparably good predictions were obtained as for the simulations performed using lag time data for individual cells of L. monocytogenes. Therefore, when lag time data for individual cells are not available, it was suggested that relative lag time distributions for L. monocytogenes can be used as a qualified default assumption when simulating growth of low concentrations of L. monocytogenes. PMID:25847186

  8. Stochastic modelling of Listeria monocytogenes single cell growth in cottage cheese with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from aroma producing cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2015-01-01

    A stochastic model was developed for simultaneous growth of low numbers of Listeria monocytogenes and populations of lactic acid bacteria from the aroma producing cultures applied in cottage cheese. During more than two years, different batches of cottage cheese with aroma culture were analysed for pH, lactic acid concentration and initial concentration of lactic acid bacteria. These data and bootstrap sampling were used to represent product variability in the stochastic model. Lag time data were estimated from observed growth data (lactic acid bacteria) and from literature on L. monocytogenes single cells. These lag time data were expressed as relative lag times and included in growth models. A stochastic model was developed from an existing deterministic growth model including the effect of five environmental factors and inter-bacterial interaction [Østergaard, N.B, Eklöw, A and Dalgaard, P. 2014. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 188, 15-25]. Growth of L. monocytogenes single cells, using lag time distributions corresponding to three different stress levels, was simulated. The simulated growth was subsequently compared to growth of low concentrations (0.4-1.0CFU/g) of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese, exposed to similar stresses, and in general a good agreement was observed. In addition, growth simulations were performed using population relative lag time distributions for L. monocytogenes as reported in literature. Comparably good predictions were obtained as for the simulations performed using lag time data for individual cells of L. monocytogenes. Therefore, when lag time data for individual cells are not available, it was suggested that relative lag time distributions for L. monocytogenes can be used as a qualified default assumption when simulating growth of low concentrations of L. monocytogenes.

  9. Evaluation of aroma compounds contributing to muskmelon flavor in Porapak Q extracts by aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayata, Yasuyoshi; Sakamoto, Takayuki; Maneerat, Chamorn; Li, Xinxian; Kozuka, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Koji

    2003-05-21

    The flavor of the Miyabi variety of Japanese muskmelon was extracted according to the Porapak Q column method (PQM) and evaluated by using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) method. The overall odor of the PQM extracts was perceived as having a natural muskmelon-like odor, suggesting that the PQM was able to extract volatile compounds in muskmelon fruit without degradation of original flavor. Forty-six odorant compounds [Kovats index (KI), 961 2020). When the original extracts were diluted in AEDA analysis, seven odorants could still be detected by GC-sniffing at a flavor diluation (FD) factor of 128 or above: one had a fruity note (compound 3); four had a cucumber-like, green, or grassy note (compounds 12, 17, 21, and 23); and two had a sweet note (caramel-like or yakitori-like) (compounds 32 and 34). PMID:12744676

  10. Structural and physical effects of aroma compound binding to native starch granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Anders Dysted; Jensen, Susanne L.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction and physical/structural effects of aroma compounds, at high concentrations on dry native starch granules were studied using eight selected model compounds: acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulphide, diacetyl, allyl isothiocyanate, ethyl butyrate, citral, octanol and butyric acid. The maize, potato and pea starches used represent different typical structural and chemical starch characteristics. Retention of the different aroma compounds varied from a few to one hundred percent and starch was found to induce as well as reduce aroma evaporation depending on the aroma compound and the starch type. As deduced from DSC, powder XRD and SEM analyses, citral, butyric acid and octanol exerted specific effects on the starch granules manifested in local melting of crystalline layers and partial disruption of the granular meso structure. The most prominent effect was obtained with citral that generated surface wrinkles on B? and C?type polymorphic granules and aggregation of A?type polymorphic granules, decreased the melting temperature and suppressed the crystallinity of the starch.

  11. Sensory profile and contribution of major components of aroma in dry red wine quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Costa de Oliveira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the sensory profile and main volatile compounds of a set of commercial wines from two major wine regions in Brazil. A total of 28 descriptors were selected by quantitative descriptive analysis, and “red”, “violet”, “pungent aroma”, “vinegary aroma” and “softness” were the most important descriptors in sample discrimination (p<=0.05. 42 volatile aroma compounds were considered relevant for the evaluation of red wine samples. Several acetates and esters that contribute to the pleasant aroma in wines were found in the samples, but other undesirable compounds were also identified: acetic acid and octanoic acid may have contributed to the vinegary and sulphur odors perceived by a trained team.

  12. Aroma changes due to second fermentation and glycosylated precursors in Chardonnay and Riesling sparkling wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganss, Sebastian; Kirsch, Frauke; Winterhalter, Peter; Fischer, Ulrich; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

    2011-03-23

    Aroma changes in Chardonnay and Riesling base wines caused by the second fermentation were investigated by a targeted component analysis: A stable isotope dilution approach using headspace solid phase microextraction coupled online to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was applied to quantify 37 compounds relevant for sparkling wine aroma. In an enrichment experiment, glycosylated precursors isolated from one Chardonnay and one Riesling base wine were used to double the original amount in these base wines. Along with increased concentrations of precursor-derived volatiles after the second fermentation, descriptive sensory evaluation revealed an enhancement of fruity aroma impressions reminiscent of, for example, peach or cantaloupe. Except for benzyl alcohol, linalool, and 3-methylpentanol, no quantitative 2-fold increase of volatiles was found with a 2-fold increase in precursor concentration, as other metabolic pathways seem to interfere with aroma formation from glycosides. PMID:21341698

  13. Dynamics and quantitative analysis of the synthesis of fermentative aromas by an evolved wine strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouret, J R; Cadiere, A; Aguera, E; Rollero, S; Ortiz-Julien, A; Sablayrolles, J M; Dequin, S

    2015-01-01

    We performed a dynamic and quantitative analysis of the synthesis of fermentative aromas by an aromatic wine yeast, ECA5, obtained by adaptive evolution. During fermentation at pilot scale on synthetic and natural musts, ECA5 produced volatile compounds (higher alcohols and their acetates, ethyl esters) at higher rates than the ancestral strain, with the exception of propanol. Marked differences in the chronology of synthesis of several compounds were observed between the two strains. Overproduction of phenyl ethanol occurred mainly during the growth phase for ECA5, consistent with its higher flux through the pentose phosphate pathway, which plays a key role in biosynthetic processes. The kinetics of production of isobutanol and isoamyl alcohol were differently affected by different media (synthetic or natural must) and, in particular, according to the nature of the sterols in the media (ergosterol or phytosterols). We also observed differences in the chronology of synthesis of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate or ethyl esters, suggesting that the regulation of the synthesis of these compounds in the evolved strain differs from that in the ancestral strain. This study shows that a dynamic analysis of volatile compounds, using high acquisition frequency online gas chromatography, can provide novel insights into the synthesis and regulation of aromas and is thus a potentially powerful tool for strain characterization. PMID:24989462

  14. Aroma Compounds of Some Traditional Turkish Cheeses and Their Importance for Turkish Cuisine

    OpenAIRE

    Fügen Durlu-Özkaya; ?lhan Gün

    2014-01-01

    Cheese is so important to the Turkish cuisine. It is eaten plain as part of the traditional Turkish breakfast, used in salads, and incorporated into cooked foods such as b?rek, pide, menemen and also used for some traditional desserts. There are several types of cheeses with different characteristics and aroma compounds, and they can be used for preparation of various foods as an additive. The formation of cheese aroma basically associated with lipids, proteins and lactose...

  15. Differential effects of exposure to ambient vanilla and citrus aromas on mood, arousal and food choice

    OpenAIRE

    de Wijk René A; Zijlstra Suzet M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla) could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost physiological sensors and semi-real life settings. Tests included physiological (heart rate, physical activity and response times), psychological (emotions and mood) and behavioral (food choice) measures in a semi-real...

  16. Aroma of some plants cultivated in Lithuania : Composition, processing and release

    OpenAIRE

    Bylaite, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, some factors affecting the aroma of some plants of the families Umbelliferae and Asteraceae were evaluated. The composition of the aromas is influenced by several factors: plant family, harvesting time, anatomical part of plant, method used to isolate volatiles, cultivar, fertilisers used for the growing of plant, cultivation site. The yield of caraway fruits varies over a wide range depending on fertiliser content, cultivation area and the cultivar itself. The trends for the a...

  17. Molecular and biochemical analysis of aroma in CSR10 x Taraori basmati derived Recombinant Inbred Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Pummy Kumari, Uma Ahuja

    2012-01-01

    The aroma or fragrance of Basmati rice is associated with the presence and content of chemical compound, 2-acetyl-1-pyrrolineand the trait is monogenic recessive. Several PCR-based co-dominant marker based on RG28 locus were developed, which can differentiate between fragrant and non-fragrant rice cultivars. For molecular and biochemical analysis of aroma, a mapping population comprising 208 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a diverse cross between CSR10 and Taraori Basmati through...

  18. Molecular and biochemical analysis of aroma in CSR10 x Taraori basmati derived Recombinant Inbred Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pummy Kumari, Uma Ahuja , Sunita Jain and R.K. Jain

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aroma or fragrance of Basmati rice is associated with the presence and content of chemical compound, 2-acetyl-1-pyrrolineand the trait is monogenic recessive. Several PCR-based co-dominant marker based on RG28 locus were developed, which can differentiate between fragrant and non-fragrant rice cultivars. For molecular and biochemical analysis of aroma, a mapping population comprising 208 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a diverse cross between CSR10 and Taraori Basmati through SSD method was used. RILs are among the best mapping populations, which provide a novel material for linkage mapping of genes/QTLs marker for various traits. Biochemical analysis of aroma was performed with the 1.7% KOH solution and molecular analysis of aroma was carried out with microsatellite markers present on chromosome 8 (BAD2, BADEX7-5, SCUSSR1 to determine the extent of association between trait, marker and chromosome 8. Among these markers, BAD2 amplified aroma specific alleles having 256 bp in 72 lines, BADEX7-5 with 95 bp in 74 lines and SCUSSR1 with 129 bp in 79 lines. Mentel test of significance detected by biochemical analysis of RILs (with 1.7 % KOH and molecular marker study revealed high degree (>90 % of association of aroma with the above mentioned markers, respectively. Some of the F10 lines amplified the heterozygous alleles for two sets of specific markers (BAD2 and SCUSSR-1 but did not show the presence of aroma as analyzed by chemical test. Aromatic and non-aromatic lines were almost common in three markers indicating association of markers with the trait and chromosome 8. The results revealed that these markers could be used for marker assisted selection and RIL population for mapping of aroma QTLs/genes.

  19. Bacteria associated with truffle-fruiting bodies contribute to truffle aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splivallo, Richard; Deveau, Aurélie; Valdez, Nayuf; Kirchhoff, Nina; Frey-Klett, Pascale; Karlovsky, Petr

    2014-06-01

    Truffles, symbiotic fungi renown for the captivating aroma of their fruiting bodies, are colonized by a complex bacterial community of unknown function. We characterized the bacterial community of the white truffle Tuber borchii and tested the involvement of its microbiome in the production of sulphur-containing volatiles. We found that sulphur-containing volatiles such as thiophene derivatives, characteristic of T.?borchii fruiting bodies, resulted from the biotransformation of non-volatile precursor(s) into volatile compounds by bacteria. The bacterial community of T.?borchii was dominated by ?- and ?-Proteobacteria. Interestingly, all bacteria phyla/classes tested in this study were able to produce thiophene volatiles from T.?borchii fruiting body extract, irrespective of their isolation source (truffle or other sources). This indicates that the ability to produce thiophene volatiles might be widespread among bacteria and possibly linked to primary metabolism. Treatment of fruiting bodies with antibacterial agents fully suppressed the production of thiophene volatiles while fungicides had no inhibitory effect. This suggests that during the sexual stage of truffles, thiophene volatiles are exclusively synthesized by bacteria and not by the truffle. At this stage, the origin of thiophenes precursor in T.?borchii remains elusive and the involvement of yeasts or other bacteria cannot be excluded. PMID:24903279

  20. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb : Effect of fermentation temperature and baker’s yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how the dough fermentation conditions influence the wheat bread production time and the bread aroma is important for the bread industry. The overall purpose of this PhD project is to investigate the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion and aroma in bread crumb. In Paper I the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion were investigated. Wheat doughs were fermented by seven commercial baker’s yeasts (baker’s yeast I to VII) at different yeast concentrations (2.88•1014, 5.76•1014 and 8.64• 1014 CFU/kg flour, corresponding to 20-40, 40-80 and 60-120 g/kg flour) and fermentation temperatures (5, 15, 25 and 35°C). Dough expansion was investigated by monitoring the dough height and the expansion profile was found to be described well by a first order kinetic model. The highest kinetic rate constants corresponding to the shortest fermentation times were found for doughs fermented at 25°C and the highest yeast concentration. Doughs fermented with commercial baker’s yeast I, II, III and V had shorter fermentation times compared to fermentation with baker’s yeast IV, VI and VII. The longest fermentation times were generally found for doughs fermented with all baker’s yeasts at 5°C and the lowest yeast concentration (2.88•1014 CFU/kg flour). In Paper II, III and V wheat breads were produced for volatile analysis. The dough samples were fermented to equal height and baked and the volatile compounds from the bread crumb were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling and analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A wide range of volatile compounds was identified in bread crumb, mainly originating from the activity of yeast and from oxidation of flour lipids. The dominating fermentation compounds were alcohols, aldehydes as well as 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin), esters and acids. Furthermore, oxidation of flour lipids was generating primarily aldehydes and ketones. Quantification of the volatile compounds in bread crumb was performed by multiple headspace extraction (Paper II, III and V). The compounds were evaluated according to their odour activity value (OAV). The most aroma active compounds (OAV > 6) identified in bread crumb were; (E)-2-nonanal (green, tallow), 3-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methyl-1-butanol (balsamic, alcoholic), nonanal (citrus), hexanal (green), 2,3-butanedione (buttery, caramel), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom) and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like). Esters were also identified in bread crumb (e.g. ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate) and they are of interest because of their fruity and pleasant odours, however the OAV’s of the esters were generally low (0.1 to 0.5). In Paper II the effects of yeast level (20, 40 and 60 g baker’s yeast VII/kg flour) and fermentation temperature (5, 15 and 35ºC) on aroma in bread crumb were investigated. Fermentation with the highest yeast concentration (60 g/kg flour) resulted in bread containing the highest concentration of the majority of the compounds formed from yeast activity (e.g. 2,3-butanedione and phenylacetaldehyde), compared to doughs fermented at lower yeast concentrations (20 and 40 g/kg flour). A fermentation temIII perature at 5°C resulted in breads with the highest concentration of the three esters; ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate, compared to breads fermented at higher temperatures (15 and 35°C). Fermentation at 15 and 35°C resulted in breads with the highest concentration of many lipid oxidation compounds (e.g. heptanal and hexanal) compared to breads fermented at 5°C. In Paper III the effect of the type of commercial baker’s yeast (baker’s yeast I to VII, 2.88•1014 yeast CFU/kg flour) on bread aroma was investigated. Breads fermented by commercial baker’s yeast I to IV had the significantly highest concentration of 2,3-butanedione and 1-propanol compared to breads fermented by the other yeasts. Furthermore, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methy

  1. Aroma enhancement and enzymolysis regulation of grape wine using ?-glycosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Adding ?-glycosidase into grape wine for enhancing aroma was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Kramer sensory evaluation. Compared with the extract from control wines, the extract from enzyme-treated wines increased more aromatic compounds using steam distillation extraction (SDE) and GC-MS analyses. Theses aromatic compounds were as follows: 3-methyl-1-butanol formate, 3-pentanol, furfural, 3-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl-butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-butanoic acid ethyl ester, hexanoic acid, hexanoic acid ethyl ester, benzyl alcohol, octanoic acid, octanoic acid ethyl ester, dodecanoic acid, and ethyl ester. The enzymolysis regulation conditions, including enzymolysis temperature, enzymolysis time, and enzyme amount, were optimized through L9(3(4)) orthogonal test. Kramer sensory evaluation was performed by an 11-man panel of judges. The optimum enzymolysis regulation conditions were found to be temperature of 45°C, enzymolysis time of 90 min, and enzyme amount of 58.32 U/mL grape wine, respectively. The Kramer sensory evaluation supported that the enzyme-treated wines produced a stronger fragrance. PMID:24804072

  2. A fermented meat model system for studies of microbial aroma formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2003-01-01

    A fermented meat model system was developed, by which microbial formation of volatiles could be examined The model was evaluated against dry, fermented sausages with respect to microbial growth, pH and volatile profiles. Fast and slowly acidified sausages and models were produced using the starter cultures Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus xylosus. Volatiles were collected and analysed by dynamic headspace sampling and GC MS. The analysis was primarily focused on volatiles arising from amino acid degradation and a total of 24 compounds, of which 19 were quantified, were used for multivariate data analysis. Growth of lactic acid bacteria was comparable for model and sausages, whereas survival of S. xylosus was better in the model. Multivariate analysis of volatiles showed that differences between fast and slowly acidified samples were identical for model and sausage. For both sausage and model, fast-acidified samples had a high content of ketones, sulphides and methyl-branched acids, whereas slowly acidified samples had the highest content of methyl-branched alcohols, aldehydes, their ethyl esters, phenylacetaldehyde and methional. Furthermore, model repeatability with respect to pH, microbial growth and volatile profiles was similar to sausage production. Based on these findings, the model system was considered valid for studies of aroma formation of meat cultures for fermented sausage.

  3. Efecto del deshuesado de la aceituna sobre el aroma del aceite de oliva virgen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz, C.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive fruit stoning gives rise to an important modification in olive oil aroma. The level of this modification is a function of the cultivar. An increment in the content of six-carbon compounds (C6 was observed in olive oils obtained from the cultivars Verdial and Manzanilla, but not in the cultivar Picual. In the three cultivars under study, contents of five-carbon compounds (C5 and esters decreased as a consequence of fruit stoning. The modification of olive oil aroma composition in the cultivar Verdial caused by olive fruit stoning was observed to be due both to tissue wounding and to the absence of the olive seed during the crushing-malaxation process to obtain olive oil aroma. Both factors contribute independently to the content modification of C6, C5 compounds and esters in the olive oil aroma from stoned fruits.El deshuesado de la aceituna da lugar a una importante modificación del aroma del aceite de oliva virgen. La intensidad de esta modificación es característica de cada variedad. En los aceites obtenidos de aceitunas Verdial y Manzanilla se produce un incremento en el contenido de los compuestos de seis átomos de carbono (C6 que no se detecta en la variedad Picual. En las tres variedades estudiadas se observa un descenso del contenido de compuestos de cinco átomos de carbono (C5 así como del contenido en ésteres. En la variedad Verdial se ha comprobado que la modificación del aroma como consecuencia del deshuesado del fruto se debe tanto al daño tisular generado durante este proceso como a la ausencia de la semilla durante la molturación de la aceituna. Ambos factores contribuyen de forma independiente a la modificación del contenido de compuestos C6, C5 y ésteres en el aroma del aceite de oliva virgen procedente de aceituna deshuesada.

  4. A further tool to monitor the coffee roasting process: aroma composition and chemical indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruosi, Manuela R; Cordero, Chiara; Cagliero, Cecilia; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Bicchi, Carlo; Sgorbini, Barbara; Liberto, Erica

    2012-11-14

    Coffee quality is strictly related to its flavor and aroma developed during the roasting process, that, in their turn, depend on variety and origin, harvest and postharvest practices, and the time, temperature, and degree of roasting. This study investigates the possibility of combining chemical (aroma components) and physical (color) parameters through chemometric approaches to monitor the roasting process, degree of roasting, and aroma formation by analyzing a suitable number of coffee samples from different varieties and blends. In particular, a correlation between the aroma composition of roasted coffee obtained by HS-SPME-GC-MS and degree of roasting, defined by the color, has been researched. The results showed that aroma components are linearly correlated to coffee color with a correlation factor of 0.9387. The study continued looking for chemical indices: 11 indices were found to be linearly correlated to the color resulting from the roasting process, the most effective of them being the 5-methylfurfural/2-acetylfuran ratio (index). PMID:23083340

  5. Aroma Stripping under various Forms of Membrane Distillation Processes: Experiments and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    Concentration of fruit juices by membrane distillation is an interesting process as it can be done at low temperature giving a gentle concentration process with little deterioration of the juices. Since the juices contains many different aroma compounds with a wide range of chemical properties such as volatility, activity coefficient and vapor pressure, it is important to know how these aroma compounds will eventually pass through the membrane. Experiments have been made on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up which can be operated in various types of MD configurations: Vacuum Membrane Distillation , Sweeping Gas Membrane Distillation , Direct Contact Membrane Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation. The influence of feed temperature and feed flow rate on the permeate flux and concentration factor for different types of aroma compounds have been measured for these MD configurations. A general transport model for the flux of water and aroma compounds have been derived and compared with the experimental data. A reasonable agreement between the modelling and the experiments could be obtained. From the modelling it was possible to explain the large different in permeate flux and concentration factor that was observed for the different MD configurations. This is highly related to the heat and mass transfer resistances in the membrane as well as in the boundary layers adjacent to the membrane surface and how the driving force develops along the length of the membrane.

  6. Sulfur volatiles of microbial origin are key contributors to human-sensed truffle aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splivallo, Richard; Ebeler, Susan E

    2015-03-01

    Truffles are symbiotic fungi in high demand for the aroma of their fruiting bodies which are colonized by a diverse microbial flora. Specific sulfur containing volatiles (thiophene derivatives) characteristic of the white truffle Tuber borchii were recently shown to be derived from the bacterial community inhabiting truffle fruiting bodies. Our aim here was to investigate whether thiophene derivatives contributed to the human-sensed aroma of T. borchii. Furthermore, we questioned whether the concentration of thiophene volatiles was affected by freezing or whether it differed in truffles from distinct geographical origins. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) analysis revealed that thiophene derivatives were major contributors to the aroma of T. borchii. Of four thiophene derivatives detected in this study, 3-methyl-4,5-dihydrothiophene was the most important one in terms of its contribution to the overall aroma. The relative concentration of thiophene derivatives was unaffected by freezing; however, it differed in samples collected in distinct geographical locations (Italy versus New Zealand). The causes of this variability might be differences in storage conditions and/or in bacterial community composition of the fruiting bodies; however, further work is needed to confirm these hypotheses. Overall, our results demonstrate that thiophene derivatives are major contributors to the human-sensed aroma of T. borchii. PMID:25573471

  7. How does roasting process influence the retention of coffee aroma compounds by lyophilized coffee extract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Galilea, I; Andriot, I; de Peña, M P; Cid, C; Guichard, E

    2008-04-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to study the effect of lyophilized coffee extract on the retention of aroma compounds and (2) to study if aroma compounds selected are differently affected by the lyophilized coffee extracts obtained from conventional and Torrefacto coffee brews prepared by filter coffeemaker and by espresso coffee machine. Variable amounts of lyophilized coffee extracts, relative to coffee powder, containing different percentages of high molecular weight compounds, mainly melanoidins (value given in parentheses), were obtained: 20.9% (14.8) and 24.9% (23.3), respectively, for conventional and Torrefacto coffee brew prepared by filter coffeemaker and 18.1% (18.8) and 20.7% (57.5), respectively, for conventional and Torrefacto coffee brew prepared by espresso coffee machine. The retention of aroma compounds increased by increasing the lyophilized coffee extract concentration and was found to be dependent on the aroma compounds. The retention of aroma compounds was found to be slightly different depending on the brewing procedure employed, showing lyophilized coffee extracts obtained with espresso coffee machine had higher retention values that those extracted by filter coffeemaker. Retention capacity of lyophilized coffee extracts obtained from the conventional and the Torrefacto roasted coffee did not show differences except in the case of ethyl nonanoate. PMID:18387130

  8. Effects of sugar concentration processes in grapes and wine aging on aroma compounds of sweet wines-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-07-01

    Dessert sweet wines from Europe and North America are described in this review from two points of view: both their aroma profile and also their sensorial description. There are growing literature data about the chemical composition and sensory properties of these wines. Wines were grouped according to the production method (concentration of sugars in grapes) and to the aging process of wine (oxidative, biological, or a combination of both and aging in the bottle). It was found that wines natively sweets and wines fortified with liquors differ in their volatile compounds. Sensory properties of these wines include those of dried fruit (raisins), red berries, honey, chocolate and vanilla, which is contributing to their growing sales. However, there is still a need for scientific research on the understanding of the mechanisms for wine flavor enhancement. PMID:24915355

  9. Influence of harvesting technique and maceration process on aroma and phenolic attributes of Sauvignon blanc wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejar, Kenneth J; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Kilmartin, Paul A

    2015-09-15

    Sauvignon blanc wines are characterised by their varietal aromas and low phenolic content. Mechanical harvesting has been shown to increase several varietal aromas. Likewise, maceration techniques have produced increases in phenolic content and antioxidant activity, but these can also alter tactile attributes and sensory profiles. Mechanical harvesting and cryogenic maceration were used in combination to produce a Sauvignon blanc wine with increased phenolic content and antioxidant activity, while showing a similar sensory profile to control wines. Phenolic profiles of the wines showed differences between the harvesting and maceration techniques. Mechanical harvesting contributed to decreases in phenolics through reaction with oxidative radicals. Cryogenic maceration increased phenolics and antioxidant activity. Cryogenic maceration also increased the levels of several varietal aromas, for Sauvignon blanc wines made from both hand-picked and from machine-harvested fruit. Furthermore, cryogenic treatment of hand-picked fruit increased varietal thiols to levels similar to machine-harvested control wines. PMID:25863627

  10. Determination of rotundone, the pepper aroma impact compound, in grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Tracey E; Wood, Claudia; Elsey, Gordon M; Pollnitz, Alan P

    2008-05-28

    Shiraz, also known as Syrah or Hermitage, is one of Australia's most popular red wine varieties both domestically and internationally. Black pepper aroma and flavor are important to some Australian Shiraz red wine styles. Recently, rotundone (a bicyclic sesquiterpene) was identified as the potent aroma compound responsible for pepper aromas in grapes, wine, herbs, and spices, including peppercorns. Here the development, optimization, and validation of the analytical method for the quantitative determination of rotundone in grapes and wine are described and discussed. The method is precise, accurate, robust, and sensitive with a subpart per trillion limit of quantitation. The method uses stable isotope dilution analysis with d(5)-rotundone as internal standard, solid-phase extraction and microextraction, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PMID:18461962

  11. Recuperação e concentração de componentes do aroma de caju (Anacardium occidentale L.) por pervaporação / Recovery of aroma compounds of cashew apple fruit (Anacardium occidentale L.) by pervaporation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André von Randow de, Assis; Humberto Ribeiro, Bizzo; Virgínia Martins da, Matta; Lourdes Maria Corrêa, Cabral.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A pervaporação é um processo de separação por membranas, no qual misturas líquidas são fracionadas devido à sua vaporização parcial através de uma membrana densa de permeabilidade seletiva. Este processo pode ser utilizado na recuperação e concentração de componentes de aromas. O objetivo deste trab [...] alho foi avaliar a pervaporação para obtenção de um extrato natural de aroma de caju, que poderá ser utilizado como aditivo na indústria de alimentos. Polpa de caju foi a matéria-prima utilizada no trabalho. O processo de pervaporação foi conduzido a 25 e 35 °C em membranas de polidimetilsiloxano. Foram recolhidas amostras do suco de caju, no início e ao final do processo, e do permeado para a caracterização do perfil aromático através de CG-EM. O processo de pervaporação apresentou um alto fluxo de permeado para o suco de caju, 0,11 e 0,17 kg.hm-2 a 25 e 35 °C, respectivamente. Os cromatogramas revelaram um grande aumento no número de picos nas amostras de permeado em relação aos cromatogramas das amostras do suco de caju original, sendo que cerca de 50% dos componentes identificados no permeado apresentaram um acréscimo em suas áreas em relação aos do suco original, indicando a potencialidade deste processo para a concentração do aroma de caju. Abstract in english Pervaporation is a membrane separation process in which components from liquid mixtures are fractionated due to their partial vaporisation through a dense selective membrane. This process can be used to recover aroma compounds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the pervaporation to obtain a [...] natural aroma extract from cashew apple fruit, which can be used as an additive in the food industry. Cashew pulp was used as raw material. Pervaporation was carried out at 25 and 35 °C using polymethylsiloxane membranes. Samples of the cashew juice in the beginning and at the end of the pervaporation and from the permeate were picked to characterise the aromatic profile by GC-MS. The pervaporation of the cashew juice presented a high permeate flux, 0.11 kgh-1m-2 and 0.17 kg.hm-2, at 25 and 35 °C, respectively. The chromatograms showed an increase in the number of compounds in the permeate samples when compared to the chromatograms of the cashew juice. By comparing the peak areas, it could be observed that almost 50% of the identified components in the permeate samples presented an increase in the peak area, showing the potentiality of this process to the concentration of the aroma of cashew apple juice.

  12. O aroma ambiental e sua relação com as avaliações e intenções do consumidor no varejo / Ambient scent and its relationship with consumer evaluations and intentions in retail / El aroma ambiental y su relación con las evaluaciones e intenciones del consumidor en el comercio minorista

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Luiz Carvalho Nunes da, Costa; Salomão Alencar de, Farias.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A atmosfera de uma loja é capaz de provocar emoções e comportamentos que estimulam a compra. Entre as suas dimensões, está o aroma ambiental, adicionado artificialmente ao ambiente. Este artigo investiga a relação entre a presença de aroma ambiental no varejo e as avaliações de loja, ambiente de loj [...] a e produtos, além das intenções comportamentais relativas ao retorno e ao tempo gasto na loja. A pesquisa teve uma etapa exploratória, exame de publicações em fisiologia, psicologia e comportamento do consumidor, para construção do referencial teórico e formulação das hipóteses, e outra causal, quase experimento, para identificar as relações de causa e efeito na presença de aroma. O estudo foi conduzido em uma butique de frutos do mar, e os instrumentos de coleta de dados, escalas de diferencial semântico, basearam-se em pesquisas similares. As análises incluíram técnicas de estatística descritiva e teste de hipóteses. Os resultados revelaram que a presença de aroma ambiental não aumentou as avaliações nem a intenção de retorno, mas reteve o consumidor por mais tempo na loja. Abstract in spanish La atmósfera de un negocio es capaz de generar emociones y comportamientos que estimulan la compra. Entre sus dimensiones, está el aroma ambiental, adicionado de modo artificial al ambiente. Este artículo averigua la relación entre la presencia de aroma ambiental en el comercio minorista y las evalu [...] aciones de negocio, ambiente de negocio y productos, además de las intenciones de comportamiento con respecto al retorno y al tiempo dedicado al negocio. La investigación tuvo una etapa exploratoria, examen de publicaciones en fisiología, psicología y comportamiento del consumidor, para construcción del referencial teórico y formulación de las hipótesis, y otra causal, casi-experimento, para identificar las relaciones de causa y efecto en la presencia del aroma. El estudio fue conducido en una especie de boutique para frutos del mar y, los instrumentos de colecta de datos, escalas de diferencial semántico, basaranse en investigaciones similares. Los análisis han incluido técnicas de estadística descriptiva y teste de hipótesis. Los resultados han revelado que la presencia de aroma ambiental no aumentó las evaluaciones ni la intención del retorno, pero mantuvo el consumidor por más tiempo en el negocio. Abstract in english The atmosphere of a store can be used to produce specific emotions that enhance purchase probability, and the ambient scent, artificially added, is among its dimensions. This article investigates the relationship between the presence of an ambient scent in a retail store, and customers' evaluation o [...] f the store, its environment and products, as well as the behavioral intentions related to return and time spent in the store. The research design included an exploratory stage, examination of publications in the fields of physiology, psychology and consumer behavior, to provide the conceptual background and to formulate research hypothesis; and a causal stage, quasi-experiment, to verify the effects of scent presence. Semantic differential scales were employed for data collection. Descriptive statistics and hypothesis test were performed for data analysis and the results revealed that the scent presence did not improve the evaluations or the intent to return but retained the consumer longer in the store.

  13. AROMA CONTENT OF FRESH BASIL (OCIMUM BASILICUM L.) LEAVES IS AFFECTED BY LIGHT REFLECTED FROM COLORED MULCHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an herb that is used to add a distinct aroma and flavor to food. Aroma compounds emitted from fully-expanded fresh leaves that were grown in drip-irrigated field plots covered with different colors of polyethylene mulch were compared. The colors were selected to ...

  14. Analysis of aroma-active compounds in three sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) cultivars by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS*

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Xuan; Mai, Rong-zhang; Zou, Jing-jing; Hong-yan ZHANG; Zeng, Xiang-ling; Zheng, Ri-ru; Wang, Cai-yun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Aroma is the core factor in aromatherapy. Sensory evaluation of aromas differed among three sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) cultivar groups. The purpose of this study was to investigate the aroma-active compounds responsible for these differences. Methods: Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to analyze the aroma-active compounds and volatiles of creamy-white (‘Houban Yingui’, HBYG), yellow (‘Liuye Jingui’, LYJG), and orange...

  15. Characterization of the aroma-active compounds in pink guava (Psidium guajava, L.) by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Martin; Sinuco, Diana; Polster, Johannes; Osorio, Coralia; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-06-11

    The volatiles present in fresh, pink-fleshed Colombian guavas ( Psidium guajava, L.), variety regional rojo, were carefully isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation, and the aroma-active areas in the gas chromatogram were screened by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis. The results of the identification experiments in combination with the FD factors revealed 4-methoxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2 H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2 H)-furanone, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, and 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol followed by 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5 H)-furanone, ( Z)-3-hexenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-( E)-2-decenal, cinnamyl alcohol, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, methional, and cinnamyl acetate as important aroma contributors. Enantioselective gas chromatography revealed an enantiomeric distribution close to the racemate in 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate as well as in 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol. In addition, two fruity smelling diastereomeric methyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoates were identified as the ( R,S)- and the ( S,S)-isomers, whereas the ( S,R)- and ( R,R)-isomers were absent. Seven odorants were identified for the first time in guavas, among them 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5 H)-furanone, trans-4,5-epoxy-( E)-2-decenal, and methional were the most odor-active. PMID:18476695

  16. A study of an aroma extraction method and evaluation of the aroma extract contribution to the palatability and reinforcement effect of dried bonito using mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitsuka, Takahiko; Okamura, Maya; Shiibashi, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Naoto; Saito, Tsukasa; Nammoku, Takashi; Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    Japanese cuisine has provided satisfying meals by fully utilizing the characteristic aroma and taste of katsuodashi (dried bonito broth), though it is not rich in sugars or fats. Katsuodashi is a very basic and indispensable element in Japanese cuisine, and is a hot water extract of katsuobushi (dried bonito). It has been reported that a dextrin solution containing natural dried bonito broth has a significant reinforcement effect, and has been suggested that the olfactory stimulation is important for the reinforcement effect. We examined various source materials for broth and identified an optimal method of aroma extraction by two-bottle choice and conditioned place preference tests in mice. By two-bottle choice tests, a solution containing arabushi (a type of katsuobushi) aroma extract obtained by a supercritical CO2 extraction method showed a significantly high preference. The conditioned place preference test showed the dashi-taste solution with arabushi supercritical CO2 extract had a reinforcement effect. Our results suggest that the arabushi extract obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction contains components responsible for preference and reinforcement effects in mice; it could become conducive to making Japanese cuisine more satisfying and palatable. PMID:25744421

  17. Tomato fruits expressing a bacterial feedback-insensitive 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase of the shikimate pathway possess enhanced levels of multiple specialized metabolites and upgraded aroma

    OpenAIRE

    Tzin, Vered; Rogachev, Ilana; Meir, Sagit; Moyal Ben Zvi, Michal; Masci, Tania; Vainstein, Alexander; Aharoni, Asaph; Galili, Gad

    2013-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit contains significant amounts of bioactive compounds, particularly multiple classes of specialized metabolites. Enhancing the synthesis and accumulation of these substances, specifically in fruits, are central for improving tomato fruit quality (e.g. flavour and aroma) and could aid in elucidate pathways of specialized metabolism. To promote the production of specialized metabolites in tomato fruit, this work expressed under a fruit ripening-specific promote...

  18. Aroma characterization of tangerine hybrids by gas-chromatography-olfactometry and sensory evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although a total of 150 volatiles were detected by GC-MS, only 49 aroma active peaks were found in a consensus by the three panelists. Aldehydes were the most important group with odor activity, as well as monoterpenes, esters, alcohols and ketones. 1,8-Cineole, ·-myrcene, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, hexa...

  19. Influence of maturity and ripening on aroma volatiles and flavor in avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in aroma volatiles were determined using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography in ripe avocados (Persea americana Mill.) throughout an eight-month maturation period and related to the sensory properties of the fruit. As maturation progressed sensory panelists found the li...

  20. Mapping brain activity induced by olfaction of virgin olive oil aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Diego L; Vivancos, Jorge; Aparicio, Ramón

    2011-09-28

    The difficulty of explaining sensory descriptors of virgin olive oil aroma by the analysis of volatile compounds is partially due to the subjective opinions of panelists and the lack of information of the neural mechanisms that ultimately produce a sensory perception. In this study the technique of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been applied to study brain activity during the smelling of virgin olive oil of different qualities. The volatile compounds of the samples were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography to explain the differences in the aromas presented to the subjects during the fMRI experiments. Comparing the pleasant and unpleasant aromas, the most evident differences in brain activity were found at the anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 32) and at the temporal lobe (Brodmann area 38). The activations were also observed when subjects smelled dilutions of heptanal and hexanoic acid, both compounds being responsible for off-flavors. Other areas were inherent to the olfaction task (e.g., Brodmann area 10) and to the intensity of the aroma (Brodmann area 6). PMID:21838262

  1. Study of combined effect of proteins and bentonite fining on the wine aroma loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenzi, Simone; Panighel, Annarita; Gazzola, Diana; Flamini, Riccardo; Curioni, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The wine aroma loss as a consequence of treatments with bentonite is due to the occurrence of multiple interaction mechanisms. In addition to a direct effect of bentonite, the removal of aroma compounds bound to protein components adsorbed by the clay has been hypothesized but never demonstrated. We studied the effect of bentonite addition on total wine aroma compounds (extracted from Moscato wine) in a model solution in the absence and presence of total and purified (thaumatin-like proteins and chitinase) wine proteins. The results showed that in general bentonite alone has a low effect on the loss of terpenes but removed ethyl esters and fatty acids. The presence of wine proteins in the solution treated with bentonite tended to increase the loss of esters with the longest carbon chains (from ethyl octanoate to ethyl decanoate), and this was significant when the purified proteins were used. The results here reported suggest that hydrophobicity can be one of the driving forces involved in the interaction of aromas with both bentonite and proteins. PMID:25665100

  2. Comparative analysis of aroma compounds and sensorial features of strawberry and lemon guavas (Psidium cattleianum Sabine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Mariana Buranelo; Pereira-Netto, Adaucto Bellarmino; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Lopez, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    The aroma of strawberry and lemon guava fruits (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) was studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and quantitative analysis. Volatiles released from the pulps were collected in a trapping system consisting of LiChrolut EN resins and eluted with dichloromethane/methanol. In total, 23 odour zones were detected by GC-O, of which 16 were found in the extract from the strawberry guava pulp and 17 in the extract from the lemon guava pulp. Among the compounds identified, only 10 were common to both strawberry and lemon guavas. The descriptive sensorial analysis differentiated between the aroma profiles of the strawberry guava pulp with the descriptor "tomato" and the lemon guava pulp with the descriptor "tropical fruit". The typical aroma of the guava fruits was dominated by the presence of numerous aldehydes and ketones among which (Z)-3-hexenal was the most intense odorant, while 1,8-cineole and linalool were also revealed as important aroma constituents. PMID:24996334

  3. Identification of sulphur volatiles and GC-olfactometry aroma profiling in two fresh tomato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaofen; Song, Mei; Baldwin, Elizabeth; Rouseff, Russell

    2015-03-15

    Ten sulphur volatiles were observed in two Florida tomato cultivars ('Tasti-Lee' and 'FL 47') harvested at three maturity stages (breaker, turning, and pink) using gas chromatography with a pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD). Eight PFPD peaks were identified using retention values from authentic sulphur standards and GC-MS characteristic masses. Seven were quantified using an internal standard combined with external calibration curves. Dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide 2-propylthiazole and 2-s-butylthiazole were newly identified in fresh tomatoes. Principal component analysis of sulphur volatiles indicated that there were appreciable maturity stage differences clustered in separate quadrants. GC-olfactometry (GC-O) identified 50 aroma-active compounds in 'Tasti-Lee', with 10 reported as odorants in fresh tomatoes for the first time. Four sulphur volatiles exhibited aroma activity, including two of the newly-reported fresh tomato sulphur volatiles, 2-s-butylthiazole and dimethyl sulphide. GC-O aroma profiling indicated that the most intense aroma category was earthy-musty, followed by fruity-floral, green-grassy, sweet-candy and sweaty-stale-sulphurous. PMID:25308674

  4. Edible coatings influence fruit ripening, quality, and aroma biosynthesis in mango fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Khuyen T H; Singh, Zora; Swinny, Ewald E

    2008-02-27

    The effects of different edible coatings on mango fruit ripening and ripe fruit quality parameters including color, firmness, soluble solids concentrations, total acidity, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, fatty acids, and aroma volatiles were investigated. Hard mature green mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Kensigton Pride) fruits were coated with aqueous mango carnauba (1:1 v/v), Semperfresh (0.6%), Aloe vera gel (1:1, v/v), or A. vera gel (100%). Untreated fruit served as the control. Following the coating, fruits were allowed to dry at room temperature and packed in soft-board trays to ripen at 21+/-1 degrees C and 55.2+/-11.1% relative humidity until the eating soft stage. Mango carnauba was effective in retarding fruit ripening, retaining fruit firmness, and improving fruit quality attributes including levels of fatty acids and aroma volatiles. Semperfresh and A. vera gel (1:1 or 100%) slightly delayed fruit ripening but reduced fruit aroma volatile development. A. vera gel coating did not exceed the commercial mango carnauba and Semperfresh in retarding fruit ripening and improving aroma volatile biosynthesis. PMID:18247535

  5. Evolution of the Aroma Volatiles of Pear Fruits Supplemented with Fatty Acid Metabolic Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaihua Qin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To examine the biochemical metabolism of aroma volatiles derived from fatty acids, pear fruits were incubated in vitro with metabolic precursors of these compounds. Aroma volatiles, especially esters, were significantly increased, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in pear fruits fed on fatty acid metabolic precursors. Cultivars having different flavor characteristics had distinctly different aroma volatile metabolisms. More esters were formed in fruity-flavored “Nanguoli” fruits than in green-flavored “Dangshansuli” fruits fed on the same quantities of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexanal and hexanol were more efficient metabolic intermediates for volatile synthesis than linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexyl esters were the predominant esters produced by pear fruits fed on hexanol, and their contents in “Dangshansuli” fruits were higher than in “Nanguoli” fruits. Hexyl esters and hexanoate esters were the primary esters produced in pear fruits fed on hexanal, however the content of hexyl ester in “Dangshansuli” was approximately three times that in “Nanguoli”. The higher contents of hexyl esters in “Dangshansuli” may have resulted from a higher level of hexanol derived from hexanal. In conclusion, the synthesis of aroma volatiles was largely dependent on the metabolic precursors presented.

  6. Ability of human oral microbiota to produce wine odorant aglycones from odourless grape glycosidic aroma precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Cueva, Carolina; Ángeles Pozo-Bayón, M; Victoria Moreno-Arribas, M

    2015-11-15

    Grape aroma precursors are odourless glycosides that represent a natural reservoir of potential active odorant molecules in wines. Since the first step of wine consumption starts in the oral cavity, the processing of these compounds in the mouth could be an important factor in influencing aroma perception. Therefore, the objective of this work has been to evaluate the ability of human oral microbiota to produce wine odorant aglycones from odourless grape glycosidic aroma precursors previously isolated from white grapes. To do so, two methodological approaches involving the use of typical oral bacteria or the whole oral microbiota isolated from human saliva were followed. Odorant aglycones released in the culture mediums were isolated and analysed by HS-SPME-GC/MS. Results showed the ability of oral bacteria to hydrolyse grape aroma precursors, releasing different types of odorant molecules (terpenes, benzenic compounds and lipid derivatives). The hydrolytic activity seemed to be bacteria-dependent and was subject to large inter-individual variability. PMID:25977005

  7. Aroma analysis and quality control of food using highly sensitive analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the development of quality control methods for food based on headspace measurements by Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and with aroma analysis of food using PTR-MS and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O). An objective method was developed for the determination of a herb extract's quality; this quality was checked by a sensory analysis until now. The concentrations of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of 81 different batches were measured by PTR-MS. Based on the sensory judgment of the customer, characteristic differences in the emissions of 'good' and 'bad' quality samples were identified and a method for the quality control of this herb extract was developed. This novel method enables the producing company to check and ensure that they are only selling high-quality products and therefore avoid complaints of the customer. Furthermore this method can be used for controlling, optimizing and automating the production process. VOCs emitted by meat were investigated using PTR-MS to develop a rapid, non-destructive and quantitative technique for determination of the microbial contamination of meat. Meat samples (beef, pork and poultry) that were wrapped into different kinds of packages (air and vacuum) were stored in at 4oC for up to 13 days. The emitted VOCs were measured as a function of storage time and identified partly. The concentration of many of the measured VOCs, e.g. sulfur compounds like measured VOCs, e.g. sulfur compounds like methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide, largely increased over the storage time. There were big differences in the emissions of normal air- and vacuum-packed meat. VOCs typically emitted by air-packaged meat were methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide, while ethanol and methanol were found in vacuum-packaged meat. A comparison of the PTR-MS results with those obtained by a bacteriological examination performed at the same time showed strong correlations (up to 99 %) between the concentrations of some of the VOCs, e.g. dimethylsulfide, and the bacteriological contamination. The concentration of these VOCs increased linearly with the bacterial numbers. This study is a first step towards replacing the time-consuming conventional microbiological analysis via plate counting by fast headspace air measurements where the bacterial spoilage can be determined within minutes instead of days. PTR-MS and GC-O techniques were used to define volatiles and odor active compounds released in the mouth during eating of ripe and unripe banana. The air exhaled through the nose was directly introduced into a PTR-MS and the time-intensity profiles of a series of volatiles were monitored on-line. The breath-by-breath temporal release pattern revealed various dynamic elements that are characteristic of the eating situation. During the eating of unripe banana we observed a gradual increase in 2E-hexenal and hexanal with ongoing mastication, until swallowing. No particular high concentrations were observed in the exhaled air just after swallowing (swallow breath). During the eating of a ripe banana, we observed isopentyl acetate and isobutyl acetate, compounds characteristic of banana aroma. In contrast, volatiles characteristic of unripe banana were largely absent. No gradual increase was observed with mastication, as present during the eating of unripe banana. In contrast, very prominent swallow peaks were observed. For GC-O analysis the volatile compounds contributing to the banana aroma were prepared in an artificial mouth system using three different mastication rates. Large differences were found in the number of odor active compounds of ripe and unripe bananas as well as for the investigated three different mastication rates (0, 26 and 52 min-1). Hexanal was the only compound that was detected by all six assessors for ripe and unripe bananas for each mastication frequency. Eighteen (seven) significant odor active compounds were detected in the odor profile of ripe (unripe) bananas with a mastication rate of 52 min-1, wh

  8. Influence of olive oil phenolic compounds on headspace aroma release by interaction with whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; De Luca, Lucia; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-04-22

    The release of volatile compounds in an oil-in-water model system obtained from olive oil-whey protein (WP) pairing was investigated by considering the effect of phenolic compounds. Human saliva was used to simulate mouth conditions by retronasal aroma simulator (RAS) analysis. Twelve aroma compounds were quantified in the dynamic headspace by SPME-GC/MS. The results showed significant influences of saliva on the aroma release of virgin olive oil (VOO) volatiles also in the presence of WP. The interaction between WP and saliva leads to lower headspace release of ethyl esters and hexanal. Salivary components caused lower decrease of the release of acetates and alcohols. A lower release of volatile compounds was found in the RAS essay in comparison to that in orthonasal simulation of only refined olive oil (without addition of saliva or WP), with the exception of hexanal and 1-penten-3-one, where a significantly higher release was found. Our results suggest that the extent of retronasal odor (green, pungent) of these two volatile compounds is higher than orthonasal odor. An extra VOO was used to verify the release in model systems, indicating that WP affected aroma release more than model systems, while saliva seems to exert an opposite trend. A significant increase in aroma release was found when phenolic compounds were added to the system, probably due to the contrasting effects of binding of volatile compounds caused by WP, for the polyphenol-protein interaction phenomenon. Our study could be applied to the formulation of new functional foods to enhance flavor release and modulate the presence and concentrations of phenolics and whey proteins in food emulsions/dispersions. PMID:25832115

  9. AromaDeg, a novel database for phylogenomics of aerobic bacterial degradation of aromatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Márcia; Jauregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Junca, Howard; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2014-01-01

    Understanding prokaryotic transformation of recalcitrant pollutants and the in-situ metabolic nets require the integration of massive amounts of biological data. Decades of biochemical studies together with novel next-generation sequencing data have exponentially increased information on aerobic aromatic degradation pathways. However, the majority of protein sequences in public databases have not been experimentally characterized and homology-based methods are still the most routinely used approach to assign protein function, allowing the propagation of misannotations. AromaDeg is a web-based resource targeting aerobic degradation of aromatics that comprises recently updated (September 2013) and manually curated databases constructed based on a phylogenomic approach. Grounded in phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences of key catabolic protein families and of proteins of documented function, AromaDeg allows query and data mining of novel genomic, metagenomic or metatranscriptomic data sets. Essentially, each query sequence that match a given protein family of AromaDeg is associated to a specific cluster of a given phylogenetic tree and further function annotation and/or substrate specificity may be inferred from the neighboring cluster members with experimentally validated function. This allows a detailed characterization of individual protein superfamilies as well as high-throughput functional classifications. Thus, AromaDeg addresses the deficiencies of homology-based protein function prediction, combining phylogenetic tree construction and integration of experimental data to obtain more accurate annotations of new biological data related to aerobic aromatic biodegradation pathways. We pursue in future the expansion of AromaDeg to other enzyme families involved in aromatic degradation and its regular update. Database URL: http://aromadeg.siona.helmholtz-hzi.de PMID:25468931

  10. Engineering volatile thiol release in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improved wine aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiegers, Jan H; Capone, Dimitra L; Pardon, Kevin H; Elsey, Gordon M; Sefton, Mark A; Francis, I Leigh; Pretorius, Isak S

    2007-07-01

    Volatile thiols, such as 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP), 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH) and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA), are among the most potent aroma compounds found in wine and can have a significant effect on wine quality and consumer preferences. At optimal concentrations in wine, these compounds impart flavours of passionfruit, grapefruit, gooseberry, blackcurrant, lychee, guava and box hedge. The enzymatic release of aromatic thiols from grape-derived, non-volatile cysteinylated precursors (Cys-4MMP and Cys-3MH) and the further modification thereof (conversion of 3MH into 3MHA) during fermentation, enhance the varietal characters of wines such as Sauvignon Blanc. Wine yeast strains have limited and varying capacities to produce aroma-enhancing thiols from their non-volatile counterparts in grape juice. Even under optimal fermentation conditions, the most efficient thiol-releasing Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strain known realizes less than 5% of the thiol-related flavour potential of grape juice. The objective of this study was to develop a wine yeast able to unleash the untapped thiol aromas in grape juice during winemaking. To achieve this goal, the Escherichia coli tnaA gene, encoding a tryptophanase with strong cysteine-beta-lyase activity, was cloned and overexpressed in a commercial wine yeast strain under the control of the regulatory sequences of the yeast phosphoglycerate kinase I gene (PGK1). This modified strain expressing carbon-sulphur lyase activity released up to 25 times more 4MMP and 3MH in model ferments than the control host strain. Wines produced with the engineered strain displayed an intense passionfruit aroma. This yeast offers the potential to enhance the varietal aromas of wines to predetermined market specifications. PMID:17492802

  11. Influence of Starter Cultures, Fermentation Techniques, and Acetic Acid on the Volatile Aroma and Sensory Profile of Cocoa Liquor and Chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the World’s cocoa production originates from the West African countries of Ivory Coast, Ghana and Nigeria. In these countries, cocoa is a crop of great socio-economic importance as it is often the main source of income for families in the rural cocoa growing regions. Being the principal raw material for chocolate production, good quality cocoa beans are in high demand on the World market as a prerequisite for the production of high quality chocolates and other confectionary products. To produce good quality cocoa suitable for chocolate production, it is essential that the beans undergo fermentation and drying processes, during which biochemical reactions lead to the formation of cocoa specific flavour precursors. During subsequent roasting, these precursors are transformed into a wide array of aroma compounds as a result of complex Maillard and Strecker degradation reactions. Despite the importance of a properly conducted fermentation process, poor post-harvest practises, in combination with the unpredictable spontaneous nature of the fermentations, often results in sub-optimal flavour development. Our understanding of the microorganisms responsible for carrying out the fermentation of cocoa has greatly increased during the last decade. To overcome the inherited variability of spontaneous fermentations, this detailed insight into the microbial ecology has led to the development of defined inoculation cultures encompassing yeast and bacterial strains with beneficial functional properties. With the object ive of improving the volatile aroma and sensory properties of Ghanaian Forastero cocoa, the present Ph.D. study investigates the use of two defined mixed starter cultures encompassing strains of Acetobacter pasteurianus and Lactobacillus fermentum in combination with either a commercially available aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus. Fermentations were conducted in an experimental small-scale tray setup at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana during the main crop of 2011/12. Using a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular techniques, the growth and survival of the two yeast inoculation cultures was verified at strain level, whilst the bacterial inoculum was identified at species level. Aroma profiling was conducted using dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for identification and relative quantification of volatile compounds present in roasted and un-roasted cocoa liquors, as well as in finished chocolates. Sensory analyses of un-conched chocolate and finished chocolate was performed using a panel of un-trained judges and ordinary consumers. Furthermore, the present study describes the impact of acetic acid concentration on the generation of flavour precursors and volatile aroma compounds in cocoa beans subjected to incubation in acetic acid buffers. (GTG)5-based rep-PCR fingerprinting in combination with 26S rRNA (D1/D2 region) and actin gene sequencing revealed that during the first 12 hours offermentation, the yeast communities of both inoculated and spontaneous fermentations were dominated by Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora thailandica, with the latter being described for the first time in relation to cocoa fermentation. After 24 hours, the inoculated strains of Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus were dominating the fermentation - composing 39.8% and 51.3% of the total yeast population, respectively. Chromosome Length Polymorphism among yeast populations belongingto the inoculation species was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis. While all K. marxianus isolates were found to be identical to the inoculation strain, four strains of P. kluyveri were identified, with the inoculation strain composing ~88% of the population. The volatile aroma profile of chocolates made from cocoa beans inoculated with P. kluyveri contained significantly higher concentrations of phenylacetaldehyde compared to a spontaneously fermented control, whereas inoculation with K. marxianus led to signifi

  12. Influence of Water Potential on ?-Decalactone Production by the Yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, P.; Battut, G.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of water potential on ?-decalactone production by the yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor cultivated in a liquid medium was evaluated by gas-chromatographic analysis. Modifications in water potential led to a number of variations in the aroma production. Maximum extracellular production occurred at water activity (aw) with a value of 0.99. Further analyses revealed an important phenomenon of cellular accumulation of aroma for aw values between 0.97 and 0.99. PMID:16348056

  13. Influence of Water Potential on ?-Decalactone Production by the Yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Gervais, P.; Battut, G.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of water potential on ?-decalactone production by the yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor cultivated in a liquid medium was evaluated by gas-chromatographic analysis. Modifications in water potential led to a number of variations in the aroma production. Maximum extracellular production occurred at water activity (aw) with a value of 0.99. Further analyses revealed an important phenomenon of cellular accumulation of aroma for aw values between 0.97 and 0.99.

  14. Determination of Volatile Aroma Compounds of Ganoderma Lucidum by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ta?k?n, Hat?ra; Ebru KAFKAS; Çak?ro?lu, Özgün; BÜYÜKALACA, Saadet

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted at Horticulture Department of Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey during 2010–2011. Fresh sample of Ganoderma lucidum collected from Mersin province of Turkey was used as material. Volatile aroma compounds were performed by Headspace Gas Chromatography (HS-GC/MS). Alcohols, aldehydes, acids, phenol, L-Alanine, d-Alanine, 3Methyl, 2-Butanamine, 2-Propanamine were determined. 1-Octen-3-ol (Alcohol) and 3-methyl butanal (Aldehyde) were identified as major aroma compounds.

  15. Increasing Omega-3 Desaturase Expression In Tomato Results In Altered Aroma Profile And Enhanced Resistance To Cold Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez, Teresa; Hernández, M. Luisa; Pennycooke, Joyce C.; Jiménez, Pedro; Martínez-Rivas, José Manuel; Sanz, Carlos; Stockinger, Eric J.; Sánchez Serrano, José J.; Sanmartín, Maite

    2010-01-01

    One of the drawbacks in improving the aroma properties of tomato fruit is the complexity of this organoleptic trait with a great variety of volatiles contributing to determine specific quality features. It is well established that the oxylipins hexanal and (Z)-hex-3-enal, synthesized through the lipoxygenase pathway, are among the most important aroma compounds and impart in a correct proportion some of the unique fresh notes in tomato. Here, we confirm that all enzymes respons...

  16. Assessment of changes in the aroma and sensory profile of dawadawa due to modification in fermentation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawadawa is the most popular traditional condiment in West Africa and is produced by the fermentation of African locust bean seeds. Though the alkaline fermentation results in the production of a tasty condiment, it has a strong ammoniacal odour which some consumers find unattractive and offensive. This work was carried out to develop procedures for reducing the pungent odour of dawadawa in order to increase its popularity and market value especially amongst non-traditional users. Various treatments were applied to the fermenting locust bean seeds 15 hours into the fermentation which lasted for a total of 96 hours. Some treatments were also tested on the beans after fermentation. Treatments which were applied during fementation were fementation under conditions of limited oxygen, low temperature fermentation, irradiation by gamma radiation and steaming. Post-fermentation treatments were partial frying and roasting after fermentation. Samples were taken during fermentation and analyzed for Bacillus count on Nutrient Agar, pH, percentage titratable acidity, moisture content by the oven dry method, crude protein content by the kjeldhal method and texture by the texture analyzer. The final product was analyzed for aroma profile by GC-MS analysis using the Dynamic Headspace Sampling (DHS) method and also by descriptive sensory analysis by a semi-trained panel. Application of all the treatments applied during fermentation resulted in a ten to a hundredfold lower Bacillus counts compared to the control sample at various stages of fermentation. The reduction in the Bacillus activities resulted in a lower rise in pH giving final pH values of 6.8 to 7.53 compared to 8.37 in the control. The rise in pH was due to the proteolytic activity of the Bacillus species which break down the proteins into peptides and amino acids and subsequently utilize the amino acids to produce ammonia leading to the rise in pH. All the samples recorded a simultaneous increase in titratable acidity ranging from 0.006% to 0.037% in the control sample. The moisture content for all samples ranged from 54 to 73% with steaming for 10 minutes recording the highest value due to pick up of moisture during steaming. The protein content of all the samples increased during fermentation with final values which ranged between 30.42 to 37.64%. The texture of all the locust bean cotyledons softened during fermentation and the lowest value of hardness 15 was recorded for the limited oxygen sample and the highest value of 152 for the low temperature fermentation. The results of the instrumental textural analysis were supported by the assessment of the texture by the sensory panel which found the control sample to have the softest and smoothest texture due to the greater degree of fermentation of the control sample and which also results in the more pronounced ammoniacal odour. In the description sensory analysis, the panel assessed higher intensities of the descriptors which were considered undesirable/objectionable in the control sample than in the treated sample. These descriptors were stink fish ( momone), Koobi (salted/fermented tilapia) and sweaty sock. The more neutral/tolerant odour notes of rancid oil, fermented cocoa beans, smoked fish and palm kernel oil were higher in the treated sample. The aroma profile of dawadawa was affected by application of the treatments. Forty-nine aroma compounds in total were isolated form the differently treated dawadawa samples. They included mostly esters of acetic, butanoic and propanoic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, furans, sulfur compounds, pyrazines and a pyrrole. In spite of the known pungent smell of dawadawa, most of the aroma compounds identified were esters which are known for their fruity, pleasant odours. However, about 12 of aroma compounds identified such as the sulfur compounds-dimetyhl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide are reported to have strong pungent odours whilst 2,3-benzohyrrole is known to exhibit the charateristic odour of faeces. The levels of all but eight (2-Methlpropyl acetate; 2- Pentylfuran; 1-P

  17. Characteristic aroma compounds in two new Vitis vinifera cultivars (table grapes) and impact of vintage and greenhouse cultivation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.-L., Duan; Q.-H., Pan; X.-J., Tang; Q., Yang; R., Jiang; Y., Shi; C.-Q., Duan.

    Full Text Available 'Zaoheibao' (a red tetraploid hybrid) and 'Wuhecuibao' (a white triploid hybrid) grapes have been obtained from Guibao ? (diploid, Vitis vinifera) x Zaomeigui ? (diploid, V. vinifera) and Guibao ? (diploid, V. vinifera) x Wuhebaijixin? (triploid, V. vinifera) respectively. Aroma characterisation of [...] the two new table grape cultivars was firstly done by the investigation of volatile compounds. The influence of greenhouse cultivation and vintage on berry aroma was studied as well. The results showed that linalool, decanal, ?-damascenone, hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal were the main volatile compounds of the two cultivars, which meant that the floral, fruity and sweet odour were prominent, followed by the herbaceous aroma. Greenhouse cultivation enhanced herbaceous odour in both 'Wuhecuibao' and 'Zaoheibao' berries, and reduced the floral aroma, contributed mainly by ?-damascenone, in 'Wuhecuibao', and the sweet aroma, represented mainly by linalool, in 'Zaoheibao'. The concentrations of the main aroma compounds were greatly affected by vintage and the intensity of sensorial perception was correspondingly changed, but varietal odour attributes were not significantly altered. These results will not only help promote the cultivation and popularisation of these cultivars, but also will provide valuable data for the use of these cultivars in future breeding.

  18. Effect of Temperature, Water Activity and Storage Time on Color Strength, Aroma and Bitterness of Saffron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R GHasemzadeh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is one of the most important crops in Iran and the quality of its dried stigma is highly depended on the processing and storage conditions. In this study, the effect of different storage conditions in terms of temperature (20, 30 and 40°C and water activity (0.32, 0.52 and 0.75 during 12 weeks storage on color strength, aroma and bitterness of saffron were investigated. In order to study of moisture (water activity different saturated solution of MgCl2, Mg(NO32, MgBr2 and NaCl in the various temperatures were used. Results showed the color strength decreased as temperature increased. Increasing of water activity resulted in deterioration of crocin and consequently decreasing of color. Furthermore, after 12 weeks of storage, the color strength had a noticeable decrease, the bitterness also decreased but the aroma increased.

  19. Retention of aroma compounds from Mentha piperita essential oil by cyclodextrins and crosslinked cyclodextrin polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, A; Mallard, I; Landy, D; Brabie, G; Nistor, D; Fourmentin, S

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, the controlled release of aroma compounds from cyclodextrins (CDs) and CD polymers was studied by multiple headspace extraction (MHE) experiments. Mentha piperita essential oil was obtained by Soxhlet extraction and identification of the major compounds was performed by GC-MS analysis. Menthol, menthone, pulegone and eucalyptol were identified as the major components. Retention of standard compounds in the presence of different CDs and CD polymers has been realised by static headspace gas chromatography (SH-GC) at 25 °C in the aqueous or gaseous phase. Stability constants for standard compounds and for compounds in essential oil have been also determined with monomeric CD derivatives. The obtained results indicated the formation of a 1:1 inclusion complex for all the studied compounds. Molecular modelling was used to investigate the complementarities between host and guest. This study showed that ?-CDs were the most versatile CDs and that ?-CD polymers could perform the controlled release of aroma compounds. PMID:23265490

  20. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Acacia aroma against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Mattana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined using agar diffusion and bioautographic methods. Among all assayed organic extracts only ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented highest activities against all tested Staphylococcus strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 2.5 to 10 mg/ml and from 2.5 to 5 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extracts show little antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus strains. The bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against S. aureus in correspondence with flavonoids and saponins. A. aroma would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for skin infections.

  1. Effect of oak extract application to Verdejo grapevines on grape and wine aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gil, Ana M; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Martínez, Laura; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2011-04-13

    Volatile compounds from a commercial aqueous oak extract application to white Verdejo grapevines at veraison have been studied. Treated grapes under two types of formulation (25% and 100%) have been analyzed at the optimum maturation time, and winemaking was then subsequently carried out. The volatile compounds were analyzed by stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results suggest that after the grapevine treatments, grapes store the volatiles in the form of nonvolatile precursors, and some of the volatiles are released during the winemaking process, especially six months after the alcoholic fermentation. The sensory analysis shows that wines maintain the typical aroma properties of Verdejo wines at the end of fermentation; but after six months, the wine color is greener and more astringent, and, in terms of aroma, it has wooden notes as if the wine has been aged in oak barrels. PMID:21395258

  2. Glycosidic aroma precursors of Syrah and Chardonnay grapes after an oak extract application to the grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gil, Ana M; Angenieux, Magaly; Pardo-García, Ana I; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Ojeda, Hernán; Rosario Salinas, M

    2013-06-01

    Syrah and Chardonnay grapevines were treated with an oak extract in order to determine the effect on glycosidic aroma precursors. Grapevines were treated at three different timings of the veraison (treatment 1, 2 and 3). Aglycons were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis, and these were identified and quantified by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results suggest that after the applications the majority of compounds from the oak extract were assimilated and stored as glycosidic forms in both cultivars. Also, other compounds not present in the extract were affected, with a different behaviour observed depending on the timing of application and the variety. In general, C6 compounds, alcohols, terpenes, phenols and C13-norisoprenoids in Syrah showed a decrease and in Chardonnay an increase. Thus, this study proved a change in the glycosidic aroma profile in grapes after the oak application, so these treated grapes could produce wines with different aromatic quality. PMID:23411201

  3. An extract procedure for studying the free and glycosilated aroma compounds in grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Alessandro; Gambuti, Angelita; Lamorte, Simona A; Moio, Luigi

    2013-01-15

    In this study seven published methods of extraction of skin free and bound volatile compounds have been compared. The free and bound volatiles were separated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and then analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the extraction of volatile compounds from grapes is highly affected by extraction solution features. The solution at pH 3.2 and 0% ethanol resulted the most effective as it led to the extraction of a higher number and amount of free and glycosilated volatile compounds. The selected extraction method of grape skin and the process of pulp juice were validated for quantitative determination of a wide range of grape aroma compounds. A total of 37 free and bound grape aroma compounds were quantified by GC-MS in selective ion monitoring modality (SIM). Among them, 26 volatile compounds resulted validated in grape skin and pulp juice. PMID:23122133

  4. Tomato fruits expressing a bacterial feedback-insensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase of the shikimate pathway possess enhanced levels of multiple specialized metabolites and upgraded aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzin, Vered; Rogachev, Ilana; Meir, Sagit; Moyal Ben Zvi, Michal; Masci, Tania; Vainstein, Alexander; Aharoni, Asaph; Galili, Gad

    2013-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit contains significant amounts of bioactive compounds, particularly multiple classes of specialized metabolites. Enhancing the synthesis and accumulation of these substances, specifically in fruits, are central for improving tomato fruit quality (e.g. flavour and aroma) and could aid in elucidate pathways of specialized metabolism. To promote the production of specialized metabolites in tomato fruit, this work expressed under a fruit ripening-specific promoter, E8, a bacterial AroG gene encoding a 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS), which is feedback-insensitive to phenylalanine inhibition. DAHPS, the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, links between the primary and specialized metabolism derived from aromatic amino acids. AroG expression influenced the levels of number of primary metabolites, such as shikimic acid and aromatic amino acids, as well as multiple volatile and non-volatile phenylpropanoids specialized metabolites and carotenoids. An organoleptic test, performed by trained panellists, suggested that the ripe AroG-expressing tomato fruits had a preferred floral aroma compare with fruits of the wild-type line. These results imply that fruit-specific manipulation of the conversion of primary to specialized metabolism is an attractive approach for improving fruit aroma and flavour qualities as well as discovering novel fruit-specialized metabolites. PMID:24006429

  5. Influence of mastication and saliva on aroma release in a model mouth system

    OpenAIRE

    van Ruth, S. M.; Roozen, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of mastication, saliva composition and saliva volume on aroma release from rehydrated diced bell peppers and French beans was studied in a model mouth system. Released volatile compounds were analysed by gas chromatography combined with sniffing port and flame ionisation detection. Compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, resulting in more than 40 compounds to be identified in each vegetable. Mastication increased release from bell peppers significantly...

  6. Composición de procedimiento de obtención de un aroma a jamón curado y sus aplicaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Llovera, Mo?nica; Toldra? Vilardell, Fidel; Gianelli Barra, Mari?a Pi?a; Dura? Cubells, Mari?a Asuncio?n

    2008-01-01

    La invención comprende una composición de volatiles, que reproduce un aroma curado del jamón y comprende una mezcla de proteínas sarcoplasmic, aldehídos ramified, compuestos sulfurados, aldehídos del lineal, 2 cetonas y sales, en la combinación apropiada y las proporciones ideales. La composición es útil para preparar los alimentos con propiedades organolépticas más grandes sin la necesidad para realizar procedimientos que curan largos y la preparación de distintos alimentos con u...

  7. Effect of fat content on aroma generation during processing of dry fermented sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares Sevilla, Alicia; Navarro Fabra, Jose? Luis; Flores Llovera, Mo?nica

    2010-01-01

    Dry fermented sausages with different fat contents were produced (10%, 20% and 30%). The effect of fat content and ripening time on sensory characteristics, lipolysis, lipid oxidation and volatile compounds generation was studied. Also, the key aroma components were identified using gas chromatography (GC) and olfactometry. High fat sausages showed the highest lipolysis and lipid oxidation, determined by free fatty acid content and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), respectively...

  8. Release of aroma compounds from dry-fermented sausages as affected by antioxidant and saliva addition

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Llovera, Mo?nica; Olivares Sevilla, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the addition of an antioxidant and saliva on the release of aroma compounds from dry fermented sausages was studied by extracting the headspace at different times using solid phase micro-extraction technique. The compounds were analysed by gas chromatography using a FID detector and identified by mass spectrometry. The addition of butylated hydroxytoluene to dry fermented sausages produced a significant reduction of the release of most of the volatile compounds indicating an oxi...

  9. Retención de aroma durante el secado de extracto de café en un sistema cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Vílchez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el secado de alimentos líquidos, componentes volátiles presentes en baja concentración que contribuyen al aroma y sabor del producto final son removidos junto con el agua. En consecuencia la calidad del producto final es considerablemente afectada por la cantidad de substancias volátiles que son retenidas durante el proceso de secado. En el extracto de café, por ejemplo, existen cientos de tales compuestos, la mayoría de ellos altamente volátiles por lo que se pierden cuando el extracto es transformado en polvo seco. Independientemente del método utilizado, parece ser imposible evitar completamente la perdida de compuestos volátiles durante el secado. Un método potencial para mejorar la retención del aroma durante el secado es utilizar un sistema que trabaje a ciclo cerrado. Con el propósito de estudiar este proceso una planta piloto que consiste de un secador por aspersión, un secador de lecho fluidizado vibratorio, un sistema de recuperación de vapores e intercambiadores de calor para recalentar el aire reciclado ha sido diseñada y esta en la fase final de instalación en la Facultad de Ingeniería Química de la Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, en Managua, para hacer un estudio del método potencial de recuperación de aroma del extracto de café. Este estudio tendrá como resultado no solo un café soluble de mejor calidad sino que además un método capaz de mejorar el procesamiento de muchos otros alimentos líquidos.

  10. Coupling gas chromatography and electronic nose detection for detailed cigarette smoke aroma characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Tienpont, Bart; Mitsui, Kazuhisa; Masugi, Eri; Yoshimura, Yuta; Nagata, Hisanori; David, Frank; Sandra, Pat

    2014-10-24

    Aroma characterization of whole cigarette smoke samples using sensory panels or electronic nose (E-nose) devices is difficult due to the masking effect of major constituents and solvent used for the extraction step. On the other hand, GC in combination with olfactometry detection does not allow to study the delicate balance and synergetic effect of aroma solutes. To overcome these limitations a new instrumental set-up consisting of heart-cutting gas chromatography using a capillary flow technology based Deans switch and low thermal mass GC in combination with an electronic nose device is presented as an alternative to GC-olfactometry. This new hyphenated GC-E-nose configuration is used for the characterization of cigarette smoke aroma. The system allows the transfer, combination or omission of selected GC fractions before injection in the E-nose. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factor analysis (DFA) allowed clear visualizing of the differences among cigarette brands and classifying them independently of their nicotine content. Omission and perceptual interaction tests could also be carried out using this configuration. The results are promising and suggest that the GC-E-nose hyphenation is a good approach to measure the contribution level of individual compounds to the whole cigarette smoke. PMID:25260341

  11. Fractionation and identification of minor and aroma-active constituents in Kangra orthodox black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Robin; Gulati, Ashu

    2015-01-15

    The aroma constituents of Kangra orthodox black tea were isolated by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), supercritical fluid extraction and beverage method. The aroma-active compounds were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry. Geraniol, linalool, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, (E)-2-hexenal, phytol, ?-ionone, hotrienol, methylpyrazine and methyl salicylate were major volatile constituents in all the extracts. Minor volatile compounds in all the extracts were 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, ethylpyrazine, 2-6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, acetylfuran, hexanoic acid, dihydroactinidiolide and (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal. The concentrated SDE extract was fractionated into acidic, basic, water-soluble and neutral fractions. The neutral fraction was further chromatographed on a packed silica gel column eluted with pentane and diethyl ether to separate minor compounds. The aroma-active compounds identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry were 2-amylfuran, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 1-pentanol, epoxylinalool, (Z)-jasmone, 2-acetylpyrrole, farnesyl acetone, geranyl acetone, cadinol, cubenol and dihydroactinidiolide. AEDA studies showed 2-hexenal, 3-hexenol, ethylpyrazine, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, linalool, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, geraniol, phenylethanol, ?-ionone, hotrienol and dihydroactinidiolide to be odour active components. PMID:25148991

  12. Characterization of typical potent odorants in cola-flavored carbonated beverages by aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-01-28

    The aroma-active compounds in typical cola-flavored carbonated beverages were characterized using gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The potent odorants in the top three U.S. brands of regular colas were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Among the numerous odorants identified, eugenol (spicy, clovelike, sweet) and coumarin (sweet, herbaceous) were predominant in all colas. Other predominant odorants in at least one brand included guaiacol (smoky) and linalool (floral, sweet), while 1,8-cineole (minty, eucalyptus-like) was a moderately potent odorant in all colas. Determination of the enantiomeric compositions indicated that (R)-(-)-linalool (34.5%) was a more potent odorant than the (S)-(+)-enantiomer (65.6%) due to its much lower odor detection threshold. In addition, lemon-lime and cooling attributes determined by sensory descriptive analysis had the highest odor intensities among the eight sensory descriptors. The aroma profiles of the three colas were in good agreement with the potent odorants identified by AEDA. PMID:25528884

  13. Comparison of odor-active compounds from six distinctly different rice flavor types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong Sik; Shewfelt, Robert L; Lee, Kyu-Seong; Kays, Stanley J

    2008-04-23

    Using a dynamic headspace system with Tenax trap, GC-MS, GC-olfactometry (GC-O), and multivariate analysis, the aroma chemistry of six distinctly different rice flavor types (basmati, jasmine, two Korean japonica cultivars, black rice, and a nonaromatic rice) was analyzed. A total of 36 odorants from cooked samples were characterized by trained assessors. Twenty-five odorants had an intermediate or greater intensity (odor intensity >or= 3) and were considered to be major odor-active compounds. Their odor thresholds in air were determined using GC-O. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) had the lowest odor threshold (0.02 ng/L) followed by 11 aldehydes (ranging from 0.09 to 3.1 ng/L), guaiacol (1.5 ng/L), and 1-octen-3-ol (2.7 ng/L). On the basis of odor thresholds and odor activity values (OAVs), the importance of each major odor-active compound was assessed. OAVs for 2-AP, hexanal, ( E)-2-nonenal, octanal, heptanal, and nonanal comprised >97% of the relative proportion of OAVs from each rice flavor type, even though the relative proportion varied among samples. Thirteen odor-active compounds [2-AP, hexanal, ( E)-2-nonenal, octanal, heptanal, nonanal, 1-octen-3-ol, ( E)-2-octenal, ( E, E)-2,4-nonadienal, 2-heptanone, ( E, E)-2,4-decadienal, decanal, and guaiacol] among the six flavor types were the primary compounds explaining the differences in aroma. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the individual rice flavor types could be separated and characterized using these compounds, which may be of potential use in rice-breeding programs focusing on flavor. PMID:18363355

  14. Lipase induction in Yarrowia lipolytica for castor oil hydrolysis and its effect on ?-decalactone production

    OpenAIRE

    Braga, Adelaide; Gomes, Nelma; Belo, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    ?-Decalactone is an aromatic compound of industrial interest, resulting from the biotransformation of ricinoleic acid, the major constituent of castor oil. In order to increase the availability of the substrate to the cells for the aroma production, castor oil previously hydrolyzed can be used. This hydrolysis may be promoted by enzymatic action, more specifically by lipases. In this work, the influence upon the aroma production of the lipase produced by Yarrowia lipolytica, a microorganism a...

  15. De aromas e perfumes, o mercado da indústria do "cheiro" From aromas and perfumes, the market of the "smell" industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gomes Speziali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several flavors and fragrances (F&F companies hold the economic leadership in the market, although not always have also the leadership in patent applications. The ranking of technological production in the fragrance area still remains with industries while scientific knowledge is equally shared between industries and academia. Contextualizing Brazil in this scene, despite all scientific expertise gained over the years, brazilian technological park is still at the beginning of the production of technologies applied directly to the F&F industries. The dependence on foreign technologies is remarkable as indicated by the great trade deficit in this sector.

  16. De aromas e perfumes, o mercado da indústria do "cheiro" / From aromas and perfumes, the market of the "smell" industry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Gomes, Speziali.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Several flavors and fragrances (F&F) companies hold the economic leadership in the market, although not always have also the leadership in patent applications. The ranking of technological production in the fragrance area still remains with industries while scientific knowledge is equally shared bet [...] ween industries and academia. Contextualizing Brazil in this scene, despite all scientific expertise gained over the years, brazilian technological park is still at the beginning of the production of technologies applied directly to the F&F industries. The dependence on foreign technologies is remarkable as indicated by the great trade deficit in this sector.

  17. An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-ion-trap mass spectrometer for the on-line analysis of volatile compounds in foods: a tool for linking aroma release to aroma perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Jean-Luc; Gierczynski, Isabelle; Sémon, Etienne

    2014-09-01

    An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion-trap mass spectrometer was set up for the on-line analysis of aroma compounds. This instrument, which has been successfully employed for some years in several in vitro and in vivo flavour release studies, is described for the first time in detail. The ion source was fashioned from polyether ether ketone and operated at ambient pressure and temperature making use of a discharge corona pin facing coaxially the capillary ion entrance of the ion-trap mass spectrometer. Linear dynamic ranges (LDR), limits of detection (LOD) and other analytical characteristics have been re-evaluated. LDRs and LODs have been found fully compatible with the concentrations of aroma compounds commonly found in foods. Thus, detection limits have been found in the low ppt range for common flavouring aroma compounds (for example 5.3?ppt (0.82?ppbV) for ethyl hexanoate and 4.8?ppt (1.0?ppbV) for 2,5-dimethylpyrazine). This makes the instrument applicable for in vitro and in vivo aroma release investigations. The use of dynamic sensory techniques such as the temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) method conducted simultaneously with in vivo aroma release measurements allowed to get some new insights in the link between flavour release and flavour perception. PMID:25230189

  18. Characterization of the major aroma-active compounds in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi by application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafo, John P; Didzbalis, John; Schnell, Raymond J; Schieberle, Peter; Steinhaus, Martin

    2014-05-21

    The aroma-active compounds present in tree-ripened fruits of the five mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometery (GC-O). Application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) afforded 54 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to ?2048, 16 of which are reported for the first time in mango. The results of the identification experiments in combination with the FD factors revealed 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone as an important aroma compound in all cultivars analyzed. Twenty-seven aroma-active compounds were present in at least one mango cultivar at an FD factor ?128. Clear differences in the FD factors of these odorants between each of the mango cultivars suggested that they contributed to the unique sensory profiles of the individual cultivars. PMID:24766361

  19. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) using aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tairu, A O; Hofmann, T; Schieberle, P

    1999-08-01

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract of the dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica obtained by extraction with diethyl ether followed by sublimation in vacuo revealed 28 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 4-8192, all of which could be identified. The highest FD factor was found for linalol (floral), followed by (E)-beta-ocimene (flowery), alpha-farnesene (sweet, flowery), beta-pinene (terpeny), alpha-pinene (pine needle-like), myrtenol (flowery), and beta-phellandrene (terpeny). Vanillin (vanilla-like) and 3-ethylphenol (smoky, phenolic) showing somewhat lower FD factors (FD = 128) were detected for the first time as constituents of the dried fruit. PMID:10552646

  20. Supercritical CO2 extraction applied toward the production of a functional beverage from wine

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-rodri?guez, Alejandro; Fornari Reale, Tiziana; Jaime, Laura; Va?zquez, E.; Amador, Beatriz; Nieto, Juan Antonio; Reglero, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical CO2 extraction has been proved to be a potential tool in the recovery of aroma compounds from different natural sources and in the removal of ethanol from aqueous solutions. In this work, both ideas are combined to develop a two-step process toward the production of a low-alcohol beverage from wine, but maintaining the aroma and the antioxidant activity similar to that of the original wine. First, the recovery of aroma from wine was attained in a countercurrent packed column (wh...

  1. Agroecosystem Development of Industrial Fermentation Waste -Characterization of Aroma-active Compounds from the Cultivation Medium of Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Toshirou; Usami, Atsushi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Shinpuku, Hideto; Yonejima, Yasunori; Ikeda, Atsushi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-05-01

    Volatile oils obtained from both the liquid medium after incubation (MAI) and liquid medium before incubation (MBI) during the cultivation process of Lactobacillus brevis were isolated by hydrodistillation (HD) and analyzed to determine the utility of the liquid waste. The composition of the volatile oils was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 55 and 36 compounds were detected in the volatile oils from MAI (MAI oil) and MBI (MBI oil), respectively. The principle components of MAI oil were N-containing compounds, including 2,3-dimethylpyrazine (16, 37.1 %), methylpyrazine (4, 17.1 %). The important aroma-active compounds in the oils were detected by GC-Olfactometry (GC-O), and their intensity of aroma were measured by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Expressly, pyrazine compounds were determined as key aroma components; in particular, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine were the most primary aroma-active compound in MAI oil. These results imply that the waste medium after incubation of L. brevis may be utilized as a source of volatile oils. PMID:25843282

  2. A PCR-based marker for a locus conferring the aroma in Myanmar rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Khin Myo; Arikit, Siwaret; Wanchana, Samart; Yoshihashi, Tadashi; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Vanavichit, Apichart

    2012-09-01

    Aromatic rice is an important commodity for international trade, which has encouraged the interest of rice breeders to identify the genetic control of rice aroma. The recessive Os2AP gene, which is located on chromosome 8, has been reported to be associated with rice aroma. The 8-bp deletion in exon 7 is an aromatic allele that is present in most aromatic accessions, including the most popular aromatic rice varieties, Jasmine and Basmati. However, other mutations associated with aroma have been detected, but the other mutations are less frequent. In this study, we report an aromatic allele, a 3-bp insertion in exon 13 of Os2AP, as a major allele found in aromatic rice varieties from Myanmar. The insertion is in frame and causes an additional tyrosine (Y) in the amino acid sequence. However, the mutation does not affect the expression of the Os2AP gene. A functional marker for detecting this allele was developed and tested in an aroma-segregating F(2) population. The aroma phenotypes and genotypes showed perfect co-segregation of this population. The marker was also used for screening a collection of aromatic rice varieties collected from different geographical sites of Myanmar. Twice as many aromatic Myanmar rice varieties containing the 3-bp insertion allele were found as the varieties containing the 8-bp deletion allele, which suggested that the 3-bp insertion allele originated in regions of Myanmar. PMID:22576235

  3. Aroma extract dilution analysis of Cv. Marion (Rubus spp. hyb) and Cv. Evergreen (R. laciniatus L.) blackberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesk, Keith; Qian, Michael

    2003-05-21

    Cultivar Marion and Evergreen blackberry aromas were analyzed by aroma extract dilution analysis. Sixty-three aromas were identified (some tentatively) by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-retention time; 48 were common to both cultivars, and 27 have not been previously reported in blackberry fruit. A comparison of cultivars shows that both have comparable compound types and numbers but with widely differing aroma impacts, as measured by flavor dilution (FD) factors. Ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, hexanal, furanones (2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-(2H)-furanone, 2-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-(2H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-(2H)-furanone, 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2-(5H)-furanone, and 5-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-(5H)-furanone), and sulfur compounds (thiophene, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, 2-methylthiophene, and methional) were prominent in Evergreen (FD 512-2048). Except for ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, these same compounds were also prominent in Marion, but the FD factors varied significantly (FD 8-256) from Evergreen. The aroma profile of blackberry is complex, as no single volatile was unanimously described as characteristically blackberry. PMID:12744680

  4. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in a commercial amontillado sherry wine by means of the sensomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcq, Pauline; Schieberle, Peter

    2015-05-20

    An aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) carried out on the volatile fraction isolated by extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) distillation from a commercial Amontillado sherry wine revealed 37 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors in the range of 16-4096. Among them, 2-phenylethanol (flowery, honey-like) and ethyl methylpropanoate (fruity) showed the highest FD factors, followed by ethyl (2S,3S)-2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoate (fruity) reported for the first time in sherry wine. A total of 36 aroma-active compounds located by AEDA were then quantitated by a stable isotope dilution assay, and their odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated. The highest OAV was displayed by 1,1-diethoxyethane (2475; fruity), followed by 2- and 3-methylbutanals (574; malty) and methylpropanal (369; malty). Aroma reconstitution experiments and a comparative aroma profile analysis revealed that the entire orthonasal aroma profile of the Amontillado sherry wine could be closely mimicked. PMID:25921555

  5. Modelling of the gas-liquid partitioning of aroma compounds during wine alcoholic fermentation and prediction of aroma losses

    OpenAIRE

    Morakul, Sumallika; Mouret, Jean-Roch; Pamela, Nicole; Trelea, Cristian; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Athes, Violaine

    2011-01-01

    A model was elaborated to quantify the gas-liquid partitioning of four of the most important volatile compounds produced during winemaking fermentations, namely isobutanol, ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate and ethyl hexanoate. Analyses of constant rate fermentations demonstrated that the partitioning was not influenced by the CO(2) production rate and was a function of only the must composition and the temperature. The parameters of the model were identified in fermentations run at different te...

  6. Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The sensory quality of chocolate is widely determined by the qualitative and quantitative composition of volatile compounds resulting from microbial metabolism during fermentation, and Maillard reactions taking place during drying, roasting and conching. The influence of applying mixed starter cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, and compared to commercially fermented heap and tray cocoa. Although only minor differences in the concentration of free amino acids and reducing sugars was measured, identification and quantification by dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS/GC-MS) revealed pronounced differences in the composition of volatiles in roasted cocoa liquors and finished chocolates. 19 of the 56 volatile compounds identified in the chocolates were found in significantly higher amounts in the tray fermented sample, whilst significantly higher amounts of 2-methoxyphenol was measured in the two inoculated chocolates. The P. kluyveri inoculated chocolate was characterized by a significantly higher concentration of phenylacetaldehyde and the K. marxianus inoculated chocolate by significantly higher amounts of benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol, benzyl acetate and phenethyl acetate compared to a spontaneously fermented control. Sensory profiling described the heap and tray fermented chocolates as sweet with cocoa and caramel flavours, whilst the inoculated chocolates were characterized as fruity, acid and bitter with berry, yoghurt and balsamic flavours. The choice of fermentation technique had the greatest overall impact on the volatile aroma and sensory profile, but whilst the application of starter cultures did affect the volatile aroma profile, differences were too small to significantly change consumer perception of the chocolates as compared to a spontaneously fermented control. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Screening of Brazilian fruit aromas using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, F; Valente, A L; dos Santos Tada, E; Rivellino, S R

    2000-03-17

    Manual headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for the qualitative analysis of the aromas of four native Brazilian fruits: cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Spreng.), cajá (Spondias lutea. L.), siriguela (Spondias purpurea, L.) and graviola (Anona reticulata, L). Industrialized pulps of these fruits were used as samples, and extractions with SPME fibers coated with polydimethylsiloxane, polyacrylate, Carbowax and Carboxen were carried out. The analytes identified included several alcohols, esters, carbonyl compounds and terpernoids. The highest amounts extracted, evaluated from the sum of peak areas, were achieved using the Carboxen fiber. PMID:10757290

  8. Role of glutathione enriched inactive yeast preparations on the aroma of wines

    OpenAIRE

    Andújar-Ortiz, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J. J.; Moreno Arribas, Mª Victoria; Martín Álvarez, Pedro Jesús; Pozo-Bayón, Mª Ángeles

    2010-01-01

    [ES]: El efecto de preparados comerciales de levaduras secas inactivas ricos en glutatión (GSH-IDY) en la protección del aroma del vino durante su conservación ha sido investigado. Para ello, se elaboraron industrialmente dos vinos rosados a partir de uvas de la variedad Garnacha con y sin adición del preparado de GSH-IDY. La composición volátil se determinó a lo largo de la vida útil del vino (1 a 9 meses). Además en experimentos en vinos modelo, se estudió el efecto de diferentes tipos de p...

  9. Identification of Key Odorants in Withering-Flavored Green Tea by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    This research aims to identify key odorants in withering-flavored green tea. Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis using the volatile fraction of green tea and withering-flavored green tea revealed 25 and 35 odor-active peaks with the flavor dilution factors of?4, respectively. 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, (E)-2-nonenal, linalool, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal and 3-methylnonane-2,4-dione were key odorants in green tea with the flavor dilution factor of?16. As well as these 5 odorants, 1-octen-3-one, ?-damascenone, geraniol, ?-ionone, (Z)-methyljasmonate, indole and coumarine contributed to the withering flavor of green tea.

  10. Sensory characteristics of European, dried, fermented sausages and the correlation to volatile profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller; Sunesen, Lars Oddershede

    1999-01-01

    In the European FAIR-project: Control of Bioflavour and Safety in Northern and Mediterranean Fermented Meat Products (FAIR-CT97-3227) four different sausage types were manufactured in five replicates and characterised by sensory and analytical means. The objective of the present study was to characterise the flavour pattern of the FAIR sausages with regards to sensory perceived compounds and volatile/sensory profiles. According to gas chromatography-olfactometry the greatest differences between the Northern and Mediterranean sausages were attributed to coffee/roasted, phenolic and vinegar odours in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The compounds were 2-furfurylthiol, guaiacol, acetic acid and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. Sausages added garlic contained two specific odours with salami/onion-like notes. The odours were attributed to allylmercaptane and methylthiirane. Correlation of sensory and volatile profile showed that garlic flavour correlated with sulphur compounds from garlic, smoked flavour with most of the cyclic compounds (furanes, phenols etc.), acid flavour with the acids (acetic, butanoic and hexanoic acid), spice and piquante flavour with the terpenes, rancid flavour with hexanal, octanal, nonanal and decanal and maturity with ethyl esters and methyl-ketones.

  11. Aroma active volatiles in four southern highbush blueberry cultivars determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaofen; Rouseff, Russell

    2014-05-21

    Aroma active volatiles in four southern highbush blueberry cultivars ('Prima Dona', 'Jewel', 'Snow Chaser', and 'Kestrel') were determined using solid phase microextraction (SPME) in combination with gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and identified via GC-PFPD and GC-MS using retention indices of reference compounds and mass spectral data. The aromas of total, unseparated SPME extracts evaluated using GC-O were rated 8.2-9.0/10 for the four cultivars in terms of similarity to the original blueberry homogenates. In terms of GC-O aroma similarity, those aroma active volatile groups characterized as green, fruity, and floral were most intense. Of the 43 volatiles found to have aroma activity, 38 were identified and 13 had not been previously reported in blueberries. Although linalool and (E)-2-hexenal were common major aroma impact volatiles, dominant aroma-active volatiles were different for each cultivar. Principal component analysis confirmed that each cultivar possessed a unique aroma active profile as each cultivar was clustered into a separate score plot quadrant. PMID:24758568

  12. Evaluation of ICA-AROMA and alternative strategies for motion artifact removal in resting state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruim, Raimon H R; Mennes, Maarten; Buitelaar, Jan K; Beckmann, Christian F

    2015-05-15

    We proposed ICA-AROMA as a strategy for the removal of motion-related artifacts from fMRI data (Pruim et al., 2015). ICA-AROMA automatically identifies and subsequently removes data-driven derived components that represent motion-related artifacts. Here we present an extensive evaluation of ICA-AROMA by comparing our strategy to a range of alternative strategies for motion-related artifact removal: (i) no secondary motion correction, (ii) extensive nuisance regression utilizing 6 or (iii) 24 realignment parameters, (iv) spike regression (Satterthwaite et al., 2013a), (v) motion scrubbing (Power et al., 2012), (vi) aCompCor (Behzadi et al., 2007; Muschelli et al., 2014), (vii) SOCK (Bhaganagarapu et al., 2013), and (viii) ICA-FIX (Griffanti et al., 2014; Salimi-Khorshidi et al., 2014), without re-training the classifier. Using three different functional connectivity analysis approaches and four different multi-subject resting-state fMRI datasets, we assessed all strategies regarding their potential to remove motion artifacts, ability to preserve signal of interest, and induced loss in temporal degrees of freedom (tDoF). Results demonstrated that ICA-AROMA, spike regression, scrubbing, and ICA-FIX similarly minimized the impact of motion on functional connectivity metrics. However, both ICA-AROMA and ICA-FIX resulted in significantly improved resting-state network reproducibility and decreased loss in tDoF compared to spike regression and scrubbing. In comparison to ICA-FIX, ICA-AROMA yielded improved preservation of signal of interest across all datasets. These results demonstrate that ICA-AROMA is an effective strategy for removing motion-related artifacts from rfMRI data. Our robust and generalizable strategy avoids the need for censoring fMRI data and reduces motion-induced signal variations in fMRI data, while preserving signal of interest and increasing the reproducibility of functional connectivity metrics. In addition, ICA-AROMA preserves the temporal non-artifactual time-series characteristics and limits the loss in tDoF, thereby increasing statistical power at both the subject- and the between-subject analysis level. PMID:25770990

  13. Identification of aroma-active volatiles in banana Terra spirit using multidimensional gas chromatography with simultaneous mass spectrometry and olfactometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobiango, Michely; Mastello, Raíssa Bittar; Chin, Sung-Tong; Oliveira, Evelyn de Souza; Cardeal, Zenilda de Lourdes; Marriott, Philip John

    2015-04-01

    Fruit spirits have been produced and consumed throughout the world for centuries. However, the aroma composition of banana spirits is still poorly characterised. We have investigated the aroma-impact compounds of the banana Terra spirit for the first time, using multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC and GC × GC) in a multi-hyphenated system - i.e., coupled to flame ionisation detection (FID), mass spectrometry (MS), and olfactometry (O). Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used to isolate the headspace aroma compounds of the banana spirit. The detection frequency (DF) technique was applied and aroma regions, detected in the first column separation at >60% Nasal Impact Frequency (NIF), were screened as target potent odour regions in the sample. Using a polar/non-polar phase column set, the potent odour regions were further subjected to MDGC separation with simultaneous O and MS detection for correlation of the aroma perception with MS data for individual resolved aroma-impact compounds. GC-O analysis enabled 18 aroma-impact regions to be located as providing volatiles of interest for further study; for example, those comprising perceptions of flower, whisky, green, amongst others. Compounds were tentatively identified through MS data matching and retention indices in both first and second dimensions. The principal volatile compounds identified in this work, which are responsible for the characteristic aroma of the banana spirit, are 3-methylbutan-1-ol, 3-methylbutan-1-ol acetate, 2-phenylethyl acetate and phenylethyl alcohol. This is the first such study to reveal the major aroma compounds that contribute to banana spirit aroma. PMID:25728661

  14. Characterization of aroma-active compounds, sensory properties, and proteolysis in Ezine cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuceer, Y Karagul; Tuncel, B; Guneser, O; Engin, B; Isleten, M; Yasar, K; Mendes, M

    2009-09-01

    Ezine cheese is a white pickled cheese ripened in tinplate containers for at least 8 mo. A mixture of milk from goat, sheep, and cow is used to make Ezine cheese. Ezine cheese has geographical indication status. The purposes of this study were to determine and compare the changes in basic composition, aroma, and sensory characteristics, and proteolytic activity of Ezine cheese stored in tinplate containers and plastic vacuum packages during storage. Aroma-active compounds were determined by thermal desorption gas chromatography olfactometry. To evaluate the proteolytic activity, casein and nitrogen fractions were determined. The results indicated that compounds identified at high intensities were dimethyl sulfide, ethyl butyrate, hexanal, ethyl pentanoate, (Z)-4-heptenal, 1-octen-3-one, acetic acid, butyric acid, and p-cresol. Characteristic descriptive terms were cooked, whey, creamy, animal-like, sour, and salty. The level of proteolysis increased in Ezine cheese during storage. Ezine cheese can be ripened in small-size packaging after 3 mo of storage. Approximately 6 mo is sufficient to produce the characteristic properties of Ezine cheese. PMID:19700675

  15. Centrifugal partition chromatography applied to the isolation of oak wood aroma precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaghenaufi, Davide; Marchand-Marion, Stéphanie; Richard, Tristan; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Bisson, Jonathan; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Merillon, Jean-Michel; de Revel, Gilles

    2013-12-01

    Flavours extracted from oak wood during barrel ageing contribute to the organoleptic character of wines and spirits. The aim of this work was to identify the glycosidic precursors of the key volatile compounds responsible for oak wood aroma. Oak extract is a very complex matrix and, furthermore, precursors are present in very small quantities. Preparative centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) is a promising solution for purifying the oak extract. The solvent system was selected on the basis of the partition coefficient of glycosidase enzyme activity (Kca). Thanks to the efficacy of CPC separation, three glucoside gallates were subsequently isolated by HPLC chromatography. Vanillin-(6'-O-galloyl)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-(6'-O-galloyl)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, and (6R,9R)-3-oxo-?-ionol-9-O-(6'-O-galloyl)-?-glucopyranoside (macarangioside E) were isolated and identified. This was the first time that vanillin-(6'-O-galloyl)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside was identified and the first time that macarangioside E was isolated from oak wood. Heating macarangioside E resulted in the formation of megastigmatrienone, which has an aroma reminiscent of tobacco. PMID:23870953

  16. Sensor responses to fat food aroma: a comprehensive study of dry-cured ham typicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Diego L; Tena, Noelia; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Aparicio, Ramón

    2014-03-01

    The physicochemical phenomena that explain the sensing mechanisms of gas sensors have been extensively investigated. Nevertheless, it is arduous to interpret the sensor signals in a practical approach when they response to complex mixtures of compounds responsible for food aroma. Thus, the concomitant interactions between the volatiles and the sensor give up a single response affected by synergic and masking effects between compounds. An experimental procedure is proposed to determine the individual contribution of volatile compounds in the sensor response, illustrated with the examples of aroma of dry-cured hams and metal oxide sensors. The results from mathematical correlations and the analyses of pure standards are previously analyzed to describe the behavior of sensors when interacting with individual compounds. A sensor based olfactory detector (SBOD) entailing the use of a capillary column connected to a sensor array as non-destructive detector in parallel with the flame detector served to provide definitive information about the individual contribution of volatile compounds to sensor responses. The sensor responses in this system, which is referred to as sensorgram, were interpreted by taking into account the volatile composition of the samples determined by GC. PMID:24468380

  17. Improved methods for fMRI studies of combined taste and aroma stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, Luca; Pfeiffer, Johann C; Hort, Joanne; Head, Kay; Bush, Debbie; Taylor, Andy J; Spiller, Robin C; Francis, Sue; Gowland, Penny A

    2006-12-15

    Previous neuroimaging studies of the cortical representation of gustatory and olfactory stimuli have often delivered tastants to the mouth in very small quantities or stimulated olfaction orthonasally. In studies of retro-nasal olfaction, swallowing was generally delayed to reduce head motion artefacts. The present fMRI study aims to improve upon such methodological limitations to allow investigation of the cortical representation of flavour (taste and aroma combination) as it typically occurs during the consumption of liquid foods. For this purpose we used (1) a novel, automated, sprayed stimulus delivery system and a larger volume of liquid sample (containing sweet tastants and banana/pear aroma volatiles) to achieve more extensive stimulation of the oral cavity taste receptors, (2) a pseudo-natural delivery paradigm that included prompt swallowing after each sample delivery to obtain physiological retro-nasal olfactory stimulation, (3) fMRI acquisition with wide brain coverage and double-echo EPI to improve sensitivity. We validated our paradigm for the delivery of volatiles using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry. This showed that the main retro-nasal delivery of volatiles in the paradigm occurs immediately after the swallow. Several brain areas were found to be activated, including the insula, frontal operculum, rolandic operculum/parietal lobe, piriform, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, ventro-medial thalamus, hippocampus and medial orbitofrontal cortex. PMID:16839610

  18. Stomatal distribution, stomatal density and daily leaf movement in Acacia aroma (Leguminosae Distribución y densidad estomática y movimiento diario de la hoja en Acacia aroma (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo P. Hernández

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia aroma Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. grows in the Chacoan and Yungas Biogeographic Provinces, Argentina. It has numerous medicinal applications, sweet and edible fruits, and it may be used as forage. The objective of the present contribution was to analyse the stomatal distribution and stomatal density on the secondary leaflet surfaces, in different parts of the leaf, and at different tree crown levels, establishing the leaf movement and environmental condition relationships. The work was performed with fresh material and herbarium specimens, using conventional anatomical techniques. Stomatal distribution on the secondary leaflet surfaces was established, and differences in stomatal density among basal, medium and apical leaflets were found. A decrease in stomatal density from the lower level to the upper level of the tree crown would be connected with that. The stomatal distribution and density appear related to the secondary leaflet shape and its position on the secondary rachis, interacting with the daily secondary leaflets and leaf movement, and the weather conditions. It is interesting that the medium value of stomata density were found in the middle part of the leaf and at the middle level of the tree crown. Original illustrations are given.Acacia aroma crece en las Provincias Biogeográficas Chaqueña y de las Yungas, Argentina. Este árbol posee numerosas aplicaciones en medicina popular, sus frutos son comestibles y puede ser usada como forraje. Los objetivos de la presente contribución fueron: establecer la distribución y densidad de los estomas en el folíolo secundario, en distintos folíolos secundarios de la misma hoja y en los folíolos secundarios de las hojas de la parte basal, media y superior de la copa del árbol, estableciendo relaciones con el movimiento diario de las hojas y condiciones ambientales. Para el estudio se utilizó material fresco y ejemplares de herbario empleando técnicas de anatomía convencionales. Se estableció la distribución de los estomas sobre las superficies adaxial y abaxial del folíolo secundario. Se encontraron diferencias en la densidad de estomas entre los folíolos secundarios de la parte basal, media y apical de la hoja que están relacionadas a la posición de éstas en la copa del árbol. Dentro de la copa del árbol se encontró que la densidad de estomas decrece desde la parte basal hasta la parte superior. La distribución y densidad estomática estarían relacionadas a la forma del folíolo secundario y posición de éstos sobre el raquis, al movimiento diario de los folíolos secundarios y de la hoja interactuando con los factores ambientales. Cabe destacar que el valor medio de densidad de estomas se halló en la parte media de la hoja y en la parte media de la copa del árbol. El trabajo se acompaña con ilustraciones originales.

  19. Solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography olfactometry analysis of successively diluted samples. A new approach of the aroma extract dilution analysis applied to the characterization of wine aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Maria Pilar; Mestres, Montserrat; Sala, Cristina; Busto, Olga; Guasch, Josep

    2003-12-31

    The relationship between the composition and the aroma of the wine can be established by using gas chromatography with olfactometric detection (sniffing or GCO), which combines the chromatographic response with the human nose response. To evaluate the contribution of the odor compounds in wine aroma, we designed a new approach of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) that lies in the GCO analysis of serially diluted wine samples using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) as the extraction technique. The fiber coating used was Flex divinyl-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane. The method developed was applied to determine the aromatic composition of a red Grenache wine from Priorat (Spain). The method allows 38 important odorants to be determined in the AEDA study, 30 of them precisely identified. These results are similar to those reported by other studies related to this variety of wine. HS-SPME is a suitable technique to obtain representative extracts of wine aroma with several advantages such as simplicity, speediness, and little sample manipulation. PMID:14690365

  20. Cooked carrots volatiles. AEDA and odor activity comparisons. Identification of Linden Ether as an important aroma component

    Science.gov (United States)

    MS with GC-RI evidence was found for the presence of Linden ether in cooked carrot. Evaluation of the GC effluent from cooked carrot volatiles using Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA) found Linden ether with the highest Flavor Dilution (FD) factor. Others with 10 fold lower FD factors were B-i...

  1. Characterization of Fish Sauce Aroma Impact Compounds Using GC-MS, SPME-Osme-GCO, and Stevens' Power Law Exponents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to characterize volatile compounds and to determine the characteristic aromas associated with impact compounds in 4 fish sauces using solid-phase micro-extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Osme, and gas chromatography olfactometry (SPME-Osme-GCO) couple...

  2. Determinaton of Volatile Aroma Components of Gyromitra Mushroom Using Headspace Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hat?ra Ta?k?n

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gyromitra is one of the poisonous mushrooms with being evaluated as edible mushrooms in Turkey and in many countries. This study was performed to determine volatile aroma compounds of Gyromitra collected from Turkey at Horticulture Department of Çukurova University, Adana-Turkey in 2011. Gyromitra mushroom samples collected from Adana province of Turkey were used as material. Volatile aroma compounds were determined using Headspace Gas Kromotografi Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS technique. Twenty-four different volatile aroma compounds were detected in this study. Phenol was identified as the major aroma component at 47.10% content. This compound was followed with Carbamic acid methyl ester (14.12%, Acetic acid (4.47%, 1-Octen-3-ol (4.14% and Acetaldehyde (4.10%. Phenol is an antioxidant compound and it has anti-carcinogenic effect. 1-Octen-3-ol is an alcohol which commonly found in mushroom. Acetic acid and Acetaldehyde are poisonous compounds. Although high number of phenol and 1-Octen-3-ol in Gyromitra fungus is displayed as flavor and significant in terms of health, containing toxic compounds such as acetic acid and the acid aldehyde raises the risk factors in exhaustion.

  3. Selected Ion Flow Tube-Mass Spectrometry for Absolute Quantification of Aroma Compounds in the Headspace of Dry Fermented Sausages.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olivares, A.; Dryahina, Kseniya; Navarro, J. L.; Flores, M.; Smith, D.; Špan?l, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 82, ?. 13 (2010), s. 5819-5829. ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/09/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : mass spectrometry * aroma compounds * dry fermented sausages Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.874, year: 2010

  4. Volatile composition and aroma activity of guava puree before and after thermal and dense phase carbon dioxide treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Maria Lourdes; Marshall, Maurice R; Rouseff, Russell Lee

    2015-02-01

    Volatiles from initially frozen, dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD)- and thermally treated guava purees were isolated by solid phase microextraction (SPME), chromatographically separated and identified using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC-olfactometry (GC-O), and GC-pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD, sulfur mode). Fifty-eight volatiles were identified using GC-MS consisting of: 6 aldehydes, 2 acids, 15 alcohols, 6 ketones, 21 esters, and 8 terpenes. Eleven volatiles were newly identified in guava puree. Hexanal was the most abundant volatile in all 3 types of guava puree. Ten sulfur compounds were identified using GC-PFPD of which 3 possessed aroma activity and 3 were not previously reported in guava puree. Both treatments profoundly reduced total sulfur peak areas and produced different peak patterns compared to control. Thermal treatment reduced total sulfur peak area 47.9% compared to a loss of 34.7% with DPCD treatment. Twenty-six volatiles possessed aroma activity. (Z)-3-Hexenyl hexanoate was the major contributor to the aroma of the freshly thawed and DPCD-treated guava puree. DPCD treatment reduced total MS ion chromatogram (MS TIC) peak area 35% but produced a GC-O aroma profile very similar to control. Whereas thermal treatment reduced total TIC peak area only 8.7% compared to control but produced a 35% loss in total GC-O peak intensities. PMID:25588413

  5. Characterizing endogenous and oxidative low molecular weight flavor/aroma compounds in fresh squeezed/blended pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum) juices. Although, arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing volatile and semi-volatile compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Only two reports w...

  6. Changes in volatile compounds and overall aroma profile during storage of coffee brews at 4 and 25 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martínez, Mónica; Sopelana, Patricia; de Peña, M Paz; Cid, Concepción

    2008-05-14

    In this work, the chemical changes occurring in the volatile fraction of Arabica coffee brews during storage at 4 and 25 degrees C for 30 days have been characterized for the first time by means of HS-GC-MS. A total of 47 compounds were identified and quantified: 2 sulfur compounds, 7 aldehydes, 3 esters, 15 furans, 5 ketones, 1 alcohol, 2 thiophenes, 4 pyrroles, 1 pyridine, 5 pyrazines, 1 alkene, and 1 acid. No new volatile compounds were detected at the end of the storage time. The changes observed are, in general, slower and less pronounced at refrigeration temperature. Storage also affects the sensory characteristics of the stored coffee brews, which lose part of their aroma intensity and freshness, acquiring some nondesirable notes such as rancid aroma, mainly during storage at 25 degrees C. Furthermore, seven aroma indices have been proposed as indicators of coffee brew staling, which show a good correlation with some sensory attributes, not only for aroma but also overall sensory quality. Consequently, they could be considered useful to monitor both the "age" and the sensory quality of stored coffee brews. PMID:18422327

  7. Study of the influence of maceration time and oenological practices on the aroma profile of Vranec wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropulos, Violeta Ivanova; Bogeva, Elena; Stafilov, Traj?e; Stefova, Marina; Siegmund, Barbara; Pabi, Nicole; Lankmayr, Ernst

    2014-12-15

    Vranec is one of the most important red grape varieties in Republic of Macedonia, grown in all vineyards, mostly in the Tikveš wine region. In this study, Vranec wines produced with different maceration times (4, 7, 14 and 30 days) in presence of enzyme and oak chips during fermentation were studied in order to determine the influence of vinification conditions on the aroma profile. The volatile compounds were determined using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with a PDMS/Carboxen/DVB fibre, coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total 63 aroma compounds were detected revealing a complex aroma profile of Vranec wines composed of esters, alcohols, fatty acids, aldehydes, ketones and sulphur compounds. The content of aroma compounds was related mostly to maceration time, observing increased relative amount of alcohols, esters and fatty acids from the fourth to seventh day of maceration and the presence of oak chips during the fermentation enhanced their formation. The Student-Newman-Keuls test has been applied to ascertain possible significant differences between the studied wines, and principal component analysis has been employed, showing separation and grouping of the wines according to maceration time and oak chips treatment. PMID:25038705

  8. Sensory profiles of breast meat from broilers reared in an organic niche production system and conventional standard broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsted, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Bodil Helene

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast meat from broilers produced in very different production systems may vary considerable in sensory profile, which may affect consumer interests. In this study the aim was to evaluate differences in the sensory profiles of breast meat from five broiler products: two conventional standard products (A and B) and three organic niche genotypes (I657, L40 and K8) reared in an apple orchard. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 22 sensory attributes differed significantly between the products. The aroma attributes `chicken', `bouillon' and `fat' scored highest and the `iron/liver' aroma lowest for the niche products. The meat was more `tender', `short' and `crumbly' and less `hard' and `stringy' in the standard products than in one or more of the niche products. Product `I 657' was less `juicy' than the rest. Products `I 657' and `L 40' were more `cohesive' and tasted more `sourish' and less of `sweet/maize' than the standard products. The `overall liking' score was significantly higher for the `K 8' product than for the `Standard A' and `L 40' products. The `overall liking' score was significantly correlated with the scores for aroma and taste of `chicken', `umami/bouillon', `iron/liver' and `fat' aroma. CONCLUSION: The sensory profiles differed particularly between conventional standard broilers and organic niche broilers, although differences were also found between breeds. The present study indicates that aroma and taste attributes were more important for the assessors than meat `tenderness' for the overall liking of broiler meat.

  9. Sensory profile of breast meat from broilers reared in an organic niche production system and conventional standard broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsted, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Bodil Helene

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast meat from broilers produced in very different production systems may vary considerable in sensory profile, which may affect consumer interests. In this study the aim was to evaluate differences in the sensory profiles of breast meat from five broiler products: two conventional standard products (A and B) and three organic niche genotypes (I657, L40 and K8) reared in an apple orchard. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 22 sensory attributes differed significantly between the products. The aroma attributes ‘chicken’, ‘bouillon’ and ‘fat’ scored highest and the ‘iron/liver’ aroma lowest for the niche products. The meat was more ‘tender’, ‘short’ and ‘crumbly’ and less ‘hard’ and ‘stringy’ in the standard products than in one or more of the niche products. Product ‘I 657’ was less ‘juicy’ than the rest. Products ‘I 657’ and ‘L 40’ were more ‘cohesive’ and tasted more ‘sourish’ and less of ‘sweet/maize’ than the standard products. The ‘overall liking’ score was significantly higher for the ‘K 8’ product than for the ‘Standard A’ and ‘L 40’ products. The ‘overall liking’ score was significantly correlated with the scores for aroma and taste of ‘chicken’, ‘umami/bouillon’, ‘iron/liver’ and ‘fat’ aroma. CONCLUSION: The sensory profiles differed particularly between conventional standard broilers and organic niche broilers, although differences were also found between breeds. The present study indicates that aroma and taste attributes were more important for the assessors than meat ‘tenderness’ for the overall liking of broiler meat.

  10. Detection of Volatile Aroma Compounds of Morchella by Headspace Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatira TA?KIN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   This study was conducted at the Horticulture Department of Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey, in 2010 to determine the volatile aroma compounds of Morchella mushroom. Fresh samples of Morchella esculenta (Sample 1 and Morchella elata (Sample 2 were collected from Çanakkale (Sample 1 and Mersin (Sample 2 provinces in Turkey in the spring of 2010. Volatile aroma compounds were analyzed by headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS. A total of 31 aroma compounds were identified in the 2 analyzed samples: 7 alcohols, 7 esters, 7 ketones, 3 acids, 2 aldehydes, 1 terpene, phenol, 1-propanamine, geranyl linalool, and quinoline. Seventeen aroma components were identified in Sample 1, and 18 compounds were found in Sample 2. Phenol was determined as the major aroma compound in both Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 50.888% and 58.293% content, respectively. Alcohols, especially 1-octen-3-ol, were detected as the second major aroma components in Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 15.500% and 5.660% content, respectively. Carbamic acid, methyl ester was found only in Sample 1, at 11.379% content. The aroma components detected in the two samples differed. 1-Octadecanol; cyclooctylalcohol; trans-2-undecen-1-ol; butanoic acid, butyl ester (CAS; carbamic acid, methyl ester; 2-ethylhexyl-2-ethylhexanoate; phthalic acid, decyl isobutyl ester; 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate; decanal; nonanal; 7,9-di-tert-butyl-1-oxaspiro(4.5deca-6,9-diene-2,8-dione; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione; 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl; and trans-alpha-bisabolene were detected only in Sample 1. Ethanol; silanediol, 2-methylaminoethanol; L-alanine, ethyl ester; carbonic acid, dodecyl isobutyl ester; acetic acid; butanoic acid; 2,3,4H-pyran-4-one; 5,9-undecadien-2-one; cyclooctene; 2-cyclopenten-1-one; 1-propanamine; geranyl linalool; and quinoline were determined only in Sample 2.

  11. GC-MS-olfactometric characterization of the most aroma-active components in a representative aromatic extract from Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanpour, Asghar; Sonmezdag, A Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2015-09-01

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry. The saffron aromatic extracts were obtained by four different extraction techniques including solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid phase extraction (SPE), and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and compared to achieve a representative aromatic extract from saffron. According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was the most representative of saffron odour. A total of 28 aroma compounds were identified in saffron. Ketones were quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in saffron, followed by aldehydes and acids. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of saffron. A total of nine aroma-active compounds were detected in the aromatic extract. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma active compounds were safranal (FD=512), 4-ketoisophorone (FD=256) and dihydrooxophorone (FD=128). PMID:25842335

  12. Aroma extract dilution analysis of cv. Meeker (Rubus idaeus L.) red raspberries from Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesk, Keith; Qian, Michael; Martin, Robert R

    2004-08-11

    The aromas of cultivar Meeker red raspberry from Oregon and Washington were analyzed by aroma extract dilution analysis. Seventy-five aromas were identified [some tentatively (superscript T)] by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-retention index; 53 were common to both, and 22 have not been previously reported in red raspberry. Twenty-one compounds had an equivalent odor impact in both: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-(2H)-furanone, hexanal, 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one, (E)-beta-3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatrieneT, 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptaneT, 1-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1,3-cyclohexadien-1-yl)-2-buten-1-one, ethanoic acid, (Z)-3-hexenalT, 3-methylmercaptopropionaldehyde, (Z)-3-hexenol, 2,6-dimethyl-2,7-octadien-6-ol, butanoic acid, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, (E)-2-hexenal, hexyl formateT, 2,3-butanedione, heptanalT, thiacyclopentadieneT, cyclohexane carbaldehydeT, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-olT, and 4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone. Oregon Meeker had 14 odorants with higher flavor dilution (FD) factors than Washington Meeker: 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-oneT, 1-octanol, 5-isopropyl-2-methylcyclohexa-1,3-dieneT, 7-methyl-3-methylene-1,6-octadieneT, ethyl hexanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetateT, ethyl propanoate, 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanoneT, 2-methylbutanoic acid, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl cyclohexane carboxylateT, 2-methylthiacyclopentadieneT, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetateT, and 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-olT. Washington Meeker had 16 odorants with higher FD factors than Oregon Meeker: 5-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-(5H)-furanoneT, dimethyl sulfideT, 2-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-(2H)-furanoneT, 1-hexanolT, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-yl acetateT, methyl hexanoate, phenyl ethanoic acidT, neo-allo-3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatrieneT, 2-nonanoneT, 2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enyl)propan-2-olT, phenylmethanolT, 5-octanolideT, 2-phenylethanol, 1-isopropyl-4-methylenebicyclo[3.1.0]hexaneT, and 2-undecanone. PMID:15291490

  13. Inhibition of the compound action potentials of frog sciatic nerves by aroma oil compounds having various chemical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Matsushita, Akitomo; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2015-03-01

    Plant-derived chemicals including aroma oil compounds have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction and modulate transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Although applying aroma oils to the skin produces a local anesthetic effect, this has not been yet examined throughly. The aim of the present study was to know how nerve conduction inhibitions by aroma oil compounds are related to their chemical structures and whether these activities are mediated by TRP activation. Compound action potentials (CAPs) were recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. Citral (aldehyde), which activates various types of TRP channels, attenuated the peak amplitude of CAP with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 0.46 mmol/L. Another aldehyde (citronellal), alcohol (citronellol, geraniol, (±)-linalool, (-)-linalool, (+)-borneol, (-)-borneol, ?-terpineol), ester (geranyl acetate, linalyl acetate, bornyl acetate), and oxide (rose oxide) compounds also reduced CAP peak amplitudes (IC50: 0.50, 0.35, 0.53, 1.7, 2.0, 1.5, 2.3, 2.7, 0.51, 0.71, 0.44, and 2.6 mmol/L, respectively). On the other hand, the amplitudes were reduced by a small extent by hydrocarbons (myrcene and p-cymene) and ketone (camphor) at high concentrations (2-5 mmol/L). The activities of citral and other TRP agonists ((+)-borneol and camphor) were resistant to TRP antagonist ruthenium red. An efficacy sequence for the CAP inhibitions was generally aldehydes ? esters ? alcohols > oxides > hydrocarbons. The CAP inhibition by the aroma oil compound was not related to its octanol-water partition coefficient. It is suggested that aroma oil compounds inhibit nerve conduction in a manner specific to their chemical structures without TRP activation. PMID:26038703

  14. Identification, quantification and comparison between the chemical substances responsible for the irradiated pot still cachaca and commercial rum aromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation process has being presented as an alternative technique in food preservation. When applied on beverages, radiation is mainly used for malt decontamination or sterilization of musts and had been proposed also to accelerate aging. Some confusion over rum and cachaca identities has arisen due to the internationalization of cachaca. This research aims to identify, quantify and compare the effect of gamma radiation on the aroma of the Brazilian spirit with rum, irradiated and non irradiated, by instrumental and sensory analysis. Results showed that the content of volatile compounds presented strong correlation with the radiation dose (0,150 and 300 Gy) for all the samples. According to Triangle Test for aroma, all the judges could distinguish among non irradiated and irradiated samples (300 Gy), aged cachaca from rum and non aged cachaca from rum, but they could not distinguish aged cachaca from non aged cachaca. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results from the quantitative descriptive analysis showed that non irradiated non aged cachaca and rum were different in their alcohol, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except caramel and apple aroma attributes. Non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) were different in their apple, caramel, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except alcohol aroma attributes. According to the gas chromatography/olfactometry results, significant difference was found among non irradiated cachaca and rum; non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) when their aromas were compared. (author)

  15. Variability in waxing-induced ethanol and aroma volatile production among mandarin genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarins often develop off-flavors during storage that impact consumer acceptance and it would be useful to develop mandarin varieties that are less susceptible to postharvest flavor loss. Ethanol has long been identified as being a compound identified with flavor loss in citrus. A range of divers...

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mixed Culture of Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L.) Juice: Synergism in the Aroma Compounds Production

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista-Rosales, Pedro Ulises; Ragazzo-Sánchez, Juan Arturo; Ruiz-Montañez, Gabriela; Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa Isela; Luna-Solano, Guadalupe; Calderón-Santoyo, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Blackberry (Rubus sp.) juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574) recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (

  17. Radiation dose and storage temperature and period effects on the flavor and aroma of orange juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of storage temperature and period on orange juice concentrates were studied for samples irradiated with 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy doses from a gamma-ray source as well as for untreated samples. All samples were stored at 00 C, 50 C and 250 C for periods of 1,30, 60 and 90 days. Samples stored for more than one day underwent a diminution in storage attribute rating with corresponding increase in ratings for the bitterness, medicinal and cooked attributes. Storage at 00 C and 50 C seems to have smaller effects on the sweetness rating as well as on the oily, acid and medicinal flavor characteristics. Effect of radiation dose level on the flavor and aroma attributes depended on the storage temperature and time. In most cases, higher radiation levels are associated by lower orange attribute values and higher bitter medicinal and cooked ratings. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Associations of Volatile Compounds with Sensory Aroma and Flavor: The Complex Nature of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Chambers IV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to relate sensory analysis data to specific chemicals such as volatile compounds have been frequent. Often these associations are difficult to interpret or are weak in nature. Although some difficulties may relate to the methods used, the difficulties also result from the complex nature of flavor. For example, there are multiple volatiles responsible for a flavor sensation, combinations of volatiles yield different flavors than those expected from individual compounds, and the differences in perception of volatiles in different matrices. This review identifies some of the reasons sensory analysis and instrumental measurements result in poor associations and suggests issues that need to be addressed in future research for better understanding of the relationships of flavor/aroma phenomena and chemical composition.

  19. Response of the aroma fraction in sherry wines subjected to accelerated biological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, M B; Moreno, J J; Zea, L; Moyano, L; Medina, M

    1999-08-01

    The effect of an acceleration assay, carried out with a periodic aeration and an increased surface/volume ratio, on various aroma compounds of "fino" Sherry wines aging under a veil of a pure culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae race capensis G1 flor film yeast was studied. The results were subjected to multifactor analysis of variance, and the compounds simultaneously depending on acceleration conditions and aging time at p accelerated aging wines in a shorter time than they did in control wines, and no browning problems were detected. Taking into account that these compounds can be used as indicators for biological aging of "fino" Sherry wines, the acceleration condition assayed can be applied to shorten the time of this process. PMID:10552649

  20. IMPORTANCE OF AROMAS ON MOOD PROFILE AND HUMAN AURA (Qualitative Vibrations of Prana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srilakshmi R* and N ShakuntalaManay

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Traditional Concept of “Swastya” means to be stationed in one’s own self or well-being, which means to be beyond body / mind yogically. Sri Aurobindo (1970 stated that “Yoga means a methodized effort towards self-perfection by expression of the potentialities latent in the being” and “…a union of the human individual with the universal and transcendent Existence”. According to Sri Aurobindo (1972 “The Spirit has made itself Matter (body in order to place itself there as an instrument for the well-being and joy “Yogakshema”, of created beings for a self-offering of  physical universal utility of service. Interestingly, WHO has stipulated spiritual health for universal well-being. This opens avenues for experimental studies.  Benson (1976 stated that in the year 1968 opened medical laboratory for studies in transcendental meditation.   Chopra (1993 has spoken that there is enormous latent intelligence in the living organism. The “inexperience” of the organism has placed the mind – body relationship on scientific footing. This relationship opens both ways, on one hand it removes disease state and being at “ease” state. Thus enhancing psychoneurotic immunology where the subject herself / himself learns to manipulate the involved energy and to enhance the delightful state of well-being. Aromas have been an area that can open new areas for research on emotional and psychosomatic well-being.  “Pranayama” recognizes science of holding breath or vitality.  “Willfully” holding moods with awareness / consciousness is to experience spirits flow and its freedom in creating a new inner dimension of highest well-being.   To experience subtle and its power of mood is yogically raise mood profile to the dynamics of the spirit subjectively.  This was taken as an experimental study. The Subjects studying in MSc. in the Department of Food Service Management at Smt. V.H.D. Central Institute of Home Science, Bangalore, India took part in the study. A pre-test was conducted to check the Aura status of all the twenty subjects. Based on pre-test health status a purposive sample was worked out. Those subjects whose health aura was in good condition were selected as Control Group, (n=10 and others whose health aura was affected were chosen as Experimental Group (n=10 and the Experimental Group were subjected to intervention programme along with Aroma Treatment. Based on the investigator’s observations, an experiment was designed to study the influence of Aroma on the subject’s physiological and psychological moods and feelings, effect on Chakras and their Human Aura. Statistical test ?2 (Chi-square was used to test the significance between Experimental and Control Groups for comparison. The aroma Nectar of Divine Joy has yielded significant results both in objective and subjective test obtained by the Experimental group. The result showed that the intervention programme helped in retaining higher emotions. This study points out that the auric field one carries depends upon one’s own thought forms that one generates through emotions and feelings.  To bathe inner organs with the highest mood profile is to experience the highest vitality in body and mind as one vibrates and radiates the well-being around them in homonymous state.  This growth is a teleotic journey in emotions and feelings towards the Divine state.

  1. Poikilodermatous changes on the forearms of a woman practicing aroma-therapy: extracervical poikiloderma of Civatte?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoulis, Alexandros; Makris, Michalis; Gregoriou, Stamatis; Rallis, Eustathios; Kanelleas, Antonis; Stavrianeas, Nicolaos; Rigopoulos, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 48-year-old, Caucasian female who presented with slowly progressing asymptomatic poikilodermatous changes of the extensor aspects of the forearms. She also had typical Poikiloderma of Civatte on the V of the neck and erythemato-telangiectatic rosacea of the central face. The patient had been practicing aroma-therapy for many years. Histologic examination revealed findings consistent with PC. Patch-testing revealed positive reactions to Fragrance mix and Nickel sulphate. Based on clinical and histological findings, a diagnosis of extracervical PC was suggested. PC with extra-cervical or extra-facial involvement is rare. In addition, this case supports the theory that contact sensitization to fragrances may contribute to the development of PC. PMID:25054757

  2. Poikilodermatous changes on the forearms of a woman practicing aroma-therapy: extracervical poikiloderma of Civatte?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoulis, Alexandros; Makris, Michalis; Gregoriou, Stamatis; Rallis, Eustathios; Kanelleas, Antonis; Stavrianeas, Nicolaos; Rigopoulos, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 48-year-old, Caucasian female who presented with slowly progressing asymptomatic poikilodermatous changes of the extensor aspects of the forearms. She also had typical Poikiloderma of Civatte on the V of the neck and erythemato-telangiectatic rosacea of the central face. The patient had been practicing aroma-therapy for many years. Histologic examination revealed findings consistent with PC. Patch-testing revealed positive reactions to Fragrance mix and Nickel sulphate. Based on clinical and histological findings, a diagnosis of extracervical PC was suggested. PC with extra-cervical or extra-facial involvement is rare. In addition, this case supports the theory that contact sensitization to fragrances may contribute to the development of PC. PMID:25054757

  3. Poikilodermatous changes on the forearms of a woman practicing aroma-therapy: extracervical poikiloderma of Civatte?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandros, Katoulis; Michalis, Makris; Stamatis, Gregoriou; Eustathios, Rallis; Antonis, Kanelleas; Nicolaos, Stavrianeas; Dimitris, Rigopoulos.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 48-year-old, Caucasian female who presented with slowly progressing asymptomatic poikilodermatous changes of the extensor aspects of the forearms. She also had typical Poikiloderma of Civatte on the V of the neck and erythemato-telangiectatic rosacea of the central face. The [...] patient had been practicing aroma-therapy for many years. Histologic examination revealed findings consistent with PC. Patch-testing revealed positive reactions to Fragrance mix and Nickel sulphate. Based on clinical and histological findings, a diagnosis of extracervical PC was suggested. PC with extra-cervical or extra-facial involvement is rare. In addition, this case supports the theory that contact sensitization to fragrances may contribute to the development of PC.

  4. Key volatile aroma compounds of three black velvet tamarind (Dialium) fruit species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasekan, Ola; See, Ng Siew

    2015-02-01

    Nineteen odour-active compounds were quantified in three black velvet tamarind fruit species. Calculation of the odour activity values (OAVs) of the odorants showed that differences in odour profiles of the tamarinds were mainly caused by linalool, limonene, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, nonanal, and (Z)-3-hexenal. On the basis of their high OAVs, cis-linalool oxide (furanoid), geranyl acetone, and cinnamyl acetate were identified as other potent odorants in the three tamarinds. Sensory studies revealed very distinct aroma profiles, which are characteristic of these types of fruits. While the Dialiumguineense elicited floral, flowery, caramel-like notes, the other two species were dominated by leaf-like, caramel, and green notes. PMID:25172748

  5. Strategies for the preparation and concentration of mushroom aromatic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villares, Ana; Guillamon, Eva; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; D'Arrigo, Matilde; Garcia-Lafuente, Ana

    2012-08-01

    Fungal aroma comprises at least seven chemical groups of volatile organic compounds, which are plain hydrocarbons, heterocycles, alcohols, phenols, acids and derivatives, carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones), and sulfur containing molecules. This aromatic blend provides the excellent sensory properties to produce and several strategies have been employed to create aromatic products having the aroma and taste of mushrooms and truffles. Nowadays, there are several procedures to obtain aroma concentrates. Among them, the simulation of mushroom aroma by the combination of the main substances responsible for the flavour could be an efficient strategy. Nevertheless, natural procedures are gaining more importance since the concentrate is not a synthetic product and the processes commonly involve the use of mushroom waste. In this field, the maceration with precursor molecules, such as linoleic acid, or different types of enzymes is commonly used in food industry. This article provides a wide view of the most common strategies to produce fungal aroma taking into account the main advantages and disadvantages they present. The article presents some promising patents on strategies for the preparation and concentration of mushroom aromatic products. PMID:22594661

  6. Composição de voláteis e perfil de aroma e sabor de méis de eucalipto e laranja Volatile composition and aroma and flavor profiles of eucalyptus and orange honeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Helena Markowicz Bastos

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram analisados os compostos voláteis de amostras de mel de eucalipto e laranja colhidos nos estados de São Paulo e de Minas Gerais. O isolamento dos voláteis foi realizado empregando-se uma técnica de ''headspace'' dinâmico, a separação efetuada por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução e a identificação por espectrometria de massas, Índices de Kovats e padrões, quando disponíveis. Foram identificados no mel de laranja o benzaldeído, o óxido cis de linalol, n-heptanal, 6-metil-5-hepten-2-ona, octanal e fenilacetaldeído, e em mel de eucalipto, o nonanal, 2-heptanona, 2-heptanol, octanol e nonanol. A caracterização sensorial desses méis foi obtida por Análise Descritiva Quantitativa e a aplicação de Análise dos Componentes Principais aos dados revelou que os descritores ''queimado'' e ''sabor residual'' caracterizam o mel de eucalipto, enquanto ''floral'' e ''cera'' caracterizam o mel de laranja. Entre os compostos identificados, o nonanal e o nonanol apresentaram contribuição sensorial importante ao mel de eucalipto, enquanto o fenilacetaldeído e o benzaldeído foram relacionados com os principais descritores do mel de laranja.Volatile compounds of orange and eucalyptus bee honeys from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais were isolated by a dynamic headspace technique and separated by high resolution gas chromatography. Volatile compounds were identified by gc-mass spectrometry and the Kovats Indices. Benzaldehyde, cis-linalool oxide, n-heptanal, 6 methyl-5-hepten-2-ona, octanal and phenylacetaldeyde were detected in orange honey. Nonanal, 2-heptanone, 2-heptanol, octanol and nonanol were identified in eucalyptus samples. Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and Principal Component Analysis revealed that orange honey can be sensorially characterized by ''waxy'' and ''floral'' descriptors, while eucalyptus honey by a ''burnt'' and ''after-taste''. Phenylacetaldeyde and benzaldehyde were related to these important descriptors in characterizing orange honey, as determined by sniffing, while nonanal and nonanol were found to be important contributors to the eucalyptus honey aroma.

  7. Composição de voláteis e perfil de aroma e sabor de méis de eucalipto e laranja / Volatile composition and aroma and flavor profiles of eucalyptus and orange honeys

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Deborah Helena Markowicz, Bastos; Maria Regina Bueno, Franco; Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira da, Silva; Natália Soares, Janzantti; Márcia O. M., Marques.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram analisados os compostos voláteis de amostras de mel de eucalipto e laranja colhidos nos estados de São Paulo e de Minas Gerais. O isolamento dos voláteis foi realizado empregando-se uma técnica de ''headspace'' dinâmico, a separação efetuada por cromatografia gasosa de alta reso [...] lução e a identificação por espectrometria de massas, Índices de Kovats e padrões, quando disponíveis. Foram identificados no mel de laranja o benzaldeído, o óxido cis de linalol, n-heptanal, 6-metil-5-hepten-2-ona, octanal e fenilacetaldeído, e em mel de eucalipto, o nonanal, 2-heptanona, 2-heptanol, octanol e nonanol. A caracterização sensorial desses méis foi obtida por Análise Descritiva Quantitativa e a aplicação de Análise dos Componentes Principais aos dados revelou que os descritores ''queimado'' e ''sabor residual'' caracterizam o mel de eucalipto, enquanto ''floral'' e ''cera'' caracterizam o mel de laranja. Entre os compostos identificados, o nonanal e o nonanol apresentaram contribuição sensorial importante ao mel de eucalipto, enquanto o fenilacetaldeído e o benzaldeído foram relacionados com os principais descritores do mel de laranja. Abstract in english Volatile compounds of orange and eucalyptus bee honeys from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais were isolated by a dynamic headspace technique and separated by high resolution gas chromatography. Volatile compounds were identified by gc-mass spectrometry and the Kovats Indices. Benzaldehyde, ci [...] s-linalool oxide, n-heptanal, 6 methyl-5-hepten-2-ona, octanal and phenylacetaldeyde were detected in orange honey. Nonanal, 2-heptanone, 2-heptanol, octanol and nonanol were identified in eucalyptus samples. Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and Principal Component Analysis revealed that orange honey can be sensorially characterized by ''waxy'' and ''floral'' descriptors, while eucalyptus honey by a ''burnt'' and ''after-taste''. Phenylacetaldeyde and benzaldehyde were related to these important descriptors in characterizing orange honey, as determined by sniffing, while nonanal and nonanol were found to be important contributors to the eucalyptus honey aroma.

  8. Effect of alternative NAD+-regenerating pathways on the formation of primary and secondary aroma compounds in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycerol-defective mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishist K; Divol, Benoit; Prior, Bernard A; Bauer, Florian F

    2012-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae maintains a redox balance under fermentative growth conditions by re-oxidizing NADH formed during glycolysis through ethanol formation. Excess NADH stimulates the synthesis of mainly glycerol, but also of other compounds. Here, we investigated the production of primary and secondary metabolites in S. cerevisiae strains where the glycerol production pathway was inactivated through deletion of the two glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenases genes (GPD1/GPD2) and replaced with alternative NAD(+)-generating pathways. While these modifications decreased fermentative ability compared to the wild-type strain, all improved growth and/or fermentative ability of the gpd1?gpd2? strain in self-generated anaerobic high sugar medium. The partial NAD(+) regeneration ability of the mutants resulted in significant amounts of alternative products, but at lower yields than glycerol. Compared to the wild-type strain, pyruvate production increased in most genetically manipulated strains, whereas acetate and succinate production decreased in all strains. Malate production was similar in all strains. Isobutanol production increased substantially in all genetically manipulated strains compared to the wild-type strain, whereas only mutant strains expressing the sorbitol producing SOR1 and srlD genes showed increases in isoamyl alcohol and 2-phenyl alcohol. A marked reduction in ethyl acetate concentration was observed in the genetically manipulated strains, while isobutyric acid increased. The synthesis of some primary and secondary metabolites appears more readily influenced by the NAD(+)/NADH availability. The data provide an initial assessment of the impact of redox balance on the production of primary and secondary metabolites which play an essential role in the flavour and aroma character of beverages. PMID:21720823

  9. Pain-Relief Effects of Aroma Touch Therapy with Citrus junos Oil Evaluated by Quantitative EEG Occipital Alpha-2 Rhythm Powers

    OpenAIRE

    Tomomi Bohgaki; Yoshitada Katagiri; Makoto Usami

    2014-01-01

    Aroma touch therapy is widely used in clinical fields for alleviating pain-related symptoms; however, few studies have reported the pain-relief mechanisms. The present study aimed to elucidate the analgesic effects of aroma touch therapy with Citrus junos oil based on the quantitative evaluation of deep brain network (DBN) activity using electroencephalogram (EEG) occipital alpha-2 rhythm (10-13 Hz) powers. Experimental investigations were performed with 13...

  10. AROMA-AIRWICK: a CHLOE/CDC-3600 system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AROMA-AIRWICK System for CHLOE, an automatic film scanning equipment built at Argonne by Donald Hodges, and the CDC-3600 computer is a system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks. AROMA-AIRWICK has been an outgrowth of the generally recognized need for the automatic processing of high energy physics data and the fact that the Argonne National Laboratory has been a center of serious spark chamber development in recent years

  11. Formulation and conservation of a pharmaceutical form with leaf extracts from Acacia aroma Gill. ex Hook et Arn

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. E, Arias; J. D., Gomez; M., Vatuone; M. I., Isla.

    Full Text Available Leaf fluid extracts of Acacia aroma GILL. ex Hook et Arn showed antibacterial activity against antibiotic multiresistant bacteria isolated from clinical samples, antioxidant and ant-inflammatory activities. Toxicological studies carried out on Artemia salina and Allium cepa attested none toxicity po [...] tential. The aim of this work was to elaborate a formulation of topical antibacterial hydrogel with Carbopol acrylic acid polymer containing an A. aroma fluid extract in order to compare with a hydrogel containing commercial antibiotic. The optimal extract concentration in this formulation was determined according to the values of minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration for Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant (F7) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (F352). Physical, chemical, rheological and microbiological stability was observed at least during one year. The hydrogel containing Acacia leaves fluid extract shows remarkable antibacterial effect with a broadspectrum efficacy against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria at low concentration.

  12. Characterization of volatile compounds responsible for the aroma in naturally fermented sausages by gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Alicia; Navarro, José Luis; Flores, Mónica

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize naturally fermented dry sausages produced without the use of microbial starters and to determine which odour-active compounds are responsible for their aroma. The traditional manufacture was responsible for different chemical characteristics and consumer's acceptance. The volatile compounds detected in the headspace comprised a complex mixture of volatile compounds derived from bacterial metabolism (mainly esterase activity of Staphyloccoci), spices and lipid auto-oxidation. The odour-active volatile compounds were identified using gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry (GC-O) using the detection frequency method. The aroma profile was characterized by the presence of several compounds such as acetic acid, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, methional, 1-octen-3-ol, benzeneacetaldehyde and 4-methyl-phenol. However, naturally fermented sausages were also characterized by numerous esters, both ethyl and methyl esters, which impart a wide variety of fruity notes. PMID:24334376

  13. A sensory and chemical approach to the aroma of wooden aged Lourinhã wine brandy / Uma abordagem sensorial e química ao aroma de aguardentes vínicas envelhecidas da Lourinhã

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ilda, Caldeira; R. Bruno de, Sousa; A. Pedro, Belchior; M. Cristina, Clímaco.

    Full Text Available O envelhecimento das aguardentes vínicas em vasilhas de madeira provoca alterações profundas na composição físico-química e sensorial destas bebidas. Neste trabalho são estudados os odorantes em aguardentes vínicas da região da Lourinhã envelhecidas em diferentes condições. Para o efeito recorreu-se [...] à avaliação dos compostos odorantes por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução acoplada à olfactometria (GC-O), à quantificação de alguns dos compostos odorantes por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução acoplada a um detector de ionização de chama (GC-FID) e à avaliação sensorial das aguardentes. Os resultados de GC-O permitiram identificar 29 odorantes diferentes (álcoois, ésteres, ácidos e fenóis), uns originários do destilado e outros provenientes da madeira. A pesquisa de correlações entre a análise sensorial e a análise química confirmou a importância odorante de vários compostos com origem na madeira, designadamente a vanilina, os fenóis voláteis e os aldeídos furânicos. Estes compostos apresentaram importantes correlações com descritores sensoriais como a baunilha, fumo, torrado, frutos secos, madeira, os quais tem uma correlação positiva com a qualidade da aguardente. Abstract in english The maturation of wine brandies in wooden barrels origin many sensory and physical-chemical changes in these alcoholic beverages. This work studies the odorants in different aged brandies from Lourinhã. These brandies were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry (GC-O). A panel taster [...] profiled these brandies and the identified odorants were also quantified by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The GC-O results showed 29 identified odorants (alcohols, esters, acids and phenols). Some of them are proceeding from the distillate while others are extracted from the wood. The analysis of correlation between the sensory profiles and the odorant quantification pointed out the relevance of several wood compounds for the brandy aroma, namely the vanillin, volatile phenols and furanic aldehydes. These compounds presented important correlations with several olfactory attributes like vanilla, smoke, toasted, dried fruits, woody, which influence positively the quality of the brandies.

  14. Altered Levels of Aroma and volatiles by Metabolic Engineering of Shikimate Pathway Genes in Tomato Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vered Tzin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum fruit is an excellent source of antioxidants, dietary fibers, minerals and vitamins and therefore has been referred to as a “functional food”. Ripe tomato fruits produce a large number of specialized metabolites including volatile organic compounds. These volatiles serve as key components of the tomato fruit flavor, participate in plant pathogen and herbivore defense, and are used to attract seed dispersers. A major class of specialized metabolites is derived from the shikimate pathway followed by aromatic amino acid biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. We attempted to modify tomato fruit flavor by overexpressing key regulatory genes in the shikimate pathway. Bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive variants of 3-Deoxy-D-Arabino-Heptulosonate 7-Phosphate Synthase (DAHPS; AroG209-9 and bi-functional Chorismate Mutase/Prephenate Dehydratase (CM/PDT; PheA12 were expressed under the control of a fruit-specific promoter. We crossed these transgenes to generate tomato plants expressing both the AroG209 and PheA12 genes. Overexpression of the AroG209-9 gene had a dramatic effect on the overall metabolic profile of the fruit, including enhanced levels of multiple volatile and non-volatile metabolites. In contrast, the PheA12 overexpression line exhibited minor metabolic effects compared to the wild type fruit. Co-expression of both the AroG209-9 and PheA12 genes in tomato resulted overall in a similar metabolic effect to that of expressing only the AroG209-9 gene. However, the aroma ranking attributes of the tomato fruits from PheA12//AroG209-9 were unique and different from those of the lines expressing a single gene, suggesting a contribution of the PheA12 gene to the overall metabolic profile. We suggest that expression of bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive enzymes of the shikimate pathway in tomato fruits provides a useful metabolic engineering tool for the modification of fruits aroma and the generation of new combinations of tomato flavors.

  15. Volatile Glycosylation in Tea Plants: Sequential Glycosylations for the Biosynthesis of Aroma ?-Primeverosides Are Catalyzed by Two Camellia sinensis Glycosyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgami, Shoji; Ono, Eiichiro; Horikawa, Manabu; Murata, Jun; Totsuka, Koujirou; Toyonaga, Hiromi; Ohba, Yukie; Dohra, Hideo; Asai, Tatsuo; Matsui, Kenji; Mizutani, Masaharu; Watanabe, Naoharu; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    Tea plants (Camellia sinensis) store volatile organic compounds (VOCs; monoterpene, aromatic, and aliphatic alcohols) in the leaves in the form of water-soluble diglycosides, primarily as ?-primeverosides (6-O-?-d-xylopyranosyl-?-d-glucopyranosides). These VOCs play a critical role in plant defenses and tea aroma quality, yet little is known about their biosynthesis and physiological roles in planta. Here, we identified two UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) from C. sinensis, UGT85K11 (CsGT1) and UGT94P1 (CsGT2), converting VOCs into ?-primeverosides by sequential glucosylation and xylosylation, respectively. CsGT1 exhibits a broad substrate specificity toward monoterpene, aromatic, and aliphatic alcohols to produce the respective glucosides. On the other hand, CsGT2 specifically catalyzes the xylosylation of the 6'-hydroxy group of the sugar moiety of geranyl ?-d-glucopyranoside, producing geranyl ?-primeveroside. Homology modeling, followed by site-directed mutagenesis of CsGT2, identified a unique isoleucine-141 residue playing a crucial role in sugar donor specificity toward UDP-xylose. The transcripts of both CsGTs were mainly expressed in young leaves, along with ?-PRIMEVEROSIDASE encoding a diglycoside-specific glycosidase. In conclusion, our findings reveal the mechanism of aroma ?-primeveroside biosynthesis in C. sinensis. This information can be used to preserve tea aroma better during the manufacturing process and to investigate the mechanism of plant chemical defenses. PMID:25922059

  16. Effect on the Aroma Profile of Graciano and Tempranillo Red Wines of the Application of Two Antifungal Treatments onto Vines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Noguerol-Pato

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two antifungals (boscalid + kresoxim-methyl and metrafenone applied onto vines under Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs on the volatile composition of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines was studied. Changes in aroma profile in the wines were assessed from the combined odour activity values (OAVs for the volatile compounds in each of seven different odorant series (viz., ripe fruits, fresh fruits, lactic, floral, vinous, spicy and herbaceous. Graciano wines obtained from grapes treated with the antifungals exhibited markedly increased concentrations of varietal volatile compounds (monoterpenes and C13-norisoprenoids and aldehydes, and decreased concentrations of acetates and aromatic alcohols. By contrast, the concentrations of volatile compounds in Tempranillo wines showed different changes depending on the fungicide applied. Also, the aroma profiles of wines obtained from treated grapes were modified, particularly the ripe fruit nuances in Graciano wines. The OAV of this odorant series underwent an increase by more than 60% with respect to the control wine as a result of the increase of ?-damascenone concentration (which imparts wine a dry plum note. The aroma profile of Tempranillo red wines containing metrafenone residues exhibited marked changes relative to those from untreated grapes.

  17. Real-Time Emulation of Heterogeneous Wireless Networks with End-to-Edge Quality of Service Guarantees: The AROMA Testbed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Umbert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents and describes the real-time testbed for all-IP Beyond 3G (B3G heterogeneous wireless networks that has been developed in the framework of the European IST AROMA project. The main objective of the AROMA testbed is to provide a highly accurate and realistic framework where the performance of algorithms, policies, protocols, services, and applications for a complete heterogeneous wireless network can be fully assessed and evaluated before bringing them to a real system. The complexity of the interaction between all-IP B3G systems and user applications, while dealing with the Quality of Service (QoS concept, motivates the development of this kind of emulation platform where different solutions can be tested in realistic conditions that could not be achieved by means of simple offline simulations. This work provides an in-depth description of the AROMA testbed, emphasizing many interesting implementation details and lessons learned during the development of the tool that may result helpful to other researchers and system engineers in the development of similar emulation platforms. Several case studies are also presented in order to illustrate the full potential and capabilities of the presented emulation platform.

  18. A model explaining and predicting lamb flavour from the aroma-active chemical compounds released upon grilling light lamb loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Mónica; Campo, M Mar; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the work is to understand the role of the different aroma compounds in the perception of the local "lamb flavour" concept. For this, a set of 70 loins (Longissimus dorsi) from approximately seventy day-old Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were grilled and the aroma-active chemicals released during the grilling process were trapped and analyzed. Carbonyl compounds were derivatizated and determined by GC-NCI-MS, whereas other aromatic compounds were directly analyzed by GC-GC-MS. Odour activity values (OAVs) were calculated using their odour threshold values in air. Lamb flavour could be satisfactory explained by a partial least-squares model (74% explained variance in cross-validation) built by the OAVs of 32 aroma-active chemical compounds. The model demonstrates that the lamb flavour concept is the result of a complex balance. Its intensity critically and positively depends to the levels of volatile fatty acids and several dimethylpyrazines while is negatively influenced by the different alkenals and alkadienals. (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and (E)-2-nonenal showed top OAVs. PMID:25089786

  19. Characterization of aroma compounds of Chinese famous liquors by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and flash GC electronic-nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuobing; Yu, Dan; Niu, Yunwei; Chen, Feng; Song, Shiqing; Zhu, Jiancai; Zhu, Guangyong

    2014-01-15

    Aroma composition of five Chinese premium famous liquors with different origins and liquor flavor types was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and flash gas chromatographic electronic nose system. Eighty-six aroma compounds were identified, including 5 acids, 34 esters, 10 alcohols, 9 aldehydes, 4 ketones, 4 phenols, and 10 nitrous and sulfuric compounds. To investigate possible correlation between aroma compounds identified by GC-MS and sensory attributes, multivariate ANOVA-PLSR (APLSR) was performed. It turned out that there were 30 volatile composition, ethyl acetate, ethyl propanoate, ethyl 2-methyl butanoate, ethyl 3-methyl butanoate, ethyl lactate, ethyl benzenacetate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, hexyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-heptanol, phenylethyl alcohol, acetaldehyde, 1,1-diethoxy-3-methyl butane, furfural, benzaldehyde, 5-methyl-2-furanal, 2-octanone, 2-n-butyl furan, dimethyl trisulfied and 2,6-dimethyl pyrazine, ethyl nonanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, octanoic acid, ethyl 5-methyl hexanoate, 2-phenylethyl acetate,ethyl oleate, propyl hexanoate, butanoic acid and phenol, ethyl benzenepropanoate, which showed good coordination with Chinese liquor characteristics. The multivariate structure of this electronic nose responses was then processed by principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). According to the obtained results, GC-MS and electronic nose can be used for the differentiation of the liquor origins and flavor types. PMID:24333641

  20. Extraction and GC determination of volatile aroma compounds from extracts of three plant species of the Apiaceae family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.; Copolovici, L.; M?ruţoiu, C.

    2013-11-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and celery (Apium graveolens), three aromatic plants belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) botanical family, were selected as sources of essential or volatile oils. Essential oils are composed of a large diversity of volatile aroma compounds. Plant-derived essential oils and extracts have long been used as natural agents in food preservation, pharmaceuticals and medicinal therapies. In the present study, the plant extracts from leaves of parsley, dill and celery, were obtained by maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. All extractions were performed at 30°C, using different solvents (ethanol, diethyl ether, n-hexane) and solvent mixtures (1:1, v/v). The most effective solvent system for the extraction of volatile aroma compounds was diethyl ether - n-hexane (1:1, v/v). Extraction efficiency and determination of aroma volatiles were performed by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The major volatile compounds present in plant extracts were myristicin, ?-phellandrene, ?-phellandrene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, apiol, dill ether and allyl phenoxyacetate.

  1. Effects of distillation system and yeast strain on the aroma profile of Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta-Garay, Y; Blanco, P; López-Vázquez, C; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J J; Pérez-Correa, J R; López, F; Orriols, I

    2014-10-29

    Orujo is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in Galicia (northwest Spain) from distillation of grape pomace, a byproduct of the winemaking industry. In this study, the effect of the distillation system (copper charentais alembic versus packed column) and the yeast strain (native yeast L1 versus commercial yeast L2) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of orujo obtained from Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace has been analyzed. Principal component analysis, with two components explaining 74% of the variance, is able to clearly differentiate the distillates according to distillation system and yeast strain. Principal component 1, mainly defined by C6-C12 esters, isoamyl octanoate, and methanol, differentiates L1 from L2 distillates. In turn, principal component 2, mainly defined by linear alcohols, linalool, and 1-hexenol, differentiates alembic from packed column distillates. In addition, an aroma descriptive test reveals that the distillate obtained with a packed column from a pomace fermented with L1 presented the highest positive general impression, which is associated with the highest fruity and smallest solvent aroma scores. Moreover, chemical analysis shows that use of a packed column increases average ethanol recovery by 12%, increases the concentration of C6-C12 esters by 25%, and reduces the concentration of higher alcohols by 21%. In turn, L2 yeast obtained lower scores in the alembic distillates aroma profile. In addition, with L1, 9% higher ethanol yields were achieved, and L2 distillates contained 34%-40% more methanol than L1 distillates. PMID:25307564

  2. Principal volatile odorants and dynamics of their formation during the production of May Bryndza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sádecká, Jana; Kolek, Emil; Pangallo, Domenico; Valík, Lubomír; Kuchta, Tomáš

    2014-05-01

    Volatile aroma compounds were investigated along the production of May Bryndza cheese, a traditional Slovakian cheese produced from raw ewes' milk. Solid phase microextraction was used to isolate the volatile fractions, which were subsequently analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Twenty-seven key odorants were found and described in the intermediate product, ewes' curd ripened for 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8days, or in the final product. A major overall increase in the number of aroma-active volatile compounds and in their odour intensity or concentration took place during the first day of ripening of the ewes' curd, and the odour gradually culminated at the end of ripening. During the final technological step of Bryndza cheese production, when the ewes' curd ripened for 10days is decrusted, pressed and milled with NaCl solution, 8 aroma-active volatile compounds disappeared. PMID:24360454

  3. Aroma of wheat porridge and bread-crumb is influenced by the wheat variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard; Hansen, Åse Solvej

    2015-01-01

    Sensory evaluations were conducted on wheat-flour porridge and baked-bread samples, made from wheat varieties with known odour and flavour variations. The purpose was to determine if these odour and flavour variations were expressed in baked-bread. In all, 24 wheat varieties were used for porridge evaluation, from these eight were selected for bread evaluation. Porridge and bread results were compared. Variations were found in both evaluations. Five odour- and nine flavour descriptors were found to be common to both wheat porridge and bread. The results for two descriptors: "cocoa" and "oat porridge" were correlated between the wheat porridge and bread samples. Analysis of whole-meal and low-extraction samples revealed that the descriptors "malt", "oat-porridge", "øllebrød", "cocoa" and "grain" mostly characterized wheat bran, while descriptors for "maize", "bean-shoots", "chamomile", "umami", and "fresh grass" mostly characterized wheat endosperm. Low-extraction bread made from four different varieties also differentiated for five odour- and six flavour descriptors. These results indicate that variations in wheat flavour and odour directly affect bread flavour and odour even in low-extraction bread. This knowledge is important to the baking industry and to plant breeders as wheat aroma could possibly become a future quality parameter in breeding.

  4. Phenolics, aroma profile, and in vitro antioxidant activity of Italian dessert passito wine from Saracena (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica R; Bonesi, Marco; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Boselli, Emanuele; Tundis, Rosa; Pugliese, Alessandro; Menichini, Francesco; Frega, Natale Giuseppe

    2013-05-01

    A traditional sweet dessert wine from Saracena (Italy), made with nonmacerated local white grapes (Guarnaccia, Malvasia and Moscato), was analyzed for phenolics and aroma profile and antioxidant activities. The most abundant classes of phenols identified by high-performance liquid chromatography were hydroxybenzoic acids and flavan-3-ols, where gallic acid showed the highest content (376.5 mg/L). The analysis by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of superior alcohols (from iso-butanol and iso-amyl alcohol up to 2-phenylethanol) and their ethyl esters, terpenes (such as linalool), furfuryl compounds, and free fatty acids (up to palmitic acid) as the key odorants of this wine. The antioxidant activity, evaluated by different in vitro assays 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), and ?-carotene bleaching test), showed that passito wine had a radical scavenging activity (IC50 value of 0.03 v/v against DPPH·) and inhibited linoleic acid oxidation with an IC50 value of 0.4 v/v after 30 min of incubation. PMID:23574495

  5. Isolamento e seleção de microrganismos pectinolíticos a partir de resíduos provenientes de agroindústrias para produção de aromas frutais / Screening of fruit flavors producing pectinolitic microorganisms isolated from agroindustrial residues

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana, Uenojo; Glaucia Maria, Pastore.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available As pectinases são enzimas produzidas naturalmente por plantas, fungos, leveduras e bactérias. Estes microrganismos podem ser inoculados em meios contendo resíduos agroindustriais utilizados como fonte de carbono para a produção de compostos de maior valor agregado, como enzimas, etanol, proteínas, a [...] minoácidos e compostos de aroma. Vários microrganismos foram isolados e selecionados quanto à produção de enzimas pectinolíticas pelo método da placa, através de zonas claras de degradação de pectina ao redor da colônia. De 104 linhagens testadas, 18 foram selecionadas para fermentarem em meio líquido, contendo pectina para a determinação de atividade de poligalacturonase (PG) e de pectina liase (PMGL), e em meio frutose/extrato de levedura para produção de aromas. As linhagens 2, 9, 20, 39, 70, 74 e 99 apresentaram unidades de atividade de PG superiores a 80 µmol de ácido galacturônico/mL/min, as linhagens 17, 18, 31, 37, 73, 74 e 125 apresentaram unidades de atividade de PMGL superiores a 1000 etamol de produtos insaturados/mL/min e as linhagens 13, 70, 73, 74, 125 e 144 apresentaram os melhores descritores e as maiores intensidades de aromas percebidos por um painel não treinado de provadores. Abstract in english Pectinases are enzymes used in food industries, produced by plants, fungi, yeasts and bacteria. These microorganisms can be inoculated in a medium containing agro-industrial residues from processing agricultural products, used as a carbon source to produce value-added products such as enzymes, ethan [...] ol, proteins, amino acids and flavor compounds. Several microorganisms were isolated and selected due to their capacity to produce pectinolytic enzymes in clear halos around colonies by plate assay. From 104 strains, 18 were inoculated in a medium containing pectin as a carbon source and the pectinolytic activities of polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin lyase (PMGL) were determined. Strains 2, 9, 20, 39, 70, 74, and 99 showed activity units of PG higher than 80 µmol galacturonic acid/mL/minute. Strains 17, 18, 31, 37, 73, 74 and 125 showed activity units of PMGL higher than 1000 etamol unsaturated products/mL/minute. Strains 13, 70, 73, 74, 125 and 144 showed good signs of flavor noticed in the fructose and yeast extract medium and the most intense flavor according to a non-trained board of tasters.

  6. Influence of Water Potential on gamma-Decalactone Production by the Yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, P; Battut, G

    1989-11-01

    The influence of water potential on gamma-decalactone production by the yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor cultivated in a liquid medium was evaluated by gas-chromatographic analysis. Modifications in water potential led to a number of variations in the aroma production. Maximum extracellular production occurred at water activity (a(w)) with a value of 0.99. Further analyses revealed an important phenomenon of cellular accumulation of aroma for a(w) values between 0.97 and 0.99. PMID:16348056

  7. Characterization of the most odor-active compounds in an American Bourbon whisky by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Luigi; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-07-23

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction carefully isolated from an American Bourbon whisky revealed 45 odor-active areas in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 32-4096 among which (E)-beta-damascenone and delta-nonalactone showed the highest FD factors of 4096 and 2048, respectively. With FD factors of 1024, (3S,4S)-cis-whiskylactone, gamma-decalactone, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (eugenol), and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzaldehyde (vanillin) additionally contributed to the overall vanilla-like, fruity, and smoky aroma note of the spirit. Application of GC-Olfactometry on the headspace above the whisky revealed 23 aroma-active odorants among which 3-methylbutanal, ethanol, and 2-methylbutanal were identified as additional important aroma compounds. Compared to published data on volatile constituents in whisky, besides ranking the whisky odorants on the basis of their odor potency, 13 aroma compounds were newly identified in this study: ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, (E)-2-heptenal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, ethyl phenylacetate, 4-methyl acetophenone, alpha-damascone, 2-phenylethyl propanoate, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, trans-ethyl cinnamate, and (Z)-6-dodeceno-gamma-lactone. PMID:18570373

  8. Reconstitution of the flavor signature of Dornfelder red wine on the basis of the natural concentrations of its key aroma and taste compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stephanie; Wollmann, Nadine; Schieberle, Peter; Hofmann, Thomas

    2011-08-24

    By application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction isolated from a Dornfelder red wine, 31 odor-active compounds were identified by means of HRGC-MS and comparison with reference compounds. A total of 27 odorants, judged with high FD factors by means of AEDA, was quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays, and acetaldehyde was determined enzymatically. In addition, 36 taste-active compounds were analyzed by means of HPLC-UV, HPLC-MS/MS, and ion chromatography. The quantitative data obtained for the identified aroma and taste compounds enabled for the first time the reconstruction of the overall flavor of the red wine. Sensory evaluation of both the aroma and taste profiles of the authentic red wine and the recombinate revealed that Dornfelder red wine was closely mimicked. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the high molecular weight fraction of red wine is essential for its astringent taste impression. By comparison of the overall odor of the aroma recombinate in ethanol with that of the total flavor recombinate containing all tastants, it was shown for the first time that the nonvolatile tastants had a strong influence on the intensity of certain aroma qualities. PMID:21744781

  9. A Study of Inhalation of Peppermint Aroma on the Pain and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Ozgoli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Considering the painfulness of labor and its resulting anxiety, and also, complications such as uterine dysfunction, prolonged labor, and unpleasant memories, the present study was performed aimed to investigate the effect of peppermint aroma on the level of pain and anxiety in the first stage of labor in nulliparous women.Methods: This research was done as a clinical trial study on 128 nulliparous women assigned into two groups (64 subjects in aromatherapy group and 64 subjects in control group. In aromatherapy group, mixtures containing 0.2ml essence of peppermint and 2ml normal saline impregnated gauze, and in the control group, only 2ml normal saline impregnated gauze were attached to their dress collar, and the administration was repeated every 30 minutes. Level of anxiety was measured in dilatations 3-4 and 8-10cm and the intensity of pain in dilatations 4-5, 6-7, and 8-10cm. The data were collected through demographic and obstetric questionnaire, observation checklist, spielberger anxiety questionnaire, and pain numerical rating scale. Results: In this study, the age, job, education, and gestational age were the same in both groups. Also, the level of anxiety was the same in both groups before the intervention, but after the intervention, anxiety level decreased in intervention group compared to control group (p<0.001. The mean pain score in the dilatations 4-5, 6-7, and 8-10cm decreased in intervention group compared to control group (p<0.001 for all.Conclusion: Aromatherapy with peppermint essence is recommended for the reduction of pain and anxiety level during labor due to its inexpensiveness, ease and non-invasiveness.

  10. ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF CRUCIFER GLUCOSINOLATE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The crucifer family, Brassicaceae, is an economically important family for its many food crops. Crucifers are characterized by the presence of a group of secondary compounds called glucosinolates, which with their degradation products are primarily responsible for the characteristic aromas and flav...

  11. Bioproduction of the aroma compound 2-phenylethanol in a solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor system by Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fang; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2009-10-01

    The rose-like aroma compound 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) is an important fragrance and flavor ingredient. Several yeast strains are able to convert l-phenylalanine (l-phe) to 2-PE among which Kluyveromyces marxianus has shown promising results. The limitation of this process is the low product concentration and productivity primarily due to end product inhibition. This study explored the possibility and benefits of using a solid-liquid Two-Phase Partition Bioreactor (TPPB) system as an in situ product removal technique. The system applies polymer beads as the sequestering immiscible phase to partition 2-PE and reduce the aqueous 2-PE concentration to non-inhibitory levels. Among six polymers screened for extracting 2-PE, Hytrel 8206 performed best with a partition coefficient of 79. The desired product stored in the polymer was ultimately extracted using methanol. A 3 L working volume solid-liquid batch mode TPPB using 500 g Hytrel as the sequestering phase generated a final overall 2-PE concentration of 13.7 g/L, the highest reported in the current literature. This was based on a polymer phase concentration of 88.74 g/L and aqueous phase concentration of 1.2 g/L. Even better results were achieved via contact with more polymers (approximately 900 g) with the aqueous phase applying a semi-continuous reactor configuration. In this system, a final 2-PE concentration (overall) of 20.4 g/L was achieved with 1.4 g/L in the aqueous and 97 g/L in the polymer phase. The overall productivities of these two reactor systems were 0.38 and 0.43 g/L h, respectively. This is the first report in the literature of the use of a polymer sequestering phase to enhance the bioproduction of 2-PE, and exceeds the performance of two-liquid phase systems in terms of productivity as well as ease of operation (no emulsions) and ultimate product recovery. PMID:19517523

  12. Identification of the key odorants in Tahitian cured vanilla beans (Vanilla tahitensis) by GC-MS and an aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The key odorants of Tahitian vanilla beans (Vanilla tahitensis) were characterized by a sensory evaluation, aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), quantification, and aroma reconstitution. Vanillin and anisaldehyde were identified in the same highest flavor dilution (FD) factor as the most characteristic odor-active compounds in Tahitian vanilla beans, followed by anisyl alcohol and anisyl acetate. Vanillin and anisyl alcohol were by far the most abundant odorants present with the highest concentration in the beans, followed by acetic acid, anisaldehyde, and anisyl acetate. A sensory evaluation of Tahitian vanilla beans and its reconstitute aroma concentrate characterized both samples as similar. These results indicated vanillin, anisaldehyde, anisyl alcohol, and anisyl acetate to be the key odorants in Tahitian vanilla beans. 3-Methylnonane-2,4-dione were identified for the first time in vanilla beans. ?-Damascenone and phenylacetic acid were identified for the first time in Tahitian vanilla beans. PMID:23470766

  13. Quantitative analysis by GC-MS/MS of 18 aroma compounds related to oxidative off-flavor in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Christine M; Capone, Dimitra L; Pardon, Kevin H; Black, Cory A; Pomeroy, Damian; Francis, I Leigh

    2015-04-01

    A quantitation method for 18 aroma compounds reported to contribute to "oxidative" flavor in wines was developed. The method allows quantitation of the (E)-2-alkenals ((E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-heptenal, (E)-2-octenal, and (E)-2-nonenal), various Strecker aldehydes (methional, 2-phenylacetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanal, and 2-methylpropanal), aldehydes (furfural, 5-methylfurfural, hexanal, and benzaldehyde), furans (sotolon, furaneol, and homofuraneol), as well as alcohols (methionol, eugenol, and maltol) in the same analysis. The aldehydes were determined after derivatization directly in the wine with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride; the formed oximes along with the underivatized aroma compounds were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by means of GC-MS/MS. The method was used to investigate the effect of different closures (synthetic closures, natural corks, and screw cap) on the formation of oxidation-related compounds in 14 year old white wine. Results showed a significant increase in the concentration of some of the monitored compounds in the wine, particularly methional, 2-phenylacetaldehyde, and 3-methylbutanal. PMID:25819472

  14. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in rape honey by means of the molecular sensory science concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruisinger, Brigitte; Schieberle, Peter

    2012-05-01

    By application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction isolated by solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) from unifloral rape honey harvested in July 2009, 28 odor-active areas could be detected within a flavor dilution factor (FD) range of 4-2048. The highest FD factors were found for (E)-?-damascenone (cooked apple-like), phenylacetic acid (honey-like), 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (aniseed-like), 3-phenylpropanoic acid (flowery, waxy), and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like). Twenty-three odorants were then quantitated by application of stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAV, ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated on the basis of newly determined odor thresholds in an aqueous fructose-glucose solution. The highest OAVs were calculated for (E)-?-damascenone, 3-phenylpropanoic acid, phenylacetic acid, dimethyl trisulfide, and phenylacetaldehyde. Quantitative measurements on a rape honey produced in 2011 confirmed the results. A model mixture containing the 12 odorants showing an OAV ? 1 at the same concentrations as they occurred in the rape honey was able to mimick the aroma impression of the original honey. The characterization of the key odorants in rape flowers from the same field suggested 3-phenylpropanoic acid, phenylacetic acid, and three further odorants to be transferred via the bees into the honey. PMID:22489542

  15. Identification of a new lactone contributing to overripe orange aroma in Bordeaux dessert wines via perceptual interaction phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatopoulos, Panagiotis; Frérot, Eric; Tempère, Sophie; Pons, Alexandre; Darriet, Philippe

    2014-03-26

    Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of a typical sensory concept for Bordeaux dessert wines, including the world famous wines of Sauternes. Volatile compounds from several chemical families (thiols, aldehydes, and lactones) were identified and correlated with aromatic typicality in these wines. However, these studies were unable to indicate "key" aromas of overripe fruits, especially overripe orange. The alternative strategy developed in this research combined both analytical and sensory studies of fractions of dessert wine extracts obtained by semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Multidimensional gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry and mass spectrometry (MDGC-O/MS) was applied to some of the HPLC fractions recalling "overripe fruit", and a new lactone, 2-nonen-4-olide, was identified. Reconstitution and omission tests using the HPLC fractions highlighted the importance of specific compounds, particularly 2-nonen-4-olide, in the expression of overripe orange notes. Although this lactone presents minty and fruity odors, its key contribution to the typical aroma of orange in Bordeaux dessert wines was revealed through perceptual blending. PMID:24559261

  16. Studies on some precursors involved in meat flavour formation / Estudos de alguns precursores envolvidos na formação do aroma cárneo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.S., Madruga.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de alguns precursores na formação do aroma cárneo durante o aquecimento foi investigado. Estudos comparativos da influencia de três diferentes precursores, inosina-5'-monofosfato (5'-IMP), cisteína e tiamina, adicionados aos sistemas cárneos, mostrou que a formação de certos compostos heter [...] ocíclicos, como furanos sulfurados, ditiolanonas e tiofenos, foi significativamente afetada pelas mudanças de concentração dos precursores. Entretanto, compostos alifáticos, tais como: hidrocarbonetos, alcoois e cetonas não foram afetados por estas adições. Inosina-5'-monofosfato apresentou-se como o precursor mais eficiente na formação de alguns voláteis de aroma cárneo, como por exemplo os furanos sulfurados, quando aumentou-se em 10 vezes sua concentração na carne crua. Abstract in english The effect of some precursors on the formation of meat flavour during heating has been investigated. A comparison of the influence of three different precursors, inosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-IMP), cysteine and thiamine, added to the meat systems, showed that formation of certain heterocyclic compoun [...] ds, like sulfur-containing furans, dithiolanones and thiophenes, was significantly affected by changes in the concentration of precursors. However, aliphatic compounds, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols and ketones were not changed by these additions. Inosine-5'-monophosphate was established to be more effective than cysteine or thiamine in the formation of some "meaty" volatiles, i.e. the furanthiols, when its concentration was increased 10 times in raw meat.

  17. Studies on some precursors involved in meat flavour formation Estudos de alguns precursores envolvidos na formação do aroma cárneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Madruga

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of some precursors on the formation of meat flavour during heating has been investigated. A comparison of the influence of three different precursors, inosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-IMP, cysteine and thiamine, added to the meat systems, showed that formation of certain heterocyclic compounds, like sulfur-containing furans, dithiolanones and thiophenes, was significantly affected by changes in the concentration of precursors. However, aliphatic compounds, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols and ketones were not changed by these additions. Inosine-5'-monophosphate was established to be more effective than cysteine or thiamine in the formation of some "meaty" volatiles, i.e. the furanthiols, when its concentration was increased 10 times in raw meat.O efeito de alguns precursores na formação do aroma cárneo durante o aquecimento foi investigado. Estudos comparativos da influencia de três diferentes precursores, inosina-5'-monofosfato (5'-IMP, cisteína e tiamina, adicionados aos sistemas cárneos, mostrou que a formação de certos compostos heterocíclicos, como furanos sulfurados, ditiolanonas e tiofenos, foi significativamente afetada pelas mudanças de concentração dos precursores. Entretanto, compostos alifáticos, tais como: hidrocarbonetos, alcoois e cetonas não foram afetados por estas adições. Inosina-5'-monofosfato apresentou-se como o precursor mais eficiente na formação de alguns voláteis de aroma cárneo, como por exemplo os furanos sulfurados, quando aumentou-se em 10 vezes sua concentração na carne crua.

  18. Characterization of the major odor-active compounds in Thai durian ( Durio zibethinus L. 'Monthong') by aroma extract dilution analysis and headspace gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Xiao; Schieberle, Peter; Steinhaus, Martin

    2012-11-14

    An aroma extract dilution analysis applied on the volatile fraction isolated from Thai durian by solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation resulted in 44 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 1-16384, 41 of which could be identified and 24 that had not been reported in durian before. High FD factors were found for ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate (fruity; FD 16384), ethyl cinnamate (honey; FD 4096), and 1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethanethiol (roasted onion; FD 1024), followed by 1-(ethyldisulfanyl)-1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethane (sulfury, onion), 2(5)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5(2)-methylfuran-3(2H)-one (caramel), 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one (soup seasoning), ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity), ethyl butanoate (fruity), 3-methylbut-2-ene-1-thiol (skunky), ethane-1,1-dithiol (sulfury, durian), 1-(methylsulfanyl)ethanethiol (roasted onion), 1-(ethylsulfanyl)propane-1-thiol (roasted onion), and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one (caramel). Among the highly volatile compounds screened by static headspace gas chromatography-olfactometry, hydrogen sulfide (rotten egg), acetaldehyde (fresh, fruity), methanethiol (rotten, cabbage), ethanethiol (rotten, onion), and propane-1-thiol (rotten, durian) were found as additional potent odor-active compounds. Fourteen of the 41 characterized durian odorants showed an alkane-1,1-dithiol, 1-(alkylsulfanyl)alkane-1-thiol, or 1,1-bis(alkylsulfanyl)alkane structure derived from acetaldehyde, propanal, hydrogen sulfide, and alkane-1-thiols. Among these, 1-(propylsulfanyl)ethanethiol, 1-{[1-(methylsulfanyl)ethyl]sulfanyl}ethanethiol, and 1-{[1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethyl]sulfanyl}ethanethiol were reported for the first time in a natural product. PMID:23088286

  19. Quantification of Selected Aroma-Active Compounds in Strawberries by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography and Correlation with Sensory Descriptive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selected aroma-active compounds in strawberries were quantified using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography. Ten strawberry cultivars grown in California and Oregon were studied. The standard curves were built in a synthetic matrix and quantification was achieved using multipl...

  20. Identification of character-impact odorants in a cola-flavored carbonated beverage by quantitative analysis and omission studies of aroma reconstitution models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-01-28

    Thirty aroma-active components of a cola-flavored carbonated beverage were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. The OAV results revealed that 1,8-cineole, (R)-(-)-linalool, and octanal made the greatest contribution to the overall aroma of the cola. A cola aroma reconstitution model was constructed by adding 20 high-purity standards to an aqueous sucrose-phosphoric acid solution. The results of headspace solid-phase microextraction and sensory analyses were used to adjust the model to better match authentic cola. The rebalanced model was used as a complete model for the omission study. Sensory results indicated that omission of a group consisting of methyleugenol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and (Z)- and (E)-isoeugenols differed from the complete model, while omission of the individual components of this group did not differ from the complete model. These results indicate that a balance of numerous odorants is responsible for the characteristic aroma of cola-flavored carbonated beverages. PMID:25529113

  1. The compositions of volatiles and aroma-active compounds in dried omija fruits (Schisandra chinensis Baillon) according to the cultivation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jeong; Cho, In Hee; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-08-10

    Differences in the compositions of volatiles from dried omija fruits (Schisandra chinensis Baillon) cultivated in different areas (Mungyeong, Jangsu, Jechon, and Hoengseong) in South Korea were determined by applying principal component analysis to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data sets. Quantitative assessments revealed that terpene hydrocarbons, such as germacrene D, ?-selinene, ?-ylangene, ?-elemene, ?-selinene, and (E)-?-farnesene, were the main volatiles in all omija fruit samples. On the other hand, (E)-?-ocimene, calarene, (E)-?-farnesene, ?-selinene, nonanal, 2-methylbutanoic acid, benzoic acid, 2,3-butanediol, and phenethyl alcohol were the major volatile components that contributed to the discrimination between omija fruit samples from the four cultivation areas. In addition, aroma-active compounds in four dried omija fruits were investigated and compared by gas chromatography-olfactometry using aroma extract dilution analysis. (E)-?-Ocimene (floral and herbaceous), ?-pinene (pine-like and woody), hexanal (cut grass-like), 5-methylfurfural (burnt sugar-like and sweet), and ?-terpinene (minty, green, and fresh) were important aroma-active compounds in all omija samples. Interestingly, the flavor dilution factors of most aroma-active compounds were lower for omija sample cultivated in Hoengseong than for those cultivated in Mungyeong, Jangsu, and Jechon. PMID:21682319

  2. Evaluación química de precursores de aroma y sabor del cacao criollo merideño durante la fermentación en dos condiciones edafoclimáticas / Chemical evaluation of aroma and flavor of precursors of the criollo merideño cocoa during fermentation in two edafoclimatic conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexis, Zambrano; Carlos, Romero; Álvaro, Gómez; Gladys, Ramos; Carlos, Lacruz; María del Rosario, Brunetto; Gallignani, Máximo; Lubin, Gutiérrez; Yelitza, Delgado.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se evaluó algunos parámetros asociados con los compuestos de aroma y sabor del cacao , Theobroma cacao L., Criollo Merideño (CM) cultivado bajo dos condiciones edafoclimáticas. Un primer lote establecido en el Campo Experimental San Juan de Lagunillas del Instituto Nacional de [...] Investigaciones Agrícolas (INIA-Mérida), Venezuela , a una altura de 1.050 m.s.n.m con temperatura media anual de 26 ºC y otro lote ubicado en la población Zea del mismo estado, a 850 m.s.n.m y 22 ºC, respectivamente. Los análisis se efectuaron en muestras de cotiledones frescos durante el proceso de fermentación. En ambos casos se evaluó el porcentaje de: cascarilla, humedad , grasa y punto de fusión , contenido de ácidos volátiles, azúcares totales, polifenoles, purinas totales, teobromina, cafeína y pirazinas. Los resultados muestran que el cacao CM en San Juan de Lagunillas (SJL), presentó menor acidez titulable al inicio del secado y volátil al final de la fermentación, en comparación con el CM en Zea. Así mismo, se observó ligeras diferencias en el contenido de grasas, azúcares totales , pirazinas, cafeína y teobromina, lo que indica que las condiciones edafoclimáticas generaron cambios en el comportamiento químico de los precursores de aroma y sabor . Todos los parámetros químicos fueron corregidos en función de la humedad de la muestra durante el proceso de fermentación y relacionados con una muestra de cacao fermentado Forastero de Ghana Abstract in english The present study evaluated some parameters associated with the aroma and fl avor compounds in cocoa, Theobroma cacao L., Merideño Creole (MC) grown under soil and climatic conditions. A lot set in the Experimental Station of the San Juan de Lagunillas (INIA-Mérida), Venezuela at an altitude of 1,05 [...] 0 m.a.s.l. and average annual tempe rature of 26 ºC and another in the town of Zea, Zea municipality of Mérida and 850 m.a.s.l. 22 ºC average tempe rature. Tests were conducted on samples of fresh cotyledons during the fermentation process. Both cases evaluated the percentage of fi ber, moisture, fat and its melting point, content of volatile acidity, total sugars, polyphenols, total purines, theobro mine, caffeine and pyrazine. The results show that the MC cacao in San Juan of Lagunillas, a low acidity at the start of drying compared to MC in Zea as well as a less volatile acidity at the end of fermentation. It was also noted slight differences in fat content, total sugars, pyrazine and content of caffeine and theobromine, indicating that soil and climatic conditions have led to changes in the chemical behavior of the precursors of aroma and fl avor. All chemical parameters were corrected according to the moisture of the sample during the fermentation process and were associated with a sample of fermented cocoa of Ghana

  3. Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Carolina Batista Machado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma while roasted mate was defined as having a smooth, slightly burnt aroma. The relationship between the tentatively identified compounds and flavor must be determined by olfatometric analysis.

  4. Evaluation of key aroma compounds in hand-squeezed grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfayden) by quantitation and flavor reconstitution experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, A; Schieberle, P

    2001-03-01

    Twenty-five odor-active compounds were quantified in the fresh, hand-squeezed juice of White Marsh seedless grapefruits using stable isotope dilution assays. By calculation of the odor activity values of the odorants (ratio of their concentrations in the juice to their odor thresholds in water) it was shown that the fruity esters ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl butanoate, and (S)-ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, and the fruity, sweet winelactone, as well as the grassy smelling (Z)-hex-3-enal, and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-dec-2-enal with metallic odor, were among the most potent odorants of the fresh grapefruit juice. The typical sulfurous, grapefruit-like odor quality was mainly due to the catty, blackcurrant-like 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one and the grapefruit-like smelling 1-p-menthene-8-thiol. These findings were confirmed by reconstitution experiments to simulate the aroma of the fresh grapefruit juice. PMID:11312864

  5. Screening for key odorants in Moroccan green olives by gas chromatography-olfactometry/aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraqi, Rafika; Vermeulen, Catherine; Benzekri, Amale; Bouseta, Amina; Collin, Sonia

    2005-02-23

    "Spanish style" Moroccan green table olives were screened for potent odorants by gas chromatography-olfactometry/aroma extraction dilution analysis of a representative Likens-Nickerson extract. (Z)-3-Hexenal [flavor dilution factor (FD) = 256], (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (FD = 128), and (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal (FD = 64) were revealed to confer green and coriander/paraffin oil odors to both fruit and oil extracts, whereas guaiacol (FD = 128) imparted a bad olive, phenolic note. Methional (3-methylthiopropionaldehyde, FD = 128) and several terpenes (FD

  6. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  7. Evaluación interanual de las estrategias regenerativas de la especie exótica invasora Gleditsia triacanthos en relación a la nativa Acacia aroma en el bosque chaqueño serrano de Córdoba (Argentina) / Interannual evaluation of the regenerative strategies of the exotic invasive species Gleditsia triacanthos compared with the native Acacia aroma in the Chaco Serrano Woodland of Cordoba (Argentina)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Elisa, Ferreras; Guillermo, Funes; Leonardo, Galetto.

    Full Text Available Se ha propuesto que las especies exóticas, en relación a las nativas, difieren en características o estrategias que favorecerían su expansión. Las características regenerativas de las plantas exóticas pueden variar entre temporadas reproductivas, modificando los patrones con respecto a las especies [...] nativas e influyendo en la velocidad de expansión. En este trabajo, en el bosque chaqueño serrano de Córdoba (Argentina), se comparó en al menos dos temporadas reproductivas la producción de frutos, la densidad de semillas en el banco y la densidad de plántulas alrededor de los adultos y distribuidas en el área de estudio entre la especie exótica invasora Gleditsia triacanthos y la nativa Acacia aroma. En cada temporada de muestreo se contó el número de frutos por individuo y se obtuvo alrededor de los adultos de cada especie: a) la densidad de semillas en el banco (en dos momentos del año) y b) la densidad plántulas. Además, se registró la densidad de plántulas de ambas especies dispersas en los sitios de estudio. En dos de las tres temporadas analizadas la producción de frutos fue mayor en la especie exótica. La densidad de semillas en el banco y de plántulas alrededor de los adultos fue mayor en la especie exótica en las dos temporadas registradas. La densidad de plántulas en los sitios no varío entre las especies en ninguna de las temporadas. Las características regenerativas de G. triacanthos y la consistencia observada en las mismas en las distintas temporadas sugerirían una rápida capacidad de expansión en la región. Abstract in english It has been proposed that exotic species, compared with native ones, differed in certain characteristics that may favor their expansion. The regenerative characteristics of exotic species may vary among reproductive seasons, modifying the patterns observed contrasted with native species and hence in [...] fluencing their expansion velocity. In this work, fruit production, seed density in the soil and seedlings density around the con-specifics and in the study sites were compared between the exotic invasive Gleditsia triacanthos and the native Acacia aroma. The study was developed in at least two reproductive seasons, in areas of the Chaco Serrano Woodland of Córdoba (Argentina). In each season, the number of fruits was counted. Around the con-specifics of each species it was obtained: a) the density of seeds in the soil (in two different moments per year) and b) the density of seedlings. In addition, the density of seedlings distributed in the study sites was registered. In two of the three reproductive seasons analyzed, fruit production was higher in the exotic invasive species. In both seasons the density of seeds in the seed bank and of seedlings around the focal individuals was higher in the exotic species. The density of seedlings in the study sites did not vary between species in any of the seasons. The regenerative characteristics observed in G. triacanthos and the consistency in their response in different reproductive seasons suggest a rapid expansion of the species in the region.

  8. Stabilization of enzymes activities of lipoxygenase pathway by irradiation to improve the production of olive oil aroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this work was to improve the synthesis of volatile compounds leading to green note in olives and olive tree leaves by improving enzymes activities of lipoxygenase pathway. Lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxyde lyase (HPL) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities were tested in olives and olive tree leaves during maturation. The gamma irradiation effects on these samples were studied. LOX, HPL and ADH showed maximum activities at black stage for olives and in December for olive leaves. Those activities, from olives and Chemlali olive leaves, were improved after irradiation with 0,5KGy. For the case of Chetoui olive leaves, the irradiation treatment was unfavorable because it causes a loss in enzymes activities. (Author)

  9. Improvement of soluble coffee aroma using an integrated process of supercritical CO2 extraction with selective removal of the pungent volatiles by adsorption on activates carbon

    OpenAIRE

    S. Lucas; M. J. Cocero

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a two-step integrated process consisting of CO2 supercritical extraction of volatile coffee compounds (the most valuable) from roasted and milled coffee, and a subsequent step of selective removal of pungent volatiles by adsorption on activated carbon is presented. Some experiments were carried out with key compounds from roasted coffee aroma in order to study the adsorption step: ethyl acetate as a desirable compound and furfural as a pungent component. Operational parameters s...

  10. Changes in the bound aroma profiles of 'Hayward' and 'Hort16A' kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) during ripening and GC-olfactometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Coralia V; Stevenson, Ralph J; Atkinson, Ross G; Winz, Robert A; Quek, Siew-Young

    2013-04-15

    Bound volatiles are recognised as a potential source of aroma compounds in fruits. In this study, the bound volatiles of Actinidia deliciosa 'Hayward' and A. chinensis 'Hort16A' were studied at three different ripening stages. The bound volatile content tended to increase as the fruit ripened from under-ripe to ripe, and then decreased in over-ripe fruit. Glycosides of (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and hexanol (green-note volatiles) were present in considerable amounts. ?-Glucosidase activity in 'Hayward' and 'Hort16A' remained fairly constant throughout ripening. GC-olfactometry analysis of the hydrolysates of ripe 'Hayward' and 'Hort16A' revealed the presence of 2-phenylethanol, ?-damascenone, vanillin and 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF). This is the first report of DMHF in 'Hayward' kiwifruit. For both 'Hayward' and 'Hort16A', the odour-active compounds found in the bound volatile extracts were different from those reported as contributors to the aroma of the ripe fruit, suggesting that bound volatiles are probably not significant contributors to the aroma of ripe kiwifruit. PMID:23199989

  11. Identification, quantification and comparison between the chemical substances responsible for the irradiated pot still cachaca and commercial rum aromas; Identificacao, quantificacao e comparacao das substancias quimicas responsaveis pelos aromas da cachaca de alambique e do rum comercial tratados pelo processo de irradiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Maria Djiliah Camargo Alvarenga de

    2006-07-01

    The irradiation process has being presented as an alternative technique in food preservation. When applied on beverages, radiation is mainly used for malt decontamination or sterilization of musts and had been proposed also to accelerate aging. Some confusion over rum and cachaca identities has arisen due to the internationalization of cachaca. This research aims to identify, quantify and compare the effect of gamma radiation on the aroma of the Brazilian spirit with rum, irradiated and non irradiated, by instrumental and sensory analysis. Results showed that the content of volatile compounds presented strong correlation with the radiation dose (0,150 and 300 Gy) for all the samples. According to Triangle Test for aroma, all the judges could distinguish among non irradiated and irradiated samples (300 Gy), aged cachaca from rum and non aged cachaca from rum, but they could not distinguish aged cachaca from non aged cachaca. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results from the quantitative descriptive analysis showed that non irradiated non aged cachaca and rum were different in their alcohol, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except caramel and apple aroma attributes. Non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) were different in their apple, caramel, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except alcohol aroma attributes. According to the gas chromatography/olfactometry results, significant difference was found among non irradiated cachaca and rum; non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) when their aromas were compared. (author)

  12. Fermented Meat Products: Organoleptic Qualities and Biogenic Amines-a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Akhilesh K; Pathak, V.; Singh, V.P.

    2012-01-01

    Fermented foods are value added products which have higher nutrients, prolong shelf life and easy in digestibility and are more suitable for the intestinal tract. The organoleptic qualities of such foods are higher particularly in terms of flavour, taste, aroma and colour. For the production of fermented products we require starter culture such as Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) strains, most of the meat starter cultures are Lactobacillus pentosus, L. casei L. curvetus, L. planterum, L. sakei, Ped...

  13. Use of non-conventional yeast improves the wine aroma profile of Ribolla Gialla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashko, Sofia; Zhou, Nerve; Tinta, Tinkara; Sivilotti, Paolo; Lemut, Melita Sternad; Trost, Kajetan; Gamero, Amparo; Boekhout, Teun; Butinar, Lorena; Vrhovsek, Urska; Piskur, Jure

    2015-07-01

    Consumer wine preferences are changing rapidly towards exotic flavours and tastes. In this work, we tested five non-conventional yeast strains for their potential to improve Ribolla Gialla wine quality. These strains were previously selected from numerous yeasts interesting as food production candidates. Sequential fermentation of Ribolla Gialla grape juice with the addition of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae T73 Lalvin industrial strain was performed. Zygosaccharomyces kombuchaensis CBS8849 and Kazachstania gamospora CBS10400 demonstrated positive organoleptic properties and suitable fermentation dynamics, rapid sugar consumption and industrial strain compatibility. At the same time, Torulaspora microellipsoides CBS6641, Dekkera bruxellensis CBS2796 and Dekkera anomala CBS77 were unsuitable for wine production because of poor fermentation dynamics, inefficient sugar consumption and ethanol production levels and major organoleptic defects. Thus, we selected strains of K. gamospora and Z. kombuchaensis that significantly improved the usually plain taste of Ribolla wine by providing additional aromatic complexity in a controlled and reproducible manner. PMID:25903098

  14. Aroma compound analysis of Piper nigrum and Piper guineense essential oils from Cameroon using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography, solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Ngassoum, Martin Benoit; Geissler, Margit

    2002-11-01

    The investigation of aroma compounds of the essential oils of dried fruits of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and black and white "Ashanti pepper" (Piper guineense) from Cameroon by means of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was carried out for the first time to identify the odorous target components responsible for the characteristic odor of these valuable spices and food flavoring products. By means of GC-flame ionization detection (FID) and GC-MS (using different polar columns) the main compounds (concentration >3.0%, calculated as area of GC-FID analysis using a non-polar fused-silica open tubular RSL-200 column) of the SPME headspace samples of P. nigrum (black) and P. guineense (black and white) were found to be: P. nigrum (black)--germacrene D (11.01%), limonene (10.26%), beta-pinene (10.02%), alpha-phellandrene (8.56%), beta-caryophyllene (7.29%), alpha-pinene (6.40%) and cis-beta-ocimene (3.19%); P. guineense (black)--beta-caryophyllene (57.59%), beta-elemene (5.10%), bicyclogermacrene (5.05%) and alpha-humulene (4.86%); and P. guineense (white)--beta-caryophyllene (51.75%), cis-beta-ocimene (6.61%), limonene (5.88%), beta-pinene (4.56%), linalool (3.97%) and alpha-humulene (3.29%). The most intense odor impressions of the essential oils of the various dried pepper fruits were given byprofessional perfumers as follows: P nigrum (black)--fine, pleasant black pepper note; P. guineense (black)--black pepper top-note; and P. guineense (white)--pleasant white pepper note. These analytical results for the SPME headspace samples of three different pepper species from Cameroon are in accordance with the olfactoric data of the corresponding essential oils. A GC-sniffing technique was used to correlate the single odor impression of the identified SPME headspace volatiles of the three investigated pepper samples with the following results: themain compounds such as beta-caryophyllene, germacrene D, limonene, beta-pinene, alpha-phellandrene and alpha-humulene, as well as minor constituents such as delta-carene, beta-phellandrene, isoborneol, alpha-guaiene, sarisan, elemicin, calamenene, caryophyllene alcohol, isoelemicin, T-muurolol, cubenol and bulnesol, are of greatest importance for the characteristic pepper odor notes of these three Piper samples. Further aroma impressions can be attributed to mono- and sesquiterpenes, hexane, octane and nonane derivatives. PMID:12462618

  15. The potential of e-nose aroma profiling for identifying the geographical origin of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Mariateresa; Serra, Demetrio; Suraci, Francesca; Di Sanzo, Rosa; Fuda, Salvatore; Postorino, Santo

    2014-12-15

    Licorice roots cultivated commercially in distinct geographical areas such as China, Iran, Italy (Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily) and Turkey were classified using an artificial olfactive system (e-nose) based on metal oxide semiconductor sensors (MOS). The resultant instrumental data were processed using a multivariate statistical analysis method in order to classify the raw samples according to its origin. The e-nose odourprintings were obtained by a canonical discriminant analysis carried out with the aim of relating the specific data-sets corresponding to whole licorice roots aroma with the e-nose reference dataset. E-nose results were compared to those obtained by SPME/GC-MS. The HS-SPME/GC/MS analysis was used as a control system to check for the actual existence of differences in the chemical composition of sample headspace. These results imply the possibility to use an electronic nose as a tool for a quick, effective and non-destructive authentication of licorice roots. PMID:25038700

  16. Microstructure, physicochemistry, microbial populations and aroma compounds of ripened Cantal cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Isabelle; Pinon, Nicolas; Lopez, Christelle; Thierry, Anne; Maubois, Jean-louis; Lortal, Sylvie

    2005-01-01

    In spite of its high production (18000 T yearly), very few studies have been devoted to Cantal, a French AOC ("Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée") cheese variety whose making process is close to that of Cheddar. To improve the knowledge of this type of cheese, two ripened Cantal cheeses issued from raw milk and two different industrial processes were biochemically, physicochemically, structurally and microbiologically characterised through the analysis of both cheese sectors and juices extrac...

  17. Impact of inoculum size on mead aroma compounds formation by wine strains of S. cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, A. P.; Ferreira, A. Mendes; Oliveira, J. M.; Estevinho, L. M.; Faia, A. Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Mead is a traditional drink, containing 8-18% (v/v) of ethanol, which results from the alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey performed by yeasts. It has been reported that mead fermentation is a time-consuming process, and an important objective of mead makers is to reduce the fermentation time without decreasing the quality of the end product. A significant time can be saved in the fermentation process by increasing the pitching rate, i.e., the amount of suspended yeast cells added to a ba...

  18. Relevance of nitrate and nitrite in dry-cured ham and their effects on aroma development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores, Mónica

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Potassium and sodium salts of nitrite (E 249 and E 250 and nitrate (E 251 and E 252 are authorised for use under certain levels in several foodstuffs such as non-heat-treated, cured and dried meat products, other cured meat products, canned meat products and bacon. The key point in the use of nitrate and nitrite as preservatives is to find a balance between ensuring the microbiological safety of the ham and keeping as low as possible the level of nitrosamines in the final product. Nitrites and nitrates are authorised as additives for dry-cured ham in the Directive 2006/52/EC of 5 July 2006 that modifies previous Council Directive 95/2/EC on food additives other than colours and sweeteners. The effect of nitrate and its reduction to nitrite in controlling the lipid oxidation process during the ham ripening is very important for the development of the characteristic cured flavour. The main benefits and drawbacks of the use of nitrites and nitrates in dry-cured ham and how these levels may affect its flavour are discussed in this manuscript.Las sales sódica y potásica del nitrito (E249 y E250 y del nitrato (E251 y E252 están autorizados para su uso en los productos cárnicos, secos, curados y no tratados por el calor, otros productos cárnicos curados, productos cárnicos enlatados y bacon. El punto esencial en el uso de nitrato y nitrito como conservantes consiste en encontrar un balance entre el aseguramiento de la seguridad microbiológica del jamón y mantener el nivel de nitrosaminas tan bajo como sea posible. Los nitratos y nitritos están autorizados como aditivos en el jamón curado según la Directiva Europea 2006/52/EC de 5 de Julio de 2006 que modificaba la previa Directiva Europea 95/2/EC de aditivos alimentarios distintos a los colorantes y edulcorantes. El efecto del nitrato y su reducción a nitrito para controlar la oxidación de los lípidos durante la maduración del jamón es muy importante para el desarrollo del característico flavor a curado. Se presentan en este manuscrito los principales beneficios y problemas del uso de los nitratos y nitritos en el jamón curado así como sus efectos en el flavor.

  19. Approaches of aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA) for headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-olfactometry (HS-SPME-GC-O): Altering sample amount, diluting the sample or adjusting split ratio?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunzi; Cai, Yu; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Cui, Chun; Su, Guowan; Lin, Lianzhu; Zhao, Mouming

    2015-11-15

    Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) is widely used for the screening of aroma-active compounds in gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). In this study, three aroma dilution methods, (I) using different test sample volumes, (II) diluting samples, and (III) adjusting the GC injector split ratio, were compared for the analysis of volatiles by using HS-SPME-AEDA. Results showed that adjusting the GC injector split ratio (III) was the most desirable approach, based on the linearity relationships between Ln (normalised peak area) and Ln (normalised flavour dilution factors). Thereafter this dilution method was applied in the analysis of aroma-active compounds in Japanese soy sauce and 36 key odorants were found in this study. The most intense aroma-active components in Japanese soy sauce were: ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, ethyl 4-methylpentanoate, 3-(methylthio)propanal, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-methoxyphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 2-phenylethanol, and 4-hydroxy-5-ethyl-2-methyl-3(2H)-furanone. PMID:25976996

  20. O AROMA AMBIENTAL E SUA RELAÇÃO COM AS AVALIAÇÕES E INTENÇÕES DO CONSUMIDOR NO VAREJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Carvalho Nunes da Costa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The atmosphere of a store can be used to produce specific emotions that enhance purchase probability, and the ambient scent,artificially added, is among its dimensions. This article investigates the relationship between the presence of an ambient scent in a retail store, and customers’ evaluation of the store, its environment and products, as well as the behavioral intentions related to return and time spent in the store. The research design included an exploratory stage, examination of publications in the fields of physiology, psychology and consumer behavior, to provide the conceptual background and to formulate research hypothesis; and a causal stage, quasi-experiment,to verify the effects of scent presence. Semantic differential scales were employed for data collection. Descriptive statistics and hypothesistest were performed for data analysis and the results revealed that the scent presence did not improve the evaluations or the intent to return but retained the consumer longer in the store.

  1. [Anti-Candida activity of aroma candy and its protective activity against murine oral candidiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Suzuki, Motofumi; Ezawa, Kunio; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Matsukawa, Taiji; Kishi, Akinobu; Sato, Nobuya; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    A daily eatable candy that has possible protective activity against oral candidiasis was experimentally produced. The candy was made from reduced-maltose as main constituent and from several natural products, such as oligonol (depolymerized polyphenols derived from lychee), cinnamon (cassia), citral, and capric acid, which are known to have anti-Candida activity in vitro and in vivo. The candy effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of C. albicans, even when it was diluted 1,000 times with culture media. We assessed the protective activity of the candy against murine candidiasis. When 50?l of candy dissolved and diluted 4 times with water was administered 3 times into the oral cavity of Candida infected mice, the score of lesions on the Candida-infected tongues improved on day 2. These findings suggest that this candy has potential as food that provides protective activity against oral candidiasis. PMID:25855024

  2. Transgenic Hybrid Poplar for Sustainable and Scalable Production of the Commodity/Specialty Chemical, 2-Phenylethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Michael A.; Marques, Joaquim V.; Dalisay, Doralyn S.; Herman, Barrington; Bedgar, Diana L.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2013-01-01

    Fast growing hybrid poplar offers the means for sustainable production of specialty and commodity chemicals, in addition to rapid biomass production for lignocellulosic deconstruction. Herein we describe transformation of fast-growing transgenic hybrid poplar lines to produce 2-phenylethanol, this being an important fragrance, flavor, aroma, and commodity chemical. It is also readily converted into styrene or ethyl benzene, the latter being an important commodity aviation fuel component. Intr...

  3. Multiple automated headspace in-tube extraction for the accurate analysis of relevant wine aroma compounds and for the estimation of their relative liquid-gas transfer rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Julián; Lopez, Ricardo; Herrero, Paula; Ferreira, Vicente

    2012-11-30

    An automated headspace in-tube extraction (ITEX) method combined with multiple headspace extraction (MHE) has been developed to provide simultaneously information about the accurate wine content in 20 relevant aroma compounds and about their relative transfer rates to the headspace and hence about the relative strength of their interactions with the matrix. In the method, 5 ?L (for alcohols, acetates and carbonyl alcohols) or 200 ?L (for ethyl esters) of wine sample were introduced in a 2 mL vial, heated at 35°C and extracted with 32 (for alcohols, acetates and carbonyl alcohols) or 16 (for ethyl esters) 0.5 mL pumping strokes in four consecutive extraction and analysis cycles. The application of the classical theory of Multiple Extractions makes it possible to obtain a highly reliable estimate of the total amount of volatile compound present in the sample and a second parameter, ?, which is simply the proportion of volatile not transferred to the trap in one extraction cycle, but that seems to be a reliable indicator of the actual volatility of the compound in that particular wine. A study with 20 wines of different types and 1 synthetic sample has revealed the existence of significant differences in the relative volatility of 15 out of 20 odorants. Differences are particularly intense for acetaldehyde and other carbonyls, but are also notable for alcohols and long chain fatty acid ethyl esters. It is expected that these differences, linked likely to sulphur dioxide and some unknown specific compositional aspects of the wine matrix, can be responsible for relevant sensory changes, and may even be the cause explaining why the same aroma composition can produce different aroma perceptions in two different wines. PMID:23102525

  4. Compuestos fenólicos, actividad antioxidante, contenido de resveratrol y componentes del aroma de 8 vinos peruanos / Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, resveratrol content and volatile components of 8 peruvian wines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo, Salazar; Giovana, Espinoza; Candy, Ruiz; María de Fátima, Fernández; Rosario, Rojas.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo de investigación tuvo como objetivo conocer las propiedades fisicoquímicas, actividad antioxidante, componentes del aroma y contenido de resveratrol y quercetina de 8 vinos peruanos. Se encontró que las densidades relativas de los vinos están dentro del rango de 0,9916 a 1,0174 g [...] /mL, mientras que los valores de pH varían de 3,18 a 3,97. Mediante métodos espectrofotométricos se pudo cuantificar la concentración de fenoles totales (2374,25 a 3610,43 mg/L), flavonoides totales (1869,19 a 3138,85 mg/L) y antocianinas totales (102,64 a 317,50 mg/L). Por medio de cromatografía líquida de alta performance (HPLC) se pudo detectar la presencia del compuesto trans-resveratrol en 6 de los 8 vinos peruanos evaluados. El vino Tabernero Malbec-Merlot contiene la mayor concentración de dicho compuesto (0,56 ± 0,03 µg/mL) y, además, es el que presenta la mejor actividad antioxidante en el test de DPPH. Por medio de cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS) se pudo determinar que los compuestos volátiles de mayor concentración en el aroma de los vinos fueron el ácido sórbico, feniletanol, ácido propanoico y monoetil éster del ácido butanodioico. Abstract in english The aim of this investigation was to evaluate some physicochemical properties, the antioxidant activity, the aroma components and resveratrol and quercitin contents of 8 Peruvian wines. We found that the density of the selected wines was in the range of 0,9916 - 1,0174 g/mL, while the pH values were [...] between 3,18 and 3,97. Spectrophotometric methods were used to determine the concentrations of total phenolics (2374,25 - 3610,43 mg/L), flavonoids (1869,19 - 3138,85 mg/L) and anthocyanins (102,64 - 317,50 mg/L). The compound trans-resveratrol was detected by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) on 6 of the 8 Peruvian wines selected for the present study. The Tabernero Malbec-Merlot wine had the highest concentration of this compound (0,56 ± 0,03 µg/mL) and the best antioxidant activity on the DPPH test. GC-MS studies on the aroma of the evaluated wines showed that the major compounds were sorbic acid, phenylethyl alcohol, propanoic acid and ethyl hydrogen succinate.

  5. Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) / Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) beverages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla Carolina Batista, Machado; Deborah Helena Markowicz, Bastos; Natália Soares, Janzantti; Roselaine, Facanali; Marcia Ortiz M., Marques; Maria Regina Bueno, Franco.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and [...] trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z)-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma while roasted mate was defined as having a smooth, slightly burnt aroma. The relationship between the tentatively identified compounds and flavor must be determined by olfatometric analysis.

  6. Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin) and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma / Estudo de compostos voláteis de ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin) e estimativa da sua contribuição ao aroma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge Antonio, Pino; Clara Elizabeth, Quijano.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As técnicas de extração-destilação simultâneas (SDE) e de headspace-microextração em fase sólida (HS-SPME) combinadas com GC-FID e GC-MS foram usadas para analisar compostos voláteis da ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin) e para estimar os compostos de aroma mais ativos, pela aplicação de valore [...] s de atividade olfativa (OAV), considerando os compostos voláteis presentes no headspace da fruta. As análises levaram à identificação de 148 componentes, incluindo 58 ésteres, 23 terpenoides, 14 aldeídos, 11 álcoois, 10 cetonas, 9 alcanos, 7 ácidos, 4 lactonas, 3 fenóis e 9 outros compostos de diferentes estruturas. De acordo om os resultados de SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS e OAV, 2-metilbutanoato de etila, acetato de hexila, (E)-2-nonenal, butanoato de etila, (E)-2-decenal, hexanoato de etila, nonanal, decanal, (E)-b-ionona, ?-dodecalactona, acetato de (Z)-3-hexenila, acetato de pentila, linalool, ?-decalactona, acetato de butila, limoneno, acetato de propila, ?-decalactona, sulfeto de dietila, acetato de (E)-2-hexenila, heptanoato de etila, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanoato de (Z)-3-hexenila, eugenol, (E)-2-hexenal, pentanoato de etila, hexil 2-butanoato de metila, hexanoato de isopentila, 1-hexanol, ?-nonalactona, mirceno, acetato de octila, fenilacetaldeído, 1-butanol, acetato de isobutila, (E)-2-heptenal, octadecanal, e nerol são compostos odoríficos característicos em ameixas frescas, já que foram encontrados em concentrações muito acima dos seus limiares de precepção olfativa. Abstract in english Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE) and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin) and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values ( [...] OAV). The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E)-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E)-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E)-?-ionone, ?-dodecalactone, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, ?-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, ?-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z)-3-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E)-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, ?-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E)-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.

  7. Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma Estudo de compostos voláteis de ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin e estimativa da sua contribuição ao aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Pino

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values (OAV. The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E-?-ionone, ?-dodecalactone, (Z-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, ?-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, ?-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z-3-hexenol, (Z-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, ?-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.As técnicas de extração-destilação simultâneas (SDE e de headspace-microextração em fase sólida (HS-SPME combinadas com GC-FID e GC-MS foram usadas para analisar compostos voláteis da ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin e para estimar os compostos de aroma mais ativos, pela aplicação de valores de atividade olfativa (OAV, considerando os compostos voláteis presentes no headspace da fruta. As análises levaram à identificação de 148 componentes, incluindo 58 ésteres, 23 terpenoides, 14 aldeídos, 11 álcoois, 10 cetonas, 9 alcanos, 7 ácidos, 4 lactonas, 3 fenóis e 9 outros compostos de diferentes estruturas. De acordo om os resultados de SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS e OAV, 2-metilbutanoato de etila, acetato de hexila, (E-2-nonenal, butanoato de etila, (E-2-decenal, hexanoato de etila, nonanal, decanal, (E-b-ionona, ?-dodecalactona, acetato de (Z-3-hexenila, acetato de pentila, linalool, ?-decalactona, acetato de butila, limoneno, acetato de propila, ?-decalactona, sulfeto de dietila, acetato de (E-2-hexenila, heptanoato de etila, (Z-3-hexenol, hexanoato de (Z-3-hexenila, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, pentanoato de etila, hexil 2-butanoato de metila, hexanoato de isopentila, 1-hexanol, ?-nonalactona, mirceno, acetato de octila, fenilacetaldeído, 1-butanol, acetato de isobutila, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, e nerol são compostos odoríficos característicos em ameixas frescas, já que foram encontrados em concentrações muito acima dos seus limiares de precepção olfativa.

  8. Characteristic Chemical Components and Aroma-active Compounds of the Essential Oils from Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus Used in Japanese Traditional Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Satoshi; Usami, Atsushi; Yorimoto, Tomohito; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-06-01

    Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus is an aquatic macrophyte; it is known as a wild edible plant in Japan for a long time. In this study, the essential oils from the fresh and dried aerial parts of R. nipponicus var. submersus were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, important aroma-active compounds were also detected in the oil using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Thus, 98 compounds (accounting for 93.86%) of the oil were identified. The major compounds in fresh plant oil were phytol (41.94%), heptadecane (5.92%), and geranyl propionate (5.76%), while those of. Dried plant oil were ?-ionone (23.54%), 2-hexenal (8.75%), and dihydrobovolide (4.81%). The fresh and dried oils had the green-floral and citrus-floral odor, respectively. The GC-O and AEDA results show that phenylacetaldehyde (green, floral odor, FD-factor = 8) and ?-ionone (violet-floral odor, FD-factor = 8) were the most characteristic odor compounds of the fresh oils. ?-Cyclocitral (citrus odor, FD-factor = 64) and ?-ionone (violet-floral odor, FD-factor = 64) were the most characteristic odor compounds of the dried oil. These compounds are thought to contribute to the flavor of R. nipponicus var. submersus. PMID:25891110

  9. Improvement of soluble coffee aroma using an integrated process of supercritical CO2 extraction with selective removal of the pungent volatiles by adsorption on activates carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lucas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a two-step integrated process consisting of CO2 supercritical extraction of volatile coffee compounds (the most valuable from roasted and milled coffee, and a subsequent step of selective removal of pungent volatiles by adsorption on activated carbon is presented. Some experiments were carried out with key compounds from roasted coffee aroma in order to study the adsorption step: ethyl acetate as a desirable compound and furfural as a pungent component. Operational parameters such as adsorption pressure and temperature and CO2 flowrate were optimized. Experiments were conducted at adsorption pressures of 12-17 MPa, adsorption temperatures of 35-50ºC and a solvent flow rate of 3-5 kg/h. In all cases, the solute concentration and the activated particle size were kept constant. Results show that low pressures (12 MPa, low temperatures (35ºC and low CO2 flowrates (3 kg/h are suitable for removing the undesirable pungent and smell components (e.g. furfural and retaining the desirable aroma compounds (e.g. ethyl acetate. The later operation with real roasted coffee has corroborated the previous results obtained with the key compounds.

  10. Improvement of soluble coffee aroma using an integrated process of supercritical CO2 extraction with selective removal of the pungent volatiles by adsorption on activates carbon

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Lucas; M. J., Cocero.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a two-step integrated process consisting of CO2 supercritical extraction of volatile coffee compounds (the most valuable) from roasted and milled coffee, and a subsequent step of selective removal of pungent volatiles by adsorption on activated carbon is presented. Some experiments wer [...] e carried out with key compounds from roasted coffee aroma in order to study the adsorption step: ethyl acetate as a desirable compound and furfural as a pungent component. Operational parameters such as adsorption pressure and temperature and CO2 flowrate were optimized. Experiments were conducted at adsorption pressures of 12-17 MPa, adsorption temperatures of 35-50ºC and a solvent flow rate of 3-5 kg/h. In all cases, the solute concentration and the activated particle size were kept constant. Results show that low pressures (12 MPa), low temperatures (35ºC) and low CO2 flowrates (3 kg/h) are suitable for removing the undesirable pungent and smell components (e.g. furfural) and retaining the desirable aroma compounds (e.g. ethyl acetate). The later operation with real roasted coffee has corroborated the previous results obtained with the key compounds.

  11. Purification and characterization of an ethanol-tolerant ?-glucosidase from Sporidiobolus pararoseus and its potential for hydrolysis of wine aroma precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffi, Milla Alves; Martin, Natália; Tobal, Thaise Mariá; Ferrarezi, Ana Lúcia; Lago, João Henrique Ghilardi; Boscolo, Maurício; Gomes, Eleni; Da-Silva, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    An extracellular ethanol-tolerant ?-glucosidase from Sporidiobolus pararoseus was purified to homogeneity and characterized, and its potential use for the enhancement of wine aroma was investigated. The crude enzymatic extract was purified in four steps (concentration, dialysis, ultrafiltration, and chromatography) with a yield of around 40 % for total activity. The purified enzyme (designated Sp-?gl-P) showed a specific activity of approximately 20.0 U/mg, an estimated molecular mass of 63 kDa after sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and isoelectric point of 5.0 by isoelectric focusing. Sp-?gl-P has optimal activity at pH 4.0 and at 55 °C. It was stable in a broad pH range at low temperatures and it was tolerant to ethanol and glucose, indicating suitable properties for winemaking. The hydrolysis of glycosidic terpenes was analyzed by adding Sp-?gl-P directly to the wines. The released terpene compounds were evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The enzymatic treatment significantly increased the amount of free terpenes, suggesting that this enzyme could potentially be applicable in wine aroma improvement. PMID:23996123

  12. Influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration treatment on aroma compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in different industrial scale fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Lu, Lin; Lan, Yi-Bin; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2014-07-01

    The influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration (CM) on Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in two different industrial-scale fermenters was studied. CM treatment had different effects on wine aroma depending on the types of fermenter, being more effective for automatic pumping-over tank (PO-tank) than automatic punching-down tank (PD-tank). When PO-tank was used, CM-treated wine showed a decrease in some fusel alcohols (isobutanol and isopentanol) and an increase in some esters (especially acetate esters). However, no significant changes were detected in these compounds when PD-tank was used. Ethyl 2-hexenoate and diethyl succinate were decreased, while geranylacetone was increased by the CM treatment in both fermenters. ?-Damascenone was increased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines but decreased in PD-tank fermented wines. The fruity, caramel and floral aroma series were enhanced while chemical series were decreased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines. The content of (Z)-6-nonen-1-ol in the final wines was positively correlated to CM treatment. PMID:24518336

  13. Characterization of the Major Odor-Active Compounds in the Leaves of the Curry Tree Bergera koenigii L. by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Martin

    2015-04-29

    Curry leaves are a popular seasoning herb with a pronounced sulfury and burnt odor, the molecular background of which was yet unclear. Application of an aroma extract dilution analysis to the volatile fraction of curry leaves isolated by solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation afforded 23 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 1 to 8192. On the basis of the comparison of their retention indices, mass spectra, and odor properties with data of reference compounds, the structures of 22 odorants could be assigned, 15 of which had not been reported in curry leaves before. Odorants with high FD factors included 1-phenylethanethiol (FD factor 8192), linalool (4096), ?-pinene (2048), 1,8-cineole (1024), (3Z)-hex-3-enal (256), 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (128), myrcene (64), (3Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol (32), and (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienal (32). The unique sulfury and burnt odor exhibited by 1-phenylethanethiol in combination with its high FD factor suggested that it constitutes the character impact compound of fresh curry leaf aroma. PMID:25857926

  14. Identification of odorants in frankincense (Boswellia sacra Flueck.) by aroma extract dilution analysis and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebler, Johannes; Buettner, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Frankincense has been known, traded and used throughout the ages for its exceptional aroma properties, and is still commonly used in both secular and religious settings to convey a pleasant odor. Surprisingly, the odoriferous principle(s) underlying its unique odor profile have never been published. In this study, resin samples of Boswellia sacra Flueck. from both Somalia and Oman were investigated by aroma extract dilution analysis. In a comprehensive, odor-activity guided approach both chemo-analytical and human-sensory parameters were used to identify odor active constituents of the volatile fraction of B. sacra. Among the key odorants found were ?-pinene, ?-myrcene, linalool, p-cresol and two unidentified sesquiterpenoids. Overall, a total of 23 odorants were detected and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry and heart-cut two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry. The majority of the identified odorant compounds were oxygenated monoterpenes, along with some relevant mono- and sesquiterpenes and only one diterpenoid substance. Several of these compounds were reported here for the first time as odorous constituents in B. sacra. Identifying bioactive compounds might support a better understanding with regard to the potential benefits of frankincense, for example in aromatherapy or ecclesial settings. PMID:25468535

  15. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality--Part II. Processed products, standards, world production and trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S

    1986-01-01

    Capsicums, as a spice, have been known since the beginning of civilization and historically associated with the discovery of the New World. The genus Capsicum (Fam. Solanaceae) provides many varieties and adds color, pungency, and aroma to the cuisines of most of the world. From the pungent chilli, of interest also to pharmaceuticals, to the colorful paprika and the bell capsicums with its remarkable aroma, the genus has been of great interest for its chemistry and physiological action. Pungency as a sensory attribute, its evaluation, structure-activity relationship, and its increasing acceptance and preference by diverse populations of the world are of great interest to many research disciplines. In a comprehensive review of all aspects in four sequential parts, Part I deals with History, Botany, Cultivation, and Primary Processing (CRC Critical Review, Food Science and Nutrition). The Capsicums among the spices are second only to black pepper in trades both in volume and value. The production of the different forms of this spice as ground, specialty seasonings, and as the concentrated oleoresins through technologically advanced processes, proposed newer products, the standard to control quality of the different products, world production, trade, and prospects are reviewed in detail in this, Part II. PMID:3514128

  16. Production and Preservation of Passion Fruit Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Akpan, U. G.; Kovo, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    Production and preservation of Passion Fruit Juice was examined to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the juice using chemical preservatives. The preservation of the juice was carried out using sugar, benzoic acid, citric and a combination of citric and benzoic acid under room temperature.The result revealed that the juice maintained its color, aroma and tastes for at least one month when 30% benzoic acid was used as preservative. This happens to be the best among all. The ...

  17. Managing sensory expectations concerning products and brands: Capitalizing on the potential of sound and shape symbolism

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the evidence demonstrating the existence of a variety of robust crossmodal correspondences between both sounds (phonetic speech sounds, tones, and other parameters of musical expression) and shapes, and the sensory attributes (specifically the taste, flavor, aroma, and oral-somatosensory attributes) of various foods and beverages is reviewed. The available research now clearly suggests that marketers can enhance their consumers' product experiences by ensuring that the sound ...

  18. Production of 6-pentyl-?-pyrone by trichoderma harzianum in solid-state fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza Ramos, Aline; Fiaux, Sorele Batista; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Many Trichoderma species are able to produce 6-pentyl-?-pyrone (6-PP), a lactone with coconut-like aroma. In the present work, several culture parameters were studied to enhance the production of 6-PP by Trichoderma harzianum 4040 in solid-state fermentation. Green coir powder added to a nutrient solution was used as support material for fermentation. A Plackett-Burman screening technique was applied, followed by a fractionary factorial design. The best culture conditions within the experime...

  19. Production, chemical characterization, and sensory profile of a novel spirit elaborated from spent coffee ground

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, Armando; Dragone, Giuliano; Vilanova, Mar; Oliveira, J. M.; Teixeira, J. A.; Mussatto, Solange I.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a process for the production of a spirit from spent coffee ground (SCG), the chemical composition, and sensory profile of this distillate. The process consisted in three steps starting with the extraction of aroma compounds by hydrothermal treatment of SCG, followed by the fermentation of this extract supplemented with sucrose to ethanol, and the fermented broth distillation. Seventeen volatile compounds were identified in the distillate (including alcohols, esters, aldeh...

  20. Enhanced levels of the aroma and flavor compound S-linalool by metabolic engineering of the terpenoid pathway in tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinsohn, E; Schalechet, F; Wilkinson, J; Matsui, K; Tadmor, Y; Nam, K H; Amar, O; Lastochkin, E; Larkov, O; Ravid, U; Hiatt, W; Gepstein, S; Pichersky, E

    2001-11-01

    The aromas of fruits, vegetables, and flowers are mixtures of volatile metabolites, often present in parts per billion levels or less. We show here that tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants transgenic for a heterologous Clarkia breweri S-linalool synthase (LIS) gene, under the control of the tomato late-ripening-specific E8 promoter, synthesize and accumulate S-linalool and 8-hydroxylinalool in ripening fruits. Apart from the difference in volatiles, no other phenotypic alterations were noted, including the levels of other terpenoids such as gamma- and alpha-tocopherols, lycopene, beta-carotene, and lutein. Our studies indicate that it is possible to enhance the levels of monoterpenes in ripening fruits by metabolic engineering. PMID:11706204

  1. Enhanced Levels of the Aroma and Flavor Compound S-Linalool by Metabolic Engineering of the Terpenoid Pathway in Tomato Fruits1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinsohn, Efraim; Schalechet, Fernond; Wilkinson, Jack; Matsui, Kenji; Tadmor, Yaakov; Nam, Kyoung-Hee; Amar, Orit; Lastochkin, Elena; Larkov, Olga; Ravid, Uzi; Hiatt, William; Gepstein, Shimon; Pichersky, Eran

    2001-01-01

    The aromas of fruits, vegetables, and flowers are mixtures of volatile metabolites, often present in parts per billion levels or less. We show here that tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants transgenic for a heterologous Clarkia breweri S-linalool synthase (LIS) gene, under the control of the tomato late-ripening-specific E8 promoter, synthesize and accumulate S-linalool and 8-hydroxylinalool in ripening fruits. Apart from the difference in volatiles, no other phenotypic alterations were noted, including the levels of other terpenoids such as ?- and ?-tocopherols, lycopene, ?-carotene, and lutein. Our studies indicate that it is possible to enhance the levels of monoterpenes in ripening fruits by metabolic engineering. PMID:11706204

  2. Diversity of odor-active compounds from local cultivars and wild accessions of Iwateyamanashi (Pyrus ussuriensis var. aromatica) revealed by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Hironori; Ohe, Miho; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2013-03-01

    Some local cultivars and wilds of Iwateyamanashi (Pyrus ussuriensis var. aromatica) that grows wild in Northern Tohoku, Japan have good aromatic fruit. Iwateyamanashi may be valuable germplasms as a donor of odor compounds in breeding of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia), because almost all Japanese pear cultivars have faint odor. Fruits odors from a local cultivar 'Sanenashi', a wild accession (i0830) in Iwateyamanashi, cultivars of 'Kosui' and 'La France' were characterized at first with comparative Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA). Application of AEDA, based on Gas chromatography/Olfactometry analysis (GC/O), on the odor concentration prepared from 'Sanenashi' indicated the presence of 33 odor-active compounds including methyl and ethyl esters, aldehydes and alcohol. The eleven odor compounds from 16 accessions of Iwateyamanashi showed various combinations and wide range of odor concentrations by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Especially 2 accessions of local cultivar 'Natsunashi' plotted in the highly ethyl ester group might be useful for Japanese pear breeding. PMID:23641185

  3. Qualitative and quantitative analysis on aroma characteristics of ginseng at different ages using E-nose and GC-MS combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shaoqing; Wang, Jun; Yang, Liangcheng; Wu, Jianfeng; Wang, Xinlei

    2015-01-01

    Aroma profiles of ginseng samples at different ages were investigated using electronic nose (E-nose) and GC-MS techniques combined with chemometrics analysis. The bioactive ginsenoside and volatile oil content increased with age. E-nose performed well in the qualitative analyses. Both Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Functions Analysis (DFA) performed well when used to analyze ginseng samples, with the first two principal components (PCs) explaining 85.51% and the first two factors explaining 95.51% of the variations. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) successfully clustered the different types of ginsengs into four groups. A total of 91 volatile constituents were identified. 50 of them were calculated and compared using GC-MS. The main fragrance ingredients were terpenes and alcohols, followed by aromatics and ester. The changes in terpenes, alcohols, aromatics, esters, and acids during the growth year once again confirmed the dominant role of terpenes. The Partial Least Squares (PLS) loading plot of gas sensors and aroma ingredients indicated that particular sensors were closely related to terpenes. The scores plot indicated that terpenes and its corresponding sensors contributed the most in grouping. As regards to quantitative analyze, 7 constituent of terpenes could be accurately explained and predicted by using gas sensors in PLS models. In predicting ginseng age using Back Propagation-Artificial Neural Networks (BP-ANN), E-nose data was found to predict more accurately than GC-MS data. E-nose measurement may be a potential method for determining ginseng age. The combination of GC-MS can help explain the hidden correlation between sensors and fragrance ingredients from two different viewpoints. PMID:25244512

  4. Effect of the use of recent commercial fungicides [under good and critical agricultural practices] on the aroma composition of Monastrell red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, José; Zalacain, Amaya; Payá, Paula; Salinas, María Rosario; Barba, Alberto

    2008-06-01

    In the paper, the effect of several fungicide residues (famoxadone, fenhexamid, fluquinconazole, kresoxim-methyl, quinoxyfen and trifloxystrobin) has been studied in relation to the aroma composition of Monastrell red wines in terms of each compound concentration and OAV (Odour Activity Value) values. Two fungicide treatments were carried out with authorized formulates following the manufacturer doses. The first one was carried out under good agricultural practices (GAP), obeying the preharvest interval, and the second one under critical agricultural practices (CAP), applying at the day of harvesting. The wines obtained in the thirteen trials (one control, six with treated grapes obeying the preharvest interval and six treated at the day of harvesting or at most unfavourable conditions) were analysed by stir bar sorptive extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS). The method proposed showed good linearity over the concentration range tested, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9 for all the analytes. The reproducibility and repeatability of the method was estimated between 1.0 and 18.52%. The detection and quantification limits of all analytes were lower than the concentration found in these Monastrell wines. The identified wine volatile compounds have been grouped according to: ethyl esters, acetates, C(6) compounds, terpenoids, acids and ethyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol and benzaldehyde, as individual level. As results, it was observed that all fungicide treatments significantly affect the wine aroma composition. Each group of compounds has been associated to sensorial descriptor series (fatty, floral, fruity, herbaceous, solvent, rose and vinous), resulting that the best sensory valuated wines were the ones treated with fluquinconazole and fenhexamid under GAP. PMID:18486646

  5. [The effects of an aroma candy on oral Candida albicans colony-forming units (CFU) and oral hygiene states in healthy elderly carrying Candida albicans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Ezawa, Kunio; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Matsukawa, Taiji; Kishi, Akinobu; Satou, Nobuya; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    In a preceding paper, we showed that aroma candy containing oligonol, capric acid, and cinnamon (cassia) powder had potent inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of Candida albicans in vitro and protective activity against murine oral candidiasis. In order to assess the effects of this candy (the test candy) on oral C. albicans colony-forming units (CFU) and oral hygiene states, a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover comparative study was performed. Twenty subjects were divided into two groups. One group ingested the test candy in the first 7 days followed by 2 weeks washing-off period, then ingested the placebo candy (control candy) for 7 days. The other group was vice versa. C. albicans CFU in all oral rinse samples from the subjects before and after 7 days ingestion of candy was measured. The degree of oral malodor in all subjects was monitored using a portable measuring instrument. The results showed no statistically significant difference between test-candy group and placebo group for C. albicans CFU. However, C. albicans CFU in test-candy group with>4,000 CFUs was significantly decreased after 7 days ingestion of test-candy (p<0.05). Scores of oral malodor in the test-candy group was significantly decreased after 7 days ingestion of test-candy (p<0.05). A questionnaire survey of oral hygiene states indicated that in the test-candy group, oral malodor, glutinous feeling, and refreshing feeling significantly improved in comparison with control-candy group (p<0.05). Our study suggests that the aroma candy is effective in oral health care of elderly carrying C. albicans. PMID:25855026

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF 6-PENTYL-ALPHA-PYRONE PRODUCTION BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION USING SUGARCANE BAGASSE AS RESIDUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia C. Ladeira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentation (SSF has been used as a model for the study of metabolism and physiology of microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to enhance 6-PP production by Trichoderma harzianum 4040 in solid state fermentation using sugarcane bagasse as a residue. A fractional factorial design was used to select the components of the nutrient solution. The fermentation was carried out during 9 days, and the aroma extraction was done on the third, fifth, seventh, and ninth days using organic solvent. On the seventh day the major concentration of 6-PP was found. The variables glucose, sucrose, and MgSO4 were found to be significant statistically (p> 0.05 as components of the nutrient solution used in the production of 6-PP by filamentous fungi in SSF using sugarcane bagasse as a residue. GC-MS was used for quantification of 6-PP aroma.

  7. Use of simulated annealing in standardization and optimization of the acerola wine production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sheyla dos Santos, Almeida; Wonder Alexandre Luz, Alves; Sidnei Alves de, Araújo; José Carlos Curvelo, Santana; Narendra, Narain; Roberto Rodrigues de, Souza.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, seven wine samples were prepared varying the amount of pulp of acerola fruits and the sugar content using the simulated annealing technique to obtain the optimal sensory qualities and cost for the wine produced. S. cerevisiae yeast was used in the fermentation process and the sensory [...] attributes were evaluated using a hedonic scale. Acerola wines were classified as sweet, with 11°GL of alcohol concentration and with aroma, taste, and color characteristics of the acerola fruit. The simulated annealing experiments showed that the best conditions were found at mass ratio between 1/7.5-1/6 and total soluble solids between 28.6-29.0 °Brix, from which the sensory acceptance scores of 6.9, 6.8, and 8.8 were obtained for color, aroma, and flavor, respectively, with a production cost 43-45% lower than the cost of traditional wines commercialized in Brazil.

  8. Volatile profile of cashew apple juice fibers from different production steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Ana Carolina de Oliveira; de Almeida, Áfia Suely Santos da Silva; Lemos, Ana Paula Dajtenko; Magalhães, Hilton César Rodrigues; Garruti, Deborah Dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the volatile profile of cashew apple fibers to verify which compounds are still present after successive washings and thus might be responsible for the undesirable remaining cashew-like aroma present in this co-product, which is used to formulate food products like vegetarian burgers and cereal bars. Fibers were obtained from cashew apple juice processing and washed five times in an expeller press. Compounds were analyzed by the headspace solid-phase micro extraction technique (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using a DB-5 column. Sensory analysis was also performed to compare the intensity of the cashew-like aroma of the fibers with the original juice. Altogether, 80 compounds were detected, being esters and terpenes the major chemical classes. Among the identified substances, 14 were classified as odoriferous in the literature, constituting the matrix used in the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Odoriferous esters were substantially reduced, but many compounds were extracted by the strength used in the expeller press and remained until the last wash. Among them are the odoriferous compounds ethyl octanoate, ?-dodecalactone, (E)-2-decenal, copaene, and caryophyllene that may contribute for the mild but still perceptible cashew apple aroma in the fibers that have been pressed and washed five times. Development of a deodorization process should include reduction of pressing force and stop at the second wash, to save water and energy, thus reducing operational costs and contributing to process sustainability. PMID:26023940

  9. Volatile Profile of Cashew Apple Juice Fibers from Different Production Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Oliveira Nobre

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the volatile profile of cashew apple fibers to verify which compounds are still present after successive washings and thus might be responsible for the undesirable remaining cashew-like aroma present in this co-product, which is used to formulate food products like vegetarian burgers and cereal bars. Fibers were obtained from cashew apple juice processing and washed five times in an expeller press. Compounds were analyzed by the headspace solid-phase micro extraction technique (HS-SPME and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, using a DB-5 column. Sensory analysis was also performed to compare the intensity of the cashew-like aroma of the fibers with the original juice. Altogether, 80 compounds were detected, being esters and terpenes the major chemical classes. Among the identified substances, 14 were classified as odoriferous in the literature, constituting the matrix used in the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Odoriferous esters were substantially reduced, but many compounds were extracted by the strength used in the expeller press and remained until the last wash. Among them are the odoriferous compounds ethyl octanoate, ?-dodecalactone, (E-2-decenal, copaene, and caryophyllene that may contribute for the mild but still perceptible cashew apple aroma in the fibers that have been pressed and washed five times. Development of a deodorization process should include reduction of pressing force and stop at the second wash, to save water and energy, thus reducing operational costs and contributing to process sustainability.

  10. Isolamento e seleção de microrganismos pectinolíticos a partir de resíduos provenientes de agroindústrias para produção de aromas frutais Screening of fruit flavors producing pectinolitic microorganisms isolated from agroindustrial residues

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Uenojo; Glaucia Maria Pastore

    2006-01-01

    As pectinases são enzimas produzidas naturalmente por plantas, fungos, leveduras e bactérias. Estes microrganismos podem ser inoculados em meios contendo resíduos agroindustriais utilizados como fonte de carbono para a produção de compostos de maior valor agregado, como enzimas, etanol, proteínas, aminoácidos e compostos de aroma. Vários microrganismos foram isolados e selecionados quanto à produção de enzimas pectinolíticas pelo método da placa, através de zonas claras de degradação de pecti...

  11. ‘Hicaznar’ Çe?idinde Farkl? Uygulamalar?n So?ukta Depolama Süresince Fitokimyasal ve Uçucu Aroma Bile?imine Etkileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ay?e Tülin Öz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ‘Hicaznar’ çe?idi aç?kta ve modifiye atmosfer ambalajlar?nda (MAP +7°C s?cakl?k ve %85-90 oransal nemde 18 hafta süreyle muhafaza edilmi?tir. ‘Hicaznar’ meyvelerinde depolama süresince; a??rl?k kayb?, CO2/O2 gaz de?i?imi, nar tane rengi [L (parlakl?k, C (Chroma], Suda Çözünür Kuru Madde (SÇKM miktar?, pH, titre edilebilir asitlik (TA, toplam fenolik madde miktar? (mg/100mL, toplam flavonoid madde miktar? (mg/100mL, antioksidan aktivite miktar? (%, malik asit (%, ?eker (glikoz, fruktoz, sakkaroz, sorbitol (% ve uçucu aroma bile?ikleri de?i?imi belirlenmi?tir. Muhafaza sonunda ‘Hicaznar’ meyvelerinin ortalama a??rl?k kayb?nda ve nar tane L (parlakl?k de?erinde art?? görülürken Chroma renk de?erinde hafif dü?ü?ler meydana gelmi?tir. Depolama süresinin sonunda, nar meyve suyu toplam fenolik madde miktar? kontrol grubunda 109,5 mg/100mL iken MAP grubunda 127,83 olarak saptanm??; toplam flavonoid madde miktar? ise s?ras? ile 26,8 (kontrol ve 27,1 (MAP dü?mü?tür. SÇKM miktar?ndaki azal??lar istatistiksel anlamda önemli bulunmu?tur. Ayr?ca 18 hafta süreyle aç?kta ve MAP’da depolanan ‘Hicaznar’ çe?idi meyvelerinde otomatik tepe bo?lu?u kat? faz mikro-ekstraksiyon gaz kromatografisi-kütle spektrofotometre (HS-SPME GC/MS tekni?i kullan?larak alkol, aldehit, alkan, asit, ester, terpen ve di?er bile?ikler olmak üzere toplam 27 farkl? uçucu aroma bile?i?i tespit edilmi?tir. Depolama farkl?l?klar?n?n ve süresinin uçucu bile?iklere etkisi incelendi?inde genel olarak tepen bile?ikleri muhafaza sonunda her iki muhafaza yönteminde art?? oldu?u ve bu art???n MAP depolanan meyvelerde daha fazla oldu?u belirlenmi?tir. Alkollerde, aldehitlerde ve asitlerde ise her iki uygulamada muhafaza sonunda dü?ü?ler meydana gelmi?tir.

  12. Greenhouse production in Macedonia - challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse tomato makes the largest share of vegetable production in the World. The developments of biological sciences and high technology in the protected crops sector have enabled drastic increase in the yield and contributed to improvement of the fruit quality. Main indicators for the fruit quality still remain to be evaluated by appearance (shape, color, size) whereas the sensor traits (taste and aroma) are somehow neglected. Among the consumers there is general impression that tomatoes grown on substrates are artificial, plastic, tasteless products, compared to the “genuine” tomato raised on soil. On the other hand, Macedonian vegetables have a very good reputation in the region with their fresh recognizable taste and aroma. It will be a challenge in the future to preserve it. Limiting factors for profitable glass house production in the Republic of Macedonia are the extreme temperatures in winter and in summer time. For that reason, not only that the glass house capacities are under utilized, but the expensive tomato hybrids that are intended for at least 10 months cropping period cannot return the profit within the short cropping period of 3-4 months. The institutional and educational systems in Macedonia do not keep the pace with latest developments in the greenhouse industry. Some of the Macedonian operators have made large investments in greenhouse production to be able to follow the market demands. In the newly erected greenhouses in Macedonia on total area of 7 ha in two locations (Kocani and Gevgelija) tomato is grown on substrates and the production is completely atomized in regards to fertirigation, environment control etc. This technology gives room for larger plants density and consequently, higher yields per unit of area. However, the substrate cultivation is not entirely adopted by the operators and they are completely dependent on the services provided by the supplier. It is of crucial importance to support them in this initial period of new production in identifying the bottlenecks and providing eventually intervention for optimal usage of the new technology. (Author)

  13. Production and Preservation of Passion Fruit Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. G. AKPAN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Production and preservation of Passion Fruit Juice was examined to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the juice using chemical preservatives. The preservation of the juice was carried out using sugar, benzoic acid, citric and a combination of citric and benzoic acid under room temperature.The result revealed that the juice maintained its color, aroma and tastes for at least one month when 30% benzoic acid was used as preservative. This happens to be the best among all. The juice under other preservation like 4% sugar went bad after three days, while that of 4% citric acid maintained its qualities for one week and some days, but thereafter the aroma started to fade. The combination of 3% benzoic acid and 4% citric acid maintained the qualities of the juice fairly between two to three weeks. The alcoholic content was also estimated and it was discovered that the juice containing citric acid and sugar has the highest percentage of alcohol. The preservation used also altered the pH so that it is impossible for pathogens to exist at such a low pH environment.

  14. Influence of thermal treatment of wood on the aroma of a sugar cane spirit (cachaça) model-solution Influência do termotratamento da madeira no aroma de uma solução-modelo de cachaça

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Helena Fillet Spoto; Marcelo Machado Leão; José Otávio Otávio Brito

    2011-01-01

    The aging process of alcoholic beverages is generally conducted in wood barrels made with species from Quercus sp. Due to the high cost and the lack of viability of commercial production of these trees in Brazil, there is demand for new alternatives to using other native species and the incorporation of new technologies that enable greater competitiveness of sugar cane spirit aged in Brazilian wood. The drying of wood, the thermal treatment applied to it, and manufacturing techniques are impo...

  15. Analysis of Volatile Compounds and Identification of Characteristic Aroma Components of Toona sinensis (A. Juss. Roem. Using GC-MS and GC-O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Deng

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, volatile compounds present in Toona sinensis (A. Juss. Roem (TS were investigated and their characteristic aromatic components were identified using Headspace Solid-phase Microextraction (HS-SPME followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O. The optimum conditions for extracting the volatiles from TS were achieved with the experimental parameters including the use of a 65 ?m polydimethylsiloxane/divinyl benzene (PDMS/DVB fibre, an extraction temperature of 40? and an extraction time of 30 min. Under these conditions, 56 volatile compounds were separated and 53 were identified by GC-MS. Among them, 21 sulfide compounds (42.146% and 27 terpenes?55.984% were found to be the major components. The sample was analyzed by GC-O and 26 elutes were sniffed and their sensory descriptions evaluated by an odor panelists. Analysis of the data indicated, two compounds cis and trans isomers of 2-Mercapto-3,4-dimethyl-2,3-dihydrothiophene were major contributors to the characteristic aroma of TS.

  16. Entrapment of a volatile lipophilic aroma compound (d-limonene) in spray dried water-washed oil bodies naturally derived from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Ian D.; Linforth, Robert; Trophardy, Gil; Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Oil bodies are natural emulsions that can be extracted from oil seeds and have previously been shown to be stable after spray drying. The aim of the study was to evaluate for the first time if spray dried water-washed oil bodies are an effective carrier for volatile lipophilic actives (the flavour compound d-limonene was used as an example aroma compound). Water-washed oil bodies were blended with maltodextrin and d-limonene and spray dried using a Buchi B-191 laboratory spray dryer. Lipid and d-limonene retention was 89–93% and 24–27%. Samples were compared to processed emulsions containing sunflower oil and d-limonene and stabilised by either lecithin or Capsul. Lecithin and Capsul processed emulsions had a lipid and d-limonene retention of 82–89%, 7.7–9.1% and 48–50%, 55–59% respectively indicating that water-washed oil bodies could retain the most lipids and Capsul could retain the most d-limonene. This indicates that whilst additional emulsifiers may be required for future applications of water-washed oil bodies as carriers of lipophilic actives, oil bodies are excellent agents for lipid encapsulation. PMID:24235784

  17. Entrapment of a volatile lipophilic aroma compound (d-limonene) in spray dried water-washed oil bodies naturally derived from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Ian D; Linforth, Robert; Trophardy, Gil; Gray, David

    2013-11-01

    Oil bodies are natural emulsions that can be extracted from oil seeds and have previously been shown to be stable after spray drying. The aim of the study was to evaluate for the first time if spray dried water-washed oil bodies are an effective carrier for volatile lipophilic actives (the flavour compound d-limonene was used as an example aroma compound). Water-washed oil bodies were blended with maltodextrin and d-limonene and spray dried using a Buchi B-191 laboratory spray dryer. Lipid and d-limonene retention was 89-93% and 24-27%. Samples were compared to processed emulsions containing sunflower oil and d-limonene and stabilised by either lecithin or Capsul. Lecithin and Capsul processed emulsions had a lipid and d-limonene retention of 82-89%, 7.7-9.1% and 48-50%, 55-59% respectively indicating that water-washed oil bodies could retain the most lipids and Capsul could retain the most d-limonene. This indicates that whilst additional emulsifiers may be required for future applications of water-washed oil bodies as carriers of lipophilic actives, oil bodies are excellent agents for lipid encapsulation. PMID:24235784

  18. Shiraz wines made from grape berries (Vitis vinifera) delayed in ripening by plant growth regulator treatment have elevated rotundone concentrations and "pepper" flavor and aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Christopher; Nicholson, Emily L; Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; Bastian, Susan E P; Harvey, Katie E; Huang, An-Cheng; Taylor, Dennis K; Boss, Paul K

    2015-03-01

    Preveraison treatment of Shiraz berries with either 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or Ethrel delayed the onset of ripening and harvest. NAA was more effective than Ethrel, delaying harvest by 23 days, compared to 6 days for Ethrel. Sensory analysis of wines from NAA-treated fruit showed significant differences in 10 attributes, including higher "pepper" flavor and aroma compared to those of the control wines. A nontargeted analysis of headspace volatiles revealed modest differences between wines made from control and NAA- or Ethrel-treated berries. However, the concentration of rotundone, the metabolite responsible for the pepper character, was below the level of detection by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in control wines, low in Ethrel wines (2 ng/L), and much higher in NAA wines (29 ng/L). Thus, NAA, and to a lesser extent Ethrel, treatment of grapes during the preveraison period can delay ripening and enhance rotundone concentrations in Shiraz fruit, thereby enhancing wine "peppery" attributes. PMID:25661455

  19. Contribution of oxidized tallow to aroma characteristics of beeflike process flavour assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and partial least squares regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shiqing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xiao, Zuobing; Niu, Yunwei; Hayat, Khizar; Eric, Karangwa

    2012-09-01

    Flavour profiles of seven beeflike process flavours (BFs) including non-oxidized or oxidized tallow were comparatively analysed by electronic nose, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and descriptive sensory analysis to characterize the headspace of BFs. Analysis of volatiles by GC-MS indicated that the effect of oxidized tallow with moderate oxidization level on Maillard reaction was more prominent than that of others, which potentially could result in an optimal meat flavour with strong, harmony and species-specific characteristics detected by sensory analysis. In addition, electronic nose data confirmed the accuracy of the GC-MS and sensory analysis results. Correlation analysis of the electronic nose measurements, sensory evaluation and characteristic compounds through Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) further explained that moderate oxidized tallow with peroxide value (PV) of 87.67-160 mequiv./kg, the p-anisidine value (p-AV) of 30.57-50, and the acid value (AV) of 1.8-2.2 mg KOH/g tallow was a desirable precursor for imparting aroma characteristics of beef flavour. PMID:22858364

  20. Insight into the time-resolved extraction of aroma compounds during espresso coffee preparation: online monitoring by PTR-ToF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, José A; Zimmermann, Ralf; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2014-12-01

    Using proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS), we investigated the extraction dynamic of 95 ion traces in real time (time resolution = 1 s) during espresso coffee preparation. Fifty-two of these ions were tentatively identified. This was achieved by online sampling of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in close vicinity to the coffee flow, at the exit of the extraction hose of the espresso machine (single serve capsules). Ten replicates of six different single serve coffee types were extracted to a final weight between 20-120 g, according to the recommended cup size of the respective coffee capsule (Ristretto, Espresso, and Lungo), and analyzed. The results revealed considerable differences in the extraction kinetics between compounds, which led to a fast evolution of the volatile profiles in the extract flow and consequently to an evolution of the final aroma balance in the cup. Besides exploring the time-resolved extraction dynamics of VOCs, the dynamic data also allowed the coffees types (capsules) to be distinguished from one another. Both hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed full separation between the coffees types. The methodology developed provides a fast and simple means of studying the extraction dynamics of VOCs and differentiating between different coffee types. PMID:25372898

  1. Production of 6-pentyl-?-pyrone by trichoderma harzianum in solid-state fermentation Produção de 6-pentil-?-pirona por Trichoderma harzianum em fermentação em estado sólido

    OpenAIRE

    Aline de Souza Ramos; Sorele Batista Fiaux; Selma Gomes Ferreira Leite

    2008-01-01

    Many Trichoderma species are able to produce 6-pentyl-?-pyrone (6-PP), a lactone with coconut-like aroma. In the present work, several culture parameters were studied to enhance the production of 6-PP by Trichoderma harzianum 4040 in solid-state fermentation. Green coir powder added to a nutrient solution was used as support material for fermentation. A Plackett-Burman screening technique was applied, followed by a fractionary factorial design. The best culture conditions within the expe...

  2. Real Time Detection of Aroma Compounds in Meat and Meat Products by SIFT-MS and Comparison to Conventional Techniques (SPME-GC-MS).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flores, M.; Olivares, A.; Dryahina, Kseniya; Špan?l, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 9, ?. 4 (2013), s. 622-630. ISSN 1573-4110 R&D Projects: GA ?R GP203/09/P172; GA ?R GA203/09/0256 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : volatile compounds * flovar * meat Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.194, year: 2013

  3. Assessing factors influencing the postharvest quality of California mandarins - Variability in waxing-induced ethanol and aroma volatile production among mandarin varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarins often develop off-flavors during storage that impact consumer acceptance and it would be useful to develop mandarin varieties that are less susceptible to postharvest flavor loss. Ethanol has long been identified to be associated with flavor loss in citrus. A range of diverse mandarin geno...

  4. Análisis del metabolismo nitrogenado durante la fermentación alcohólica en levaduras vínicas (Nitrogen metaolism in wine yeast during alcoholic fermentation: effect on growth, fermentation activity and aroma production)

    OpenAIRE

    Gutie?rrez Linares, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    La carencia de nitrógeno es uno de los principales problemas encontrados en la elaboración del vino, especialmente relacionados con fermentaciones lentas e incompletas. En condiciones de vinificación, bajos niveles iniciales de nitrógeno limitan el crecimiento y la producción de biomasa, provocando una baja tasa de fermentación. Los compuestos nitrogenados presentes en el mosto también influyen en la producción de metabolitos volátiles y no volátiles que son los ...

  5. Increase of fruity aroma during mixed T. delbrueckii/S. cerevisiae wine fermentation is linked to specific esters enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Philippe; Coulon, Joana; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Bely, Marina

    2015-08-17

    The aim of this work was to study ester formation and the aromatic impact of Torulaspora delbrueckii when used in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the alcoholic fermentation of must. In order to evaluate the influence of the inoculation procedure, sequential and simultaneous mixed cultures were carried out and compared to pure cultures of T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae. Our results showed that mixed inoculations allowed the increase, in comparison to S. cerevisiae pure culture, of some esters specifically produced by T. delbrueckii and significantly correlated to the maximal T. delbrueckii population reached in mixed cultures. Thus, ethyl propanoate, ethyl isobutanoate and ethyl dihydrocinnamate were considered as activity markers of T. delbrueckii. On the other hand, isobutyl acetate and isoamyl acetate concentrations were systematically increased during mixed inoculations although not correlated with the development of either species but were rather due to positive interactions between these species. Favoring T. delbrueckii development when performing sequential inoculation enhanced the concentration of esters linked to T. delbrueckii activity. On the contrary, simultaneous inoculation restricted the growth of T. delbrueckii, limiting the production of its activity markers, but involved a very important production of numerous esters due to more important positive interactions between species. These results suggest that the ester concentrations enhancement via interactions during mixed modalities was due to S. cerevisiae production in response to the presence of T. delbrueckii. Finally, sensory analyses showed that mixed inoculations between T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae allowed to enhance the complexity and fruity notes of wine in comparison to S. cerevisiae pure culture. Furthermore, the higher levels of ethyl propanoate, ethyl isobutanoate, ethyl dihydrocinnamate and isobutyl acetate in mixed wines were found responsible for the increase of fruitiness and complexity. PMID:26001522

  6. Applied systems biology - vanillin production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strucko, Tomas; Eriksen, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin is the most important aroma compound based on market value, and natural vanillin is extracted from the cured seed pods of the Vanilla orchid. Most of the world’s vanillin, however, is obtained by chemical synthesis from petrochemicals or wood pulp lignins. As an alternative, de novo biosynthesis of vanillin in baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was recently demonstrated by successfully introducing the metabolic pathway for vanillin production in yeast. Nevertheless, the amount of vanillin produced in this S. cerevisiae strain is insufficient for commercial production and improvements need to be done. We have introduced the genes necessary for vanillin production in an identical manner in two different yeast strains S288c and CEN.PK,where comprehensive – omics datasets are available, hence, allowing vanillin production in the two strain backgrounds to be evaluated and compared in a systems biology setting.

  7. Use of Probiotics in Fermented Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Palamuto?lu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a negative judgements among consumers about meat and meat products, in human nutrition meat and meat products are important for nutrient components which they contain essential nutrients. Intensively produced fermented meat product such as sucuk in our country and lactic acid bacteria (LAB are used for production of various fermented sausages all over the world. LAB primarily used in order to increase the food safety of such products. LAB with probiotic properties have effect on product taste, flavour and aroma as well as the positive effects on functional and physiological properties. Positive effects of probiotics in human health and product properties in the absence of any adverse effects various cultures have been used for the production of probiotic fermented meat products. In the production of such products prepared dough which have meat and fat in the matrix form a suitable vehicle for probiotic cells. During production of products formation of lactic acid reduced the pH, during ripening conditions water activity reduced so these factors adversely affect viability of probiotic cells. For this reason protecting probiotic cultures from negative effects during exposure in the product and vitality of cells in human gastro-intestinal system to continue operating for consumption to be provided during the order process the cells are coated with microencapsuation. The use of probiotic microorganisms isolated from various foods is being investigated for the production of sausages. Studies on the effects of probiotics on human health of meat products are also needed. In this study the probiotic microorganisms used in the production of probiotic fermented sausages were investigated.

  8. Furan in coffee: Pilot studies on formation at roasting and losses during production steps and consumer handling

    OpenAIRE

    Guenther, Helmut; Hoenicke, Katrin; Biesterveld, Steven; Gerhard-rieben, Elke; Lantz, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The occurrence of furan in some food products has been known for a few decades already and it has been reconfirmed in more recent investigations that furan is present in a variety of foodstuffs. This list of products includes roast coffee which has been shown to generate furan as a result of the heat treatment during the roasting reactions which is applied to achieve the desired aroma and flavor profile of a roast coffee. The objective of this study was to provide data to ...

  9. Growth regulators and essential oil production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudia L, Prins; Ivo J. C, Vieira; Silvério P, Freitas.

    Full Text Available The aroma and fragrance industry is a billion-dollar world market which grows annually. Essential oils comprise the majority of compounds used by these industries. These sets of metabolites are formed mainly by monoterpenes, which are products of the plants' secondary metabolism. Biosynthesized from [...] mevalonate and methylerythitol phosphate, the essential oil production depends not only on genetic factors and the developmental stage of plants, but also on environmental factors which could result in biochemical and physiological alterations in plants modifying the quantity and quality of the essential oil. These modifications impair aromatic plant production aimed at essential oil by reducing their quality. It is desirable to develop techniques of agronomical management to improve essential oil products and their specific compounds. Among other factors influencing essential oil production are plant growth regulators or plant hormones. Endogenous levels as well exogenous application could affect essential oil production and chemical composition. In this review we will present research in which plant growth regulators or their synthetic analogs were used and their effects on essential oil production.

  10. Growth regulators and essential oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia L Prins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aroma and fragrance industry is a billion-dollar world market which grows annually. Essential oils comprise the majority of compounds used by these industries. These sets of metabolites are formed mainly by monoterpenes, which are products of the plants' secondary metabolism. Biosynthesized from mevalonate and methylerythitol phosphate, the essential oil production depends not only on genetic factors and the developmental stage of plants, but also on environmental factors which could result in biochemical and physiological alterations in plants modifying the quantity and quality of the essential oil. These modifications impair aromatic plant production aimed at essential oil by reducing their quality. It is desirable to develop techniques of agronomical management to improve essential oil products and their specific compounds. Among other factors influencing essential oil production are plant growth regulators or plant hormones. Endogenous levels as well exogenous application could affect essential oil production and chemical composition. In this review we will present research in which plant growth regulators or their synthetic analogs were used and their effects on essential oil production.

  11. Use and declaration of additives in meat products: New legal regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukovi? Ilija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the more important additives used in meat products, their functional characteristics, the permitted quantities and declaration in keeping with the new legal regulations. Additives important for meat products, according to their functional characteristics, can be preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers, emulsifying salts, acidity regulators, sequestrants, thickeners, gelling agents, modified starches, acids, colours, aroma enhancers, packaging gases and coating powders, and it must be pointed out that many additives have several functional characteristics at the same time. In stating additives in the list of contents of a product, the elementary functional characteristic of the additive is given with the E number or name of the additive in brackets; modified starches are declared as „starch" without giving the E number. The declaration does not state the quantity of the additive added to the product, or the biggest permitted quantity of the additive in the given product.

  12. Enzymic Pathways for Formation of Carotenoid Cleavage Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Peter; Zorn, Holger

    Degraded carotenoids (apocarotenoids, norisoprenoids) have been a subject of intensive research for several decades. From the perspective of human physiology and nutrition, the retinoids, acting as vitamins, signalling molecules, and visual pigments, attracted the greatest attention (Chapters 15 and 16). Plant scientists, however, detected a wealth of different apocarotenoids, presumably derived by the excentric cleavage of carotenoids in various species, the plant hormone abscisic acid (1, Scheme 6) being the best-investigated example. With the onset of fruit ripening, flower opening or senescence of green tissues, carotenoids are degraded oxidatively to smaller, volatile compounds. The natural biological functions of the reaction products are outlined in Chapter 15. As many of these apocarotenoids act as potent flavour compounds, food chemists and flavourists worldwide have investigated meticulously their structural and sensory properties. Many aspects of carotenoid metabolites and breakdown products as aroma compounds are presented in a comprehensive book [1].

  13. Sensory acceptability of iron-fortified millet products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Bhumika; Ravi, R; Prakash, Maya; Platel, Kalpana

    2011-09-01

    Fortification of millet flours with iron might be beneficial in combating iron deficiency. In this investigation, two products prepared from finger millet and sorghum flours fortified with iron and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid and stored for up to 60 days were evaluated for sensory quality attributes using quantitative descriptive analysis, and their texture was measured using a texture analyzer. Fortification did not cause any significant change in the hardness of dumpling or the shearing effect of the roti prepared from either of the millet flours. There was no significant effect of the fortificant on the texture and aroma of the products prepared from the fortified flours up to a period of 60 days. However, a discoloration was perceived in the dumplings prepared from the same flours. The overall quality of the roti prepared was acceptable to the sensory panelists. Finger millet and sorghum flours seem to be suitable as vehicles for fortification with iron. PMID:21568824

  14. Cheese production using kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kanellaki, Maria

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of kefir culture entrapped in casein and in whey protein as starter cultures for the production of Feta-type cheese. Microbiological analysis showed that counts of enterobacteria, coliforms, and staphylococci were significantly reduced due to kefir culture. In addition, the effect of kefir culture on the formation of volatile compounds, such as esters, organic acids, alcohols, carbonyl compounds, and lactones, was also investigated using the SPME GC/MS technique. Cheese samples produced with kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins presented improved profile of aroma-related compounds. Principal component analysis of the results indicated that the volatile composition of the different cheese types was dependent on the nature of the starter culture. Finally, the sensory evaluation showed that the products produced with kefir culture had a soft, fine taste, and were of improved quality. PMID:25809991

  15. Major contribution of the Ehrlich pathway for 2-phenylethanol/rose flavor production in Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravasio, Davide; Wendland, Jürgen; Walther, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    Aroma alcohols of fermented food and beverages are derived from fungal amino acids catabolism via the Ehrlich pathway. This linear pathway consists of three enzymatic reactions to form fusel alcohols. Regulation of some of the enzymes occurs on the transcriptional level via Aro80. The riboflavin overproducer Ashbya gossypii produces strong fruity flavours in contrast to its much less aromatic relative Eremothecium cymbalariae. Genome comparisons indicated that A. gossypii harbors genes for aromatic amino acid catabolism (ARO8a, ARO8b, ARO10, and ARO80) while E. cymbalariae only encodes ARO8a and thus lacks major components of aromatic amino acid catabolism. Volatile compound (VOC) analysis showed that both Eremothecium species produce large amounts of isoamyl alcohol while A. gossypii also produces high levels of 2-phenylethanol. Deletion of the A. gossypii ARO-genes did not confer any growth deficiencies. However, A. gossypii ARO-mutants (except Agaro8a) were strongly impaired in aroma production, particularly in the production of the rose flavour 2-phenylethanol. Conversely, overexpression of ARO80 via the AgTEF1 promoter resulted in 50% increase in VOC production. Together these data indicate that A. gossypii is a very potent flavour producer and that amongst the non-Saccharomyces biodiversity strains can be identified that could provide positive sensory properties to fermented beverages. PMID:24920045

  16. Formation and distribution of 2,4-dihydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-thiophenone, a pigment, an aroma and a biologically active compound formed by the Maillard reaction, in foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Rina; Goto, Chiaki; Satoh, Miki; Nomi, Yuri; Murata, Masatsune

    2013-07-01

    We recently identified 2,4-dihydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-thiophenone (DHDMT) from soy sauce as a low-molecular-weight pigment formed by the Maillard reaction. DHDMT has also been reported as an aroma compound in a model system and a biologically active compound of heated garlic. To utilize these functions efficiently, we here examined how DHDMT was formed during fermentation of soy sauce and in model systems. Although DHDMT was formed from cysteine and glucose, it was formed more from cystine and fructose in the model system. We also showed that this compound exists in various kinds of soy sauce and miso as well as in some brown foods and beverages such as roasted bread and beer. PMID:23536157

  17. Starter cultures used in probiotic dairy product preparation and popular probiotic dairy drinks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oktay, Yerlikaya.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products that contain probiotic bacteria are those that are produced with various fermentation methods, especially lactic acid fermentation, by using starter cultures and those that have various textures and aromas. Fermented dairy products are popular due to their differences in taste and the [...] ir favourable physiological effects. Today, fermented dairy beverages in general are produced locally by using traditional methods. Recently, due to the increased demand for natural nutrients and probiotic products, fermented dairy beverages have reached a different position and are considered to have an important impact on human health and nutrition. In this article, probiotic bacteria and functional dairy products that are produced by using probiotic bacteria are discussed.

  18. Fermented Meat Products: Organoleptic Qualities and Biogenic Amines-a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh K. Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods are value added products which have higher nutrients, prolong shelf life and easy in digestibility and are more suitable for the intestinal tract. The organoleptic qualities of such foods are higher particularly in terms of flavour, taste, aroma and colour. For the production of fermented products we require starter culture such as Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB strains, most of the meat starter cultures are Lactobacillus pentosus, L. casei L. curvetus, L. planterum, L. sakei, Pediococcus acidilactici and P. pentosaceus. These foods are also able to produce certain biogenic amines; the most commonly found biogenic amines in the meat and meat products are tyramine, cadaverine, putrescine and also histamine. The formation of such bioamines further enhances the functional properties of the foods besides addition in nutrients.

  19. Innovative Integrated Wet Process for Virgin Coconut Oil Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.R.W. Sulaiman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the recent years, increased interest on the development of the Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO has been observed. This is to maximize the benefit of the multifunctional traditionally used coconut. VCO is rich in the Medium Chain Fatty Acids (MCFAs that have been shown to speed up the metabolism. Almost 50% of the fatty acid in virgin coconut oil is in form of lauric acid. This fatty acid has wide application as wide spectrum of antimicrobial substances against fungi, bacteria and viruses. Moreover, the fatty acid profile of coconut oil shares the similar characteristic with breast milk. The MCFAs in coconut oil are not stored in the body cells but rather processed directly in the liver where they are converted immediately into energy. The present study describes the process for VCO production through integrated wet process. The novel features of this process is the production of virgin coconut oil itself which can minimize the time, cost, energy and man power as well as can maximize the yield and improve the quality of coconut oil. The VCO obtained by this process contribute about 30-40% wt/wt of yield which is 10-20% higher than conventional method. The physical characteristics of VCO along this process shows that the VCO is colorless, retain fresh coconut aroma and sweet coconut taste with the highest content of lauric acid (49.85%. Besides that, the result also indicates the presence of vitamin E VCO. In general, the overall results for sensory analysis were acceptable in terms of aroma and taste of the product.

  20. Terpene production in the peel of sweet orange fruits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco A., Takita; Irving J., Berger; Ana Carolina, Basílio-Palmieri; Kleber M., Borges; Juliana M. de, Souza; Maria L.N.P., Targon.

    Full Text Available Terpenoids constitute the largest and most diverse class of natural products. They are important factors for aroma and flavor, and their synthesis is basically done from two compounds: isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Isopentenyl diphosphate is synthesized through two different [...] pathways, one that occurs in the cytoplasm and one in the plastid. With the sequencing of ESTs from citrus, we were able to perform in silico analyses on the pathways that lead to the synthesis of terpenes as well as on the terpene synthases present in sweet orange. Moreover, expression analysis using real-time qPCR was performed to verify the expression pattern of a terpene synthase in plants. The results show that all the pathways for isopentenyl diphosphate are present in citrus and a high expression of terpene synthases seems to have an important role in the constitution of the essential oils of citrus.

  1. Evaluation of fruit productivity and quality in Hass avocado submitted to 60Co gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of productivity, postharvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Hass avocado trees irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the ''La Labor'' Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologias del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300 %. In regard to postharvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO2/kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This mean that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and postharvest behavior of fruits. (Author)

  2. Evaluation gives productivity and quality gives fruit in Aguacate subjected has to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of productivity, post harvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Has avocado trees irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the La Labor Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300%. In regard to post harvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO2 /kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This means that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and post harvest behavior of fruits

  3. Applicability of Vacuum Impregnation to Modify Physico-Chemical, Sensory and Nutritive Characteristics of Plant Origin Products—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El?bieta Radziejewska-Kubzdela

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food.

  4. Production and Sensory Evaluation of Tigernut Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Rita E. Sanful

    2009-01-01

    The acceptability of roasted and non-roasted tiger nut beverages has been investigated. Forty panelists were used in the sensory evaluation study. The panelists compared the two beverages on the bases of mouth feel, texture, taste, aroma, consistency, appearance and general acceptability. Correlation analysis of the results showed that although the texture, aroma, appearance and consistency were important for consumers, mouth feel and taste were more important for the overall acceptance of th...

  5. Chocolate: A Marvelous Natural Product of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Ginger

    2004-08-01

    Chocolate is a natural product as ubiquitous as television. Of course, it is eaten, but it is also found in air fresheners, marking pens, flavoring in a multitude of products including soda pop, and as an aroma in "chocolate-dyed" T-shirts. However, most of us are completely unaware of the complex chemical reactions that take place to produce chocolate and the necessary technology that has evolved to produce chocolate and all its byproducts. Processing results in a mixture of many components, an interesting contrast to most of the simple, one-step reactions introduced at the high school level. This article is a survey of chocolate from tree to table. After a brief introduction to the history of chocolate and how and where it is grown, the manufacturing process is examined, and the chemistry is explored. A bit of the jargon used in the industry is mentioned. Cocoa butter is a significant ingredient in chocolate, and an investigation of it introduces triglycerides, fatty acids, polymorphic behavior, and molecular packing of the fats in chocolate and how they affect the tempering process. There is a brief discussion of chocolate's non-Newtonian behavior and the resulting challenges presented in the manufacturing process. See Featured Molecules Featured on the Cover

  6. Study of effect of radiation on the parameters of quality of sterile males of Ceratitis Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and their improvement aroma therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this present work, we are interested in studying the various stages in the production of sterile males, the effect of different doses of irradiation on longevity, compatibility and competitiveness of these males. And the effect of exposure of adults and pupae of Ceratitis to different doses of essential oil of ginger on their compatibility and competitiveness. (Author)

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance and chemometrics to assess geographical origin and quality of traditional food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, R; Cagliani, L R

    2010-01-01

    In this globalization era, the opening of the markets has put at almost everybody's disposal a wide variety of foods, allowing everybody to taste food flavors and aromas from different nations. Notwithstanding this opportunity, countries try to preserve their markets by developing protection policies. A few countries have adopted different denominations to label their "typical food" products in order to give them additional value. Besides, the term "typical food" is widely thought of as something anchored to the local traditions, with geographical meaning and made with typical raw materials. Then a "typical food" starts to be considered "traditional" when it is made following specific and old recipes. As a matter of fact, these products acquire particular organoleptic characteristics that are not reproducible when produced in different places. In this review, NMR studies coupled to multivariate statistical analysis are presented with the aim of determining geographical origin and key quality characteristics. PMID:20610175

  8. Wine Production by Guava Piece Immobilized Yeast from Indian Cultivar Grapes and its Volatile Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V.A. Reddy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Suitability of guava pieces for the preparation of immobilized yeast biocatalyst for wine production was investigated by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in repeated batch fermentation. The fermentation rate and other parameters were compared with free yeast cells at different temperatures. The volatile compounds, methanol, ethyl acetate, 1-propanol, isobutanol and amyl alcohols which, formed during fermentation were analyzed with the help of GC-FID. The concentrations of ethyl acetate and methanol were not more than 100 mg L-1 in all cases, indicating an improvement in the product. There are no changes in cell metabolism of immobilized yeast. Preliminary sensory tests established the fruity aroma, fine taste and the overall improved quality of the produced wines.

  9. Use of Commercial Dry Yeast Products Rich in Mannoproteins for White and Rosé Sparkling Wine Elaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Martínez-Lapuente, Leticia; Bueno-Herrera, Marta; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; Guadalupe, Zenaida; Ayestarán, Belén

    2015-06-17

    In sparkling wines, mannoproteins released during yeast autolysis largely affect their final quality. This process is very slow and may take several months. The aim of this work was to study the effect of several commercial dry yeast autolysates on the chemical composition, foam, and sensory properties of white and rosé sparkling wines aged on lees for 9 months during two consecutive vintages. The addition of these products in the tirage phase did not affect either the content of phenolic compounds, amino acids, and biogenic amines or the foam properties. The commercial product with the highest mannoprotein content and the highest purity caused significant changes in the volatile composition of the wines and enhanced the fruity aromas in both Verdejo and Godello sparkling wines. PMID:26027899

  10. SPME analytical method for the determination of Hexanal in hazelnuts as indicator of the interaction of active packaging materials with food aroma compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Pastorelli, Sarah; Valzacchi, Sandro; Rodriguez, Ana; Simoneau, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Abstract Fatty foods are susceptible to lipid oxidation, which involves a quality deterioration of the product, since this process is responsible of generation of off-flavours. Hexanal has been reported to be a good indicator of the rancidity. A method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography and flame ionization detector method to determine hexanal formed in hazelnuts during storage was developed. The optimum conditions were the ...

  11. Yeast : the soul of beer???s aroma???a review of flavour-active esters and higher alcohols produced by the brewing yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Eduardo J.; Teixeira, J. A.; Br Nyik, Tom; Vicente, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Among the most important factors influencing beer quality is the presence of well-adjusted amounts of higher alcohols and esters. Thus, a heavy body of literature focuses on these substances and on the parameters influencing their production by the brewing yeast. Additionally, the complex metabolic pathways involved in their synthesis require special attention. More than a century of data, mainly in genetic and proteomic fields, has built up enough information to describe in detail each step ...

  12. Avaliação do uso de inibidores de etileno sobre a produção de compostos voláteis e de mangiferina em manga / Evaluation of the use of ethylene inhibitors on production of volatile compounds and mangiferin in mango fruit

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kirley Marques, Canuto; Manoel Alves de, Souza Neto; Deborah dos Santos, Garruti; Maria Auxiliadora Coêlho de, Lima.

    1535-15-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Effects of two ethylene inhibitors, 1-methylcylopropene (1-MCP) and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), on production of volatile compounds and mangiferin (a bioactive xanthone) in 'Tommy Atkins' mango fruit were investigated. Volatile composition and mangiferin content, in treated and untreated fruits a [...] t three maturity, stages were determined by SPME-GC-MS and HPLC, respectively. These chromatographical analysis revealed that the volatile profiles and mangiferin concentrations were not significantly different, suggesting that the use of ethylene inhibitors does not affect the mango aroma and functional properties relative to this xanthone. Moreover, a simple, precise and accurate HPLC method was developed for quantifying mangiferin in mango pulp.

  13. Avaliação do uso de inibidores de etileno sobre a produção de compostos voláteis e de mangiferina em manga Evaluation of the use of ethylene inhibitors on production of volatile compounds and mangiferin in mango fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirley Marques Canuto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of two ethylene inhibitors, 1-methylcylopropene (1-MCP and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, on production of volatile compounds and mangiferin (a bioactive xanthone in 'Tommy Atkins' mango fruit were investigated. Volatile composition and mangiferin content, in treated and untreated fruits at three maturity, stages were determined by SPME-GC-MS and HPLC, respectively. These chromatographical analysis revealed that the volatile profiles and mangiferin concentrations were not significantly different, suggesting that the use of ethylene inhibitors does not affect the mango aroma and functional properties relative to this xanthone. Moreover, a simple, precise and accurate HPLC method was developed for quantifying mangiferin in mango pulp.

  14. Bronquiolite associada à exposição a aroma artificial de manteiga em trabalhadores de uma fábrica de biscoitos no Brasil Bronchiolitis associated with exposure to artificial butter flavoring in workers at a cookie factory in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida do Rego Cavalcanti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar quatro casos de bronquiolite decorrente de exposição a aroma artificial de manteiga em uma fábrica de biscoitos no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Descrevemos os achados clínicos, espirométricos e tomográficos nos quatro pacientes, assim como achados de biópsia pulmonar em um dos pacientes. RESULTADOS: Os quatro pacientes eram homens jovens, não fumantes, e desenvolveram obstrução persistente ao fluxo aéreo (relação VEF1/CVF reduzida e VEF1 de 25-44% do previsto após 1-3 anos de exposição a diacetil, sem a utilização de equipamentos de proteção individual, em uma fábrica de biscoitos. A TCAR mostrou achados indicativos de bronquiolite. Em um paciente, a biópsia pulmonar cirúrgica mostrou bronquiolite obliterante associada a células gigantes. CONCLUSÕES: A bronquiolite decorrente de exposição a flavorizantes artificiais deve ser considerada em trabalhadores com obstrução ao fluxo aéreo no Brasil.OBJECTIVE: To report the cases of four patients with bronchiolitis caused by exposure to artificial butter flavoring at a cookie factory in Brazil. METHODS: We described the clinical, tomographic, and spirometric findings in the four patients, as well as the lung biopsy findings in one of the patients. RESULTS: All four patients were young male nonsmokers and developed persistent airflow obstruction (reduced FEV1/FVC ratio and FEV1 at 25-44% of predicted after 1-3 years of exposure to diacetyl, without the use of personal protective equipment, at a cookie factory. The HRCT findings were indicative of bronchiolitis. In one patient, the surgical lung biopsy revealed bronchiolitis obliterans accompanied by giant cells. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchiolitis resulting from exposure to artificial flavoring agents should be included in the differential diagnosis of airflow obstruction in workers in Brazil.

  15. Bronquiolite associada à exposição a aroma artificial de manteiga em trabalhadores de uma fábrica de biscoitos no Brasil / Bronchiolitis associated with exposure to artificial butter flavoring in workers at a cookie factory in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Zaida do Rego, Cavalcanti; Alfredo Pereira Leite de, Albuquerque Filho; Carlos Alberto de Castro, Pereira; Ester Nei Aparecida Martins, Coletta.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar quatro casos de bronquiolite decorrente de exposição a aroma artificial de manteiga em uma fábrica de biscoitos no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Descrevemos os achados clínicos, espirométricos e tomográficos nos quatro pacientes, assim como achados de biópsia pulmonar em um dos pacientes. RESUL [...] TADOS: Os quatro pacientes eram homens jovens, não fumantes, e desenvolveram obstrução persistente ao fluxo aéreo (relação VEF1/CVF reduzida e VEF1 de 25-44% do previsto) após 1-3 anos de exposição a diacetil, sem a utilização de equipamentos de proteção individual, em uma fábrica de biscoitos. A TCAR mostrou achados indicativos de bronquiolite. Em um paciente, a biópsia pulmonar cirúrgica mostrou bronquiolite obliterante associada a células gigantes. CONCLUSÕES: A bronquiolite decorrente de exposição a flavorizantes artificiais deve ser considerada em trabalhadores com obstrução ao fluxo aéreo no Brasil. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report the cases of four patients with bronchiolitis caused by exposure to artificial butter flavoring at a cookie factory in Brazil. METHODS: We described the clinical, tomographic, and spirometric findings in the four patients, as well as the lung biopsy findings in one of the patien [...] ts. RESULTS: All four patients were young male nonsmokers and developed persistent airflow obstruction (reduced FEV1/FVC ratio and FEV1 at 25-44% of predicted) after 1-3 years of exposure to diacetyl, without the use of personal protective equipment, at a cookie factory. The HRCT findings were indicative of bronchiolitis. In one patient, the surgical lung biopsy revealed bronchiolitis obliterans accompanied by giant cells. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchiolitis resulting from exposure to artificial flavoring agents should be included in the differential diagnosis of airflow obstruction in workers in Brazil.

  16. Yeast: the soul of beer's aroma--a review of flavour-active esters and higher alcohols produced by the brewing yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Eduardo J; Teixeira, José A; Brányik, Tomás; Vicente, António A

    2014-03-01

    Among the most important factors influencing beer quality is the presence of well-adjusted amounts of higher alcohols and esters. Thus, a heavy body of literature focuses on these substances and on the parameters influencing their production by the brewing yeast. Additionally, the complex metabolic pathways involved in their synthesis require special attention. More than a century of data, mainly in genetic and proteomic fields, has built up enough information to describe in detail each step in the pathway for the synthesis of higher alcohols and their esters, but there is still place for more. Higher alcohols are formed either by anabolism or catabolism (Ehrlich pathway) of amino acids. Esters are formed by enzymatic condensation of organic acids and alcohols. The current paper reviews the up-to-date knowledge in the pathways involving the synthesis of higher alcohols and esters by brewing yeasts. Fermentation parameters affecting yeast response during biosynthesis of these aromatic substances are also fully reviewed. PMID:24384752

  17. Study on the production of 6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone using two methods of fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, A; Prapulla, S G; Karanth, N G

    2000-05-01

    The lactone 6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone has a characteristic coconut aroma and is produced by Trichoderma species. A study on the fermentative production of 6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone in both surface and submerged conditions by Trichoderma harzianum was carried out. Maximum concentrations of 455 mg/l and 167 mg/l after 96 h and 48 h of fermentation in surface and submerged conditions, respectively, were obtained without using any additional recovery operations. The resultant yields are higher than those previously reported in the literature, which may be attributable to strain characteristics in combination with the choice of fermentation conditions employed in the present study. Enough scope exists for further improvement in the yields by optimizing the cultural and nutritional parameters. PMID:10855724

  18. Perspectives for the biotechnological production of ethyl acetate by yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Bley, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Ethyl acetate is an environmentally friendly solvent with many industrial applications. The production of ethyl acetate currently proceeds by energy-intensive petrochemical processes which are based on natural gas and crude oil without exception. Microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate could become an interesting alternative. The formation of esters as aroma compounds in food has been repeatedly reviewed, but a survey which deals with microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate as a bulk product is missing. The ability of yeasts for producing larger amounts of this ester is known for a long time. In the past, this potential was mainly of scientific interest, but in the future, it could be applied to large-scale ester production from renewable raw materials. Pichia anomala, Candida utilis, and Kluyveromyces marxianus are yeasts which convert sugar into ethyl acetate with a high yield where the latter is the most promising one. Special attention was paid to the mechanism of ester synthesis including regulatory aspects and to the maximum and expectable yield. Synthesis of much ethyl acetate requires oxygen which is usually supplied by aeration. Ethyl acetate is highly volatile so that aeration results in its phase transfer and stripping. This stripping process cannot be avoided but requires adequate handling during experimentation and offers a chance for a cost-efficient process-integrated recovery of the synthesized ester. PMID:24788328

  19. Fermented milks and milk products as functional foods--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiby, V K; Mishra, H N

    2013-01-01

    Fermented foods and beverages possess various nutritional and therapeutic properties. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a major role in determining the positive health effects of fermented milks and related products. The L. acidophilus and Bifidobacteria spp are known for their use in probiotic dairy foods. Cultured products sold with any claim of health benefits should meet the criteria of suggested minimum number of more than 10? cfu/g at the time of consumption. Yoghurt is redefined as a probiotic carrier food. Several food powders like yoghurt powder and curd (dahi) powder are manufactured taking into consideration the number of organisms surviving in the product after drying. Such foods, beverages and powders are highly acceptable to consumers because of their flavor and aroma and high nutritive value. Antitumor activity is associated with the cell wall of starter bacteria and so the activity remains even after drying. Other health benefits of fermented milks include prevention of gastrointestinal infections, reduction of serum cholesterol levels and antimutagenic activity. The fermented products are recommended for consumption by lactose intolerant individuals and patients suffering from atherosclerosis. The formulation of fermented dietetic preparations and special products is an expanding research area. The health benefits, the technology of production of fermented milks and the kinetics of lactic acid fermentation in dairy products are reviewed here. PMID:23391015

  20. Sensory differences between product matrices made with beet and cane sugar sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-11-01

    Although beet and cane sugar sources have nearly identical chemical compositions, the sugars differ in their volatile profiles, thermal behaviors, and minor chemical components. Scientific evidence characterizing the impact of these differences on product quality is lacking. The objective of this research was to determine whether panelists could identify a sensory difference between product matrices made with beet and cane sugar sources. Sixty-two panelists used the R-index by ranking method to discern whether there was a difference between 2 brands of beet and 2 brands of cane sugars in regard to their aroma and flavor, along with a difference in pavlova, simple syrup, sugar cookies, pudding, whipped cream, and iced tea made with beet and cane sugars. R-index values and Friedman's rank sum tests showed differences (P products include: (1) masking of beet and cane sensory differences by the flavor and complexity of the product matrix, (2) the relatively small quantity of sugar in these products, and (3) variation within these products being more influential than the sugar source. The findings from this research are relevant to sugar manufacturers and the food industry as a whole, because it identifies differences between beet and cane sugars and product matrices in which beet and cane sugars are not directly interchangeable. PMID:25308166

  1. Production of radioisotope products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than 20 years medicines, compounds and products with radioactive isotopes for medicine, science and technique which are used in the Republic and exported in Community countries, Europe, USA are fabricated at 'Radiopreparat' enterprise of Nuclear Physics Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences. Number of products fabricated now at 'Radiopreparat' enterprise exceeds 70 descriptions. The technologies for production of these medicines are unique and simple. Quality of the products yielded doesn't concede to worldwide analog. The products may be divided into 5 sorts: 1. Radiopharmaceutical medicines and products. 2. Compounds tagged with radioisotopes for biotechnology and genetic engineering. 3. Medicines of common use. 4. Radioisotope generators of technetium-99m. 5. Sources for X-ray fluorescent analysis from iron - 55

  2. Utilization of Lactobacillus fermentum andSaccharomyces cerevisiae as starter cultures in the production of ‘dolo'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glover, R.L.K.; Sawadogo-Lingani, H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective:  The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of representative strains ofpredominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast as starter cultures in the production of dolo (a type of sorghum beer) of comparable consistency and organoleptic quality to the commercial product in Burkina Faso. Methodology and results: Two strains each of Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae from previous studies (Sawadogo- Lingani et al., 2007; Glover et al., 2005) were used as starter cultures in producing dolo both under laboratory conditions, and in the field (pilot plant). pH, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. Dolo produced from starter combinations of one strain of L. fermentum and both S. cerevisiae strains had taste and aroma that did not differ significantly from the commercial product, while single isolate combinations gave better mouth feel. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of representative strains ofpredominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast as starter cultures in the production of (a type of sorghum beer) of comparable consistency and organoleptic quality to the commercial product in Burkina Faso. Two strains each of and from previous studies (Sawadogo- Lingani 2007; Glover ., 2005) were used as starter cultures in producing both under laboratory conditions, and in the field (pilot plant). pH, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. produced from starter combinations of one strain of and both strains had taste and aroma that did not differ significantly from the commercial product, while single isolate combinations gave better mouth feel. Conclusions and applications of findings: Single-strain and double-strain combinations of lactic acid Single-strain and double-strain combinations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast starter cultures could be used successfully to produce dolo of different quality indices. Combinations of either LAB strain with one yeast strain (AC17) produced dolo that was more comparable to the commercial product than combinations with the other yeast strain (TK25). LAB strain ZN4.1 in combination with yeast strain AC17 gave better dolo in all attributes evaluated. On the whole, dolo produced with double-strain combinations of LAB and yeast under laboratory conditions possessed consistent organoleptic quality and stability comparable to the commercial product. Varied combinations of these starters should be investigated in order to determine a suitable combination for producing dolo possessing all the desired organoleptic qualities and consistency.

  3. Impact on Human Health of Microorganisms Present in Fermented Dairy Products: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María; Hudson, John Andrew; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.

    2015-01-01

    Fermented dairy products provide nutrients in our diet, some of which are produced by the action of microorganisms during fermentation. These products can be populated by a diverse microbiota that impacts the organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics foods as well as human health. Acidification is carried out by starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB) whereas other LAB, moulds, and yeasts become dominant during ripening and contribute to the development of aroma and texture in dairy products. Probiotics are generally part of the nonstarter microbiota, and their use has been extended in recent years. Fermented dairy products can contain beneficial compounds, which are produced by the metabolic activity of their microbiota (vitamins, conjugated linoleic acid, bioactive peptides, and gamma-aminobutyric acid, among others). Some microorganisms can also release toxic compounds, the most notorious being biogenic amines and aflatoxins. Though generally considered safe, fermented dairy products can be contaminated by pathogens. If proliferation occurs during manufacture or storage, they can cause sporadic cases or outbreaks of disease. This paper provides an overview on the current state of different aspects of the research on microorganisms present in dairy products in the light of their positive or negative impact on human health. PMID:25839033

  4. Production of volatile metabolites by grape-associated microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verginer, Markus; Leitner, Erich; Berg, Gabriele

    2010-07-28

    Plant-associated microorganisms fulfill important functions for their hosts. Whereas promotion of plant growth and health is well-studied, little is known about the impact of microorganisms on plant or fruit flavor. To analyze the production of volatiles of grape-associated microorganisms, samples of grapes of the red cultivar 'Blaufraenkisch' were taken during harvest time from four different vineyards in Burgenland (Austria). The production of volatiles was analyzed for the total culturable microbial communities (bacteria, yeasts, fungi) found on and in the grapes as well as for single isolates. The microbial communities produced clearly distinct aroma profiles for each vineyard and phylogenetic group. Furthermore, half of the grape-associated microorganisms produced a broad spectrum of volatile organic compounds. Exemplary, the spectrum was analyzed more in detail for three single isolates of Paenibacillus sp., Sporobolomyces roseus , and Aureobasidium pullulans . Well-known and typical flavor components of red wine were detected as being produced by microbes, for example, 2-methylbutanoic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and ethyl octanoate. PMID:20575540

  5. Production of sulfur flavors by ten strains of Geotrichum candidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, C; Khan, J A; Molimard, P; Martin, N; Spinnler, H E

    1999-12-01

    Ten strains of Geotrichum candidum were studied on a liquid cheese model medium for the production of sulfur compounds which contribute to the aroma of cheeses. The volatile components produced by each cultured strain were extracted by dynamic headspace extractions, separated and quantified by gas chromatography (GC), and identified by GC-mass spectrometry. It was shown that four strains of this microorganism produced significant quantities of S-methyl thioacetate, S-methyl thiopropionate, S-methyl thiobutanoate, S-methyl thioisobutanoate, S-methyl thioisovalerate, and S-methyl thiohexanoate. This is the first example of the production of these compounds by a fungus. In addition, dimethyldisulfide, dimethyltrisulfide, dimethylsulfide, and methanethiol, which are more commonly associated with the development of cheese flavor in bacterial cultures, were also produced by G. candidum in various yields, depending on the strain selected. The potential application of these strains in cultured microbial associations to produce modified cheeses with more desirable organoleptic properties is discussed. PMID:10584011

  6. Stable isotope dilution analysis of wine fermentation products by HS-SPME-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Tracey E; Smyth, Heather E; Capone, Dimitra L; Neuwöhner, Corinna; Pardon, Kevin H; Skouroumounis, George K; Herderich, Markus J; Sefton, Mark A; Pollnitz, Alan P

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify, in a single analysis, 31 volatile fermentation-derived products that contribute to the aroma of red and white wine. We developed a multi-component method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). The 31 volatile compounds analysed include ethyl esters, acetates, acids and alcohols. Although these compounds have a range of functional groups, chemical properties, volatilities, affinities for the SPME fibre, and are found in wine at various concentrations, the accuracy of the analysis was achieved with the use of polydeuterated internal standards for stable isotope dilution analyses (SIDA). Nine of the labelled standards were commercially available, while 22 were synthesised. The method was validated by a series of duplicate spiked standard additions to model, white and red wine matrices over the concentration range relevant for each compound in wine. This demonstrated that the appropriate use of SIDA helped to account for matrix effects, for instance potential sources of variation such as the relative response to the MS detector, ionic strength, ethanol content and pH of different wine matrices. The resultant calibration functions had correlation coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.995 to 1.000. Each compound could be quantified at levels below its aroma threshold in wine. Relative standard deviations were all chloride addition, SPME fibre, SPME temperature, SPME time, GC column and MS conditions. Confirmation of identity was achieved by retention time and peak shape, and measurement of at least three ions for each analyte and internal standard with the MS operating in selected ion monitoring mode to facilitate more precise quantitation with a high sampling rate. The method is a valuable research tool with many relevant applications. A novel method for the combined chiral separation and SIDA quantification of 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid is also demonstrated. PMID:15660221

  7. Predictive Food Microbiology : new tools for risk assessment and dairy product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a well-known food borne pathogen that potentially causes listeriosis. No outbreaks or cases of listeriosis have been associated with cottage cheese, but several confirmed cases and outbreaks in the EU and the US have been related to dairy products made from raw or pasteurised milk. This, in combination with the fact that cottage cheese support growth of Listeria monocytogenes, induces a documentation requirement on the food producer. In the EU regulatory framework, mathematical models are recognised as a suitable supplement to traditional microbiological methods. The models can be used for documentation of compliance with microbiological criteria for Listeria monocytogenes under reasonably foreseeable conditions. Cottage cheese is a fresh, fermented dairy product. It consists of a fermented cheese curd mixed with a fresh or cultured cream dressing. The product contains considerable concentrations of lactic acid bacteria from the added starter or aroma cultures. The presence of these microorganisms induces some complexity to the product, since the lactic acid bacteria metabolites and e.g. bacteriocins exhibit an inhibitory effect towards co-culture microorganisms such as Listeria monocytogenes. During storage at temperatures allowing the mesophilic lactic acid bacteria to grow (> 8-10°C), a pronounced inter-bacterial interaction and growth inhibition of co-culture Listeria monocytogenes was observed. These observations emphasised the need for inter-bacterial interaction models when predicting the growth response of Listeria monocytogenes in fermented dairy products. The objective of the PhD-project was to develop new, or extend existing mathematical models to be used for risk assessment and product development. When the project was initiated, none of the existing predictive models were found to appropriately describe the simultaneous growth of lactic acid bacteria from the added starter or aroma culture and Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. New, deterministic growth models were developed for Listeria monocytogenes, starter lactic acid bacteria and aroma lactic acid bacteria. The new cardinal parameter type growth models included the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic and sorbic acid. The models were developed based on growth data obtained from absorbance measurements in liquid laboratory media and growth data obtained in cottage cheese with fresh or cultured cream dressing. An important step in the modelling procedure was the calibration of the reference growth rate (µref, h-1 at 25°C) which was strongly affected by the dominating lactic acid bacteria culture. By combining the developed secondary growth models with the empirical Jameson approach, good predictions of the simultaneous growth of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria were obtained. Both growth rate and maximum population densities of Listeria monocytogenes was accurately described under constant and dynamic storage temperatures (between 5°C and 15°C). The inter-bacterial interaction was clearly important toinclude when predicting growth response of Listeria monocytogenes in fermented dairy products. Alternative, semi-mechanistic, iimodelling approaches were evaluated based on methods applied in the fermentation technology. The dynamics of lactic acid concentration and product pH was related to growth of lactic acid bacteria by the yield factor concept. The ability to predict the maximum population density of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese based on dynamic lactic acid and pH was evaluated. For cottage cheese with fresh cream dressing, the semi-mechanistic interaction model successfully predicted the maximum population density. Lactic acid and pH was, however, insufficient to describe the growth inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes observed in cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. Improved, mechanistic, prediction of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing would require that additional mechanisms were included in the model, such as other metabolites or bacterioc

  8. Oxidation and formation of oxidation products of ?-carotene at boiling temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Alam

    2012-04-01

    ?-Carotene is one of the most important lipid component extensively used in food industries as source of pro-vitamin A and colorant. During processing and storage ?-carotene is oxidized and degraded to various oxidation compounds. Some of these compounds are also the key aroma compounds in certain flowers, vegetables and fruits. The methods for analysis and determination of these oxidized products formed during food boiling or preparation are key to the understanding the chemistry of these compounds. This paper presents a novel analytical method incorporating high performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometric detection for the characterization of oxidation, isomerization and oxidation products of ?-carotene in toluene at boiling temperature. HPLC and APCI-MS was optimized using oxidized sample and flow injection analysis of the standard ?-carotene respectively. ?-Carotene was oxidized in the Rancimat at 110°C for 30, 60 and 90 min. The oxidized samples were than analyzed by HPLC system at 450 nm and 350 nm as well as scanning and single ion monitoring mass spectrometry. A total of ten oxidation products and three Z-isomers were reported. Extensive isomerization was observed during treatment at the control accelerated conditions. The oxidation products include five apo-carotenals, three diepoxides, one mono-epoxide and one short chain species. Results show that the method was reproducible, accurate and reliable for the separation and identification of oxidation products of ?-carotene. PMID:22387098

  9. A new technological approach proposed for distillate production using immobilized cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukatos, Paul; Kanellaki, Maria; Komaitis, Michael; Athanasiadis, Ilias; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2003-01-01

    A new technological approach to distillate production using immobilized cells was investigated. The effect of temperature on the main volatile by-products in distillates was determined. Wines produced by delignified cellulose-, gluten- and kissiris-supported biocatalysis were used as starting materials. The produced distillates were analyzed for ethanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, propanol-1, isobutanol and amyl alcohol content. The results showed that distillates from delignified cellulosic material (DCM) at 16 degrees C contained smaller amounts of amyl alcohols, 57% of that produced by gluten and 32% of that produced by kissiris. The ethyl acetate content of distillates from DCM improved the aroma of distillates. These results agree with those of sensory evaluation. Subsequently, the scale-up for low-temperature distillate production at 16 degrees C using DCM was further investigated. A new version of an industrial multi-stage fixed bed tower (MFBT) bioreactor with a capacity of 11,000 l proved to be suitable for continuous fermentation by DCM-supported biocatalysis. Economic analysis showed a reduction in the cost of almost 30% for distillate production and 78% for wine production. PMID:16233363

  10. CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL AND SENSORY ANALYSIS OF ACTIVITY DIFFERENT YEAST SPECIES ON IDENTICAL SUBSTRATE IN WINE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rizling vlašský is the second most important variety in Slovakia. The science of wine production includes a summary of knowledge and experience in the field of grape growing and wine making, or the production of different types of wines using specific methods of production. Wine quality is the result of the interaction between yeast, bacteria and microscopic funguses. In this research, we studied the effects of active dry wine yeasts on chemical, physical and sensory parameters in wine production. We have applied five kinds of yeasts (FERMIVIN, FERMIVIN PDV, FERMICRU AR2, FERMIFLOR and FERMICRU VB1. It can be concluded that the application of active dry wine yeasts is beneficial for the production of rizling vlašský. The best showing were yeasts FERMIFLOR and FERMIVIN PDM. In the last sample where they were left the original yeasts the varietal aroma was preserved. It can be noted that the wine was right technologically produced and all wines were harmonious with a pleasant fresh taste.

  11. POTENCIAL PRODUTIVO DE CULTIVARES DE MORANGUEIRO / PRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF STRAWBERRY CULTIVARS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    AMANDA GONÇALVES, GUIMARÃES; VALTER CARVALHO DE, ANDRADE JÚNIOR; AHMED YOUSSEF ABDELNABI MOHAMED, ELSAYED; JOSÉ SEBASTIÃO CUNHA, FERNANDES; MARCOS AURÉLIO MIRANDA, FERREIRA.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo foi avaliar o potencial produtivo de cultivares de morangueiro em região representativa do Alto Jequitinhonha. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Mape Frutas Ltda., localizada no município de Datas-MG, em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com oito cultivares de morangueiro em q [...] uatro repetições, para verificar a produção de mudas e de frutos. A contagem da produção de estolões e de mudas foi realizada aos 180 dias após o plantio. A avaliação das variáveis relacionadas à produção de frutos foi feita duas vezes por semana, no período de maio a outubro de 2012. Das cultivares de dias curtos (Festival, Campinas, Toyonoka, Dover, Oso Grande e Camarosa) e dias neutros (Diamante e Aromas), apenas Toyonoka foi a que apresentou menor desempenho para as variáveis. A significativa superioridade das cultivares Camarosa e Festival, para praticamente todas as variáveis avaliadas, permite recomendá-las para regiões com características edafoclimáticas semelhantes às da região onde o experimento foi conduzido. Dentre as cultivares avaliadas, as mais precoces tenderam a apresentar maior desempenho para variáveis relacionadas à produção de frutos. Abstract in english ABSTRACT This study was conducted in order to evaluate the productive potential of strawberry cultivars in a representative region of Alto Jequitinhonha - Brazil. The experiment was conducted at farm Mape Frutas Ltda, located in the municipality of dates, MG, in randomized block design with eight s [...] trawberry cultivars in four replications to verify the production of seedlings and fruit. Counting of production of stolons and seedlings was performed at 180 days after planting. The assessment of variables related to fruit production was done twice a week from May to October 2012. Cultivars of short days (Festival, Campinas, Toyonoka, Dover, Oso Grande and Camarosa) and day neutral (Diamante and Aromas), only Toyonoka showed the lowest performance for the variables. The significant superiority of the cultivars Camarosa and Festival for virtually all variables allows recommends it for regions with similar climatic edaphic characteristics of the region where the experiment was conducted. Among the cultivars, the earlier tended to have higher performance for variables related to fruit production.

  12. A strategy to design efficient fermentation processes for traditional beverages production: prickly pear wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Bolaños, J L; Fato-Aldeco, E; Gutiérrez-Moreno, K; Botello-Álvarez, J E; Jiménez-Islas, H; Rico-Martínez, R

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a methodology to establish an optimal process design for prickly pear wine production that preserves the peculiar and unique traits of traditional products, generating at the same time, technical information for appropriate design of both bioreactor and overall process. The strategy includes alcoholic fermentation optimization by the mixed native culture composed by Pichia fermentans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, followed by malolactic fermentation optimization by Oenococcus oeni. The optimization criteria were based on multiple output functions: alcohol content, volatile compounds profile, organic acids profile, and compound contents related to color, which were analyzed by spectroscopy-chromatography methods and sensory analysis. The results showed that the mixed culture inoculated into a bioreactor containing prickly pear juice with 20 °Bx of fermentable sugars concentration, processed at a constant temperature of 20 °C for 240 h, leads to a fermented product with 9.93% (v/v) total alcohol content, and significant abundance of volatile compounds, which provide fruity and ethereal aromatic notes, complemented by a lively but not unpleasant acidity. This young wine was further subjected to malolactic fermentation at constant temperature (16 °C) for 192 h, decreasing malic acid, and balancing volatile compounds contents, thus resulting in a product with better aroma and flavor perception, and a velvety feeling of long aftertaste. Repeated assays showed that the process is stable, predictable, controllable, and reproducible. These results were used for process design and spreadsheet construction in order to simulate the process, and properly select and size the equipment required for such process. PMID:24032574

  13. Banana as adjunct in beer production: applicability and performance of fermentative parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Bento, Camila V; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Almeida E Silva, João B

    2009-05-01

    Traditionally, the raw materials for beer production are barley, hops, water, and yeast, but most brewers use also different adjuncts. During the alcoholic fermentation, the contribution of aroma compounds from other ingredients to the final beer flavor depends on the wort composition, on the yeast strain, and mainly on the process conditions. In this context, banana can also be a raw material favorable to alcoholic fermentation being rich in carbohydrates and minerals and providing low acidity. In this work, the objective was to evaluate the performance of wort adjusted with banana juice in different concentrations. For this, static fermentations were conducted at 15 degrees C at pilot scale (140 L of medium). The addition of banana that changed the concentration of all-malt wort from 10 degrees P to 12 and 15 degrees P were evaluated ( degrees P is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution, at 20 degrees C). The results showed an increase in ethanol production, with approximately 0.4 g/g ethanol yield and 0.6 g/L h volumetric productivity after 84 h of processing when concentrated wort was used. Thus, it was concluded that banana can be used as an adjunct in brewing methods, helping in the development of new products as well as in obtaining concentrated worts. PMID:19089653

  14. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: To day, more and more products are customized. Trends are not only to sell a product to the customer, but to sell a product system. The system can either be a combination of physical products or physical products together with some kind of service. Customers get in this way not a product but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks. Here the decoupling point has a central role. The scope for this article is therefore to analyse the possibilities for using modularisation in designing and controlling a production system. How will the development of modularised product systems influence the production system? In the paper, a case will be used to support the ideas.

  15. VANILLIN PRODUCTION BY PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM GROWN ON GREEN COCONUT AGRO-INDUSTRIAL HUSK IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete dos Santos Barbosa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Agro-industrial residues have become an important source for the production of chemical compounds using biological pathways, contributing to preservation of the environment and making the overall process economically supportable. Vanillin is a very important aromatic compound for the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the vanillin production by solid-state fermentation on green coconut residue using the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Solid-state fermentation was carried on a support of green coconut husk treated in two different ways: sun-dried and mechanical-pressed. A Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to screen the compounds of liquid medium culture of the vanillin production. Nineteen variables were studied to optimize the culture conditions, and eleven of them were significant. The screening improved the production of vanillin from 44.4 ?g/g of support to 52.5 ?g/g of support in 24 hours of fermentation. Sun-dried coconut husk was found to be superior to mechanical-pressed coconut husk for production of vanillin. HPLC was used for the quantification of vanillin aroma.

  16. Production of ?-ionone by combined expression of carotenogenic and plant CCD1 genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Javiera; Essus, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Apocarotenoids, like the C13-norisoprenoids, are natural compounds that contribute to the flavor and/or aroma of flowers and foods. They are produced in aromatic plants-like raspberries and roses-by the enzymatic cleavage of carotenes. Due to their pleasant aroma and flavour, apocarotenoids have high commercial value for the cosmetic and food industry, but currently their production is mainly assured by chemical synthesis. In the present study, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that synthesizes the apocarotenoid ?-ionone was constructed by combining integrative vectors and high copy number episomal vectors, in an engineered strain that accumulates FPP.  Results: Integration of an extra copy of the geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase gene (BTS1), together with the carotenogenic genes crtYB and crtI from the ascomycete Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, resulted in carotenoid producing cells. The additional integration of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase gene from the plant Petunia hybrida (PhCCD1) let to the production of low amounts of beta-ionone (0.073 ± 0.01 mg/g DCW) and changed the color of the strain from orange to yellow. The expression of the crtYB gene from a high copy number plasmid in this former strain increased beta-ionone concentration fivefold (0.34 +/- 0.06 mg/g DCW). Additionally, the episomal expression of crtYB together with the PhCCD1 gene in the same vector resulted in a final 8.5-fold increase of beta-ionone concentration (0.63 ± 0.02 mg/g DCW). Batch fermentations with this strain resulted in a final specific concentration of 1 mg/g DCW at 50 h, which represents a 15-fold increase.  Conclusions: An efficient ?-ionone producing yeast platform was constructed by combining integrative and episomal constructs. By combined expression of the genes BTS1, the carotenogenic crtYB, crtI genes and the plant PhCCD1 gene-the highest ?-ionone concentration reported to date by a cell factory was achieved. This microbial cell factory represents a starting point for flavor production by a sustainable and efficient process that could replace current methods.

  17. Aroma encapsulation and aroma delivery by oil body suspensions derived from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus)

    OpenAIRE

    Fisk, Ian D.; Linforth, Rob S. T.; Taylor, Andrew J.; Gray, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Oil bodies are small discrete cell organelles that can be found within oilseeds. Oil bodies have been investigated previously as a potential technology platform for use within the food industry, offering stable, antioxidant-enriched lipid-delivery systems. In this study, the use of oil bodies as a flavour delivery agent is evaluated. Fresh aromatized oil bodies show comparable headspace flavour intensity to phospholipid-stabilized emulsions when in a static equilibrium state, and whe...

  18. Evaluación de la calidad de productos lácteos por medio de la nariz electrónica / Assessment of dairy products quality by means of electronic nose

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis-Felipe, Gutiérrez.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La nariz electrónica, instrumento que utiliza un conjunto de sensores y un sistema de reconocimiento de patrones para el análisis cualitativo de aromas, ha encontrado numerosas aplicaciones en la industria alimentaria, gracias a su versatilidad. En este trabajo una breve descripción de la nariz elec [...] trónica, de su modo de operación y de sus ventajas y desventajas, ha sido realizada. Además, las principales aplicaciones de este instrumento en la industria de alimentos, con un énfasis especial en la industria láctea, han sido revisadas. Estas aplicaciones incluyen la detección de microorganismos en la leche, la identificación de aromas indeseados en la leche, la estimación del tiempo de vida útil de la leche y de varios tipos de quesos, la identificación de leche mastítica, la clasificación de quesos en función del tiempo de maduración, la diferenciación de quesos por origen geográfico y el control de la fermentación de la leche, entre otros. Los resultados de esta revisión indican que la nariz electrónica podría ser utilizada como un instrumento para un rápido control de calidad de los productos. Abstract in english The electronic nose, instrument that uses a group of sensors and a system of pattern recognition for the qualitative analysis of aroma, has found many applications in the food industry, because of its versatility. In this work a brief description of the electronic nose, its operation mode and its ad [...] vantages and disadvantages were carried out. Moreover, the main applications of this instrument in the food industry, with special emphasis on the dairy industry, have been reviewed. These applications include the detection of microorganisms in milk, the identification of off-flavours in milk, the shelf life of milk and various types of cheeses, the identification of mastitic milk, the classification of cheeses according to their time of ripening, the discrimination of cheeses by geographic origin and the control of the milk fermentation, among other. The results of this review indicate that electronic nose could be used as an instrument for the rapid quality control of dairy products.

  19. Product Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2008-01-01

    For the majority of industrial companies, customizing products and services is among the most critical means to deliver true customer value and achieve superior competitive advantage. The challenge is not to customize products and services in itself – but to do it in a profitable way. The implementation of a product configuration system is among the most powerful ways of achieving this in practice, offering a reduction of the lead time for products and quotations, faster and more qualified responses to customer inquiries, fewer transfers of responsibility and fewer specification mistakes, a reduction of the resources spent for the specification of customized products, and the possibility of optimizing the products according to customer demands. This book presents an operational procedure for the design of product configuration systems in industrial companies, based on the experience gained from more than 40 product configuration projects in companies providing customer tailored products and services.

  20. Radionuclide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotopes more frequently used in medicine are studied in the following aspects:their production main characteristics, disintegration products and the quality control to which they must be submitted in view of their ulterior application. (M.A.)

  1. Free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on whey protein as starter cultures for probiotic Feta-type cheese production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Sidira, Marianthi; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2014-08-01

    The use of free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on whey protein as starter culture in probiotic Feta-type cheese production was evaluated. The probiotic cultures resulted in significantly higher acidity; lower pH; reduced counts of coliforms, enterobacteria, and staphylococci; and improved quality characteristics compared with cheese with no culture. Microbiological and strain-specific multiplex PCR analysis showed that both free and immobilized L. casei ATCC 393 were detected in the novel products at levels required for conferring a probiotic effect at the end of the ripening. The effect of starter culture on production of volatile compounds was investigated by the solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis technique. The immobilized cells resulted in an improved profile of aroma-related compounds and the overall high quality of the novel products was ascertained by the preliminary sensory test. Finally, the high added value produced by exploitation of whey, which is an extremely polluting industrial waste, was highlighted and assessed. PMID:24931523

  2. In situ detoxification of the fermentation medium during gamma-decalactone production with the yeast sporidiobolus salmonicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufosse; Souchon; Feron; Latrasse; Spinnler

    1999-01-01

    gamma-Decalactone (gamma-C10) is known to be highly toxic for the microorganims used for its production. In this work, three techniques were studied in order to overcome this toxicity during a bioconversion process using ricinoleic acid as precursor of the lactone: in situ trapping in oily phases, in porous hydrophobic sorbents and in beta-cyclodextrins. Oily phases added to the media (olive, Miglyol, tributyrin, and paraffin) had a protective effect on Sp. salmonicolor, and they improved the lactone production. beta-cyclodextrins, which have a hydrophobic cavity that can trap molecules such as gamma-C10, have been used to protect the yeasts. The results showed insufficient preservation of cell viability. Some sorbents (activated carbon and polystyrene-based sorbents) were successfully tested during bioconversion. In all cases viability exceeded the reference one. Nevertheless the aroma production was 30% lower than the reference. All of these solutions led to some enhancement of the cell viability during bioconversion of methyl ricinoleate to gamma-C10. For improvement of the lactone production, the oil trapping method seemed to be the best with the experimental conditions tested. PMID:9933524

  3. Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides an introduction to the basics of hydrogen production. Advantages of using hydrogen, information on current global hydrogen production, primary uses for hydrogen and hydrogen production processes are introduced. The presentation consists of 26 slides and may be downloaded in Microsoft Power Point file format.

  4. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

  5. Utilization of Whey for the Production of Instant Energy Beverage by Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunakar Singh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Whey is obtained from dairy industries. It is generally disposed into sewage which creates major problem of pollution besides the loss of valuable nutrients. The process of whey utilization involves higher processing cost. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to develop low cost nutritious whey beverage for hard working group of people. Instant energy Ready To Serve (RTS whey beverage was prepared by hydrolyzing lactose with immobilized ?-galactosidase enzyme, isolated from yeast culture Kluyveromyces marxianus. Sensory attributes, appearance, taste, aroma, overall acceptability and viscosity were the quality control parameters employed for beverage evaluation. Mango pulp concentration, stabilizer and sucrose added in beverage were optimized by the utilization of Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Based on contour plots and variance analysis, optimum values for mango pulp, stabilizer and sucrose were found to be 17.72, 0.17 and 12.0% respectively. The final product exhibited viscosity 1.753 cp. The energy value of prepared beverage was 322±3.08 KJ per 100 mL of product. The electrolyte composition was also found to be almost similar to the desired level.

  6. Potential of membrane distillation for production of high quality fruit juice concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsekizoglu Bagci, Pelin

    2015-07-01

    Fruit juices are generally concentrated in order to improve the stability during storage and to reduce handling, packaging, and transportation costs. Thermal evaporation is the most widely used technique in industrial fruit juice concentrate production. In addition to high energy consumption, a large part of the characteristics determining the quality of the fresh juice including aroma, color, vitamins, and antioxidants undergoes remarkable alterations through the use of high operation temperatures. Increasing consumer demand for minimally or naturally processed stable products able to retain as much possible the uniqueness of the fresh fruit has engendered a growing interest for development of nonthermal approaches for fruit juice concentration. Among them, membrane distillation (MD) and its variants have attracted much attention for allowing very high concentrations to be reached under atmospheric pressure and temperatures near ambient temperature. This review will provide an overview of the current status and recent developments in the use of MD for concentration of fruit juices. In addition to the most basic concepts of MD variants, crucial suggestions for membrane selection and operating parameters will be presented. Challenges and future trends for industrial adaptation taking into account the possibility of integrating MD with other existing processes will be discussed. PMID:24915342

  7. Technology transfer for irradiation of spices and fishery products in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of irradiation to improve the hygiene quality and to extend the storage life of commercial spices, dried fish and frozen shrimps was tested in collaboration with food industries. These tests consisted of trial irradiation of the spices used in the food industry, quality evaluation of processed meat made with irradiated spices, market testing of the irradiated dried fish and trial irradiation of commercially frozen shrimps. It was found that irradiation at 5 kGy could reduce the microbial load of the different types of spices commonly used in the food industry from 106 to 108 per gram to less than 103 per gram. The aroma and taste of certain spices became weaker or stronger after irradiation at 5 kGy, but the change was still acceptable. Use of irradiated spices in the manufacture of corned beef was found to be effective for improving the 'keeping' quality of the product stored at -2 deg. C. Market testing of the irradiated dried fish showed that the product had a longer market life and a better quality than the untreated dried fish. The microbial load of frozen shrimps could be reduced from about 105 to 106 per gram to 103 per gram when irradiated at about 5 kGy in commercial packaging. (author). 13 refs, 6 tabs

  8. Production of 6-pentyl-?-pyrone by trichoderma harzianum in solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Ramos, Aline; Fiaux, Sorele Batista; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira

    2008-10-01

    Many Trichoderma species are able to produce 6-pentyl-?-pyrone (6-PP), a lactone with coconut-like aroma. In the present work, several culture parameters were studied to enhance the production of 6-PP by Trichoderma harzianum 4040 in solid-state fermentation. Green coir powder added to a nutrient solution was used as support material for fermentation. A Plackett-Burman screening technique was applied, followed by a fractionary factorial design. The best culture conditions within the experimental domain studied were (100 g support)(-1): sucrose, 3 g; NaNO3, 0.24 g; (NH4)2SO4, 0.18 g; KH2PO4, 0.1 g; inoculum concentration, 2.2 × 10(6) spores; moisture level, 55%. The temperature established was 28°C. The fermentation under the selected conditions led to a 6-PP production six times higher (5.0 mg/g dry matter) than the initial one (0.8 mg/g dry matter) after seven days of cultivation. PMID:24031295

  9. Nail Care Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page Home Cosmetics Products & Ingredients Products Nail Care Products It is important to use nail products safely, ... top More in Products Aromatherapy Disposable Wipes Hair Products Makeup Nail Care Products Soaps & Lotions Tanning Products Tattoos & Permanent Makeup ...

  10. Livestock production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mr. Mize

    2009-10-21

    In this project you will learn the basic principals of beef production. How does my steak get to my plate? Use your 4 column chart to record information about each step in beef production. Begin by learning about what cattle eat.Food/water resources. What are diseases in beef productionFoot and mouth diseaseMad cow disease? How do cattle grow to market weightFeedyardsDecatour county feedyard? How do we sale cattleCommerical bull salesCattle sales?Beef production How is beef quality controled Beef quality assurance? What are the different ...

  11. Highly selective generation of vanillin by anodic degradation of lignin: a combined approach of electrochemistry and product isolation by adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Dominik; Regenbrecht, Carolin; Hartmer, Marius; Stecker, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Summary The oxidative degradation of lignin into a variety of valuable products has been under investigation since the first half of the last century. Especially, the chance to claim this cheap, abundant and renewable source for the production of the important aroma chemical vanillin (1) was one of the major driving forces of lignin research. So far most of the developed methods fail in technical application since no viable concept for work-up is included. This work represents a combined approach of electrochemical conversion of Kraft lignin and product recovery by adsorption on a strongly basic anion exchange resin. Electrolysis conditions are optimized regarding reaction temperatures below 100 °C allowing operation of aqueous electrolytes in simple experimental set-up. Employing ion exchange resins gives rise to a selective removal of low molecular weight phenols from the strongly alkaline electrolyte without acidification and precipitation of remaining lignin. The latter represents a significant advantage compared with conventional work-up protocols of lignin solutions. PMID:25977721

  12. Investigation of bias of hedonic scores when co-eliciting product attribute information using CATA questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Sara R.; Giacalone, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Sensory and consumer scientists disagree on the practice of concurrently obtaining sensory information in hedonic tests. This is in part due to different mindsets about what consumers are able to do and evidence that such co-elicitation may bias hedonic scores. Check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions have been claimed to have a smaller effect on hedonic scores than other attribute such as just-about-right or intensity scales. In this research, nine studies using consumers as participants examined effects on hedonic product scores when sensory attribute information was co-elicited using CATA questions. The use of CATA concurrently with hedonic was benchmarked against concurrent attribute liking scores, attribute intensity scores and just-about-right scaling. Across a range of product categories (beer, fresh fruit, tea, flavoured water, crackers, savoury dips), only weak and transient evidence of bias of hedonic scores when concurrently using CATA questions was established. This effect was independent on whether samples, on average were moderately liked or moderately disliked, and replicated when samples were assessed partially by the sense of smell only or via full product assessment (appearance, aroma, flavour, taste, aftertaste, mouthfeel). The present research suggests that co-elicitation of hedonic scores and product attribute information using CATA questions may bias the hedonic scores, but not that it certainly will do so. This needs to be recognised, leading to more widespread acceptance that co-elicitation has merit. Investigators should decide on whether or not to co-elicit product attribute information using CATA questions on a case-by-case basis, acknowledging that bias may occur. Further research is needed to understand when/when not bias is likely to occur.

  13. Uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alltime high for uranium concentrate production is expected to be reached in 1980. The average grade of ore fed to process will be up about 10% from last year. Some curtailments in uranium processing were announced, but three new processing plants began production in 1980. The prospects for 1981 are not as encouraging. The continuation of low prices and slow demand for U3O8 are expected to be reflected in a significant reduction in overall production and in the postponement of some plans for expansion and construction of uranium processing facilities. Increases in production capacity will occur when Plateau Resource's 750 TPD mill at Ticaboo, Utah, starts up early next year, and additional production of byproduct uranium is expected from western phosphate operations and from the southern states. These increases in capacity, however, will not offset the cutbacks in uranium processing already in force together with the additional curtailments anticipated during the course of 1981

  14. Process Optimization for Solid Extraction, Flavor Improvement and Fat Removal in the Production of Soymilk From Full Fat Soy Flakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley Prawiradjaja

    2003-05-31

    Traditionally soymilk has been made with whole soybeans; however, there are other alternative raw ingredients for making soymilk, such as soy flour or full-fat soy flakes. US markets prefer soymilk with little or no beany flavor. modifying the process or using lipoxygenase-free soybeans can be used to achieve this. Unlike the dairy industry, fat reduction in soymilk has been done through formula modification instead of by conventional fat removal (skimming). This project reports the process optimization for solids and protein extraction, flavor improvement and fat removal in the production of 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk from full fat soy flakes and whole soybeans using the Takai soymilk machine. Proximate analyses, and color measurement were conducted in 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk. Descriptive analyses with trained panelists (n = 9) were conducted using 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix lipoxygenase-free and high protein blend soy flake soymilks. Rehydration of soy flakes is necessary to prevent agglomeration during processing and increase extractability. As the rehydration temperature increases from 15 to 50 to 85 C, the hexanal concentration was reduced. Enzyme inactivation in soy flakes milk production (measured by hexanal levels) is similar to previous reports with whole soybeans milk production; however, shorter rehydration times can be achieved with soy flakes (5 to 10 minutes) compared to whole beans (8 to 12 hours). Optimum rehydration conditions for a 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk are 50 C for 5 minutes, 85 C for 5 minutes and 85 C for 10 minutes, respectively. In the flavor improvement study of soymilk, the hexanal date showed differences between undeodorized HPSF in contrast to triple null soymilk and no differences between deodorized HPSF in contrast to deodorized triple null. The panelists could not differentiate between the beany, cereal, and painty flavors. However, the panelists responded that the overall aroma of deodorized 8 {sup o}Brix triple null and HPSF soymilk are lower than the undeodorized triple null and HPSF soymilk. The triple null soymilk was perceived to be more bitter than the HPSF soymilk by the sensory panel due to oxidation on the triple null soy flakes. This oxidation may produce other aroma that was not analyzed using the GC but noticed by the panelists. The sensory evaluation results did show that the deodorizer was able to reduce the soymilk aroma in HPSF soymilk so it would be similar to triple null soymilk at 8 {sup o}Brix level. Regardless of skimming method and solids levels, the fat from the whole soybean milk was removed less efficiently than soy flake milk (7 to 30% fat extraction in contrast to 50 to 80% fat extraction respectively). In soy flake milk, less fat was removed as the % solid increases regardless of the processing method. In whole soybean milk, the fat was removed less efficiently at lower solids level milk using the commercial dairy skimmer and more efficient at lower solids level using the centrifuge-decant method. Based on the Hunter L, a, b measurement, the color of the reduced fat soy flake milk yielded a darker, greener and less yellow colored milk than whole soymilk ({alpha} < 0.05), whereas no differences were noticed in reduced fat soybean milk ({alpha} < 0.05). Color comparison of whole and skim cow's milk showed the same the same trend as in the soymilk.

  15. Capsicum production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part 1: History, botany, cultivation, and primary processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S

    1985-01-01

    The genus Capsicum (Fam. Solanaceae) was known to ancient cultures and was more recently historically associated with the discovery of the New World. This genus provides many species and varieties used in flavoring foods popular in the cuisines of many parts of the world. From the pungent chilli to the colorful paprika and the bell pepper, with its remarkable aroma, the genus is of great interest for its chemistry, sensory attributes, and physiological action. The Capsicums, among the spices, are second only to black pepper in trade both in volume and value. The production of the different pungency forms, the processed seasonings, and the concentrated oleoresins, through technologically advanced processes and in specified standard grades, are critically reviewed. The pungency of Capsicum fruits, its evaluation, chemical structure relationship, its increasing acceptance and preference by a variety of populations are of great research interest. The wide traditional use in the growing regions and its intense physiological effects have attracted the attention of researchers of many different disciplines. These aspects are reviewed in four sequential parts. Part I deals with history, botany, cultivation, and primary processing. PMID:3899517

  16. Primary productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    nutrients and ample solar radiation frequently trigger phytoplankton blooms in coastal polynias during Antarctic summer. Energy transfer model for primary productivity has been used to derive potential exploitable fishery resources in the Indian Ocean....

  17. Tanning Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products Tanning Lamps, Booths, and Beds Sunless Tanning Sprays and Lotions Tanning Pills Tanning Lamps, Booths, and Beds Tanning lamps have become a popular method of maintaining a year-round tan, but their effects can be as dangerous as ...

  18. Record Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record Production is a website that has been created by record production professionals. Its main draw is the over 200 high quality streaming videos that feature tours of recording studios and interviews with the top record producers in the industry. Aside from the videos, the site also provides reviews of home and studio recording equipment, a news page that highlights updates to the site, as well as a forum.

  19. Product liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daynard, Richard A; Legresley, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Product liability litigation has made important contributions to tobacco control, especially by uncovering incriminating industry documents and publicizing product dangers and industry misconduct. WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 19 encourages Parties to strengthen legal procedures to facilitate these lawsuits and to establish mechanisms for mutual assistance. Creative lawyers will continue to find ways to bring the tobacco industry to justice in forums around the world. PMID:22345254

  20. Property Modelling and Databases in Product-Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Sansonetti, Sascha

    Properties of pure chemicals and their mixtures play an important role in the design of chemicals based products and the processes that manufacture them. Although, the use of experimental data in the design and/or analysis of these chemicals based products and their processes is desirable, they are not always available. Also, it may be too expensive or it may take too long to measure the required data. In these situations and when repetitive calculations are involved, as in process simulation, it is useful to have appropriate models to reliably predict the needed properties. For property model development, however, it is necessary to have a large database of measured property data that has been checked for consistency and accuracy. The presentation will first introduce a database, in terms of its knowledge representation structure, the type and range of properties and chemical systems covered, and their internal consistency-accuracy checks. The database includes properties of organic chemicals, polymers andionic liquids. There are also chemical class specific database sections, such as for solvents, aroma-chemicals, surfactants and emulsifiers. The use of this property database for model development will then be highlighted for a class of predictive models employing the group-contributionplus approach, where, the group-contribution (GC) method is combined with the atom-connectivity index (CI) method. Here, two parallel models are developed using the same dataset. However, during applications for property prediction, only the GC-model is used with the option to estimate missing group-contribution parameters through the CI-model. In this way, the application range of the GC-model is increased without the need for additional experimental data. This procedure for model development and use has been successfully employed for a range of pure component properties, polymer repeat-unit properties as well as mixture properties. For the mixture properties, liquid phase activity coefficients are modelled and then predictedthrough the UNIFAC-CI method. For bulk-properties of organic chemical mixtures, a GC-CI version of the PC-SAFT is used. The developed database and property prediction models have been combined into a properties-software that allows different product-process design related applications. The presentation will also briefly highlight applications of the software for virtual product-process design applications.

  1. INVESTIGATION ON THE PRODUCTION OF L-GLUTAMINASE FROM PSEUDOMONAS STUTZERI STRAIN UNDER SOLID STATE FERMENTATION USING VARIOUS AGRO RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Athira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentation was carried out for the production of L-glutaminase by Pseudomonas stutzeri PIMS6 using different agro residues including green gram husk, Bengal gram husk, cattle feed, wheat bran and groundnut oil cake as solid substrates. L-glutaminase has received significant attention in recent years owing to its potential applications in medicine as an anticancer agent, as an efficient anti-retroviral agent and as a biosensor. In food industries it is used as a flavor and aroma enhancing agent. The maximum yield (55.24 U/gds of L-glutaminase by Pseudomomonas stutzeri PIMS6 was obtained using cattle feed at 75% initial moisture content, initial pH 8.0, supplemented with glucose (1.0%, ammonium sulphate (1.0%, inoculated with 5% of inoculum and incubated at 37°C for 96 h. Both physico-chemical and nutritional parameters played a significant role in the production of the enzyme L-glutaminase.

  2. Actividad fermentativa de Hanseniaspora uvarum y su importancia en la producción de bebidas fermentadas / Fermentative activity of Hanseniaspora uvarum and its importance in production of fermented beverages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Waldir Estela, Escalante; Mojmír, Rychtera; Karel, Melzoch; Beatriz, Hatta Sakoda; Elena, Quillama Polo; Zulema, Ludeña Cervantes; Victor, Sarmiento Casavilca; Guadalupe, Chaquilla Quilca.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la actividad fermentativa de Hanseniaspora uvarum RIVE 6-2-2 con el objetivo de evaluar su importancia en los procesos de producción de bebidas fermentadas. La cepa se cultivó en frascos Erlenmeyer conteniendo jugo de manzana esterilizado y sin aroma, y se determinaron los compuestos quím [...] icos de importancia sensorial producidos durante la fermentación en cultivo agitado (200 min-1) y estático (sin agitación). Los resultados mostraron que la cepa fue capaz de producir etanol hasta 4,02±0,1v/v% en cultivo estático a 28 °C. La agitación del medio de cultivo incrementó la producción de alcoholes superiores (hasta 488,2 mg/L) y ácido acético (468,0±10,2 mg/L) comparado al cultivo estático, mientras que por el contrario, la producción de etil acetato y glicerol (189,0±12,0 mg/L y 3,2±0,3 g/L) resultó ser mayor que en cultivo agitado (142,0±8,0 mg/L y 2,3±0,25 g/L) respectivamente. Cultivos bacth realizados adicionalmente reportaron una tasa de crecimiento (?) de 0,05 h-1 y producción de pequeñas cantidades de compuestos típicamente encontrados en la fermentación alcohólica. Los mejores resultados, en términos de calidad organoléptica (aroma, sabor y olor), se obtuvieron en la fermentación en cultivo estático. El control de la aireación del medio de fermentación es una herramienta importante para controlar la síntesis de compuestos de importancia sensorial en la producción de bebidas fermentadas. Abstract in english The fermentation activity of Hanseniaspora uvarum RIVE 6-2-2 was studied with the purpose of evaluating its importance in the production process of fermented beverages. The strain was cultured in Erlenmeyer flasks, which contained sterilized and odorless apple juice, and the chemical compounds of se [...] nsorial importance produced during fermentation in shaken (200 min-1), and static (without shaking) cultures at 28 ºC were determined. The results showed that the strains were capable of producing ethanol up to 4.20±0.1v/v% in static cultures at 28 ºC. Shaking of the culture medium increased the superior alcohol production (up to 488.2 mg/L) and acetic acid (468.0± 10.2 mg/L), when compared with the static culture; on the other hand, the production of ethyl acetate and glycerol (189.0±12.0 mg/L and 3.2±0.3 g/L) was higher in static than in shaken cultures (142.0±8.0 mg/L and 2.3±0.25 g/L), respectively. Additional batch cultures reported a growth rate (µ) of 0.05 h-1 and production of small amounts of compounds typically found in alcoholic fermentation. The best results, in terms of organoleptic qualities (aroma, taste and smell), were found in the static culture fermentation. The aeration control of the fermentation medium is an important tool for controlling the synthesis of sensorial importance compounds in the production of fermented beverages.

  3. Microoxidation in wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmartin, Paul A

    2010-01-01

    Microoxygenation (MOX) is now widely applied for the maturation of red wines as an alternative to barrel aging. The proposed improvements in wine quality arising from MOX include color stabilization, removal of unwanted off-odors, and improvements in wine mouthfeel. In this review, an outline is provided of oxygenation systems, particularly microbullage and polymer membrane delivery, and of the current understanding of wine oxidation processes. A summary of the results from published studies into red wine MOX is then provided, beginning with observations on O(2) and acetaldehyde accumulation, and the moderating effect of added sulfur dioxide. Effects upon red wine color, particularly the more rapid formation of polymeric pigments and higher color retention, have been consistently demonstrated in MOX studies, along with further effects on specific polyphenol compounds. A few reports have recently examined the effect of MOX on red wine aromas, but these have yet to identify compounds that consistently change in a manner that would explain sensory observations regarding a lowering of herbaceous and reductive odors. Likewise, tannin analyses have been undertaken in several studies, but explanations of the decline in wine astringency remain to be developed. The accelerated growth of unwanted microorganisms has also been examined in a limited number of studies, but no major problems have been identified in this area. PMID:21092904

  4. Product design - Molecules, devices, functional products, and formulated products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, Ka M.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical product design is a multidisciplinary and diverse subject. This article provides an overview of product design while focusing on product conceptualization. Four product types are considered - molecular products, formulated products, devices and functional products. For molecular products, computer-aided design tools are used to predict the physicochemical properties of single molecules and blends. For formulated products, an integrated experiment-modeling approach is used to generate the formula with the specified product attributes. For devices and functional products, conceptual product design is carried out by modeling the product based on thermodynamics, kinetics and transport processes, by performing experiments, and by decision making based on rule-based methods The results are product specifications in terms of the type of ingredients, composition, and the structure, form, shape or configuration of the product.

  5. Bottom production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations

  6. Bottom production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  7. Novolak Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Hiroshi

    Novolak resins are produced by reacting formaldehyde (30-55% concentration) with phenol under acidic conditions, with oxalic acid as the preferred catalyst and in special conditions, sulfuric acid. Depending on the batch size, all raw material components can be introduced into the reactor, or when there is an increase in the batch size as well as in the reactor volume, the reaction exotherm is controlled by a gradual addition of formaldehyde. Modern novolak production facilities are automated and programmed for reduced operational cost. A flow diagram of a general production line for the manufacture of novolak is shown. Recovery of the novolak is accomplished by the removal of water and devolatilization of crude novolak to molten, low-free phenol novolak resin which can be isolated as flake or pastille or dissolved in appropriate solvents. Novolak is stored either in a solid flake or pastille form or in solution. Most production is conducted under atmospheric conditions, but there are some recent, novel activities such as pressure in a hermetically-closed reactor reaching 0.1-10 MPa by using the heat of reaction without reflux to shorten reaction time, accelerating dehydration time by flash distillation, and providing economic benefit in the cost of novolak production.

  8. Product liability

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    In these days of increasing legal actions against the medical profession, it is important for doctors to take heed of new regulations which affect the practice of medicine. The new Consumer Protection Act of 1987 covers product liability. This chapter stresses the importance for doctors of following the guidelines already laid down by the profession.

  9. Phenotypic identification and technological attributes of native lactic acid bacteria present in fermented bamboo shoot products from North-East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonar, Nitin R; Halami, Prakash M

    2014-12-01

    Fermented bamboo shoots such as Soibum, Soidon, Eup, Hirring, Hecche and Ekung etc. are non-salted acidic products obtained by natural fermentation predominantly with lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we have characterized 11-representative LAB that includes, Lactobacillus sp. (n?=?2), Lactobacillus plantarum (n?=?3), and one each of Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus sp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus curvatus, Leuconostoc sp. and Lactobacillus xylosus. Subsequently, these cultures were studied for their technological and functional properties. Different isolates exhibited variation in their activities. L. brevis showed maximum phytic acid degradation ability (19.33 U ml (-1) ). L. xylosus had highest protease activity (64.2 nmol/ml) and also exhibited lipolytic activity. In addition, degree of cell hydrophobicity among these cultures ranged between 12.5 and 93.48 % with L. plantarum (SM2) showing highest degree of activity. Lactobacillus plantarum was the most common species found in the product studied. Results indicated that most of the LABs showed putative probiotic as well as antagonistic properties against the selected pathogenic bacteria. Characteristic aroma, flavour and texture in the fermented bamboo shoot products could be attributed to presence of these new LAB isolates. PMID:25477695

  10. Lepton Production

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    *Participation in Soft Photon Study .ce HELIOS Collaboration This experiment aims to settle open questions in the hadronic production of electrons, muons and neutrinos. Prominent among these are e/@m universality, the contribution of charm decay to lepton pair production, and the ``anomalous'' low mass pairs.\\\\ \\\\ The experimental design aims to optimize the combination of: .point begin electron identification .point muon identification .point missing energy measurement for neutrinos .point vertex identification (for @t @= @t^c^h^a^r^m). .point end \\\\ \\\\ The major components of the apparatus are shown in the figure. In the vertex region a proton beam of transverse size @=50~@m impinges on a beryllium target of diameter 50~@m, and high precision tracking in the vertex region is achieved by silicon strip detectors. Charged particle momenta are measured using a dipole magnet and high resolution drift chambers. Electrons are identified by the combination of the transition radiation detector and the finely segment...

  11. Diboson production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans D.L.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of diboson production cross sections in pp collisions at the LHC at a centre of mass energy ?s = 7 and 8 TeV, and in pp? collisions at the Tevatron at ?s = 1.96 TeV are reviewed and compared with standard model predictions. Limits on charged and neutral anomalous triple gauge couplings extracted from the selected diboson event samples are also compared.

  12. Perfil aromático e qualidade química da carne de caprinos Saanen alimentados com diferentes níveis de concentrado Aroma profile and chemical quality of goat Saanen meat fed with different levels of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Suely Madruga

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do nível de concentrado na dieta sobre a qualidade da carne de caprinos machos Saanen não-castrados. Foram utilizados 15 cabritos com peso vivo inicial de 16 ± 0,3 kg e 4 meses de idade alimentados com dietas formuladas com 80, 65 ou 50% de concentrado até que atingissem 22 kg de peso vivo médio final. As rações foram formuladas para promover ganho de peso de 150 g/animal/dia. Nas 15 paletas caprinas, foram avaliados a composição centesimal, a cor, a textura, o pH, o perfil lipídico e o perfil de componentes voláteis. Os níveis de concentrado e volumoso utilizados na alimentação dos caprinos Saanen não influenciaram os parâmetros químicos e físico-químicos de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, colesterol, fosfolipídios, pH, Aw, a*, b*, L* da carne. No entanto, a concentração de gordura, os percentuais de ácidos graxos insaturados (mono e poli e a textura da carne diferiram significativamente entre os níveis de concentrado usados. Tanto na análise qualitativa quanto na quantitativa de componentes voláteis, o extrato da carne de caprinos alimentados com 50% de concentrado apresentou melhor qualidade aromática. A relação 50:50 volumoso:concentrado foi a mais viável para a alimentação de caprinos machos Saanen para abate aos 22 kg de peso vivo, considerando os aspectos de redução de custo e qualidade química e aromática da carne caprina produzida.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the levels concentrate of the diet on meat quality of no castrated male kid Saanen goats. Fifteen male goat with initial 16 ± 0.3 kg BW and four months old were fed diets formulated with 80, 65 e 50 of concentrate up to the animals reached a final a 22 kg BW. The rations were formulated to promote a weight gain of 150g/anim.day. Centesimal composition, colour, texture, lipid and volatile components profile were evaluated in fifteen goat shoulders. The concentrate and forage levels used in the feeding of male kid Saanen goats did not influenced the chemical and physical-chemical parameters of humidity, ashes, proteins, cholesterol, phospholipids, pH, Aw, a*, b*, L* of goat meat. However, the concentration of fat, the percentages of unsaturated fatty acid (mono and poly and the texture of meat were affected by the used concentrate levels. In both qualitative and quantitative of volatile components analysis, the extract of the goat meat fed with 50% of concentrate showed better aromatic quality. The use of 50:50 forage to concentre ratio was most viable for the feeding male kid Saanen goats slaughtered at 22 kg BW, considering both the aspects of reducing cost of production and chemical and aromatic quality of the produced goat meat.

  13. Perfil aromático e qualidade química da carne de caprinos Saanen alimentados com diferentes níveis de concentrado / Aroma profile and chemical quality of goat Saanen meat fed with different levels of concentrate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta Suely, Madruga; Mércia de Sousa, Galvão; Roberto Germano, Costa; Sandra Elisabeth Santiago, Beltrão; Neube Michel dos, Santos; Fernanda Monteiro de, Carvalho; Vaneska Delgado, Viaro.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do nível de concentrado na dieta sobre a qualidade da carne de caprinos machos Saanen não-castrados. Foram utilizados 15 cabritos com peso vivo inicial de 16 ± 0,3 kg e 4 meses de idade alimentados com dietas formuladas com 80, 65 ou 50% de concentrado [...] até que atingissem 22 kg de peso vivo médio final. As rações foram formuladas para promover ganho de peso de 150 g/animal/dia. Nas 15 paletas caprinas, foram avaliados a composição centesimal, a cor, a textura, o pH, o perfil lipídico e o perfil de componentes voláteis. Os níveis de concentrado e volumoso utilizados na alimentação dos caprinos Saanen não influenciaram os parâmetros químicos e físico-químicos de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, colesterol, fosfolipídios, pH, Aw, a*, b*, L* da carne. No entanto, a concentração de gordura, os percentuais de ácidos graxos insaturados (mono e poli) e a textura da carne diferiram significativamente entre os níveis de concentrado usados. Tanto na análise qualitativa quanto na quantitativa de componentes voláteis, o extrato da carne de caprinos alimentados com 50% de concentrado apresentou melhor qualidade aromática. A relação 50:50 volumoso:concentrado foi a mais viável para a alimentação de caprinos machos Saanen para abate aos 22 kg de peso vivo, considerando os aspectos de redução de custo e qualidade química e aromática da carne caprina produzida. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the levels concentrate of the diet on meat quality of no castrated male kid Saanen goats. Fifteen male goat with initial 16 ± 0.3 kg BW and four months old were fed diets formulated with 80, 65 e 50 of concentrate up to the animals reached a f [...] inal a 22 kg BW. The rations were formulated to promote a weight gain of 150g/anim.day. Centesimal composition, colour, texture, lipid and volatile components profile were evaluated in fifteen goat shoulders. The concentrate and forage levels used in the feeding of male kid Saanen goats did not influenced the chemical and physical-chemical parameters of humidity, ashes, proteins, cholesterol, phospholipids, pH, Aw, a*, b*, L* of goat meat. However, the concentration of fat, the percentages of unsaturated fatty acid (mono and poly) and the texture of meat were affected by the used concentrate levels. In both qualitative and quantitative of volatile components analysis, the extract of the goat meat fed with 50% of concentrate showed better aromatic quality. The use of 50:50 forage to concentre ratio was most viable for the feeding male kid Saanen goats slaughtered at 22 kg BW, considering both the aspects of reducing cost of production and chemical and aromatic quality of the produced goat meat.

  14. Production of sensory compounds by means of the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis in different nitrogen sources with the prospect of producing cachaça.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Parente, Denise; Vidal, Esteban Espinosa; Leite, Fernanda Cristina Bezerra; de Barros Pita, Will; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The distilled spirit made from sugar cane juice, also known as cachaça, is a traditional Brazilian beverage that in recent years has increased its market share among international distilled beverages. Several volatile compounds produced by yeast cells during the fermentation process are responsible for the unique taste and aroma of this drink. The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has acquired increasing importance in the fermented beverage production, as the different metabolites produced by this yeast may be either beneficial or harmful to the end-product. Since D. bruxellensis is often found in the fermentation processes carried out in ethanol fuel distillation in Brazil, we employed this yeast to analyse the physiological profile and production of aromatic compounds and to examine whether it is feasible to regard it as a cachaça-producing microorganism. The assays were performed on a small scale and simulated the conditions for the production of handmade cachaça. The results showed that the presence of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids in the medium has a strong influence on the metabolism and production of flavours by D. bruxellensis. The assimilation of these alternative nitrogen sources led to different fermentation yields and the production of flavouring compounds. The influence of the nitrogen source on the metabolism of fusel alcohols and esters in D. bruxellensis highlights the need for further studies of the nitrogen requirements to obtain the desired level of sensory compounds in the fermentation. Our results suggest that D. bruxellensis has the potential to play a role in the production of cachaça. PMID:25345668

  15. D-meson production by muons in the COMPASS experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the physics goals of the COMPASS experiment at CERN was to measure the contribution of gluons to the nucleon spin. To achieve this, it was proposed to scatter polarized 160 GeV/c muons on a polarized deuteron target and to detect D mesons in the final state. The underlying process in this D meson production is supposed to be the Photon-Gluon Fusion (PGF), where a virtual photon emitted by the muon interacts with a gluon from the target nucleon, producing a charm-anticharm quark pair. Fragmentation of a charm (anticharm) quark leads with high probability to the creation of a D0 or D* meson, which COMPASS detects via the D0?K? and D*?D0??K?? decay modes. From the longitudinal cross section spin asymmetries of the D meson production and theoretical predictions for the PGF cross section, the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin has been measured by the COMPASS experiment. The results presented in the thesis are the following. Based on data from the year 2004 a total visible cross section of 1.8±0.4 nb, for the D* meson production, has been measured, with the error being dominated by systematic effects. It is validated that the D mesons are indeed produced through the PGF process, by comparison of measured D meson kinematic distributions to the ones predicted by a theory (AROMA generator). A good agreement was found for the distribution shapes, which confirms that PGF plays a major role. However, a 20% difference was found in the number of produced D0 and D0 mesons (and for the D*+ and D*- mesons as well) which is significantly larger than predicted by AROMA. Kinematic distributions of D0 and D* mesons were compared with the background and also with the nearby K*2(1430)0 resonance, using all longitudinal data taken in 2002-2006. The particle-antiparticle asymmetry has been studied as a function of several kinematic variables. The 20% excess of mesons decaying into K+?- over mesons decaying into K-?+ was observed for all three mesons. The behavior of the D0/D0 (and D*+/D*-) asymmetries as a function of virtual photon energy suggests that associated production of D*-?+c or D0?+c may be responsible for the observed effect. The longitudinal double spin asymmetries have been studied for the D0, D* and K*2(1430)0 mesons separately for particle, antiparticle and for the sum of particle and antiparticle. It was found that the asymmetries extracted for D0 and D* mesons are compatible with zero. A 3-sigma deviation from zero asymmetry was observed for the K*2(1430)0 meson. An investigation of the K*2(1430)0 double spin asymmetry reveals a dependence as function of the Bjorken xBj variable. (orig.)

  16. D-meson production by muons in the COMPASS experiment at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvyagin, Alexander

    2011-01-21

    One of the physics goals of the COMPASS experiment at CERN was to measure the contribution of gluons to the nucleon spin. To achieve this, it was proposed to scatter polarized 160 GeV/c muons on a polarized deuteron target and to detect D mesons in the final state. The underlying process in this D meson production is supposed to be the Photon-Gluon Fusion (PGF), where a virtual photon emitted by the muon interacts with a gluon from the target nucleon, producing a charm-anticharm quark pair. Fragmentation of a charm (anticharm) quark leads with high probability to the creation of a D{sup 0} or D{sup *} meson, which COMPASS detects via the D{sup 0}{yields}K{pi} and D{sup *}{yields}D{sup 0}{pi}{yields}K{pi}{pi} decay modes. From the longitudinal cross section spin asymmetries of the D meson production and theoretical predictions for the PGF cross section, the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin has been measured by the COMPASS experiment. The results presented in the thesis are the following. Based on data from the year 2004 a total visible cross section of 1.8{+-}0.4 nb, for the D{sup *} meson production, has been measured, with the error being dominated by systematic effects. It is validated that the D mesons are indeed produced through the PGF process, by comparison of measured D meson kinematic distributions to the ones predicted by a theory (AROMA generator). A good agreement was found for the distribution shapes, which confirms that PGF plays a major role. However, a 20% difference was found in the number of produced D{sup 0} and D{sup 0} mesons (and for the D{sup *+} and D{sup *-} mesons as well) which is significantly larger than predicted by AROMA. Kinematic distributions of D{sup 0} and D{sup *} mesons were compared with the background and also with the nearby K{sup *}{sub 2}(1430){sup 0} resonance, using all longitudinal data taken in 2002-2006. The particle-antiparticle asymmetry has been studied as a function of several kinematic variables. The 20% excess of mesons decaying into K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} over mesons decaying into K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} was observed for all three mesons. The behavior of the D{sup 0}/D{sup 0} (and D{sup *+}/D{sup *-}) asymmetries as a function of virtual photon energy suggests that associated production of D{sup *-}{lambda}{sup +}{sub c} or D{sup 0}{lambda}{sup +}{sub c} may be responsible for the observed effect. The longitudinal double spin asymmetries have been studied for the D{sup 0}, D{sup *} and K{sup *}{sub 2}(1430){sup 0} mesons separately for particle, antiparticle and for the sum of particle and antiparticle. It was found that the asymmetries extracted for D{sup 0} and D{sup *} mesons are compatible with zero. A 3-sigma deviation from zero asymmetry was observed for the K{sup *}{sub 2}(1430){sup 0} meson. An investigation of the K{sup *}{sub 2}(1430){sup 0} double spin asymmetry reveals a dependence as function of the Bjorken x{sub Bj} variable. (orig.)

  17. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF AMYLASE PRODUCING YEASTS IN ‘TELLA’ (ETHIOPIAN LOCAL BEER AND THEIR AMYLASE CONTRIBUTION FOR ‘TELLA’ PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Andualem

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ‘Tella’ is local beer which is used in most part of Ethiopia. It is made from cereals, such as barley, wheat, maize and other crops. Rhamnus prinoides is also used to provide a special aroma and flavor as well as antiseptic agent. The objective of this study is to determine the contribution of amylases from tella yeast isolates and compare with the role of amylase from malt. House hold ‘tella’ samples were collected and plated on starch agar and then amylase positive isolates of yeast were identified by folding iodine solution over the starch agar. Amylase assay and activities were investigated by standard methods and compared with amylase from malt. According to this study, the activity of amylases which was extracted from yeast isolates was very low and may have no contribution in the conversion of starch into fermentable sugars. Thus, it is better to avoid such organisms from ‘tella’ fermentation in order to discriminate unwanted bio-products. In conclusion, the substrates and ingredients should be sterilized and introduced into the fermentation system aseptically.

  18. Hydrogen production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    César A. C., Sequeira; Diogo M. F., Santos.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Discutem-se processos de obtenção de hidrogénio. Em particular, considera-se a produção electrolítica de hidrogénio em meio aquoso, à escala industrial, e à custa de energia eléctrica renovável (solar, vento, marés, etc.). Fazem-se ainda algumas previsões acerca do armazenamento, transporte e possív [...] eis aplicações do hidrogénio electrolítico. Abstract in english Possible means of producing hydrogen are discussed. Emphasis is given on the electrolytic hydrogen production from water electrolysis, at large scale, via the use of renewable electricity (solar, wind, tidal, etc.). Its storage, transport and possible end-uses are also considered. [...

  19. Resonance Production

    OpenAIRE

    Fachini, P.

    2004-01-01

    Recent results on rho(770)^0, K(892)^*0, f_0(980), phi(1020), Delta(1232)^++, and Lambda(1520) production in A+A and p+p collisions at SPS and RHIC energies are presented. These resonances are measured via their hadronic decay channels and used as a sensitive tool to examine the collision dynamics in the hadronic medium through their decay and regeneration. The modification of resonance mass, width, and shape due to phase space and dynamical effects are discussed.

  20. Productivity Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Acemoglu, Daron; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    1998-01-01

    Many technologies used by the LDCs are developed in the OECD economies, and as such, are designed to make optimal use of the skills of these richer countries' workforces. Due to differences in the supply of skills, some of the tasks performed by skilled workers in the OECD economies will be carried out by unskilled workers in the LDCs. Since the technologies in these tasks are designed to be used by skilled workers, productivity in the LDCs will be low. Even when all countries have equal acce...

  1. Study of the optimal production process and application of apple fruit (malus domestica (l.) borkh) fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In orchard production, fruit abscission is common due to insect damage, disease, crop thinning and natural dropping. However, the utilization of these discarded plant resources has received little research attention. In this study, we used apple fruit from such plant resources, mainly young and mature dropped fruit, as materials and mixed them with a fermentation agent, brown sugar and water. The effects of the proportion of fermentation agent and the fermentation conditions (O2, temperature, fermenting time and fruit crushing degree) were studied using an orthogonal experimental design. We discovered a novel fermented fertilizer, apple fruit fermentation nutrient solution (AFF), for which the optimal fermentation formula and conditions were comminuted young apples: fermentation agent: brown sugar: water weight ratio of 5:0.1:1:4 and 45 days of aerobic fermentation. Analysis of the fermentation solutions showed that the supernatant obtained using these optimized parameters had the highest mineral element content among the fermentation formulas and conditions studied. The results of a spraying experiment with 200-, 500- and 800-fold dilutions showed that AFF significantly promoted the net photosynthetic rate, leaf area and thickness, specific leaf weight, and chlorophyll and mineral element content in the leaves of young apple trees relative to the control treatment. The effects of 200-fold diluted AFF on the photosynthetic rate, the developmental quality and mineral element contents were greater than those of the 500- and 800-fold dilutions. The results of the spraying of adult trees with 200-fold diluted AFF compared to a water control demonstrated that AFF significantly enhanced the average weight of a single fruit, the shape index, hardness, content of soluble solids, titratable acid content, vitamin C content, and aroma compound content of the fruit of the adult trees. This evidence suggests that the AFF obtained using the optimal production process could effectively improve the vegetative growth and fruit quality of apple trees. (author)

  2. Production of Dietetic Jam of Umbu-Caja (Spondias sp.: Physical, Physicochemical and Sensorial Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia de Oliveira Mamede

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The umbucajazeira is specie native to the Brazilian Northeast semiarid areas, which is economically explored based on the fruit. The fruit has a high agroindustrial potential, mainly for jam production. The aim of this study was to evaluate through sensorial analysis, two formulations of umbu-caja jams: a dietetic one with xylitol, used as an option for substitution of the sugars, and a conventional one. The proportion of 50:50:0.5 (pulp/sugar/pectin or pulp/xylitol/pectin was used for jam processing. The mixture was concentrated up to reach 65°Brix. The jams were evaluated by 50 non-trained tasters, through a hedonic scale of nine points, whereas the following attributes were used: appearance, color, flavor, aroma and texture. The results of the physical and physicochemical analysis showed that the characteristics of jams prepared with sucrose are close to the ones made with xylitol, except for the total sugars and the energetic value. The jams had pH values ranging between 2.37 and 2.92; titratable acidity varying between 0.56 and 0.78 g citric acid/100 g pulp; soluble solids ranging between 60.92°and 65.08°Brix, respectively. A tendency for yellow color was noticed by the color analysis. Jam diet had the highest scores for appearance (7.4 - 7.7. No significant differences (p > 0.05 were obtained to flavor and texture. The fruit of the umbucajazeira showed to be adequate for jam manufature since they had good sensorial acceptance. The use of xylitol was satisfactory for obtaining a product with jam characteristics similar to the conventional jam, but with lower energetic value.

  3. Produção e qualidade de frutos de clones de videira 'Concord' sobre diferentes porta-enxertos / Production and quality of 'Concord' clones of grapevine fruits on different rootstocks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério de Sá, Borges; Sergio Ruffo, Roberto; Fabio, Yamashita; Adriane Marinho de, Assis; Lilian Yukari, Yamamotoi.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as tradicionais cultivares utilizadas na elaboração de suco de uva, a 'Concord' tem se destacado pelo bom aroma e sabor que confere ao suco. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a produção e qualidade dos frutos de seis clones de videira 'Concord'('22', '28', '49', '202', '211'e '225'), sobre três [...] portaenxertos ('IAC 766', 'IAC 572' e '420-A'). O experimento foi realizado em Rolândia (PR), em esquema fatorial 6x3 (clones x porta-enxertos), em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições e parcelas subdivididas em duas safras (2009/2010 e 2010/2011). As plantas foram conduzidas em sistema de pérgula, no espaçamento de 4,0 m x 2,0 m. O clone '22' sobre o 'IAC 766' destacou-se com médias superiores de produção, produtividade e número de cachos por planta, bem como menor acidez titulável (AT). O clone '211' sobre o 'IAC 572' apresentou menor AT e médias superiores para número de cachos por planta, teor de sólidos solúveis (SS) e relação SS/AT. O porta-enxerto '420-A' proporcionou aos clones de 'Concord' maiores teores de SS e maior relação SS/AT. Abstract in english Among the varieties traditionally used in the grape juice industry, the 'Concord' cultivar has distinguished itself by the good aroma and flavor that it provides to the juice. This study aimed to evaluate the production and quality of six 'Concord' clones of grapevine fruits ('22', '28', '49', '202' [...] , '211'and '225') on three rootstocks ('IAC 766', 'IAC 572' and '420-A'). The experiment was carried out in Rolândia, Paraná State, Brazil, in a 6x3 factorial scheme (clones x rootstocks), in a completely randomized design, with five replications and split-plots, in two growing seasons (2009/2010 and 2010/2011). Plants were trained in a trellis system spaced at 4.0 m x 2.0 m. The '22' clone on 'IAC 766' presented higher means for production, yield and number of bunches per plant, as well as lower titratable acidity (TA). The '211' clone on 'IAC 572' presented lower TA and higher means for number of bunches per plant, soluble solids (SS) and SS/TA ratio. The '420-A' rootstock provided a higher SS and SS/TA ratio to the 'Concord' clones.

  4. Production of 6-pentyl-?-pyrone by trichoderma harzianum in solid-state fermentation / Produção de 6-pentil-?-pirona por Trichoderma harzianum em fermentação em estado sólido

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline de Souza, Ramos; Sorele Batista, Fiaux; Selma Gomes Ferreira, Leite.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Muitas espécies do gênero Trichoderma são capazes de produzir a substância 6-pentil-?-pirona (6-PP), uma lactona com aroma característico de coco. No presente trabalho, vários parâmetros de cultura foram estudados para aumentar a produção de 6-PP por Trichoderma harzianum 4040 em fermentação em esta [...] do sólido. Pó da casca de coco verde adicionado à uma solução nutriente foi usado como material de suporte para a fermentação. Um planejamento experimental de varredura segundo a técnica de Plackett-Burman foi aplicado, seguido de um planejamento fatorial fracionário. No domínio experimental estudado, as melhores condições de cultura foram (100 g suporte)-1: sacarose, 3 g; NaNO3, 0,24 g; (NH4)2SO4, 0,18 g; KH2PO4, 0,1 g; produção do inóculo, 2,2 x 10(6) esporos; umidade, 55%. A temperatura estabelecida foi de 28ºC. Esse estudo conduziu à concentração de 6-PP seis vezes maior (5,0 mg/g de matéria seca) do que a inicial (0,8 mg/g de matéria seca) após sete dias de cultivo. Abstract in english Many Trichoderma species are able to produce 6-pentyl-?-pyrone (6-PP), a lactone with coconut-like aroma. In the present work, several culture parameters were studied to enhance the production of 6-PP by Trichoderma harzianum 4040 in solid-state fermentation. Green coir powder added to a nutrient so [...] lution was used as support material for fermentation. A Plackett-Burman screening technique was applied, followed by a fractionary factorial design. The best culture conditions within the experimental domain studied were (100 g support)-1: sucrose, 3 g; NaNO3, 0.24 g; (NH4)2SO4, 0.18 g; KH2PO4, 0.1 g; inoculum concentration, 2.2 x 10(6) spores; moisture level, 55%. The temperature established was 28ºC. The fermentation under the selected conditions led to a 6-PP production six times higher (5.0 mg/g dry matter) than the initial one (0.8 mg/g dry matter) after seven days of cultivation.

  5. Production of 6-pentyl-?-pyrone by trichoderma harzianum in solid-state fermentation Produção de 6-pentil-?-pirona por Trichoderma harzianum em fermentação em estado sólido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Souza Ramos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Many Trichoderma species are able to produce 6-pentyl-?-pyrone (6-PP, a lactone with coconut-like aroma. In the present work, several culture parameters were studied to enhance the production of 6-PP by Trichoderma harzianum 4040 in solid-state fermentation. Green coir powder added to a nutrient solution was used as support material for fermentation. A Plackett-Burman screening technique was applied, followed by a fractionary factorial design. The best culture conditions within the experimental domain studied were (100 g support-1: sucrose, 3 g; NaNO3, 0.24 g; (NH42SO4, 0.18 g; KH2PO4, 0.1 g; inoculum concentration, 2.2 x 10(6 spores; moisture level, 55%. The temperature established was 28ºC. The fermentation under the selected conditions led to a 6-PP production six times higher (5.0 mg/g dry matter than the initial one (0.8 mg/g dry matter after seven days of cultivation.Muitas espécies do gênero Trichoderma são capazes de produzir a substância 6-pentil-?-pirona (6-PP, uma lactona com aroma característico de coco. No presente trabalho, vários parâmetros de cultura foram estudados para aumentar a produção de 6-PP por Trichoderma harzianum 4040 em fermentação em estado sólido. Pó da casca de coco verde adicionado à uma solução nutriente foi usado como material de suporte para a fermentação. Um planejamento experimental de varredura segundo a técnica de Plackett-Burman foi aplicado, seguido de um planejamento fatorial fracionário. No domínio experimental estudado, as melhores condições de cultura foram (100 g suporte-1: sacarose, 3 g; NaNO3, 0,24 g; (NH42SO4, 0,18 g; KH2PO4, 0,1 g; produção do inóculo, 2,2 x 10(6 esporos; umidade, 55%. A temperatura estabelecida foi de 28ºC. Esse estudo conduziu à concentração de 6-PP seis vezes maior (5,0 mg/g de matéria seca do que a inicial (0,8 mg/g de matéria seca após sete dias de cultivo.

  6. Changes in the physicochemical characteristics, including flavour components and Maillard reaction products, of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikin, Yonathan; Kamiya, Asahiro; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji

    2014-04-15

    Changes in the quality attributes of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar represented by physicochemical characteristics as well as flavour components and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were monitored every 3 months over 1 year of storage. Stored cane brown sugar became darker, and its moisture content and water activity (a(w)) increased during storage. Fructose and glucose levels decreased as non-enzymatic browning via the Maillard reaction occurred in the stored sample, and a similar trend was also discovered in aconitic and acetic acids. Stored cane brown sugar lost its acidic and sulfuric odours (58.70-39.35% and 1.85-0.08%, respectively); subsequently, the nutty and roasted aroma increased from 26.52% to 38.59% due to the volatile MRPs. The browning rate of stored cane brown sugar was positively associated with the development of volatile MRPs (Pearson's coefficient = 0.860), whereas the amount of 3-deoxyglucosone, an intermediate product of the Maillard reaction, had a lower association with the brown colour due to its relatively slow degradation rate. PMID:24295691

  7. Relation between coumarate decarboxylase and vinylphenol reductase activity with regard to the production of volatile phenols by native Dekkera bruxellensis strains under 'wine-like' conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, M E; Assof, M; Fanzone, M; Martinez, C; Ganga, M A; Jofré, V; Ramirez, M L; Combina, M

    2015-08-01

    Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis is considered a major cause of wine spoilage, and 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol are the most abundant off-aromas produced by this species. They are produced by decarboxylation of the corresponding hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs), followed by a reduction of the intermediate 4-vinylphenols. The aim of the present study was to examine coumarate decarboxylase (CD) and vinylphenol reductase (VR) enzyme activities in 5 native D. bruxellensis strains and determine their relation with the production of ethylphenols under 'wine-like' conditions. In addition, biomass, cell culturability, carbon source utilization and organic acids were monitored during 60days. All strains assayed turned out to have both enzyme activities. No significant differences were found in CD activity, whilst VR activity was variable among the strains. Growth of D. bruxellensis under 'wine-like' conditions showed two growth phases. Sugars were completely consumed during the first growth phase. Transformation of HCAs into ethylphenols also occurred during active growth of the yeast. No statistical differences were observed in volatile phenol levels produced by the strains growing under 'wine-like' conditions, independently of the enzyme activity previously recorded. Furthermore, our results demonstrate a relationship between the physiological state of D. bruxellensis and its ability to produce ethylphenols. Inhibition of growth of D. bruxellensis in wine seems to be the most efficient way to avoid ethylphenol production and the consequent loss of wine quality. PMID:25955288

  8. Structures of storage-induced transformation products of the beer's bitter principles, revealed by sophisticated NMR spectroscopic and LC-MS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intelmann, Daniel; Kummerlöwe, Grit; Haseleu, Gesa; Desmer, Nina; Schulze, Kerstin; Fröhlich, Roland; Frank, Oliver; Luy, Burkhard; Hofmann, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Besides undesirable changes in the attractive aroma, a significant decrease in the intensity of the bitterness as well as a change of the taste into a lingering, harsh bitterness has long been known as a shelf-life limiting factor of beer. Multiple studies have demonstrated that the aging of beer induces a decrease of the total amount of cis- and trans-iso-alpha-acids, the well-known bitter principles of beer. Although the trans-iso-alpha-acids exclusively, not the cis-iso-alpha-acids, were found to be degraded upon storage of beer, the key transformation products formed exclusively from the trans isomers in beer are not known. In the present study, suitable model experiments followed by LC-MS/MS and sophisticated NMR spectroscopic experiments, including the measurement of residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) in gel-based alignment media as well as a novel broadband and B(1)-field-compensated incredible natural abundance double-quantum transfer experiment (INADEQUATE) pulse sequence, enabled the identification of a series of previously unknown trans-specific iso-alpha-acid transformation products, namely, tricyclocohumol, tricyclocohumene, isotricyclocohumene, tetracyclocohumol, and epitetracyclocohumol, respectively. HPLC-MS/MS analysis of these compounds, which exhibit the aforementioned harsh lingering bitter taste and have threshold concentrations ranging from 5 to 70 micromol L(-1), confirmed their generation during aging of beer and, for the first time, explained the storage-induced changes of the beer's bitter taste on a molecular level. PMID:19876978

  9. Sensorially important aldehyde production from amino acids in model wine systems: impact of ascorbic acid, erythorbic acid, glutathione and sulphur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant-Preece, Paris; Fang, Hongjuan; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Clark, Andrew C

    2013-11-01

    The efficiency of different white wine antioxidant systems in preventing aldehyde production from amino acids by oxidative processes is not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of sulphur dioxide alone and in combination with either glutathione, ascorbic acid or its stereoisomer erythorbic acid, in preventing formation of the sensorially important compounds methional and phenylacetaldehyde from methionine and phenylalanine in model white wine. UHPLC, GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS, flow injection analysis and luminescence sensors determined both compositional changes during storage, and sulphur dioxide-aldehyde apparent equilibrium constants. Depending on temperature (25 or 45°C) or extent of oxygen supply, sulphur dioxide was equally or more efficient in impeding the production of methional compared to the other antioxidant systems. For phenylacetaldehyde, erythorbic acid or glutathione with sulphur dioxide provided improved inhibition compared to sulphur dioxide alone, in conditions of limited oxygen consumption. The results also demonstrate the extent to which sulphur dioxide addition can lower the free aldehyde concentrations to below their aroma thresholds. PMID:23768362

  10. Thctf1 transcription factor of Trichoderma harzianum is involved in 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one production and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, M Belén; Hermosa, Rosa; Reino, José Luis; Collado, Isidro G; Monte, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    We describe the cloning and characterization of the Trichoderma harzianum Thctf1 gene, which shows high sequence identity with a transcription factor gene of Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi. In T. harzianum, disruption of the Thctf1 gene by homologous recombination gave rise to transformants that in plate experiments did not show the yellow pigmentation observed in the wild-type strain. In several Trichoderma spp. a yellow pigmentation and a coconut aroma have been related to the production of 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (6PP) compounds. Prompted by this, we explored whether the loss of pigmentation in the Thctf1 null mutants of T. harzianum might be related to the synthesis of 6PP. Chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses revealed that the disruptants did not produce two secondary metabolites, derived from 6PP and not previously described in the Trichoderma genus, that are present in wild-type culture filtrates. Since 6PP is a recognized antifungal compound, this ability was analyzed in both the disruptants and wild-type, observing that the Thctf1 null mutants of T. harzianum had reduced antimicrobial capacity. Our results point to the significant role of THCTF1 in the production of secondary metabolites and in the antifungal activity of T. harzianum. PMID:19007898

  11. Variability in the release of free and bound hydroxycinnamic acids from diverse malted barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars during wort production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbeneden, Nele; Gils, Frederik; Delvaux, Filip; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2007-12-26

    Volatile phenols have long been recognized as important flavor contributors to the aroma of various alcoholic beverages. The two main flavor-active volatile phenols in beer are 4-vinylguaiacol and 4-vinylphenol. They are the decarboxylation products of the precursors ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, respectively, which are released during the brewing process, mainly from malt. In this study, the variability in the release of free and ester-bound hydroxycinnamic acids from nine malted barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties during wort production was investigated. A large variability between different barley malts and their corresponding worts was observed. Differences were also found between free ferulic acid levels from identical malt varieties originating from different malt houses. During mashing, free hydroxycinnamic acids in wort are both water-extracted and enzymatically released by cinnamoyl esterase activity. Esterase activities clearly differ between different barley malt varieties. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the release of ferulic acid during mashing did not depend only on the barley malt esterase activity but also on the amount of ester-bound ferulic acid initially present in the wort and on its endoxylanase activity. The study demonstrates the importance of selecting a suitable malt variety as the first means of controlling the final volatile phenol levels in beer. PMID:18038991

  12. On Demand Product Development Customized For Production

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Shahriare

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate intention of this thesis was to analyze the present product development and production process at the client organization and to develop methods to improve the agility of the product development and production process. Thus the organization can be ready for on demand product development and corresponding customization in production by maintaining enough agility. The overall study will help the organization to comprehend the present process improvement potentials and guideline to ...

  13. Toric fiber products versus Segre products

    OpenAIRE

    Kahle, Thomas; Rauh, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The toric fiber product is an operation that combines two ideals that are homogeneous with respect to a grading by an affine monoid. The Segre product is a related construction that combines two multigraded rings. The quotient ring by a toric fiber product of two ideals is a subring of the Segre product, but in general this inclusion is strict. We contrast the two constructions and show that any Segre product can be presented as a toric fiber product without changing the inv...

  14. Niche products, generic products, and consumer search

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    We endogenize product differentiation in a model of sequential search with random firm-consumer match value à la Wolinsky (1986) and Anderson and Renault (1999). We focus on a product design choice by which a firm can control the dispersion of consumer valuations for its product; we interpret low dispersion products as ‘generic’ and high dispersion products as ‘nichy.’ Equilibrium product design depends on a feedback loop: when reservation utility is high (low), the marginal customer...

  15. Distribution of aroma volatiles in a population of tangerine hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    While orange juice volatile composition has been well studied, little is known about volatiles in tangerines. This study was undertaken to determine the most common compounds present in 45 tangerine hybrids, and to find relationships among these hybrids based on volatile content. Fruits were harve...

  16. Investigation of Anticancer and Antiviral Properties of Selected Aroma Samples.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ryabchenko, B.; Tulupová, Elena; Schmidt, E.; Wlcek, K.; Buchbauer, G.; Jirovetz, L.

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 3, ?. 7 (2008), s. 1085-1088. ISSN 1934-578X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : Anti viral * Anti cancer * Cytotoxicity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.766, year: 2008

  17. Aroma extract dilution analysis. Precision and optimal experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vicente; Pet'ka, Ján; Aznar, Margarita

    2002-03-13

    The odor thresholds of 12 different compounds have been determined in an AEDA experiment using a panel composed of 8 individuals. Only in one case is the distribution of thresholds among judges significantly different from the log-normal. The cause of that departure from normality seems to be a cross adaptation rather than anosmia. The standard deviations (SD) range from 2(0.7) to 2(4.1), with 2(1.8) as average. If the AEDA is carried out at a dilution rate, R, and dilution R(P) (where P = 0, 1, 2.) is the last one at which a compound was detected by a judge, the flavor dilution (FD) factor that should be provided for that judge is R(P+0.5). In the case where several judges carry out the AEDA, the FD for a given compound should be the geometric mean of the FD provided by all the judges. The SD of the distribution of FDs is related to that of the distribution of odor thresholds, but is strongly influenced by the dilution rate, R, being higher with higher R values. The relationship between both SDs can be used to determine the expected precision (measured as the geometric length of the 95% confidence interval) of the result of an AEDA experiment as a function of the dilution rate, the number of judges, and the SD of the distribution of thresholds. Different simulations have shown that in most cases, a dilution rate of 10 is the best option, and that lower dilution rates are advantageous only if the analyzed solution contains compounds with a very narrow distribution of thresholds. PMID:11879029

  18. A Compact and Low Cost Electronic Nose for Aroma Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Gallardo Caballero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explains the development of a prototype of a portable and a very low-cost electronic nose based on an mbed microcontroller. Mbeds are a series of ARM microcontroller development boards designed for fast, flexible and rapid prototyping. The electronic nose is comprised of an mbed, an LCD display, two small pumps, two electro-valves and a sensor chamber with four TGS Figaro gas sensors. The performance of the electronic nose has been tested by measuring the ethanol content of wine synthetic matrices and special attention has been paid to the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurements taken on different days. Results show that the electronic nose with a neural network classifier is able to discriminate wine samples with 10, 12 and 14% V/V alcohol content with a classification error of less than 1%.

  19. Flavour Compounds in Fungi : Flavour Analysis in Ascomycetes and the Contribution of the Ehrlich Pathway to Flavour Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Ashbya gossypii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravasio, Davide Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Fungi produce a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during their primary or secondary metabolism and with a wide range of functions. The main focus of this research work has been put on flavour molecules that are produced during fermentation processes, mainly esters and alcohols derived from the catabolism of amino acids. These compounds are produced by the Ehrlich pathway. The conversion of amino acids into aroma alcohols is accomplished by three enzymatic steps: i) a transamination, ii) a decarboxylation and iii) a dehydration reaction. The transaminase and decarboxylase enzymes are encoded by the ARO gene family which represents a widely conserved set of genes in the Saccharomyces clade. Comparative genomic analysis revealed conservation of these genes also in the riboflavin over producer Ashbya gossypii, a closely related species belonging to the Eremothecium clade. ARO80 is a transcription factor that represents the key regulator of the ARO gene family. The first part of the thesis will unveil the ARO80-dependent regulation of the Ehrlich pathway in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and A. gossypii. Promoter analyses of the ARO genes in S. cerevisiae showed that the ScARO9 promoter region is directly regulated by the ScAro80 transcription factor. This interaction has been used to create a lacZ-reporter system to correlate the formation of two volatile compounds, 2- phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate in yeast with ARO9 expression levels. This indirect genetic assay also provides a tool for the prediction of volatile production in other Saccharomyces sensu stricto species. It can be used to screen a large number of strains for their flavour production within a short time and with low costs and effort. In Ashbya single mutations in the ARO genes led to a strong reduction in volatile production, especially in the amount of isoamyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol. In contrast, the overexpression of the transcriptional regulator AgARO80 did only increase the level of isoamyl alcohol but did not enhance the 2-phenylethanol yield. Promoter analyses of the ARO genes in A. gossypii identified both ARO8 and ARO10 to be activated by Aro80. In this study we further analyzed the aroma profile of another Eremothecium species, Eremothecium cymbalariae. This species lacks most of the ARO genes involved in amino acid catabolism. The only ARO gene present in E. cymbalariae is a homolog of the A. gossypii ARO8a, which is a non-syntenic homolog of ARO8 in yeast. We compared the VOC profiles of both species in order to investigate the consequences of their different gene set up on their flavour profiles. Here we found that in contrast to A. gossypii E. cymbalariae does not produce 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylacetate. The last part of this thesis presents the initial characterization of twenty non-conventional yeasts (NCY) and their potential application in fermentative processes. These strains have been selected as they have been previously isolated from various fermented food sources. This selection of strains was used in fermentations with the aim of identifying new interesting flavour producers. Fermentation profiles, volatile analyses, off-flavour identification and resistance to osmotic/oxidative stress have been addressed to highlight new candidates to use for industrial applications. This resulted in the identification of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Pichia kluyveri as high producers of esters fruity compounds, which contribute to enhance the complexity of wine and beer product. In addition the strain Debaromyces subglobosus showed high yields of aldehydes and fruity ketones, which constitute active aroma compounds in dry cured ham.

  20. SaferProducts API

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — On March 11, 2011, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission launched SaferProducts.gov. This site hosts the agency's new Publicly Available Consumer Product...

  1. FDA 101: Product Recalls

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Archived ... Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol ? - Resources for You ...

  2. Identifying Recalled Products

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For ... Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas ...

  3. Urinary incontinence products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are many products to help you manage urinary incontinence . You can decide which product to choose based ... and dry your skin. WHERE TO BUY URINARY INCONTINENCE PRODUCTS You can find most products at your ...

  4. Use of Optical Oxygen Sensors in Non-Destructively Determining the Levels of Oxygen Present in Combined Vacuum and Modified Atmosphere Packaged Pre-Cooked Convenience-Style Foods and the Use of Ethanol Emitters to Extend Product Shelf-Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas W. Hempel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O2 sensors were used to non-destructively monitor O2 levels in commercially packed pre-cooked, convenience modified atmosphere packaging (MAP foods. A substantial level of O2 (>15% was present in packs resulting in a shorter than expected shelf-life, where the primary spoilage mechanism was found to be mould. Various combinations of vacuum (0–0.6 MPa and gas flush (0.02–0.03 MPa (30% CO2/70% N2 settings were assessed as treatments that result in the desired shelf-life (28 days. This was achieved using the combined treatment of vacuum 0.35 MPa and gas flush 0.02 MPa which resulted in a reduction of 6%–9% O2 in all three samples (battered sausages (BS, bacon slices (BA, and meat and potato pies (PP. Reduced O2 levels reflect the microbial quality of products, which has been successfully reduced. Duplicate samples of all product packs were produced using ethanol emitters (EE to see if shelf-life could be further extended. Results showed a further improvement in shelf-life to 35 days. Sensory analysis showed that ethanol flavour and aroma was not perceived by panellists in two of the three products assessed. This study demonstrates how smart packaging technologies, both intelligent and active, can be used to assist in the modification of conventional packaging systems in order to enhance product quality and safety and through the extension of product shelf-life.

  5. Formulação de "chocolate" de cupuaçu e reologia do produto líquido Formulation of cupuassu "chocololate" and rheology of liquid product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Caetano da Silva Lannes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O "chocolate" de cupuaçu é um produto cujo processo de fabricação consiste na transformação das amêndoas de cupuaçu (sementes após o beneficiamento em um derivado com sabor, textura, odor e aparência semelhantes ao do chocolate elaborado com cacau. Este produto pode ser processado nas formas de pó e tabletes (meio amargo, ao leite e branco. O cupuaçu é um fruto cilíndrico, sendo que no seu interior possui sementes recobertas inteiramente por uma massa branca e bastante espessa. O presente trabalho apresenta formulações de "chocolates" de cupuaçu (meio amargo, ao leite e branco, em que a fase gordurosa se compõe de mistura de gordura de cupuaçu e manteiga de cacau, juntamente com parâmetros reológicos do produto líquido. Utilizaram-se os sensores vane e cilindro concêntrico para a determinação reológica. Os produtos obtidos apresentaram similaridades com chocolates tradicionais em aroma e nos parâmetros reológicos a 40 ºC, com maior maciez.Cupuassu "chocolate" is a product whose process of manufacture consists to transform cupuassu seeds (after fermentation, toasting and grinding in derived one with flavour, texture, odor and appearance similar to chocolate elaborated with cocoa. It could be processed as powder and tablets (semi sweet, milk and white types. Cupuassu is a cylindrical fruit, and in its interior there are seeds involved by a white and thick mass. This work intends to show formulations of cupuassu chocolates (semi sweet, milk and white types, where the fatty phase is blends of cupuassu fat and cocoa butter (1 to 5.9 %, and the flow behaviour of the product was evaluated using the vane and coaxial cylinder sensors at 40 ºC. The products obtained were very similar to the tablets of traditional chocolates in flavour and rheological parameters at 40 ºC, with flow properties of soft chocolate.

  6. Formulação de "chocolate" de cupuaçu e reologia do produto líquido / Formulation of cupuassu "chocololate" and rheology of liquid product

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Suzana Caetano da Silva, Lannes; Magda Leite, Medeiros; Renata Lira, Amaral.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O "chocolate" de cupuaçu é um produto cujo processo de fabricação consiste na transformação das amêndoas de cupuaçu (sementes após o beneficiamento) em um derivado com sabor, textura, odor e aparência semelhantes ao do chocolate elaborado com cacau. Este produto pode ser processado nas formas de pó [...] e tabletes (meio amargo, ao leite e branco). O cupuaçu é um fruto cilíndrico, sendo que no seu interior possui sementes recobertas inteiramente por uma massa branca e bastante espessa. O presente trabalho apresenta formulações de "chocolates" de cupuaçu (meio amargo, ao leite e branco), em que a fase gordurosa se compõe de mistura de gordura de cupuaçu e manteiga de cacau, juntamente com parâmetros reológicos do produto líquido. Utilizaram-se os sensores vane e cilindro concêntrico para a determinação reológica. Os produtos obtidos apresentaram similaridades com chocolates tradicionais em aroma e nos parâmetros reológicos a 40 ºC, com maior maciez. Abstract in english Cupuassu "chocolate" is a product whose process of manufacture consists to transform cupuassu seeds (after fermentation, toasting and grinding) in derived one with flavour, texture, odor and appearance similar to chocolate elaborated with cocoa. It could be processed as powder and tablets (semi swee [...] t, milk and white types). Cupuassu is a cylindrical fruit, and in its interior there are seeds involved by a white and thick mass. This work intends to show formulations of cupuassu chocolates (semi sweet, milk and white types), where the fatty phase is blends of cupuassu fat and cocoa butter (1 to 5.9 %), and the flow behaviour of the product was evaluated using the vane and coaxial cylinder sensors at 40 ºC. The products obtained were very similar to the tablets of traditional chocolates in flavour and rheological parameters at 40 ºC, with flow properties of soft chocolate.

  7. Evaluation of fruit productivity and quality in Hass avocado submitted to {sup 60}Co gamma radiation; Evaluacion de productividad y calidad de fruta en aguacate Hass sometido a radiacion gamma de {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz T, E. De la; Ibanez P, J.; Mijares O, P.; Garcia A,