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Sample records for aroma 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline production

  1. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline - key aroma compound in Mediterranean dried sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    2000-01-01

    In a study characterising sausage types from various parts of Europe, ten Mediterranean and Northern European fermented, dried sausages were compared using static headspace gas chromatography-olfactometry and a sniffing panel of five members. The greatest difference between the Northern and Southern types were attributed to a burned coffee odour from smoke in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The two compounds were 2-furfurylthiol and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. An analysis of five dried, moulded sausages showed that the surface edge of the sausages contained higher amounts of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline than the core, indicating that the mould growing on the surface of Mediterranean products produces 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline.

  2. Identification and Quantitation of 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline in Manuka Honey (Leptospermum scoparium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückriemen, Jana; Schwarzenbolz, Uwe; Adam, Simone; Henle, Thomas

    2015-09-30

    Manuka honey from New Zealand is known for its exceptional antibacterial activity, which is due to high amounts of the 1,2-dicarbonyl compound methylglyoxal (MGO). MGO in manuka honey is formed via non-enzymatic dehydration from dihydroxyacetone (DHA) during honey maturation. MGO and DHA are highly reactive substances, leading to a variety of unique chemical reactions. During Strecker reaction between proline and MGO, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP), an important aroma compound, is formed. Using liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, 2-AP was identified unambiguously in manuka honey for the first time. Quantitation was carried out via external matrix calibration, using a synthetic 2-AP standard and artificial honey. The 2-AP concentration in 11 commercial samples of manuka honey ranged from 0.08 to 0.45 mg/kg. For manuka honey samples containing MGO in concentrations above 250 mg/kg, significantly higher amounts of 2-AP were found when compared to non-manuka honeys. When high amounts of MGO were artificially added to non-manuka multifloral honey, an increase of the 2-AP concentration from 0.07 to 0.40 mg/kg after 12 weeks of storage at 37 °C was observed, concomitant with a significant increase in the concentration of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). No increase of 2-AP was found during storage at ambient temperature. 2-AP together with MGO can be a suitable parameter for the quality control of manuka honey. PMID:26365614

  3. Screening for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in the headspace of rice using SPME/GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, C C; Bergman, C; Delgado, J T; Bryant, R

    2001-01-01

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is used to collect and concentrate the compounds in the headspace of rice. This research describes optimization parameters of temperature, moisture, and sampling time. Optimization was based upon the recovered levels of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP), the popcorn aroma in aromatic rice. The method uses a sampling temperature of 80 degrees C and adds 100 microL of water to a 0.75 g sample of rice. The rice was preheated for 25 min, a carboxen/DVB/PDMS SPME fiber was exposed to the headspace for 15 min, and a subsequent GC-MS analysis took 35 min. Samples of rice can be analyzed as the flour, milled kernels, or brown rice. Twenty-one experimental rice varieties were analyzed by the SPME method and compared to a wet technique. Recoveries of several nanograms of 2-AP from 0.75 g samples of aromatic rice were observed, whereas only trace amounts of 2-AP were recovered from nonaromatic rice. Recovery from a single SPME headspace analysis is calculated to be 0.3% of the total 2-AP in the sample. PMID:11170584

  4. Characterization and the possible formation mechanism of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in aromatic vegetable soybean (Glycine max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei-Li; Chou, Kuo-Lung; Wu, Chi-Ruei; Chen, Jian-Kai; Huang, Tzou-Chi

    2009-06-01

    2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) was identified as an important aroma compound of aromatic vegetable soybean. The level of 2-AP in 6 aromatic vegetable soybean lines was found to be positively correlated with popcorn-like aroma score. Comparison between aromatic and nonaromatic vegetable soybeans found that aromatic vegetable soybean contains higher concentration of methylglyoxal (MG) and Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) than a nonaromatic one. For MG formation-related genes, GapC was down-regulated and TPI was up-regulated in aromatic cultivar (Aromatic 7) as compared to nonaromatic control, which may contribute to the increase of MG level. Based on the data presented, a formation mechanism for 2-AP via interaction between MG and P5C in aromatic vegetable soybean was proposed. PMID:19646056

  5. Analysis of 2-Acetyl-1-Pyrroline in rice by HSSE/GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alternative method for the analysis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) in rice employing stir bar sorptive extraction (Twister™), is described. The Twister stir bar is placed in the headspace of a 20 ml vial containing 1 g rice kernels, 5 ml 0.1 M KOH, 2,2 g NaCl, and a second Teflon™ coated stir bar...

  6. Biosynthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in rice calli cultures: Demonstration of 1-pyrroline as a limiting substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonlaphdecha, Janchai; Gantet, Pascal; Maraval, Isabelle; Sauvage, François-Xavier; Menut, Chantal; Morère, Alain; Boulanger, Renaud; Wüst, Matthias; Gunata, Ziya

    2016-04-15

    The role of 1-pyrroline was studied via feeding experiments using rice calli cultures to gain further insight into the key steps of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) biosynthesis in rice. The origin of the acetyl donor was also studied through stable isotope labelled substrates. Incubation of fresh calli from a fragrant rice variety (Aychade) and a non-fragrant variety (Gladio×Fidji K2) with 1-pyrroline led to a significant increase in 2AP in both varieties. Importantly, the amount of 2AP in the non-fragrant variety could be greatly enhanced by this supplementation. When rice calli were fed with increasing levels of 1-pyrroline, 2AP levels increased accordingly. Our data show that 1-pyrroline is a limiting factor for 2AP synthesis in rice. Heat treatment of calli suggested that 1-pyrroline might be enzymatically acetylated. The presence of labelled 2AP in calli supplemented with [U-(13)C]glucose, sodium acetate (1,2-(13)C2) and sodium octanoate (1,2,3,4-(13)C4) suggested that these compounds are possible candidates for acetyl group-donors of 2AP, predominately in the form of intact labelled (13)C2-units. PMID:26617041

  7. Application of an Effective Statistical Technique for an Accurate and Powerful Mining of Quantitative Trait Loci for Rice Aroma Trait

    OpenAIRE

    Golestan Hashemi, Farahnaz Sadat; Mohd Y. Rafii; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Mohamed, Mahmud Tengku Muda; Harun A. Rahim; Latif, Mohammad Abdul; Aslani, Farzad

    2015-01-01

    When a phenotype of interest is associated with an external/internal covariate, covariate inclusion in quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses can diminish residual variation and subsequently enhance the ability of QTL detection. In the in vitro synthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), the main fragrance compound in rice, the thermal processing during the Maillard-type reaction between proline and carbohydrate reduction produces a roasted, popcorn-like aroma. Hence, for the first time, we incl...

  8. Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Ma?gorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jele?, Henryk H

    2013-03-20

    Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one. PMID:23414530

  9. Influence of endogenous ferulic acid in whole wheat flour on bread crust aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Marlene R; Bin, Qing; Elias, Ryan J; Peterson, Devin G

    2012-11-14

    The influence of wheat flour type (refined (RWF)/whole (WWF)) on bread crust aroma was investigated. Differences were characterized by aroma extract dilution analysis and quantified utilizing stable isotope surrogate standards. For RWF breads, five aroma compounds were higher in concentration, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-phenylethanol, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, and 2,4-dihyroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, by 4.0-, 3.0-, 2.1-, 1.7-, and 1.5-fold, respectively, whereas three compounds were lower, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, and (E)-2-nonenal by 6.1-, 2.1-, and 1.8-fold, respectively. A trained sensory panel reported the perceived aroma intensity of characteristic fresh refined bread crust aroma was significantly higher in RWF compared to WWF crust samples. Addition of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-phenylethanol, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, and 2,4-dihyroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone to the WWF crust (at concentrations equivalent to those in the RWF crust) increased the intensity of the fresh refined bread crust aroma attribute; no significant difference was reported when compared to RWF crust. The liberation of ferulic acid from WWF during baking was related to the observed reduction in these five aroma compounds and provides novel insight into the mechanisms of flavor development in WWF bread. PMID:23106092

  10. Production of aroma compounds from whey using Wickerhamomyces pijperi

    OpenAIRE

    Izawa, Naoki; Kudo, Miyuki; Nakamura, Yukako; Mizukoshi, Harumi; Kitada, Takahiro; Sone, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    The production of aroma compounds by the microbial fermentation of whey was studied. Seven strains of the yeast Wickerhamomyces pijperi were used for the fermentation of glucose-added whey (whey-g). Twelve aroma compounds (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl propionate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl benzoate) were identified in the fermented broth using headspace gas chromatography mass...

  11. FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Bramorski; Soccol, Carlos R; Pierre Christen; Sergio Revah

    1998-01-01

    Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intens...

  12. Production of aroma compounds from whey using Wickerhamomyces pijperi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Naoki; Kudo, Miyuki; Nakamura, Yukako; Mizukoshi, Harumi; Kitada, Takahiro; Sone, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    The production of aroma compounds by the microbial fermentation of whey was studied. Seven strains of the yeast Wickerhamomyces pijperi were used for the fermentation of glucose-added whey (whey-g). Twelve aroma compounds (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl propionate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl benzoate) were identified in the fermented broth using headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. The major components were ethyl acetate (several tens to hundreds ppm), acetaldehyde (several tens ppm) and isoamyl alcohol (about 10 ppm). The strong fruity odor of ethyl benzoate (about 1 ppm) was detected in the broth of W. pijperi YIT 8095 and YIT 12779. The balance of aroma compounds produced was varied depending on the media used, and ethyl benzoate was only produced when using whey-g. The variation in the production of the aroma compounds over time using W. pijperi YIT 12779 at various culture temperatures (from 15-30°C) was also studied. From the results we propose that W. pijperi could be used as a novel microorganism for production of aroma compounds from whey. PMID:25897405

  13. Characterization of the aroma signature of styrian pumpkin seed oil ( Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca) by molecular sensory science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Susan; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-03-27

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a distillate prepared from an authentic Styrian pumpkin seed oil followed by identification experiments led to the characterization of 47 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192 among which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Among the set of key odorants, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline and another 20 odorants were identified for the first time as constituents of pumpkin seed oil. To evaluate the aroma contribution in more detail, 31 aroma compounds showing the highest FD factors were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds determined in sunflower oil, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated, and 26 aroma compounds were found to have an OAV above 1. Among them, methanethiol (sulfury), 2-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanal (malty), and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (roasted potato) reached the highest OAVs. Sensory evaluation of an aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 31 key odorants in the concentrations as determined in the oil revealed that the aroma of Styrian pumpkin seed oil could be closely mimicked. Quantitation of 11 key odorants in three commercial pumpkin seed oil revealed clear differences in the concentrations of distinct odorants, which were correlated with the overall aroma profile of the oils. PMID:23461409

  14. Fruity aromas production in solid state fermentation by the fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata

    OpenAIRE

    CHRISTEN, Pierre; Revah, S.

    1998-01-01

    Solid state fermentation (SSF) has been studied for enzymes, antibiotics, alcohol production or for protein enrichment, but few papers report the production of aromas by such a process. In this work, the study of the production of fruity aromas in SSF by the fungus #Ceratocystis fimbriata$ is presented, with special interest in the nature of the support/substrate, the importance of added precursors in the medium and the aeration. The aromas were characterised by "sniffing" technique an GC hea...

  15. Large-Scale Selection and Breeding To Generate Industrial Yeasts with Superior Aroma Production

    OpenAIRE

    Steensels, Jan; Meersman, Esther; Snoek, Tim; Saels, Veerle; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations and relative ratios of various aroma compounds produced by fermenting yeast cells are essential for the sensory quality of many fermented foods, including beer, bread, wine, and sake. Since the production of these aroma-active compounds varies highly among different yeast strains, careful selection of variants with optimal aromatic profiles is of crucial importance for a high-quality end product. This study evaluates the production of different aroma-active compounds in 301...

  16. FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana, Bramorski; Carlos R., Soccol; Pierre, Christen; Sergio, Revah.

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo explorou a versatilidade de Ceratocystis fimbriata de crescer e produzir aromas naturais sobre substratos de resíduos agro-industriais. Bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã, amaranto e soja em diferentes proporções compuseram os sete meios utilizados, mostrando ser substratos adequados par [...] a o crescimento e produção de aroma por este fungo em fermentação no estado sólido. Todos os meios contendo bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã e soja em sua composição proporcionaram um forte aroma frutal, enquanto, o meio de amaranto produziu um agradável aroma de abacaxi. A produção de aroma foi dependente do crescimento, visto que a máxima intensidade do aroma foi detectado poucas horas antes ou depois da atividade respiratória máxima. Foram detectados dezesseis compostos pela cromatografia de gás no headspace das culturas, e quinze deles foram identificados: 1 ácido, 6 alcoois, 1 aldeído, 2 cetonas e 5 ésteres. Abstract in english Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth [...] medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intensity was detected a few hours before or after the maximum respirometric activity. Sixteen compounds were separated by gas cromatography of the components present in the headspace and fifteen of them were identified as acid (1), alcohols (6), aldehyde (1), ketones (2) and esters (5).

  17. FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bramorski

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intensity was detected a few hours before or after the maximum respirometric activity. Sixteen compounds were separated by gas cromatography of the components present in the headspace and fifteen of them were identified as acid (1, alcohols (6, aldehyde (1, ketones (2 and esters (5.Este estudo explorou a versatilidade de Ceratocystis fimbriata de crescer e produzir aromas naturais sobre substratos de resíduos agro-industriais. Bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã, amaranto e soja em diferentes proporções compuseram os sete meios utilizados, mostrando ser substratos adequados para o crescimento e produção de aroma por este fungo em fermentação no estado sólido. Todos os meios contendo bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã e soja em sua composição proporcionaram um forte aroma frutal, enquanto, o meio de amaranto produziu um agradável aroma de abacaxi. A produção de aroma foi dependente do crescimento, visto que a máxima intensidade do aroma foi detectado poucas horas antes ou depois da atividade respiratória máxima. Foram detectados dezesseis compostos pela cromatografia de gás no headspace das culturas, e quinze deles foram identificados: 1 ácido, 6 alcoois, 1 aldeído, 2 cetonas e 5 ésteres.

  18. Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Mazi?

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried out at room temperature until the media reached pH value of 5. Samples were evaluated for sensory characteristics using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. In all media the target pH was reached after 68-71 hours of fermentation, depending on citrate level. Fermentation and the production of aroma compounds were more intensive in media that contained whey proteins compared to media with only casein. Increased citrate level had a positive influence on the aroma production. Citrate increased the initial pH of the media and acted as a buffer during fermentation, which lead to longer fermentation and prolonged production of aroma compounds. At pH around 5, the desired cultured aroma was the most intensive, whereas sour taste was less dominant. The substrate with 0.25% citrate and 0.1% whey proteins, at pH 5, was rated as best regarding its sensory characteristics.

  19. SUGARCANE BAGASSE AS SUPPORT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COCONUT AROMA BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION (SSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Pessanha da Penha,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the major producers of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum in the world and consequently produces large quantities of waste such as sugarcane bagasse, which can be used as inert support for the production of aroma compounds by SSF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the centesimal composition and particle size distribution of sugar cane bagasse, as well as its applicability as support for the production of 6-pentyl-?-pyrone by SSF. Analyses were performed in triplicate to evaluate the levels of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and moisture in the waste. Also evaluated were the particle size distribution and morphology structure of the sugarcane bagasse. The aroma compound produced shows that the studied waste can be used for 6PP production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC 4042 by SSF process. By kinetic production of aroma it is concluded that the seventh day of fermentation yielded the largest production of the aroma compound, as published for other studies

  20. Environmental stress and aroma production during wine fermentation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.C., Fairbairn; A.Y., Smit; D., Jacobson; B.A., Prior; F.F., Bauer.

    Full Text Available The sensory description of wine uses the widest range of descriptive terminology of all food products, reflecting the complex nature of a product whose character depends on the balance of hundreds of individual flavour-active compounds. There are many tools that can influence flavour profiles or win [...] e styles, one of which is the choice of a specific yeast strain. Yeasts contribute to wine flavour by producing volatile metabolites with different flavour profiles. The impact of changing environmental conditions on the production of flavour compounds by yeast strains remains largely unexplored. This is the first study investigating the impact of two mild fermentation stresses, hyperosmotic and temperature stress, on aroma production in synthetic must by commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains. Hyperosmotic stress was imposed by cultivation of the yeast for 21 days in the must containing either 0.3 or 0.5 M sorbitol. The transient temperature stresses were applied for 16 h at 8° or 37°C for either two or eight days after commencement of the fermentation. Greater glycerol and acetic acid levels were produced by most yeasts when only hyperosmotic stress was applied. Hyperosmotic and temperature stress conditions produced a limited number of significant changes to the profile of the esters, higher alcohols and volatile fatty acids. These changes differed significantly for each strain and stress treatment, suggesting that the fermentation conditions can significantly alter the aromatic profile of a wine, although these stress impacts cannot be predicted in general. The changes to the aromatic profile are specific to each individual wine yeast strain.

  1. Production of aromas and fragrances through microbial oxidation of monoterpenes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H. F., Rozenbaum; M. L., Patitucci; O. A. C., Antunes; N., Pereira Jr.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Aromas and fragrances can be obtained through the microbial oxidation of monoterpenes. Many microorganisms can be used to carry out extremely specific conversions using substrates of low commercial value. However, for many species, these substrates are highly toxic, consequently inhibiting their met [...] abolism. In this work, the conversion ability of Aspergillus niger IOC-3913 for terpenic compounds was examined. This species was preselected because of its high resistance to toxic monoterpenic substrates. Though it has been grown in media containing R-limonene (one of the cheapest monoterpenic hydrocarbons, which is widely available on the market), the species has not shown the ability to metabolize it, since biotransformation products were not detected in high resolution gas chromatography analyses. For this reason, other monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and camphor) were used as substrates. These compounds were shown to be metabolized by the selected strain, producing oxidized compounds. Four reaction systems were used: a) biotransformation in a liquid medium with cells in growth b) with pre-grown cultures c) with cells immobilized in a synthetic polymer network and d) in a solid medium to which the substrate was added via the gas phase. The main biotransformation products were found in all the reaction systems, although the adoption of previously cultivated cells seemed to favor biotransformation. Cell immobilization seemed to be a feasible strategy for alleviating the toxic effect of the substrate. Through mass spectrometry it was possible to identify verbenone and alpha-terpineol as the biotransformation products of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, respectively. The structures of the other oxidation products are described.

  2. Production of aromas and fragrances through microbial oxidation of monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Rozenbaum

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Aromas and fragrances can be obtained through the microbial oxidation of monoterpenes. Many microorganisms can be used to carry out extremely specific conversions using substrates of low commercial value. However, for many species, these substrates are highly toxic, consequently inhibiting their metabolism. In this work, the conversion ability of Aspergillus niger IOC-3913 for terpenic compounds was examined. This species was preselected because of its high resistance to toxic monoterpenic substrates. Though it has been grown in media containing R-limonene (one of the cheapest monoterpenic hydrocarbons, which is widely available on the market, the species has not shown the ability to metabolize it, since biotransformation products were not detected in high resolution gas chromatography analyses. For this reason, other monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and camphor were used as substrates. These compounds were shown to be metabolized by the selected strain, producing oxidized compounds. Four reaction systems were used: a biotransformation in a liquid medium with cells in growth b with pre-grown cultures c with cells immobilized in a synthetic polymer network and d in a solid medium to which the substrate was added via the gas phase. The main biotransformation products were found in all the reaction systems, although the adoption of previously cultivated cells seemed to favor biotransformation. Cell immobilization seemed to be a feasible strategy for alleviating the toxic effect of the substrate. Through mass spectrometry it was possible to identify verbenone and alpha-terpineol as the biotransformation products of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, respectively. The structures of the other oxidation products are described.

  3. Media components and amino acid supplements influencing the production of fruity aroma by Geotrichum candidum Influência da composição do meio de cultivo e da suplementação com aminoácidos na produção de aroma frutal por Geotrichum candidum

    OpenAIRE

    T. Pinotti; P.M.B. Carvalho; K.M.G. Garcia; Silva, T. R.; Allen Norton Hagler; S.G.F. Leite

    2006-01-01

    The ability of Geotrichum candidum to produce fruity aroma in food grade sucrose, molasses, corn steep liquor and peptone based culture media was tested by sensory evaluation and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A strong and sweet fruity aroma was produced from molasses, with peptone or corn steep liquor stimulating aroma production. Molasses with peptone supplemented with leucine, valine, or alanine yielded better fruity aroma production and the presence of many esters was c...

  4. Production of tobacco aroma from lutein. Specific role of the microorganisms involved in the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Robledo, G; Rodriguez-Bustamante, E; Sanchez-Contreras, A; Rodriguez-Sanoja, R; Sanchez, S

    2003-10-01

    A mixed culture formed by Bacillus sp. and Geotrichum sp. produced tobacco aroma compounds from the carotenoid lutein through the formation of the intermediate beta-ionone. Both microorganisms can grow independently in a medium supplemented with lutein, but only Geotrichum produces beta-ionone. This intermediate was incorporated by the bacilli, converted to aroma and this product excreted to the culture medium. Bacillus sp. did not utilize beta-ionone for growth but modified it. We conclude that, in the bioconversion of lutein to products with tobacco aroma, Geotrichum sp. is involved in carotenoid oxidation to produce beta-ionone and Bacillus sp. is responsible for the norisoprenoid reduction to produce 7,8-dihydro-beta-ionone and 7,8-dihydro-beta-ionol. PMID:12827317

  5. Irradiation and fumigation effects on flavor, aroma and composition of grapefruit products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects were evaluated on grapefruit treated to meet quarantine restrictions against Caribbean fruit fly infestation. Differences were found in flavor of fresh sections, fresh juice, and aroma of peel oil when obtained from fruit irradiated with x-rays, as compared with products from nonirradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in all pasteurized juices from fruit irradiated at 5-60 krad. Vitamin C levels were significantly lower in juice from most irradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in fresh and pasteurized juice from fruit treated with methyl bromide, and in pasteurized juice from fruit treated with ethylene dibromide. Aroma differences were found in peel oil from fruit treated with phosphine. (author)

  6. SUGARCANE BAGASSE AS SUPPORT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COCONUT AROMA BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION (SSF)

    OpenAIRE

    Manoela Pessanha da Penha,; Maria Helena Miguez da Rocha-Leão; Selma Gomes Ferreira Leite

    2012-01-01

    Brazil is one of the major producers of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) in the world and consequently produces large quantities of waste such as sugarcane bagasse, which can be used as inert support for the production of aroma compounds by SSF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the centesimal composition and particle size distribution of sugar cane bagasse, as well as its applicability as support for the production of 6-pentyl-?-pyrone by SSF. Analyses were performed in triplicate to ev...

  7. Great interspecies and intraspecies diversity of dairy propionibacteria in the production of cheese aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Alyson L; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Roland, Nathalie; Chuat, Victoria; Leclerc, Aurélie; Poga?i?, Tomislav; Valence, Florence; Thierry, Anne

    2014-11-17

    Flavor is an important sensory property of fermented food products, including cheese, and largely results from the production of aroma compounds by microorganisms. Propionibacterium freudenreichii is the most widely used species of dairy propionibacteria; it has been implicated in the production of a wide variety of aroma compounds through multiple metabolic pathways and is associated with the flavor of Swiss cheese. However, the ability of other dairy propionibacteria to produce aroma compounds has not been characterized. This study sought to elucidate the effect of interspecies and intraspecies diversity of dairy propionibacteria on the production of aroma compounds in a cheese context. A total of 76 strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Propionibacterium jensenii, Propionibacterium thoenii, and Propionibacterium acidipropionici were grown for 15 days in pure culture in a rich medium derived from cheese curd. In addition, one strain each of two phylogenetically related non-dairy propionibacteria, Propionibacterium cyclohexanicum and Propionibacterium microaerophilum were included. Aroma compounds were analyzed using headspace trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). An analysis of variance performed on GC-MS data showed that the abundance of 36 out of the 45 aroma compounds detected showed significant differences between the cultures. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for these 36 compounds. The first two axes of the PCA, accounting for 60% of the variability between cultures, separated P. freudenreichii strains from P. acidipropionici strains and also differentiated P. freudenreichii strains from each other. P. freudenreichii strains were associated with greater concentrations of a variety of compounds, including free fatty acids from lipolysis, ethyl esters derived from these acids, and branched-chain acids and alcohols from amino acid catabolism. P. acidipropionici strains produced less of these compounds but more sulfur-containing compounds from methionine catabolism. Meanwhile, branched-chain aldehydes and benzaldehyde were positively associated with certain strains of P. jensenii and P. thoenii. Moreover, the production of compounds with a common origin was correlated. Compound abundance varied significantly by strain, with fold changes between strains of the same species as high as in the order of 500 for a single compound. This suggests that the diversity of dairy propionibacteria can be exploited to modulate the flavor of mild cheeses. PMID:25233451

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of recombinant betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (OsBADH2), a protein involved in jasmine aroma, from Thai fragrant rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystals of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 from rice (O. sativa L.) belonged to a C-centred orthorhombic space group and diffraceted X-rays to 2.6 Å resolution. Fragrant rice (Oryza sativa L.) betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (OsBADH2) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of fragrance aroma compounds. The extremely low activity of OsBADH2 in catalyzing the oxidation of acetaldehyde is believed to be crucial for the accumulation of the volatile compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) in many scented plants, including fragrant rice. Recombinant fragrant rice OsBADH2 was expressed in Escherichia coli as an N-terminal hexahistidine fusion protein, purified using Ni Sepharose affinity chromatography and crystallized using the microbatch method. Initial crystals were obtained within 24 h using 0.1 M Tris pH 8.5 with 30%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 0.2 M magnesium chloride as the precipitating agent at 291 K. Crystal quality was improved when the enzyme was cocrystallized with NAD+. Improved crystals were grown in 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.4, 24%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 0.2 M ammonium chloride and diffracted to beyond 2.95 Å resolution after being cooled in a stream of N2 immediately prior to X-ray diffraction experiments. The crystals belonged to space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 66.03, b = 183.94, c = 172.28 Å. An initial molecular-replacement solution has been obtained and refinement is in progress

  9. Encapsulation of Aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidam, Nicolaas Jan; Heinrich, Emmanuel

    Flavor is one of the most important characteristics of a food product, since people prefer to eat only food products with an attractive flavor (Voilley and Etiévant 2006). Flavor can be defined as a combination of taste, smell and/or trigeminal stimuli. Taste is divided into five basic ones, i.e. sour, salty, sweet, bitter and umami. Components that trigger the so-called gustatory receptors for these tastes are in general not volatile, in contrast to aroma. Aroma molecules are those that interact with the olfactory receptors in the nose cavity (Firestein 2001). Confusingly, aroma is often referred to as flavor. Trigeminal stimuli cause sensations like cold, touch, and prickling. The current chapter only focuses on the encapsulation of the aroma molecules.

  10. Determination of sulfur and nitrogen compounds during the processing of dry fermented sausages and their relation to amino acid generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Sara; Leitner, Erich; Siegmund, Barbara; Flores, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    The identification of odor-active sulfur and nitrogen compounds formed during the processing of dry fermented sausages was the objective of this study. In order to elucidate their possible origin, free amino acids (FAAs) were also determined. The volatile compounds present in the dry sausages were extracted using solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and monitored by one and two-dimensional gas chromatography with different detectors: mass spectrometry (MS), nitrogen phosphorous (NPD), flame photometric (FPD) detectors, as well as gas chromatography-olfactometry. A total of seventeen sulfur and nitrogen compounds were identified and quantified. Among them, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline was the most potent odor active compound, followed by methional, ethylpyrazine and 2,3-dihydrothiophene characterized by toasted, cooked potato, and nutty notes. The degradation of FAAs, generated during processing, was related to the production of aroma compounds, such as methionine forming methional and benzothiazole while ornithine was the precursor compound for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and glycine for ethylpyrazine. PMID:26213023

  11. Coffee residues as substrates for aroma production by Ceratocystis fimbriata in solid state fermentation Produção de aromas por Ceratocystis fimbriata em fermentaç??o no estado sólido utilizando resíduos da agroindústria do café como substratos

    OpenAIRE

    Adriane Bianchi Pedroni Medeiros; Pierre Christen; Sevastianos Roussos; Juliana Carine Gern; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

    2003-01-01

    The ability of two different strains of Ceratocystis fimbriata for fruity aroma production by solid state fermentation (SSF) was tested on coffee pulp and coffee husk complemented with glucose as substrates. Experiments were carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks and the experimental conditions were: 70% of initial moisture, 20% of glucose addition and pH 6.0. Aeration was made by passive diffusion through the gauze covering the flasks. Headspace analysis of the culture by gas chromatography...

  12. Coffee residues as substrates for aroma production by Ceratocystis fimbriata in solid state fermentation / Produção de aromas por Ceratocystis fimbriata em fermentação no estado sólido utilizando resíduos da agroindústria do café como substratos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriane Bianchi Pedroni, Medeiros; Pierre, Christen; Sevastianos, Roussos; Juliana Carine, Gern; Carlos Ricardo, Soccol.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho duas diferentes cepas de Ceratocystis fimbriata foram testadas para a produção de aromas frutais em fermentação no estado sólido (FES) utilizando como substratos casca e polpa de café, suplementados com glicose. Os experimentos foram realizados em frascos Erlenmeyer de 250 mL. As cond [...] ições experimentais foram: umidade inicial de 70%, adição de 20% de glicose e pH 6,0. Os frascos foram cobertos com gaze e a aeração ocorreu por difusão passiva. A análise do "headspace"da cultura foi feita por cromatografia gasosa e 12 compostos foram detectados utilizando a casca de café. A análise respirométrica foi realizada para o acompanhamento do crescimento do microrganismo pela determinação do dióxido de carbono produzido. A produção de ésteres caracterizou o aroma frutal da cultura. A concentração máxima de voláteis totais foi alcançada após 72 h de cultivo em casca de café (28 µmol.L-1.g-1). Os principais compostos produzidos foram acetato de etila, etanol e acetaldeído, representando 84,7%, 7,6% and 2,0% dos voláteis totais, respectivamente. Abstract in english The ability of two different strains of Ceratocystis fimbriata for fruity aroma production by solid state fermentation (SSF) was tested on coffee pulp and coffee husk complemented with glucose as substrates. Experiments were carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks and the experimental conditions wer [...] e: 70% of initial moisture, 20% of glucose addition and pH 6.0. Aeration was made by passive diffusion through the gauze covering the flasks. Headspace analysis of the culture by gas chromatography (GC) showed that 12 compounds were produced with coffee husk. Maximum total volatiles (TV) concentration was reached after 72 h of culture with coffee husk as substrate (28 µmol.L-1.g-1). Ethyl acetate, ethanol and acetaldehyde were the major compounds produced, representing 84.7%, 7.6% and 2.0% of TV, respectively. A pre-treatment with heat (100ºC/ 40 min) of substrates did not improve TV production. Respirometry analysis was used to determine the growth of the culture by measuring carbon dioxide produced. Results showed that the CO2 production follows the aroma production. This result shows the great potential for the use coffee pulp and coffee husk as substrates to microbial aroma production by solid state fermentation.

  13. Coffee residues as substrates for aroma production by Ceratocystis fimbriata in solid state fermentation Produção de aromas por Ceratocystis fimbriata em fermentaç??o no estado sólido utilizando resíduos da agroindústria do café como substratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Bianchi Pedroni Medeiros

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of two different strains of Ceratocystis fimbriata for fruity aroma production by solid state fermentation (SSF was tested on coffee pulp and coffee husk complemented with glucose as substrates. Experiments were carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks and the experimental conditions were: 70% of initial moisture, 20% of glucose addition and pH 6.0. Aeration was made by passive diffusion through the gauze covering the flasks. Headspace analysis of the culture by gas chromatography (GC showed that 12 compounds were produced with coffee husk. Maximum total volatiles (TV concentration was reached after 72 h of culture with coffee husk as substrate (28 µmol.L-1.g-1. Ethyl acetate, ethanol and acetaldehyde were the major compounds produced, representing 84.7%, 7.6% and 2.0% of TV, respectively. A pre-treatment with heat (100ºC/ 40 min of substrates did not improve TV production. Respirometry analysis was used to determine the growth of the culture by measuring carbon dioxide produced. Results showed that the CO2 production follows the aroma production. This result shows the great potential for the use coffee pulp and coffee husk as substrates to microbial aroma production by solid state fermentation.Neste trabalho duas diferentes cepas de Ceratocystis fimbriata foram testadas para a produção de aromas frutais em fermentação no estado sólido (FES utilizando como substratos casca e polpa de café, suplementados com glicose. Os experimentos foram realizados em frascos Erlenmeyer de 250 mL. As condições experimentais foram: umidade inicial de 70%, adição de 20% de glicose e pH 6,0. Os frascos foram cobertos com gaze e a aeração ocorreu por difusão passiva. A análise do "headspace"da cultura foi feita por cromatografia gasosa e 12 compostos foram detectados utilizando a casca de café. A análise respirométrica foi realizada para o acompanhamento do crescimento do microrganismo pela determinação do dióxido de carbono produzido. A produção de ésteres caracterizou o aroma frutal da cultura. A concentração máxima de voláteis totais foi alcançada após 72 h de cultivo em casca de café (28 µmol.L-1.g-1. Os principais compostos produzidos foram acetato de etila, etanol e acetaldeído, representando 84,7%, 7,6% and 2,0% dos voláteis totais, respectivamente.

  14. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how the dough fermentation conditions influence the wheat bread production time and the bread aroma is important for the bread industry. The overall purpose of this PhD project is to investigate the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion and aroma in bread crumb. In Paper I the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion were investigated. Wheat doughs were ferment...

  15. Combined effects of nutrients and temperature on the production of fermentative aromas by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollero, Stéphanie; Bloem, Audrey; Camarasa, Carole; Sanchez, Isabelle; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Dequin, Sylvie; Mouret, Jean-Roch

    2015-03-01

    Volatile compounds produced by yeast during fermentation greatly influence the organoleptic qualities of wine. We developed a model to predict the combined effects of initial nitrogen and phytosterol content and fermentation temperature on the production of volatile compounds. We used a Box-Behnken design and response surface modeling to study the response of Lalvin EC1118® to these environmental conditions. Initial nitrogen content had the greatest influence on most compounds; however, there were differences in the value of fermentation parameters required for the maximal production of the various compounds. Fermentation parameters affected differently the production of isobutanol and isoamyl alcohol, although their synthesis involve the same enzymes and intermediate. We found differences in regulation of the synthesis of acetates of higher alcohols and ethyl esters, suggesting that fatty acid availability is the main factor influencing the synthesis of ethyl esters whereas the production of acetates depends on the activity of alcohol acetyltransferases. We also evaluated the effect of temperature on the total production of three esters by determining gas-liquid balances. Evaporation largely accounted for the effect of temperature on the accumulation of esters in liquid. Nonetheless, the metabolism of isoamyl acetate and ethyl octanoate was significantly affected by this parameter. We extended this study to other strains. Environmental parameters had a similar effect on aroma production in most strains. Nevertheless, the regulation of the synthesis of fermentative aromas was atypical in two strains: Lalvin K1M® and Affinity™ ECA5, which produces a high amount of aromatic compounds and was obtained by experimental evolution. PMID:25412578

  16. Linking gene regulation and the exo-metabolome: A comparative transcriptomics approach to identify genes that impact on the production of volatile aroma compounds in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Florian F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Omics' tools provide novel opportunities for system-wide analysis of complex cellular functions. Secondary metabolism is an example of a complex network of biochemical pathways, which, although well mapped from a biochemical point of view, is not well understood with regards to its physiological roles and genetic and biochemical regulation. Many of the metabolites produced by this network such as higher alcohols and esters are significant aroma impact compounds in fermentation products, and different yeast strains are known to produce highly divergent aroma profiles. Here, we investigated whether we can predict the impact of specific genes of known or unknown function on this metabolic network by combining whole transcriptome and partial exo-metabolome analysis. Results For this purpose, the gene expression levels of five different industrial wine yeast strains that produce divergent aroma profiles were established at three different time points of alcoholic fermentation in synthetic wine must. A matrix of gene expression data was generated and integrated with the concentrations of volatile aroma compounds measured at the same time points. This relatively unbiased approach to the study of volatile aroma compounds enabled us to identify candidate genes for aroma profile modification. Five of these genes, namely YMR210W, BAT1, AAD10, AAD14 and ACS1 were selected for overexpression in commercial wine yeast, VIN13. Analysis of the data show a statistically significant correlation between the changes in the exo-metabome of the overexpressing strains and the changes that were predicted based on the unbiased alignment of transcriptomic and exo-metabolomic data. Conclusion The data suggest that a comparative transcriptomics and metabolomics approach can be used to identify the metabolic impacts of the expression of individual genes in complex systems, and the amenability of transcriptomic data to direct applications of biotechnological relevance.

  17. Aroma interactions with starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Dysted

    2011-01-01

    Starches are used to enhance aroma perception in low-fat foods. Aroma compounds can bind physically to the starch in grooves on the surface or they can form complexes inside amylose helices. This study has been divided into two parts: one part regarding binding of aromas to starches and their aroma-release, and another part regarding stimulation of a fungal secretome using different carbohydrates. In the first part, nine aromas and one aroma-mixture were mixed with nine different starches, inclu...

  18. Growth and aroma production by Staphylococcus xylosus, S- carnosus and S-equoum - a comparative study in model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØndergaard, A.K.; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory medium inoculated with 20 different Staphylococcus strains was prepared in accordance with a full Factorial experimental design investigating the effect of temperature. pH, NaCl and glucose on growth. The 32 strains most suited to growth in a fermented meat environment were inoculated in sausage minces together with Pediococcus pentosaceus, incubated at 25 C for I week and the produced aroma compounds collected. The data were analysed by multiple linear regression and partial least squares regression analysis. The results showed that increasing pH and temperature from 4.6 to 6.0 and 10 to 26 C. respectively, increased growth of all strains with strong synergy between temperature and pH. Increasing salt concentration from 5% to 15% w/v decreased growth of most strains, but the effect of pH and temperature was much stronger than the effect of salt. Strains of S. carnosus were more salt tolerant than strains of S. equorum and S, xylosus, especially at high pH and temperature. Addition of glucose up to 0.5% w/v had no significant influence on growth of any of the strains. With regard to aroma production, species characteristics were detected. S. carnosus and S. xylosus were quite different regarding the overall aroma profiles, whereas the profiles of S. equorum lied somewhere in-between. Contrary to S. carnosus, S. xylosus and S. equorum did not produce 2-methyl-1-butanol. On the other hand, in particular, S. xylosus produced more 3-methyl-1-butanol. Except for one of the strains of S. equorum, S. xylosus and S. equorum formed more diacetyl, 2-butanone and acetoin and also more of the methyl-branched ketones arising from degradation of leucine, isoleucine and valine. S. carnosus produced more methyl-branched aldehydes, acids and corresponding esters from leucine, isoleucine and valine-compounds that have been correlated with fermented sausage maturity in former studies. S. equorum produced the least of the methyl-branched aldehydes.

  19. The Effect of CmLOXs on the Production of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Aroma Types of Melon (Cucumis melo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yufan; Zhang, Chong; Cao, Songxiao; Wang, Xiao; Qi, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) play important role in the synthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which influence the aroma of fruit. In this study, we elucidate that there is a positive relationship between LOXs activity and VOC production in melon (Cucumis melo), and CmLOX genes are involved in fruit aroma generation in melon. To this end, we tested four aroma types of melon that feature a thin pericarp: two aromatic cultivars of the oriental melons (C. melo var. makuwa Makino), ‘Yu Meiren’ (YMR) and ‘Cui Bao’ (CB); a non-aromatic oriental pickling melon (C. melo var. conomon), ‘Shao Gua’ (SHAO); and a non-aromatic snake melon (C. melo L. var. flexuosus Naud), ‘Cai Gua’ (CAI). A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the aromas of SHAO and CAI are similar in nature because their ester contents are lower than those of YMR and CB. Ethyl acetate, benzyl acetate, (E, Z)-2, 6-nonadienal and menthol are four principal volatile compounds that affect the aromatic characteristics of these four types of melons. The LOX activity and total ester content in YMR were the highest among the examined melon varieties. The expression patterns of 18 CmLOX genes were found to vary based on the aromatic nature of the melon. Four of them were highly expressed in YMR. Moreover, we treated the fruit disks of YMR with LOX substrates (linoleic acid and linolenic acid) and LOX inhibitors (n-propyl gallate and nordihydroguariaretic acid). Substrate application promoted LOX activity and induced accumulation of hexanal, (2E)-nonenal and straight-chain esters, such as ethyl acetate. In contrast, LOX inhibitors decreased the levels of these compounds. The effect of CmLOXs in the biosynthesis of esters in melons are discussed. PMID:26599669

  20. Retronasal Aroma Release and Satiation: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ruijschop, R.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; de Graaf, C; Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    In view of the epidemic of obesity, one of the aims of the food industry is to develop good-tasting food products that may induce an increased level of satiation, preventing consumers from overeating. This review focuses on the possibility of using aroma as a trigger for inducing or increasing satiation. Using a novel approach of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APcl-MS) in combination with olfactometry, the relative importance of different aroma concepts for satiat...

  1. Comparison of aroma production from castor oil by Yarrowia lipolytica in airlift and STR bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Braga, Adelaide; Mesquita, D. P.; Amaral, A. L.; Ferreira, E.C.; Belo, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    In aerobic cultures using hydrophobic substrates, such as the use of castor oil (CO) for ?-decalactone production by Yarrowia lipolytica, the selection of bioreactor type is particularly important. Although stirred tanks (STR) are the most common industrial bioreactors used for aerobic fermentations, agitation conditions tend to cause some shearing stress to the cells. This can be prevented using aeration as driving force to promote agitation that is the principle of airlift re...

  2. Growth and aroma production by Staphylococcus xylosus, S- carnosus and S-equoum - a comparative study in model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, A.K.; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory medium inoculated with 20 different Staphylococcus strains was prepared in accordance with a full Factorial experimental design investigating the effect of temperature. pH, NaCl and glucose on growth. The 32 strains most suited to growth in a fermented meat environment were inoculated in sausage minces together with Pediococcus pentosaceus, incubated at 25 C for I week and the produced aroma compounds collected. The data were analysed by multiple linear regression and partial least ...

  3. Retronasal aroma release and satiation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijschop, Rianne M A J; Boelrijk, Alexandra E M; de Graaf, Cees; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-11-11

    In view of the epidemic of obesity, one of the aims of the food industry is to develop good-tasting food products that may induce an increased level of satiation, preventing consumers from overeating. This review focuses on the possibility of using aroma as a trigger for inducing or increasing satiation. Using a novel approach of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APcI-MS) in combination with olfactometry, the relative importance of different aroma concepts for satiation was studied, from both consumer and food product points of view. The extent of retronasal aroma release appears to be a physiological feature that characterizes a person. Although the extent of retronasal aroma release appears to be subject specific, food product properties can be tailored in such a way that these can lead to a higher quality and/or quantity of retronasal aroma stimulation. This in turn provokes enhanced feelings of satiation and ultimately may contribute to a decrease in food intake. PMID:19817424

  4. AROMA results for OAEI 2008

    OpenAIRE

    David, Jérôme

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained by AROMA for its first participation to OAEI. AROMA is an hybrid, extensional and asymmetric ontology alignment method which makes use of the association paradigm and a statistical interstingness measure, the implication intensity.

  5. Food aroma affects bite size

    OpenAIRE

    de Wijk René A; Polet Ilse A; Boek Wilbert; Coenraad Saskia; Bult Johannes HF

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near t...

  6. ?-carotene biotransformation to obtain aroma compounds / Biotransformação de ?-caroteno para obtenção de compostos de aroma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana, Uenojo; Glaucia Maria, Pastore.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoides são importantes constituintes de alimentos por sua coloração e por seus produtos de degradação gerarem compostos voláteis em alimentos. Compostos de aromas derivados de carotenoides estão distribuídos na natureza, constituem precursores de aromas importantes em alimentos como frutas e e [...] m flores. Apresentam alto potencial aromático e, por isso, são de grande interesse para as indústrias de aromas e fragrâncias. Neste trabalho, mais de 300 microrganismos foram selecionados pelo método da placa, de acordo com sua capacidade de degradar carotenoides presentes no meio de cultura. Cerca de 80 linhagens apresentaram capacidade de produção de aromas e 7 cepas apresentaram descritores e intensidades de aromas de interesse, segundo um painel não treinado de provadores, sendo selecionadas e submetidas à fermentação submersa para produção de compostos aromas derivados de ?-caroteno. ?-Ionona foi o principal produto obtido da degradação de ?-caroteno, encontrado em maiores concentrações nas linhagens CS1 (34,0 mg.L-1) e CF9 (42,4 mg.L-1) em 72 e 24 horas de fermentação nos meios de cultura sem e com pré-inóculo, respectivamente. Os compostos ?-damascona e pseudoionona foram encontrados em baixas concentrações, 1,1,6-trimetil-1,2,3,4-tetraidronaftaleno (TTN) foi tentativamente identificado e apocarotenoides, provavelmente obtidos da clivagem da parte central do carotenoide, foram detectados. Abstract in english Carotenoids are important constituents of food due to their color and because their degradation products generate important volatile compounds in foods. Aroma compounds derived from carotenoids are widely distributed in nature, and they are precursors of many important aromas in foods such as fruits [...] and in flowers as well. They present high aromatic potential and are therefore of great interest to the industries of aromas and fragrances. In this study, more than 300 previously isolated microorganisms with potential for biotransformation of ?-carotene present in the culture medium were selected using the plate method; about 80 strains presented capacity to produce aroma compounds and 7 strains were selected by an untrained panel of tasters to generate aroma compounds. The ?-ionone was the main compound produced by CS1 (34.0 mg.L-1) and CF9 (42.4 mg.L-1) microorganisms at 72 and 24 hours of fermentation, cultured with and without pre-inoculation, respectively. The ?-damascone and pseudoionone were found in low concentrations, 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen (TTN) was tentatively identified and other compounds such as apocarotenoids, apparently obtained from the cleavage of the central part of the carotenoid, were detected.

  7. Food aroma affects bite size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

  8. Fragrance Analysis among Recombinant Inbred Lines of Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, R. K.; Sunita Jain; Uma Ahuja; Pummy Kumari

    2012-01-01

    The aroma or fragrance of Basmati rice is associated with the presence of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. Aroma in Basmati is reported to be monogenic recessive. Several PCR-based co-dominant markers based on RG28 locus were developed which can differentiate between fragrant and non-fragrant rice cultivars. For analysis of aroma among RILs derived from a diverse cross between CSR 10 and Taraori Basmati through SSD method both molecular as well as biochemical methods were used to clearly distinguish aro...

  9. Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces uvarum differ from Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the production of aroma-active higher alcohols and acetate esters using their amino acidic precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribny, Jiri; Gamero, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Querol, Amparo

    2015-07-16

    Higher alcohols and acetate esters are important flavour and aroma components in the food industry. In alcoholic beverages these compounds are produced by yeast during fermentation. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most extensively used species, other species of the Saccharomyces genus have become common in fermentation processes. This study analyses and compares the production of higher alcohols and acetate esters from their amino acidic precursors in three Saccharomyces species: Saccharomyces kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces uvarum and S. cerevisiae. The global volatile compound analysis revealed that S. kudriavzevii produced large amounts of higher alcohols, whereas S. uvarum excelled in the production of acetate esters. Particularly from phenylalanine, S. uvarum produced the largest amounts of 2-phenylethyl acetate, while S. kudriavzevii obtained the greatest 2-phenylethanol formation from this precursor. The present data indicate differences in the amino acid metabolism and subsequent production of flavour-active higher alcohols and acetate esters among the closely related Saccharomyces species. This knowledge will prove useful for developing new enhanced processes in fragrance, flavour, and food industries. PMID:25886016

  10. AROMA results for OAEI 2009

    OpenAIRE

    David, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained by AROMA for its second participation to OAEI. AROMA is an hybrid, extensional and asymmetric ontology alignment method that makes use of the association paradigm and a statistical interestingness measure, the implication intensity. AROMA performs a post-processing step that includes a terminological matcher. This year we modify this matcher in order to improve the recall obtained on real-case ontology, i.e. anatomy and 3xx tests.

  11. The effect of dispersion mechanisms on aroma delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Kris S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Dispersion of aroma compounds in food matrices is a common process in the production of many food products. However, the degrees of dispersion on the distribution and subsequent release of these compounds during consumption may have considerable consequences for perception of these flavours. This thesis investigates the effects of a range of dispersion techniques on the delivery and release of aroma compounds from several solid and semi-solid matrices which commonly contain added flavouri...

  12. Identification and quantification of the caproic acid-producing bacterium Clostridium kluyveri in the fermentation of pit mud used for Chinese strong-aroma type liquor production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Long; Du, Hai; Xu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Chinese strong-aroma type liquor (CSAL) is a popular distilled alcoholic beverage in China. It is produced by a complex fermentation process that is conducted in pits in the ground. Ethyl caproate is a key flavor compound in CSAL and is thought to originate from caproic acid produced by Clostridia inhabiting the fermentation pit mud. However, the particular species of Clostridium associated with this production are poorly understood and problematic to quantify by culturing. In this study, a total of 28 closest relatives including 15 Clostridia and 8 Bacilli species in pit muds from three CSAL distilleries, were detected by culture-dependent and -independent methods. Among them, Clostridium kluyveri was identified as the main producer of caproic acid. One representative strain C. kluyveri N6 could produce caproic, butyric and octanoic acids and their corresponding ethyl esters, contributing significantly to CSAL flavor. A real time quantitative PCR assay of C. kluyveri in pit muds developed showed that a concentration of 1.79×10(7) 16S rRNA gene copies/g pit mud in LZ-old pit was approximately six times higher than that in HLM and YH pits and sixty times higher than that in LZ-new pit respectively. This method can be used to improve the management of pit mud microbiology and its impact on CSAL quality. PMID:26267890

  13. Effect of destoned olive cake on the aromatic profile of cows’ milk and dairy products: comparison of two techniques for the headspace aroma profile analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rocchina Caputo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, carried out within the NOVOROD project (PSR Campania 2007-2013 Misura 124 HC, was to evaluate the aromatic profile of milk and dairy products of dairy cows supplemented with destoned olive cake (DOC. Two techniques for the headspace aroma profile analysis: the thermal desorption by gas chromatography with a mass selective (GC/MS detector and the electronic nose were compared. The trial was performed into a dairy cow farm. Ten dairy cows were allotted into two homogenous groups: control and experimental. Animals received the same diet, while in the experimental group the concentrate supplementation (15% dry matter was replaced with DOC. After two weeks of adaptation, animals were fed with the experimental diet for other 15 days. During the experimental period, the milk was collected and cumulatively processed in Caciotta cheese (a soft cheese, 25 days ripened and in Semicotto cheese (hard cheese, 3 months ripened for 13 times for each group. Milk and cheese volatile organic compounds (VOCs were extracted and concentrated with dynamic headspace method and determined by GC/MS. Statistical analysis of data, expressed in arbitrary units (a.u.=peak area × 10–6 and allotted in compound classes, was carried out by ANOVA. All data collected of VOCs were processed with principal component analysis (PCA. Milk and cheese samples were comparatively analysed with the electronic nose, fitted with a tenmetal oxide sensors electronic device. PCA has been used for the evaluation of the pattern data. Our results show that the use of DOC, as an unconventional feed for livestock, has no effect on the aromatic profile of both milk and dairy products. In fact, no significant differences were found in both milk and dairy products between the two groups using the GC/MS method. Also the discriminating analysis carried out by electronic nose did not show significant differences between the two groups. The two compared techniques seem to lead to the same result.

  14. Yeast strains as potential aroma enhancers in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Mónica; Corral, Sara; Cano-García, Liliana; Salvador, Ana; Belloch, Carmela

    2015-11-01

    Actual healthy trends produce changes in the sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausages therefore, new strategies are needed to enhance their aroma. In particular, a reduction in the aroma characteristics was observed in reduced fat and salt dry sausages. In terms of aroma enhancing, generally coagulase-negative cocci were selected as the most important group from the endogenous microbiota in the production of flavour compounds. Among the volatile compounds analysed in dry sausages, ester compounds contribute to fruity aroma notes associated with high acceptance of traditional dry sausages. However, the origin of ester compounds in traditional dry sausages can be due to other microorganisms as lactic acid bacteria, yeast and moulds. Yeast contribution in dry fermented sausages was investigated with opposite results attributed to low yeast survival or low activity during processing. Generally, they affect sausage colour and flavour by their oxygen-scavenging and lipolytic activities in addition to, their ability to catabolize fermentation products such as lactate increasing the pH and contributing to less tangy and more aromatic sausages. Recently, the isolation and characterization of yeast from traditional dry fermented sausages made possible the selection of those with ability to produce aroma active compounds. Molecular methods were used for genetic typing of the isolated yeasts whereas their ability to produce aroma compounds was tested in different systems such as in culture media, in model systems and finally on dry fermented sausages. The results revealed that the appropriate selection of yeast strains with aroma potential may be used to improve the sensory characteristics of reformulated fermented sausages. PMID:25765533

  15. Biodegradation of C5-C 8 fatty acids and production of aroma volatiles by Myroides sp. ZB35 isolated from activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zijun; Zhu, Xiankun; Xi, Lijun; Hou, Xiaoyuan; Fang, Li; Lu, Jian R

    2014-05-01

    In the effluents of a biologically treated wastewater from a heavy oil-refining plant, C5-C8 fatty acids including pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid, heptanoic acid, octanoic acid, and 2-methylbutanoic acid are often detected. As these residual fatty acids can cause further air and water pollution, a new Myroides isolate ZB35 from activated sludge was explored to degrade these C5-C8 fatty acids in this study. It was found that the biodegradation process involved a lag phase that became prolonged with increasing acyl chain length when the fatty acids were individually fed to this strain. However, when fed as a mixture, the ones with longer acyl chains were found to become more quickly assimilated. The branched 2-methylbutanoic acid was always the last one to be depleted among the five fatty acids under both conditions. Metabolite analysis revealed one possible origin of short chain fatty acids in the biologically treated wastewater. Aroma volatiles including 2-methylbutyl isovalerate, isoamyl 2-methylbutanoate, isoamyl isovalerate, and 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutanoate were subsequently identified from ZB35 extracts, linking the source of the fruity odor to these esters excreted by Myroides species. To our best knowledge, this is the first finding of these aroma esters in bacteria. From a biotechnological viewpoint, this study has revealed the potential of Myroides species as a promising source of aroma esters attractive for food and fragrance industries. PMID:24810320

  16. Characterization of headspace aroma compounds of freshly brewed arabica coffees and studies on a characteristic aroma compound of Ethiopian coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, M; Murakami, K; Hirano, Y; Ikeda, M; Iwatsuki, K; Wada, A; Tokuno, K; Onishi, M; Iwabuchi, H

    2008-06-01

    A sampling method to isolate headspace volatiles of freshly brewed drip coffee using a solid-phase microextraction fiber (fiber type: divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane) in a short time (2 min) immediately after extraction has been developed. Volatile compounds and potent odorants obtained from each headspace aroma of various arabica coffee extracts (3 production countries: Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Guatemala; 3 roasting degrees for each country: L26, L23, and L18) using the sampling method were examined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/olfactometry (GC/O, CharmAnalysis). The results of principal component analysis (PCA) using the data of GC/O analysis showed that the aroma profile of Ethiopian coffee was discriminately different from those of Tanzanian coffee and Guatemalan coffee. In addition, it was suggested from the factor loading of the PCA that 4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone (raspberry ketone; sweet-fruity odor) characterized the aroma profile of freshly brewed Ethiopian coffee. Therefore, the 4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone was quantified in the 9 kinds of coffee extracts. Ethiopian coffee extract of the lightly roasted degree (roasting degree: L26) contained the highest amount of this component, while it was only a little over the reported threshold. In the sensory test, the headspace aromas of Tanzanian and Guatemalan coffees in which 4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone was added were, respectively, discriminated from not added samples, and "sweet" odor was selected as an odor description that assessors found similarity between the added Tanzanian or Guatemalan coffee aroma and the Ethiopian coffee aroma. It was suggested that 4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone made some detectable change on total aroma profile even though the added amount was only near threshold level. PMID:18576978

  17. The Development of Aromas in Ruminant Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Campo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an update on our understanding of the chemical reactions (lipid oxidation, Strecker and Maillard reactions, thiamine degradation and a discussion of the principal aroma compounds derived from those reaction or other sources in cooked meat, mainly focused on ruminant species. This knowledge is essential in order to understand, control, and improve the quality of food products. More studies are necessary to fully understand the role of each compound in the overall cooked meat flavour and their possible effect in consumer acceptability.

  18. Selective removal of methyl mercaptan in coffee aroma using oxidized microporous carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakano, T. [Ajinomoto General Foods Inc., Tokyo (Japan). Central Research Laboratoties; Tamon, H.; Okazaki, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-10-01

    Coffee aroma recovered from the extraction process of roasted coffee beans is used to improve the quality of soluble coffee products. Coffee aroma often has an irritating sulfurous odor. In the present work, it is experimentally elucidated that methyl mercaptan could be selectively removed from the coffee aroma-containing gas by the oxidized microporous carbon. Breakthrough curves of coffee aroma-containing gas on zeolite 5A, microporous carbon (MSC 5A), and MSC 5A oxidized with 13.2N HNO{sub 3} aqueous solution revealed that the adsorption capacity of methyl mercaptan on the oxidized carbon was 4.2 times of that on the zeolite. The loss of desired coffee aroma was decreased using the oxidized carbon in the removal of methyl mercaptan. (author)

  19. Analysis of characteristic aroma of fungal fermented Fuzhuan brick-tea by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, X.Q.; Mo, H.Z.; Yan, M.C.; Yang Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Fuzhuan brick-tea is a popular fermented Chinese dark tea because of its typical fungal aroma. Fungal growth during the production process is the key step in achieving the unique colour, aroma and taste of Fuzhuan brick-tea. To further understand the generation of the characteristic aroma, changes in the main volatile compounds of Fuzhuan brick-tea during the fungal growth stage were studied by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry. The results showed that the content of volatile compound...

  20. Aroma therapy and medfly SIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelly, Todd E., E-mail: todd.e.shelly@aphis.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-APHIS), HI (United States). Animal and Plant Health Inspection

    2006-07-01

    A summary of the main findings of the research program on the biological competence of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (med fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and the development and implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest is presented. The potential application of aroma therapy to improve the mating success of sterile med fly males is studied. The report assumes a loosely chronological framework as it documents progression along two experimental scales: the number of males simultaneously exposed to ginger root oil, starting with small groups of 25 males and ending with rooms with nearly 200 million males; the experimental arena used to test the effects of aroma therapy, progressing from standard field-cages to large field enclosures to the open field. In addition, brief comments are offered regarding the potential negative effects of GRO exposure, the mechanisms underlying GRO-mediated improvement in male mating success, and the financial costs of GRO aroma therapy. (MAC)

  1. Aroma therapy and medfly SIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of the main findings of the research program on the biological competence of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (med fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and the development and implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest is presented. The potential application of aroma therapy to improve the mating success of sterile med fly males is studied. The report assumes a loosely chronological framework as it documents progression along two experimental scales: the number of males simultaneously exposed to ginger root oil, starting with small groups of 25 males and ending with rooms with nearly 200 million males; the experimental arena used to test the effects of aroma therapy, progressing from standard field-cages to large field enclosures to the open field. In addition, brief comments are offered regarding the potential negative effects of GRO exposure, the mechanisms underlying GRO-mediated improvement in male mating success, and the financial costs of GRO aroma therapy. (MAC)

  2. Combined heterogeneous distribution of salt and aroma in food enhances salt perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emorine, Marion; Septier, Chantal; Andriot, Isabelle; Martin, Christophe; Salles, Christian; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry

    2015-05-01

    Aroma-taste interactions and heterogeneous spatial distribution of tastants were used as strategies for taste enhancement. This study investigated the combination of these two strategies through the effect of heterogeneous salt and aroma distribution on saltiness enhancement and consumer liking for hot snacks. Four-layered cream-based products were designed with the same total amount of sodium and ham aroma but varied in their spatial distribution. Unflavoured products containing the same amount of salt and 35% more salt were used as references. A consumer panel (n = 82) rated the intensity of salty, sweet, sour, bitter and umami tastes as well as ham and cheese aroma intensity for each product. The consumers also rated their liking for the products in a dedicated sensory session. The results showed that adding salt-associated aroma (ham) led to enhancement of salty taste perception regardless of the spatial distribution of salt and aroma. Moreover, products with a higher heterogeneity of salt distribution were perceived as saltier (p perception. Furthermore, heterogeneous products were well liked by consumers compared to the homogeneous products. PMID:25856503

  3. Acute Effects of Complexity in Aroma Composition on Satiation and Food Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Ruijschop, R.M.A.J.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burgering, M.J.M.; de Graaf, C; Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    Compared to placebo, subjects felt significantly more satiated during aroma stimulation with the multicomponent strawberry aroma in the olfactometer-aided setting. Additionally, perceived satiation was significantly increased 10-15 min after consumption of the multicomponent strawberry-aromatized sweetened yogurt product in the ad libitum eating setting. There was no effect on the amount of strawberry-aromatized sweetened yogurt product consumed ad libitum. Apart from the differences in timin...

  4. Aroma formation by immobilized yeast cells in fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedovi?, V; Gibson, B; Mantzouridou, T F; Bugarski, B; Djordjevi?, V; Kaluševi?, A; Paraskevopoulou, A; Sandell, M; Šmogrovi?ová, D; Yilmaztekin, M

    2015-01-01

    Immobilized cell technology has shown a significant promotional effect on the fermentation of alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and cider. However, genetic, morphological and physiological alterations occurring in immobilized yeast cells impact on aroma formation during fermentation processes. The focus of this review is exploitation of existing knowledge on the biochemistry and the biological role of flavour production in yeast for the biotechnological production of aroma compounds of industrial importance, by means of immobilized yeast. Various types of carrier materials and immobilization methods proposed for application in beer, wine, fruit wine, cider and mead production are presented. Engineering aspects with special emphasis on immobilized cell bioreactor design, operation and scale-up potential are also discussed. Ultimately, examples of products with improved quality properties within the alcoholic beverages are addressed, together with identification and description of the future perspectives and scope for cell immobilization in fermentation processes. PMID:25267117

  5. Direct Aromaization of Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Marcelin

    1997-01-15

    The thermal decomposition of methane offers significant potential as a means of producing higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of reaction is limited. Work in the literature previous to this project had shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds would significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon or heavier (Clo+) materials. This project studied the effect and optimization of the quenching process as a means of increasing the amount of value added products during the pyrolysis of methane. A reactor was designed to rapidly quench the free-radical combustion reaction so as to maximize the yield of aromatics. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts were studied as a means of lowering the reaction temperature. A lower reaction temperature would have the benefits of more rapid quenching as well as a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. It was the goal of the project to identify promising routes from methane to higher hydrocarbons based on the pyrolysis of methane.

  6. Taste and aroma of fresh and stored mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietel, Zipora; Plotto, Anne; Fallik, Elazar; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Porat, Ron

    2011-01-15

    During the last decade there has been a continuous rise in consumption of fresh easy-to-peel mandarins. However, mandarins are much more perishable than other citrus fruit, mainly due to rapid deterioration in sensory acceptability after harvest. In the current review we discuss the biochemical components involved in forming the unique flavor of mandarins, and how postharvest storage operations influence taste and aroma and consequently consumer sensory acceptability. What we perceive as mandarin flavor is actually the combination of basic taste, aroma and mouth-feel. The taste of mandarins is principally governed by the levels of sugars and acids in the juice sacs and the relative ratios among them, whereas the aroma of mandarins is derived from a mixture of different aroma volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, terpenes/hydrocarbons and esters. During postharvest storage and marketing there is a gradual decrease in mandarin sensory acceptability, which has been attributed to decreases in acidity and typical mandarin flavor, paralleling an accumulation of off-flavor. Biochemical analysis of volatile and non-volatile constituents in mandarin juice demonstrated that these changes in sensory acceptability were concomitant with decreases in acidity and content of terpenes and aldehydes, which provide green, piney and citrus aroma on the one hand, and increases in ethanol fermentation metabolism products and esters on the other, which are likely to cause 'overripe' and off-flavors. Overall, we demonstrate the vast importance of the genetic background, maturity stage at harvest, commercial postharvest operation treatments, including curing, degreening and waxing, and storage duration on mandarin sensory quality. PMID:20812381

  7. Gas chromatographic-olfactometric characterization of aroma compounds in two types of cashew apple nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, M Filomena; Rouseff, Russell L; Lin, Jianming

    2003-02-12

    Cashew apple nectar is a secondary product from the production of cashew nuts and possesses an exotic tropical aroma. Aroma volatiles in pasteurized and reconstituted (from concentrate) Brazilian cashew apple nectars were determined using GC-MS and split, time-intensity GC-olfactometry (GC-O)/GC-FID. Methional, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, (Z)-2-nonenal, (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, beta-damascenone, and delta-decalactone were identified for the first time in cashew apple products. These compounds plus butyric acid, ethyl 3-methylbutyrate, 2-methylbutyric acid, acetic acid, benzaldehyde, homofuraneol, (E)-2-nonenal, gamma-dodecalactone, and an unknown were the most intense aroma volatiles. Thirty-six aroma volatiles were detected in the reconstituted sample and 41 in the pasteurized sample. Thirty-four aroma active components were common to both samples. Ethyl 3-methylbutyrate and 2-methylbutyric acid were character impact compounds of cashew apple (warm, fruity, tropical, sweaty). Using GC-pFPD, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl) disulfide were identified for the first time in cashew apple. Both were aroma active (meaty). PMID:12568564

  8. True cooking aroma or artefact. 15N gives the answer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the respective contributions of the various nitrous precursor families in aroma preparations, the usually added amino acids were substituted with 15N isotope labelled homologous components. Results concerning isotope ratios for the volatile fraction nitrous components collected from poultry meat aromatic preparations, are presented. Terminal product labelling appears to allow for a better determination of the substrate and functional additive contributions. 4 figs., 6 refs

  9. Release and perception of aroma compounds during consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Weel, K.G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Key words: MS-Nose, in vivo aroma release, aroma perception, mouth model, artificial throat, liquid protocol, sweeteners, reversible protein-aroma interactions, emulsions, oil content, droplet size distribution, gel hardness, texture, cross-modal interactions.This thesis evaluated and validated the MS-Nose as a tool to measure aroma release during food consumption. Subsequently, the MS-Nose was used to enhance understanding of the interaction between release and perception of aroma during con...

  10. Aroma compounds in fresh cut pomegranate arils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum). Although arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing actual compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Since most commercial usage of pomegranates in...

  11. Aroma potential of oak battens prepared from decommissioned oak barrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sijing; Crump, Anna M; Grbin, Paul R; Cozzolino, Daniel; Warren, Peter; Hayasaka, Yoji; Wilkinson, Kerry L

    2015-04-01

    During barrel maturation, volatile compounds are extracted from oak wood and impart aroma and flavor to wine, enhancing its character and complexity. However, barrels contain a finite pool of extractable material, which diminishes with time. As a consequence, most barrels are decommissioned after 5 or 6 years. This study investigated whether or not decommissioned barrels can be "reclaimed" and utilized as a previously untapped source of quality oak for wine maturation. Oak battens were prepared from staves of decommissioned French and American oak barrels, and their composition analyzed before and after toasting. The oak lactone glycoconjugate content of untoasted reclaimed oak was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, while the concentrations of cis- and trans-oak lactone, guaiacol, 4-methlyguaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, furfural, and 5-methylfurfural present in toasted reclaimed oak were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aroma potential was then evaluated by comparing the composition of reclaimed oak with that of new oak. Comparable levels of oak lactone glycoconjugates and oak volatiles were observed, demonstrating the aroma potential of reclaimed oak and therefore its suitability as a raw material for alternative oak products, i.e., chips or battens, for the maturation of wine. The temperature profiles achieved during toasting were also measured to evaluate the viability of any yeast or bacteria present in reclaimed oak. PMID:25771908

  12. Organophilic pervaporation for aroma isolation : industrial and commercial prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Willemsen, J.H.A.; Dijkink, B.H.; Togtema, A.

    2004-01-01

    This article looks at organophilic pervaporation for aroma isolation. It covers recent developments in this field, and looks at the economic implications of the technology for producing natural aroma extracts.

  13. Stochastic modelling of Listeria monocytogenes single cell growth in cottage cheese with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from aroma producing cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-01-01

    A stochastic model was developed for simultaneous growth of low numbers of Listeria monocytogenes and populations of lactic acid bacteria from the aroma producing cultures applied in cottage cheese. During more than two years, different batches of cottage cheese with aroma culture were analysed for pH, lactic acid concentration and initial concentration of lactic acid bacteria. These data and bootstrap sampling were used to represent product variability in the stochastic model. Lag time data wer...

  14. Impact of Fruit Piece Structure in Yogurts on the Dynamics of Aroma Release and Sensory Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Souchon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma stimuli, which can influence nutritional and hedonic characteristics, as well as consumption behaviors. In yogurts, fruit preparation formulation can be a key factor to modulate aroma stimulation. In this context, the impact of size and hardness of fruit pieces in fat-free pear yogurts was studied. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was used to allow sensitive and on-line monitoring of volatile odorous compound release in the breath during consumption. In parallel, a trained panel used sensory profile and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS methods to characterize yogurt sensory properties and their dynamic changes during consumption. Results showed that the size of pear pieces had few effects on aroma release and perception of yogurts, whereas fruit hardness significantly influenced them. Despite the fact that yogurts presented short and similar residence times in the mouth, this study showed that fruit preparation could be an interesting formulation factor to enhance exposure time to stimuli and thus modify food consumption behaviors. These results could be taken into account to formulate new products that integrate both nutritional and sensory criteria.

  15. About visualization of the aroma of fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Kharlamov, Alexander A.; Burrows, Hugh D.

    2001-01-01

    Fluorimetry has been used to detect the luminescence in vivo of native organic volatiles emitted from the surface of various fruits. This luminescence near the surface of fruits was visualized in the visible spectral region as color photo-images using different excitations. While the origin of this luminescence has not yet been confirmed, the results demonstrate that fluorimetry of natural aroma emission is a very promising method for studying biochemical environment of fruits that may be ext...

  16. Healing of pain by music and aroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To see the alteration and modification by music and aroma of the brain activity at the moment of pain stimulus, authors studied 3D images by dynamic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with continuous intravenous 99mTc-HMPAO (hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime) method that they had developed. The radiopharmaceutical was i.v. injected at a constant infusion rate of 1,110 MBq/30 ml/30 min and dynamic SPECT was performed for 30 min at every 2 min interval with the gamma camera GCA 7200A/UI 2-head SPECT system (Toshiba) to make the time-activity curve of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). During the infusion, pain stimulus was given by clipping the tip of third finger for 3 sec repeatedly for 2 min. Subjects, healthy normal or with disease, were 18 cases with no healing, 14 with music and 32 with aroma. Pain alone or plus pop music induced rCBF increase in wide regions of the brain while slow-paced music or calm aroma (rose and lavender) suppressed the rCBF increase by pain in the lateral margin of frontal lobe. These changes were thought to be related to healing effects. (T.I.)

  17. Retenção de aroma na secagem em atmosferas normal e modificada: desenvolvimento do sistema de estudo / Aroma retention in drying with normal and modified atmosphere: development of a study system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcilio Machado, Morais; Maria Aparecida, Silva.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Na secagem de determinados alimentos, como frutas, juntamente com a água há também a evaporação de outras substâncias voláteis presentes em quantidades menores. Por isso, torna-se interessante considerar nos estudos de secagem a evaporação, além da água, desses outros componentes voláteis. A modific [...] ação da atmosfera tem sido utilizada em armazenamento, principalmente de vegetais, mas pode também ser estendida à secagem, pois pode influenciar a perda de voláteis responsáveis pelas características sensoriais do produto final. No presente trabalho, é apresentado um sistema de secagem previamente desenvolvido, no qual a atmosfera de secagem pode ser modificada pela adição de gases ou líquidos. Desenvolveu-se um sistema-modelo a partir da composição química básica do abacaxi e da adição de outros compostos, contendo um dos principais componentes do aroma desta fruta (hexanoato de etila). Além disso, também foi desenvolvida a metodologia analítica de determinação do aroma no sistema-modelo e no abacaxi, a partir dos estudos de extração de aromas e de análise cromatográfica gasosa. O aroma presente no sistema-modelo foi extraído em hexano e os componentes voláteis do aroma do abacaxi foram extraídos em éter etílico Abstract in english In the drying of some foods such as fruits, besides water there is also the evaporation of other volatile substances present in lesser amounts. Therefore, it is interesting to consider the evaporation of volatile components other than water in drying studies. The modification of atmosphere has been [...] used for storage only, especially for vegetables, but it can be extended to drying since it can influence the loss of volatile components responsible for the sensorial characteristics of the final product. In the present study, a drying system previously developed, in which the drying atmosphere can be modified by the addition of gases or liquids, was presented. A model-system was developed from the basic chemical composition of pineapple and the addition of other compounds containing one of the main aroma components (ethyl hexanoate). An analytical methodology for determing the aroma components present in the model-system and in the pineapple was developed from the studies of aroma extraction and gas chromatography. The aroma present in the model-system was extracted with hexane, and the volatile aroma components of the pineapple were extracted with ethylic ether

  18. Characterization and evaluation of coconut aroma produced by Trichoderma viride EMCC-107 in solid state fermentation on sugarcane bagasse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hoda Hanem Mohamed, Fadel; Manal Gomaa, Mahmoud; Mohsen Mohamed Selim, Asker; Shereen Nazeh, Lotfy.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Sugarcane bagasse was shown to be an adequate substrate for the growth and aroma production by Trichoderma species. In the present work the ability of Trichoderma viride EMCC-107 to produce high yield of coconut aroma in solid state fermentation (SSF) by using sugarcane bagasse as solid s [...] ubstrate was evaluated. The produced aroma was characterized. Results Total carbohydrates comprised the highest content (43.9% w/w) compared with the other constituents in sugarcane bagasse. The sensory and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the highest odor intensity and maximum yield of volatiles were perceived at the 5th d of induction period. The unsaturated lactone, 6-pentyl-?-pyrone (6-PP), was the major identified volatile compound. Saturated lactones, ?-octalactone, ?-nonalactone, ?-undecalactone, ?-dodecalactone and ?-dodecalactone, were also identified in the coconut aroma produced during the induction period (12 d). A quite correlation was found between the composition and odor profile of the produced aroma. The effect of varying the concentration of sugarcane bagasse on 6-PP production and biomass growth was evaluated. The results revealed high 6-PP production at 4.5 g sugarcane bagasse whereas the biomass showed significant (P

  19. Effect of gamma-radiation on major aroma compounds and vanillin glucoside of cured vanilla beans (Vanilla planifolia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing of food materials by gamma-radiation is a well established method for microbial decontamination and insect disinfestation. Irradiation of spices at doses ranging from 10 to 30 kGy has been reported to result in complete elimination of microorganisms with negligible changes in the flavour quality. The effect of gamma-radiation on microflora and vanillin content of cured vanilla beans in the dose range of 5-50 kGy has been investigated, but its effect on other major aroma compounds and vanillin glucoside (vanillin aroma precursor) remaining after curing have not been studied so far. Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) is one such compound used as a flavouring agent and as a dietary component. It is the major component of natural vanilla, which is one of the most widely used and important flavouring materials throughout the world. Vanillin is an antioxidant capable of protecting membrane against lipid peroxidation and DNA against strand breaks induced by reactive oxygen species. The present work was aimed to study the effect of gamma-radiation processing on the major aroma compounds of cured vanilla beans and also to investigate possible enhancement in vanillin content by the radiolytic breakdown of vanillin glucoside present already. Cured vanilla beans were irradiated (5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 kGy) and the vanillin content of control and irradiated samples were analysed, respectively for a possible enhancement of vanillin content by radiolysis of vanillin glucoside. Radiolytic breakdown of glycosidic precursors of aroma constituents and consequent release of free aroma was shown to result in the enhancement of aroma quality of these products. Since a considerable amount of vanillin exists as its glycosidic precursor in cured vanilla pods, a possible enhancement in yield of vanillin by radiation processing is thus expected. Hence the highly stable oxygen-carbon linkage between vanillin and glucose limits the possible enhancement of aroma quality of irradiated beans. (author)

  20. Identification of impact aroma compounds in Eugenia uniflora L. (Brazilian Pitanga) leaf essential oil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosineia M., Melo; Vivian F. S., Corrêa; Ana Carolina L., Amorim; Ana Luisa P., Miranda; Claudia M., Rezende.

    Full Text Available O óleo essencial das folhas de Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) foi obtido a partir do arraste a vapor em aparelhagem de Clevenger e analisado por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas. As folhas foram colhidas e imediatamente extraídas durante cinco dias consecutivos, às 9 e 14h, [...] não sendo observada variação significativa no rendimento dos óleos extraídos no período. Furanodieno e seu produto de rearranjo, furanoelemeno (ou curzereno, num total de 50,2%), beta-elemeno (5,9%) e alfa-cadinol (4,7%) foram os constituintes majoritários. Pela técnica de cromatografia gasosa-olfatometria (CG-O), associada à análise por diluição de aroma AEDA (Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis), foi possível identificar nove substâncias ativas no aroma do óleo de pitanga, sendo que três foram consideradas como de maior impacto: furanodieno (juntamente com furanoelemeno, FD 1024), beta-elemeno (FD 256) e (E,E)-germacrona (FD 256). A mistura destas três substâncias, coletadas a partir do CG-sniffing port, levou a uma essência de pitanga de aroma bastante semelhante à fruta, de acordo com a avaliação por análise olfativa comparativa. Abstract in english The leaf essential oil of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) was extracted by Clevenger apparatus and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The leaves were collected and immediately extracted for five consecutive days at 9:00 am and 2:00 pm. No variance in the oil yields were observ [...] ed in the period. Furanodiene and its rearrangement product, furanoelemene (or curzerene, 50.2%), beta-elemene (5.9%) and alpha-cadinol (4.7%) were identified as the most abundant compounds. GC-Olfatometry (GC-O) associated to Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA) allowed the identification of nine active aroma compounds, where furanodiene (along with furanoelemene, FD 1024), beta-elemene (FD 256) and (E,E)-germacrone (FD 256) were characterized as the main impact aroma compounds in the odor of this essential oil. Those substances were collected through a sniffing port adapted on the GC allowing to obtain a typical essence of pitanga as indicated by comparative olfatometric analysis.

  1. Metabolomics in melon: A new opportunity for aroma analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Allwood, J. William; CHEUNG, WILLIAM; Xu, Yun; Mumm, Roland; De Vos, Ric C. H.; Deborde, Catherine; Biais, Benoit; Maucourt, Mickael; Berger, Yosef; Schaffer, Arthur A.; Rolin, Dominique; Moing, Annick; Hall, Robert D; Goodacre, Royston

    2014-01-01

    Melon fruit value is highly influenced by aroma. A simple and robust method of trapping volatile organic compounds combined with detection via thermal desorption (TD)-GC–MS has been developed. Principal component analysis of aroma profiles permitted the characterisation of distinct and closely related melon cultivars according to aromatic quality and shelf life.

  2. Aroma Compounds Prevision using Artificial Neural Networks Influence of Newly Indigenous Saccharomyces SPP in White Wine Produced with Vitis Vinifera Cv Siria

    OpenAIRE

    Caldeira, A. Teresa; Martins, M. Rosário; Cabrita, Maria João; Ambrósio, Cristina; Arteiro, José; Neves, José; Vicente, Henrique

    2010-01-01

    Commercial yeasts strains of Saccharomyces cerevisae are frequently used in white wine production as starters in fermentation process, however, these strains can affect the wine characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three strains of Saccharomyces spp. (var. 1, 2 and 3) on wine aroma compounds produced in microvinification assays. Microvinification assays were carried out with Vitis vinifera cv Síria grapes using the strains in study as starters. Aroma compounds ...

  3. Chemical composition of volatile aroma metabolites and their glycosylated precursors that can uniquely differentiate individual grape cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaste, Manoj; Narduzzi, Luca; Carlin, Silvia; Vrhovsek, Urska; Shulaev, Vladimir; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-12-01

    Every grape cultivar has its own unique genetic characteristics, leading to the production of a different secondary metabolite profile. Aroma is one of the most important aspects in terms of the quality of grapes and previous studies have assigned specific aromas to particular grape cultivars. In this study we present the molecular profiling of volatile aroma metabolites and their precursors in ten selected genotypes, including six Vitis vinifera cultivars, two American species (Arizonica Texas, Vitis cinerea) and two interspecific crosses. Chemical profiling was achieved through combined use of two orthogonal techniques, GC-MS and LC-HRMS, before and after enzymatic hydrolysis. The results show that both free and glycosidically bound aroma precursors behave differently in each different grape cultivar and species. As many as 66 free aroma volatile molecules (originally existing and released after hydrolysis) were profiled through GC-MS analysis, while 15 glycosylated precursors of volatiles were identified through LC-HRMS and correlation with GC-MS data. PMID:26041197

  4. The influence of different types of preparation (espresso and brew) on coffee aroma and main bioactive constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Cortese, Manuela; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular hot drinks in the world; it may be prepared by several methods, but the most common forms are boiled (brew) and pressurized (espresso). Analytical studies on the substances responsible for the pleasant aroma of roasted coffee have been carried out for more than 100 years. Brew coffee and espresso coffee (EC) have a different and peculiar aroma profile, demonstrating the importance of the brewing process on the final product sensorial quality. Concerning bioactive compounds, the extraction mechanism plays a crucial role. The differences in the composition of coffee brew in chlorogenic acids and caffeine content is the result of the different procedures of coffee preparation. The aim of the present review is to detail how the brewing process affects coffee aroma and composition. PMID:26171629

  5. Effect of ultrasound emulsification on cheese aroma encapsulation by carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongenot, N; Charrier, S; Chalier, P

    2000-03-01

    The encapsulation of liquid cheese aroma (20%) in different carbohydrate matrices by spray-drying was investigated. Carbohydrate stabilized emulsions have been prepared by two emulsifying methods, ultrasonic or Ultra-Turrax treatments, and have been compared in terms of emulsion stability and encapsulation efficiency. The use of ultrasound is particularly effective to obtain a stable emulsion with maltodextrin as support, which is known for poor emulsification properties. In the same way, the spray-dried maltodextrin microcapsules were more effective for retaining cheese aroma when ultrasound (12.7 g/100 g of dry powder) was used for the emulsification step rather than Ultra-Turrax (10.7 g/100 g of dry powder). In terms of encapsulation efficiency, the best system of cheese aroma encapsulation is obtained using ultrasound for the emulsification step and modified starch as support (94.3%). With this support, the positive effect of ultrasound resulted in a lower microcaspsule size and in a higher aroma retention than when Ultra-Turrax was used (83.3%). Studies on the aroma profiles showed changes after encapsulation that depend not only on the nature of the support and the emulsification method but also on the interactions between the aroma compound and the matrix. In terms of flavor quality, the best system of cheese aroma encapsulation is obtained using ultrasound and maltodextrin as support. PMID:10725164

  6. Effects of retro-nasal aroma release on satiation

    OpenAIRE

    Ruijschop, R.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; De Ru, J. A.; de Graaf, C; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.

    2008-01-01

    It is suggested that the brain response of a food odour sensed retro-nasally is related to satiation. The extent of retro-nasal aroma release during consumption depends on the physical structure of a food, i.e. solid foods generate a longer, more pronounced retro-nasal aroma release than liquid foods. The aim of this study was to investigate if a beverage becomes more satiating when the retro-nasal aroma release profile coincides with the profile of a (soft) solid food. In a double-blind plac...

  7. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Pinelo, Manuel; Varming, Camilla; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2011-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up. The data were compared to recovery of the aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). The flux of SGMD increased with an increase in temperature, feed flow rate or sweeping...

  8. Investigation into the aroma of rosemary using multi-channel silicone rubber traps, off-line olfactometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandri, van der Wat; Martin, Dovey; Yvette, Naudé; Patricia B.C., Forbes.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi-channel polydimethylsiloxane rubber traps were used to sample the headspace of rosemary samples (two essential oils from different sources, one oleoresin and one dried herb) followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography -time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS) or GC-MS an [...] alyses. The aroma of different headspace samples was characterized using a custom-built olfactory apparatus. The differences between the aroma profiles were evident from bubble plots of the perceived aroma at different temperatures. The samples were heat-treated to simulate cooking of food products, and were then reassessed to determine any changes in the aroma profile. It was found that the intense menthol and cooling aromas subsided in all the samples with heating. GCxGC-TOFMS allowed for separation of the numerous components in the headspace samples. Many terpenes and aliphatics were thus tentatively identified and the relative peak areas were compared to better understand the mixture that contributes to the rosemary aroma.

  9. Beyond the characterization of wine aroma compounds: looking for analytical approaches in trying to understand aroma perception during wine consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Moreno Arribas, Mª Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, Mª Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    The volatile compounds present in wines are responsible for the quality of the wine aroma. The analysis of these compounds requires different analytical techniques depending on the type of compounds and their concentration. The importance at sensorial level of each compound should be evaluated by using olfactometric techniques and reconstitution and omission studies. In addition, wine aroma is influenced by other factors such as wine matrix, which could affect the compounds’ volatility, decre...

  10. Aroma release from wines under dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsachaki, Maroussa; Linforth, Robert S T; Taylor, Andrew J

    2009-08-12

    Aroma release from wines and model ethanolic solutions during dynamic headspace dilution was measured in real time using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. Model ethanolic solutions maintained the headspace concentration of volatile compounds close to equilibrium values during gas phase dilution over 10 min. Wine samples (with the same ethanol content) did not maintain the headspace concentration of volatiles to the same extent. Wine components and acidity ((+)-catechin, glycerol; pH 3.6) in model ethanolic solutions (120 mL/L) had no effect on the volatile headspace concentration during dynamic headspace dilution. However, in the presence of certain proteins (beta-lactoglobulin, beta-casein, bovine serum albumin), the model ethanolic solutions failed to maintain their volatile headspace concentration upon headspace dilution, but other proteins (thaumatin, mucin, lysozyme) had no effect. Thermal imaging of the model ethanolic samples (with and without beta-casein) under dynamic headspace dilution conditions showed differences in surface temperatures. This observation suggested perturbation of the ethanol monolayer at the air-liquid interface and disruption of the Marangoni effect, which causes bulk convection within ethanolic solutions. Convection carries volatile compounds and warm liquid from the bulk phase to the air-liquid interface, thus replenishing the interfacial concentration and maintaining the gas phase concentration and interfacial surface temperature during headspace dilution. It is postulated that certain proteins may exert a similar effect in wine. PMID:19601627

  11. Analysis of neutral volatile aroma components in Tilsit cheese using a combination of dynamic headspace technique, capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilsit cheese is made by the influence of lab ferment and starter cultures on milk. The ripening is done by repeated inoculation of the surface of the Tilsit cheese with yeasts and read smear cultures. This surface flora forms the typical aroma of the Tilsit cheese during the ripening process. The aim of the work was to receive general knowledge about the kind and amount of the neutral volatile aroma components of Tilsit cheese. Beyond this the ability of forming aroma components by read smear cultures and the dispersion of these components in cheese was to be examined. The results were intended to evaluate the formation of aroma components in Tilsit cheese. The semi-quantitative analyses of the aroma components of all samples were done by combining dynamic headspace extraction, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In this process the neutral volatile aroma components were extracted by dynamic headspace technique, adsorbed on a trap, thermally desorbed, separated by gas chromatography, detected and identified by mass spectrometry. 63 components belonging to the chemical classes of esters, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols and sulfur containing substances as well as aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons were found in the analysed cheese samples of different Austrian Tilsit manufacturing plants. All cheese samples showed a qualitative equal but quantitative varied spectrum of aroma components. The cultivation of pure cultures on a cheese agar medium showed all analysed aroma components to be involved in the biochemical metabolism of these cultures. The ability to produce aroma components greatly differed between the strains and it was not possible to correlate this ability with the taxonomic classification of the strains. The majority of the components had a non-homogeneous concentration profile in the cheese body. This was explained by effects of diffusion and temporal and spatial different forming of components by the metabolism of the surface flora during ripening. Therefore the conclusion can be drawn that part of the components are formed by the starter cultures and are homogeneous spread in the cheese body at the beginning of the ripening. On the one hand the metabolism of the read smear bacteria and yeasts leads to a reduction of the components. Hereby the concentration gradient is compensated by diffusion of aroma components from the inside to the surface. On the other hand products of the metabolism of the surface flora diffuse into the cheese body. The quantity of the coefficient of diffusion varies timewise and spatially. The concentration profile is influenced not only by the diffusion but also by the shifting of the composition of the surface flora during the ripening period. (author)

  12. Influence of strawberry yogurt composition on aroma release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jennifer B; Reineccius, Gary A; Knighton, W Berk; Grimsrud, Eric P

    2004-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine how yogurt ingredients affect aroma release in the mouth during eating. A model strawberry flavor consisting of ethyl butanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, (Z)-hex-3-enol, 2-methylbutanoic acid, 5-hexylhydro-2(3H)-furanone, and 3-methyl-3-phenylglycidic acid ethyl ester was added to unflavored, unsweetened yogurt that had different added sweeteners and hydrocolloids. In all, 12 yogurt formulations were examined to determine the effects of gelatin, modified food starch, pectin, sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and aspartame on aroma release. Aroma release was monitored by breath-by-breath analysis (proton-transfer reaction-mass spectrometry) during eating of the test yogurts. Results showed aroma release of the ethyl butanoate, (Z)-hex-3-enol, and ethyl 3-methylbutanoate to be suppressed by sweeteners, with 55 DE high-fructose corn syrup having the greatest effect. Addition of thickening agents had no significant effect on the aroma release profiles of the compounds under study. PMID:15453698

  13. Aroma compound sorption by oak wood in a model wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Ramirez, G; Lubbers, S; Charpentier, C; Feuillat, M; Voilley, A; Chassagne, D

    2001-08-01

    Oak wood used for wine barrels was immersed into a model wine containing eight aroma compounds (e.g., aromatic and terpene alcohols, ethyl esters, and aldehyde), for which activity coefficients in water and model wine were determined using the mutual solubility measurement. A mass balance of these volatiles considering their reactivity in model wine was established. For most of the studied aroma compounds, and mainly for linalool and ethyl octanoate, a sorption behavior into wood was reported for the first time. This phenomenon was selective and could not be related to the solubilities in model wine and hydrophobicities of the studied aroma compounds, suggesting that acid-base and polar characteristics of wood were more involved in this sorption mechanism. This study has also shown that the level of sorption is a function of the ratio of wood surface area/solution volume. PMID:11513685

  14. Caracterización anatómica del leño y evolución del crecimiento en ejemplares de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina en la Región Chaqueña, Argentina Wood anatomical description and growth in individuals of Acacia aroma and Acacia furcatispina in Chaco region, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bravo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La madera de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina se emplea para usos de escaso valor como postes, mangos de herramientas o combustible. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estudiar los caracteres anatómicos del leño de ambas especies y analizar el crecimiento de ejemplares aislados con la finalidad de determinar su potencialidad para usos de mayor valor. Se determinó que la madera de estas especies es dura, pesada y de porosidad difusa con tendencia a semicircular. Acacia furcatispina posee un leño con mayor porcentaje de elementos lignificados, mejores cualidades estéticas y mejor estado fitosanitario que el de A. aroma. Los defectos más frecuentes en estas especies fueron la formación de leño decolorado y pudriciones en la zona del duramen por ataque de hongos, asociados a la presencia de cicatrices de fuego. El espesor promedio de los anillos de crecimiento fue 2,1 mm (DE = 0,47 mm en A. aroma y 1,9 mm, (DE = 0,74 mm en A. furcatispina. Las curvas de incremento medio anual e incremento corriente anual del diámetro en A. aroma se interceptan a los 24 años mientras que las de A. furcatispina lo hacen a la edad de 10 años. Los resultados indicaron que A. furcatispina es una especie interesante para manejar en plantaciones debido a las cualidades de su madera, aunque permitiría obtener escuadrías menores. Su madera podría destinarse a usos particulares como parquets, tallas artísticas, entre otros. Acacia aroma es una especie apropiada para manejar con el objetivo de producción de leña debido a la capacidad de producir fustes y ramas de mayor diámetro y a que su estado fitosanitario limita su empleo para otros usos de mayor valor.The wood of Acacia aroma and Acacia furcatispina is employed for uses of little value such us posts, tools and firewood. The objectives of this work were to study anatomical characters of wood and to analyze the growth of isolated individuals with the purpose of determining their potential for uses of greater value. We determined that these species have high density and heavy wood, with diffuse porosity and tendency to semicircular. The wood of Acacia furcatispina has greater percentage of ligneous elements, better aesthetics qualities and health state than A. aroma. The most frequent defects in these species are rots within heartwood due to fungi attack, and discolorated wood formation, both related to fire scars. The mean width of the growth rings was 2.1 mm (DE = 0.47 mm in A. aroma and 1.9 mm (DE = 0.74 mm in A. furcatispina. In A. aroma, the curve of mean annual increment (IMA intercepted the curve of current annual increment (ICA for diameter at an age of 24 years, while in A. furcatispina it happened at 10 years. The results show that A. furcatispina is an interesting species to manage in plantations due to its wood qualities, although it would only allow small sized timber. This wood could be allocated for others uses such us parquets and artistic sculpture. Acacia aroma is a species suitable to manage for firewood production due to its capacity to produce greater diameter boles and branches, and to frequent wood decay that reduces its use for others more valuables uses.

  15. Caracterización anatómica del leño y evolución del crecimiento en ejemplares de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina en la Región Chaqueña, Argentina / Wood anatomical description and growth in individuals of Acacia aroma and Acacia furcatispina in Chaco region, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Bravo; Ana, Giménez; Juana, Moglia.

    Full Text Available La madera de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina se emplea para usos de escaso valor como postes, mangos de herramientas o combustible. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estudiar los caracteres anatómicos del leño de ambas especies y analizar el crecimiento de ejemplares aislados con la finalidad [...] de determinar su potencialidad para usos de mayor valor. Se determinó que la madera de estas especies es dura, pesada y de porosidad difusa con tendencia a semicircular. Acacia furcatispina posee un leño con mayor porcentaje de elementos lignificados, mejores cualidades estéticas y mejor estado fitosanitario que el de A. aroma. Los defectos más frecuentes en estas especies fueron la formación de leño decolorado y pudriciones en la zona del duramen por ataque de hongos, asociados a la presencia de cicatrices de fuego. El espesor promedio de los anillos de crecimiento fue 2,1 mm (DE = 0,47 mm) en A. aroma y 1,9 mm, (DE = 0,74 mm) en A. furcatispina. Las curvas de incremento medio anual e incremento corriente anual del diámetro en A. aroma se interceptan a los 24 años mientras que las de A. furcatispina lo hacen a la edad de 10 años. Los resultados indicaron que A. furcatispina es una especie interesante para manejar en plantaciones debido a las cualidades de su madera, aunque permitiría obtener escuadrías menores. Su madera podría destinarse a usos particulares como parquets, tallas artísticas, entre otros. Acacia aroma es una especie apropiada para manejar con el objetivo de producción de leña debido a la capacidad de producir fustes y ramas de mayor diámetro y a que su estado fitosanitario limita su empleo para otros usos de mayor valor. Abstract in english The wood of Acacia aroma and Acacia furcatispina is employed for uses of little value such us posts, tools and firewood. The objectives of this work were to study anatomical characters of wood and to analyze the growth of isolated individuals with the purpose of determining their potential for uses [...] of greater value. We determined that these species have high density and heavy wood, with diffuse porosity and tendency to semicircular. The wood of Acacia furcatispina has greater percentage of ligneous elements, better aesthetics qualities and health state than A. aroma. The most frequent defects in these species are rots within heartwood due to fungi attack, and discolorated wood formation, both related to fire scars. The mean width of the growth rings was 2.1 mm (DE = 0.47 mm) in A. aroma and 1.9 mm (DE = 0.74 mm) in A. furcatispina. In A. aroma, the curve of mean annual increment (IMA) intercepted the curve of current annual increment (ICA) for diameter at an age of 24 years, while in A. furcatispina it happened at 10 years. The results show that A. furcatispina is an interesting species to manage in plantations due to its wood qualities, although it would only allow small sized timber. This wood could be allocated for others uses such us parquets and artistic sculpture. Acacia aroma is a species suitable to manage for firewood production due to its capacity to produce greater diameter boles and branches, and to frequent wood decay that reduces its use for others more valuables uses.

  16. Impact of Fruit Piece Structure in Yogurts on the Dynamics of Aroma Release and Sensory Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Isabelle Souchon; Anne Saint-Eve; Isabelle Déléris; Joshua Mesurolle

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma stimuli, which can influence nutritional and hedonic characteristics, as well as consumption behaviors. In yogurts, fruit preparation formulation can be a key factor to modulate aroma stimul...

  17. A protocol of measurement of In Vivo Aroma release from beverages.

    OpenAIRE

    Weel, K.G.C.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burger, J. J.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Smit, G.

    2003-01-01

    The quality of in vivo aroma release measurements of beverages can be improved when a strict protocol is used to control variation in aroma release due to human factors. A trained panel was able to significantly discriminate between aqueous aroma solutions with a concentration difference as low as 17%. This protocol and headspace measurements have been applied to a lemon-lime type beverage with either bulk or lowcalorie intense sweeteners. The ingredients examined did not influence aroma rele...

  18. Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haypek E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice. The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the calculation of the activity coefficients.

  19. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Mattana, C. M.; M. A. Cangiano; L. E. Alcaráz; Sosa, A; Escobar, F.; Sabini, C.; L. Sabini; A. L. Laciar

    2014-01-01

    Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and ethanolic extract (EE) of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000??g/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500??g/mL and 100??g/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, res...

  20. Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Haypek E.; Silva L.H.M; Batista E.; Marques D. S.; Meireles M.A.A.; Meirelles A.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice). The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the c...

  1. Carotenoides, capacidad antioxidante y compuestos volátiles del aroma durante la maduración de jitomate / Carotenoid content, antioxidant capacity and volatile compounds of the aroma during tomato ripening

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O, López-Vidal; H, Escalona-Buendía; C, Pelayo-Zaldívar; J, Cruz-Salazar; JM, Villa-Hernández; F, Rivera-Cabrera; O, Villegas-Torres; I, Alia-Tejacal; L J, Pérez-Flores; F, Díaz de León-Sánchez.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El jitomate acumula altos niveles de carotenoides durante su maduración. Éstos, además de su función como pigmentos, nutrientes y antioxidantes, son precursores de algunos compuestos volátiles importantes en el aroma de estos frutos. Por ello, en este trabajo se estudió la capacidad antioxidante, lo [...] s niveles de licopeno y ?-caroteno y la producción de sustancias aromáticas provenientes de la vía de carotenoides en frutos de jitomate de la variedad 7705, en diferentes estados de maduración. Los resultados mostraron un aumento significativo (p Abstract in english During ripening, tomato fruit accumulates high levels of carotenoids. These compounds, besides their function as pigments, nutrients and antioxidants, are precursors of some important volatile compounds for the development of the characteristic aroma of these fruits. In the present work, the antioxi [...] dant capacity, lycopene and ?-carotene levels, and the production of aromatic substances derived from the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway were analyzed in the tomato cultivar 7705 at different ripening stages. Results showed a significant (p

  2. Feasibility and application of a retronasal aroma-trapping device to study in vivo aroma release during the consumption of model wine-derived beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Moreno-Arribas, Maria Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, Maria Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    New types of wine-derived beverages are now in the market. However, little is known about the impact of ingredient formulation on aroma release during consumption, which is directly linked to consumer preferences and liking. In this study, the optimization and validation of a retronasal aroma-trapping device (RATD) for the in vivo monitoring of aroma release was carried out. This device was applied to assess the impact of two main ingredients (sugar and ethanol) in these types of beverages on...

  3. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT OAK CHIPS ON AROMA COMPOUNDS IN WINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Fran?áková

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oak wood has considerable influence on amount of aroma compounds in wine. During the time, when wine is in contact with oak wood, compounds typical for wood diffuse into wine and enrich its aromatic complexity. Concentration of diffused aroma compounds in wine depends on several factors as contact time, storage conditions, wine properties, geographical origin and toasting degree of oak wood. Because of very small quantities of volatile aroma compounds in wine, it is necessary to use sensitive method as gas chromatography with appropriate sample preparation, to concentrate and analyse the relevant volatiles. In our work, four different wines and eight chips samples with different geographic origin and degree of toasting were used. With GC-MS following substances were determined in wines after 30 days of maceration with oak chips: furfural, 5-methylfurfural, guaiacol, 4-ethylguaiacol, eugenol, isoeugenol, cis- and trans-whiskey lactones, 4-ethylphenol. Our results show, that the degree of toasting influences the concentration of furfural, guaiacol and cis- and trans- whiskeylactone. Higher toasting leads to an increase of furfural and guaiacol and a decrease of cis- and trans-whiskeylactone in wine. The highest increase of volatile aroma compounds was determined in wine samples with French oak chips with intense toasting. We did not find any specific, definite differences among chips with different geographic origin.

  4. Improving the Performance of an Electronic Nose by Wine Aroma Training to Distinguish between Drip Coffee and Canned Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Kouki; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Shimizu, Nobuo; Ikeda, Keiichi; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    Coffee aroma, with more than 600 components, is considered as one of the most complex food aromas. Although electronic noses have been successfully used for objective analysis and differentiation of total coffee aromas, it is difficult to use them to describe the specific features of coffee aroma (i.e., the type of smell). This is because data obtained by electronic noses are generally based on electrical resistance/current and samples are distinguished by principal component analysis. In this paper, we present an electronic nose that is capable of learning the wine related aromas using the aroma kit “Le Nez du Vin,” and the potential to describe coffee aroma in a similar manner comparable to how wine experts describe wine aroma. The results of our investigation showed that the aromas of three drip coffees were more similar to those of pine and honey in the aroma kit than to the aromas of three canned coffees. Conversely, the aromas of canned coffees were more similar to the kit coffee aroma. In addition, the aromatic patterns of coffees were different from those of green tea and red wine. Although further study is required to fit the data to human olfaction, the presented method and the use of vocabularies in aroma kits promise to enhance objective discrimination and description of aromas by electronic noses. PMID:25587981

  5. Improving the performance of an electronic nose by wine aroma training to distinguish between drip coffee and canned coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Kouki; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Shimizu, Nobuo; Ikeda, Keiichi; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    Coffee aroma, with more than 600 components, is considered as one of the most complex food aromas. Although electronic noses have been successfully used for objective analysis and differentiation of total coffee aromas, it is difficult to use them to describe the specific features of coffee aroma (i.e., the type of smell). This is because data obtained by electronic noses are generally based on electrical resistance/current and samples are distinguished by principal component analysis. In this paper, we present an electronic nose that is capable of learning the wine related aromas using the aroma kit "Le Nez du Vin," and the potential to describe coffee aroma in a similar manner comparable to how wine experts describe wine aroma. The results of our investigation showed that the aromas of three drip coffees were more similar to those of pine and honey in the aroma kit than to the aromas of three canned coffees. Conversely, the aromas of canned coffees were more similar to the kit coffee aroma. In addition, the aromatic patterns of coffees were different from those of green tea and red wine. Although further study is required to fit the data to human olfaction, the presented method and the use of vocabularies in aroma kits promise to enhance objective discrimination and description of aromas by electronic noses. PMID:25587981

  6. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology : Sweeping gas versus vacuum membrane distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-JØrgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up. The data were compared to recovery of the aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). The flux of SGMD increased with an increase in temperature, feed flow rate or sweeping gas flow rate. Increased temperature and feed flow rate also increased the concentration factors (Cpermeate/Cfeed) of the aroma compounds. At 45°C the most volatile and hydrophobic aroma compounds obtained the highest concentration factors: 12.1–9.3 (black currant juice) and 17.2–12.8 (model solution). With black currant juice a volume reduction of 13.7% (vol.%) at 45°C, 400L/h, resulted in an aroma recovery of 73–84vol.% for the most volatile compounds. Compared to VMD, the aroma recovery with SGMD was less influenced by the feed flow rate but more influenced by the temperature. Higher fluxes were achieved during concentration by VMD and this reduced the operation time, which in turn reduced the degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevanceHigh temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption. This study gives important clues about the fate of berry juice aroma compounds and polyphenols during concentration by MD, and identifies the main factors influencing the aroma recovery efficiency with MD. Both SGMD and VMD are promising techniques for gentle stripping of berry juice aroma compounds and deserve further consideration as alternative techniques for gentle aroma stripping in industrial fruit juice processing.

  7. Influence of thermal treatment of wood on the aroma of a sugar cane spirit (cachaça) model-solution / Influência do termotratamento da madeira no aroma de uma solução-modelo de cachaça

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta Helena Fillet, Spoto; Marcelo Machado, Leão; José Otávio Otávio, Brito.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As bebidas alcoólicas são, geralmente, envelhecidas em tonéis de madeira fabricados a partir de espécies do gênero Quercus sp. Devido ao alto custo de aquisição e necessidade de importação, existe demanda por alternativas de uso de outras espécies nativas e da incorporação de novas tecnologias que a [...] umentem a competitividade da cachaça brasileira. Sabe-se que, com a aplicação de termotratamento, vários compostos são alterados, desenvolvem-se aromas, altera-se a coloração e as bebidas adquirem gostos mais agradáveis. Este trabalho mostra a diferença significativa entre soluções-modelo hidroalcoólicas de cachaça, envelhecidas em diferentes espécies de madeira, em suas formas termotratadas e não termotratadas, avaliadas em relação a seu aroma. O teste de aceitação aplicado verificou as soluções preferidas pelos provadores, nas condições determinadas do teste. Abstract in english The aging process of alcoholic beverages is generally conducted in wood barrels made with species from Quercus sp. Due to the high cost and the lack of viability of commercial production of these trees in Brazil, there is demand for new alternatives to using other native species and the incorporatio [...] n of new technologies that enable greater competitiveness of sugar cane spirit aged in Brazilian wood. The drying of wood, the thermal treatment applied to it, and manufacturing techniques are important tools in defining the sensory quality of alcoholic beverages after being placed in contact with the barrels. In the thermal treatment, several compounds are changed by the application of heat to the wood and various studies show the compounds are modified, different aromas are developed, there is change in color, and beverages achieve even more pleasant taste, when compared to non-treated woods. This study evaluated the existence of significant differences between hydro-alcoholic solutions of sugar cane spirits elaborated from different species of thermo-treated and non-treated wood in terms of aroma. An acceptance test was applied to evaluate the solutions preferred by tasters under specific test conditions.

  8. Aroma components from dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1994-01-01

    Sausages with and without Staphylococcus xylosus were manufactured with four replicates. Antibiotics and a fungicide to inhibit growth of naturally occuring microorganisms were added to the control sausages. The volatile compounds from the sausages were collected and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the effluent evaluated by sniffing and the sausages assessed by a trained panel. The study showed that sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus contained several fragrant esters that were not found in control sausages without microbial growth. Control sausages had an unpleasant, rancid odour compared to sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus, indicating that the esterase activity of Staphylococcus xylosus or other microorganisms is very important in order to obtain the proper fermented sausage aroma.Although sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus contained the highest amounts of free fatty acids, it seemed to be of no importance to aroma development. It is therefore questionable whether lipolytic activity of starter cultures has an influence on sausage flavour.

  9. Analysis of accelerants and fire debris using aroma detection technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barshick, S.A.

    1997-01-17

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the utility of electronic aroma detection technologies for the detection and identification of accelerant residues in suspected arson debris. Through the analysis of known accelerant residues, a trained neural network was developed for classifying suspected arson samples. Three unknown fire debris samples were classified using this neural network. The item corresponding to diesel fuel was correctly identified every time. For the other two items, wide variations in sample concentration and excessive water content, producing high sample humidities, were shown to influence the sensor response. Sorbent sampling prior to aroma detection was demonstrated to reduce these problems and to allow proper neural network classification of the remaining items corresponding to kerosene and gasoline.

  10. Psychophysical evaluation of interactive effects between sweeteners and aroma compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Nahon, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of intense sweeteners in a light soft drink influences the preferences for, and the flavour profiles of these drinks to various extents, depending on the aroma and sweeteners present. In this study equisweet mixtures of sweeteners were composed at 10% Sucrose Equivalent Value. The sucrose/maltitol and sucrose/aspartame mixtures were additive, whereas equisweet binary sucrose/Na-cyclamate mixtures and ternary sucrose/aspartame/Na-cyclamate mixtures revealed synergistic effects.The...

  11. The aroma of the probiotic yogurts with and without supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Hruškar; Ivana Bucak; Nada Vah?i?

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the changes in aromacompounds of fermented milks with probiotics during storage as a function of time and temperature. The aroma compounds concentration in probiotic yogurt samples, during storage at + 4 and +20°C were studied. Acetaldehyde, diacetyl, ethanol and organic acids (lactate, acetate, citrate) content were determined during 20 days, every fifth day from the beginning of storage. Acetaldehyde, ethanol, lactic, citric and acetic acid concent...

  12. Aroma enhancement and enzymolysis regulation of grape wine using ?-glycosidase

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Feng-Mei; DU, BIN; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Adding ?-glycosidase into grape wine for enhancing aroma was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Kramer sensory evaluation. Compared with the extract from control wines, the extract from enzyme-treated wines increased more aromatic compounds using steam distillation extraction (SDE) and GC-MS analyses. Theses aromatic compounds were as follows: 3-methyl-1-butanol formate, 3-pentanol, furfural, 3-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl-butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-butanoic a...

  13. Taste-Aroma-Matrix Interactions Determine Flavour Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Hollowood, Tracey Ann

    2002-01-01

    A newly recruited sensory panel was trained in magnitude estimation and time intensity sensory techniques. Sensory analysis was combined with instrumental analysis using MS Nose to investigate the relationship between stimulus and perception using simple model food systems. Volatile release data was collected after swallowing aqueous solutions containing a cocktail of aroma compounds. The compounds varied in their persistence during subsequent exhalations dependent on the degree of assoc...

  14. Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barshick, S.-A.; Griest, W.H.; Vass, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic `fingerprint` pattern representative of the vapor- phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The results to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

  15. Prerrafaelismo y quietismo estético en Aromas de leyenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Moreiras, Miriam

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In my Aromas de leyenda study, book of poems wroten by the Spanish Modernist author Valle- Inclán, I have attempted to show how this work is in debt to Pre-Raphaelite aesthetics and, also, to esoteric and mystic doctrines, strongly present in the last years of XIX century and relaborated by Valle in his book La lámpara maravillosa. At the same time, I have identified, although lightly, the figure oí ambivalence, which is, like the scholarship Peter Zima has showed, the main Modernism aesthetic innovation and which makes in clear the links between this Valle's work and the art of his time.Con el análisis de Aromas de leyenda de Valle Inclán he pretendido demostrar la deuda que esta obra tiene tanto con el código estético prerrafaelita como con las doctrinas esotéricas y místicas, de gran vigencia a finales del siglo XIX y reelaboradas por Valle en su libro de 1916 La lámpara maravillosa. Igualmente he identificado, aunque de modo muy leve, la presencia en Aromas de la figura de la ambivalencia, que es, como demuestra el estudioso Peter Zima, la principal innovación estética del Modernismo y que pone en evidencia la filiación de esta obra de Valle con el arte de su tiempo.

  16. Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshick, Stacy-Ann; Griest, Wayne H.; Vass, Arpad A.

    1997-02-01

    A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic 'fingerprint' pattern representative of the vapor-phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The result to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

  17. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Acacia aroma leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattana, C M; Cangiano, M A; Alcaráz, L E; Sosa, A; Escobar, F; Sabini, C; Sabini, L; Laciar, A L

    2014-01-01

    Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and ethanolic extract (EE) of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000??g/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500??g/mL and 100??g/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658??g/mL for EE and 1020??g/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1-20?mg/mL. The EE at 20?mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5?mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings. PMID:25530999

  18. Volatile Compounds in Honey: A Review on Their Involvement in Aroma, Botanical Origin Determination and Potential Biomedical Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy E. Manyi-Loh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs in honey are obtained from diverse biosynthetic pathways and extracted by using various methods associated with varying degrees of selectivity and effectiveness. These compounds are grouped into chemical categories such as aldehyde, ketone, acid, alcohol, hydrocarbon, norisoprenoids, terpenes and benzene compounds and their derivatives, furan and pyran derivatives. They represent a fingerprint of a specific honey and therefore could be used to differentiate between monofloral honeys from different floral sources, thus providing valuable information concerning the honey’s botanical and geographical origin. However, only plant derived compounds and their metabolites (terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene compounds and their derivatives must be employed to discriminate among floral origins of honey. Notwithstanding, many authors have reported different floral markers for honey of the same floral origin, consequently sensory analysis, in conjunction with analysis of VOCs could help to clear this ambiguity. Furthermore, VOCs influence honey’s aroma described as sweet, citrus, floral, almond, rancid, etc. Clearly, the contribution of a volatile compound to honey aroma is determined by its odor activity value. Elucidation of the aroma compounds along with floral origins of a particular honey can help to standardize its quality and avoid fraudulent labeling of the product. Although only present in low concentrations, VOCS could contribute to biomedical activities of honey, especially the antioxidant effect due to their natural radical scavenging potential.

  19. Phytosterols in onion contribute to a sensation of lingering of aroma, a koku attribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Toshihide; Egusa, Ai Saiga; Nagao, Akira; Odahara, Tsutomu; Sugise, Takeshi; Mizoguchi, Noriko; Nosho, Yasuharu

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to examine the substance in a precipitate of heat-treated onion concentrate (HOC) that contributes to a sensation of lingering of aroma, a koku attribute induced by the sensing of richness and persistence in terms of taste, aroma and texture. Adding precipitate, separated from HOC, to consommé enhanced the lingering sensation of aroma in the consommé more than adding the supernatant from HOC. After the precipitate was washed with hot water and ethanol its enhancing effect disappeared. Analysis of the HOC precipitate showed that it contained phytosterols, such as beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Tests of binding to aroma compounds showed that both sterols, as well as the washed precipitate, were able to bind methyl propyl disulfide and N-hexanal. Thus phytosterols in the HOC precipitate seemed to bind and hold the aroma compounds and gradually release them, inducing a lingering sensation of aroma under the koku concept during consumption. PMID:26304403

  20. Characterization of the Volatile Substances and Aroma Components from Traditional Soypaste

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Zhang; Xin Li; Chih-Kang Lo; Shun-Tang Guo

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the flavor substances of soypaste were extracted by a simultaneous distillation method and identified by GC-MS. The characteristic aroma components of soypaste were determined by the GC-O technique and the FD value of the characteristic aroma components was determined by AEDA method. It could be inferred that the aroma of the soypaste should be attributed to the presence of heterocyclic compounds and organic acids, with the heterocyclic compounds playing a prominent role.

  1. Characterization of the Volatile Substances and Aroma Components from Traditional Soypaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the flavor substances of soypaste were extracted by a simultaneous distillation method and identified by GC-MS. The characteristic aroma components of soypaste were determined by the GC-O technique and the FD value of the characteristic aroma components was determined by AEDA method. It could be inferred that the aroma of the soypaste should be attributed to the presence of heterocyclic compounds and organic acids, with the heterocyclic compounds playing a prominent role.

  2. Chemical and aroma determination of the pulp and seeds of murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende Claudia M.; Fraga Sandra R. G.

    2003-01-01

    Murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L., Malpighiaceae), a small, tropical fruit, very popular in Brazil, has a strong fruity, rancid cheese aroma. High resolution gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry and aroma extract dilution analysis identified the most potent substances in its aroma as ethyl butanoate (fruity, sweet), ethyl hexanoate (fruity), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom like), butyric acid (rancid, cheese), hexanoic acid (pungent, cheese) and phenylethyl alcohol (floral). Its pulp is ma...

  3. Chemical and aroma determination of the pulp and seeds of murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia M., Rezende; Sandra R. G., Fraga.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available O murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L., Malpighiaceae) é uma pequena fruta tropical de intenso aroma frutal e semelhante a queijo rançoso. Aplicando a cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução-olfatometria acoplada a espectrometria de massas e usando técnica de diluição de aroma ("Aroma extract dilution an [...] alysis"), as substâncias de maior impacto no aroma do murici foram identificadas como sendo: butanoato de etila (frutal, doce), hexanoato de etila (frutal), 1-octeno-3-ol (odor semelhante a cogumelo), ácido butírico (queijo rançoso), ácido hexanóico (pungente, queijo) e 2-feniletanol (floral). A polpa da fruta é principalmente composta por ésteres etílicos, metílicos e feniletílicos, juntamente com ácidos carboxílicos, terpenos, delta-lactonas e algumas substâncias sulfuradas. As sementes, que apresentaram um aroma semelhante ao de óleo rançoso, também lembrando queijo, tem como componentes majoritários os ácidos linoleico, oleico, esteárico e palmítico. Seu aroma foi associado aos ácidos butírico e hexanóico, ambos minoritários. Abstract in english Murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L., Malpighiaceae), a small, tropical fruit, very popular in Brazil, has a strong fruity, rancid cheese aroma. High resolution gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry and aroma extract dilution analysis identified the most potent substances in its aroma as eth [...] yl butanoate (fruity, sweet), ethyl hexanoate (fruity), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom like), butyric acid (rancid, cheese), hexanoic acid (pungent, cheese) and phenylethyl alcohol (floral). Its pulp is mainly composed of ethyl, methyl and phenylethyl esters and by carboxylic acids, terpenoids, delta-lactones and some sulfur compounds. Seed analysis also showed a buttery and oily cheese aroma and GC-MS revealed linoleic, oleic, stearic and palmitic acids as foremost components, while the aroma was associated to the butyric and hexanoic acids present in minor amounts.

  4. Evaluation of new aroma substances for feline minitablet formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana Hautala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the global interest in companion animal pharmaceuticals, feline peroral medication still lacks tailor-made, palatable and voluntarily accepted pharmaceuticals with suitable size and attractive taste. As a consequence, treating cats with canine and even human pharmaceuticals has weakened patient compliance and treatment commitment, and has even left many pet cats untreated. In future, the companion animal pharmaceutical business will therefore particularly concentrate on cats and the rapid and economic development of palatable feline medication. Following this goal, the overall aim of this study was to facilitate voluntary drug administration to felines. Specifically we aimed to develop sophisticated and tailor-made feline pharmaceuticals, with the focus on flavours in minitablets. Since excipients should be easily obtained and suitable for formulation, we conducted rapid preformulation compatibility and stability screening tests of synthetic flavours with commonly used tableting excipients. On the basis of the feline carnivorous diet, L-methionine, L-leucine, L-proline and thiamine hydrochloride were presented as new aroma substances for the improvement of feline medication palatability. These flavours and a model substance for a bitter taste, denatonium benzoate, were systematically evaluated for their physicochemical properties, stability and physical compatibility. This was done with substances alone and in binary combinations of flavours and excipients. Stability and compatibility were examined employing DSC and XRPD. The results showed that L-proline and denatonium benzoate anhydrate were hygroscopic. Thiamine hydrochloride was incompatible with talc and sodium stearyl fumarate. The known incompatibility between the amines contained in aromas, and ?-lactose monohydrate was used in assessing method sensitivity. Overall, the study provided new information on the compatibility of novel aromas with the tableting excipients. The study also demonstrated the applicability of XRPD and DSC in the rapid evaluation of instability and incompatibility.

  5. Lipases microbianas na produção de ésteres formadores de aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela A. Macedo

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram testadas cinco lipases microbianas produzidas no Laboratório de Bioquímica de Alimentos-FEA-UNICAMP, quanto à capacidade de catalisar a síntese de ésteres formadores de aroma por esterificação em meio isento de solvente orgânico. A natureza da enzima assim como o tamanho da cadeia dos ácidos afetaram as taxas de conversão obtidas.Os melhores resultados obtidos foram 88 % de conversão na síntese de laurato de isoamila e 72% para propionato de isoamila pela lipase de Rhizopus sp após 24 horas de incubação, seguido de 82% de conversão na síntese de acetato de isopropila por Alcaligenes sp após 24 horas de incubação.

  6. Green tea aroma fraction reduces ?-amyloid peptide-induced toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans transfected with human ?-amyloid minigene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Atsushi; Watanabe, Tatsuro; Fujita, Takashi; Hasegawa, Toshio; Saito, Michio; Suganuma, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Green tea is a popular world-wide beverage with health benefits that include preventive effects on cancer as well as cardiovascular, liver and Alzheimer's diseases (AD). This study will examine the preventive effects on AD of a unique aroma of Japanese green tea. First, a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) CL4176 expressing human ?-amyloid peptide (A?) was used as a model of AD. A hexane extract of processed green tea was further fractionated into volatile and non-volatile fractions, named roasty aroma and green tea aroma fractions depending on their aroma, by microscale distillation. Both hexane extract and green tea aroma fraction were found to inhibit A?-induced paralysis, while only green tea aroma fraction extended lifespan in CL4176. We also found that green tea aroma fraction has antioxidant activity. This paper indicates that the green tea aroma fraction is an additional component for prevention of AD. PMID:25229860

  7. Modulating the formation of Meili wine aroma by prefermentative freezing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chuan-Tao; Wen, Yan; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Lan, Yuan-Yuan

    2013-02-20

    The influence of a prefermentative freezing process on changes of aromatic characteristics and volatile compounds in Meili wines was studied to optimize freezing parameters and reveal the mathematical relationship between aromatic characteristics and volatile compounds. The wines obtained were characterized by sensory evaluation and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) followed by a thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 28 aromatic descriptors from 6 categories of wine aroma terminology were identified by judging with high "modified frequency (MF%)". In addition, 19 varietal aroma compounds and 36 fermentation aroma compounds were quantitated, followed by the determination of odor activity values (OAVs). On the basis of the data obtained, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to find the relationship between characteristic aroma terms and different freezing conditions, and then partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was proposed to establish the mathematical relationship between the resulting terms and impact odorants. Natural thawing treatment on frozen must resulted in higher aroma quality with higher extraction of varietal aroma compounds. Lower frozen maceration temperature contributed to higher esters and organic acids. Impact aroma compounds were related to models for floral, sweet fruit, temperate fruit, and vegetal, whereas the model of rose and strawberry contained only varietal volatile compounds, and temperate fruit could be regressed by impact fermentation aroma compounds. PMID:23330536

  8. Inactivation of the panE Gene in Lactococcus lactis Enhances Formation of Cheese Aroma Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    de Cadiñanos, Luz P. Gómez; García-Cayuela, Tomás; Yvon, Mireille; Martinez-Cuesta, M. Carmen; Peláez, Carmen; Requena, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyacid dehydrogenases limit the conversion of ?-keto acids into aroma compounds. Here we report that inactivation of the panE gene, encoding the ?-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase activity in Lactococcus lactis, enhanced the formation of 3-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanol. L. lactis IFPL953?panE was an efficient strain producing volatile compounds related to cheese aroma.

  9. Improving the Performance of an Electronic Nose by Wine Aroma Training to Distinguish between Drip Coffee and Canned Coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Fujioka, Kouki; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Shimizu, Nobuo; Ikeda, Keiichi; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-01

    Coffee aroma, with more than 600 components, is considered as one of the most complex food aromas. Although electronic noses have been successfully used for objective analysis and differentiation of total coffee aromas, it is difficult to use them to describe the specific features of coffee aroma (i.e., the type of smell). This is because data obtained by electronic noses are generally based on electrical resistance/current and samples are distinguished by principal component analysis. In thi...

  10. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Kusumaningrum*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

  11. Recuperação e concentração de componentes do aroma de caju (Anacardium occidentale L.) por pervaporação Recovery of aroma compounds of cashew apple fruit (Anacardium occidentale L.) by pervaporation

    OpenAIRE

    André von Randow de Assis; Humberto Ribeiro Bizzo; Virgínia Martins da Matta; Lourdes Maria Corrêa Cabral

    2007-01-01

    A pervaporação é um processo de separação por membranas, no qual misturas líquidas são fracionadas devido à sua vaporização parcial através de uma membrana densa de permeabilidade seletiva. Este processo pode ser utilizado na recuperação e concentração de componentes de aromas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a pervaporação para obtenção de um extrato natural de aroma de caju, que poderá ser utilizado como aditivo na indústria de alimentos. Polpa de caju foi a matéria-prima utilizada no...

  12. Partial purification and characterisation of the peptide precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Jürgen; Janek, Katharina; Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Niewienda, Agathe; Wöstemeyer, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Essential precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma notes are formed during fermentation of the cocoa beans by acid-induced proteolysis. It has been shown that, in addition to free amino acids, hydrophilic peptides derived from the vicilin-class(7S) globular storage protein are required for the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma notes during the roasting process. To identify those peptides responsible for the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma components, we have developed a procedure for the fractionation of the aroma precursor extract from well-fermented cocoa beans by ligand-exchange and subsequent Sephadex-LH20 chromatography. The cocoa-specific aroma precursor fractions were characterised by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and the determination of their amino acid sequences by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). PMID:26304401

  13. Different beers with different hops. Relevant compounds for their aroma characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Takako; Tsuchiya, Fumihiko; Ishimaru, Mariko; Oka, Kaneo; Komura, Hajime

    2013-05-22

    Hop-derived aroma characteristics in beer are very important for the quality of beer. This study compared the differences of hop aroma characteristics and the compounds contained in beer by changing the variety of hops applying the idea of "food metabolomics" on the GC×GC/TOF-MS analysis data, to clarify which aroma compounds contribute to the differences of hop aroma profiles indicated by sensory descriptors. As a result, by focusing only on hop-derived compounds, 67 compounds were strongly correlated with one or more of the sensory descriptors. Furthermore, the odor descriptions of each key compound corresponded well to each sensory descriptor. Thus, these compounds are likely to be the key compounds explaining the differences of hop aroma characteristics in beer. This study led to the suggestion that understanding the relationship between the comprehensive nontarget analysis by GC×GC-TOF/MS and organoleptic evaluation using PCA is effective in estimating the key compounds. PMID:23627300

  14. Differential effects of exposure to ambient vanilla and citrus aromas on mood, arousal and food choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost physiological sensors and semi-real life settings. Tests included physiological (heart rate, physical activity and response times, psychological (emotions and mood and behavioral (food choice measures in a semi-real life environment for 22 participants. Results Exposure to ambient citrus aroma increased physical activity (P P P P P Conclusions The test battery used in this study demonstrated aroma-specific physiological, psychological and behavioral effects of aromas with similar appeal and intensities, and similar food-related origins. These effects could be measured in (semi- real life environments for freely moving subjects using relatively inexpensive commercially available physiological sensors.

  15. Chemical and aroma determination of the pulp and seeds of murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Claudia M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L., Malpighiaceae, a small, tropical fruit, very popular in Brazil, has a strong fruity, rancid cheese aroma. High resolution gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry and aroma extract dilution analysis identified the most potent substances in its aroma as ethyl butanoate (fruity, sweet, ethyl hexanoate (fruity, 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom like, butyric acid (rancid, cheese, hexanoic acid (pungent, cheese and phenylethyl alcohol (floral. Its pulp is mainly composed of ethyl, methyl and phenylethyl esters and by carboxylic acids, terpenoids, delta-lactones and some sulfur compounds. Seed analysis also showed a buttery and oily cheese aroma and GC-MS revealed linoleic, oleic, stearic and palmitic acids as foremost components, while the aroma was associated to the butyric and hexanoic acids present in minor amounts.

  16. Aroma Volatile Compounds from Two Fresh Pineapple Varieties in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Bin Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds from two pineapples varieties (Tainong No.4 and No.6 were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. In the Tainong No. 4 and No. 6 pineapples, a total of 11 and 28 volatile compounds were identified according to their retention time on capillary columns and their mass spectra, and quantified with total concentrations of 1080.44 µg·kg?1 and 380.66 µg·kg?1 in the Tainong No.4 and No. 6 pineapples, respectively. The odor active values (OAVs of volatile compounds from pineapples were also calculated. According to the OAVs, four compounds were defined as the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 4 pineapple, including furaneol, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid methyl ester, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester and ?-octalactone. The OAVs of five compounds including ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, methyl-2-methylbutyrate, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl hexanoate and decanal were considered to be the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 6 pineapple.

  17. Aroma interactions with starch : Induction of carbohydrate acting enzymes from Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Anders Dysted

    2011-01-01

    Starches are used to enhance aroma perception in low-fat foods. Aroma compounds can bind physically to the starch in grooves on the surface or they can form complexes inside amylose helices. This study has been divided into two parts: one part regarding binding of aromas to starches and their aroma-release, and another part regarding stimulation of a fungal secretome using different carbohydrates. In the first part, nine aromas and one aroma-mixture were mixed with nine different starches, including genetically modified starches. The objective of this sub-project was to bind aromas to the starches to 15 weight-percent. Aroma binding was tested on both amorphous starches and on native starch granules. A series of aldehydes and alcohols were also tested for binding to the starches. The aromas with the highest volatility were positively retained by starch, whereas for aromas with a lower volatility the starch had a negative effect on retention. No trends were observed that could relate aroma binding or retentionto physical qualities of the starch such as amylose or phosphate content. Still, the physical state of the starch was shown to influence retention of some aromas, possibly by diffusion through the outer layers of the starch granule or binding to grooves on the surface. Chemical reactivity of some of the aromas also influenced the retention. Analysing a series of aldehydes and alcohols revealed an influence of the size of the molecules on retention. Hexanal showed a remarkable drop in retention for all starches, and pentanol showed a favoured retention by native starch granules. The aroma compounds bound to the starch proved very difficult to release as only a minute fraction of the aroma added could be released from the starch, even under conditions favouring aroma release, as monitored by GC-MS and solvent extractions. Addition of water to the extraction lowered the amount of aroma released, and addition of a starch-degrading enzyme, ?-amylase, did not significantly change the amount extracted. Studies by differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray scattering did not show complete complexation of aromas in the amylose helices, but instead changes were observed that could be evidence of partial complexation. This complexation is not exclusive to the amylose helices, but also appears to include interactions in the amylopectin double helices. In particular, one of the analysed aromas showed a very noticeable reduction in melting temperature, but showed only a minor reduction in melting enthalpy and no evidence of amylose complexation. Using an enzyme-discovery approach in the second sub-project, the industrially relevant fungus Aspergillus nidulans was stimulated with different carbohydrates. Stimulation with starch induced expression of starch-degrading enzymes, while stimulation with the hemicellulose xylan induced expression of xylanases. One particular hypothetical protein was ubiquitously expressed. This protein had no apparent homology with known proteins, but may iv be involved in attacking otherorganisms as a weak homology with other proteins involved in membrane attack was detected. Degradation of secreted proteins was observed in some cultures. Identification of a glycoside hydrolase family 61 using xylan as carbon-source was not successful despite previous evidence for the induction of this enzyme.

  18. Impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the in vivo aroma release from wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the retronasal aroma release of four volatile compounds added to different types of wines has been evaluated. For this purpose, a tailor-made retronasal aroma trapping device (RATD) was used to entrap the exhaled breath of six panelists previously trained in a specific consumption procedure. Five wines of different composition (white wine, sparkling white wine, young red wine, aged red wine, and a sweet wine) were evaluated. Prior to the evaluation, with the exception of the sweet wine, the wines were adjusted to the same ethanol content and aromatized with a mixture of four target volatile compounds. Aroma release data were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis in order to relate wine chemical composition and aroma release during wine drinking. Results showed interindividual differences and a clustering of panelists among lower and higher aroma releasers, which was in agreement to the differences in their breathing capacity. A significant influence of the matrix composition in the low aroma releasers group during wine consumption was observed. The consumption of red wines provoked a significantly higher aroma release than the consumption of white and sweet wines. From the chemical composition determined in the wine samples (pH, total acidity, total polyphenols, neutral polysaccharides, residual sugar, and nitrogenous compounds), the amount of total polyphenols was better correlated with the observed effect. PMID:24328128

  19. Aroma improvement by repeated freeze-thaw treatment during Tuber melanosporum fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Deng-Rong; Liu, Rui-Sang; He, Long; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Ling; Liang, Xin-Hua; Chen, Tao; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The aroma attributes of sulfurous, mushroom and earthy are the most important characteristics of the aroma of Tuber melanosporum. However, these three aroma attributes are absent in the T. melanosporum fermentation system. To improve the quality of the aroma, repeated freeze-thaw treatment (RFTT) was adopted to affect the interplay of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Using RFTT, not only was the score on the hedonic scale of the aroma increased from the "liked slightly" to the "liked moderately" grade, but the aroma attributes of sulfurous, mushroom and earthy could also be smelled in the T. melanosporum fermentation system for the first time. A total of 29 VOCs were identified, and 9 compounds were identified as the key discriminative volatiles affected by RFTT. Amino acid analysis revealed that methionine, valine, serine, phenylalanine, isoleucine and threonine were the key substrates associated with the biosynthesis of the 9 key discriminative VOCs. This study noted that amino acid metabolism played an important role in the regulation of the aroma of the T. melanosporum fermentation system. PMID:26607288

  20. Genetic analysis and gene fine mapping of aroma in rice (Oryza sativa L. Cyperales, Poaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shu Xia, Sun; Fang Yuan, Gao; Xian Jun, Lu; Xian Jun, Wu; Xu Dong, Wang; Guang Jun, Ren; Hong, Luo.

    Full Text Available We investigated inheritance and carried out gene fine mapping of aroma in crosses between the aromatic elite hybrid rice Oryza sativa indica variety Chuanxiang-29B (Ch-29B) and the non-aromatic rice O. sativa indica variety R2 and O. sativa japonica Lemont (Le). The F1 grains and leaves were non-aro [...] matic while the F2 non-aroma to aroma segregation pattern was 3:1. The F3 segregation ratio was consistent with the expected 1:2:1 for a single recessive aroma gene in Ch-29B. Linkage analysis between simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and the aroma locus for the aromatic F2 plants mapped the Ch-29B aroma gene to a chromosome 8 region flanked by SSR markers RM23120 at 0.52 cM and RM3459 at 1.23 cM, a replicate F2 population confirming these results. Three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones cover chromosome 8 markers RM23120 and RM3459. Our molecular mapping data from the two populations indicated that the aroma locus occurs in a 142.85 kb interval on BAC clones AP005301 or AP005537, implying that it might be the same gene reported by Bradbury et al (2005a; Plant Biotec J. 3:363-370). The flanking markers Aro7, RM23120 and RM3459 identified by us could greatly accelerate the efficiency and precision of aromatic rice breeding programs.

  1. Stochastic modelling of Listeria monocytogenes single cell growth in cottage cheese with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from aroma producing cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2015-01-01

    A stochastic model was developed for simultaneous growth of low numbers of Listeria monocytogenes and populations of lactic acid bacteria from the aroma producing cultures applied in cottage cheese. During more than two years, different batches of cottage cheese with aroma culture were analysed for pH, lactic acid concentration and initial concentration of lactic acid bacteria. These data and bootstrap sampling were used to represent product variability in the stochastic model. Lag time data were estimated from observed growth data (lactic acid bacteria) and from literature on L. monocytogenes single cells. These lag time data were expressed as relative lag times and included in growth models. A stochastic model was developed from an existing deterministic growth model including the effect of five environmental factors and inter-bacterial interaction [Østergaard, N.B, Eklöw, A and Dalgaard, P. 2014. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 188, 15-25]. Growth of L. monocytogenes single cells, using lag time distributions corresponding to three different stress levels, was simulated. The simulated growth was subsequently compared to growth of low concentrations (0.4-1.0CFU/g) of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese, exposed to similar stresses, and in general a good agreement was observed. In addition, growth simulations were performed using population relative lag time distributions for L. monocytogenes as reported in literature. Comparably good predictions were obtained as for the simulations performed using lag time data for individual cells of L. monocytogenes. Therefore, when lag time data for individual cells are not available, it was suggested that relative lag time distributions for L. monocytogenes can be used as a qualified default assumption when simulating growth of low concentrations of L. monocytogenes.

  2. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology : Sweeping gas versus vacuum membrane distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S; Pinelo, Manuel; Varming, Camilla; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2012-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up. The data were compared to recovery of the aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). The flux of SGMD increased with an increase in temperature, feed flow rate or sweep...

  3. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants*

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jiang; WANG, LI; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identifie...

  4. Impact of Australian Dekkera bruxellensis strains grown under oxygen-limited conditions on model wine composition and aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Chris D; Langhans, Geoffrey; Henschke, Paul A; Grbin, Paul R

    2013-12-01

    Spoilage of red wine by the yeast species Dekkera bruxellensis is a common problem for the global wine industry. When conditions are conducive for growth of these yeasts in wine, they efficiently convert non-volatile hydroxycinnamic acids into aroma-active ethylphenols, thereby reducing the quality of the wine. It has been demonstrated previously that dissolved oxygen is a key factor which stimulates D. bruxellensis growth in wine. We demonstrate that whereas the presence of oxygen accelerates the growth of this species, oxygen-limited conditions favour 4-ethylphenol production. Consequently, we evaluated wine spoilage potential of three D. bruxellensis strains (AWRI1499, AWRI1608 and AWRI1613) under oxygen-limited conditions. Each strain was cultured in a chemically-defined wine medium and the fermentation products were analysed using HPLC and HS-SPME-GC/MS. The strains displayed different growth characteristics but were equally capable of producing ethylphenols. On the other hand, significant differences were observed for 18 of the remaining 33 metabolites analysed and duo-trio sensory analysis indicated significant aroma differences between wines inoculated with AWRI1499 and AWRI1613. When these wines were spiked with low concentrations of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol, no sensorial differences could be perceived. Together these data suggest that the three predominant D. bruxellensis strains previously isolated during a large survey of Australian wineries do not differ substantively in their capacity to grow in, and spoil, a model wine medium. PMID:24010603

  5. Analytical and sensorial characterization of the aroma of wines produced with sour rotten grapes using GC-O and GC-MS: identification of key aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, André; Campo, Eva; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2011-03-23

    In the present work, the aroma profiles of wines elaborated from sound and sour rot-infected grapes as raw material have been studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with the aim of determining the odor volatiles most likely associated with this disease. The effect of sour rot was tested in monovarietal wines produced with the Portuguese red grape variety Trincadeira and in blends of Cabernet Sauvignon and sour rotten Trincadeira grapes. Wines produced from damaged berries exhibited clear honey-like notes not evoked by healthy samples. Ethyl phenylacetate (EPhA) and phenylacetic acid (PAA), both exhibiting sweet honey-like aromas, emerged as key aroma compounds of sour rotten wines. Their levels were 1 order of magnitude above those found in controls and reached 304 and 1668 ?g L(-1) of EPhA and PAA, respectively, well above the corresponding odor thresholds. Levels of ?-nonalactone also increased by a factor 3 in sour rot samples. Results also suggest that sour rot exerts a great effect on the secondary metabolism of yeast, decreasing the levels of volatiles related to fatty acids and amino acid synthesis. The highest levels of ?-decalactone of up to 405 ?g L(-1) were also found in all of the samples, suggesting that this could be a relevant aroma compound in Trincadeira wine aroma. PMID:21348497

  6. Umami compounds enhance the intensity of retronasal sensation of aromas from model chicken soups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Toshihide; Goto, Shingo; Miura, Kyo; Takakura, Yukiko; Egusa, Ai S; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko

    2016-04-01

    We examined the influence of taste compounds on retronasal aroma sensation using a model chicken soup. The aroma intensity of a reconstituted flavour solution from which glutamic acid (Glu), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), or phosphate was omitted was significantly lower (pmonosodium glutamate (MSG) to aqueous aroma solution containing only ACM enhanced the intensity of retronasal aroma sensation by 2.5-folds with increasing MSG concentration from 0% to 0.3%. Sensation intensity using an umami solution with added MSG and IMP was significantly higher than that with only MSG when the MSG concentration was 0.05%, 0.075%, or 0.1%. However, it plateaued when MSG concentration was beyond 0.3%. PMID:26593530

  7. Structural and physical effects of aroma compound binding to native starch granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Anders Dysted; Jensen, Susanne L.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction and physical/structural effects of aroma compounds, at high concentrations on dry native starch granules were studied using eight selected model compounds: acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulphide, diacetyl, allyl isothiocyanate, ethyl butyrate, citral, octanol and butyric acid. The maize, potato and pea starches used represent different typical structural and chemical starch characteristics. Retention of the different aroma compounds varied from a few to one hundred percent and starch was found to induce as well as reduce aroma evaporation depending on the aroma compound and the starch type. As deduced from DSC, powder XRD and SEM analyses, citral, butyric acid and octanol exerted specific effects on the starch granules manifested in local melting of crystalline layers and partial disruption of the granular meso structure. The most prominent effect was obtained with citral that generated surface wrinkles on B? and C?type polymorphic granules and aggregation of A?type polymorphic granules, decreased the melting temperature and suppressed the crystallinity of the starch.

  8. Gas chromatography/sniffing port analysis of aroma compounds released under mouth conditions

    OpenAIRE

    van Ruth, S. M.; Roozen, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    The technique of gas chromatography/sniffing port analysis was evaluated for studying the release of aroma compounds from rehydrated diced French beans. The aroma compounds 2-/3-methylbutanal and hexanal were released at a constant rate over time. An identical selection of odour active compounds was obtained at different sampling times. Mutual proportions were remained among the sampling times, although the total number of perceptions of assessors were different

  9. Understanding Aroma Release from Model Cheeses by a Statistical Multiblock Approach on Oral Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Feron, Gilles; Ayed, Charfedinne; Qannari, El Mostafa; Courcoux, Philippe; Laboure, Hélène; GUICHARD, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food oral processing events involved in aroma release during cheese consumption. In vivo aroma release was monitored on forty eight subjects who were asked to eat four dif...

  10. Method for recovering aroma concentrate from a caffeine- or theobromine-comprising food base material

    OpenAIRE

    Kattenberg, H.R.; Willemsen, J.H.A.; Starmans, D.A.J.; Hoving, H.D.; Winters, M.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Described is a method for recovering aroma concentrate from a caffeine- or theobromine-comprising food base material, such as coffee or tea, and in particular cocoa, at least comprising the steps of: introducing the food base material into an aqueous extractant and incubating the food base material at a suitable temperature and for a suitable period, substantial extraction of the aromas taking place to form an aqueous food extract, pervaporating the food extract using a hydrophobic pervaporat...

  11. Aroma of some plants cultivated in Lithuania : Composition, processing and release

    OpenAIRE

    Bylaite, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, some factors affecting the aroma of some plants of the families Umbelliferae and Asteraceae were evaluated. The composition of the aromas is influenced by several factors: plant family, harvesting time, anatomical part of plant, method used to isolate volatiles, cultivar, fertilisers used for the growing of plant, cultivation site. The yield of caraway fruits varies over a wide range depending on fertiliser content, cultivation area and the cultivar itself. The trends for the a...

  12. Aroma Compounds of Some Traditional Turkish Cheeses and Their Importance for Turkish Cuisine

    OpenAIRE

    Fügen Durlu-Özkaya; ?lhan Gün

    2014-01-01

    Cheese is so important to the Turkish cuisine. It is eaten plain as part of the traditional Turkish breakfast, used in salads, and incorporated into cooked foods such as b?rek, pide, menemen and also used for some traditional desserts. There are several types of cheeses with different characteristics and aroma compounds, and they can be used for preparation of various foods as an additive. The formation of cheese aroma basically associated with lipids, proteins and lactose...

  13. Differential effects of exposure to ambient vanilla and citrus aromas on mood, arousal and food choice

    OpenAIRE

    de Wijk René A; Zijlstra Suzet M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla) could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost physiological sensors and semi-real life settings. Tests included physiological (heart rate, physical activity and response times), psychological (emotions and mood) and behavioral (food choice) measures in a semi-real...

  14. Molecular and biochemical analysis of aroma in CSR10 x Taraori basmati derived Recombinant Inbred Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pummy Kumari, Uma Ahuja , Sunita Jain and R.K. Jain

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aroma or fragrance of Basmati rice is associated with the presence and content of chemical compound, 2-acetyl-1-pyrrolineand the trait is monogenic recessive. Several PCR-based co-dominant marker based on RG28 locus were developed, which can differentiate between fragrant and non-fragrant rice cultivars. For molecular and biochemical analysis of aroma, a mapping population comprising 208 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a diverse cross between CSR10 and Taraori Basmati through SSD method was used. RILs are among the best mapping populations, which provide a novel material for linkage mapping of genes/QTLs marker for various traits. Biochemical analysis of aroma was performed with the 1.7% KOH solution and molecular analysis of aroma was carried out with microsatellite markers present on chromosome 8 (BAD2, BADEX7-5, SCUSSR1 to determine the extent of association between trait, marker and chromosome 8. Among these markers, BAD2 amplified aroma specific alleles having 256 bp in 72 lines, BADEX7-5 with 95 bp in 74 lines and SCUSSR1 with 129 bp in 79 lines. Mentel test of significance detected by biochemical analysis of RILs (with 1.7 % KOH and molecular marker study revealed high degree (>90 % of association of aroma with the above mentioned markers, respectively. Some of the F10 lines amplified the heterozygous alleles for two sets of specific markers (BAD2 and SCUSSR-1 but did not show the presence of aroma as analyzed by chemical test. Aromatic and non-aromatic lines were almost common in three markers indicating association of markers with the trait and chromosome 8. The results revealed that these markers could be used for marker assisted selection and RIL population for mapping of aroma QTLs/genes.

  15. Composition and method for preparing a cured ham aroma and uses thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Llovera, Mónica; Toldrá Vilardell, Fidel; Gianelli Barra, María Pía; Durá Cubells, María Asunción

    2008-01-01

    The invention comprises a composition of volatiles, which reproduces a cured ham aroma and comprises a mixture of sarcoplasmic proteins, ramified aldehydes, sulphured compounds, linear aldehydes, 2-ketones and salts, in the appropriate combination and ideal proportions. The composition is useful for preparing foods with greater organoleptic properties without the need for carrying out long curing processes and preparation of other foods with a cured ham aroma.

  16. Dynamics and quantitative analysis of the synthesis of fermentative aromas by an evolved wine strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouret, J R; Cadiere, A; Aguera, E; Rollero, S; Ortiz-Julien, A; Sablayrolles, J M; Dequin, S

    2015-01-01

    We performed a dynamic and quantitative analysis of the synthesis of fermentative aromas by an aromatic wine yeast, ECA5, obtained by adaptive evolution. During fermentation at pilot scale on synthetic and natural musts, ECA5 produced volatile compounds (higher alcohols and their acetates, ethyl esters) at higher rates than the ancestral strain, with the exception of propanol. Marked differences in the chronology of synthesis of several compounds were observed between the two strains. Overproduction of phenyl ethanol occurred mainly during the growth phase for ECA5, consistent with its higher flux through the pentose phosphate pathway, which plays a key role in biosynthetic processes. The kinetics of production of isobutanol and isoamyl alcohol were differently affected by different media (synthetic or natural must) and, in particular, according to the nature of the sterols in the media (ergosterol or phytosterols). We also observed differences in the chronology of synthesis of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate or ethyl esters, suggesting that the regulation of the synthesis of these compounds in the evolved strain differs from that in the ancestral strain. This study shows that a dynamic analysis of volatile compounds, using high acquisition frequency online gas chromatography, can provide novel insights into the synthesis and regulation of aromas and is thus a potentially powerful tool for strain characterization. PMID:24989462

  17. With peppermints you're not my prince: Aroma modulates self-other integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard; Rossi Paccani, Claudia; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies showed that self-other integration, as indexed by the joint Simon effect (JSE), can be modulated by biasing participants towards particular (integrative vs. exclusive) cognitive-control states. Interestingly, there is evidence suggesting that such control states can be induced by particular odors: stimulating odors (e.g., peppermint aroma) seem to induce a more focused, exclusive state; relaxing odors (e.g., lavender aroma) are thought to induce a broader, more integrative state. In the present study, we tested the possible impact of peppermint and lavender aromas on self-other integration. Pairs of participants performed the joint Simon task in an either peppermint- or lavender-scented testing room. Results showed that both aromas modulated the size of the JSE, although they had a dissociable effect on reaction times (RTs) and percentage of errors (PEs). Whilst the JSE in RTs was found to be less pronounced in the peppermint group, compared to the lavender and no-aroma groups, the JSE in PEs was significantly more pronounced in the lavender group, compared to the peppermint and no-aroma group. These results are consistent with the emerging literature suggesting that the degree of self-other integration does not reflect a trait but a particular cognitive state, which can be biased towards excluding or integrating the other in one's self-representation. PMID:26174477

  18. Bacteria associated with truffle-fruiting bodies contribute to truffle aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splivallo, Richard; Deveau, Aurélie; Valdez, Nayuf; Kirchhoff, Nina; Frey-Klett, Pascale; Karlovsky, Petr

    2015-08-01

    Truffles, symbiotic fungi renown for the captivating aroma of their fruiting bodies, are colonized by a complex bacterial community of unknown function. We characterized the bacterial community of the white truffle Tuber borchii and tested the involvement of its microbiome in the production of sulphur-containing volatiles. We found that sulphur-containing volatiles such as thiophene derivatives, characteristic of T.?borchii fruiting bodies, resulted from the biotransformation of non-volatile precursor(s) into volatile compounds by bacteria. The bacterial community of T.?borchii was dominated by ?- and ?-Proteobacteria. Interestingly, all bacteria phyla/classes tested in this study were able to produce thiophene volatiles from T.?borchii fruiting body extract, irrespective of their isolation source (truffle or other sources). This indicates that the ability to produce thiophene volatiles might be widespread among bacteria and possibly linked to primary metabolism. Treatment of fruiting bodies with antibacterial agents fully suppressed the production of thiophene volatiles while fungicides had no inhibitory effect. This suggests that during the sexual stage of truffles, thiophene volatiles are exclusively synthesized by bacteria and not by the truffle. At this stage, the origin of thiophenes precursor in T.?borchii remains elusive and the involvement of yeasts or other bacteria cannot be excluded. PMID:24903279

  19. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb : Effect of fermentation temperature and baker’s yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how the dough fermentation conditions influence the wheat bread production time and the bread aroma is important for the bread industry. The overall purpose of this PhD project is to investigate the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion and aroma in bread crumb. In Paper I the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion were investigated. Wheat doughs were fermented by seven commercial baker’s yeasts (baker’s yeast I to VII) at different yeast concentrations (2.88•1014, 5.76•1014 and 8.64• 1014 CFU/kg flour, corresponding to 20-40, 40-80 and 60-120 g/kg flour) and fermentation temperatures (5, 15, 25 and 35°C). Dough expansion was investigated by monitoring the dough height and the expansion profile was found to be described well by a first order kinetic model. The highest kinetic rate constants corresponding to the shortest fermentation times were found for doughs fermented at 25°C and the highest yeast concentration. Doughs fermented with commercial baker’s yeast I, II, III and V had shorter fermentation times compared to fermentation with baker’s yeast IV, VI and VII. The longest fermentation times were generally found for doughs fermented with all baker’s yeasts at 5°C and the lowest yeast concentration (2.88•1014 CFU/kg flour). In Paper II, III and V wheat breads were produced for volatile analysis. The dough samples were fermented to equal height and baked and the volatile compounds from the bread crumb were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling and analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A wide range of volatile compounds was identified in bread crumb, mainly originating from the activity of yeast and from oxidation of flour lipids. The dominating fermentation compounds were alcohols, aldehydes as well as 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin), esters and acids. Furthermore, oxidation of flour lipids was generating primarily aldehydes and ketones. Quantification of the volatile compounds in bread crumb was performed by multiple headspace extraction (Paper II, III and V). The compounds were evaluated according to their odour activity value (OAV). The most aroma active compounds (OAV > 6) identified in bread crumb were; (E)-2-nonanal (green, tallow), 3-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methyl-1-butanol (balsamic, alcoholic), nonanal (citrus), hexanal (green), 2,3-butanedione (buttery, caramel), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom) and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like). Esters were also identified in bread crumb (e.g. ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate) and they are of interest because of their fruity and pleasant odours, however the OAV’s of the esters were generally low (0.1 to 0.5). In Paper II the effects of yeast level (20, 40 and 60 g baker’s yeast VII/kg flour) and fermentation temperature (5, 15 and 35ºC) on aroma in bread crumb were investigated. Fermentation with the highest yeast concentration (60 g/kg flour) resulted in bread containing the highest concentration of the majority of the compounds formed from yeast activity (e.g. 2,3-butanedione and phenylacetaldehyde), compared to doughs fermented at lower yeast concentrations (20 and 40 g/kg flour). A fermentation temIII perature at 5°C resulted in breads with the highest concentration of the three esters; ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate, compared to breads fermented at higher temperatures (15 and 35°C). Fermentation at 15 and 35°C resulted in breads with the highest concentration of many lipid oxidation compounds (e.g. heptanal and hexanal) compared to breads fermented at 5°C. In Paper III the effect of the type of commercial baker’s yeast (baker’s yeast I to VII, 2.88•1014 yeast CFU/kg flour) on bread aroma was investigated. Breads fermented by commercial baker’s yeast I to IV had the significantly highest concentration of 2,3-butanedione and 1-propanol compared to breads fermented by the other yeasts. Furthermore, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methy

  20. The aroma of the probiotic yogurts with and without supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Hruškar

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish the changes in aromacompounds of fermented milks with probiotics during storage as a function of time and temperature. The aroma compounds concentration in probiotic yogurt samples, during storage at + 4 and +20°C were studied. Acetaldehyde, diacetyl, ethanol and organic acids (lactate, acetate, citrate content were determined during 20 days, every fifth day from the beginning of storage. Acetaldehyde, ethanol, lactic, citric and acetic acid concentration were determined using an enzymatic method, while diacetyl concentration was determined using colorimetric method. The results showed that the acetaldehyde decreased during storage. The decrease was higher at elevated temperature. On the other hand, diacetyl, ethanol and acetic acid increased during storage at both temperatures. The concentration of lactic acid increased during storage at both temperature and at the end of storage it was doubled. The amount of citric acid increased in the same manner. The increase of all organic acids during storage was higher at elevated temperature.

  1. Aroma enhancement and enzymolysis regulation of grape wine using ?-glycosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Adding ?-glycosidase into grape wine for enhancing aroma was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Kramer sensory evaluation. Compared with the extract from control wines, the extract from enzyme-treated wines increased more aromatic compounds using steam distillation extraction (SDE) and GC-MS analyses. Theses aromatic compounds were as follows: 3-methyl-1-butanol formate, 3-pentanol, furfural, 3-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl-butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-butanoic acid ethyl ester, hexanoic acid, hexanoic acid ethyl ester, benzyl alcohol, octanoic acid, octanoic acid ethyl ester, dodecanoic acid, and ethyl ester. The enzymolysis regulation conditions, including enzymolysis temperature, enzymolysis time, and enzyme amount, were optimized through L9(3(4)) orthogonal test. Kramer sensory evaluation was performed by an 11-man panel of judges. The optimum enzymolysis regulation conditions were found to be temperature of 45°C, enzymolysis time of 90 min, and enzyme amount of 58.32 U/mL grape wine, respectively. The Kramer sensory evaluation supported that the enzyme-treated wines produced a stronger fragrance. PMID:24804072

  2. A fermented meat model system for studies of microbial aroma formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2003-01-01

    A fermented meat model system was developed, by which microbial formation of volatiles could be examined The model was evaluated against dry, fermented sausages with respect to microbial growth, pH and volatile profiles. Fast and slowly acidified sausages and models were produced using the starter cultures Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus xylosus. Volatiles were collected and analysed by dynamic headspace sampling and GC MS. The analysis was primarily focused on volatiles arising from amino acid degradation and a total of 24 compounds, of which 19 were quantified, were used for multivariate data analysis. Growth of lactic acid bacteria was comparable for model and sausages, whereas survival of S. xylosus was better in the model. Multivariate analysis of volatiles showed that differences between fast and slowly acidified samples were identical for model and sausage. For both sausage and model, fast-acidified samples had a high content of ketones, sulphides and methyl-branched acids, whereas slowly acidified samples had the highest content of methyl-branched alcohols, aldehydes, their ethyl esters, phenylacetaldehyde and methional. Furthermore, model repeatability with respect to pH, microbial growth and volatile profiles was similar to sausage production. Based on these findings, the model system was considered valid for studies of aroma formation of meat cultures for fermented sausage.

  3. How does roasting process influence the retention of coffee aroma compounds by lyophilized coffee extract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Galilea, I; Andriot, I; de Peña, M P; Cid, C; Guichard, E

    2008-04-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to study the effect of lyophilized coffee extract on the retention of aroma compounds and (2) to study if aroma compounds selected are differently affected by the lyophilized coffee extracts obtained from conventional and Torrefacto coffee brews prepared by filter coffeemaker and by espresso coffee machine. Variable amounts of lyophilized coffee extracts, relative to coffee powder, containing different percentages of high molecular weight compounds, mainly melanoidins (value given in parentheses), were obtained: 20.9% (14.8) and 24.9% (23.3), respectively, for conventional and Torrefacto coffee brew prepared by filter coffeemaker and 18.1% (18.8) and 20.7% (57.5), respectively, for conventional and Torrefacto coffee brew prepared by espresso coffee machine. The retention of aroma compounds increased by increasing the lyophilized coffee extract concentration and was found to be dependent on the aroma compounds. The retention of aroma compounds was found to be slightly different depending on the brewing procedure employed, showing lyophilized coffee extracts obtained with espresso coffee machine had higher retention values that those extracted by filter coffeemaker. Retention capacity of lyophilized coffee extracts obtained from the conventional and the Torrefacto roasted coffee did not show differences except in the case of ethyl nonanoate. PMID:18387130

  4. Retenção de aroma na secagem em atmosferas normal e modificada: desenvolvimento do sistema de estudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilio Machado Morais

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Na secagem de determinados alimentos, como frutas, juntamente com a água há também a evaporação de outras substâncias voláteis presentes em quantidades menores. Por isso, torna-se interessante considerar nos estudos de secagem a evaporação, além da água, desses outros componentes voláteis. A modificação da atmosfera tem sido utilizada em armazenamento, principalmente de vegetais, mas pode também ser estendida à secagem, pois pode influenciar a perda de voláteis responsáveis pelas características sensoriais do produto final. No presente trabalho, é apresentado um sistema de secagem previamente desenvolvido, no qual a atmosfera de secagem pode ser modificada pela adição de gases ou líquidos. Desenvolveu-se um sistema-modelo a partir da composição química básica do abacaxi e da adição de outros compostos, contendo um dos principais componentes do aroma desta fruta (hexanoato de etila. Além disso, também foi desenvolvida a metodologia analítica de determinação do aroma no sistema-modelo e no abacaxi, a partir dos estudos de extração de aromas e de análise cromatográfica gasosa. O aroma presente no sistema-modelo foi extraído em hexano e os componentes voláteis do aroma do abacaxi foram extraídos em éter etílico

  5. Aroma Stripping under various Forms of Membrane Distillation Processes: Experiments and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    Concentration of fruit juices by membrane distillation is an interesting process as it can be done at low temperature giving a gentle concentration process with little deterioration of the juices. Since the juices contains many different aroma compounds with a wide range of chemical properties such as volatility, activity coefficient and vapor pressure, it is important to know how these aroma compounds will eventually pass through the membrane. Experiments have been made on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up which can be operated in various types of MD configurations: Vacuum Membrane Distillation , Sweeping Gas Membrane Distillation , Direct Contact Membrane Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation. The influence of feed temperature and feed flow rate on the permeate flux and concentration factor for different types of aroma compounds have been measured for these MD configurations. A general transport model for the flux of water and aroma compounds have been derived and compared with the experimental data. A reasonable agreement between the modelling and the experiments could be obtained. From the modelling it was possible to explain the large different in permeate flux and concentration factor that was observed for the different MD configurations. This is highly related to the heat and mass transfer resistances in the membrane as well as in the boundary layers adjacent to the membrane surface and how the driving force develops along the length of the membrane.

  6. Effects of sugar concentration processes in grapes and wine aging on aroma compounds of sweet wines—a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Dessert sweet wines from Europe and North America are described in this review from two points of view: both their aroma profile and also their sensorial description. There are growing literature data about the chemical composition and sensory properties of these wines. Wines were grouped according to the production method (concentration of sugars in grapes) and to the aging process of wine (oxidative, biological, or a combination of both and aging in the bottle). It was found that wines natively sweets and wines fortified with liquors differ in their volatile compounds. Sensory properties of these wines include those of dried fruit (raisins), red berries, honey, chocolate and vanilla, which is contributing to their growing sales. However, there is still a need for scientific research on the understanding of the mechanisms for wine flavor enhancement. PMID:24915355

  7. Recuperação e concentração de componentes do aroma de caju (Anacardium occidentale L.) por pervaporação / Recovery of aroma compounds of cashew apple fruit (Anacardium occidentale L.) by pervaporation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André von Randow de, Assis; Humberto Ribeiro, Bizzo; Virgínia Martins da, Matta; Lourdes Maria Corrêa, Cabral.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A pervaporação é um processo de separação por membranas, no qual misturas líquidas são fracionadas devido à sua vaporização parcial através de uma membrana densa de permeabilidade seletiva. Este processo pode ser utilizado na recuperação e concentração de componentes de aromas. O objetivo deste trab [...] alho foi avaliar a pervaporação para obtenção de um extrato natural de aroma de caju, que poderá ser utilizado como aditivo na indústria de alimentos. Polpa de caju foi a matéria-prima utilizada no trabalho. O processo de pervaporação foi conduzido a 25 e 35 °C em membranas de polidimetilsiloxano. Foram recolhidas amostras do suco de caju, no início e ao final do processo, e do permeado para a caracterização do perfil aromático através de CG-EM. O processo de pervaporação apresentou um alto fluxo de permeado para o suco de caju, 0,11 e 0,17 kg.hm-2 a 25 e 35 °C, respectivamente. Os cromatogramas revelaram um grande aumento no número de picos nas amostras de permeado em relação aos cromatogramas das amostras do suco de caju original, sendo que cerca de 50% dos componentes identificados no permeado apresentaram um acréscimo em suas áreas em relação aos do suco original, indicando a potencialidade deste processo para a concentração do aroma de caju. Abstract in english Pervaporation is a membrane separation process in which components from liquid mixtures are fractionated due to their partial vaporisation through a dense selective membrane. This process can be used to recover aroma compounds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the pervaporation to obtain a [...] natural aroma extract from cashew apple fruit, which can be used as an additive in the food industry. Cashew pulp was used as raw material. Pervaporation was carried out at 25 and 35 °C using polymethylsiloxane membranes. Samples of the cashew juice in the beginning and at the end of the pervaporation and from the permeate were picked to characterise the aromatic profile by GC-MS. The pervaporation of the cashew juice presented a high permeate flux, 0.11 kgh-1m-2 and 0.17 kg.hm-2, at 25 and 35 °C, respectively. The chromatograms showed an increase in the number of compounds in the permeate samples when compared to the chromatograms of the cashew juice. By comparing the peak areas, it could be observed that almost 50% of the identified components in the permeate samples presented an increase in the peak area, showing the potentiality of this process to the concentration of the aroma of cashew apple juice.

  8. Recuperação e concentração de componentes do aroma de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. por pervaporação Recovery of aroma compounds of cashew apple fruit (Anacardium occidentale L. by pervaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André von Randow de Assis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A pervaporação é um processo de separação por membranas, no qual misturas líquidas são fracionadas devido à sua vaporização parcial através de uma membrana densa de permeabilidade seletiva. Este processo pode ser utilizado na recuperação e concentração de componentes de aromas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a pervaporação para obtenção de um extrato natural de aroma de caju, que poderá ser utilizado como aditivo na indústria de alimentos. Polpa de caju foi a matéria-prima utilizada no trabalho. O processo de pervaporação foi conduzido a 25 e 35 °C em membranas de polidimetilsiloxano. Foram recolhidas amostras do suco de caju, no início e ao final do processo, e do permeado para a caracterização do perfil aromático através de CG-EM. O processo de pervaporação apresentou um alto fluxo de permeado para o suco de caju, 0,11 e 0,17 kg.hm-2 a 25 e 35 °C, respectivamente. Os cromatogramas revelaram um grande aumento no número de picos nas amostras de permeado em relação aos cromatogramas das amostras do suco de caju original, sendo que cerca de 50% dos componentes identificados no permeado apresentaram um acréscimo em suas áreas em relação aos do suco original, indicando a potencialidade deste processo para a concentração do aroma de caju.Pervaporation is a membrane separation process in which components from liquid mixtures are fractionated due to their partial vaporisation through a dense selective membrane. This process can be used to recover aroma compounds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the pervaporation to obtain a natural aroma extract from cashew apple fruit, which can be used as an additive in the food industry. Cashew pulp was used as raw material. Pervaporation was carried out at 25 and 35 °C using polymethylsiloxane membranes. Samples of the cashew juice in the beginning and at the end of the pervaporation and from the permeate were picked to characterise the aromatic profile by GC-MS. The pervaporation of the cashew juice presented a high permeate flux, 0.11 kgh-1m-2 and 0.17 kg.hm-2, at 25 and 35 °C, respectively. The chromatograms showed an increase in the number of compounds in the permeate samples when compared to the chromatograms of the cashew juice. By comparing the peak areas, it could be observed that almost 50% of the identified components in the permeate samples presented an increase in the peak area, showing the potentiality of this process to the concentration of the aroma of cashew apple juice.

  9. Chemical and sensory comparison of fresh and dried lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Diana Paola; Orrego, Carlos Eduardo; Peterson, Devin Grant; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-02-15

    The odour-active volatile compounds of lulo fruit (Solanum quitoense Lam.) were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). GC-O and GCMS analyses as well as quantitation by internal standard method showed that (Z)-3-hexenal, ethyl butanoate, 3-sulphanylhexyl acetate, and ethyl hexanoate were key aroma compounds in this fruit. Other odorants with relevance because their contribution (high OAVs) to the overall aroma were 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, methyl benzoate, (E)-2-hexenal, and hexanal. Lulo fruit pulp in presence of maltodextrin DE-20 was dried by using four different types of drying methods: hot air-drying (HD), spray drying (SD), lyophilisation (LD), and ultrasonic convective hot air-drying (HUD). LD sample exhibited the highest sensory rank (lulo-like) in comparison with fresh fruit pulp. Hot-air drying processes (HD and HUD) changed adversely the aroma of lulo fruit pulp. PMID:25236202

  10. Analysis of aroma-active compounds in three sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) cultivars by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS*

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Xuan; Mai, Rong-zhang; Zou, Jing-jing; Hong-Yan ZHANG; Zeng, Xiang-ling; Zheng, Ri-ru; Wang, Cai-yun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Aroma is the core factor in aromatherapy. Sensory evaluation of aromas differed among three sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) cultivar groups. The purpose of this study was to investigate the aroma-active compounds responsible for these differences. Methods: Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to analyze the aroma-active compounds and volatiles of creamy-white (‘Houban Yingui’, HBYG), yellow (‘Liuye Jingui’, LYJG), and orange (‘Geche...

  11. O aroma ambiental e sua relação com as avaliações e intenções do consumidor no varejo / Ambient scent and its relationship with consumer evaluations and intentions in retail / El aroma ambiental y su relación con las evaluaciones e intenciones del consumidor en el comercio minorista

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Luiz Carvalho Nunes da, Costa; Salomão Alencar de, Farias.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A atmosfera de uma loja é capaz de provocar emoções e comportamentos que estimulam a compra. Entre as suas dimensões, está o aroma ambiental, adicionado artificialmente ao ambiente. Este artigo investiga a relação entre a presença de aroma ambiental no varejo e as avaliações de loja, ambiente de loj [...] a e produtos, além das intenções comportamentais relativas ao retorno e ao tempo gasto na loja. A pesquisa teve uma etapa exploratória, exame de publicações em fisiologia, psicologia e comportamento do consumidor, para construção do referencial teórico e formulação das hipóteses, e outra causal, quase experimento, para identificar as relações de causa e efeito na presença de aroma. O estudo foi conduzido em uma butique de frutos do mar, e os instrumentos de coleta de dados, escalas de diferencial semântico, basearam-se em pesquisas similares. As análises incluíram técnicas de estatística descritiva e teste de hipóteses. Os resultados revelaram que a presença de aroma ambiental não aumentou as avaliações nem a intenção de retorno, mas reteve o consumidor por mais tempo na loja. Abstract in spanish La atmósfera de un negocio es capaz de generar emociones y comportamientos que estimulan la compra. Entre sus dimensiones, está el aroma ambiental, adicionado de modo artificial al ambiente. Este artículo averigua la relación entre la presencia de aroma ambiental en el comercio minorista y las evalu [...] aciones de negocio, ambiente de negocio y productos, además de las intenciones de comportamiento con respecto al retorno y al tiempo dedicado al negocio. La investigación tuvo una etapa exploratoria, examen de publicaciones en fisiología, psicología y comportamiento del consumidor, para construcción del referencial teórico y formulación de las hipótesis, y otra causal, casi-experimento, para identificar las relaciones de causa y efecto en la presencia del aroma. El estudio fue conducido en una especie de boutique para frutos del mar y, los instrumentos de colecta de datos, escalas de diferencial semántico, basaranse en investigaciones similares. Los análisis han incluido técnicas de estadística descriptiva y teste de hipótesis. Los resultados han revelado que la presencia de aroma ambiental no aumentó las evaluaciones ni la intención del retorno, pero mantuvo el consumidor por más tiempo en el negocio. Abstract in english The atmosphere of a store can be used to produce specific emotions that enhance purchase probability, and the ambient scent, artificially added, is among its dimensions. This article investigates the relationship between the presence of an ambient scent in a retail store, and customers' evaluation o [...] f the store, its environment and products, as well as the behavioral intentions related to return and time spent in the store. The research design included an exploratory stage, examination of publications in the fields of physiology, psychology and consumer behavior, to provide the conceptual background and to formulate research hypothesis; and a causal stage, quasi-experiment, to verify the effects of scent presence. Semantic differential scales were employed for data collection. Descriptive statistics and hypothesis test were performed for data analysis and the results revealed that the scent presence did not improve the evaluations or the intent to return but retained the consumer longer in the store.

  12. Recovery of volatile aroma compounds from black currant juice by vacuum membrane distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Warming, C.; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the recovery of seven characteristic black currant aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) carried out at low temperatures (10-45 degreesC) and at varying feed flow rates (100-500 l/h) in a lab scale membrane distillation set tip. VMD at feed flow from 100 to 500 l/h at 30 degreesC gave concentration factors, calculated for each aroma compound as C-permeate/C-feed: from similar to4 to 15. The concentration factors increased with decreased juice temperature duri...

  13. MODIFIKASI WARNA, TEKTUR DAN AROMA TEMPE SETELAH DIPROSES DENGAN KARBON DIOKSIDA SUPERKRITIK [The Modification of Color, Texture, and Aroma of Tempe Processed with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Erna Kustyawati1*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide technology was a non thermal processing which might be applied on tempe to preserve its freshness. The aim of the research was to study the effect of supercritical CO2 on the color and texture of tempe, and to identify the aroma of tempe after processed with supercritical CO2. The experiment was carried out using Completely Randomized Block Design with three replications. The experimental factors were pressure treatmentat at supercritic (Ps and liquid (Pc, and treatment time (T at T1, T2, T3, T4 of 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively. The results showed that the treatment of pressures, time and their interactions significantly affected the color of ?L*, ?a*, ?b*, ?E*, but not significantly affected the textures.The best treatment was PcT1 producing the tempe with the value of ?L*-2.13; ?a*0.28; ?b*0.97 dan ?E*0.77. Several volatile aromas of tempe were extracted due to the supercritical CO2 treatment, but it also caused the formation of new volatile aroma compounds.

  14. A study of an aroma extraction method and evaluation of the aroma extract contribution to the palatability and reinforcement effect of dried bonito using mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitsuka, Takahiko; Okamura, Maya; Shiibashi, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Naoto; Saito, Tsukasa; Nammoku, Takashi; Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    Japanese cuisine has provided satisfying meals by fully utilizing the characteristic aroma and taste of katsuodashi (dried bonito broth), though it is not rich in sugars or fats. Katsuodashi is a very basic and indispensable element in Japanese cuisine, and is a hot water extract of katsuobushi (dried bonito). It has been reported that a dextrin solution containing natural dried bonito broth has a significant reinforcement effect, and has been suggested that the olfactory stimulation is important for the reinforcement effect. We examined various source materials for broth and identified an optimal method of aroma extraction by two-bottle choice and conditioned place preference tests in mice. By two-bottle choice tests, a solution containing arabushi (a type of katsuobushi) aroma extract obtained by a supercritical CO2 extraction method showed a significantly high preference. The conditioned place preference test showed the dashi-taste solution with arabushi supercritical CO2 extract had a reinforcement effect. Our results suggest that the arabushi extract obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction contains components responsible for preference and reinforcement effects in mice; it could become conducive to making Japanese cuisine more satisfying and palatable. PMID:25744421

  15. Identification of sulphur volatiles and GC-olfactometry aroma profiling in two fresh tomato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaofen; Song, Mei; Baldwin, Elizabeth; Rouseff, Russell

    2015-03-15

    Ten sulphur volatiles were observed in two Florida tomato cultivars ('Tasti-Lee' and 'FL 47') harvested at three maturity stages (breaker, turning, and pink) using gas chromatography with a pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD). Eight PFPD peaks were identified using retention values from authentic sulphur standards and GC-MS characteristic masses. Seven were quantified using an internal standard combined with external calibration curves. Dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide 2-propylthiazole and 2-s-butylthiazole were newly identified in fresh tomatoes. Principal component analysis of sulphur volatiles indicated that there were appreciable maturity stage differences clustered in separate quadrants. GC-olfactometry (GC-O) identified 50 aroma-active compounds in 'Tasti-Lee', with 10 reported as odorants in fresh tomatoes for the first time. Four sulphur volatiles exhibited aroma activity, including two of the newly-reported fresh tomato sulphur volatiles, 2-s-butylthiazole and dimethyl sulphide. GC-O aroma profiling indicated that the most intense aroma category was earthy-musty, followed by fruity-floral, green-grassy, sweet-candy and sweaty-stale-sulphurous. PMID:25308674

  16. Aroma characterization of tangerine hybrids by gas-chromatography-olfactometry and sensory evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although a total of 150 volatiles were detected by GC-MS, only 49 aroma active peaks were found in a consensus by the three panelists. Aldehydes were the most important group with odor activity, as well as monoterpenes, esters, alcohols and ketones. 1,8-Cineole, ·-myrcene, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, hexa...

  17. Study of combined effect of proteins and bentonite fining on the wine aroma loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenzi, Simone; Panighel, Annarita; Gazzola, Diana; Flamini, Riccardo; Curioni, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The wine aroma loss as a consequence of treatments with bentonite is due to the occurrence of multiple interaction mechanisms. In addition to a direct effect of bentonite, the removal of aroma compounds bound to protein components adsorbed by the clay has been hypothesized but never demonstrated. We studied the effect of bentonite addition on total wine aroma compounds (extracted from Moscato wine) in a model solution in the absence and presence of total and purified (thaumatin-like proteins and chitinase) wine proteins. The results showed that in general bentonite alone has a low effect on the loss of terpenes but removed ethyl esters and fatty acids. The presence of wine proteins in the solution treated with bentonite tended to increase the loss of esters with the longest carbon chains (from ethyl octanoate to ethyl decanoate), and this was significant when the purified proteins were used. The results here reported suggest that hydrophobicity can be one of the driving forces involved in the interaction of aromas with both bentonite and proteins. PMID:25665100

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Extracts of Acacia Aroma Against Methicillin-Resistant And Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus

    OpenAIRE

    Mattana, C. M.; Satorres, S.E.; Sosa, A; De Fusco, M.; Alcará, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined using agar diffusion and bioautographic methods. Among all assayed organic extracts only ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented highest activities against all tested Staphylococcus strains with...

  19. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Acacia aroma against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus

    OpenAIRE

    Mattana, C. M.; Satorres, S.E.; Sosa, A; De Fusco, M.; Alcaráz, L. E.

    2010-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined using agar diffusion and bioautographic methods. Among all assayed organic extracts only ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented highest activities against all tested Staphylococcus strains with...

  20. Impact of Thermal and Nonthermal Processing Technologies on Unfermented Apple Cider Aroma Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroma composition and microbial quality of identical lots of apple cider treated by pulsed electric field (PEF), ultraviolet irradiation (UV), or thermal pasteurization and stored at 4 C were compared at 0, 2 and 4 weeks. Conditions for all three treatments were adjusted to produce identical 5 log ...

  1. Evolution of the Aroma Volatiles of Pear Fruits Supplemented with Fatty Acid Metabolic Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaihua Qin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To examine the biochemical metabolism of aroma volatiles derived from fatty acids, pear fruits were incubated in vitro with metabolic precursors of these compounds. Aroma volatiles, especially esters, were significantly increased, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in pear fruits fed on fatty acid metabolic precursors. Cultivars having different flavor characteristics had distinctly different aroma volatile metabolisms. More esters were formed in fruity-flavored “Nanguoli” fruits than in green-flavored “Dangshansuli” fruits fed on the same quantities of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexanal and hexanol were more efficient metabolic intermediates for volatile synthesis than linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexyl esters were the predominant esters produced by pear fruits fed on hexanol, and their contents in “Dangshansuli” fruits were higher than in “Nanguoli” fruits. Hexyl esters and hexanoate esters were the primary esters produced in pear fruits fed on hexanal, however the content of hexyl ester in “Dangshansuli” was approximately three times that in “Nanguoli”. The higher contents of hexyl esters in “Dangshansuli” may have resulted from a higher level of hexanol derived from hexanal. In conclusion, the synthesis of aroma volatiles was largely dependent on the metabolic precursors presented.

  2. Ability of human oral microbiota to produce wine odorant aglycones from odourless grape glycosidic aroma precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Cueva, Carolina; Ángeles Pozo-Bayón, M; Victoria Moreno-Arribas, M

    2015-11-15

    Grape aroma precursors are odourless glycosides that represent a natural reservoir of potential active odorant molecules in wines. Since the first step of wine consumption starts in the oral cavity, the processing of these compounds in the mouth could be an important factor in influencing aroma perception. Therefore, the objective of this work has been to evaluate the ability of human oral microbiota to produce wine odorant aglycones from odourless grape glycosidic aroma precursors previously isolated from white grapes. To do so, two methodological approaches involving the use of typical oral bacteria or the whole oral microbiota isolated from human saliva were followed. Odorant aglycones released in the culture mediums were isolated and analysed by HS-SPME-GC/MS. Results showed the ability of oral bacteria to hydrolyse grape aroma precursors, releasing different types of odorant molecules (terpenes, benzenic compounds and lipid derivatives). The hydrolytic activity seemed to be bacteria-dependent and was subject to large inter-individual variability. PMID:25977005

  3. Aroma analysis and quality control of food using highly sensitive analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the development of quality control methods for food based on headspace measurements by Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and with aroma analysis of food using PTR-MS and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O). An objective method was developed for the determination of a herb extract's quality; this quality was checked by a sensory analysis until now. The concentrations of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of 81 different batches were measured by PTR-MS. Based on the sensory judgment of the customer, characteristic differences in the emissions of 'good' and 'bad' quality samples were identified and a method for the quality control of this herb extract was developed. This novel method enables the producing company to check and ensure that they are only selling high-quality products and therefore avoid complaints of the customer. Furthermore this method can be used for controlling, optimizing and automating the production process. VOCs emitted by meat were investigated using PTR-MS to develop a rapid, non-destructive and quantitative technique for determination of the microbial contamination of meat. Meat samples (beef, pork and poultry) that were wrapped into different kinds of packages (air and vacuum) were stored in at 4oC for up to 13 days. The emitted VOCs were measured as a function of storage time and identified partly. The concentration of many of the measured VOCs, e.g. sulfur compounds like methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide, largely increased over the storage time. There were big differences in the emissions of normal air- and vacuum-packed meat. VOCs typically emitted by air-packaged meat were methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide, while ethanol and methanol were found in vacuum-packaged meat. A comparison of the PTR-MS results with those obtained by a bacteriological examination performed at the same time showed strong correlations (up to 99 %) between the concentrations of some of the VOCs, e.g. dimethylsulfide, and the bacteriological contamination. The concentration of these VOCs increased linearly with the bacterial numbers. This study is a first step towards replacing the time-consuming conventional microbiological analysis via plate counting by fast headspace air measurements where the bacterial spoilage can be determined within minutes instead of days. PTR-MS and GC-O techniques were used to define volatiles and odor active compounds released in the mouth during eating of ripe and unripe banana. The air exhaled through the nose was directly introduced into a PTR-MS and the time-intensity profiles of a series of volatiles were monitored on-line. The breath-by-breath temporal release pattern revealed various dynamic elements that are characteristic of the eating situation. During the eating of unripe banana we observed a gradual increase in 2E-hexenal and hexanal with ongoing mastication, until swallowing. No particular high concentrations were observed in the exhaled air just after swallowing (swallow breath). During the eating of a ripe banana, we observed isopentyl acetate and isobutyl acetate, compounds characteristic of banana aroma. In contrast, volatiles characteristic of unripe banana were largely absent. No gradual increase was observed with mastication, as present during the eating of unripe banana. In contrast, very prominent swallow peaks were observed. For GC-O analysis the volatile compounds contributing to the banana aroma were prepared in an artificial mouth system using three different mastication rates. Large differences were found in the number of odor active compounds of ripe and unripe bananas as well as for the investigated three different mastication rates (0, 26 and 52 min-1). Hexanal was the only compound that was detected by all six assessors for ripe and unripe bananas for each mastication frequency. Eighteen (seven) significant odor active compounds were detected in the odor profile of ripe (unripe) bananas with a mastication rate of 52 min-1, whereas with a mastication rate of 26 min-1

  4. Effect of the Skin Contact on the Aroma Composition of the Must of the White Emir Grape Variety

    OpenAIRE

    Canba?, Ahmet; Cabaro?lu, Turgut

    2000-01-01

    The effect of the skin-contact on the composition of free and glycosidically bound aroma components of the must of Vitis vinifera cv. Emir was investigated. Aroma components were analysed by GC-MS. Seventeen free (3 six-carbon alcohols, 2 terpenols, 2 alcohols, 5 acids, 3 phenols, 2 C-13 norisoprenoids) and 30 bound aroma components (3 six-carbon alcohols, 4 terpenols, 5 alcohols, 5 acids, 9 phenols, 4 C-13 norisoprenoids) were identified. The skin-contact treatment increased amounts of fr...

  5. Influence of Starter Cultures, Fermentation Techniques, and Acetic Acid on the Volatile Aroma and Sensory Profile of Cocoa Liquor and Chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the World’s cocoa production originates from the West African countries of Ivory Coast, Ghana and Nigeria. In these countries, cocoa is a crop of great socio-economic importance as it is often the main source of income for families in the rural cocoa growing regions. Being the principal raw material for chocolate production, good quality cocoa beans are in high demand on the World market as a prerequisite for the production of high quality chocolates and other confectionary products. To produce good quality cocoa suitable for chocolate production, it is essential that the beans undergo fermentation and drying processes, during which biochemical reactions lead to the formation of cocoa specific flavour precursors. During subsequent roasting, these precursors are transformed into a wide array of aroma compounds as a result of complex Maillard and Strecker degradation reactions. Despite the importance of a properly conducted fermentation process, poor post-harvest practises, in combination with the unpredictable spontaneous nature of the fermentations, often results in sub-optimal flavour development. Our understanding of the microorganisms responsible for carrying out the fermentation of cocoa has greatly increased during the last decade. To overcome the inherited variability of spontaneous fermentations, this detailed insight into the microbial ecology has led to the development of defined inoculation cultures encompassing yeast and bacterial strains with beneficial functional properties. With the object ive of improving the volatile aroma and sensory properties of Ghanaian Forastero cocoa, the present Ph.D. study investigates the use of two defined mixed starter cultures encompassing strains of Acetobacter pasteurianus and Lactobacillus fermentum in combination with either a commercially available aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus. Fermentations were conducted in an experimental small-scale tray setup at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana during the main crop of 2011/12. Using a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular techniques, the growth and survival of the two yeast inoculation cultures was verified at strain level, whilst the bacterial inoculum was identified at species level. Aroma profiling was conducted using dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for identification and relative quantification of volatile compounds present in roasted and un-roasted cocoa liquors, as well as in finished chocolates. Sensory analyses of un-conched chocolate and finished chocolate was performed using a panel of un-trained judges and ordinary consumers. Furthermore, the present study describes the impact of acetic acid concentration on the generation of flavour precursors and volatile aroma compounds in cocoa beans subjected to incubation in acetic acid buffers. (GTG)5-based rep-PCR fingerprinting in combination with 26S rRNA (D1/D2 region) and actin gene sequencing revealed that during the first 12 hours of fermentation, the yeast communities of both inoculated and spontaneous fermentations were dominated by Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora thailandica, with the latter being described for the first time in relation to cocoa fermentation. After 24 hours, the inoculated strains of Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus were dominating the fermentation - composing 39.8% and 51.3% of the total yeast population, respectively. Chromosome Length Polymorphism among yeast populations belongingto the inoculation species was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis. While all K. marxianus isolates were found to be identical to the inoculation strain, four strains of P. kluyveri were identified, with the inoculation strain composing ~88% of the population. The volatile aroma profile of chocolates made from cocoa beans inoculated with P. kluyveri contained significantly higher concentrations of phenylacetaldehyde compared to a spontaneously fermented control, whereas inoculation with K. marxianus led to signif

  6. A Box-behnken Design for Characterizing Chinese Truffles (Tuber indicum) Aroma by HS-SPME-GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Sanping Fang; Biao Pu; Anjun Chen; Kang Zhou; Xiaolin Ao; Danping Xu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to fully characterize the aroma of Chinese truffles (Tuber indicum) by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). To develop an objective method to extract aroma compounds, four different fibers were studied and a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied. From the statistical analysis of the experimental result, it was able to determine that the most important factor was the extraction temperature and the optimum extraction conditions were as follows:...

  7. Effect of Glucosidases Enzyme Treatment on Aroma Compounds of the White Muscat of Alexandria and Emir Wines

    OpenAIRE

    Cabaro?lu, Turgut; Canba?, Ahmet

    2001-01-01

    The effect of an exogenous commercial enzyme with glycosidase activities on free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds of the white wines obtained from muscat of Alexandria and Emir cultivars was investigated. The fermenting must was divided into two equal parts towards the end of the fermentation and 40 mg/l of enzyme was added to one part. The aroma compounds of the wines were extracted with Amberlite XAD-2 resin and were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Their concentr...

  8. Determination of Volatile Aroma Compounds of Ganoderma Lucidum by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ta?k?n, Hat?ra; Ebru KAFKAS; Çak?ro?lu, Özgün; BÜYÜKALACA, Saadet

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted at Horticulture Department of Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey during 2010–2011. Fresh sample of Ganoderma lucidum collected from Mersin province of Turkey was used as material. Volatile aroma compounds were performed by Headspace Gas Chromatography (HS-GC/MS). Alcohols, aldehydes, acids, phenol, L-Alanine, d-Alanine, 3Methyl, 2-Butanamine, 2-Propanamine were determined. 1-Octen-3-ol (Alcohol) and 3-methyl butanal (Aldehyde) were identified as major aroma compounds.

  9. Analysis of volatile aroma constituents of wine produced from Indian mango (Mangifera indica L.) by GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    L.V.A. Reddy; Sudheer Kumar, Y.; Reddy, O. V. S.

    2010-01-01

    Volatile aroma compounds are synthesized by wine yeast during wine fermentation. In this study the volatile aroma composition of two varieties of mango wine were determined to differentiate and characterize the wines. The wine was produced from the fruits of two varieties of mango cultivars namely Banginapalli and Alphonso. The volatile compounds formed in mango wine were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thirty-two volatile compounds in wines were determi...

  10. Correlation between Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Activation to Food Aromas and Cue-driven Eating: An fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Eiler, William J.A.; DZEMIDZIC, MARIO; Case, K. Rose; Considine, Robert V; KAREKEN, DAVID A.

    2012-01-01

    Food aromas are signals associated with both food's availability and pleasure. Previous research from this laboratory has shown that food aromas under fasting conditions evoke robust activation of medial prefrontal brain regions thought to reflect reward value (Bragulat, et al. 2010). In the current study, eighteen women (eleven normal-weight and seven obese) underwent a two-day imaging study (one after being fed, one while fasting). All were imaged on a 3T Siemens Trio-Tim scanner while snif...

  11. Increasing Omega-3 Desaturase Expression In Tomato Results In Altered Aroma Profile And Enhanced Resistance To Cold Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez, Teresa; Hernández, M. Luisa; Pennycooke, Joyce C.; Jiménez, Pedro; Martínez-Rivas, José Manuel; Sanz, Carlos; Stockinger, Eric J.; Sánchez Serrano, José J.; Sanmartín, Maite

    2010-01-01

    One of the drawbacks in improving the aroma properties of tomato fruit is the complexity of this organoleptic trait with a great variety of volatiles contributing to determine specific quality features. It is well established that the oxylipins hexanal and (Z)-hex-3-enal, synthesized through the lipoxygenase pathway, are among the most important aroma compounds and impart in a correct proportion some of the unique fresh notes in tomato. Here, we confirm that all enzymes respons...

  12. Non-Destructive Assessment of Aroma Volatiles from a Climacteric Near-Isogenic Line of Melon Obtained by Headspace Stir-Bar Sorptive Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Fernández-Trujillo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A climacteric aromatic near-isogenic line (NIL of melon (Cucumis melo L. SC3-5-1 contained an introgression of the non-climacteric Korean cultivar “Shongwan Charmi” accession PI 161375 (SC in the genetic background of the non-climacteric cultivar “Piel de Sapo” (PS. The aroma production was monitored during ripening at 21 °C in intact fruit using headspace sorptive bar extraction (HSSE. Bars were composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and aromas were desorbed and analyzed by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry. The aromatic profile was composed of 70 aromatic compounds plus 21 alkanes with a predominance of esters, particularly acetate (2-methylbutyl acetate, 2-methylpropyl acetate, hexyl acetate, and phenylmethyl acetate. Some compounds were severely affected by postharvest time. The acetate esters (3-methylbutyl acetate, butan-2-yl acetate and phenylmethyl acetate decreased with ripening and sulfur-derived compounds (S-methyl butanethioate and S-methyl 3-methylbutanethioate increased gradually with ripening. A few compounds increased at the senescence phase (propyl ethanoate. Other compounds such as hexadecanoic acid showed a marked decrease after harvest, some decreasing from a relative maximum at harvest (2-methylpropyl hexanoate; n-hexanoic acid; nonanoic acid.

  13. Assessment of changes in the aroma and sensory profile of dawadawa due to modification in fermentation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawadawa is the most popular traditional condiment in West Africa and is produced by the fermentation of African locust bean seeds. Though the alkaline fermentation results in the production of a tasty condiment, it has a strong ammoniacal odour which some consumers find unattractive and offensive. This work was carried out to develop procedures for reducing the pungent odour of dawadawa in order to increase its popularity and market value especially amongst non-traditional users. Various treatments were applied to the fermenting locust bean seeds 15 hours into the fermentation which lasted for a total of 96 hours. Some treatments were also tested on the beans after fermentation. Treatments which were applied during fementation were fementation under conditions of limited oxygen, low temperature fermentation, irradiation by gamma radiation and steaming. Post-fermentation treatments were partial frying and roasting after fermentation. Samples were taken during fermentation and analyzed for Bacillus count on Nutrient Agar, pH, percentage titratable acidity, moisture content by the oven dry method, crude protein content by the kjeldhal method and texture by the texture analyzer. The final product was analyzed for aroma profile by GC-MS analysis using the Dynamic Headspace Sampling (DHS) method and also by descriptive sensory analysis by a semi-trained panel. Application of all the treatments applied during fermentation resulted in a ten to a hundredfold lower Bacillus counts compared to the control sample at various stages of fermentation. The reduction in the Bacillus activities resulted in a lower rise in pH giving final pH values of 6.8 to 7.53 compared to 8.37 in the control. The rise in pH was due to the proteolytic activity of the Bacillus species which break down the proteins into peptides and amino acids and subsequently utilize the amino acids to produce ammonia leading to the rise in pH. All the samples recorded a simultaneous increase in titratable acidity ranging from 0.006% to 0.037% in the control sample. The moisture content for all samples ranged from 54 to 73% with steaming for 10 minutes recording the highest value due to pick up of moisture during steaming. The protein content of all the samples increased during fermentation with final values which ranged between 30.42 to 37.64%. The texture of all the locust bean cotyledons softened during fermentation and the lowest value of hardness 15 was recorded for the limited oxygen sample and the highest value of 152 for the low temperature fermentation. The results of the instrumental textural analysis were supported by the assessment of the texture by the sensory panel which found the control sample to have the softest and smoothest texture due to the greater degree of fermentation of the control sample and which also results in the more pronounced ammoniacal odour. In the description sensory analysis, the panel assessed higher intensities of the descriptors which were considered undesirable/objectionable in the control sample than in the treated sample. These descriptors were stink fish ( momone), Koobi (salted/fermented tilapia) and sweaty sock. The more neutral/tolerant odour notes of rancid oil, fermented cocoa beans, smoked fish and palm kernel oil were higher in the treated sample. The aroma profile of dawadawa was affected by application of the treatments. Forty-nine aroma compounds in total were isolated form the differently treated dawadawa samples. They included mostly esters of acetic, butanoic and propanoic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, furans, sulfur compounds, pyrazines and a pyrrole. In spite of the known pungent smell of dawadawa, most of the aroma compounds identified were esters which are known for their fruity, pleasant odours. However, about 12 of aroma compounds identified such as the sulfur compounds-dimetyhl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide are reported to have strong pungent odours whilst 2,3-benzohyrrole is known to exhibit the charateristic odour of faeces. The levels of all but eight (2-Methlpropyl acetate; 2- Pentylfuran; 1-P

  14. Characteristic aroma compounds in two new Vitis vinifera cultivars (table grapes) and impact of vintage and greenhouse cultivation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.-L., Duan; Q.-H., Pan; X.-J., Tang; Q., Yang; R., Jiang; Y., Shi; C.-Q., Duan.

    Full Text Available 'Zaoheibao' (a red tetraploid hybrid) and 'Wuhecuibao' (a white triploid hybrid) grapes have been obtained from Guibao ? (diploid, Vitis vinifera) x Zaomeigui ? (diploid, V. vinifera) and Guibao ? (diploid, V. vinifera) x Wuhebaijixin? (triploid, V. vinifera) respectively. Aroma characterisation of [...] the two new table grape cultivars was firstly done by the investigation of volatile compounds. The influence of greenhouse cultivation and vintage on berry aroma was studied as well. The results showed that linalool, decanal, ?-damascenone, hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal were the main volatile compounds of the two cultivars, which meant that the floral, fruity and sweet odour were prominent, followed by the herbaceous aroma. Greenhouse cultivation enhanced herbaceous odour in both 'Wuhecuibao' and 'Zaoheibao' berries, and reduced the floral aroma, contributed mainly by ?-damascenone, in 'Wuhecuibao', and the sweet aroma, represented mainly by linalool, in 'Zaoheibao'. The concentrations of the main aroma compounds were greatly affected by vintage and the intensity of sensorial perception was correspondingly changed, but varietal odour attributes were not significantly altered. These results will not only help promote the cultivation and popularisation of these cultivars, but also will provide valuable data for the use of these cultivars in future breeding.

  15. Retention of aroma compounds from Mentha piperita essential oil by cyclodextrins and crosslinked cyclodextrin polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, A; Mallard, I; Landy, D; Brabie, G; Nistor, D; Fourmentin, S

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, the controlled release of aroma compounds from cyclodextrins (CDs) and CD polymers was studied by multiple headspace extraction (MHE) experiments. Mentha piperita essential oil was obtained by Soxhlet extraction and identification of the major compounds was performed by GC-MS analysis. Menthol, menthone, pulegone and eucalyptol were identified as the major components. Retention of standard compounds in the presence of different CDs and CD polymers has been realised by static headspace gas chromatography (SH-GC) at 25 °C in the aqueous or gaseous phase. Stability constants for standard compounds and for compounds in essential oil have been also determined with monomeric CD derivatives. The obtained results indicated the formation of a 1:1 inclusion complex for all the studied compounds. Molecular modelling was used to investigate the complementarities between host and guest. This study showed that ?-CDs were the most versatile CDs and that ?-CD polymers could perform the controlled release of aroma compounds. PMID:23265490

  16. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Acacia aroma against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.M., Mattana; S.E., Satorres; A., Sosa; M., Fusco; L.E., Alcaráz.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined usin [...] g agar diffusion and bioautographic methods. Among all assayed organic extracts only ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented highest activities against all tested Staphylococcus strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 2.5 to 10 mg/ml and from 2.5 to 5 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extracts show little antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus strains. The bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against S. aureus in correspondence with flavonoids and saponins. A. aroma would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for skin infections.

  17. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Acacia aroma against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Mattana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined using agar diffusion and bioautographic methods. Among all assayed organic extracts only ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented highest activities against all tested Staphylococcus strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 2.5 to 10 mg/ml and from 2.5 to 5 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extracts show little antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus strains. The bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against S. aureus in correspondence with flavonoids and saponins. A. aroma would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for skin infections.

  18. Distinctive exotic flavor and aroma compounds of some exotic tropical fruits and berries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasekan, Ola; Abbas, Kassim A

    2012-01-01

    The characteristic flavor of exotic tropical fruits is one of their most attractive attributes to consumers. In this article, the enormous diversity of exotic fruit flavors is reviewed. Classifying some of the exotic fruits into two classes on the basis of whether esters or terpenes predominate in the aroma was also attempted. Indeed, as far as exotic tropical fruits are concerned, the majority of fruits have terpenes predominating in their aroma profile. Some of the fruits in this group are the Amazonian fruits such as pitanga, umbu-caja, camu-camu, garcinia, and bacuri. The ester group is made up of rambutan, durians, star fruit, snake fruit, acerola, tamarind, sapodilla, genipap, soursop, cashew, melon, jackfruit, and cupuacu respectively. Also, the role of sulphur-volatiles in some of the exotic fruits is detailed. PMID:22591343

  19. Effect of oak extract application to Verdejo grapevines on grape and wine aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gil, Ana M; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Martínez, Laura; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2011-04-13

    Volatile compounds from a commercial aqueous oak extract application to white Verdejo grapevines at veraison have been studied. Treated grapes under two types of formulation (25% and 100%) have been analyzed at the optimum maturation time, and winemaking was then subsequently carried out. The volatile compounds were analyzed by stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results suggest that after the grapevine treatments, grapes store the volatiles in the form of nonvolatile precursors, and some of the volatiles are released during the winemaking process, especially six months after the alcoholic fermentation. The sensory analysis shows that wines maintain the typical aroma properties of Verdejo wines at the end of fermentation; but after six months, the wine color is greener and more astringent, and, in terms of aroma, it has wooden notes as if the wine has been aged in oak barrels. PMID:21395258

  20. Chemical interactions between odor-active thiols and melanoidins involved in the aroma staling of coffee beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Thomas; Schieberle, Peter

    2002-01-16

    Comparative aroma dilution analyses of the headspaces of aqueous solutions containing either the total volatiles isolated from a fresh coffee brew, or these volatiles remixed with the melanoidins isolated from coffee brew, revealed a drastic decrease in the concentrations of the odorous thiols 2-furfurylthiol, 3-methyl-2-butenthiol, 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, and methanethiol when melanoidins were present. Among these thiols, 2-furfurylthiol was affected the most: e.g., its concentration decreased by a factor of 16 upon addition of melanoidins. This was accompanied by a decrease in the overall roasty-sulfury aroma. Quantitations performed by means of stable isotope dilution assays confirmed the rapid loss of all thiols with increasing time while keeping the coffee brew warm in a thermos flask. Using [2H2]-2-furfurylthiol as an example, [2H]-NMR and LC/MS spectroscopy gave strong evidence that thiols are covalently bound to the coffee melanoidins via Maillard-derived pyrazinium compounds formed as oxidation products of 1,4-bis-(5-amino-5-carboxy-1-pentyl)pyrazinium radical cations (CROSSPY). Using synthetic 1,4-diethyl diquaternary pyrazinium ions and 2-furfurylthiol, it was shown that 2-(2-furyl)methylthio-1,4-dihydro-pyrazines, bis[2-(2-furyl)methylthio]-1,4-dihydro-pyrazines, and 2-(2-furyl)methylthio-hydroxy-1,4-dihydro-pyrazines were formed as the primary reaction products. Similar results were obtained for models in which either 1,4-diethyl diquaternary pyrazinium ions were substituted by Nalpha-acetyl-L-lysine/glycolaldehyde, or the 2-furfurylthiol by 2-methyl-3-furanthiol and 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate. On the basis of these results it can be concluded that the CROSSPY-derived pyrazinium intermediates are involved in the rapid covalent binding of odorous thiols to melanoidins, and, consequently, are responsible for the decrease in the sulfury-roasty odor quality observed shortly after preparation of the coffee brew. PMID:11782201

  1. Ability of Thermophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria To Produce Aroma Compounds from Amino Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Helinck, Sandra; le Bars, Dominique; Moreau, Daniel; Yvon, Mireille

    2004-01-01

    Although a large number of key odorants of Swiss-type cheese result from amino acid catabolism, the amino acid catabolic pathways in the bacteria present in these cheeses are not well known. In this study, we compared the in vitro abilities of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Streptococcus thermophilus to produce aroma compounds from three amino acids, leucine, phenylalanine, and methionine, under mid-pH conditions of cheese ripening (pH 5.5), and we inve...

  2. Study on Healing Environment Using Green, Blue and Red LED and Aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaho, Noriharu; Konno, Noriko; Shimada, Takamasa

    In this paper we evaluated the effects of 1/f fluctuation of Green LED light emitted from the specific object by using psychological and physiological experimental tests of spectral electroencephalogram (EEG) topography. In addition, we also verified that the combination of appropriate aroma, blue LED light irradiation and music such as “Mozart: Serenade in Eine Kleine Nacht Musik” has improved mental healing conditions. We confirmed the possibility that the effect of “Healing” would be improved by the above mentioned environments.

  3. Influence of mastication and saliva on aroma release in a model mouth system

    OpenAIRE

    van Ruth, S. M.; Roozen, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of mastication, saliva composition and saliva volume on aroma release from rehydrated diced bell peppers and French beans was studied in a model mouth system. Released volatile compounds were analysed by gas chromatography combined with sniffing port and flame ionisation detection. Compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, resulting in more than 40 compounds to be identified in each vegetable. Mastication increased release from bell peppers significantly...

  4. Release of aroma compounds from dry-fermented sausages as affected by antioxidant and saliva addition

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Llovera, Mónica; Olivares Sevilla, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the addition of an antioxidant and saliva on the release of aroma compounds from dry fermented sausages was studied by extracting the headspace at different times using solid phase micro-extraction technique. The compounds were analysed by gas chromatography using a FID detector and identified by mass spectrometry. The addition of butylated hydroxytoluene to dry fermented sausages produced a significant reduction of the release of most of the volatile compounds indicating an oxi...

  5. Effect of fat content on aroma generation during processing of dry fermented sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares Sevilla, Alicia; Navarro Fabra, José Luis; Flores Llovera, Mónica

    2010-01-01

    Dry fermented sausages with different fat contents were produced (10%, 20% and 30%). The effect of fat content and ripening time on sensory characteristics, lipolysis, lipid oxidation and volatile compounds generation was studied. Also, the key aroma components were identified using gas chromatography (GC) and olfactometry. High fat sausages showed the highest lipolysis and lipid oxidation, determined by free fatty acid content and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), respectively...

  6. Discrimination of Complex Mixtures by a Colorimetric Sensor Array: Coffee Aromas

    OpenAIRE

    Suslick, Benjamin A.; Feng, Liang; Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of complex mixtures presents a difficult challenge even for modern analytical techniques, and the ability to discriminate among closely similar such mixtures often remains problematic. Coffee provides a readily available archetype of such highly multicomponent systems. The use of a low-cost, sensitive colorimetric sensor array for the detection and identification of coffee aromas is reported. The color changes of the sensor array were used as a digital representation of the array...

  7. Poikilodermatous changes on the forearms of a woman practicing aroma-therapy: extracervical poikiloderma of Civatte?*

    OpenAIRE

    Katoulis, Alexandros; Makris, Michalis; Gregoriou, Stamatis; Rallis, Eustathios; Kanelleas, Antonis; Stavrianeas, Nicolaos; Rigopoulos, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 48-year-old, Caucasian female who presented with slowly progressing asymptomatic poikilodermatous changes of the extensor aspects of the forearms. She also had typical Poikiloderma of Civatte on the V of the neck and erythemato-telangiectatic rosacea of the central face. The patient had been practicing aroma-therapy for many years. Histologic examination revealed findings consistent with PC. Patch-testing revealed positive reactions to Fragrance mix a...

  8. Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Saerens, Sofie; Blennow, Andreas; Skovmand-Larsen, Mathias; Swiegers, Jan H.; Petersen, Gert B.; Heimdal, Hanne; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2014-01-01

    The sensory quality of chocolate is widely determined by the qualitative and quantitative composition of volatile compounds resulting from microbial metabolism during fermentation, and Maillard reactions taking place during drying, roasting and conching. The influence of applying mixed starter cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pich...

  9. Role of glutathione enriched inactive yeast preparations on the aroma of wines

    OpenAIRE

    Andújar-Ortiz, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J. J.; Moreno Arribas, Mª Victoria; Martín Álvarez, Pedro Jesús; Pozo-Bayón, Mª Ángeles

    2010-01-01

    [EN]: The effect of commercial glutathione enriched winemaking Inactive Dry Yeast preparations (GSH-IDY) to protect wine aroma during storage has been investigated. To do so, rosé Grenache wines were industrially manufactured with and without the addition of a GSH-IDY preparation. The volatile composition was determined over the shelf-life of the wines (1 to 9 months). In addition, by using experiments in model wines the effect of different types of commercial GSH-IDY preparations on represen...

  10. SORPTION OF AROMA COMPOUNDS IN PET AND PVC DURING THE STORAGE OF A STRAWBERRY SYRUP

    OpenAIRE

    DUCRUET, VIOLETTE; VITRAC, Olivier; Saillard, Philippe; GUICHARD, Elisabeth; FEIGENBAUM, Alexandre E; FOURNIER, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The sorption of 14 aroma compounds into PET and PVC was monitored during one year storage of a strawberry syrup. Their concentrations in the syrup and in the polymer were assessed during storage and compared with previously published results obtained with glass bottles. Apparent partition coefficients between the polymer and the syrup (noted Kapp) were estimated from experimental kinetics without reaching the equilibrium Kapp values were optimally identified from the k...

  11. Retención de aroma durante el secado de extracto de café en un sistema cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Vílchez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el secado de alimentos líquidos, componentes volátiles presentes en baja concentración que contribuyen al aroma y sabor del producto final son removidos junto con el agua. En consecuencia la calidad del producto final es considerablemente afectada por la cantidad de substancias volátiles que son retenidas durante el proceso de secado. En el extracto de café, por ejemplo, existen cientos de tales compuestos, la mayoría de ellos altamente volátiles por lo que se pierden cuando el extracto es transformado en polvo seco. Independientemente del método utilizado, parece ser imposible evitar completamente la perdida de compuestos volátiles durante el secado. Un método potencial para mejorar la retención del aroma durante el secado es utilizar un sistema que trabaje a ciclo cerrado. Con el propósito de estudiar este proceso una planta piloto que consiste de un secador por aspersión, un secador de lecho fluidizado vibratorio, un sistema de recuperación de vapores e intercambiadores de calor para recalentar el aire reciclado ha sido diseñada y esta en la fase final de instalación en la Facultad de Ingeniería Química de la Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, en Managua, para hacer un estudio del método potencial de recuperación de aroma del extracto de café. Este estudio tendrá como resultado no solo un café soluble de mejor calidad sino que además un método capaz de mejorar el procesamiento de muchos otros alimentos líquidos.

  12. Characterization of typical potent odorants in cola-flavored carbonated beverages by aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-01-28

    The aroma-active compounds in typical cola-flavored carbonated beverages were characterized using gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The potent odorants in the top three U.S. brands of regular colas were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Among the numerous odorants identified, eugenol (spicy, clovelike, sweet) and coumarin (sweet, herbaceous) were predominant in all colas. Other predominant odorants in at least one brand included guaiacol (smoky) and linalool (floral, sweet), while 1,8-cineole (minty, eucalyptus-like) was a moderately potent odorant in all colas. Determination of the enantiomeric compositions indicated that (R)-(-)-linalool (34.5%) was a more potent odorant than the (S)-(+)-enantiomer (65.6%) due to its much lower odor detection threshold. In addition, lemon-lime and cooling attributes determined by sensory descriptive analysis had the highest odor intensities among the eight sensory descriptors. The aroma profiles of the three colas were in good agreement with the potent odorants identified by AEDA. PMID:25528884

  13. Fractionation and identification of minor and aroma-active constituents in Kangra orthodox black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Robin; Gulati, Ashu

    2015-01-15

    The aroma constituents of Kangra orthodox black tea were isolated by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), supercritical fluid extraction and beverage method. The aroma-active compounds were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry. Geraniol, linalool, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, (E)-2-hexenal, phytol, ?-ionone, hotrienol, methylpyrazine and methyl salicylate were major volatile constituents in all the extracts. Minor volatile compounds in all the extracts were 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, ethylpyrazine, 2-6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, acetylfuran, hexanoic acid, dihydroactinidiolide and (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal. The concentrated SDE extract was fractionated into acidic, basic, water-soluble and neutral fractions. The neutral fraction was further chromatographed on a packed silica gel column eluted with pentane and diethyl ether to separate minor compounds. The aroma-active compounds identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry were 2-amylfuran, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 1-pentanol, epoxylinalool, (Z)-jasmone, 2-acetylpyrrole, farnesyl acetone, geranyl acetone, cadinol, cubenol and dihydroactinidiolide. AEDA studies showed 2-hexenal, 3-hexenol, ethylpyrazine, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, linalool, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, geraniol, phenylethanol, ?-ionone, hotrienol and dihydroactinidiolide to be odour active components. PMID:25148991

  14. Influence of Water Potential on ?-Decalactone Production by the Yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, P.; Battut, G.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of water potential on ?-decalactone production by the yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor cultivated in a liquid medium was evaluated by gas-chromatographic analysis. Modifications in water potential led to a number of variations in the aroma production. Maximum extracellular production occurred at water activity (aw) with a value of 0.99. Further analyses revealed an important phenomenon of cellular accumulation of aroma for aw values between 0.97 and 0.99. PMID:16348056

  15. Influence of Water Potential on ?-Decalactone Production by the Yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Gervais, P.; Battut, G.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of water potential on ?-decalactone production by the yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor cultivated in a liquid medium was evaluated by gas-chromatographic analysis. Modifications in water potential led to a number of variations in the aroma production. Maximum extracellular production occurred at water activity (aw) with a value of 0.99. Further analyses revealed an important phenomenon of cellular accumulation of aroma for aw values between 0.97 and 0.99.

  16. Effects of Aroma Massage on Home Blood Pressure, Ambulatory Blood Pressure, and Sleep Quality in Middle-Aged Women with Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Myeong-Sook Ju; Sahng Lee; Ikyul Bae; Myung-Haeng Hur; Kayeon Seong; Myeong Soo Lee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of aroma massage applied to middle-aged women with hypertension. The research study had a nonequivalent control group, nonsynchronized design to investigate the effect on home blood pressure (BP), ambulatory BP, and sleep. The hypertensive patients were allocated into the aroma massage group (n = 28), the placebo group (n = 28), and the no-treatment control group (n = 27). To evaluate the effects of aroma massage, the experimental group re...

  17. De aromas e perfumes, o mercado da indústria do "cheiro" From aromas and perfumes, the market of the "smell" industry

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Gomes Speziali

    2012-01-01

    Several flavors and fragrances (F&F) companies hold the economic leadership in the market, although not always have also the leadership in patent applications. The ranking of technological production in the fragrance area still remains with industries while scientific knowledge is equally shared between industries and academia. Contextualizing Brazil in this scene, despite all scientific expertise gained over the years, brazilian technological park is still at the beginning of the production ...

  18. De aromas e perfumes, o mercado da indústria do "cheiro" / From aromas and perfumes, the market of the "smell" industry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Gomes, Speziali.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Several flavors and fragrances (F&F) companies hold the economic leadership in the market, although not always have also the leadership in patent applications. The ranking of technological production in the fragrance area still remains with industries while scientific knowledge is equally shared bet [...] ween industries and academia. Contextualizing Brazil in this scene, despite all scientific expertise gained over the years, brazilian technological park is still at the beginning of the production of technologies applied directly to the F&F industries. The dependence on foreign technologies is remarkable as indicated by the great trade deficit in this sector.

  19. Opportunities of marker-assisted selection for rice fragrance through marker-trait association analysis of microsatellites and gene-based markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestan Hashemi, F S; Rafii, M Y; Razi Ismail, M; Mohamed, M T M; Rahim, H A; Latif, M A; Aslani, F

    2015-09-01

    Developing fragrant rice through marker-assisted/aided selection (MAS) is an economical and profitable approach worldwide for the enrichment of an elite genetic background with a pleasant aroma. The PCR-based DNA markers that distinguish the alleles of major fragrance genes in rice have been synthesised to develop rice scent biofortification through MAS. Thus, the present study examined the aroma biofortification potential of these co-dominant markers in a germplasm panel of 189 F2 progeny developed from crosses between a non-aromatic variety (MR84) and a highly aromatic but low-yielding variety (MRQ74) to determine the most influential diagnostic markers for fragrance biofortification. The SSRs and functional DNA markers RM5633 (on chromosome 4), RM515, RM223, L06, NKSbad2, FMbadh2-E7, BADEX7-5, Aro7 and SCU015RM (on chromosome 8) were highly associated with the 2AP (2-acetyl-1-pyrroline) content across the population. The alleles traced via these markers were also in high linkage disequilibrium (R(2) > 0.70) and explained approximately 12.1, 27.05, 27.05, 27.05, 25.42, 25.42, 20.53, 20.43 and 20.18% of the total phenotypic variation observed for these biomarkers, respectively. F2 plants harbouring the favourable alleles of these effective markers produced higher levels of fragrance. Hence, these rice plants can be used as donor parents to increase the development of fragrance-biofortified tropical rice varieties adapted to growing conditions and consumer preferences, thus contributing to the global rice market. PMID:25865409

  20. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) using aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tairu, A O; Hofmann, T; Schieberle, P

    1999-08-01

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract of the dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica obtained by extraction with diethyl ether followed by sublimation in vacuo revealed 28 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 4-8192, all of which could be identified. The highest FD factor was found for linalol (floral), followed by (E)-beta-ocimene (flowery), alpha-farnesene (sweet, flowery), beta-pinene (terpeny), alpha-pinene (pine needle-like), myrtenol (flowery), and beta-phellandrene (terpeny). Vanillin (vanilla-like) and 3-ethylphenol (smoky, phenolic) showing somewhat lower FD factors (FD = 128) were detected for the first time as constituents of the dried fruit. PMID:10552646

  1. Lipase induction in Yarrowia lipolytica for castor oil hydrolysis and its effect on ?-decalactone production

    OpenAIRE

    Braga, Adelaide; Gomes, Nelma; Belo, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    ?-Decalactone is an aromatic compound of industrial interest, resulting from the biotransformation of ricinoleic acid, the major constituent of castor oil. In order to increase the availability of the substrate to the cells for the aroma production, castor oil previously hydrolyzed can be used. This hydrolysis may be promoted by enzymatic action, more specifically by lipases. In this work, the influence upon the aroma production of the lipase produced by Yarrowia lipolytica, a microorganism a...

  2. Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The sensory quality of chocolate is widely determined by the qualitative and quantitative composition of volatile compounds resulting from microbial metabolism during fermentation, and Maillard reactions taking place during drying, roasting and conching. The influence of applying mixed starter cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, and compared to commercially fermented heap and tray cocoa. Although only minor differences in the concentration of free amino acids and reducing sugars was measured, identification and quantification by dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS/GC-MS) revealed pronounced differences in the composition of volatiles in roasted cocoa liquors and finished chocolates. 19 of the 56 volatile compounds identified in the chocolates were found in significantly higher amounts in the tray fermented sample, whilst significantly higher amounts of 2-methoxyphenol was measured in the two inoculated chocolates. The P. kluyveri inoculated chocolate was characterized by a significantly higher concentration of phenylacetaldehyde and the K. marxianus inoculated chocolate by significantly higher amounts of benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol, benzyl acetate and phenethyl acetate compared to a spontaneously fermented control. Sensory profiling described the heap and tray fermented chocolates as sweet with cocoa and caramel flavours, whilst the inoculated chocolates were characterized as fruity, acid and bitter with berry, yoghurt and balsamic flavours. The choice of fermentation technique had the greatest overall impact on the volatile aroma and sensory profile, but whilst the application of starter cultures did affect the volatile aroma profile, differences were too small to significantly change consumer perception of the chocolates as compared to a spontaneously fermented control. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Glucosylation of aroma chemicals and hydroxy fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fong-Chin; Hinkelmann, Jens; Schwab, Wilfried

    2015-12-20

    To explore the utility of glycosyltransferases as novel biocatalysts, we isolated the glycosyltransferase genes CaUGT2 and SbUGTA1 from Catharanthus roseus and Starmerella bombicola, respectively and heterologously expressed them in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant proteins were assayed with a variety of small molecule substrates. Carvacrol and its phenol isomer thymol are efficiently glucosylated by CaUGT2. The Vmax/Km ratios show that CaUGT2 exhibits the highest specificity towards carvacrol, followed by thymol, geraniol, eugenol, vanillin, menthol, and tyrosol. In contrast, SbUGTA1 accepts ?-hydroxy fatty acids and 1-alkanols as substrates. The Vmax/Km ratios indicate that SbUGTA1 exhibits the highest specificity towards 16-hydroxy palmitic acid, followed by octanol, decanol, and hexadecanol. In biotransformation experiments 23, 88 and 99% of octanol, 16-hydroxy palmitic acid, and decanol, respectively is converted into the corresponding ?-glucosides by E. coli cells expressing SbUGTA1 whereas those cells expressing CaUGT2 glucosylate 18, 61, 77 and 97% of applied eugenol, thymol, vanillin, and carvacrol, respectively. To optimize the biotransformation rate, the effects of the concentration of IPTG, glucose, and substrate on the production of glucosides were tested. Taken together, this procedure is a simple operation, environmentally friendly, and is useful for the preparation of glycosides as additives for food and cosmetics. PMID:26481830

  4. Influence of the composition and the structure of different media on the release of aroma compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Seuvre, Anne-Marie; Marian De Los Angeles Espinosa Diaz,; Cayot, Philippe; Voilley, Andrée

    2004-01-01

    The release of 2-nonanone and hexenol (hex-4-en-3-ol) was studied in model media with different structures and compositions: water, a gel of $\\beta$-lactoglobulin, gelified or non-gelified emulsions (5.0% Miglyol, 6.9% $\\beta$-lactoglobulin; the gelation was realized by heating) and milk. The aroma compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography. A strong influence of the nature of the volatile compound on its behavior towards the food matrix was observed: in the case of 2-nonanone, a hydrophob...

  5. Phytochemical, sensory attributes and aroma stability of dense phase carbon dioxide processed Hibiscus sabdariffa beverage during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Rodrigues, Milena M; Plaza, Maria L; Azeredo, Alberto; Balaban, Murat O; Marshall, Maurice R

    2012-10-01

    The effect of dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) processing (34.5 MPa, 8% CO?, 6.5 min, and 40 °C) on phytochemical, sensory and aroma compounds of hibiscus beverage was compared to a conventional thermal process (HTST) (75 °C for 15 s) and a control (untreated beverage) during refrigerated storage (4 °C). The overall likeability of the hibiscus beverage for all treatments was not affected by storage up to week 5. DPCD process retained more aroma volatiles as compared to HTST. Aroma profiles in the beverages were mainly composed of alcohols and aldehydes with 1-octen-3-ol, decanal, octanal, 1-hexanol, and nonanal as the compounds with the highest relative percentage peak areas. A loss of only 9% anthocyanins was observed for the DPCD processed hibiscus beverage. Phytochemical profiles in the hibiscus beverage included caffeoylquinic acids, anthocyanins, and flavonols. No major changes in total phenolics and antioxidant capacity occurred during the 14 weeks of storage. PMID:25005962

  6. Understanding the role of saliva in aroma release from wine by using static and dynamic headspace conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Feron, Gilles; Guichard, Elisabeth; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J José; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

    2014-08-20

    The aim of this work was to determine the role of saliva in wine aroma release by using static and dynamic headspace conditions. In the latter conditions, two different sampling points (t = 0 and t = 10 min) corresponding with oral (25.5 °C) and postoral phases (36 °C) were monitored. Both methodologies were applied to reconstituted dearomatized white and red wines with different nonvolatile wine matrix compositions and a synthetic wine (without matrix effect). All of the wines had the same ethanol concentration and were spiked with a mixture of 45 aroma compounds covering a wide range of physicochemical characteristics at typical wine concentrations. Two types of saliva (human and artificial) or control samples (water) were added to the wines. The adequacy of the two headspace methodologies for the purposes of the study (repeatability, linear ranges, determination coefficients, etc.) was previously determined. After application of different chemometric analysis (ANOVA, LSD, PCA), results showed a significant effect of saliva on aroma release dependent on saliva type (differences between artificial and human) and on wine matrix using static headspace conditions. Red wines were more affected than white and synthetic wines by saliva, specifically human saliva, which provoked a reduction in aroma release for most of the assayed aroma compounds independent of their chemical structure. The application of dynamic headspace conditions using a saliva bioreactor at the two different sampling points (t = 0 and t = 10 min) showed a lesser but significant effect of saliva than matrix composition and a high influence of temperature (oral and postoral phases) on aroma release. PMID:25075966

  7. Functional characterization of three Coffea arabica L. monoterpene synthases: insights into the enzymatic machinery of coffee aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Terra, Lorenzo; Lonzarich, Valentina; Asquini, Elisa; Navarini, Luciano; Graziosi, Giorgio; Suggi Liverani, Furio; Pallavicini, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    The chemical composition of the coffee beverage is extremely complex, being made up of hundreds of volatile and non-volatile compounds, many of which are generated in the thermal reactions that occur during the roasting process. However, in the raw coffee bean there are also compounds that survive roasting and are therefore extracted into the beverage. Monoterpenes are an example of this category, as their presence has been reported in the coffee flower, fruit, seed, roasted bean and in the beverage aroma. The present work describes the isolation, heterologous expression and functional characterization of three Coffea arabica cDNAs coding for monoterpene synthases. RNA was purified from C. arabica (cv. Catuai Red) flowers, seeds and fruits at 4 successive ripening stages. Degenerate primers were designed on the most conserved regions of the monoterpene synthase gene family, and then used to isolate monoterpene synthase-like sequences from the cDNA libraries. After 5'- and 3'-RACE, the complete transcripts of 4 putative C. arabica monoterpene synthases (CofarTPS) were obtained. Gene expression in different tissues and developmental stages was analysed. After heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, enzyme activity and substrate specificity were evaluated in vitro by incubation of the recombinant proteins with geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP), geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) and farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), precursors respectively of mono-, di- and sesquiterpenes. The reaction products were characterized by HS-SPME GC-MS. CofarTPS1 was classified as a limonene synthase gene, while CofarTPS2 and 3 showed lower activity with the production of linalool and ?-myrcene. PMID:23398891

  8. Sensory characteristics of European, dried, fermented sausages and the correlation to volatile profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller; Sunesen, Lars Oddershede

    1999-01-01

    In the European FAIR-project: Control of Bioflavour and Safety in Northern and Mediterranean Fermented Meat Products (FAIR-CT97-3227) four different sausage types were manufactured in five replicates and characterised by sensory and analytical means. The objective of the present study was to characterise the flavour pattern of the FAIR sausages with regards to sensory perceived compounds and volatile/sensory profiles. According to gas chromatography-olfactometry the greatest differences between the Northern and Mediterranean sausages were attributed to coffee/roasted, phenolic and vinegar odours in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The compounds were 2-furfurylthiol, guaiacol, acetic acid and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. Sausages added garlic contained two specific odours with salami/onion-like notes. The odours were attributed to allylmercaptane and methylthiirane. Correlation of sensory and volatile profile showed that garlic flavour correlated with sulphur compounds from garlic, smoked flavour with most of the cyclic compounds (furanes, phenols etc.), acid flavour with the acids (acetic, butanoic and hexanoic acid), spice and piquante flavour with the terpenes, rancid flavour with hexanal, octanal, nonanal and decanal and maturity with ethyl esters and methyl-ketones.

  9. Centrifugal partition chromatography applied to the isolation of oak wood aroma precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaghenaufi, Davide; Marchand-Marion, Stéphanie; Richard, Tristan; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Bisson, Jonathan; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Merillon, Jean-Michel; de Revel, Gilles

    2013-12-01

    Flavours extracted from oak wood during barrel ageing contribute to the organoleptic character of wines and spirits. The aim of this work was to identify the glycosidic precursors of the key volatile compounds responsible for oak wood aroma. Oak extract is a very complex matrix and, furthermore, precursors are present in very small quantities. Preparative centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) is a promising solution for purifying the oak extract. The solvent system was selected on the basis of the partition coefficient of glycosidase enzyme activity (Kca). Thanks to the efficacy of CPC separation, three glucoside gallates were subsequently isolated by HPLC chromatography. Vanillin-(6'-O-galloyl)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-(6'-O-galloyl)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, and (6R,9R)-3-oxo-?-ionol-9-O-(6'-O-galloyl)-?-glucopyranoside (macarangioside E) were isolated and identified. This was the first time that vanillin-(6'-O-galloyl)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside was identified and the first time that macarangioside E was isolated from oak wood. Heating macarangioside E resulted in the formation of megastigmatrienone, which has an aroma reminiscent of tobacco. PMID:23870953

  10. Aroma profile of Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines by chromatographic and sensorial analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguerol-Pato, R; González-Álvarez, M; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2012-10-15

    The aroma profiles obtained of three Garnacha Tintorera-based wines were studied: a base wine, a naturally sweet wine, and a mixture of naturally sweet wine with other sweet wine obtained by fortification with spirits. The aroma fingerprint was traced by GC-MS analysis of volatile compounds and by sensorial analysis of odours and tastes. Within the volatiles compounds, sotolon (73 ?g/L) and acetoin (122 ?g/L) were the two main compounds found in naturally sweet wine. With regards to the odorant series, those most dominant for Garnacha Tintorera base wine were floral, fruity and spicy. Instead, the most marked odorant series affected by off-vine drying of the grapes were floral, caramelized and vegetal-wood. Finally, odorant series affected by the switch-off of alcoholic fermentation with ethanol 96% (v/v) fit for human consumption followed by oak barrel aging were caramelized and vegetal-wood. A partial least square test (PLS-2) was used to detect correlations between sets of sensory data (those obtained with mouth and nose) with the ultimate aim of improving our current understanding of the flavour of Garnacha Tintorera red wines, both base and sweet. Based on the sensory dataset analysis, the descriptors with the highest weight for separating base and sweet wines from Garnacha Tintorera were sweetness, dried fruit and caramel (for sweet wines) vs. bitterness, astringency and geranium (for base wines). PMID:23442690

  11. Identification of aroma-active volatiles in banana Terra spirit using multidimensional gas chromatography with simultaneous mass spectrometry and olfactometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobiango, Michely; Mastello, Raíssa Bittar; Chin, Sung-Tong; Oliveira, Evelyn de Souza; Cardeal, Zenilda de Lourdes; Marriott, Philip John

    2015-04-01

    Fruit spirits have been produced and consumed throughout the world for centuries. However, the aroma composition of banana spirits is still poorly characterised. We have investigated the aroma-impact compounds of the banana Terra spirit for the first time, using multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC and GC × GC) in a multi-hyphenated system - i.e., coupled to flame ionisation detection (FID), mass spectrometry (MS), and olfactometry (O). Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used to isolate the headspace aroma compounds of the banana spirit. The detection frequency (DF) technique was applied and aroma regions, detected in the first column separation at >60% Nasal Impact Frequency (NIF), were screened as target potent odour regions in the sample. Using a polar/non-polar phase column set, the potent odour regions were further subjected to MDGC separation with simultaneous O and MS detection for correlation of the aroma perception with MS data for individual resolved aroma-impact compounds. GC-O analysis enabled 18 aroma-impact regions to be located as providing volatiles of interest for further study; for example, those comprising perceptions of flower, whisky, green, amongst others. Compounds were tentatively identified through MS data matching and retention indices in both first and second dimensions. The principal volatile compounds identified in this work, which are responsible for the characteristic aroma of the banana spirit, are 3-methylbutan-1-ol, 3-methylbutan-1-ol acetate, 2-phenylethyl acetate and phenylethyl alcohol. This is the first such study to reveal the major aroma compounds that contribute to banana spirit aroma. PMID:25728661

  12. Stomatal distribution, stomatal density and daily leaf movement in Acacia aroma (Leguminosae) / Distribución y densidad estomática y movimiento diario de la hoja en Acacia aroma (Leguminosae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo P., Hernández; Ana M., ArambarriI.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia aroma crece en las Provincias Biogeográficas Chaqueña y de las Yungas, Argentina. Este árbol posee numerosas aplicaciones en medicina popular, sus frutos son comestibles y puede ser usada como forraje. Los objetivos de la presente contribución fueron: establecer la distribución y densidad de [...] los estomas en el folíolo secundario, en distintos folíolos secundarios de la misma hoja y en los folíolos secundarios de las hojas de la parte basal, media y superior de la copa del árbol, estableciendo relaciones con el movimiento diario de las hojas y condiciones ambientales. Para el estudio se utilizó material fresco y ejemplares de herbario empleando técnicas de anatomía convencionales. Se estableció la distribución de los estomas sobre las superficies adaxial y abaxial del folíolo secundario. Se encontraron diferencias en la densidad de estomas entre los folíolos secundarios de la parte basal, media y apical de la hoja que están relacionadas a la posición de éstas en la copa del árbol. Dentro de la copa del árbol se encontró que la densidad de estomas decrece desde la parte basal hasta la parte superior. La distribución y densidad estomática estarían relacionadas a la forma del folíolo secundario y posición de éstos sobre el raquis, al movimiento diario de los folíolos secundarios y de la hoja interactuando con los factores ambientales. Cabe destacar que el valor medio de densidad de estomas se halló en la parte media de la hoja y en la parte media de la copa del árbol. El trabajo se acompaña con ilustraciones originales. Abstract in english Acacia aroma Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. grows in the Chacoan and Yungas Biogeographic Provinces, Argentina. It has numerous medicinal applications, sweet and edible fruits, and it may be used as forage. The objective of the present contribution was to analyse the stomatal distribution and stomatal dens [...] ity on the secondary leaflet surfaces, in different parts of the leaf, and at different tree crown levels, establishing the leaf movement and environmental condition relationships. The work was performed with fresh material and herbarium specimens, using conventional anatomical techniques. Stomatal distribution on the secondary leaflet surfaces was established, and differences in stomatal density among basal, medium and apical leaflets were found. A decrease in stomatal density from the lower level to the upper level of the tree crown would be connected with that. The stomatal distribution and density appear related to the secondary leaflet shape and its position on the secondary rachis, interacting with the daily secondary leaflets and leaf movement, and the weather conditions. It is interesting that the medium value of stomata density were found in the middle part of the leaf and at the middle level of the tree crown. Original illustrations are given.

  13. New Green Tea Cultivar 'Yumewakaba' which Quality is High on Aroma and Taste by Slight Half Fermentation of Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Hiroshi; Honda, Yusuke; Nakajima, Kenta; Sasaki, Koji; Kobayashi, Akira; Tanaka, Eri; Kume, Nobuo; Sakai, Takashi; Shimazaki, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Iwao; Okano, Nobuo; Kyougoku, Hideo; Funakoshi, Shouji; Kitada, Kaichi; Fuchinoue, Yasumoto; Tanaka, Mankichi

    New green tea cultivar‘Yumewakaba’has been bred at the Green Tea and Local Products Laboratory of Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center. The clone was crossed between‘Yabukita’and Saitama No.9’in 1968. Local adaptability, tolerance to bark split frost injury, and Blister blight were tested at 17 prefectural tea experiment stations from 1994 to 2002. It was registered as ‘Norin No.53’and named ‘Yumewakaba’in 20The characteristics of the cultivar are as follows The shape of the cultivar is erect type, and spread of tea bush is the same as‘Yabukita’.The size of mature leaves are smaller than those of ‘Yabukita’. Immature leaves are lustrougreen and soft. The rooting ability of nursery plants are high and taking roots after planting is good. The plucking time of the first crop of this cultivar in Saitama is 1 or 2 days later than that of ‘Yabukita’.‘Yumewakaba’is middle budding cultivar. The yield of 1st or 2nd crop is the same that of‘Yabukita. ‘Yumewakaba’is resistance to cold drought and bark split frost injury. Thlevel of resistance to freezing injur y is stronger than that of ‘Yabukita’ The damage Anthracnose is less than that of ‘Yabukita. The appearance is better than that of ‘Yabukita’, and the quality of liquor is the same as ‘Yabukita’. The quality of processed goods from slightly half fermented leaves of this cultivar is high on the aroma and the taste. ‘Yumewakaba’is suitable for northern tea producing areas, and cool semi-mountainousareas.

  14. Rapid determination of floral aroma compounds of lilac blossom by fast gas chromatography combined with surface acoustic wave sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se Yeon; Shin, Hyun Du; Kim, Sung Jean; Hong, Jongki

    2008-03-01

    A novel analytical method using fast gas chromatography combined with surface acoustic wave sensor (GC/SAW) has been developed for the detection of volatile aroma compounds emanated from lilac blossom (Syringa species: Syringa vulgaris variginata and Syringa dilatata). GC/SAW could detect and quantify various fragrance emitted from lilac blossom, enabling to provide fragrance pattern analysis results. The fragrance pattern analysis could easily characterize the delicate differences in aromas caused by the substantial difference of chemical composition according to different color and shape of petals. Moreover, the method validation of GC/SAW was performed for the purpose of volatile floral actual aroma analysis, achieving a high reproducibility and excellent sensitivity. From the validation results, GC/SAW could serve as an alternative analytical technique for the analysis of volatile floral actual aroma of lilac. In addition, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) GC-MS was employed to further confirm the identification of fragrances emitted from lilac blossom and compared to GC/SAW. PMID:18255083

  15. Selected Ion Flow Tube-Mass Spectrometry for Absolute Quantification of Aroma Compounds in the Headspace of Dry Fermented Sausages.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olivares, A.; Dryahina, Kseniya; Navarro, J. L.; Flores, M.; Smith, D.; Špan?l, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 82, ?. 13 (2010), s. 5819-5829. ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/09/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : mass spectrometry * aroma compounds * dry fermented sausages Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.874, year: 2010

  16. Characterizing endogenous and oxidative low molecular weight flavor/aroma compounds in fresh squeezed/blended pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum) juices. Although, arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing volatile and semi-volatile compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Only two reports w...

  17. Detection of Volatile Aroma Compounds of Morchella by Headspace Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatira TA?KIN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   This study was conducted at the Horticulture Department of Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey, in 2010 to determine the volatile aroma compounds of Morchella mushroom. Fresh samples of Morchella esculenta (Sample 1 and Morchella elata (Sample 2 were collected from Çanakkale (Sample 1 and Mersin (Sample 2 provinces in Turkey in the spring of 2010. Volatile aroma compounds were analyzed by headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS. A total of 31 aroma compounds were identified in the 2 analyzed samples: 7 alcohols, 7 esters, 7 ketones, 3 acids, 2 aldehydes, 1 terpene, phenol, 1-propanamine, geranyl linalool, and quinoline. Seventeen aroma components were identified in Sample 1, and 18 compounds were found in Sample 2. Phenol was determined as the major aroma compound in both Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 50.888% and 58.293% content, respectively. Alcohols, especially 1-octen-3-ol, were detected as the second major aroma components in Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 15.500% and 5.660% content, respectively. Carbamic acid, methyl ester was found only in Sample 1, at 11.379% content. The aroma components detected in the two samples differed. 1-Octadecanol; cyclooctylalcohol; trans-2-undecen-1-ol; butanoic acid, butyl ester (CAS; carbamic acid, methyl ester; 2-ethylhexyl-2-ethylhexanoate; phthalic acid, decyl isobutyl ester; 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate; decanal; nonanal; 7,9-di-tert-butyl-1-oxaspiro(4.5deca-6,9-diene-2,8-dione; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione; 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl; and trans-alpha-bisabolene were detected only in Sample 1. Ethanol; silanediol, 2-methylaminoethanol; L-alanine, ethyl ester; carbonic acid, dodecyl isobutyl ester; acetic acid; butanoic acid; 2,3,4H-pyran-4-one; 5,9-undecadien-2-one; cyclooctene; 2-cyclopenten-1-one; 1-propanamine; geranyl linalool; and quinoline were determined only in Sample 2.

  18. GC-MS-olfactometric characterization of the most aroma-active components in a representative aromatic extract from Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanpour, Asghar; Sonmezdag, A Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2015-09-01

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry. The saffron aromatic extracts were obtained by four different extraction techniques including solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid phase extraction (SPE), and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and compared to achieve a representative aromatic extract from saffron. According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was the most representative of saffron odour. A total of 28 aroma compounds were identified in saffron. Ketones were quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in saffron, followed by aldehydes and acids. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of saffron. A total of nine aroma-active compounds were detected in the aromatic extract. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma active compounds were safranal (FD = 512), 4-ketoisophorone (FD = 256) and dihydrooxophorone (FD = 128). PMID:25842335

  19. Identification, quantification and comparison between the chemical substances responsible for the irradiated pot still cachaca and commercial rum aromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation process has being presented as an alternative technique in food preservation. When applied on beverages, radiation is mainly used for malt decontamination or sterilization of musts and had been proposed also to accelerate aging. Some confusion over rum and cachaca identities has arisen due to the internationalization of cachaca. This research aims to identify, quantify and compare the effect of gamma radiation on the aroma of the Brazilian spirit with rum, irradiated and non irradiated, by instrumental and sensory analysis. Results showed that the content of volatile compounds presented strong correlation with the radiation dose (0,150 and 300 Gy) for all the samples. According to Triangle Test for aroma, all the judges could distinguish among non irradiated and irradiated samples (300 Gy), aged cachaca from rum and non aged cachaca from rum, but they could not distinguish aged cachaca from non aged cachaca. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results from the quantitative descriptive analysis showed that non irradiated non aged cachaca and rum were different in their alcohol, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except caramel and apple aroma attributes. Non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) were different in their apple, caramel, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except alcohol aroma attributes. According to the gas chromatography/olfactometry results, significant difference was found among non irradiated cachaca and rum; non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) when their aromas were compared. (author)

  20. IMPORTANCE OF AROMAS ON MOOD PROFILE AND HUMAN AURA (Qualitative Vibrations of Prana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srilakshmi R* and N ShakuntalaManay

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Traditional Concept of “Swastya” means to be stationed in one’s own self or well-being, which means to be beyond body / mind yogically. Sri Aurobindo (1970 stated that “Yoga means a methodized effort towards self-perfection by expression of the potentialities latent in the being” and “…a union of the human individual with the universal and transcendent Existence”. According to Sri Aurobindo (1972 “The Spirit has made itself Matter (body in order to place itself there as an instrument for the well-being and joy “Yogakshema”, of created beings for a self-offering of  physical universal utility of service. Interestingly, WHO has stipulated spiritual health for universal well-being. This opens avenues for experimental studies.  Benson (1976 stated that in the year 1968 opened medical laboratory for studies in transcendental meditation.   Chopra (1993 has spoken that there is enormous latent intelligence in the living organism. The “inexperience” of the organism has placed the mind – body relationship on scientific footing. This relationship opens both ways, on one hand it removes disease state and being at “ease” state. Thus enhancing psychoneurotic immunology where the subject herself / himself learns to manipulate the involved energy and to enhance the delightful state of well-being. Aromas have been an area that can open new areas for research on emotional and psychosomatic well-being.  “Pranayama” recognizes science of holding breath or vitality.  “Willfully” holding moods with awareness / consciousness is to experience spirits flow and its freedom in creating a new inner dimension of highest well-being.   To experience subtle and its power of mood is yogically raise mood profile to the dynamics of the spirit subjectively.  This was taken as an experimental study. The Subjects studying in MSc. in the Department of Food Service Management at Smt. V.H.D. Central Institute of Home Science, Bangalore, India took part in the study. A pre-test was conducted to check the Aura status of all the twenty subjects. Based on pre-test health status a purposive sample was worked out. Those subjects whose health aura was in good condition were selected as Control Group, (n=10 and others whose health aura was affected were chosen as Experimental Group (n=10 and the Experimental Group were subjected to intervention programme along with Aroma Treatment. Based on the investigator’s observations, an experiment was designed to study the influence of Aroma on the subject’s physiological and psychological moods and feelings, effect on Chakras and their Human Aura. Statistical test ?2 (Chi-square was used to test the significance between Experimental and Control Groups for comparison. The aroma Nectar of Divine Joy has yielded significant results both in objective and subjective test obtained by the Experimental group. The result showed that the intervention programme helped in retaining higher emotions. This study points out that the auric field one carries depends upon one’s own thought forms that one generates through emotions and feelings.  To bathe inner organs with the highest mood profile is to experience the highest vitality in body and mind as one vibrates and radiates the well-being around them in homonymous state.  This growth is a teleotic journey in emotions and feelings towards the Divine state.

  1. Poikilodermatous changes on the forearms of a woman practicing aroma-therapy: extracervical poikiloderma of Civatte?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandros, Katoulis; Michalis, Makris; Stamatis, Gregoriou; Eustathios, Rallis; Antonis, Kanelleas; Nicolaos, Stavrianeas; Dimitris, Rigopoulos.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 48-year-old, Caucasian female who presented with slowly progressing asymptomatic poikilodermatous changes of the extensor aspects of the forearms. She also had typical Poikiloderma of Civatte on the V of the neck and erythemato-telangiectatic rosacea of the central face. The [...] patient had been practicing aroma-therapy for many years. Histologic examination revealed findings consistent with PC. Patch-testing revealed positive reactions to Fragrance mix and Nickel sulphate. Based on clinical and histological findings, a diagnosis of extracervical PC was suggested. PC with extra-cervical or extra-facial involvement is rare. In addition, this case supports the theory that contact sensitization to fragrances may contribute to the development of PC.

  2. Associations of Volatile Compounds with Sensory Aroma and Flavor: The Complex Nature of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Chambers IV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to relate sensory analysis data to specific chemicals such as volatile compounds have been frequent. Often these associations are difficult to interpret or are weak in nature. Although some difficulties may relate to the methods used, the difficulties also result from the complex nature of flavor. For example, there are multiple volatiles responsible for a flavor sensation, combinations of volatiles yield different flavors than those expected from individual compounds, and the differences in perception of volatiles in different matrices. This review identifies some of the reasons sensory analysis and instrumental measurements result in poor associations and suggests issues that need to be addressed in future research for better understanding of the relationships of flavor/aroma phenomena and chemical composition.

  3. Key volatile aroma compounds of three black velvet tamarind (Dialium) fruit species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasekan, Ola; See, Ng Siew

    2015-02-01

    Nineteen odour-active compounds were quantified in three black velvet tamarind fruit species. Calculation of the odour activity values (OAVs) of the odorants showed that differences in odour profiles of the tamarinds were mainly caused by linalool, limonene, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, nonanal, and (Z)-3-hexenal. On the basis of their high OAVs, cis-linalool oxide (furanoid), geranyl acetone, and cinnamyl acetate were identified as other potent odorants in the three tamarinds. Sensory studies revealed very distinct aroma profiles, which are characteristic of these types of fruits. While the Dialiumguineense elicited floral, flowery, caramel-like notes, the other two species were dominated by leaf-like, caramel, and green notes. PMID:25172748

  4. Biotechnological applications of Yarrowia lipolytica : optimization of aroma and lipase production

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Nelma; Gon??alves, Cristiana; Lopes, Marlene; Teixeira, J. A.; M. Mota; Belo, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica is one of the more intensively studied "non-conventional" yeasts that is currently used as a model for many studies, including protein secretion, peroxisome biogenesis, dimorphism and etabolic pathways involved in hydrophobic substrates metabolism, among others. Due to the wide range of ubstrates that this yeast can use efficiently, such as alkanes, fatty acids, glycerol, and some sugars and to the high secretion capacity of metabolites and proteins, many industrial ...

  5. Sensory profile of breast meat from broilers reared in an organic niche production system and conventional standard broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsted, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Bodil Helene

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast meat from broilers produced in very different production systems may vary considerable in sensory profile, which may affect consumer interests. In this study the aim was to evaluate differences in the sensory profiles of breast meat from five broiler products: two conventional standard products (A and B) and three organic niche genotypes (I657, L40 and K8) reared in an apple orchard. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 22 sensory attributes differed significantly between the products. The aroma attributes ‘chicken’, ‘bouillon’ and ‘fat’ scored highest and the ‘iron/liver’ aroma lowest for the niche products. The meat was more ‘tender’, ‘short’ and ‘crumbly’ and less ‘hard’ and ‘stringy’ in the standard products than in one or more of the niche products. Product ‘I 657’ was less ‘juicy’ than the rest. Products ‘I 657’ and ‘L 40’ were more ‘cohesive’ and tasted more ‘sourish’ and less of ‘sweet/maize’ than the standard products. The ‘overall liking’ score was significantly higher for the ‘K 8’ product than for the ‘Standard A’ and ‘L 40’ products. The ‘overall liking’ score was significantly correlated with the scores for aroma and taste of ‘chicken’, ‘umami/bouillon’, ‘iron/liver’ and ‘fat’ aroma. CONCLUSION: The sensory profiles differed particularly between conventional standard broilers and organic niche broilers, although differences were also found between breeds. The present study indicates that aroma and taste attributes were more important for the assessors than meat ‘tenderness’ for the overall liking of broiler meat.

  6. Sensory profiles of breast meat from broilers reared in an organic niche production system and conventional standard broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsted, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Bodil Helene

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast meat from broilers produced in very different production systems may vary considerable in sensory profile, which may affect consumer interests. In this study the aim was to evaluate differences in the sensory profiles of breast meat from five broiler products: two conventional standard products (A and B) and three organic niche genotypes (I657, L40 and K8) reared in an apple orchard. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 22 sensory attributes differed significantly between the products. The aroma attributes `chicken', `bouillon' and `fat' scored highest and the `iron/liver' aroma lowest for the niche products. The meat was more `tender', `short' and `crumbly' and less `hard' and `stringy' in the standard products than in one or more of the niche products. Product `I 657' was less `juicy' than the rest. Products `I 657' and `L 40' were more `cohesive' and tasted more `sourish' and less of `sweet/maize' than the standard products. The `overall liking' score was significantly higher for the `K 8' product than for the `Standard A' and `L 40' products. The `overall liking' score was significantly correlated with the scores for aroma and taste of `chicken', `umami/bouillon', `iron/liver' and `fat' aroma. CONCLUSION: The sensory profiles differed particularly between conventional standard broilers and organic niche broilers, although differences were also found between breeds. The present study indicates that aroma and taste attributes were more important for the assessors than meat `tenderness' for the overall liking of broiler meat.

  7. Characterization of the Aroma-Active, Phenolic, and Lipid Profiles of the Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Nut as Affected by the Single and Double Roasting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Kelebek, Hasim; Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luis Miguel; Fontecha, Javier; Selli, Serkan

    2015-09-01

    The pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nut is one of the most widely consumed edible nuts in the world. However, it is the roasting process that makes the pistachio commercially viable and valuable as it serves as the key step to improving the nut's hallmark sensory characteristics including flavor, color, and texture. Consequently, the present study explores the effects of the single-roasting and double-roasting process on the pistachio's chemical composition, specifically aroma-active compounds, polyphenols, and lipids. Results showed the total polyphenol content of increased with the roasting treatment; however, not all phenolic compounds demonstrated this behavior. With regard to the aroma and aroma-active compounds, the results indicated that roasting process results in the development of characteristics and pleasant aroma of pistachio samples due to the Maillard reaction. With regard to lipids, the pistachio roasting treatment reduced the concentration of CN38 diacylglycerides while increasing the amount of elaidic acid. PMID:26301818

  8. [GLC-mass-spectrometrical investigation of the volatile components of wines. VI. Aroma compounds of Tokaj aszu wines. a) Neutral compounds (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, P; Drawert, F; Kerènyi, Z; Junker, A

    1976-01-01

    The aroma compounds of Tokaj aszu-wines (1963, 5-butt. and 1973, 6-butt.) have been enriched by liquid-liquid extraction (pentane-methylenchloride 2 + 1) and compared with the aroma substances of a magyar Furmint wine (1973). After the separation of the acids and after the fractionation of the aroma extracts on silicagel 119 aroma components have been identified in the neutral fractions by means of the combination gaschromatography--mass spectrometry. Concerning the volatile constituents relatively high concentrations of furfural, 5-methyl-furfural, acetoin, different acetals, the ethyl esters of keto-, hydroxy- and dicarbonic acids and the lack of terpenic compounds are characteristic of the aszu wines. Quantitative differences depending on the vintages and the conditions of storage have been determined; particularly the concentrations of the acetales depend on the age of the wines. PMID:973462

  9. Production of ?-ionone by combined expression of carotenogenic and plant CCD1 genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Javiera; Essus, Karen; Kim, Il-Kwon; Pereira, Rui; Herzog, Jan; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens; Agosin, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Apocarotenoids, like the C13-norisoprenoids, are natural compounds that contribute to the flavor and/or aroma of flowers and foods. They are produced in aromatic plants-like raspberries and roses-by the enzymatic cleavage of carotenes. Due to their pleasant aroma and flavour, apocarotenoids have high commercial value for the cosmetic and food industry, but currently their production is mainly assured by chemical synthesis. In the present study, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that ...

  10. Principais substâncias responsáveis pelo aroma de mangas comerciais brasileiras identificadas por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução/olfatometria/espectrometria de massas Aroma impact substances on commercial brazilian mangoes by HRGC-O-AEDA-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Diógenes C. Lopes; Sandra Regina Fraga; Claudia M. Rezende

    1999-01-01

    Six Brazilian commercial mangoes were analysed by HRGC-O-AEDA-MS, viz., Carlota, Haden, Espada, Coração de boi, Rubi and Tommy Atkins. All them showed ethyl butanoate as the main aroma character impact compound by AEDA evaluation. The ethyl esters of 2 and 3-methylbutanoic acids are also important, the main contribution in Carlota variety being 2(S) enantiomer. In Rubi variety, both 2(R) enantiomer and 3-methyl isomer contributes to the caprylic fruity note observed. In four varieties, viz., ...

  11. Caracterización anatómica del leño y evolución del crecimiento en ejemplares de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina en la Región Chaqueña, Argentina Wood anatomical description and growth in individuals of Acacia aroma and Acacia furcatispina in Chaco region, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Bravo; Ana Giménez; Juana Moglia

    2006-01-01

    La madera de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina se emplea para usos de escaso valor como postes, mangos de herramientas o combustible. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estudiar los caracteres anatómicos del leño de ambas especies y analizar el crecimiento de ejemplares aislados con la finalidad de determinar su potencialidad para usos de mayor valor. Se determinó que la madera de estas especies es dura, pesada y de porosidad difusa con tendencia a semicircular. Acacia furcatispina posee u...

  12. AROMA-AIRWICK: a CHLOE/CDC-3600 system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AROMA-AIRWICK System for CHLOE, an automatic film scanning equipment built at Argonne by Donald Hodges, and the CDC-3600 computer is a system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks. AROMA-AIRWICK has been an outgrowth of the generally recognized need for the automatic processing of high energy physics data and the fact that the Argonne National Laboratory has been a center of serious spark chamber development in recent years

  13. Comparison of Aroma-Active Volatiles in Oolong Tea Infusions Using GC-Olfactometry, GC-FPD, and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, JianCai; Chen, Feng; Wang, LingYing; Niu, YunWei; Yu, Dan; Shu, Chang; Chen, HeXing; Wang, HongLin; Xiao, ZuoBing

    2015-09-01

    The aroma profile of oolong tea infusions (Dongdingwulong, DDWL; Tieguanyin, TGY; Dahongpao, DHP) were investigated in this study. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) with the method of aroma intensity (AI) was employed to investigate the aroma-active compounds in tea infusions. The results presented forty-three, forty-five, and forty-eight aroma-active compounds in the TGY, DHP, and DDWL infusions, including six, seven, and five sulfur compounds, respectively. In addition, the concentration of volatile compounds in the tea infusions was further quantitated by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography (SPME)-GC-MS and SPME-GC-flame photometric detection (FPD). Totally, seventy-six and thirteen volatile and sulfur compounds were detected in three types of tea infusions, respectively. Quantitative results showed that forty-seven aroma compounds were at concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds. On the basis of the odor activity values (OAVs), 2-methylpropanal (OAV: 230-455), 3-methylbutanal (1-353), 2-methylbutanal (34-68), nerolidol (108-184), (E)-2-heptenal (148-294), hexanal (134-230), octanal (28-131), ?-damascenone (29-59), indole (96-138), 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (34-67), (R)-(-)-linalool (63-87), and dimethyl sulfide (7-1320) presented relatively higher OAVs than those of other compounds, indicating the importance of these compounds in the overall aroma of tea infusions. PMID:26257073

  14. A powerful aromatic volatile thiol, 2-furanmethanethiol, exhibiting roast coffee aroma in wines made from several Vitis vinifera grape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, T; Blanchard, L; Darriet, P; Dubourdieu, D

    2000-05-01

    The chemical compound 2-furanmethanethiol (2FM), with a strong roast coffee aroma, has been identified in sweet white wines made from the Petit manseng grape variety, and in certain red Bordeaux wines (made from the Merlot, Cabernet franc, and Cabernet sauvignon grape varieties). This was done by extracting specific volatile thiols using p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. The 2FM has also been found in toasted oak used in barrel-making. All the Petit manseng sweet white wines and some of the red Bordeaux wines analyzed contained between a few ng/L and several dozen ng/L of 2FM. Taking into account its very low perception threshold (0.4 ng/L in a model hydro alcoholic environment), 2FM could therefore contribute to the roast coffee aroma of certain wines. PMID:10820097

  15. Characterization of volatile compounds responsible for the aroma in naturally fermented sausages by gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Alicia; Navarro, José Luis; Flores, Mónica

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize naturally fermented dry sausages produced without the use of microbial starters and to determine which odour-active compounds are responsible for their aroma. The traditional manufacture was responsible for different chemical characteristics and consumer's acceptance. The volatile compounds detected in the headspace comprised a complex mixture of volatile compounds derived from bacterial metabolism (mainly esterase activity of Staphyloccoci), spices and lipid auto-oxidation. The odour-active volatile compounds were identified using gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry (GC-O) using the detection frequency method. The aroma profile was characterized by the presence of several compounds such as acetic acid, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, methional, 1-octen-3-ol, benzeneacetaldehyde and 4-methyl-phenol. However, naturally fermented sausages were also characterized by numerous esters, both ethyl and methyl esters, which impart a wide variety of fruity notes. PMID:24334376

  16. Formulation and conservation of a pharmaceutical form with leaf extracts from Acacia aroma Gill. ex Hook et Arn

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. E, Arias; J. D., Gomez; M., Vatuone; M. I., Isla.

    Full Text Available Leaf fluid extracts of Acacia aroma GILL. ex Hook et Arn showed antibacterial activity against antibiotic multiresistant bacteria isolated from clinical samples, antioxidant and ant-inflammatory activities. Toxicological studies carried out on Artemia salina and Allium cepa attested none toxicity po [...] tential. The aim of this work was to elaborate a formulation of topical antibacterial hydrogel with Carbopol acrylic acid polymer containing an A. aroma fluid extract in order to compare with a hydrogel containing commercial antibiotic. The optimal extract concentration in this formulation was determined according to the values of minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration for Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant (F7) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (F352). Physical, chemical, rheological and microbiological stability was observed at least during one year. The hydrogel containing Acacia leaves fluid extract shows remarkable antibacterial effect with a broadspectrum efficacy against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria at low concentration.

  17. How do esters and dimethyl sulphide concentrations affect fruity aroma perception of red wine? Demonstration by dynamic sensory profile evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Marchand, Stéphanie; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Our study focused on variations in wine aroma perception and molecular composition during tasting over a period of 30min. In parallel, dynamic analytical and sensory methods were applied to study changes in the wines' molecular and aromatic evolution. Dynamic sensory profile evaluations clearly confirmed the evolution of the wine's fruity notes during sensory analysis, highlighting significant differences for red-berry and fresh fruit as well as black berry and jammy fruit, after 5 and 15min, respectively. Dynamic analytical methods revealed a decrease in ester and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) concentrations in the first few minutes. Sensory profiles of aromatic reconstitutions demonstrated that the aromatic modulation of fruity notes observed during wine tasting was explained by changes in ester and DMS concentrations. These results revealed that variations in concentrations of DMS and esters during wine tasting had a qualitative impact, by modulating fruity aromas in red wine. PMID:26471544

  18. A sensory and chemical approach to the aroma of wooden aged Lourinhã wine brandy / Uma abordagem sensorial e química ao aroma de aguardentes vínicas envelhecidas da Lourinhã

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ilda, Caldeira; R. Bruno de, Sousa; A. Pedro, Belchior; M. Cristina, Clímaco.

    Full Text Available O envelhecimento das aguardentes vínicas em vasilhas de madeira provoca alterações profundas na composição físico-química e sensorial destas bebidas. Neste trabalho são estudados os odorantes em aguardentes vínicas da região da Lourinhã envelhecidas em diferentes condições. Para o efeito recorreu-se [...] à avaliação dos compostos odorantes por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução acoplada à olfactometria (GC-O), à quantificação de alguns dos compostos odorantes por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução acoplada a um detector de ionização de chama (GC-FID) e à avaliação sensorial das aguardentes. Os resultados de GC-O permitiram identificar 29 odorantes diferentes (álcoois, ésteres, ácidos e fenóis), uns originários do destilado e outros provenientes da madeira. A pesquisa de correlações entre a análise sensorial e a análise química confirmou a importância odorante de vários compostos com origem na madeira, designadamente a vanilina, os fenóis voláteis e os aldeídos furânicos. Estes compostos apresentaram importantes correlações com descritores sensoriais como a baunilha, fumo, torrado, frutos secos, madeira, os quais tem uma correlação positiva com a qualidade da aguardente. Abstract in english The maturation of wine brandies in wooden barrels origin many sensory and physical-chemical changes in these alcoholic beverages. This work studies the odorants in different aged brandies from Lourinhã. These brandies were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry (GC-O). A panel taster [...] profiled these brandies and the identified odorants were also quantified by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The GC-O results showed 29 identified odorants (alcohols, esters, acids and phenols). Some of them are proceeding from the distillate while others are extracted from the wood. The analysis of correlation between the sensory profiles and the odorant quantification pointed out the relevance of several wood compounds for the brandy aroma, namely the vanillin, volatile phenols and furanic aldehydes. These compounds presented important correlations with several olfactory attributes like vanilla, smoke, toasted, dried fruits, woody, which influence positively the quality of the brandies.

  19. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in two bavarian wheat beers by means of the sensomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langos, Daniel; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-11-27

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatiles isolated from a commercial Bavarian wheat beer (WB A) eliciting its typical aroma profile, best described by a clove-like, phenolic odor quality, revealed 36 odorants in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 16 to 4096. Among them, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like) and 2-phenylethanol (flowery) showed the highest FD factors. AEDA of a second wheat beer (WB B), somewhat lacking the typical wheat beer odor note, revealed 32 odor-active components in the FD factor range from 32 to 8192. Among them, 2-phenylethanol, (E)-?-damascenone (cooked apple-like) and 3-methylbutanol (malty) were detected with the highest FD factors. Next, all odorants evaluated with an FD factor ?32 were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays in both beers, and the odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated. Thereby, ethanol, (E)-?-damascenone, 3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl methylpropanoate, and ethyl butanoate showed the highest OAVs in WB A, followed by acetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanol, and dimethyl sulfide. In WB B, ethanol, (E)-?-damascenone, ethyl methylpropanoate, ethyl butanoate, and 3-methylbutyl acetate showed the highest OAVs. Whereas most aroma compounds were present in the same order of magnitude in both beer samples, in particular, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol (smoky, leather-like) were by factors of 13 and 15, respectively, higher in WB A. For the first time, the overall aroma of wheat beer (WB A) was successfully simulated on the basis of 27 reference compounds in their natural concentrations using water/ethanol (95:5; v/v) as the matrix. PMID:24219571

  20. Aromas florales y su interacción con los insectos polinizadores Floral scents and their interaction with insect pollinators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Grajales-Conesa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas emplean diversas señales visuales y olfativas con la finalidad de atraer a los polinizadores que en su mayoría son insectos. Algunas plantas han desarrollado mecanismos, basándose en mensajes olfativos que los hacen únicos para sus polinizadores específicos. Estos mecanismos, así como las variaciones intra- e interespecíficas en el perfil de los aromas florales han evolucionado para determinadas especies. Los aromas florales son un conjunto de compuestos volátiles orgánicos y para su estudio hay varios métodos que requieren de técnicas que cada vez son más eficientes. El uso de estos aromas podría ser una opción en determinados sistemas de polinización, utilizándolos como atrayente de polinizadores o de depredadores y/o herbívoro para incrementar la producción y disminuir los daños por plagas. En este trabajo se revisan las distintas interacciones de los insectos y los aromas florales, los sistemas específicos planta-polinizador, los métodos de análisis, así como algunos patrones o tendencias de estas interacciones y su aplicación e importancia.Plants use visual and olfactory cues to attract pollinators and to allow them to detect the presence of flowers, which most of them are insects. Some plants have evolved with their pollinators, based on the olfactory messages, which make them unique for their specific pollinators. These mechanisms have evolved in certain plants in relation to their pollinators, and there are also inter and intra-specific variation in fragrance cues which show specific chemical profile for each plant species, so insects attracted are specific to them. Most of the floral scents are organic compounds identified with techniques and methodologies which become more specific and efficient along the time. The application of floral scent could be used as a tool in pollination and pest management. In these studies, insect interaction with floral scent is reviewed and specificity of plant-pollinator, additionally the method of analysis, some patterns and trends in these interactions, the application and its importance are examined.

  1. Aromas florales y su interacción con los insectos polinizadores / Floral scents and their interaction with insect pollinators

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julieta, Grajales-Conesa; Virginia, Meléndez-Ramírez; Leopoldo, Cruz-López.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas emplean diversas señales visuales y olfativas con la finalidad de atraer a los polinizadores que en su mayoría son insectos. Algunas plantas han desarrollado mecanismos, basándose en mensajes olfativos que los hacen únicos para sus polinizadores específicos. Estos mecanismos, así como la [...] s variaciones intra- e interespecíficas en el perfil de los aromas florales han evolucionado para determinadas especies. Los aromas florales son un conjunto de compuestos volátiles orgánicos y para su estudio hay varios métodos que requieren de técnicas que cada vez son más eficientes. El uso de estos aromas podría ser una opción en determinados sistemas de polinización, utilizándolos como atrayente de polinizadores o de depredadores y/o herbívoro para incrementar la producción y disminuir los daños por plagas. En este trabajo se revisan las distintas interacciones de los insectos y los aromas florales, los sistemas específicos planta-polinizador, los métodos de análisis, así como algunos patrones o tendencias de estas interacciones y su aplicación e importancia. Abstract in english Plants use visual and olfactory cues to attract pollinators and to allow them to detect the presence of flowers, which most of them are insects. Some plants have evolved with their pollinators, based on the olfactory messages, which make them unique for their specific pollinators. These mechanisms h [...] ave evolved in certain plants in relation to their pollinators, and there are also inter and intra-specific variation in fragrance cues which show specific chemical profile for each plant species, so insects attracted are specific to them. Most of the floral scents are organic compounds identified with techniques and methodologies which become more specific and efficient along the time. The application of floral scent could be used as a tool in pollination and pest management. In these studies, insect interaction with floral scent is reviewed and specificity of plant-pollinator, additionally the method of analysis, some patterns and trends in these interactions, the application and its importance are examined.

  2. Altered Levels of Aroma and Volatiles by Metabolic Engineering of Shikimate Pathway Genes in Tomato Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vered Tzin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum fruit is an excellent source of antioxidants, dietary fibers, minerals and vitamins and therefore has been referred to as a “functional food”. Ripe tomato fruits produce a large number of specialized metabolites including volatile organic compounds. These volatiles serve as key components of the tomato fruit flavor, participate in plant pathogen and herbivore defense, and are used to attract seed dispersers. A major class of specialized metabolites is derived from the shikimate pathway followed by aromatic amino acid biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. We attempted to modify tomato fruit flavor by overexpressing key regulatory genes in the shikimate pathway. Bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive variants of 3-Deoxy-D-Arabino-Heptulosonate 7-Phosphate Synthase (DAHPS; AroG209-9 and bi-functional Chorismate Mutase/Prephenate Dehydratase (CM/PDT; PheA12 were expressed under the control of a fruit-specific promoter. We crossed these transgenes to generate tomato plants expressing both the AroG209 and PheA12 genes. Overexpression of the AroG209-9 gene had a dramatic effect on the overall metabolic profile of the fruit, including enhanced levels of multiple volatile and non-volatile metabolites. In contrast, the PheA12 overexpression line exhibited minor metabolic effects compared to the wild type fruit. Co-expression of both the AroG209-9 and PheA12 genes in tomato resulted overall in a similar metabolic effect to that of expressing only the AroG209-9 gene. However, the aroma ranking attributes of the tomato fruits from PheA12//AroG209-9 were unique and different from those of the lines expressing a single gene, suggesting a contribution of the PheA12 gene to the overall metabolic profile. We suggest that expression of bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive enzymes of the shikimate pathway in tomato fruits provides a useful metabolic engineering tool for the modification of fruits aroma and the generation of new combinations of tomato flavors.

  3. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225?oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles. PMID:26610612

  4. Extraction and GC determination of volatile aroma compounds from extracts of three plant species of the Apiaceae family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.; Copolovici, L.; M?ruţoiu, C.

    2013-11-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and celery (Apium graveolens), three aromatic plants belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) botanical family, were selected as sources of essential or volatile oils. Essential oils are composed of a large diversity of volatile aroma compounds. Plant-derived essential oils and extracts have long been used as natural agents in food preservation, pharmaceuticals and medicinal therapies. In the present study, the plant extracts from leaves of parsley, dill and celery, were obtained by maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. All extractions were performed at 30°C, using different solvents (ethanol, diethyl ether, n-hexane) and solvent mixtures (1:1, v/v). The most effective solvent system for the extraction of volatile aroma compounds was diethyl ether - n-hexane (1:1, v/v). Extraction efficiency and determination of aroma volatiles were performed by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The major volatile compounds present in plant extracts were myristicin, ?-phellandrene, ?-phellandrene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, apiol, dill ether and allyl phenoxyacetate.

  5. Real-Time Emulation of Heterogeneous Wireless Networks with End-to-Edge Quality of Service Guarantees: The AROMA Testbed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Umbert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents and describes the real-time testbed for all-IP Beyond 3G (B3G heterogeneous wireless networks that has been developed in the framework of the European IST AROMA project. The main objective of the AROMA testbed is to provide a highly accurate and realistic framework where the performance of algorithms, policies, protocols, services, and applications for a complete heterogeneous wireless network can be fully assessed and evaluated before bringing them to a real system. The complexity of the interaction between all-IP B3G systems and user applications, while dealing with the Quality of Service (QoS concept, motivates the development of this kind of emulation platform where different solutions can be tested in realistic conditions that could not be achieved by means of simple offline simulations. This work provides an in-depth description of the AROMA testbed, emphasizing many interesting implementation details and lessons learned during the development of the tool that may result helpful to other researchers and system engineers in the development of similar emulation platforms. Several case studies are also presented in order to illustrate the full potential and capabilities of the presented emulation platform.

  6. Volatile Glycosylation in Tea Plants: Sequential Glycosylations for the Biosynthesis of Aroma ?-Primeverosides Are Catalyzed by Two Camellia sinensis Glycosyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgami, Shoji; Ono, Eiichiro; Horikawa, Manabu; Murata, Jun; Totsuka, Koujirou; Toyonaga, Hiromi; Ohba, Yukie; Dohra, Hideo; Asai, Tatsuo; Matsui, Kenji; Mizutani, Masaharu; Watanabe, Naoharu; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    Tea plants (Camellia sinensis) store volatile organic compounds (VOCs; monoterpene, aromatic, and aliphatic alcohols) in the leaves in the form of water-soluble diglycosides, primarily as ?-primeverosides (6-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-?-D-glucopyranosides). These VOCs play a critical role in plant defenses and tea aroma quality, yet little is known about their biosynthesis and physiological roles in planta. Here, we identified two UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) from C. sinensis, UGT85K11 (CsGT1) and UGT94P1 (CsGT2), converting VOCs into ?-primeverosides by sequential glucosylation and xylosylation, respectively. CsGT1 exhibits a broad substrate specificity toward monoterpene, aromatic, and aliphatic alcohols to produce the respective glucosides. On the other hand, CsGT2 specifically catalyzes the xylosylation of the 6'-hydroxy group of the sugar moiety of geranyl ?-D-glucopyranoside, producing geranyl ?-primeveroside. Homology modeling, followed by site-directed mutagenesis of CsGT2, identified a unique isoleucine-141 residue playing a crucial role in sugar donor specificity toward UDP-xylose. The transcripts of both CsGTs were mainly expressed in young leaves, along with ?-primeverosidase encoding a diglycoside-specific glycosidase. In conclusion, our findings reveal the mechanism of aroma ?-primeveroside biosynthesis in C. sinensis. This information can be used to preserve tea aroma better during the manufacturing process and to investigate the mechanism of plant chemical defenses. PMID:25922059

  7. Effect on the Aroma Profile of Graciano and Tempranillo Red Wines of the Application of Two Antifungal Treatments onto Vines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Noguerol-Pato

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two antifungals (boscalid + kresoxim-methyl and metrafenone applied onto vines under Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs on the volatile composition of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines was studied. Changes in aroma profile in the wines were assessed from the combined odour activity values (OAVs for the volatile compounds in each of seven different odorant series (viz., ripe fruits, fresh fruits, lactic, floral, vinous, spicy and herbaceous. Graciano wines obtained from grapes treated with the antifungals exhibited markedly increased concentrations of varietal volatile compounds (monoterpenes and C13-norisoprenoids and aldehydes, and decreased concentrations of acetates and aromatic alcohols. By contrast, the concentrations of volatile compounds in Tempranillo wines showed different changes depending on the fungicide applied. Also, the aroma profiles of wines obtained from treated grapes were modified, particularly the ripe fruit nuances in Graciano wines. The OAV of this odorant series underwent an increase by more than 60% with respect to the control wine as a result of the increase of ?-damascenone concentration (which imparts wine a dry plum note. The aroma profile of Tempranillo red wines containing metrafenone residues exhibited marked changes relative to those from untreated grapes.

  8. Anxiolytic-like effect of sweet orange aroma in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faturi, Claudia Brito; Leite, José Roberto; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Canton, Adriane Conte; Teixeira-Silva, Flavia

    2010-05-30

    Aromatherapy is the use of essential oils as an alternative treatment for medical purposes. Despite the lack of sufficient scientific proof, it is considered a holistic complementary therapy employed to enhance comfort and decrease distress. Citrus fragrances have been particularly used by aromatherapists for the treatment of anxiety symptoms. Based on this claim, the present study investigated the effects of Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) essential oil on Wistar, male rats evaluated in the elevated plus-maze followed by the light/dark paradigm. The animals were exposed to the orange aroma (100, 200 or 400 microl) for 5 min while in a Plexiglas chamber and were then immediately submitted to the behavioural tests. At all doses, C.sinensis oil demonstrated anxiolytic activity in at least one of the tests and, at the highest dose, it presented significant effects in both animal models, as indicated by increased exploration of the open arms of the elevated plus-maze (time: p=0.004; entries: p=0.044) and of the lit chamber of the light/dark paradigm (time: p=0.030). In order to discard the possibility that this outcome was due to non-specific effects of any odour exposure, the behavioural response to Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil was also evaluated, using the same animal models, but no anxiolytic effects were observed. These results suggest an acute anxiolytic activity of sweet orange essence, giving some scientific support to its use as a tranquilizer by aromatherapists. PMID:20211673

  9. Aroma of wheat porridge and bread-crumb is influenced by the wheat variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard; Hansen, Åse Solvej

    2015-01-01

    Sensory evaluations were conducted on wheat-flour porridge and baked-bread samples, made from wheat varieties with known odour and flavour variations. The purpose was to determine if these odour and flavour variations were expressed in baked-bread. In all, 24 wheat varieties were used for porridge evaluation, from these eight were selected for bread evaluation. Porridge and bread results were compared. Variations were found in both evaluations. Five odour- and nine flavour descriptors were found to be common to both wheat porridge and bread. The results for two descriptors: "cocoa" and "oat porridge" were correlated between the wheat porridge and bread samples. Analysis of whole-meal and low-extraction samples revealed that the descriptors "malt", "oat-porridge", "øllebrød", "cocoa" and "grain" mostly characterized wheat bran, while descriptors for "maize", "bean-shoots", "chamomile", "umami", and "fresh grass" mostly characterized wheat endosperm. Low-extraction bread made from four different varieties also differentiated for five odour- and six flavour descriptors. These results indicate that variations in wheat flavour and odour directly affect bread flavour and odour even in low-extraction bread. This knowledge is important to the baking industry and to plant breeders as wheat aroma could possibly become a future quality parameter in breeding.

  10. GRAPE MATURITY OF RHEIN RIESLING CULTIVAR AND SYNTHESIS OF ATYPICAL AGEING AROMA PRECURSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Jakobovi?

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research on forming atypical aging off-flavor in wines (UTA was revealed a significant correlation between the UTA , the concentration of 2-aminoacetophenones (AAP and the wines produced from grapes affected by stress (lack of water or nitrogen supply, wines from grapes grown in high yielding vineyards or earlier harvested grapes. The aim of this study was to explore the different grape ripeness and synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid and tryptophan in must and wine of white cultivar Rhine Rieslin (Vitis vinifera L.. Treatments in the research have been the two periods of the grape harvesting dates (regular and late harvesting from two different locations (Mladice and Hrnjevac. Indole-3-acetic acid and tryptophan in must and wine were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. As the process of ripening was going on the concentration of indole-3-acetic acid and tryptophan in must and wines have been reduced regardless the year of research and vineyards positions. Wines produced from late harvested grapes have a lower possibility of the appearance of atypical aroma aging effect compared to the regular harvest.

  11. Phenolics, aroma profile, and in vitro antioxidant activity of Italian dessert passito wine from Saracena (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica R; Bonesi, Marco; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Boselli, Emanuele; Tundis, Rosa; Pugliese, Alessandro; Menichini, Francesco; Frega, Natale Giuseppe

    2013-05-01

    A traditional sweet dessert wine from Saracena (Italy), made with nonmacerated local white grapes (Guarnaccia, Malvasia and Moscato), was analyzed for phenolics and aroma profile and antioxidant activities. The most abundant classes of phenols identified by high-performance liquid chromatography were hydroxybenzoic acids and flavan-3-ols, where gallic acid showed the highest content (376.5 mg/L). The analysis by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of superior alcohols (from iso-butanol and iso-amyl alcohol up to 2-phenylethanol) and their ethyl esters, terpenes (such as linalool), furfuryl compounds, and free fatty acids (up to palmitic acid) as the key odorants of this wine. The antioxidant activity, evaluated by different in vitro assays 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), and ?-carotene bleaching test), showed that passito wine had a radical scavenging activity (IC50 value of 0.03 v/v against DPPH·) and inhibited linoleic acid oxidation with an IC50 value of 0.4 v/v after 30 min of incubation. PMID:23574495

  12. Effects of aroma massage on home blood pressure, ambulatory blood pressure, and sleep quality in middle-aged women with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Myeong-Sook; Lee, Sahng; Bae, Ikyul; Hur, Myung-Haeng; Seong, Kayeon; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of aroma massage applied to middle-aged women with hypertension. The research study had a nonequivalent control group, nonsynchronized design to investigate the effect on home blood pressure (BP), ambulatory BP, and sleep. The hypertensive patients were allocated into the aroma massage group (n = 28), the placebo group (n = 28), and the no-treatment control group (n = 27). To evaluate the effects of aroma massage, the experimental group received a massage with essential oils prescribed by an aromatherapist once a week and body cream once a day. The placebo group received a massage using artificial fragrance oil once a week and body cream once a day. BP, pulse rate, sleep conditions, and 24-hour ambulatory BP were monitored before and after the experiment. There was a significant difference in home systolic blood pressure (SBP) (F = 6.71, P = 0.002) between groups after intervention. There was also a significant difference in SBP (F = 13.34, P = 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (F = 8.46, P = 0.005) in the laboratory between aroma massage and placebo groups. In sleep quality, there was a significant difference between groups (F = 6.75, P = 0.002). In conclusion, aroma massage may help improve patient quality of life and maintain health as a nursing intervention in daily life. PMID:23431338

  13. A Study of Inhalation of Peppermint Aroma on the Pain and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Ozgoli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Considering the painfulness of labor and its resulting anxiety, and also, complications such as uterine dysfunction, prolonged labor, and unpleasant memories, the present study was performed aimed to investigate the effect of peppermint aroma on the level of pain and anxiety in the first stage of labor in nulliparous women.Methods: This research was done as a clinical trial study on 128 nulliparous women assigned into two groups (64 subjects in aromatherapy group and 64 subjects in control group. In aromatherapy group, mixtures containing 0.2ml essence of peppermint and 2ml normal saline impregnated gauze, and in the control group, only 2ml normal saline impregnated gauze were attached to their dress collar, and the administration was repeated every 30 minutes. Level of anxiety was measured in dilatations 3-4 and 8-10cm and the intensity of pain in dilatations 4-5, 6-7, and 8-10cm. The data were collected through demographic and obstetric questionnaire, observation checklist, spielberger anxiety questionnaire, and pain numerical rating scale. Results: In this study, the age, job, education, and gestational age were the same in both groups. Also, the level of anxiety was the same in both groups before the intervention, but after the intervention, anxiety level decreased in intervention group compared to control group (p<0.001. The mean pain score in the dilatations 4-5, 6-7, and 8-10cm decreased in intervention group compared to control group (p<0.001 for all.Conclusion: Aromatherapy with peppermint essence is recommended for the reduction of pain and anxiety level during labor due to its inexpensiveness, ease and non-invasiveness.

  14. Influence of Water Potential on gamma-Decalactone Production by the Yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, P; Battut, G

    1989-11-01

    The influence of water potential on gamma-decalactone production by the yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor cultivated in a liquid medium was evaluated by gas-chromatographic analysis. Modifications in water potential led to a number of variations in the aroma production. Maximum extracellular production occurred at water activity (a(w)) with a value of 0.99. Further analyses revealed an important phenomenon of cellular accumulation of aroma for a(w) values between 0.97 and 0.99. PMID:16348056

  15. Modelling stochastic variability and uncertainty in aroma active compounds of PEF-treated peach nectar as a function of physical and sensory properties, and treatment time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrendilek, Gulsun Akdemir; Avsar, Yahya Kemal; Evrendilek, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) processing on 28 aroma active compounds, and four physical and eight sensory properties of peach nectar were explored using the best-fit multiple linear regression (MLR) models and Monte Carlo simulations as a function of the treatment times of 0, 66, 131, and 210 ?s. The PEF treatment time of 131 ?s on average led consistently to the least loss of most compounds. Significantly enhanced or no significant changes in the sensory properties were found as a function of the PEF treatment times. The most influential sensory predictor of the 28 MLR models was flavour, while the aroma compound most influential on the sensory properties of aftertaste, flavour, sweetness, and overall acceptance was octadecanoic acid. Monte Carlo simulations were used for the probabilistic assessments of stochastic variability and uncertainty associated with aroma active compounds of PEF-treated peach nectar. PMID:26213021

  16. Characterization of aroma-active compounds in dry flower of Malva sylvestris L. by GC-MS-O analysis and OAV calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Atsushi; Kashima, Yusei; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the aroma-active compounds in the dried flower of Malva sylvestris L. were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA). A light yellow oil with a sweet odor was obtained with a percentage yield of 0.039% (w/w), and 143 volatile compounds (89.86%) were identified by GC-MS. The main compounds were hexadecanoic acid (10.1%), pentacosane (4.8%) and 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (4.1%). The essential oil consisted mainly of hydrocarbons (25.40%) followed by, alcohols (18.78%), acids (16.66%), ethers (5.01%) ketones (7.28%), esters(12.43%), aldehydes (2.30%) and others (2.00%). Of these compounds, 20 were determined by GC-O and AEDA, to be odor-active (FD (flavor dilution) factor ? 1). ?-Damascenone (FD = 9, sweet), phenylacetaldehyde (FD = 8, floral, honey-like) and (E)-?-ocimene (FD = 8, spicy) were the most intense aroma-active compounds in M. sylvestris. In order to determine the relative contribution of each of the compounds to the aroma of M. sylvestris, odor activity values (OAVs) were used. ?-Damascenone had the highest odor activity values (OAV) (50,700), followed by (E)-?-ionone (15,444) and decanal (3,510). In particular, ?-damascenone had a high FD factors, and therefore, this compound was considered to be the main aroma-active components of the essential oil. On the basis of AEDA, OAVs, and sensory evaluation results, ?-damascenone is estimated to be the main aroma-active compound of the essential oil. PMID:23985485

  17. Characterization of Aroma Active Compounds in Fruit Juice and Peel Oil of Jinchen Sweet Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by GC-MS and GC-O

    OpenAIRE

    Si Yi Pan; Xiao Lin Yao; Gang Fan; Yun Zhang; Yan Zhang; Bi Jun Xie; Yu Qiao

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC-O) were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve comp...

  18. A methodological approach to screen diverse cheese-related bacteria for their ability to produce aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poga?i?, Tomislav; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Leclerc, Aurélie; Hervé, Christophe; Chuat, Victoria; Yee, Alyson L; Valence, Florence; Thierry, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Microorganisms play an important role in the development of cheese flavor. The aim of this study was to develop an approach to facilitate screening of various cheese-related bacteria for their ability to produce aroma compounds. We combined i) curd-based slurry medium incubated under conditions mimicking cheese manufacturing and ripening, ii) powerful method of extraction of volatiles, headspace trap, coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-trap-GC-MS), and iii) metabolomics-based method of data processing using the XCMS package of R software and multivariate analysis. This approach was applied to eleven species: five lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc lactis, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus helveticus), four actinobacteria (Brachybacterium articum, Brachybacterium tyrofermentans, Brevibacterium aurantiacum, and Microbacterium gubbeenense), Propionibacterium freudenreichii, and Hafnia alvei. All the strains grew, with maximal populations ranging from 7.4 to 9.2 log (CFU/mL). In total, 52 volatile aroma compounds were identified, of which 49 varied significantly in abundance between bacteria. Principal component analysis of volatile profiles differentiated species by their ability to produce ethyl esters (associated with Brachybacteria), sulfur compounds and branched-chain alcohols (H. alvei), branched-chain acids (H. alvei, P. freudenreichii and L. paracasei), diacetyl and related carbonyl compounds (M. gubbeenense and L. paracasei), among others. PMID:25475278

  19. Studies on some precursors involved in meat flavour formation / Estudos de alguns precursores envolvidos na formação do aroma cárneo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.S., Madruga.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de alguns precursores na formação do aroma cárneo durante o aquecimento foi investigado. Estudos comparativos da influencia de três diferentes precursores, inosina-5'-monofosfato (5'-IMP), cisteína e tiamina, adicionados aos sistemas cárneos, mostrou que a formação de certos compostos heter [...] ocíclicos, como furanos sulfurados, ditiolanonas e tiofenos, foi significativamente afetada pelas mudanças de concentração dos precursores. Entretanto, compostos alifáticos, tais como: hidrocarbonetos, alcoois e cetonas não foram afetados por estas adições. Inosina-5'-monofosfato apresentou-se como o precursor mais eficiente na formação de alguns voláteis de aroma cárneo, como por exemplo os furanos sulfurados, quando aumentou-se em 10 vezes sua concentração na carne crua. Abstract in english The effect of some precursors on the formation of meat flavour during heating has been investigated. A comparison of the influence of three different precursors, inosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-IMP), cysteine and thiamine, added to the meat systems, showed that formation of certain heterocyclic compoun [...] ds, like sulfur-containing furans, dithiolanones and thiophenes, was significantly affected by changes in the concentration of precursors. However, aliphatic compounds, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols and ketones were not changed by these additions. Inosine-5'-monophosphate was established to be more effective than cysteine or thiamine in the formation of some "meaty" volatiles, i.e. the furanthiols, when its concentration was increased 10 times in raw meat.

  20. Analysis of Volatile Markers for Virgin Olive Oil Aroma Defects by SPME-GC/FID: Possible Sources of Incorrect Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Pozo, Celia; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Romero, Inmaculada; García-González, Diego L

    2015-12-01

    The need to explain virgin olive oil (VOO) aroma descriptors by means of volatiles has raised interest in applying analytical techniques for trapping and quantitating volatiles. Static headspace sampling with solid phase microextraction (SPME) as trapping material is one of the most applied solutions for analyzing volatiles. The use of an internal standard and the determination of the response factors of the main volatiles seem to guarantee the correct determination of volatile concentrations in VOOs by SPME-GC/FID. This paper, however, shows that the competition phenomena between volatiles in their adsorption to the SPME fiber, inherent in static headspace sampling, may affect the quantitation. These phenomena are more noticeable in the particular case of highly odorant matrices, such as rancid and vinegary VOOs with high intensity of defect. The competition phenomena can modify the measurement sensitivity, which can be observed in volatile quantitation as well as in the recording of internal standard areas in different matrices. This paper analyzes the bias of the peak areas and concentrations of those volatiles that are markers for each sensory defect of VOOs (rancid, vinegary, musty, and fusty) when the intensity and complexity of aroma are increased. Of the 17 volatile markers studied in this work, 10 presented some anomalies in the quantitation in highly odorant matrices due the competition phenomena. However, quantitation was not affected in the concentration ranges at which each volatile marker is typically found in the defective oils they were characteristic of, validating their use as markers. PMID:26568468

  1. Concurrent phenomena contributing to the formation of the aroma of wine during aging in oak wood: an analytical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarauta, Idoia; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2005-05-18

    Red wine was stored in different oak barrels or in stainless steel, and samples were taken for two years to determine 79 aroma compounds. Aging in oak affects 41 compounds. The type of wood affects 11 compounds. At least seven different processes seem to take place concurrently in aroma evolution, and five such processes, affecting 37 compounds, are linked to the oak cask. These are extraction from the wood, oxidation of wine alcohols and amino acids, microbiological formation of ethyl phenols, sorption processes, and condensation of acetaldehyde with polyphenols. The wood can release linear gamma- and delta-lactones, beta-damascenone, and ionones. Some compounds are released very fast from wood, which suggests they lie in the external part of the wood. Some extraction profiles are too complex to be explained by physical processes. Finally, the levels of 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone and 2-ethyl-5-methyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone increase even in the reference wine, which suggests the presence of a precursor. PMID:15884855

  2. Determination of Wine Aroma Compounds by Head Space “In Tube Extraction” Technique and Gas Chromatography (HS-ITEX-GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumini?a Vârva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of vintage on the aroma compounds of white wine Episcopal from vineyard Ciumbrud, located in central Transylvania, by a non-destructive head space in tube extraction technique in tandem with GC-MS. The samples selected for analysis come from three consecutive years (2009, 2010 and 2011 from Episcopal assortment, a high quality wine obtained by blending three types of wine varieties: Sauvignon Blanc, Traminer and Pinot Gris. The results reflect the compositional similarities but also the influence of vintage on the composition of wine aroma compounds. Results showed significant similarities between the composition of major compounds, 2-methyl-1-butanol, butanoic acid ethyl ester, hexanoic acid ethyl ester, octanoic acid ethyl ester, which together account for over 50% of the compounds identified. Significant differences appear both on the number of identified compounds in wine harvest 2010 compared to the other two years as well as through differences in concentration of two compounds: 3-methyl-butanol and 2,4-hexadienoic acid ethyl ester.

  3. Identification of a new lactone contributing to overripe orange aroma in Bordeaux dessert wines via perceptual interaction phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatopoulos, Panagiotis; Frérot, Eric; Tempère, Sophie; Pons, Alexandre; Darriet, Philippe

    2014-03-26

    Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of a typical sensory concept for Bordeaux dessert wines, including the world famous wines of Sauternes. Volatile compounds from several chemical families (thiols, aldehydes, and lactones) were identified and correlated with aromatic typicality in these wines. However, these studies were unable to indicate "key" aromas of overripe fruits, especially overripe orange. The alternative strategy developed in this research combined both analytical and sensory studies of fractions of dessert wine extracts obtained by semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Multidimensional gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry and mass spectrometry (MDGC-O/MS) was applied to some of the HPLC fractions recalling "overripe fruit", and a new lactone, 2-nonen-4-olide, was identified. Reconstitution and omission tests using the HPLC fractions highlighted the importance of specific compounds, particularly 2-nonen-4-olide, in the expression of overripe orange notes. Although this lactone presents minty and fruity odors, its key contribution to the typical aroma of orange in Bordeaux dessert wines was revealed through perceptual blending. PMID:24559261

  4. Identification of character-impact odorants in a cola-flavored carbonated beverage by quantitative analysis and omission studies of aroma reconstitution models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-01-28

    Thirty aroma-active components of a cola-flavored carbonated beverage were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. The OAV results revealed that 1,8-cineole, (R)-(-)-linalool, and octanal made the greatest contribution to the overall aroma of the cola. A cola aroma reconstitution model was constructed by adding 20 high-purity standards to an aqueous sucrose-phosphoric acid solution. The results of headspace solid-phase microextraction and sensory analyses were used to adjust the model to better match authentic cola. The rebalanced model was used as a complete model for the omission study. Sensory results indicated that omission of a group consisting of methyleugenol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and (Z)- and (E)-isoeugenols differed from the complete model, while omission of the individual components of this group did not differ from the complete model. These results indicate that a balance of numerous odorants is responsible for the characteristic aroma of cola-flavored carbonated beverages. PMID:25529113

  5. Studies on the Aroma of Five Fresh Tomato Cultivars and the Precursors of the cis- and trans-4,5-Epoxy-(E)-2-Decenals and Methional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three tasty (BR-139, FA-624 and FA-612) and two less tasty (R 144 and R 175) fresh greenhouse tomato cultivars, which significantly differ in their flavor profiles, were screened for potent odorants using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Based on AEDA results, 19 volatiles were selected for ...

  6. Changes in physico-chemical and volatile aroma compound composition of Gewürztraminer wine as a result of late and ice harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luki?, Igor; Radeka, Sanja; Grozaj, Nikola; Staver, Mario; Peršuri?, ?ordano

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the changes in physico-chemical and aroma composition after late and ice harvest, Gewürztraminer wines were subjected to standard, enzymatic and GC/MS analysis. Late harvest (LHGW) and ice wines (IHGW) contained more sugars, extract and volatile acidity than standard wines (SGW). IHGW had elevated glycerol and gluconic acid amounts. LHGW was richer in monoterpenol oxides, ?-damascenone, 1-octen-3-ol, acetates, ethyl cinnamate and 4-vinylguaiacol than SGW. IHGW contained even higher amounts, with increased citronellol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, dicarboxylic acids esters, benzenoids, furans and acetals, and reduced fermentation aroma compounds. Based on odour activity values, the strongest odorants in SGW were fruity esters. In LHGW the impact of esters increased, while in IHGW cis-rose oxide, ?-damascenone and 1,1-diethoxyethane emerged as the most potent. Fruity and sweet were the dominant aroma compound series in SGW and LHGW, but in IHGW declined, while terpenic, floral, chemical, pungent and ripe fruit aroma compound series increased. PMID:26593588

  7. Evaluación química de precursores de aroma y sabor del cacao criollo merideño durante la fermentación en dos condiciones edafoclimáticas / Chemical evaluation of aroma and flavor of precursors of the criollo merideño cocoa during fermentation in two edafoclimatic conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexis, Zambrano; Carlos, Romero; Álvaro, Gómez; Gladys, Ramos; Carlos, Lacruz; María del Rosario, Brunetto; Gallignani, Máximo; Lubin, Gutiérrez; Yelitza, Delgado.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se evaluó algunos parámetros asociados con los compuestos de aroma y sabor del cacao , Theobroma cacao L., Criollo Merideño (CM) cultivado bajo dos condiciones edafoclimáticas. Un primer lote establecido en el Campo Experimental San Juan de Lagunillas del Instituto Nacional de [...] Investigaciones Agrícolas (INIA-Mérida), Venezuela , a una altura de 1.050 m.s.n.m con temperatura media anual de 26 ºC y otro lote ubicado en la población Zea del mismo estado, a 850 m.s.n.m y 22 ºC, respectivamente. Los análisis se efectuaron en muestras de cotiledones frescos durante el proceso de fermentación. En ambos casos se evaluó el porcentaje de: cascarilla, humedad , grasa y punto de fusión , contenido de ácidos volátiles, azúcares totales, polifenoles, purinas totales, teobromina, cafeína y pirazinas. Los resultados muestran que el cacao CM en San Juan de Lagunillas (SJL), presentó menor acidez titulable al inicio del secado y volátil al final de la fermentación, en comparación con el CM en Zea. Así mismo, se observó ligeras diferencias en el contenido de grasas, azúcares totales , pirazinas, cafeína y teobromina, lo que indica que las condiciones edafoclimáticas generaron cambios en el comportamiento químico de los precursores de aroma y sabor . Todos los parámetros químicos fueron corregidos en función de la humedad de la muestra durante el proceso de fermentación y relacionados con una muestra de cacao fermentado Forastero de Ghana Abstract in english The present study evaluated some parameters associated with the aroma and fl avor compounds in cocoa, Theobroma cacao L., Merideño Creole (MC) grown under soil and climatic conditions. A lot set in the Experimental Station of the San Juan de Lagunillas (INIA-Mérida), Venezuela at an altitude of 1,05 [...] 0 m.a.s.l. and average annual tempe rature of 26 ºC and another in the town of Zea, Zea municipality of Mérida and 850 m.a.s.l. 22 ºC average tempe rature. Tests were conducted on samples of fresh cotyledons during the fermentation process. Both cases evaluated the percentage of fi ber, moisture, fat and its melting point, content of volatile acidity, total sugars, polyphenols, total purines, theobro mine, caffeine and pyrazine. The results show that the MC cacao in San Juan of Lagunillas, a low acidity at the start of drying compared to MC in Zea as well as a less volatile acidity at the end of fermentation. It was also noted slight differences in fat content, total sugars, pyrazine and content of caffeine and theobromine, indicating that soil and climatic conditions have led to changes in the chemical behavior of the precursors of aroma and fl avor. All chemical parameters were corrected according to the moisture of the sample during the fermentation process and were associated with a sample of fermented cocoa of Ghana

  8. [Characterization of aroma active compounds in blood orange juice by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yu; Xie, Bijun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yun; Pan, Siyi

    2008-07-01

    Volatile compounds of fresh blood orange juice were analyzed by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and the aroma active compounds were identified by olfactometry. The volatile compounds were extracted by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using a divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber for 40 min at 40 degrees C. The analysis was carried out using an HP 6890N GC equipped with an HP-5 column (30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 microm ) directly connected to an HP 5975 series mass selective detector and a sniffing port (ODP2, Gerstel) using helium as carrier gas. Compound identifications were made by the comparison of the mass spectra, retention times, retention indices (I(R)) and odor of the volatile components in the extracts with those of the corresponding reference standards. Forty-six compounds were identified by GC-MS and I(R). The major components of the juice were limonene (86.36%), linalool (3.69%), beta-myrcene (1.79%), octanal (1.32%) and valencene (1.27%). GC-MS-olfactometry analysis was performed to determine 34 compounds with aroma activity, of which 23 compounds were identified. The major contributors to orange juice aroma activity are ethyl butanoate, octanal, gamma-terpinene, 4-acetyl-1-methyleyclohexene, decanal, (-)-carvone, geranyl acetate, valencene. These compounds of strong aroma intensity represent 7.22% of the total volatile compounds. Other four unknown compounds (I(R), <800; I(R) = 1020, 1143, 1169, separately) are also the major contributors to the overall aroma. PMID:18959252

  9. Selection of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in Shanshan County (Xinjiang, China) for winemaking and their aroma-producing characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Qin, Yi; Song, Yuyang; Ye, Dongqin; Yuan, Wei; Pei, Yingfang; Xue, Bo; Liu, Yanlin

    2015-11-01

    In order to select potential indigenous Saccharomyces strains, diversity of indigenous Saccharomyces strains in Shanshan County (Xinjiang, China) was preliminarily analyzed. Twenty-one genotypes were found through interdelta fingerprinting analysis. According to this result, representatives of each genotype were chosen to test the enological criteria. After tests of fermentation characteristics and growth ability, eight strains were finally selected as starters to further fermentation of Merlot must for aroma analysis and sensory evaluation at the same testing conditions, with one commercial strain F15 as control. Each strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced individual volatiles in different concentrations and combinations which significantly influenced resulting wine flavour. Except of LFP522, all indigenous isolates produced more concentration of esters than F15. Higher concentrations of linalool, ?-damascenone and citral, associated with S. cerevisiae LFE1809, considerably distinguished this strain from the others. Sensory evaluation present the Merlot wine fermented by LFE1225 isolated from Merlot, had the highest sensory score. PMID:26323948

  10. Quantification of aroma constituents of mango sap from different Pakistan mango cultivars using gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Uddin, Jalal; Siddiqui, Amna Jabbar; Akram, Muhammad Irfan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a quantitative method was developed based on gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QQQ-MS) for the analysis of aroma component of mango sap (latex) in nine Pakistani varieties that are Anmol, Began pali, Badami, Caroba, Chaunsa, Lal patra, Neelum, Sohnara and Tota pari. The non-aqueous phase of sap was studied and a total seven selected terpenes that are ?-pinene, ?-phellandrene, (+)-3-carene, sabinene, ?-terpinene, (-)-trans-caryophyllene and ?-humulene were quantified using GC-QQQ-MS in MRM (multiple reaction mode) mode. Calibration curves were generated and R(2)>0.99 was found for all analytes. Intra-day and inter-day precision (% R.S.D.) of the developed method was less than 4% while % accuracy was in the range of 95.3-105.1 for all analytes. Among all the varieties, Neelum contains the highest amount of four terpenes out of seven quantified terpenes. PMID:26593627

  11. Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Carolina Batista Machado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma while roasted mate was defined as having a smooth, slightly burnt aroma. The relationship between the tentatively identified compounds and flavor must be determined by olfatometric analysis.

  12. Effects of new Torulaspora delbrueckii killer yeasts on the must fermentation kinetics and aroma compounds of white table wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Rocío; Zamora, Emiliano; Álvarez, María L.; Hernández, Luis M.; Ramírez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Torulaspora delbrueckii is becoming widely recommended for improving some specific characteristics of wines. However, its impact on wine quality is still far from satisfactory at the winery level, mostly because it is easily replaced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae-like yeasts during must fermentation. New T. delbrueckii killer strains were here isolated and selected for winemaking. They killed S. cerevisiae yeasts and were able to dominate and complete the fermentation of sterile grape must. Sequential yeast inoculation of non-sterile white must with T. delbrueckii followed by S. cerevisiae did not ensure T. delbrueckii dominance or wine quality improvement. Only a single initial must inoculation at high cell concentrations allowed the T. delbrueckii killer strains to dominate and complete the must fermentation to reach above 11% ethanol, but not the non-killer strains. None of the wines underwent malolactic fermentation as long as the must had low turbidity and pH. Although no statistically significant differences were found in the wine quality score, the S. cerevisiae-dominated wines were preferred over the T. delbrueckii-dominated ones because the former had high-intensity fresh fruit aromas while the latter had lower intensity, but nevertheless nice and unusual dried fruit/pastry aromas. Except for ethyl propanoate and 3-ethoxy-1-propanol, which were more abundant in the T. delbrueckii–dominated wines, most of the compounds with fresh fruit odor descriptors, including those with the greatest odor activity values (isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate), were more abundant in the S. cerevisiae–dominated wines. The low relative concentrations of these fruity compounds made it possible to detect in the T. delbrueckii–dominated wines the low-relative-concentration compounds with dried fruit and pastry odors. An example was ?-ethoxy-butyrolactone which was significantly more abundant in these wines than in those dominated by S. cerevisiae.

  13. Design of Production Performance Improvement System of Aromatic Chemical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Efendi -; Anas Miftah Fauzi; Machfud -; Sukardi -

    2014-01-01

    Competitiveness of Indonesian essential oil industry is still low due to inefficiency in the production and uncertainty in the availability. Lean production system is reported to have the capability to improve efficiency through lowering cost, reducing lead time (faster delivery) and higher quality. The purpose of this reasearch is to design production performance improvement system in the aromatic chemical industry, using modified Rother and Shook’s value stream mapping (VSM) model for aroma...

  14. Evaluación interanual de las estrategias regenerativas de la especie exótica invasora Gleditsia triacanthos en relación a la nativa Acacia aroma en el bosque chaqueño serrano de Córdoba (Argentina) / Interannual evaluation of the regenerative strategies of the exotic invasive species Gleditsia triacanthos compared with the native Acacia aroma in the Chaco Serrano Woodland of Cordoba (Argentina)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Elisa, Ferreras; Guillermo, Funes; Leonardo, Galetto.

    Full Text Available Se ha propuesto que las especies exóticas, en relación a las nativas, difieren en características o estrategias que favorecerían su expansión. Las características regenerativas de las plantas exóticas pueden variar entre temporadas reproductivas, modificando los patrones con respecto a las especies [...] nativas e influyendo en la velocidad de expansión. En este trabajo, en el bosque chaqueño serrano de Córdoba (Argentina), se comparó en al menos dos temporadas reproductivas la producción de frutos, la densidad de semillas en el banco y la densidad de plántulas alrededor de los adultos y distribuidas en el área de estudio entre la especie exótica invasora Gleditsia triacanthos y la nativa Acacia aroma. En cada temporada de muestreo se contó el número de frutos por individuo y se obtuvo alrededor de los adultos de cada especie: a) la densidad de semillas en el banco (en dos momentos del año) y b) la densidad plántulas. Además, se registró la densidad de plántulas de ambas especies dispersas en los sitios de estudio. En dos de las tres temporadas analizadas la producción de frutos fue mayor en la especie exótica. La densidad de semillas en el banco y de plántulas alrededor de los adultos fue mayor en la especie exótica en las dos temporadas registradas. La densidad de plántulas en los sitios no varío entre las especies en ninguna de las temporadas. Las características regenerativas de G. triacanthos y la consistencia observada en las mismas en las distintas temporadas sugerirían una rápida capacidad de expansión en la región. Abstract in english It has been proposed that exotic species, compared with native ones, differed in certain characteristics that may favor their expansion. The regenerative characteristics of exotic species may vary among reproductive seasons, modifying the patterns observed contrasted with native species and hence in [...] fluencing their expansion velocity. In this work, fruit production, seed density in the soil and seedlings density around the con-specifics and in the study sites were compared between the exotic invasive Gleditsia triacanthos and the native Acacia aroma. The study was developed in at least two reproductive seasons, in areas of the Chaco Serrano Woodland of Córdoba (Argentina). In each season, the number of fruits was counted. Around the con-specifics of each species it was obtained: a) the density of seeds in the soil (in two different moments per year) and b) the density of seedlings. In addition, the density of seedlings distributed in the study sites was registered. In two of the three reproductive seasons analyzed, fruit production was higher in the exotic invasive species. In both seasons the density of seeds in the seed bank and of seedlings around the focal individuals was higher in the exotic species. The density of seedlings in the study sites did not vary between species in any of the seasons. The regenerative characteristics observed in G. triacanthos and the consistency in their response in different reproductive seasons suggest a rapid expansion of the species in the region.

  15. Mead production: effect of nitrogen supplementation on growth, fermentation profile and aroma formation by yeasts in mead fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, A.P.; Ferreira, A. Mendes; Oliveira, J.M.; Estevinho, L .M.; Faia, Arlete Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Mead is an alcoholic beverage, produced since ancient times, resulting from an alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey by yeasts. When it is produced in a traditional manner, mead producers can encounter several problems related to a lack of es-sential nutrients, such as available nitrogen. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen addition to honey-must on the fermentation performance of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts, QA23 and ICV D47, as well as on the me...

  16. Stabilization of enzymes activities of lipoxygenase pathway by irradiation to improve the production of olive oil aroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this work was to improve the synthesis of volatile compounds leading to green note in olives and olive tree leaves by improving enzymes activities of lipoxygenase pathway. Lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxyde lyase (HPL) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities were tested in olives and olive tree leaves during maturation. The gamma irradiation effects on these samples were studied. LOX, HPL and ADH showed maximum activities at black stage for olives and in December for olive leaves. Those activities, from olives and Chemlali olive leaves, were improved after irradiation with 0,5KGy. For the case of Chetoui olive leaves, the irradiation treatment was unfavorable because it causes a loss in enzymes activities. (Author)

  17. Studies on the aroma of different species and strains of Pleurotus measured by GC/MS, sensory analysis and electronic nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Zawirska-Wojtasiak

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aroma of several strains of Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Pleurotus djamor was studied by GC/MS. Three main mushrooms aroma constituents: 3-octanol, 3-octanone and 1-octen-3-ol were taken into account for quantitative measurements. The highest amount of 1-octen-3-ol was recorded in P. ostreatus, while considerably lower amounts in P. citrinopileatus. Sensory profile analysis as well as the electronic nose also varied between the three species of Pleurotus. Chiral gas chromatography showed the high optical purity of (R-(--1-octen-3-ol in P. ostreatus and P. djamor (the highest one in contrast to P. citrinopileatus. Carpophores of P. djamor was characterized relatively high dry matter and protein contents.

  18. Principais substâncias responsáveis pelo aroma de mangas comerciais brasileiras identificadas por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução/olfatometria/espectrometria de massas

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes Diógenes C.; Fraga Sandra Regina; Rezende Claudia M.

    1999-01-01

    Six Brazilian commercial mangoes were analysed by HRGC-O-AEDA-MS, viz., Carlota, Haden, Espada, Coração de boi, Rubi and Tommy Atkins. All them showed ethyl butanoate as the main aroma character impact compound by AEDA evaluation. The ethyl esters of 2 and 3-methylbutanoic acids are also important, the main contribution in Carlota variety being 2(S) enantiomer. In Rubi variety, both 2(R) enantiomer and 3-methyl isomer contributes to the caprylic fruity note observed. In four varieties, viz., ...

  19. Comparative analysis of fruit aroma patterns in the domesticated wild strawberries “Profumata di Tortona” (F. moschata) and “Regina delle Valli” (F. vesca)

    OpenAIRE

    Negri, Alfredo S; Allegra, Domenico; SIMONI, LAURA; RUSCONI, FABIO; Tonelli, Chiara; ESPEN, LUCA; GALBIATI, MASSIMO

    2015-01-01

    Strawberry is one of the most valued fruit worldwide. Modern cultivated varieties (Fragaria × ananassa) exhibit large fruits, with intense color and prolonged shell life. Yet, these valuable traits were attained at the cost of the intensity and the variety of the aroma of the berry, two characteristics highly appreciated by consumers. Wild species display smaller fruits and reduced yield compared with cultivated varieties but they accumulate broader and augmented blends of volatile compounds....

  20. Comparative analysis of fruit aroma patterns in the domesticated wild strawberries “Profumata di Tortona” (F. moschata) and “Regina delle Valli” (F. vesca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Alfredo S.; Allegra, Domenico; Simoni, Laura; Rusconi, Fabio; Tonelli, Chiara; Espen, Luca; Galbiati, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Strawberry is one of the most valued fruit worldwide. Modern cultivated varieties (Fragaria × ananassa) exhibit large fruits, with intense color and prolonged shell life. Yet, these valuable traits were attained at the cost of the intensity and the variety of the aroma of the berry, two characteristics highly appreciated by consumers. Wild species display smaller fruits and reduced yield compared with cultivated varieties but they accumulate broader and augmented blends of volatile compounds. Because of the large diversity and strength of aromas occurring in natural and domesticated populations, plant breeders regard wild strawberries as important donors of novel scented molecules. Here we report a comprehensive metabolic map of the aroma of the wild strawberry Profumata di Tortona (PdT), an ancient clone of F. moschata, considered as one of the most fragrant strawberry types of all. Comparison with the more renowned woodland strawberry Regina delle Valli (RdV), an aromatic cultivar of F. vesca, revealed a significant enrichment in the total level of esters, alcohols and furanones and a reduction in the content of ketones in in the aroma of PdT berries. Among esters, particularly relevant was the enhanced accumulation of methyl anthranilate, responsible for the intensive sweetish impression of wild strawberries. Interestingly, increased ester accumulation in PdT fruits correlated with enhanced expression of the Strawberry Alcohol Acyltransferase (SAAT) gene, a key regulator of flavor biogenesis in ripening berries. We also detected a remarkable 900-fold increase in the level of mesifurane, the furanone conferring the typical caramel notes to most wild species. PMID:25717332

  1. Comparative analysis of fruit aroma patterns in the domesticated wild strawberries "Profumata di Tortona" (F. moschata) and "Regina delle Valli" (F. vesca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Alfredo S; Allegra, Domenico; Simoni, Laura; Rusconi, Fabio; Tonelli, Chiara; Espen, Luca; Galbiati, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Strawberry is one of the most valued fruit worldwide. Modern cultivated varieties (Fragaria × ananassa) exhibit large fruits, with intense color and prolonged shell life. Yet, these valuable traits were attained at the cost of the intensity and the variety of the aroma of the berry, two characteristics highly appreciated by consumers. Wild species display smaller fruits and reduced yield compared with cultivated varieties but they accumulate broader and augmented blends of volatile compounds. Because of the large diversity and strength of aromas occurring in natural and domesticated populations, plant breeders regard wild strawberries as important donors of novel scented molecules. Here we report a comprehensive metabolic map of the aroma of the wild strawberry Profumata di Tortona (PdT), an ancient clone of F. moschata, considered as one of the most fragrant strawberry types of all. Comparison with the more renowned woodland strawberry Regina delle Valli (RdV), an aromatic cultivar of F. vesca, revealed a significant enrichment in the total level of esters, alcohols and furanones and a reduction in the content of ketones in in the aroma of PdT berries. Among esters, particularly relevant was the enhanced accumulation of methyl anthranilate, responsible for the intensive sweetish impression of wild strawberries. Interestingly, increased ester accumulation in PdT fruits correlated with enhanced expression of the Strawberry Alcohol Acyltransferase (SAAT) gene, a key regulator of flavor biogenesis in ripening berries. We also detected a remarkable 900-fold increase in the level of mesifurane, the furanone conferring the typical caramel notes to most wild species. PMID:25717332

  2. ACEITAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE IOGURTE SABOR PÊSSEGO ACRESCIDO DE DIFERENTES CONCENTRAÇÕES DE AROMA E POLPA POR MEIO DA TÉCNICA DE MAPA DE PREFERÊNCIA

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Franco Barbosa; Francemir José Lopes; Vanessa Riani Olmi Silva; Maurício Henriques Louzada Silva; Valéria Paula Rodrigues Minim; Rita de Cássia dos Santos Navarro da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de polpa e aroma artificial na qualidade físico-química e sensorial de iogurte sabor pêssego, aplicando-se a técnica estatística de Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP) na elaboração de um Mapa de Preferência Interno. Para tanto, foi realizado um teste de aceitação com 150 consumidores por meio da escala hedônica de nove pontos. Também foram realizadas determinações físico-químicas de acidez titulável, lipíde...

  3. Review on the potential technologies for aromas recovery from food industry flue gas

    OpenAIRE

    Wylock, Christophe; Eloundou Mballa, Pierre-Patrick; Heilporn, Caroline; Debaste, Frédéric; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundFood-processing gaseous effluents are rich in flavoured volatile organic compounds (FVOCs). The discharge of these FVOCs is unwanted as they can contribute to the environmental olfactive pollution.Scope and ApproachTheir recovery would then enable their valuation through the strengthening of the organoleptic properties of the finished products or their use in other products, as well as reducing the pollution linked to their discharge. However, there are only a few documents in the l...

  4. Enhancement of castor oil biotransformation into aroma by Yarrowia lipolytica mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Braga, Adelaide; Belo, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The food industry has a great interest in biotechnological production of ?- decalactone by Yarrowia lipolytica, due to its increasing consumers acceptability in comparison with similar products obtained by chemical synthesis. This yeast is able to produce ?-decalactone by transformation of a hydroxylated C18 fatty acid. However, lower yields of ?-decalactone were obtained (up to 4–5 gL-1), mainly due the degradation of newly synthesized lactone and the partial use of ricinoleic acid or interm...

  5. Ethyl ester production during brewery fermentation, a review

    OpenAIRE

    Saerens, Sofie; Thevelein, Johan; Delvaux, Freddy

    2008-01-01

    The production of volatile esters by yeast is of major industrial interest because the presence of these compounds determines the fruity aroma of fermented beverages, like beer and wine. The need to understand and control ester synthesis is driven by the fact that esters play a key role in the sensorial quality of these fermented alcoholic beverages. Especially in the brewery, problems with ester production have been encountered by the introduction of modern brewing practices, such as high-gr...

  6. Characterization of Aroma Active Compounds in Fruit Juice and Peel Oil of Jinchen Sweet Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck by GC-MS and GC-O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Yi Pan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC-O were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve components were the odorants perceived in both samples. The aromatic compositions of fruit juice were more complex than that of peel oil. Ethyl butanoate, β-myrcene, octanal, linalool, α-pinene, and decanal were found to be responsible for the aromatic notes in fruit juice and peel oil. Nineteen components have been perceived only in the juice and ten compounds were described as aromatic components of only the peel oil by the panelists. These differences lead to the different overall aroma between fruit juice and peel oil.

  7. Effect of Inhalation of Aroma of Geranium Essence on Anxiety and Physiological Parameters during First Stage of Labor in Nulliparous Women: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rashidi Fakari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anxiety increases significantly during labor, especially among nulliparous women. Such anxiety may affect the progress of labor and physiological parameters. The use of essential oils of aromatic plants, or aromatherapy, is a non-invasive procedure that can decrease childbirth anxiety. This study examined the effect of inhalation of the aroma of geranium essential oil on the level of anxiety and physiological parameters of nulliparous women in the first stage of labor. Methods: In study, was carried out on 100 nulliparous women admitted to Bent al-Hoda Hospital in the city of Bojnord in North Khorasan province of Iran during 2012-2013. The women were randomly assigned to two groups of equal size, one experimental group (geranium essential oil and one control (placebo group. Anxiety levels were measured using Spielberger’s questionnaire before and after intervention. Physiological parameters (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, pulse rate were also measured before and after intervention in both groups. Data analysis was conducted using the x2 test, paired t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Wilcox on test on SPSS 11.5. Results: The mean anxiety score decreased significantly after inhalation of the aroma of geranium essential oil. There was also a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure.Conclusion: Aroma of essential oil of geraniums can effectively reduce anxiety during labor and can be recommended as a non-invasive anti-anxiety aid during childbirth.

  8. Identification, quantification and comparison between the chemical substances responsible for the irradiated pot still cachaca and commercial rum aromas; Identificacao, quantificacao e comparacao das substancias quimicas responsaveis pelos aromas da cachaca de alambique e do rum comercial tratados pelo processo de irradiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Maria Djiliah Camargo Alvarenga de

    2006-07-01

    The irradiation process has being presented as an alternative technique in food preservation. When applied on beverages, radiation is mainly used for malt decontamination or sterilization of musts and had been proposed also to accelerate aging. Some confusion over rum and cachaca identities has arisen due to the internationalization of cachaca. This research aims to identify, quantify and compare the effect of gamma radiation on the aroma of the Brazilian spirit with rum, irradiated and non irradiated, by instrumental and sensory analysis. Results showed that the content of volatile compounds presented strong correlation with the radiation dose (0,150 and 300 Gy) for all the samples. According to Triangle Test for aroma, all the judges could distinguish among non irradiated and irradiated samples (300 Gy), aged cachaca from rum and non aged cachaca from rum, but they could not distinguish aged cachaca from non aged cachaca. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results from the quantitative descriptive analysis showed that non irradiated non aged cachaca and rum were different in their alcohol, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except caramel and apple aroma attributes. Non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) were different in their apple, caramel, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except alcohol aroma attributes. According to the gas chromatography/olfactometry results, significant difference was found among non irradiated cachaca and rum; non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) when their aromas were compared. (author)

  9. Microstructure, physicochemistry, microbial populations and aroma compounds of ripened Cantal cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    De Freitas, Isabelle; Pinon, Nicolas; Lopez, Christelle; Thierry, Anne; Maubois, Jean-Louis; Lortal, Sylvie

    2005-01-01

    In spite of its high production (18000 T yearly), very few studies have been devoted to Cantal, a French AOC ("Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée") cheese variety whose making process is close to that of Cheddar. To improve the knowledge of this type of cheese, two ripened Cantal cheeses issued from raw milk and two different industrial processes were biochemically, physicochemically, structurally and microbiologically characterised through the analysis of both cheese sectors and juices extracte...

  10. Improvement of production performance of functional fermented whey-based beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Bulatovi? Maja Lj.; Rakin Marica B.; Mojovi? Ljiljana V.; Nikoli? Svetlana B.; Vukašinovi?-Sekuli? Maja S.; ?uki?-Vukovi? Aleksandra P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was improvement of the performances for the production of whey-based beverages with highly productive strains of Lactobacillus. Individual or mixed culture containing Lactobacillus helveticus ATCC 15009, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis NRRL B-4525 and Streptococcus thermophilus S3 were studied. The scientific hypothesis was that production performances, especially aroma and viable cell count, are positively affected by the strain...

  11. Healthy trends affect the quality of traditional meat products in mediterranean area

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Llovera, Mónica; Olivares Sevilla, Alicia; Corral, Sara

    2013-01-01

    In high quality products such as traditional sausages which are characterized by an absence of fermentation and long ripening times, it is essential to get a meat product with a high aroma quality but at the same time healthy composition. This reduction represents an added value to the production and consumption of traditional sausages because flavour is one of the most important characteristics for consumers. The problem associated to salt and fat reduction in dry sausages is the loss in sen...

  12. Relevance of nitrate and nitrite in dry-cured ham and their effects on aroma development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores, Mónica

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Potassium and sodium salts of nitrite (E 249 and E 250 and nitrate (E 251 and E 252 are authorised for use under certain levels in several foodstuffs such as non-heat-treated, cured and dried meat products, other cured meat products, canned meat products and bacon. The key point in the use of nitrate and nitrite as preservatives is to find a balance between ensuring the microbiological safety of the ham and keeping as low as possible the level of nitrosamines in the final product. Nitrites and nitrates are authorised as additives for dry-cured ham in the Directive 2006/52/EC of 5 July 2006 that modifies previous Council Directive 95/2/EC on food additives other than colours and sweeteners. The effect of nitrate and its reduction to nitrite in controlling the lipid oxidation process during the ham ripening is very important for the development of the characteristic cured flavour. The main benefits and drawbacks of the use of nitrites and nitrates in dry-cured ham and how these levels may affect its flavour are discussed in this manuscript.Las sales sódica y potásica del nitrito (E249 y E250 y del nitrato (E251 y E252 están autorizados para su uso en los productos cárnicos, secos, curados y no tratados por el calor, otros productos cárnicos curados, productos cárnicos enlatados y bacon. El punto esencial en el uso de nitrato y nitrito como conservantes consiste en encontrar un balance entre el aseguramiento de la seguridad microbiológica del jamón y mantener el nivel de nitrosaminas tan bajo como sea posible. Los nitratos y nitritos están autorizados como aditivos en el jamón curado según la Directiva Europea 2006/52/EC de 5 de Julio de 2006 que modificaba la previa Directiva Europea 95/2/EC de aditivos alimentarios distintos a los colorantes y edulcorantes. El efecto del nitrato y su reducción a nitrito para controlar la oxidación de los lípidos durante la maduración del jamón es muy importante para el desarrollo del característico flavor a curado. Se presentan en este manuscrito los principales beneficios y problemas del uso de los nitratos y nitritos en el jamón curado así como sus efectos en el flavor.

  13. Approaches of aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA) for headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-olfactometry (HS-SPME-GC-O): Altering sample amount, diluting the sample or adjusting split ratio?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunzi; Cai, Yu; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Cui, Chun; Su, Guowan; Lin, Lianzhu; Zhao, Mouming

    2015-11-15

    Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) is widely used for the screening of aroma-active compounds in gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). In this study, three aroma dilution methods, (I) using different test sample volumes, (II) diluting samples, and (III) adjusting the GC injector split ratio, were compared for the analysis of volatiles by using HS-SPME-AEDA. Results showed that adjusting the GC injector split ratio (III) was the most desirable approach, based on the linearity relationships between Ln (normalised peak area) and Ln (normalised flavour dilution factors). Thereafter this dilution method was applied in the analysis of aroma-active compounds in Japanese soy sauce and 36 key odorants were found in this study. The most intense aroma-active components in Japanese soy sauce were: ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, ethyl 4-methylpentanoate, 3-(methylthio)propanal, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-methoxyphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 2-phenylethanol, and 4-hydroxy-5-ethyl-2-methyl-3(2H)-furanone. PMID:25976996

  14. O AROMA AMBIENTAL E SUA RELAÇÃO COM AS AVALIAÇÕES E INTENÇÕES DO CONSUMIDOR NO VAREJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Carvalho Nunes da Costa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The atmosphere of a store can be used to produce specific emotions that enhance purchase probability, and the ambient scent,artificially added, is among its dimensions. This article investigates the relationship between the presence of an ambient scent in a retail store, and customers’ evaluation of the store, its environment and products, as well as the behavioral intentions related to return and time spent in the store. The research design included an exploratory stage, examination of publications in the fields of physiology, psychology and consumer behavior, to provide the conceptual background and to formulate research hypothesis; and a causal stage, quasi-experiment,to verify the effects of scent presence. Semantic differential scales were employed for data collection. Descriptive statistics and hypothesistest were performed for data analysis and the results revealed that the scent presence did not improve the evaluations or the intent to return but retained the consumer longer in the store.

  15. Empirical modelling as an experimental approach to optimize lactone production

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Nelma; Teixeira, J. A.; Belo, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    The biotransformation of ricinoleic acid, carried out by Yarrowia lipolytica, leads to the formation of gama-decalactone, a well-known peach-like aroma compound, interesting to produce and to use in the flavouring industry, reason why it is imperative to define the most appropriate conditions for its production. Thus, the aim of this work is the optimization of operating conditions for this lactone. However, as the accumulation of another compound, namely 3-hydroxy-g-decalactone (the precu...

  16. Applied systems biology - vanillin production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strucko, Tomas; Eriksen, Carsten; Nielsen, J.; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin is the most important aroma compound based on market value, and natural vanillin is extracted from the cured seed pods of the Vanilla orchid. Most of the world’s vanillin, however, is obtained by chemical synthesis from petrochemicals or wood pulp lignins. As an alternative, de novo biosynthesis of vanillin in baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was recently demonstrated by successfully introducing the metabolic pathway for vanillin production in yeast. Nevertheless, the amount of va...

  17. Compuestos fenólicos, actividad antioxidante, contenido de resveratrol y componentes del aroma de 8 vinos peruanos / Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, resveratrol content and volatile components of 8 peruvian wines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo, Salazar; Giovana, Espinoza; Candy, Ruiz; María de Fátima, Fernández; Rosario, Rojas.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo de investigación tuvo como objetivo conocer las propiedades fisicoquímicas, actividad antioxidante, componentes del aroma y contenido de resveratrol y quercetina de 8 vinos peruanos. Se encontró que las densidades relativas de los vinos están dentro del rango de 0,9916 a 1,0174 g [...] /mL, mientras que los valores de pH varían de 3,18 a 3,97. Mediante métodos espectrofotométricos se pudo cuantificar la concentración de fenoles totales (2374,25 a 3610,43 mg/L), flavonoides totales (1869,19 a 3138,85 mg/L) y antocianinas totales (102,64 a 317,50 mg/L). Por medio de cromatografía líquida de alta performance (HPLC) se pudo detectar la presencia del compuesto trans-resveratrol en 6 de los 8 vinos peruanos evaluados. El vino Tabernero Malbec-Merlot contiene la mayor concentración de dicho compuesto (0,56 ± 0,03 µg/mL) y, además, es el que presenta la mejor actividad antioxidante en el test de DPPH. Por medio de cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS) se pudo determinar que los compuestos volátiles de mayor concentración en el aroma de los vinos fueron el ácido sórbico, feniletanol, ácido propanoico y monoetil éster del ácido butanodioico. Abstract in english The aim of this investigation was to evaluate some physicochemical properties, the antioxidant activity, the aroma components and resveratrol and quercitin contents of 8 Peruvian wines. We found that the density of the selected wines was in the range of 0,9916 - 1,0174 g/mL, while the pH values were [...] between 3,18 and 3,97. Spectrophotometric methods were used to determine the concentrations of total phenolics (2374,25 - 3610,43 mg/L), flavonoids (1869,19 - 3138,85 mg/L) and anthocyanins (102,64 - 317,50 mg/L). The compound trans-resveratrol was detected by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) on 6 of the 8 Peruvian wines selected for the present study. The Tabernero Malbec-Merlot wine had the highest concentration of this compound (0,56 ± 0,03 µg/mL) and the best antioxidant activity on the DPPH test. GC-MS studies on the aroma of the evaluated wines showed that the major compounds were sorbic acid, phenylethyl alcohol, propanoic acid and ethyl hydrogen succinate.

  18. Entrapment of a volatile lipophilic aroma compound (D-limonene) in spray dried water-washed oil bodies naturally derived from sun?ower seeds (Helianthus annus)

    OpenAIRE

    Fisk, Ian D.; Linforth, Rob S.T.; Trophardy, Gil; Gray, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Oil bodies are natural emulsions that can be extracted from oil seeds and have previously been shown to be stable after spray drying. The aim of the study was to evaluate for the ?rst time if spray dried water-washed oil bodies are an effective carrier for volatile lipophilic actives (the?avour compound D-limonene was used as an example aroma compound). Water-washed oil bodies were blended with maltodextrin and D-limonene and spray dried using a Buchi B-191 laboratory spray dryer....

  19. Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) / Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) beverages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla Carolina Batista, Machado; Deborah Helena Markowicz, Bastos; Natália Soares, Janzantti; Roselaine, Facanali; Marcia Ortiz M., Marques; Maria Regina Bueno, Franco.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and [...] trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z)-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma while roasted mate was defined as having a smooth, slightly burnt aroma. The relationship between the tentatively identified compounds and flavor must be determined by olfatometric analysis.

  20. Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin) and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma / Estudo de compostos voláteis de ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin) e estimativa da sua contribuição ao aroma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge Antonio, Pino; Clara Elizabeth, Quijano.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As técnicas de extração-destilação simultâneas (SDE) e de headspace-microextração em fase sólida (HS-SPME) combinadas com GC-FID e GC-MS foram usadas para analisar compostos voláteis da ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin) e para estimar os compostos de aroma mais ativos, pela aplicação de valore [...] s de atividade olfativa (OAV), considerando os compostos voláteis presentes no headspace da fruta. As análises levaram à identificação de 148 componentes, incluindo 58 ésteres, 23 terpenoides, 14 aldeídos, 11 álcoois, 10 cetonas, 9 alcanos, 7 ácidos, 4 lactonas, 3 fenóis e 9 outros compostos de diferentes estruturas. De acordo om os resultados de SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS e OAV, 2-metilbutanoato de etila, acetato de hexila, (E)-2-nonenal, butanoato de etila, (E)-2-decenal, hexanoato de etila, nonanal, decanal, (E)-b-ionona, ?-dodecalactona, acetato de (Z)-3-hexenila, acetato de pentila, linalool, ?-decalactona, acetato de butila, limoneno, acetato de propila, ?-decalactona, sulfeto de dietila, acetato de (E)-2-hexenila, heptanoato de etila, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanoato de (Z)-3-hexenila, eugenol, (E)-2-hexenal, pentanoato de etila, hexil 2-butanoato de metila, hexanoato de isopentila, 1-hexanol, ?-nonalactona, mirceno, acetato de octila, fenilacetaldeído, 1-butanol, acetato de isobutila, (E)-2-heptenal, octadecanal, e nerol são compostos odoríficos característicos em ameixas frescas, já que foram encontrados em concentrações muito acima dos seus limiares de precepção olfativa. Abstract in english Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE) and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin) and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values ( [...] OAV). The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E)-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E)-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E)-?-ionone, ?-dodecalactone, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, ?-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, ?-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z)-3-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E)-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, ?-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E)-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.

  1. Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma Estudo de compostos voláteis de ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin e estimativa da sua contribuição ao aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Pino

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values (OAV. The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E-?-ionone, ?-dodecalactone, (Z-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, ?-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, ?-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z-3-hexenol, (Z-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, ?-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.As técnicas de extração-destilação simultâneas (SDE e de headspace-microextração em fase sólida (HS-SPME combinadas com GC-FID e GC-MS foram usadas para analisar compostos voláteis da ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin e para estimar os compostos de aroma mais ativos, pela aplicação de valores de atividade olfativa (OAV, considerando os compostos voláteis presentes no headspace da fruta. As análises levaram à identificação de 148 componentes, incluindo 58 ésteres, 23 terpenoides, 14 aldeídos, 11 álcoois, 10 cetonas, 9 alcanos, 7 ácidos, 4 lactonas, 3 fenóis e 9 outros compostos de diferentes estruturas. De acordo om os resultados de SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS e OAV, 2-metilbutanoato de etila, acetato de hexila, (E-2-nonenal, butanoato de etila, (E-2-decenal, hexanoato de etila, nonanal, decanal, (E-b-ionona, ?-dodecalactona, acetato de (Z-3-hexenila, acetato de pentila, linalool, ?-decalactona, acetato de butila, limoneno, acetato de propila, ?-decalactona, sulfeto de dietila, acetato de (E-2-hexenila, heptanoato de etila, (Z-3-hexenol, hexanoato de (Z-3-hexenila, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, pentanoato de etila, hexil 2-butanoato de metila, hexanoato de isopentila, 1-hexanol, ?-nonalactona, mirceno, acetato de octila, fenilacetaldeído, 1-butanol, acetato de isobutila, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, e nerol são compostos odoríficos característicos em ameixas frescas, já que foram encontrados em concentrações muito acima dos seus limiares de precepção olfativa.

  2. Transgenic Hybrid Poplar for Sustainable and Scalable Production of the Commodity/Specialty Chemical, 2-Phenylethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Michael A.; Marques, Joaquim V.; Dalisay, Doralyn S.; Herman, Barrington; Bedgar, Diana L.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2013-01-01

    Fast growing hybrid poplar offers the means for sustainable production of specialty and commodity chemicals, in addition to rapid biomass production for lignocellulosic deconstruction. Herein we describe transformation of fast-growing transgenic hybrid poplar lines to produce 2-phenylethanol, this being an important fragrance, flavor, aroma, and commodity chemical. It is also readily converted into styrene or ethyl benzene, the latter being an important commodity aviation fuel component. Intr...

  3. Characteristic Chemical Components and Aroma-active Compounds of the Essential Oils from Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus Used in Japanese Traditional Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Satoshi; Usami, Atsushi; Yorimoto, Tomohito; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus is an aquatic macrophyte; it is known as a wild edible plant in Japan for a long time. In this study, the essential oils from the fresh and dried aerial parts of R. nipponicus var. submersus were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, important aroma-active compounds were also detected in the oil using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Thus, 98 compounds (accounting for 93.86%) of the oil were identified. The major compounds in fresh plant oil were phytol (41.94%), heptadecane (5.92%), and geranyl propionate (5.76%), while those of. Dried plant oil were ?-ionone (23.54%), 2-hexenal (8.75%), and dihydrobovolide (4.81%). The fresh and dried oils had the green-floral and citrus-floral odor, respectively. The GC-O and AEDA results show that phenylacetaldehyde (green, floral odor, FD-factor = 8) and ?-ionone (violet-floral odor, FD-factor = 8) were the most characteristic odor compounds of the fresh oils. ?-Cyclocitral (citrus odor, FD-factor = 64) and ?-ionone (violet-floral odor, FD-factor = 64) were the most characteristic odor compounds of the dried oil. These compounds are thought to contribute to the flavor of R. nipponicus var. submersus. PMID:25891110

  4. Evaluation of aroma differences between high-salt liquid-state fermentation and low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauces from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunzi; Cai, Yu; Su, Guowan; Zhao, Haifeng; Wang, Chenxia; Zhao, Mouming

    2014-02-15

    Two types of Chinese soy sauce, high-salt liquid-state fermentation soy sauce (HLFSS) and low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce (LSFSS), were used to investigate their differences in aroma profile by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). Results from descriptive sensory analysis showed that the alcoholic, cooked potato-like and caramel-like attributes were significantly higher in HLFSS, while LSFSS exhibited significantly higher sour and burnt attributes. In addition, aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) revealed 37 and 33 odour-active regions for HLFSS and LSFSS, respectively. Ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, phenylacetaldehyde, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 3-(methylthio)propanal detected in HLFSS showed the highest flavour dilution (FD) factors, while 3-methylbutanal, phenylacetaldehyde and ethyl propanoate possessed the highest FD factors in LSFSS. Therefore, the traditional Chinese soy sauce HLFSS contained more complex volatiles and exhibited a richer aromatic profile compared with LSFSS. PMID:24128458

  5. Influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration treatment on aroma compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in different industrial scale fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Lu, Lin; Lan, Yi-Bin; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2014-07-01

    The influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration (CM) on Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in two different industrial-scale fermenters was studied. CM treatment had different effects on wine aroma depending on the types of fermenter, being more effective for automatic pumping-over tank (PO-tank) than automatic punching-down tank (PD-tank). When PO-tank was used, CM-treated wine showed a decrease in some fusel alcohols (isobutanol and isopentanol) and an increase in some esters (especially acetate esters). However, no significant changes were detected in these compounds when PD-tank was used. Ethyl 2-hexenoate and diethyl succinate were decreased, while geranylacetone was increased by the CM treatment in both fermenters. ?-Damascenone was increased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines but decreased in PD-tank fermented wines. The fruity, caramel and floral aroma series were enhanced while chemical series were decreased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines. The content of (Z)-6-nonen-1-ol in the final wines was positively correlated to CM treatment. PMID:24518336

  6. Physicochemical model to interpret the kinetics of aroma extraction during wine aging in wood. Model limitations suggest the necessary existence of biochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vicente; Jarauta, Idoia; Cacho, Juan

    2006-04-19

    A model based on physicochemical parameters has been developed and applied to the study of the kinetics of extraction of aroma compounds from oak casks having been used a variable number of times. Two major deviations from the model can be observed: a strong seasonal dependence of extraction (unexpected in a thermostated cellar); and higher yields with a smaller number of longer extractions. 4-Propylguaiacol follows both behaviors, and its levels have been found to be closely related to those of 4-ethylguaiacol and to the number of uses of the barrel, which suggests that this compound may be formed by the same microorganisms forming ethylphenols from a precursor found in wood. Although the extraction kinetics of all aroma compounds appear to be more or less mediated by the action of microorganisms, those of whiskeylactones, eugenol, and 4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol are more in accordance with the physicochemical model, whereas those of vanillin, syringaldehyde, furfuryl alcohol, and, of course, 4-propylguaiacol are much more coherent with a microbiological extraction/formation. PMID:16608229

  7. Improvement of soluble coffee aroma using an integrated process of supercritical CO2 extraction with selective removal of the pungent volatiles by adsorption on activates carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lucas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a two-step integrated process consisting of CO2 supercritical extraction of volatile coffee compounds (the most valuable from roasted and milled coffee, and a subsequent step of selective removal of pungent volatiles by adsorption on activated carbon is presented. Some experiments were carried out with key compounds from roasted coffee aroma in order to study the adsorption step: ethyl acetate as a desirable compound and furfural as a pungent component. Operational parameters such as adsorption pressure and temperature and CO2 flowrate were optimized. Experiments were conducted at adsorption pressures of 12-17 MPa, adsorption temperatures of 35-50ºC and a solvent flow rate of 3-5 kg/h. In all cases, the solute concentration and the activated particle size were kept constant. Results show that low pressures (12 MPa, low temperatures (35ºC and low CO2 flowrates (3 kg/h are suitable for removing the undesirable pungent and smell components (e.g. furfural and retaining the desirable aroma compounds (e.g. ethyl acetate. The later operation with real roasted coffee has corroborated the previous results obtained with the key compounds.

  8. Improvement of soluble coffee aroma using an integrated process of supercritical CO2 extraction with selective removal of the pungent volatiles by adsorption on activates carbon

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Lucas; M. J., Cocero.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a two-step integrated process consisting of CO2 supercritical extraction of volatile coffee compounds (the most valuable) from roasted and milled coffee, and a subsequent step of selective removal of pungent volatiles by adsorption on activated carbon is presented. Some experiments wer [...] e carried out with key compounds from roasted coffee aroma in order to study the adsorption step: ethyl acetate as a desirable compound and furfural as a pungent component. Operational parameters such as adsorption pressure and temperature and CO2 flowrate were optimized. Experiments were conducted at adsorption pressures of 12-17 MPa, adsorption temperatures of 35-50ºC and a solvent flow rate of 3-5 kg/h. In all cases, the solute concentration and the activated particle size were kept constant. Results show that low pressures (12 MPa), low temperatures (35ºC) and low CO2 flowrates (3 kg/h) are suitable for removing the undesirable pungent and smell components (e.g. furfural) and retaining the desirable aroma compounds (e.g. ethyl acetate). The later operation with real roasted coffee has corroborated the previous results obtained with the key compounds.

  9. Low intramuscular fat (but high in PUFA) content in cooked cured pork ham decreased Maillard reaction volatiles and pleasing aroma attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, Iu; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Ibañez, Carles; Solà, Josep; Arnau, Jacint; Roura, Eugeni

    2016-04-01

    The influence of intramuscular fat content (high - HI versus low - LI) and fatty acid composition on pork cooked cured ham flavour was analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry using nasal impact frequency (GC-O/NIF) and quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Potential relationships were studied by principal component analysis (PCA). Sixteen and fourteen odourants were identified by GC-O/NIF in LI and HI cooked hams, respectively. The two ham types differed in lipid oxidation odourants: polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) derivatives hexanal, 1-octen-3-one and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were higher in LI ham; while monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivative decanal was higher in HI. HI samples resulted in higher values for odour-active aroma compounds from Maillard reaction, which are related to roast flavour and a higher overall flavour liking. In summary, our results suggest that Maillard derived odour-active aroma compounds were partially inhibited in LI samples (high in PUFA), resulting in lower positive sensory ratings. PMID:26593467

  10. Highly selective generation of vanillin by anodic degradation of lignin: a combined approach of electrochemistry and product isolation by adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Dominik; Regenbrecht, Carolin; Hartmer, Marius; Stecker, Florian; Waldvogel, Siegfried R.

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative degradation of lignin into a variety of valuable products has been under investigation since the first half of the last century. Especially, the chance to claim this cheap, abundant and renewable source for the production of the important aroma chemical vanillin (1) was one of the major driving forces of lignin research. So far most of the developed methods fail in technical application since no viable concept for work-up is included. This work represents a combined approach of ...

  11. Product which is fermented without lactose from a shake comprising non-vegetable dried fruits and/or orgeat

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Martínez, Gaspar; Miralles, María del Carmen; Martí Vidagany, Adolfo; Martínez Ortiz, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to products which are fermented with probiotic lactic bacteria from milk or a shake comprising almonds (Prunus Amygdalus, var. dulcis), other non-vegetable dried fruits or orgeat obtained from chufa tubers (Cyperus esculentus). The inventive products deliver the nutritional benefits of the dried fruits, the orgeat and the added probiotic bacteria, with a unique flavour and a consistency, acidity and aroma similar to yoghurt. Optionally, if the sugar content is kept ...

  12. Characterisation of the aroma profiles of different honeys and corresponding flowers using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seisonen, Sirli; Kivima, Evelin; Vene, Kristel

    2015-02-15

    The aroma profiles of thirteen different honey samples from four botanical origins: heather (Calluna vulgaris), raspberry (Rubus idaeus), rape (Brassica napus), alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus) and the blossoms of the four corresponding flowers were investigated to find odour-active compounds exclusively representing specific honeys based on odour-active compounds from the blossoms. Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas-chromatography-olfactometry were used to determine and identify the odour-active compounds. Data was analysed using agglomerative hierarchical clustering and correspondence analysis. Honeys from the same botanical origin clustered together; however, none of the identified compounds were exclusive to a particular honey/blossom combination. Heather honey had the flavour profile most different to the others. Isophorone and 2-methylbutyric acid were found only in heather honeys. Heather honey was characterised by having more "sweet" and "candy-like" notes, raspberry honeys had more "green" notes, while alder buckthorn had more "honey" and "floral" notes. PMID:25236195

  13. Peroxisomal ?-oxidation and Production of ?-decalactone by the Yeast Rhodotorula aurantiaca

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe THONART; Jacqueline DESTAIN; Mario AGUEDO; Dubois-Dauphin, Robin; Alchihab, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    ?-Decalactone is a fruity aroma compound resulting from the peroxisomal ?-oxidation of ricinoleic acid by yeasts. During the ?-oxidation of fatty acids, the acyl-CoA oxidase and thioesterase play an important role. In R. aurantiaca, we demonstrated the presence of partial gene sequences homologous to acyl-CoA oxidase and thioesterase involved in the pathways synthesis of ?-decalactone. This preliminary work is expected to characterize the relationship between the ?-decalactone production and ...

  14. Impact of lipase-mediated hydrolysis of castor oil on ??-decalactone production by Yarrowia lipolytica

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Nelma; Braga, Adelaide; Teixeira, J. A.; Belo, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    ??-Decalactone is an industrially interesting peach-like aroma compound that can be produced biotechnologically through the biotransformation of ricinoleic acid. Castor oil (CO) is the raw material most used as the ricinoleic acid source. The effect of different CO concentrations on the ??-decalactone production by Yarrowia lipolytica was investigated in batch processing, and 30 g L???1 was found to be the optimal oil concentration. Under these conditions, cells were able to produce lipase bu...

  15. Banana as adjunct in beer production : applicability and performance of fermentative parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Giovani B. M.; Silva, Daniel Pereira da; Bento, Camila V.; Vicente, A.A.; Teixeira, J. A.; Felipe, Maria das Graças A.; Silva, João B. Almeida e

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, the raw materials for beer production are barley, hops, water, and yeast, but most brewers use also different adjuncts. During the alcoholic fermentation, the contribution of aroma compounds from other ingredients to the final beer flavor depends on the wort composition, on the yeast strain, and mainly on the process conditions. In this context, banana can also be a raw material favorable to alcoholic fermentation being rich in carbohydrates and minerals and providing low acidi...

  16. Managing sensory expectations concerning products and brands: Capitalizing on the potential of sound and shape symbolism

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, C

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the evidence demonstrating the existence of a variety of robust crossmodal correspondences between both sounds (phonetic speech sounds, tones, and other parameters of musical expression) and shapes, and the sensory attributes (specifically the taste, flavor, aroma, and oral-somatosensory attributes) of various foods and beverages is reviewed. The available research now clearly suggests that marketers can enhance their consumers' product experiences by ensuring that the sound ...

  17. Improvement of production performance of functional fermented whey-based beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatovi? Maja Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was improvement of the performances for the production of whey-based beverages with highly productive strains of Lactobacillus. Individual or mixed culture containing Lactobacillus helveticus ATCC 15009, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis NRRL B-4525 and Streptococcus thermophilus S3 were studied. The scientific hypothesis was that production performances, especially aroma and viable cell count, are positively affected by the strains combination and temperature. Based on the results, beverages obtained by mixed cultures Lb. helveticus ATCC 15009 - S. thermophilus S3 and Lb. delbrueckii ssp. lactis - S. thermophilus S3 had higher aroma values than beverages obtained by individual strains. The symbiosis of tested strains has positive impact on the aroma of produced beverage. In addition, the temperature has significant influence on cell viability during the storage and fermentation dynamic. The beverages produced by mixed cultures Lb. helveticus ATCC 15009 - S. thermophilus S3 and Lb. delbrueckii ssp. lactis - S. thermophilus S3 at 42 oC achieved higher storage stability (19 to 22 days than beverages produced at 37°C and 45°C (13 to 19 days. Subsequently, at 42 °C fermentation time for both mixed cultures was 1.5 h shorter, compared to the time achieved at 37°C.

  18. Relevancia de nitrato y nitrito en el jamón curado y sus efectos en el desarrollo del aroma

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Mónica; Toldrá, Fidel; Aristoy, M-Concepción

    2009-01-01

    Potassium and sodium salts of nitrite (E 249 and E 250) and nitrate (E 251 and E 252) are authorised for use under certain levels in several foodstuffs such as non-heat-treated, cured and dried meat products, other cured meat products, canned meat products and bacon. The key point in the use of nitrate and nitrite as preservatives is to find a balance between ensuring the microbiological safety of the ham and keeping as low as possible the level of nitrosamines in the final product. Nitrites ...

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF 6-PENTYL-ALPHA-PYRONE PRODUCTION BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION USING SUGARCANE BAGASSE AS RESIDUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia C. Ladeira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentation (SSF has been used as a model for the study of metabolism and physiology of microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to enhance 6-PP production by Trichoderma harzianum 4040 in solid state fermentation using sugarcane bagasse as a residue. A fractional factorial design was used to select the components of the nutrient solution. The fermentation was carried out during 9 days, and the aroma extraction was done on the third, fifth, seventh, and ninth days using organic solvent. On the seventh day the major concentration of 6-PP was found. The variables glucose, sucrose, and MgSO4 were found to be significant statistically (p> 0.05 as components of the nutrient solution used in the production of 6-PP by filamentous fungi in SSF using sugarcane bagasse as a residue. GC-MS was used for quantification of 6-PP aroma.

  20. Use of simulated annealing in standardization and optimization of the acerola wine production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sheyla dos Santos, Almeida; Wonder Alexandre Luz, Alves; Sidnei Alves de, Araújo; José Carlos Curvelo, Santana; Narendra, Narain; Roberto Rodrigues de, Souza.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, seven wine samples were prepared varying the amount of pulp of acerola fruits and the sugar content using the simulated annealing technique to obtain the optimal sensory qualities and cost for the wine produced. S. cerevisiae yeast was used in the fermentation process and the sensory [...] attributes were evaluated using a hedonic scale. Acerola wines were classified as sweet, with 11°GL of alcohol concentration and with aroma, taste, and color characteristics of the acerola fruit. The simulated annealing experiments showed that the best conditions were found at mass ratio between 1/7.5-1/6 and total soluble solids between 28.6-29.0 °Brix, from which the sensory acceptance scores of 6.9, 6.8, and 8.8 were obtained for color, aroma, and flavor, respectively, with a production cost 43-45% lower than the cost of traditional wines commercialized in Brazil.

  1. Isolamento e seleção de microrganismos pectinolíticos a partir de resíduos provenientes de agroindústrias para produção de aromas frutais Screening of fruit flavors producing pectinolitic microorganisms isolated from agroindustrial residues

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Uenojo; Glaucia Maria Pastore

    2006-01-01

    As pectinases são enzimas produzidas naturalmente por plantas, fungos, leveduras e bactérias. Estes microrganismos podem ser inoculados em meios contendo resíduos agroindustriais utilizados como fonte de carbono para a produção de compostos de maior valor agregado, como enzimas, etanol, proteínas, aminoácidos e compostos de aroma. Vários microrganismos foram isolados e selecionados quanto à produção de enzimas pectinolíticas pelo método da placa, através de zonas claras de degradação de pecti...

  2. Volatile profile of cashew apple juice fibers from different production steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Ana Carolina de Oliveira; de Almeida, Áfia Suely Santos da Silva; Lemos, Ana Paula Dajtenko; Magalhães, Hilton César Rodrigues; Garruti, Deborah dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the volatile profile of cashew apple fibers to verify which compounds are still present after successive washings and thus might be responsible for the undesirable remaining cashew-like aroma present in this co-product, which is used to formulate food products like vegetarian burgers and cereal bars. Fibers were obtained from cashew apple juice processing and washed five times in an expeller press. Compounds were analyzed by the headspace solid-phase micro extraction technique (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using a DB-5 column. Sensory analysis was also performed to compare the intensity of the cashew-like aroma of the fibers with the original juice. Altogether, 80 compounds were detected, being esters and terpenes the major chemical classes. Among the identified substances, 14 were classified as odoriferous in the literature, constituting the matrix used in the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Odoriferous esters were substantially reduced, but many compounds were extracted by the strength used in the expeller press and remained until the last wash. Among them are the odoriferous compounds ethyl octanoate, ?-dodecalactone, (E)-2-decenal, copaene, and caryophyllene that may contribute for the mild but still perceptible cashew apple aroma in the fibers that have been pressed and washed five times. Development of a deodorization process should include reduction of pressing force and stop at the second wash, to save water and energy, thus reducing operational costs and contributing to process sustainability. PMID:26023940

  3. Volatile Profile of Cashew Apple Juice Fibers from Different Production Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Oliveira Nobre

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the volatile profile of cashew apple fibers to verify which compounds are still present after successive washings and thus might be responsible for the undesirable remaining cashew-like aroma present in this co-product, which is used to formulate food products like vegetarian burgers and cereal bars. Fibers were obtained from cashew apple juice processing and washed five times in an expeller press. Compounds were analyzed by the headspace solid-phase micro extraction technique (HS-SPME and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, using a DB-5 column. Sensory analysis was also performed to compare the intensity of the cashew-like aroma of the fibers with the original juice. Altogether, 80 compounds were detected, being esters and terpenes the major chemical classes. Among the identified substances, 14 were classified as odoriferous in the literature, constituting the matrix used in the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Odoriferous esters were substantially reduced, but many compounds were extracted by the strength used in the expeller press and remained until the last wash. Among them are the odoriferous compounds ethyl octanoate, ?-dodecalactone, (E-2-decenal, copaene, and caryophyllene that may contribute for the mild but still perceptible cashew apple aroma in the fibers that have been pressed and washed five times. Development of a deodorization process should include reduction of pressing force and stop at the second wash, to save water and energy, thus reducing operational costs and contributing to process sustainability.

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF 6-PENTYL-ALPHA-PYRONE PRODUCTION BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION USING SUGARCANE BAGASSE AS RESIDUE

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia C. Ladeira; Vania Jordão Peixoto; Manoela Peçanha Penha; Elisabete Barbosa de Paula Barros; Selma Gomes Ferreira Leite

    2010-01-01

    Solid state fermentation (SSF) has been used as a model for the study of metabolism and physiology of microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to enhance 6-PP production by Trichoderma harzianum 4040 in solid state fermentation using sugarcane bagasse as a residue. A fractional factorial design was used to select the components of the nutrient solution. The fermentation was carried out during 9 days, and the aroma extraction was done on the third, fifth, seventh, and ninth days using ...

  5. INVESTIGATION ON THE PRODUCTION OF L-GLUTAMINASE FROM PSEUDOMONAS STUTZERI STRAIN UNDER SOLID STATE FERMENTATION USING VARIOUS AGRO RESIDUES

    OpenAIRE

    R N Athira

    2014-01-01

    Solid state fermentation was carried out for the production of L-glutaminase by Pseudomonas stutzeri PIMS6 using different agro residues including green gram husk, Bengal gram husk, cattle feed, wheat bran and groundnut oil cake as solid substrates. L-glutaminase has received significant attention in recent years owing to its potential applications in medicine as an anticancer agent, as an efficient anti-retroviral agent and as a biosensor. In food industries it is used as a flavor and aroma ...

  6. Volátiles De Maíz {lea mays, cebada (Hordeum vulgare y café (Coffea arábica tostados. influencia de la adición de estos cereales en el aroma del café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margoth Suárez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Los volátiles de café a dos grados de torrefacción, como también los del maíz y los de cebada tostados, fueron extraídos por "Headspace" dinámico. La composición de los volátiles fue determinada por Cromatografía de Gases de Alta Resolución acoplada a Espectrometría de Masas (CGAREM. Los constituyentes mayoritarios del café torrefactado a 230 "C durante 8 minutos fueron el furfural 2-metil-3-dihidrofuranona y 2,3- pentadiona mientras que a230"Cy 10 minutos fueron el 2-furanmetanol, 3-metilpirazina, la 1,6-dimetilpirazina y acetato de 2-furanmetanol. Los constituyentes de mayor concentración en el maíz fueron el furfural y el 5-metilfurfuraI y en la cebada el 2-metilbutanal, el 3-metilbutanal y el furano. El análisis sensorial del café y mezclas de café con maiz y cebada permitió detectar adulteración a partir de 20% de cereal en un café torrefactado durante 8 min., pero cuando la torrefacción se realizó por 10 min. fue muy difícil percibir el aroma a cereal, principalmente cuando éste es cebada. Los resultados fueron utilizados como indicadores de la adulteración del café con cereales y como un criterio de evaluación para garantizar la pureza del café Colombiano.

  7. Quantification of prominent volatile compounds responsible for muskmelon and watermelon aroma by purge and trap extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredes, Alejandro; Sales, Carlos; Barreda, Mercedes; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Roselló, Salvador; Beltrán, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    A dynamic headspace purge-and-trap (DHS-P&T) methodology for the determination and quantification of 61 volatile compounds responsible for muskmelon and watermelon aroma has been developed and validated. The methodology is based on the application of purge-and-trap extraction followed by gas chromatography coupled to (ion trap) mass spectrometry detection. For this purpose two different P&T sorbent cartridges have been evaluated. The influence of different extraction factors (sample weight, extraction time, and purge flow) on extraction efficiency has been studied and optimised using response surface methodology. Precision, expressed as repeatability, has been evaluated by analysing six replicates of real samples, showing relative standard deviations between 3% and 27%. Linearity has been studied in the range of 10-6130 ng mL(-1) depending on the compound response, showing coefficients of correlation between 0.995 and 0.999. Detection limits ranged between 0.1 and 274 ng g(-1). The methodology developed is well suited for analysis of large numbers of muskmelon and watermelon samples in plant breeding programs. PMID:26213027

  8. Determination of blueberry and strawberry maturity and aroma quality and effect of HLB on orange juice aroma: comparison of Z-nose, E-nose and GC-MS technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electronic nose technology could be very useful in quality control discrimination of products. The Z-nose (Electronic Sensory Technology, Model 4500) was equipped with a Tenax trap (2 mg, 225 ºC), and 1 m DB5 column, an acoustic wave detector and an oven set to ramp from 40-180 ºC at a rate of 10 ºC...

  9. Effect of Deficit Irrigation and Kaolin-based Foliar Reflectant Particle Film on Aroma of cv. Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water deficit during development of red-skinned wine grape enhances berry composition for wine production but increases risk of fruit exposure to deleterious levels of heat and/or solar radiation. Foliar application of a kaolin-based particle film has been shown in many crops to alleviate stress sym...

  10. Nutrient limitation leads to penetrative growth into agar and affects aroma formation in Pichia fabianii, P. kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijswijck, Irma M H; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith C M; Abee, Tjakko; Smid, Eddy J

    2015-01-01

    Among fermentative yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is most frequently used as a model organism, although other yeast species may have special features that make them interesting candidates to apply in food-fermentation processes. In this study, we used three yeast species isolated from fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit, S. cerevisiae 131, Pichia fabianii 65 and Pichia kudriavzevii 129, and determined the impact of nitrogen and/or glucose limitation on surface growth mode and the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All three species displayed significant changes in growth mode in all nutrient-limited conditions, signified by the formation of metafilaments or pseudohyphae. The timing of the transition was found to be species-specific. Transition in growth mode is suggested to be linked to the production of certain fusel alcohols, such as phenylethyl alcohol, which serve as quorum-sensing molecules. Interestingly, we did not observe concomitant increased production of phenylethyl alcohol and filamentous growth. Notably, a broader range of esters was found only for the Pichia spp. grown on nitrogen-limited agar for 21?days compared to nutrient-rich agar, and when grown on glucose- and glucose- plus nitrogen-limited agar. Our data suggest that for the Pichia spp., the formation of esters may play an important role in the switch in growth mode upon nitrogen limitation. Further biological or ecological implications of ester formation are discussed. PMID:25308873

  11. High-cell-density fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the optimisation of mead production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A P; Mendes-Ferreira, A; Oliveira, J M; Estevinho, L M; Mendes-Faia, A

    2013-02-01

    Mead is a traditional drink that contains 8%-18% (v/v) of ethanol, resulting from the alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey by yeasts. Mead fermentation is a time-consuming process and the quality of the final product is highly variable. Therefore, the present investigation had two main objectives: first, to determine the adequate inoculum size of two commercial wine-making strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the optimisation of mead fermentation; and second, to determine if an increase in yeast pitching rates in batch fermentations altered the resulting aroma profiles. Minor differences were detected in the growth kinetics between the two strains at the lowest pitching rate. With increasing pitching rates net growth of the strain ICV D47 progressively decreased, whereas for the QA23 the increasing inoculum size had no influence on its net growth. The time required to reach the same stage of fermentation ranged from 24 to 96 h depending on the inoculum size. The final aroma composition was dependent on the yeast strain and inoculum size. Fourteen of the twenty-seven volatile compounds quantified could contribute to mead aroma and flavour because their concentrations rose above their respective thresholds. The formation of these compounds was particularly pronounced at low pitching rates, except in mead fermented by strain ICV D47, at 10(6) CFUs/mL. The esters isoamyl acetate, ethyl octanoate and ethyl hexanoate were the major powerful odourants found in the meads. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that yeast strain and inoculum size can favourably impact mead's flavour and aroma profiles. PMID:23122509

  12. Análisis del metabolismo nitrogenado durante la fermentación alcohólica en levaduras vínicas (Nitrogen metaolism in wine yeast during alcoholic fermentation: effect on growth, fermentation activity and aroma production)

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Linares, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    La carencia de nitrógeno es uno de los principales problemas encontrados en la elaboración del vino, especialmente relacionados con fermentaciones lentas e incompletas. En condiciones de vinificación, bajos niveles iniciales de nitrógeno limitan el crecimiento y la producción de biomasa, provocando una baja tasa de fermentación. Los compuestos nitrogenados presentes en el mosto también influyen en la producción de metabolitos volátiles y no volátiles que son los que regula...

  13. Real Time Detection of Aroma Compounds in Meat and Meat Products by SIFT-MS and Comparison to Conventional Techniques (SPME-GC-MS).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flores, M.; Olivares, A.; Dryahina, Kseniya; Špan?l, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 9, ?. 4 (2013), s. 622-630. ISSN 1573-4110 R&D Projects: GA ?R GP203/09/P172; GA ?R GA203/09/0256 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : volatile compounds * flovar * meat Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.194, year: 2013

  14. A comparative study on aromatic profiles of strawberry vinegars obtained using different conditions in the production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Cristina; Callejón, Raquel M; Troncoso, Ana M; Moreno-Rojas, Jose M; Peña, Francisco; Morales, M Lourdes

    2016-02-01

    Impact odorants in strawberry vinegars produced in different containers (glass, oak and cherry barrels) were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry using modified frequency (MF) technique, and dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aromatic profile of vinegar from strawberry cooked must was also studied. All strawberry vinegars retained certain impact odorants from strawberries: 3-nonen-2-one, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, guaiacol, nerolidol, pantolactone+furaneol, eugenol, ?-dodecalactone and phenylacetic acid. Isovaleric acid, pantolactone+furaneol, p-vinylguaiacol, phenylacetic acid and vanillin were the most important aroma-active compounds in all vinegars. The strawberry cooked must vinegar accounted for the highest number of impact odorants. Wood barrels provided more aroma complexity than glass containers. Impact odorants with grassy characteristics were predominant in vinegar from glass containers, and those with sweet and fruity characteristics in vinegars from wood barrels. Principal component analysis indicated that the production process led to differences in the impact odorants. PMID:26304447

  15. Increase of fruity aroma during mixed T. delbrueckii/S. cerevisiae wine fermentation is linked to specific esters enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Philippe; Coulon, Joana; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Bely, Marina

    2015-08-17

    The aim of this work was to study ester formation and the aromatic impact of Torulaspora delbrueckii when used in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the alcoholic fermentation of must. In order to evaluate the influence of the inoculation procedure, sequential and simultaneous mixed cultures were carried out and compared to pure cultures of T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae. Our results showed that mixed inoculations allowed the increase, in comparison to S. cerevisiae pure culture, of some esters specifically produced by T. delbrueckii and significantly correlated to the maximal T. delbrueckii population reached in mixed cultures. Thus, ethyl propanoate, ethyl isobutanoate and ethyl dihydrocinnamate were considered as activity markers of T. delbrueckii. On the other hand, isobutyl acetate and isoamyl acetate concentrations were systematically increased during mixed inoculations although not correlated with the development of either species but were rather due to positive interactions between these species. Favoring T. delbrueckii development when performing sequential inoculation enhanced the concentration of esters linked to T. delbrueckii activity. On the contrary, simultaneous inoculation restricted the growth of T. delbrueckii, limiting the production of its activity markers, but involved a very important production of numerous esters due to more important positive interactions between species. These results suggest that the ester concentrations enhancement via interactions during mixed modalities was due to S. cerevisiae production in response to the presence of T. delbrueckii. Finally, sensory analyses showed that mixed inoculations between T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae allowed to enhance the complexity and fruity notes of wine in comparison to S. cerevisiae pure culture. Furthermore, the higher levels of ethyl propanoate, ethyl isobutanoate, ethyl dihydrocinnamate and isobutyl acetate in mixed wines were found responsible for the increase of fruitiness and complexity. PMID:26001522

  16. Use of Pistacia terebinthus resin as immobilization support for Lactobacillus casei cells and application in selected dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoina, Vasiliki; Terpou, Antonia; Angelika-Ioanna, Gialleli; Koutinas, Athanasios; Kanellaki, Maria; Bosnea, Loulouda

    2015-09-01

    Resin from Pistacia terebinthus tree was used for the immobilization of L. casei ATCC 393 cells. The encapsulated L. casei cells biocatalysts were added as adjuncts during yogurt production at 45 °C and probiotic viability was assessed during storage at 4 °C. For comparison reasons yogurt with free L. casei cells were prepared. The effect of encapsulated bacteria as adjuncts in yogurt on pH, lactic acid, lactose and other physicochemical parameters were studied for 60 storage days at 4 °C. Samples were also tested for the microbiological and organoleptic characteristics during storage at 4 °C. Encapsulation matrix seems to sustain the viability of embedded L. casei cells at levels more than 7 logcfug(-1) after 60 days of storage at 4 °C. Furthermore, the absence of pathogens such as Salmonella, Staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms in the produced yogurts is noteworthy where spoilage microorganisms such as yeasts and molds seem to affect yogurt quality only in absence of Pistacia terebinthus resin. The effect of the resin on production of aroma-related compounds responsible for yogurt flavor was also studied using the solid phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. Alpha and beta- pinene were the major aroma compounds detected in produced yogurts (over 60 % of total aromatic compounds detected). Yogurts with immobilized cells on P.terebintus resin had a fine aroma and taste characteristic of the resin. PMID:26344983

  17. Formation of furfurylthiol exhibiting a strong coffee aroma during oak barrel fermentation from furfural released by toasted staves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, L; Tominaga, T; Dubourdieu, D

    2001-10-01

    Furfurylthiol (FFT) is formed in white wines during alcoholic fermentation in the barrel from the furfural released by toasted staves. The quantity of furfural released into the must has a decisive effect on the quantity of FFT in the finished wine. Wines fermented in new barrels thus contain larger quantities of FFT than those fermented in used barrels. Fermentation conditions favorable to an excess production of H(2)S (hydrogen sulfide) by the yeast promote the formation of this volatile thiol. The presence of this volatile thiol in white wines is, therefore, closely related to the yeast's sulfur metabolism. PMID:11600030

  18. Is there a second fragrance gene in rice?

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, M.A.; Hamilton, N.R.S.; Calingacion, M.N.; Verhoeven, H.A.; Butardo, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    Aromatic rice is highly prized by most rice consumers, and many countries cultivate traditional and improved aromatic varieties. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) is the major aromatic compound in rice, and is believed to accumulate because of an eight-base-pair (8-bp) deletion in an allele at the fragrance locus. In this study, 2AP was quantified and the presence or absence of the fragrance allele (fgr) was determined in 464 samples of traditional varieties of rice from the T.T. Chang Genetic Resou...

  19. Flavor enhancement as a tool for increasing pleasantness and intake of a snack product among the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, S; Kälviäinen, N; Tuorila, H

    2003-08-01

    A yogurt-like fermented oat bran product, flavored with regular and heightened concentrations of red currant aroma, was tested in two tasting sessions (side-by-side) and, between these, in a six-day home-use (monadic testing daily, 3+3 packages of the snack) by the elderly (n=50, mean age 73.7, range 63-85 years) and the young (n=58, mean age 23.1, range 18-34 years). The subjects rated the odor and flavor intensity and pleasantness and also conducted an odor detection and identification test. In home-use, the subjects reported the quantity consumed, willingness to eat, buy or recommend the snack. The young outperformed the elderly in the olfactory test. The heightened aroma samples were initially rated as less pleasant by both age groups, but among the elderly, the ratings given to the two samples merged during exposure. For the young, the large difference in perceived odor and flavor intensities reflected marked differences in pleasantness, while the elderly were less responsive to intensity differences in their pleasantness ratings. Overall, both age groups ate less of the heightened aroma sample. Despite the impaired olfactory capabilities of the elderly, no clear indication of benefit of the enhanced flavor was found for either pleasantness or intake. PMID:12880625

  20. Furan in coffee: Pilot studies on formation at roasting and losses during production steps and consumer handling

    OpenAIRE

    Guenther, Helmut; Hoenicke, Katrin; Biesterveld, Steven; Gerhard-Rieben, Elke; Lantz, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The occurrence of furan in some food products has been known for a few decades already and it has been reconfirmed in more recent investigations that furan is present in a variety of foodstuffs. This list of products includes roast coffee which has been shown to generate furan as a result of the heat treatment during the roasting reactions which is applied to achieve the desired aroma and flavor profile of a roast coffee. The objective of this study was to provide data to ...

  1. Use of Probiotics in Fermented Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Palamuto?lu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a negative judgements among consumers about meat and meat products, in human nutrition meat and meat products are important for nutrient components which they contain essential nutrients. Intensively produced fermented meat product such as sucuk in our country and lactic acid bacteria (LAB are used for production of various fermented sausages all over the world. LAB primarily used in order to increase the food safety of such products. LAB with probiotic properties have effect on product taste, flavour and aroma as well as the positive effects on functional and physiological properties. Positive effects of probiotics in human health and product properties in the absence of any adverse effects various cultures have been used for the production of probiotic fermented meat products. In the production of such products prepared dough which have meat and fat in the matrix form a suitable vehicle for probiotic cells. During production of products formation of lactic acid reduced the pH, during ripening conditions water activity reduced so these factors adversely affect viability of probiotic cells. For this reason protecting probiotic cultures from negative effects during exposure in the product and vitality of cells in human gastro-intestinal system to continue operating for consumption to be provided during the order process the cells are coated with microencapsuation. The use of probiotic microorganisms isolated from various foods is being investigated for the production of sausages. Studies on the effects of probiotics on human health of meat products are also needed. In this study the probiotic microorganisms used in the production of probiotic fermented sausages were investigated.

  2. Peroxisomal ?-oxidation and Production of ?-decalactone by the Yeast Rhodotorula aurantiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed ALCHIHAB

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available ?-Decalactone is a fruity aroma compound resulting from the peroxisomal ?-oxidation of ricinoleic acid by yeasts. During the ?-oxidation of fatty acids, the acyl-CoA oxidase and thioesterase play an important role. In R. aurantiaca, we demonstrated the presence of partial gene sequences homologous to acyl-CoA oxidase and thioesterase involved in the pathways synthesis of ?-decalactone. This preliminary work is expected to characterize the relationship between the ?-decalactone production and the transcription of these partial gene sequences of R. aurantiaca probably involved in the oxidation of ricinoleic acid.

  3. Growth regulators and essential oil production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudia L, Prins; Ivo J. C, Vieira; Silvério P, Freitas.

    Full Text Available The aroma and fragrance industry is a billion-dollar world market which grows annually. Essential oils comprise the majority of compounds used by these industries. These sets of metabolites are formed mainly by monoterpenes, which are products of the plants' secondary metabolism. Biosynthesized from [...] mevalonate and methylerythitol phosphate, the essential oil production depends not only on genetic factors and the developmental stage of plants, but also on environmental factors which could result in biochemical and physiological alterations in plants modifying the quantity and quality of the essential oil. These modifications impair aromatic plant production aimed at essential oil by reducing their quality. It is desirable to develop techniques of agronomical management to improve essential oil products and their specific compounds. Among other factors influencing essential oil production are plant growth regulators or plant hormones. Endogenous levels as well exogenous application could affect essential oil production and chemical composition. In this review we will present research in which plant growth regulators or their synthetic analogs were used and their effects on essential oil production.

  4. Use and declaration of additives in meat products: New legal regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukovi? Ilija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the more important additives used in meat products, their functional characteristics, the permitted quantities and declaration in keeping with the new legal regulations. Additives important for meat products, according to their functional characteristics, can be preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers, emulsifying salts, acidity regulators, sequestrants, thickeners, gelling agents, modified starches, acids, colours, aroma enhancers, packaging gases and coating powders, and it must be pointed out that many additives have several functional characteristics at the same time. In stating additives in the list of contents of a product, the elementary functional characteristic of the additive is given with the E number or name of the additive in brackets; modified starches are declared as „starch" without giving the E number. The declaration does not state the quantity of the additive added to the product, or the biggest permitted quantity of the additive in the given product.

  5. Cheese production using kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kanellaki, Maria

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of kefir culture entrapped in casein and in whey protein as starter cultures for the production of Feta-type cheese. Microbiological analysis showed that counts of enterobacteria, coliforms, and staphylococci were significantly reduced due to kefir culture. In addition, the effect of kefir culture on the formation of volatile compounds, such as esters, organic acids, alcohols, carbonyl compounds, and lactones, was also investigated using the SPME GC/MS technique. Cheese samples produced with kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins presented improved profile of aroma-related compounds. Principal component analysis of the results indicated that the volatile composition of the different cheese types was dependent on the nature of the starter culture. Finally, the sensory evaluation showed that the products produced with kefir culture had a soft, fine taste, and were of improved quality. PMID:25809991

  6. Starter cultures used in probiotic dairy product preparation and popular probiotic dairy drinks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oktay, Yerlikaya.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products that contain probiotic bacteria are those that are produced with various fermentation methods, especially lactic acid fermentation, by using starter cultures and those that have various textures and aromas. Fermented dairy products are popular due to their differences in taste and the [...] ir favourable physiological effects. Today, fermented dairy beverages in general are produced locally by using traditional methods. Recently, due to the increased demand for natural nutrients and probiotic products, fermented dairy beverages have reached a different position and are considered to have an important impact on human health and nutrition. In this article, probiotic bacteria and functional dairy products that are produced by using probiotic bacteria are discussed.

  7. Innovative Integrated Wet Process for Virgin Coconut Oil Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.R.W. Sulaiman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the recent years, increased interest on the development of the Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO has been observed. This is to maximize the benefit of the multifunctional traditionally used coconut. VCO is rich in the Medium Chain Fatty Acids (MCFAs that have been shown to speed up the metabolism. Almost 50% of the fatty acid in virgin coconut oil is in form of lauric acid. This fatty acid has wide application as wide spectrum of antimicrobial substances against fungi, bacteria and viruses. Moreover, the fatty acid profile of coconut oil shares the similar characteristic with breast milk. The MCFAs in coconut oil are not stored in the body cells but rather processed directly in the liver where they are converted immediately into energy. The present study describes the process for VCO production through integrated wet process. The novel features of this process is the production of virgin coconut oil itself which can minimize the time, cost, energy and man power as well as can maximize the yield and improve the quality of coconut oil. The VCO obtained by this process contribute about 30-40% wt/wt of yield which is 10-20% higher than conventional method. The physical characteristics of VCO along this process shows that the VCO is colorless, retain fresh coconut aroma and sweet coconut taste with the highest content of lauric acid (49.85%. Besides that, the result also indicates the presence of vitamin E VCO. In general, the overall results for sensory analysis were acceptable in terms of aroma and taste of the product.

  8. Influence of Starter Cultures, Fermentation Techniques, and Acetic Acid on the Volatile Aroma and Sensory Profile of Cocoa Liquor and Chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the World’s cocoa production originates from the West African countries of Ivory Coast, Ghana and Nigeria. In these countries, cocoa is a crop of great socio-economic importance as it is often the main source of income for families in the rural cocoa growing regions. Being the principal raw material for chocolate production, good quality cocoa beans are in high demand on the World market as a prerequisite for the production of high quality chocolates and other confectionary produ...

  9. Toward the stereochemical identification of prohibited characterizing flavors in tobacco products: the case of strawberry flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Meike; Hutzler, Christoph; Henkler, Frank; Luch, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    With the revision of the European Tobacco Products Directive (2014/40/EU), characterizing flavors such as strawberry, candy, vanillin or chocolate will be prohibited in cigarettes and fine-cut tobacco. Product surveillance will therefore require analytical means to define and subsequently detect selected characterizing flavors that are formed by supplemented flavors within the complex matrix tobacco. We have analyzed strawberry-flavored tobacco products as an example for characterizing fruit-like aroma. Using this approach, we looked into aroma components to find indicative patterns or features that can be used to satisfy obligatory product information as requested by the European Directive. Accordingly, a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique was developed and coupled to subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to characterize different strawberry-flavored tobacco products (cigarettes, fine-cut tobacco, liquids for electronic cigarettes, snus, shisha tobacco) for their volatile additives. The results were compared with non-flavored, blend characteristic flavored and other fruity-flavored cigarettes, as well as fresh and dried strawberries. Besides different esters and aldehydes, the terpenes linalool, ?-terpineol, nerolidol and limonene as well as the lactones ?-decalactone, ?-dodecalactone and ?-undecalactone could be verified as compounds sufficient to convey some sort of strawberry flavor to tobacco. Selected flavors, i.e., limonene, linalool, ?-terpineol, citronellol, carvone and ?-decalactone, were analyzed further with respect to their stereoisomeric composition by using enantioselective HS-SPME-GC/MS. These experiments confirmed that individual enantiomers that differ in taste or physiological properties can be distinguished within the tobacco matrix. By comparing the enantiomeric composition of these compounds in the tobacco with that of fresh and dried strawberries, it can be concluded that non-natural strawberry aroma is usually used to produce strawberry-flavored tobacco products. Such authenticity control can become of interest particularly when manufacturers claim that natural sources were used for flavoring of products. Although the definition of characterizing flavors by analytical means remains challenging, specific compounds or features are required to be defined for routine screening of reported information. Clarifications by sensory testing might still be necessary, but could be limited to a few preselected samples. PMID:26138682

  10. Terpene production in the peel of sweet orange fruits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco A., Takita; Irving J., Berger; Ana Carolina, Basílio-Palmieri; Kleber M., Borges; Juliana M. de, Souza; Maria L.N.P., Targon.

    Full Text Available Terpenoids constitute the largest and most diverse class of natural products. They are important factors for aroma and flavor, and their synthesis is basically done from two compounds: isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Isopentenyl diphosphate is synthesized through two different [...] pathways, one that occurs in the cytoplasm and one in the plastid. With the sequencing of ESTs from citrus, we were able to perform in silico analyses on the pathways that lead to the synthesis of terpenes as well as on the terpene synthases present in sweet orange. Moreover, expression analysis using real-time qPCR was performed to verify the expression pattern of a terpene synthase in plants. The results show that all the pathways for isopentenyl diphosphate are present in citrus and a high expression of terpene synthases seems to have an important role in the constitution of the essential oils of citrus.

  11. Sensory differences between product matrices made with beet and cane sugar sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-11-01

    Although beet and cane sugar sources have nearly identical chemical compositions, the sugars differ in their volatile profiles, thermal behaviors, and minor chemical components. Scientific evidence characterizing the impact of these differences on product quality is lacking. The objective of this research was to determine whether panelists could identify a sensory difference between product matrices made with beet and cane sugar sources. Sixty-two panelists used the R-index by ranking method to discern whether there was a difference between 2 brands of beet and 2 brands of cane sugars in regard to their aroma and flavor, along with a difference in pavlova, simple syrup, sugar cookies, pudding, whipped cream, and iced tea made with beet and cane sugars. R-index values and Friedman's rank sum tests showed differences (P sugars in regard to their aroma and flavor. Significant differences between the sugar sources were also identified when incorporated into the pavlova and simple syrup. No difference was observed in the sugar cookies, pudding, whipped cream, and iced tea. Possible explanations for the lack of difference in these products include: (1) masking of beet and cane sensory differences by the flavor and complexity of the product matrix, (2) the relatively small quantity of sugar in these products, and (3) variation within these products being more influential than the sugar source. The findings from this research are relevant to sugar manufacturers and the food industry as a whole, because it identifies differences between beet and cane sugars and product matrices in which beet and cane sugars are not directly interchangeable. PMID:25308166

  12. Evaluation of fruit productivity and quality in Hass avocado submitted to 60Co gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of productivity, postharvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Hass avocado trees irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the ''La Labor'' Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologias del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300 %. In regard to postharvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO2/kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This mean that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and postharvest behavior of fruits. (Author)

  13. Study of effect of radiation on the parameters of quality of sterile males of Ceratitis Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and their improvement aroma therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this present work, we are interested in studying the various stages in the production of sterile males, the effect of different doses of irradiation on longevity, compatibility and competitiveness of these males. And the effect of exposure of adults and pupae of Ceratitis to different doses of essential oil of ginger on their compatibility and competitiveness. (Author)

  14. Yeast : the soul of beer???s aroma???a review of flavour-active esters and higher alcohols produced by the brewing yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Eduardo J.; Teixeira, J. A.; Br??nyik, Tom????; Vicente, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Among the most important factors influencing beer quality is the presence of well-adjusted amounts of higher alcohols and esters. Thus, a heavy body of literature focuses on these substances and on the parameters influencing their production by the brewing yeast. Additionally, the complex metabolic pathways involved in their synthesis require special attention. More than a century of data, mainly in genetic and proteomic fields, has built up enough information to describe in detail each step ...

  15. Production and Sensory Evaluation of Tigernut Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Rita E. Sanful

    2009-01-01

    The acceptability of roasted and non-roasted tiger nut beverages has been investigated. Forty panelists were used in the sensory evaluation study. The panelists compared the two beverages on the bases of mouth feel, texture, taste, aroma, consistency, appearance and general acceptability. Correlation analysis of the results showed that although the texture, aroma, appearance and consistency were important for consumers, mouth feel and taste were more important for the overall acceptance of th...

  16. Chemometric studies of vinegars from different raw materials and processes of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natera, Ramón; Castro, Remedios; de Valme García-Moreno, María; Hernández, María Jesús; García-Barroso, Carmelo

    2003-05-21

    The phenolic composition, aroma compounds, and organic acid content of 83 vinegars have been determined. Multivariate analysis techniques have been used to classify these vinegar samples according to raw material (white wine, red wine, apple, honey, alcohol, balsamic, and malt) and production process (with and without aging in wood). Cluster analysis grouped the samples according to production process. Only apple and balsamic vinegars were separated from wine vinegars. Alcohol, honey, and malt vinegars were grouped with no aged wine vinegars. Linear discriminate analysis allowed a 88% differentiation according to raw material and 100% according to aging in wood. Besides, from the results obtained, a major role of the volatile compounds in the differentiation of the vinegar samples according to their aging period in wood can be seen. PMID:12744665

  17. Wine Production by Guava Piece Immobilized Yeast from Indian Cultivar Grapes and its Volatile Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V.A. Reddy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Suitability of guava pieces for the preparation of immobilized yeast biocatalyst for wine production was investigated by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in repeated batch fermentation. The fermentation rate and other parameters were compared with free yeast cells at different temperatures. The volatile compounds, methanol, ethyl acetate, 1-propanol, isobutanol and amyl alcohols which, formed during fermentation were analyzed with the help of GC-FID. The concentrations of ethyl acetate and methanol were not more than 100 mg L-1 in all cases, indicating an improvement in the product. There are no changes in cell metabolism of immobilized yeast. Preliminary sensory tests established the fruity aroma, fine taste and the overall improved quality of the produced wines.

  18. Bronquiolite associada à exposição a aroma artificial de manteiga em trabalhadores de uma fábrica de biscoitos no Brasil / Bronchiolitis associated with exposure to artificial butter flavoring in workers at a cookie factory in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Zaida do Rego, Cavalcanti; Alfredo Pereira Leite de, Albuquerque Filho; Carlos Alberto de Castro, Pereira; Ester Nei Aparecida Martins, Coletta.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar quatro casos de bronquiolite decorrente de exposição a aroma artificial de manteiga em uma fábrica de biscoitos no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Descrevemos os achados clínicos, espirométricos e tomográficos nos quatro pacientes, assim como achados de biópsia pulmonar em um dos pacientes. RESUL [...] TADOS: Os quatro pacientes eram homens jovens, não fumantes, e desenvolveram obstrução persistente ao fluxo aéreo (relação VEF1/CVF reduzida e VEF1 de 25-44% do previsto) após 1-3 anos de exposição a diacetil, sem a utilização de equipamentos de proteção individual, em uma fábrica de biscoitos. A TCAR mostrou achados indicativos de bronquiolite. Em um paciente, a biópsia pulmonar cirúrgica mostrou bronquiolite obliterante associada a células gigantes. CONCLUSÕES: A bronquiolite decorrente de exposição a flavorizantes artificiais deve ser considerada em trabalhadores com obstrução ao fluxo aéreo no Brasil. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report the cases of four patients with bronchiolitis caused by exposure to artificial butter flavoring at a cookie factory in Brazil. METHODS: We described the clinical, tomographic, and spirometric findings in the four patients, as well as the lung biopsy findings in one of the patien [...] ts. RESULTS: All four patients were young male nonsmokers and developed persistent airflow obstruction (reduced FEV1/FVC ratio and FEV1 at 25-44% of predicted) after 1-3 years of exposure to diacetyl, without the use of personal protective equipment, at a cookie factory. The HRCT findings were indicative of bronchiolitis. In one patient, the surgical lung biopsy revealed bronchiolitis obliterans accompanied by giant cells. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchiolitis resulting from exposure to artificial flavoring agents should be included in the differential diagnosis of airflow obstruction in workers in Brazil.

  19. Avaliação do uso de inibidores de etileno sobre a produção de compostos voláteis e de mangiferina em manga Evaluation of the use of ethylene inhibitors on production of volatile compounds and mangiferin in mango fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirley Marques Canuto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of two ethylene inhibitors, 1-methylcylopropene (1-MCP and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, on production of volatile compounds and mangiferin (a bioactive xanthone in 'Tommy Atkins' mango fruit were investigated. Volatile composition and mangiferin content, in treated and untreated fruits at three maturity, stages were determined by SPME-GC-MS and HPLC, respectively. These chromatographical analysis revealed that the volatile profiles and mangiferin concentrations were not significantly different, suggesting that the use of ethylene inhibitors does not affect the mango aroma and functional properties relative to this xanthone. Moreover, a simple, precise and accurate HPLC method was developed for quantifying mangiferin in mango pulp.

  20. Chemometric techniques on evaluation of the flavor of irradiated orange juice concentrate; Tecnicas quimiometricas na avaliacao do sabor de aroma do suco de laranja concentrado e irradiado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    1994-12-31

    The effects of storage temperature and time on can orange juice concentrated were studied for samples irradiated at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy doses from a gamma-ray source as well as for untreated samples. All samples were stored at 0{sup 0} C, 5{sup 0} C and 25{sup 0} C for periods of 1, 30, 60 and 90 days. The concentrated orange juice was subjected to sensorial evaluations and gas chromatographic analysis. The free profile technique was applied using eight trained panel applying the Quantitative Descriptive Analyses, using a 10 cm unstructured category scale for each attribute. Samples stored for more than one day showed a diminution in the orange attribute rating and correspondent increases in ratings for the bitterness, medicinal and cooked attributes. Storage at 0{sup 0} C and 5{sup 0} C showed smaller effects on the sweetness ratings as well as on the oily, acidic and medicinal flavor characteristics. In most cases increased radiation levels were accompanied by lower intensity of orange attribute values and higher intensity of bitter, medicinal and cooked attributes. Forty three chemical compounds were characterized. Mircene, octanal, {delta}-3-carene, limonene, citronelal, and neral were highly correlated and statistically significant correlation coefficients. All these components showed low, but 95% confidence significant level correlations with the orange attribute. On the other hand the correlated group of hexanal, octanol, oxidation products, terpinene-4-ol, cis-carveol, nerol, carvona, geraniol, perilyl alcohol and cariophilene substances can be associated the bitter, medicinal and cooked attributes of the irradiated orange juice concentrate. (author). 83 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. Sensory and metabolic profiles of "Fuji" apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) grown without synthetic agrochemicals: the role of ethylene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Fukuyo; Miyazawa, Toshio; Okazaki, Keiki; Tatsuki, Miho; Ito, Tsutae

    2015-12-01

    Flavors of "Fuji" apple cultivated with or without synthetic agrochemicals were compared using quantitative descriptive analyses (QDA) and metabolite profiling for 3 seasons. Experimental plots included conventional crops (with agrochemicals) and organic crops (without agrochemicals) at our institute and organic and conventional farms. Additionally, mass market samples were analyzed. Organic apples were weak in sweetness and floral characteristics and had enhanced green and sour flavors. Most esters and sugars were present in lower concentrations in organic than in conventional apples. Close relation of principal component 1 of QDA and metabolite profiles, to ethylene production suggested that ethylene is considerably involved in flavor synthesis. Reduced ethylene associated with immaturity accounted for insufficient flavor synthesis and weak aroma and flavor attributes of organic apples. Furthermore, organic apples from the farm were more flavorsome than those from the institute in 2012, suggesting possible recovery of ethylene production after a long organic cultivation period. PMID:26140475

  2. Utilization of Lactobacillus fermentum andSaccharomyces cerevisiae as starter cultures in the production of ‘dolo'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glover, R.L.K.; Sawadogo-Lingani, H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective:  The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of representative strains ofpredominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast as starter cultures in the production of dolo (a type of sorghum beer) of comparable consistency and organoleptic quality to the commercial product in Burkina Faso. Methodology and results: Two strains each of Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae from previous studies (Sawadogo- Lingani et al., 2007; Glover et al., 2005) were used as starter cultures in producing dolo both under laboratory conditions, and in the field (pilot plant). pH, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. Dolo produced from starter combinations of one strain of L. fermentum and both S. cerevisiae strains had taste and aroma that did not differ significantly from the commercial product, while single isolate combinations gave better mouth feel. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of representative strains ofpredominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast as starter cultures in the production of (a type of sorghum beer) of comparable consistency and organoleptic quality to the commercial product in Burkina Faso. Two strains each of and from previous studies (Sawadogo- Lingani 2007; Glover ., 2005) were used as starter cultures in producing both under laboratory conditions, and in the field (pilot plant). pH, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. produced from starter combinations of one strain of and both strains had taste and aroma that did not differ significantly from the commercial product, while single isolate combinations gave better mouth feel. Conclusions and applications of findings: Single-strain and double-strain combinations of lactic acid Single-strain and double-strain combinations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast starter cultures could be used successfully to produce dolo of different quality indices. Combinations of either LAB strain with one yeast strain (AC17) produced dolo that was more comparable to the commercial product than combinations with the other yeast strain (TK25). LAB strain ZN4.1 in combination with yeast strain AC17 gave better dolo in all attributes evaluated. On the whole, dolo produced with double-strain combinations of LAB and yeast under laboratory conditions possessed consistent organoleptic quality and stability comparable to the commercial product. Varied combinations of these starters should be investigated in order to determine a suitable combination for producing dolo possessing all the desired organoleptic qualities and consistency.

  3. Electronic Nose Monitoring the Maillard Reaction Flavors of Sesame Oil from Different Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Dong-Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this study was to evaluate the capacity of electronic nose to monitoring the effect of different Maillard reaction processes on natural flavors of sesame oil, using a specific Electronic Nose device (PEN3. The flavors were prepared by Maillard reaction using chemical constituents from water extract of Lentinus and other precursors. The optimum conditions of reaction process was determined by using orthogonal test design, then an Electronic Nose (PEN3was used to characterize and classify eight different flavors from different reaction process and sesame oil from market. This method firstly sampled aroma composition emanating from the flavors by PEN3 systems and then obtained response values of PEN3. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA were used in order to investigate whether the electronic nose was able to distinguish among different Maillard Reaction Production (MRP. The loadings analysis was used to identify the sensors responsible for discrimination in the current pattern file. The results of this study showed that the basic components added with lysine, xylose and glycerin, heated in glycerine bath at 140?C for 120 min, was a novel flavors with sesame oil flavor and taste. The electronic nose PEN 3 can discriminate successfully different MRPs using both PCA and LDA analysis. But, it was not able to detect a clear difference in the sample of similar aroma with sesame oil using PCA analysis. Some sensors have the highest influence in the current pattern file for electronic nose PEN 3. A subset of few sensors can be chosen to explain all the variance. This result could be used in further studies to optimize the number of sensors.

  4. Predictive Food Microbiology : new tools for risk assessment and dairy product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a well-known food borne pathogen that potentially causes listeriosis. No outbreaks or cases of listeriosis have been associated with cottage cheese, but several confirmed cases and outbreaks in the EU and the US have been related to dairy products made from raw or pasteurised milk. This, in combination with the fact that cottage cheese support growth of Listeria monocytogenes, induces a documentation requirement on the food producer. In the EU regulatory framework, mathematical models are recognised as a suitable supplement to traditional microbiological methods. The models can be used for documentation of compliance with microbiological criteria for Listeria monocytogenes under reasonably foreseeable conditions. Cottage cheese is a fresh, fermented dairy product. It consists of a fermented cheese curd mixed with a fresh or cultured cream dressing. The product contains considerable concentrations of lactic acid bacteria from the added starter or aroma cultures. The presence of these microorganisms induces some complexity to the product, since the lactic acid bacteria metabolites and e.g. bacteriocins exhibit an inhibitory effect towards co-culture microorganisms such as Listeria monocytogenes. During storage at temperatures allowing the mesophilic lactic acid bacteria to grow (> 8-10°C), a pronounced inter-bacterial interaction and growth inhibition of co-culture Listeria monocytogenes was observed. These observations emphasised the need for inter-bacterial interaction models when predicting the growth response of Listeria monocytogenes in fermented dairy products. The objective of the PhD-project was to develop new, or extend existing mathematical models to be used for risk assessment and product development. When the project was initiated, none of the existing predictive models were found to appropriately describe the simultaneous growth of lactic acid bacteria from the added starter or aroma culture and Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. New, deterministic growth models were developed for Listeria monocytogenes, starter lactic acid bacteria and aroma lactic acid bacteria. The new cardinal parameter type growth models included the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic and sorbic acid. The models were developed based on growth data obtained from absorbance measurements in liquid laboratory media and growth data obtained in cottage cheese with fresh or cultured cream dressing. An important step in the modelling procedure was the calibration of the reference growth rate (µref, h-1 at 25°C) which was strongly affected by the dominating lactic acid bacteria culture. By combining the developed secondary growth models with the empirical Jameson approach, good predictions of the simultaneous growth of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria were obtained. Both growth rate and maximum population densities of Listeria monocytogenes was accurately described under constant and dynamic storage temperatures (between 5°C and 15°C). The inter-bacterial interaction was clearly important toinclude when predicting growth response of Listeria monocytogenes in fermented dairy products. Alternative, semi-mechanistic, iimodelling approaches were evaluated based on methods applied in the fermentation technology. The dynamics of lactic acid concentration and product pH was related to growth of lactic acid bacteria by the yield factor concept. The ability to predict the maximum population density of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese based on dynamic lactic acid and pH was evaluated. For cottage cheese with fresh cream dressing, the semi-mechanistic interaction model successfully predicted the maximum population density. Lactic acid and pH was, however, insufficient to describe the growth inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes observed in cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. Improved, mechanistic, prediction of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing would require that additional mechanisms were included in the model, such as other metabolites or bacterioc

  5. CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL AND SENSORY ANALYSIS OF ACTIVITY DIFFERENT YEAST SPECIES ON IDENTICAL SUBSTRATE IN WINE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rizling vlašský is the second most important variety in Slovakia. The science of wine production includes a summary of knowledge and experience in the field of grape growing and wine making, or the production of different types of wines using specific methods of production. Wine quality is the result of the interaction between yeast, bacteria and microscopic funguses. In this research, we studied the effects of active dry wine yeasts on chemical, physical and sensory parameters in wine production. We have applied five kinds of yeasts (FERMIVIN, FERMIVIN PDV, FERMICRU AR2, FERMIFLOR and FERMICRU VB1. It can be concluded that the application of active dry wine yeasts is beneficial for the production of rizling vlašský. The best showing were yeasts FERMIFLOR and FERMIVIN PDM. In the last sample where they were left the original yeasts the varietal aroma was preserved. It can be noted that the wine was right technologically produced and all wines were harmonious with a pleasant fresh taste.

  6. POTENCIAL PRODUTIVO DE CULTIVARES DE MORANGUEIRO / PRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF STRAWBERRY CULTIVARS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    AMANDA GONÇALVES, GUIMARÃES; VALTER CARVALHO DE, ANDRADE JÚNIOR; AHMED YOUSSEF ABDELNABI MOHAMED, ELSAYED; JOSÉ SEBASTIÃO CUNHA, FERNANDES; MARCOS AURÉLIO MIRANDA, FERREIRA.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo foi avaliar o potencial produtivo de cultivares de morangueiro em região representativa do Alto Jequitinhonha. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Mape Frutas Ltda., localizada no município de Datas-MG, em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com oito cultivares de morangueiro em q [...] uatro repetições, para verificar a produção de mudas e de frutos. A contagem da produção de estolões e de mudas foi realizada aos 180 dias após o plantio. A avaliação das variáveis relacionadas à produção de frutos foi feita duas vezes por semana, no período de maio a outubro de 2012. Das cultivares de dias curtos (Festival, Campinas, Toyonoka, Dover, Oso Grande e Camarosa) e dias neutros (Diamante e Aromas), apenas Toyonoka foi a que apresentou menor desempenho para as variáveis. A significativa superioridade das cultivares Camarosa e Festival, para praticamente todas as variáveis avaliadas, permite recomendá-las para regiões com características edafoclimáticas semelhantes às da região onde o experimento foi conduzido. Dentre as cultivares avaliadas, as mais precoces tenderam a apresentar maior desempenho para variáveis relacionadas à produção de frutos. Abstract in english ABSTRACT This study was conducted in order to evaluate the productive potential of strawberry cultivars in a representative region of Alto Jequitinhonha - Brazil. The experiment was conducted at farm Mape Frutas Ltda, located in the municipality of dates, MG, in randomized block design with eight s [...] trawberry cultivars in four replications to verify the production of seedlings and fruit. Counting of production of stolons and seedlings was performed at 180 days after planting. The assessment of variables related to fruit production was done twice a week from May to October 2012. Cultivars of short days (Festival, Campinas, Toyonoka, Dover, Oso Grande and Camarosa) and day neutral (Diamante and Aromas), only Toyonoka showed the lowest performance for the variables. The significant superiority of the cultivars Camarosa and Festival for virtually all variables allows recommends it for regions with similar climatic edaphic characteristics of the region where the experiment was conducted. Among the cultivars, the earlier tended to have higher performance for variables related to fruit production.

  7. Aroma encapsulation and aroma delivery by oil body suspensions derived from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus)

    OpenAIRE

    Fisk, Ian D.; Linforth, Rob S.T.; Taylor, Andrew J.; Gray, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Oil bodies are small discrete cell organelles that can be found within oilseeds. Oil bodies have been investigated previously as a potential technology platform for use within the food industry, offering stable, antioxidant-enriched lipid-delivery systems. In this study, the use of oil bodies as a flavour delivery agent is evaluated. Fresh aromatized oil bodies show comparable headspace flavour intensity to phospholipid-stabilized emulsions when in a static equilibrium state, and whe...

  8. Characterisation of Maillard reaction products derived from LEKFD--a pentapeptide found in ?-lactoglobulin sequence, glycated with glucose--by tandem mass spectrometry, molecular orbital calculations and gel filtration chromatography coupled with continuous photodiode array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Keiko; Homma, Takeshi; Nomi, Yuri; Otsuka, Yuzuru

    2014-02-15

    Maillard reaction peptides (MRPs) contribute to taste, aroma, colour, texture and biological activity. However, peptide degradation or the cross-linking of MRPs in the Maillard reaction has not been investigated clearly. A peptide of LEKFD, a part of ?-lactoglobulin, was heated at 110 °C for 24h with glucose and the reaction products were analysed by HPLC with ODS, ESI-MS, ESI-MS/MS and HPLC with gel-filtration column and DAD detector. In the HPLC fractions, an imminium ion of LEK*FD, a pyrylium ion or a hydroxymethyl furylium ion of LEK*FD, and KFD and EK were detected by ESI-MS. Therefore, those products may be produced by the Maillard reaction. The molecular orbital of glycated LEKFD at the lysine epsilon-amino residue with Schiff base form was calculated by MOPAC. HPLC with gel-filtration column showed cross-linking and degradation of peptides. PMID:24128561

  9. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: To day, more and more products are customized. Trends are not only to sell a product to the customer, but to sell a product system. The system can either be a combination of physical products or physical products together with some kind of service. Customers get in this way not a product but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks. Here the decoupling point has a central role. The scope for this article is therefore to analyse the possibilities for using modularisation in designing and controlling a production system. How will the development of modularised product systems influence the production system? In the paper, a case will be used to support the ideas.

  10. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: To day, more and more products are customized. Trends are not only to sell a product to the customer, but to sell a product system. The system can either be a combination of physical products or physical products together with some kind of service. Customers get in this way not a product but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to...

  11. Product Charisma

    OpenAIRE

    Gotzsch, Josiena

    2002-01-01

    Consumers are attracted by product designs that feel “alive” and that contain surprise elements. The right expressions in a product contribute to its attractiveness or “charisma”. Today, these intangible product attributes are an important way to differentiate a product from competitor's products. Companies in mature markets, especially, have a competitive advantage when they succeed in integrating “expressions” or “messages” into the product design that touches its user. This paper presents ...

  12. Production of ?-ionone by combined expression of carotenogenic and plant CCD1 genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Javiera; Essus, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Apocarotenoids, like the C13-norisoprenoids, are natural compounds that contribute to the flavor and/or aroma of flowers and foods. They are produced in aromatic plants-like raspberries and roses-by the enzymatic cleavage of carotenes. Due to their pleasant aroma and flavour, apocarotenoids have high commercial value for the cosmetic and food industry, but currently their production is mainly assured by chemical synthesis. In the present study, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that synthesizes the apocarotenoid ?-ionone was constructed by combining integrative vectors and high copy number episomal vectors, in an engineered strain that accumulates FPP.  Results: Integration of an extra copy of the geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase gene (BTS1), together with the carotenogenic genes crtYB and crtI from the ascomycete Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, resulted in carotenoid producing cells. The additional integration of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase gene from the plant Petunia hybrida (PhCCD1) let to the production of low amounts of beta-ionone (0.073 ± 0.01 mg/g DCW) and changed the color of the strain from orange to yellow. The expression of the crtYB gene from a high copy number plasmid in this former strain increased beta-ionone concentration fivefold (0.34 +/- 0.06 mg/g DCW). Additionally, the episomal expression of crtYB together with the PhCCD1 gene in the same vector resulted in a final 8.5-fold increase of beta-ionone concentration (0.63 ± 0.02 mg/g DCW). Batch fermentations with this strain resulted in a final specific concentration of 1 mg/g DCW at 50 h, which represents a 15-fold increase.  Conclusions: An efficient ?-ionone producing yeast platform was constructed by combining integrative and episomal constructs. By combined expression of the genes BTS1, the carotenogenic crtYB, crtI genes and the plant PhCCD1 gene-the highest ?-ionone concentration reported to date by a cell factory was achieved. This microbial cell factory represents a starting point for flavor production by a sustainable and efficient process that could replace current methods.

  13. Evaluación de la calidad de productos lácteos por medio de la nariz electrónica / Assessment of dairy products quality by means of electronic nose

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis-Felipe, Gutiérrez.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La nariz electrónica, instrumento que utiliza un conjunto de sensores y un sistema de reconocimiento de patrones para el análisis cualitativo de aromas, ha encontrado numerosas aplicaciones en la industria alimentaria, gracias a su versatilidad. En este trabajo una breve descripción de la nariz elec [...] trónica, de su modo de operación y de sus ventajas y desventajas, ha sido realizada. Además, las principales aplicaciones de este instrumento en la industria de alimentos, con un énfasis especial en la industria láctea, han sido revisadas. Estas aplicaciones incluyen la detección de microorganismos en la leche, la identificación de aromas indeseados en la leche, la estimación del tiempo de vida útil de la leche y de varios tipos de quesos, la identificación de leche mastítica, la clasificación de quesos en función del tiempo de maduración, la diferenciación de quesos por origen geográfico y el control de la fermentación de la leche, entre otros. Los resultados de esta revisión indican que la nariz electrónica podría ser utilizada como un instrumento para un rápido control de calidad de los productos. Abstract in english The electronic nose, instrument that uses a group of sensors and a system of pattern recognition for the qualitative analysis of aroma, has found many applications in the food industry, because of its versatility. In this work a brief description of the electronic nose, its operation mode and its ad [...] vantages and disadvantages were carried out. Moreover, the main applications of this instrument in the food industry, with special emphasis on the dairy industry, have been reviewed. These applications include the detection of microorganisms in milk, the identification of off-flavours in milk, the shelf life of milk and various types of cheeses, the identification of mastitic milk, the classification of cheeses according to their time of ripening, the discrimination of cheeses by geographic origin and the control of the milk fermentation, among other. The results of this review indicate that electronic nose could be used as an instrument for the rapid quality control of dairy products.

  14. Biotechnological process for obtaining new fermented products from cashew apple fruit by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Suzane Macêdo; Silva, Cristina Ferraz; Moreira, Jane Jesus Silveira; Narain, Narendra; Souza, Roberto Rodrigues

    2011-09-01

    In Brazil, the use of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) to obtain new products by biotechnological process represents an important alternative to avoid wastage of a large quantity of this fruit, which reaches about 85% of the annual production of 1 million tons. This work focuses on the development of an alcoholic product obtained by the fermentation of cashew apple juice. The inoculation with two different strains of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae viz. SCP and SCT, were standardized to a concentration of 10(7 )cells ml(-1). Each inoculum was added to 1,500 ml of cashew must. Fermentation was performed at 28 ± 3°C and aliquots were withdrawn every 24 h to monitor soluble sugar concentrations, pH, and dry matter contents. The volatile compounds in fermented products were analyzed using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system. After 6 days, the fermentation process was completed, cells removed by filtration and centrifugation, and the products were stabilized under refrigeration for a period of 20 days. The stabilized products were stored in glass bottles and pasteurized at 60 ± 5°C/30 min. Both fermented products contained ethanol concentration above 6% (v v(-1)) while methanol was not detected and total acidity was below 90 mEq l(-1), representing a pH of 3.8-3.9. The volatile compounds were characterized by the presence of aldehyde (butyl aldehyde diethyl acetal, 2,4-dimethyl-hepta-2,4-dienal, and 2-methyl-2-pentenal) and ester (ethyl ?-methylbutyrate) representing fruity aroma. The strain SCT was found to be better and efficient and this produced 10% more alcohol over that of strain SCP. PMID:21069555

  15. In situ detoxification of the fermentation medium during gamma-decalactone production with the yeast sporidiobolus salmonicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufosse; Souchon; Feron; Latrasse; Spinnler

    1999-01-01

    gamma-Decalactone (gamma-C10) is known to be highly toxic for the microorganims used for its production. In this work, three techniques were studied in order to overcome this toxicity during a bioconversion process using ricinoleic acid as precursor of the lactone: in situ trapping in oily phases, in porous hydrophobic sorbents and in beta-cyclodextrins. Oily phases added to the media (olive, Miglyol, tributyrin, and paraffin) had a protective effect on Sp. salmonicolor, and they improved the lactone production. beta-cyclodextrins, which have a hydrophobic cavity that can trap molecules such as gamma-C10, have been used to protect the yeasts. The results showed insufficient preservation of cell viability. Some sorbents (activated carbon and polystyrene-based sorbents) were successfully tested during bioconversion. In all cases viability exceeded the reference one. Nevertheless the aroma production was 30% lower than the reference. All of these solutions led to some enhancement of the cell viability during bioconversion of methyl ricinoleate to gamma-C10. For improvement of the lactone production, the oil trapping method seemed to be the best with the experimental conditions tested. PMID:9933524

  16. Product Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2008-01-01

    For the majority of industrial companies, customizing products and services is among the most critical means to deliver true customer value and achieve superior competitive advantage. The challenge is not to customize products and services in itself – but to do it in a profitable way. The implementation of a product configuration system is among the most powerful ways of achieving this in practice, offering a reduction of the lead time for products and quotations, faster and more qualified responses to customer inquiries, fewer transfers of responsibility and fewer specification mistakes, a reduction of the resources spent for the specification of customized products, and the possibility of optimizing the products according to customer demands. This book presents an operational procedure for the design of product configuration systems in industrial companies, based on the experience gained from more than 40 product configuration projects in companies providing customer tailored products and services.

  17. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

  18. The acceptance of gamma irradiated pre-cooked processed chicken meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out to determine suitable dose, microbiological counts including pathogens and sensory evaluation of pre-cooked chicken meat products in assessing the acceptability of irradiated pre-cooked chicken meat products. Packed pre-cooked chicken sausages and burger samples (sealed individually in plastic-polyethylene pouches) were irradiated at the following doses: 2.5 kGy, 3.5 kGy and 5.5 kGy using 60Co gamma irradiation at MINTec-Sinagama. Acceptability of the sausages was determined through sensory evaluation by 30 members of untrained panelists comprising staff of Malaysian Nuclear Agency. A 5-points hedonic rating scale was used. The attributes evaluated were taste, texture, chewiness, juiciness, aroma, colour, shape and overall acceptance. Samples irradiated with dose of 5.5 kGy were the most acceptable, followed by samples irradiated at 3.5 kGy and 10 kGy. Irradiation at doses up to 3.5 kGy render undetectable microorganisms/fungi and pathogens (faecal coliforms, Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) in pre-cooked chicken sausages, and doses up to 5.5 kGy for pre-cooked chicken burgers

  19. Technology transfer for irradiation of spices and fishery products in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of irradiation to improve the hygiene quality and to extend the storage life of commercial spices, dried fish and frozen shrimps was tested in collaboration with food industries. These tests consisted of trial irradiation of the spices used in the food industry, quality evaluation of processed meat made with irradiated spices, market testing of the irradiated dried fish and trial irradiation of commercially frozen shrimps. It was found that irradiation at 5 kGy could reduce the microbial load of the different types of spices commonly used in the food industry from 106 to 108 per gram to less than 103 per gram. The aroma and taste of certain spices became weaker or stronger after irradiation at 5 kGy, but the change was still acceptable. Use of irradiated spices in the manufacture of corned beef was found to be effective for improving the 'keeping' quality of the product stored at -2 deg. C. Market testing of the irradiated dried fish showed that the product had a longer market life and a better quality than the untreated dried fish. The microbial load of frozen shrimps could be reduced from about 105 to 106 per gram to 103 per gram when irradiated at about 5 kGy in commercial packaging. (author). 13 refs, 6 tabs

  20. Primary productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Photosynthetic production in the oceans in relation to light, nutrients and mixing processes is discussed. Primary productivity in the estuarine region is reported to be high in comparison to coastal and oceanic waters. Upwelling phenomenon...

  1. Productivity policy

    OpenAIRE

    Abramovsky, L.; Bond, S.; Harrison, R.; H Simpson

    2005-01-01

    In this Briefing Note, we first present internationally comparative evidence on the UK's productivity performance (Section 2) and some of the underlying "drivers" of productivity identified by the government (Section 3). We then provide an overview of productivity policy under both Labour governments since 1997, and discuss the recent direction of policy in this 2005 Election Briefing area (Section 4). Finally, we discuss the proposals of the three main parties in the area of productivity pol...

  2. Product Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Riis, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    For the majority of industrial companies, customizing products and services is among the most critical means to deliver true customer value and achieve superior competitive advantage. The challenge is not to customize products and services in itself – but to do it in a profitable way. The implementation of a product configuration system is among the most powerful ways of achieving this in practice, offering a reduction of the lead time for products and quotations, faster and more qualified respo...

  3. Highly selective generation of vanillin by anodic degradation of lignin: a combined approach of electrochemistry and product isolation by adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Dominik; Regenbrecht, Carolin; Hartmer, Marius; Stecker, Florian; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative degradation of lignin into a variety of valuable products has been under investigation since the first half of the last century. Especially, the chance to claim this cheap, abundant and renewable source for the production of the important aroma chemical vanillin (1) was one of the major driving forces of lignin research. So far most of the developed methods fail in technical application since no viable concept for work-up is included. This work represents a combined approach of electrochemical conversion of Kraft lignin and product recovery by adsorption on a strongly basic anion exchange resin. Electrolysis conditions are optimized regarding reaction temperatures below 100 °C allowing operation of aqueous electrolytes in simple experimental set-up. Employing ion exchange resins gives rise to a selective removal of low molecular weight phenols from the strongly alkaline electrolyte without acidification and precipitation of remaining lignin. The latter represents a significant advantage compared with conventional work-up protocols of lignin solutions. PMID:25977721

  4. Highly selective generation of vanillin by anodic degradation of lignin: a combined approach of electrochemistry and product isolation by adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Dominik; Regenbrecht, Carolin; Hartmer, Marius; Stecker, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Summary The oxidative degradation of lignin into a variety of valuable products has been under investigation since the first half of the last century. Especially, the chance to claim this cheap, abundant and renewable source for the production of the important aroma chemical vanillin (1) was one of the major driving forces of lignin research. So far most of the developed methods fail in technical application since no viable concept for work-up is included. This work represents a combined approach of electrochemical conversion of Kraft lignin and product recovery by adsorption on a strongly basic anion exchange resin. Electrolysis conditions are optimized regarding reaction temperatures below 100 °C allowing operation of aqueous electrolytes in simple experimental set-up. Employing ion exchange resins gives rise to a selective removal of low molecular weight phenols from the strongly alkaline electrolyte without acidification and precipitation of remaining lignin. The latter represents a significant advantage compared with conventional work-up protocols of lignin solutions. PMID:25977721

  5. Production of ?-ionone by combined expression of carotenogenic and plant CCD1 genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Javiera; Essus, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Apocarotenoids, like the C13-norisoprenoids, are natural compounds that contribute to the flavor and/or aroma of flowers and foods. They are produced in aromatic plants-like raspberries and roses-by the enzymatic cleavage of carotenes. Due to their pleasant aroma and flavour, apocarotenoids have high commercial value for the cosmetic and food industry, but currently their production is mainly assured by chemical synthesis. In the present study, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that synthesizes the apocarotenoid ?-ionone was constructed by combining integrative vectors and high copy number episomal vectors, in an engineered strain that accumulates FPP. Results: Integration of an extra copy of the geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase gene (BTS1), together with the carotenogenic genes crtYB and crtI from the ascomycete Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, resulted in carotenoid producing cells. The additional integration of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase gene from the plant Petunia hybrida (PhCCD1) let to the production of low amounts of beta-ionone (0.073 ± 0.01 mg/g DCW) and changed the color of the strain from orange to yellow. The expression of the crtYB gene from a high copy number plasmid in this former strain increased beta-ionone concentration fivefold (0.34 +/- 0.06 mg/g DCW). Additionally, the episomal expression of crtYB together with the PhCCD1 gene in the same vector resulted in a final 8.5-fold increase of beta-ionone concentration (0.63 ± 0.02 mg/g DCW). Batch fermentations with this strain resulted in a final specific concentration of 1 mg/g DCW at 50 h, which represents a 15-fold increase.  Conclusions: An efficient ?-ionone producing yeast platform was constructed by combining integrative and episomal constructs. By combined expression of the genes BTS1, the carotenogenic crtYB, crtI genes and the plant PhCCD1 gene-the highest ?-ionone concentration reported to date by a cell factory was achieved. This microbial cell factory represents a starting point for flavor production by a sustainable and efficient process that could replace current methods.

  6. Investigation of bias of hedonic scores when co-eliciting product attribute information using CATA questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Sara R.; Giacalone, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Sensory and consumer scientists disagree on the practice of concurrently obtaining sensory information in hedonic tests. This is in part due to different mindsets about what consumers are able to do and evidence that such co-elicitation may bias hedonic scores. Check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions have been claimed to have a smaller effect on hedonic scores than other attribute such as just-about-right or intensity scales. In this research, nine studies using consumers as participants examined effects on hedonic product scores when sensory attribute information was co-elicited using CATA questions. The use of CATA concurrently with hedonic was benchmarked against concurrent attribute liking scores, attribute intensity scores and just-about-right scaling. Across a range of product categories (beer, fresh fruit, tea, flavoured water, crackers, savoury dips), only weak and transient evidence of bias of hedonic scores when concurrently using CATA questions was established. This effect was independent on whether samples, on average were moderately liked or moderately disliked, and replicated when samples were assessed partially by the sense of smell only or via full product assessment (appearance, aroma, flavour, taste, aftertaste, mouthfeel). The present research suggests that co-elicitation of hedonic scores and product attribute information using CATA questions may bias the hedonic scores, but not that it certainly will do so. This needs to be recognised, leading to more widespread acceptance that co-elicitation has merit. Investigators should decide on whether or not to co-elicit product attribute information using CATA questions on a case-by-case basis, acknowledging that bias may occur. Further research is needed to understand when/when not bias is likely to occur. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Process Optimization for Solid Extraction, Flavor Improvement and Fat Removal in the Production of Soymilk From Full Fat Soy Flakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley Prawiradjaja

    2003-05-31

    Traditionally soymilk has been made with whole soybeans; however, there are other alternative raw ingredients for making soymilk, such as soy flour or full-fat soy flakes. US markets prefer soymilk with little or no beany flavor. modifying the process or using lipoxygenase-free soybeans can be used to achieve this. Unlike the dairy industry, fat reduction in soymilk has been done through formula modification instead of by conventional fat removal (skimming). This project reports the process optimization for solids and protein extraction, flavor improvement and fat removal in the production of 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk from full fat soy flakes and whole soybeans using the Takai soymilk machine. Proximate analyses, and color measurement were conducted in 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk. Descriptive analyses with trained panelists (n = 9) were conducted using 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix lipoxygenase-free and high protein blend soy flake soymilks. Rehydration of soy flakes is necessary to prevent agglomeration during processing and increase extractability. As the rehydration temperature increases from 15 to 50 to 85 C, the hexanal concentration was reduced. Enzyme inactivation in soy flakes milk production (measured by hexanal levels) is similar to previous reports with whole soybeans milk production; however, shorter rehydration times can be achieved with soy flakes (5 to 10 minutes) compared to whole beans (8 to 12 hours). Optimum rehydration conditions for a 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk are 50 C for 5 minutes, 85 C for 5 minutes and 85 C for 10 minutes, respectively. In the flavor improvement study of soymilk, the hexanal date showed differences between undeodorized HPSF in contrast to triple null soymilk and no differences between deodorized HPSF in contrast to deodorized triple null. The panelists could not differentiate between the beany, cereal, and painty flavors. However, the panelists responded that the overall aroma of deodorized 8 {sup o}Brix triple null and HPSF soymilk are lower than the undeodorized triple null and HPSF soymilk. The triple null soymilk was perceived to be more bitter than the HPSF soymilk by the sensory panel due to oxidation on the triple null soy flakes. This oxidation may produce other aroma that was not analyzed using the GC but noticed by the panelists. The sensory evaluation results did show that the deodorizer was able to reduce the soymilk aroma in HPSF soymilk so it would be similar to triple null soymilk at 8 {sup o}Brix level. Regardless of skimming method and solids levels, the fat from the whole soybean milk was removed less efficiently than soy flake milk (7 to 30% fat extraction in contrast to 50 to 80% fat extraction respectively). In soy flake milk, less fat was removed as the % solid increases regardless of the processing method. In whole soybean milk, the fat was removed less efficiently at lower solids level milk using the commercial dairy skimmer and more efficient at lower solids level using the centrifuge-decant method. Based on the Hunter L, a, b measurement, the color of the reduced fat soy flake milk yielded a darker, greener and less yellow colored milk than whole soymilk ({alpha} < 0.05), whereas no differences were noticed in reduced fat soybean milk ({alpha} < 0.05). Color comparison of whole and skim cow's milk showed the same the same trend as in the soymilk.

  8. Blood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, R J

    1992-08-01

    Modern transfusion therapy offers the seriously ill patient an array of blood products, designed to improve oxygen delivery, maintain intravascular volume, suppress infection, and induce hemostasis. Depending on the patient's clinical circumstance, the choice of product may need to incorporate consideration of the state of intravascular volume, history of prior transfusion reactions, the possible existence of serum antibodies directed against the relevant blood component, and the risk of transmission of infectious disease, as well as the relative cost of the blood product chosen. Fortunately, the contemporary blood bank has acquired considerable expertise in preparing safe products and in providing sound guidance for the clinician in their proper use. PMID:1345491

  9. Effect of diet-derived advanced glycation end products on inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellow, Nicole J; Coughlan, Melinda T

    2015-11-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed via the Maillard reaction during the thermal processing of food contributes to the flavor, color, and aroma of food. A proportion of food-derived AGEs and their precursors is intestinally absorbed and accumulates within cells and tissues. AGEs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes-related complications and several chronic diseases via interaction with the receptor for AGEs, which promotes the transcription of genes that control inflammation. The dicarbonyls, highly reactive intermediates of AGE formation, are also generated during food processing and may incite inflammatory responses through 1) the suppression of protective pathways, 2) the incretin axis, 3) the modulation of immune-mediated signaling, and 4) changes in gut microbiota profile and metabolite sensors. In animal models, restriction of dietary AGEs attenuates chronic low-grade inflammation, but current evidence from human studies is less clear. Here, the emerging relationship between excess dietary AGE consumption and inflammation is explored, the utility of dietary AGE restriction as a therapeutic strategy for the attenuation of chronic diseases is discussed, and possible avenues for future investigation are suggested. PMID:26377870

  10. Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  11. Actividad fermentativa de Hanseniaspora uvarum y su importancia en la producción de bebidas fermentadas / Fermentative activity of Hanseniaspora uvarum and its importance in production of fermented beverages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Waldir Estela, Escalante; Mojmír, Rychtera; Karel, Melzoch; Beatriz, Hatta Sakoda; Elena, Quillama Polo; Zulema, Ludeña Cervantes; Victor, Sarmiento Casavilca; Guadalupe, Chaquilla Quilca.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la actividad fermentativa de Hanseniaspora uvarum RIVE 6-2-2 con el objetivo de evaluar su importancia en los procesos de producción de bebidas fermentadas. La cepa se cultivó en frascos Erlenmeyer conteniendo jugo de manzana esterilizado y sin aroma, y se determinaron los compuestos quím [...] icos de importancia sensorial producidos durante la fermentación en cultivo agitado (200 min-1) y estático (sin agitación). Los resultados mostraron que la cepa fue capaz de producir etanol hasta 4,02±0,1v/v% en cultivo estático a 28 °C. La agitación del medio de cultivo incrementó la producción de alcoholes superiores (hasta 488,2 mg/L) y ácido acético (468,0±10,2 mg/L) comparado al cultivo estático, mientras que por el contrario, la producción de etil acetato y glicerol (189,0±12,0 mg/L y 3,2±0,3 g/L) resultó ser mayor que en cultivo agitado (142,0±8,0 mg/L y 2,3±0,25 g/L) respectivamente. Cultivos bacth realizados adicionalmente reportaron una tasa de crecimiento (?) de 0,05 h-1 y producción de pequeñas cantidades de compuestos típicamente encontrados en la fermentación alcohólica. Los mejores resultados, en términos de calidad organoléptica (aroma, sabor y olor), se obtuvieron en la fermentación en cultivo estático. El control de la aireación del medio de fermentación es una herramienta importante para controlar la síntesis de compuestos de importancia sensorial en la producción de bebidas fermentadas. Abstract in english The fermentation activity of Hanseniaspora uvarum RIVE 6-2-2 was studied with the purpose of evaluating its importance in the production process of fermented beverages. The strain was cultured in Erlenmeyer flasks, which contained sterilized and odorless apple juice, and the chemical compounds of se [...] nsorial importance produced during fermentation in shaken (200 min-1), and static (without shaking) cultures at 28 ºC were determined. The results showed that the strains were capable of producing ethanol up to 4.20±0.1v/v% in static cultures at 28 ºC. Shaking of the culture medium increased the superior alcohol production (up to 488.2 mg/L) and acetic acid (468.0± 10.2 mg/L), when compared with the static culture; on the other hand, the production of ethyl acetate and glycerol (189.0±12.0 mg/L and 3.2±0.3 g/L) was higher in static than in shaken cultures (142.0±8.0 mg/L and 2.3±0.25 g/L), respectively. Additional batch cultures reported a growth rate (µ) of 0.05 h-1 and production of small amounts of compounds typically found in alcoholic fermentation. The best results, in terms of organoleptic qualities (aroma, taste and smell), were found in the static culture fermentation. The aeration control of the fermentation medium is an important tool for controlling the synthesis of sensorial importance compounds in the production of fermented beverages.

  12. INVESTIGATION ON THE PRODUCTION OF L-GLUTAMINASE FROM PSEUDOMONAS STUTZERI STRAIN UNDER SOLID STATE FERMENTATION USING VARIOUS AGRO RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Athira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentation was carried out for the production of L-glutaminase by Pseudomonas stutzeri PIMS6 using different agro residues including green gram husk, Bengal gram husk, cattle feed, wheat bran and groundnut oil cake as solid substrates. L-glutaminase has received significant attention in recent years owing to its potential applications in medicine as an anticancer agent, as an efficient anti-retroviral agent and as a biosensor. In food industries it is used as a flavor and aroma enhancing agent. The maximum yield (55.24 U/gds of L-glutaminase by Pseudomomonas stutzeri PIMS6 was obtained using cattle feed at 75% initial moisture content, initial pH 8.0, supplemented with glucose (1.0%, ammonium sulphate (1.0%, inoculated with 5% of inoculum and incubated at 37°C for 96 h. Both physico-chemical and nutritional parameters played a significant role in the production of the enzyme L-glutaminase.

  13. Product design - Molecules, devices, functional products, and formulated products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, Ka M.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical product design is a multidisciplinary and diverse subject. This article provides an overview of product design while focusing on product conceptualization. Four product types are considered - molecular products, formulated products, devices and functional products. For molecular products, computer-aided design tools are used to predict the physicochemical properties of single molecules and blends. For formulated products, an integrated experiment-modeling approach is used to generate th...

  14. Product Classification

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database contains medical device names and associated information developed by the Center. It includes a three letter device product code and a Device Class...

  15. Product customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    This case study deals with the extension, customization, and profitability of two new product lines of a bicycle manufacturer. It can serve both as a discussion basis in class as well as an exam for advanced Master students in management, marketing, and ccounting. The case illustrates how variance analysis and Activity-based Costing help managers to better understand the different profitability of customized product lines. The rather open questions at the end of the case study allow for an adjus...

  16. Perfil aromático e qualidade química da carne de caprinos Saanen alimentados com diferentes níveis de concentrado / Aroma profile and chemical quality of goat Saanen meat fed with different levels of concentrate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta Suely, Madruga; Mércia de Sousa, Galvão; Roberto Germano, Costa; Sandra Elisabeth Santiago, Beltrão; Neube Michel dos, Santos; Fernanda Monteiro de, Carvalho; Vaneska Delgado, Viaro.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do nível de concentrado na dieta sobre a qualidade da carne de caprinos machos Saanen não-castrados. Foram utilizados 15 cabritos com peso vivo inicial de 16 ± 0,3 kg e 4 meses de idade alimentados com dietas formuladas com 80, 65 ou 50% de concentrado [...] até que atingissem 22 kg de peso vivo médio final. As rações foram formuladas para promover ganho de peso de 150 g/animal/dia. Nas 15 paletas caprinas, foram avaliados a composição centesimal, a cor, a textura, o pH, o perfil lipídico e o perfil de componentes voláteis. Os níveis de concentrado e volumoso utilizados na alimentação dos caprinos Saanen não influenciaram os parâmetros químicos e físico-químicos de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, colesterol, fosfolipídios, pH, Aw, a*, b*, L* da carne. No entanto, a concentração de gordura, os percentuais de ácidos graxos insaturados (mono e poli) e a textura da carne diferiram significativamente entre os níveis de concentrado usados. Tanto na análise qualitativa quanto na quantitativa de componentes voláteis, o extrato da carne de caprinos alimentados com 50% de concentrado apresentou melhor qualidade aromática. A relação 50:50 volumoso:concentrado foi a mais viável para a alimentação de caprinos machos Saanen para abate aos 22 kg de peso vivo, considerando os aspectos de redução de custo e qualidade química e aromática da carne caprina produzida. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the levels concentrate of the diet on meat quality of no castrated male kid Saanen goats. Fifteen male goat with initial 16 ± 0.3 kg BW and four months old were fed diets formulated with 80, 65 e 50 of concentrate up to the animals reached a f [...] inal a 22 kg BW. The rations were formulated to promote a weight gain of 150g/anim.day. Centesimal composition, colour, texture, lipid and volatile components profile were evaluated in fifteen goat shoulders. The concentrate and forage levels used in the feeding of male kid Saanen goats did not influenced the chemical and physical-chemical parameters of humidity, ashes, proteins, cholesterol, phospholipids, pH, Aw, a*, b*, L* of goat meat. However, the concentration of fat, the percentages of unsaturated fatty acid (mono and poly) and the texture of meat were affected by the used concentrate levels. In both qualitative and quantitative of volatile components analysis, the extract of the goat meat fed with 50% of concentrate showed better aromatic quality. The use of 50:50 forage to concentre ratio was most viable for the feeding male kid Saanen goats slaughtered at 22 kg BW, considering both the aspects of reducing cost of production and chemical and aromatic quality of the produced goat meat.

  17. Bottom production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  18. Product design - Molecules, devices, functional products, and formulated products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, Ka M.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical product design is a multidisciplinary and diverse subject. This article provides an overview of product design while focusing on product conceptualization. Four product types are considered - molecular products, formulated products, devices and functional products. For molecular products, computer-aided design tools are used to predict the physicochemical properties of single molecules and blends. For formulated products, an integrated experiment-modeling approach is used to generate the formula with the specified product attributes. For devices and functional products, conceptual product design is carried out by modeling the product based on thermodynamics, kinetics and transport processes, by performing experiments, and by decision making based on rule-based methods The results are product specifications in terms of the type of ingredients, composition, and the structure, form, shape or configuration of the product.

  19. Uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The domestic uranium industry is in a state of stagflation. Costs continue to rise while the market for the product remains stagnant. During the last 12 months, curtailments and closures of mines and mills have eliminated over 5000 jobs in the industry, plus many more in those industries that furnish supplies and services. By January 1982, operations at four mills and the mines that furnish them ore will have been terminated. Other closures may follow, depending on cost trends, duration of current contracts, the degree to which mills have been amortized, the feasibility of placing mines on standby, the grade of the ore, and many other factors. Open-pit mines can be placed on standby without much difficulty, other than the possible cost of restoration before all the ore has been removed. There are a few small, dry, underground mines that could be mothballed; however, the major underground producers are wet sandstone mines that in most cases could not be reopened after a prolonged shutdown; mills can be mothballed for several years. Figure 8 shows the location of all the production centers in operation, as well as those that have operated or are on standby. Table 1 lists the same production centers plus those that have been deferred, showing nominal capacity of conventional mills in tons of ore per calendar day, and the industry production rate for those mills as of October 1, 1981

  20. Aroma in rice : genetic analysis of a quantitative trait

    OpenAIRE

    Lorieux, Mathias; Petrov, M; N.; Huang; Guiderdoni, E.; Ghesquière, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Une nouvelle approche a permis de cartographier pour la première fois un gène majeur et 2 QTL contrôlant l'arôme du grain chez le riz. Elle impliquait la combinaison de deux techniques, la quantification des composés volatils des eaux de cuisson par CPG et la cartographie par marqueurs moléculaires. Quatre types de marqueurs moléculaires ont été utilisés (RFLP, RAPD, STS, isozymes). L'évaluation et la cartographie ont été faites sur une population d'haploïdes doublés qui conférait une évaluat...

  1. AROMA: Automatic Generation of Radio Maps for Localization Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Eleryan, Ahmed; Elsabagh, Mohamed; Youssef, Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    WLAN localization has become an active research field recently. Due to the wide WLAN deployment, WLAN localization provides ubiquitous coverage and adds to the value of the wireless network by providing the location of its users without using any additional hardware. However, WLAN localization systems usually require constructing a radio map, which is a major barrier of WLAN localization systems' deployment. The radio map stores information about the signal strength from dif...

  2. A question of scent: lavender aroma promotes interpersonal trust

    OpenAIRE

    Sellaro, Roberta; van Dijk, Wilco W.; Paccani, Claudia Rossi; Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2015-01-01

    A previous study has shown that the degree of trust into others might be biased by inducing either a more “inclusive” or a more “exclusive” cognitive-control mode. Here, we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by environmental factors, such as odors, that are likely to impact cognitive-control states. Arousing olfactory fragrances (e.g., peppermint) are supposed to induce a more exclusive, and calming olfactory fragrances (e.g., lavender) a more inclusive state...

  3. A Compact and Low Cost Electronic Nose for Aroma Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Gallardo Caballero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explains the development of a prototype of a portable and a very low-cost electronic nose based on an mbed microcontroller. Mbeds are a series of ARM microcontroller development boards designed for fast, flexible and rapid prototyping. The electronic nose is comprised of an mbed, an LCD display, two small pumps, two electro-valves and a sensor chamber with four TGS Figaro gas sensors. The performance of the electronic nose has been tested by measuring the ethanol content of wine synthetic matrices and special attention has been paid to the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurements taken on different days. Results show that the electronic nose with a neural network classifier is able to discriminate wine samples with 10, 12 and 14% V/V alcohol content with a classification error of less than 1%.

  4. Investigation of Anticancer and Antiviral Properties of Selected Aroma Samples.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ryabchenko, B.; Tulupová, Elena; Schmidt, E.; Wlcek, K.; Buchbauer, G.; Jirovetz, L.

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 3, ?. 7 (2008), s. 1085-1088. ISSN 1934-578X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : Antiviral * Anticancer * Cytotoxicity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.766, year: 2008

  5. D-meson production by muons in the COMPASS experiment at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvyagin, Alexander

    2011-01-21

    One of the physics goals of the COMPASS experiment at CERN was to measure the contribution of gluons to the nucleon spin. To achieve this, it was proposed to scatter polarized 160 GeV/c muons on a polarized deuteron target and to detect D mesons in the final state. The underlying process in this D meson production is supposed to be the Photon-Gluon Fusion (PGF), where a virtual photon emitted by the muon interacts with a gluon from the target nucleon, producing a charm-anticharm quark pair. Fragmentation of a charm (anticharm) quark leads with high probability to the creation of a D{sup 0} or D{sup *} meson, which COMPASS detects via the D{sup 0}{yields}K{pi} and D{sup *}{yields}D{sup 0}{pi}{yields}K{pi}{pi} decay modes. From the longitudinal cross section spin asymmetries of the D meson production and theoretical predictions for the PGF cross section, the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin has been measured by the COMPASS experiment. The results presented in the thesis are the following. Based on data from the year 2004 a total visible cross section of 1.8{+-}0.4 nb, for the D{sup *} meson production, has been measured, with the error being dominated by systematic effects. It is validated that the D mesons are indeed produced through the PGF process, by comparison of measured D meson kinematic distributions to the ones predicted by a theory (AROMA generator). A good agreement was found for the distribution shapes, which confirms that PGF plays a major role. However, a 20% difference was found in the number of produced D{sup 0} and D{sup 0} mesons (and for the D{sup *+} and D{sup *-} mesons as well) which is significantly larger than predicted by AROMA. Kinematic distributions of D{sup 0} and D{sup *} mesons were compared with the background and also with the nearby K{sup *}{sub 2}(1430){sup 0} resonance, using all longitudinal data taken in 2002-2006. The particle-antiparticle asymmetry has been studied as a function of several kinematic variables. The 20% excess of mesons decaying into K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} over mesons decaying into K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} was observed for all three mesons. The behavior of the D{sup 0}/D{sup 0} (and D{sup *+}/D{sup *-}) asymmetries as a function of virtual photon energy suggests that associated production of D{sup *-}{lambda}{sup +}{sub c} or D{sup 0}{lambda}{sup +}{sub c} may be responsible for the observed effect. The longitudinal double spin asymmetries have been studied for the D{sup 0}, D{sup *} and K{sup *}{sub 2}(1430){sup 0} mesons separately for particle, antiparticle and for the sum of particle and antiparticle. It was found that the asymmetries extracted for D{sup 0} and D{sup *} mesons are compatible with zero. A 3-sigma deviation from zero asymmetry was observed for the K{sup *}{sub 2}(1430){sup 0} meson. An investigation of the K{sup *}{sub 2}(1430){sup 0} double spin asymmetry reveals a dependence as function of the Bjorken x{sub Bj} variable. (orig.)

  6. Physico-Chemical Characterization of Brew during the Brewing Corn Malt in the Production of Maize Beer in Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diakabana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study consists in the production of a traditional beer from maize in the Congo. The traditional method of brewing corn malt has three main stages: malting corn, brewing corn malt and fermentation. During the brewing corn malt, endogenous amylase activity is destroyed during the stiffening of the starch to about 80°C. A pre-cooking of the mash is necessitated to promote amylolyse at 50°C with an exogenous enzyme. The use of a preparation of ?-amylase can liquefy the mash and produce a sweet wort (average density = 12.5° Balling rich in dextrin corresponding to an apparent extract of 4° Balling in beer. The rising profile of the pH of the corn malt mash, from mashing to extract the wort does not affect the pH of the beer produced. This beer, slightly alcoholic (3.6% ethanol, is characterized by a nomal acid pH (pH = 4.15 on average and a brown color (25 EBC units. Its slight bitterness (21 EBU and the fine aroma of a beer closer barley produced industrially in the Congo.

  7. Expression of POX2 gene and disruption of POX3 genes in the industrial Yarrowia lipolytica on the ?-decalactone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanqiong; Song, Huanlu; Wang, Zhaoyue; Ding, Yongzhi

    2012-04-20

    The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica growing on methyl ricinoleate can produce ?-decalactone, the worthy aroma compound, which can exhibit fruity and creamy sensorial notes, and recognized internationally as a safe food additive. Unfortunately, the yield is poor because of lactone degradation by enzyme Aox3 (POX3 gene encoded), which was responsible for continuation of oxidation after C(10) level and lactone reconsumption. In this paper, we chose the industrial Y. lipolytica (CGMCC accession number 2.1405), which is the diploid strain as the starting strain and constructed the recombinant strain Tp-12 by targeting the POX3 locus of the wild type, one copy of POX3 was deleted by CRF1+POX2 insertion. The other recombinant strain Tpp-11, which was a null mutant possessing multiple copies of POX2 and disrupted POX3 genes on two chromosomes, was constructed by inserting XPR2+hpt into the other copy of POX3 of Tp-12. The growth ability of the recombinants was changed after genetic modification in the fermentation medium. The production of ?-decalactone was increased, resulting from blocking ?-oxidation at the C(10) Aox level and POX2 overexpression. The recombinant strain Tpp-11 was stable. Because there was no reconsumption of ?-decalactone, the mutant strain could be grown in continuous fermentation of methyl ricinoleate to produce ?-decalactone. PMID:22115771

  8. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF AMYLASE PRODUCING YEASTS IN ‘TELLA’ (ETHIOPIAN LOCAL BEER AND THEIR AMYLASE CONTRIBUTION FOR ‘TELLA’ PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Andualem

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ‘Tella’ is local beer which is used in most part of Ethiopia. It is made from cereals, such as barley, wheat, maize and other crops. Rhamnus prinoides is also used to provide a special aroma and flavor as well as antiseptic agent. The objective of this study is to determine the contribution of amylases from tella yeast isolates and compare with the role of amylase from malt. House hold ‘tella’ samples were collected and plated on starch agar and then amylase positive isolates of yeast were identified by folding iodine solution over the starch agar. Amylase assay and activities were investigated by standard methods and compared with amylase from malt. According to this study, the activity of amylases which was extracted from yeast isolates was very low and may have no contribution in the conversion of starch into fermentable sugars. Thus, it is better to avoid such organisms from ‘tella’ fermentation in order to discriminate unwanted bio-products. In conclusion, the substrates and ingredients should be sterilized and introduced into the fermentation system aseptically.

  9. Tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño, M

    1995-01-01

    Tequila is obtained from the distillation of fermented juice of agave plant, Agave tequilana, to which up to 49% (w/v) of an adjunct sugar, mainly from cane or corn, could be added. Agave plants require from 8 to 12 years to mature and during all this time cleaning, pest control, and slacken of land are required to produce an initial raw material with the appropriate chemical composition for tequila production. Production process comprises four steps: cooking to hydrolyze inulin into fructose, milling to extract the sugars, fermentation with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert the sugars into ethanol and organoleptic compounds, and, finally, a two-step distillation process. Maturation, if needed, is carried out in white oak barrels to obtain rested or aged tequila in 2 or 12 months, respectively. PMID:7736598

  10. Lepton Production

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    *Participation in Soft Photon Study .ce HELIOS Collaboration This experiment aims to settle open questions in the hadronic production of electrons, muons and neutrinos. Prominent among these are e/@m universality, the contribution of charm decay to lepton pair production, and the ``anomalous'' low mass pairs.\\\\ \\\\ The experimental design aims to optimize the combination of: .point begin electron identification .point muon identification .point missing energy measurement for neutrinos .point vertex identification (for @t @= @t^c^h^a^r^m). .point end \\\\ \\\\ The major components of the apparatus are shown in the figure. In the vertex region a proton beam of transverse size @=50~@m impinges on a beryllium target of diameter 50~@m, and high precision tracking in the vertex region is achieved by silicon strip detectors. Charged particle momenta are measured using a dipole magnet and high resolution drift chambers. Electrons are identified by the combination of the transition radiation detector and the finely segment...

  11. Diboson production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans D.L.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of diboson production cross sections in pp collisions at the LHC at a centre of mass energy ?s = 7 and 8 TeV, and in pp? collisions at the Tevatron at ?s = 1.96 TeV are reviewed and compared with standard model predictions. Limits on charged and neutral anomalous triple gauge couplings extracted from the selected diboson event samples are also compared.

  12. Hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The realization of the hydrogen as an energy carrier for future power sources relies on a practical method of producing hydrogen in large scale with no emission of green house gases. Combustion of fossil fuels currently provides about 86% of the world's energy. The conventional fossil fuel produces a great deal of greenhouse gas which was assumed to be responsible for the global warming. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive alternative to replace fossil fuels, but current hydrogen production uses fossil fuels as a raw material. Hydrogen production by thermo chemical water splitting, a process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, is an environmentally attractive way to produce hydrogen without using fossil fuels. Hydrogen is considered as an excellent candidate for the future energy system with its many advantages. Hydrogen can be transported for long distance; it can be stored in the form of compressed gas, liquids or hydrogenated compounds. It is clean, as water is the only product after burning. Therefore hydrogen is a promising candidate of alternate energy carrier in our future energy system

  13. Production of 6-pentyl-?-pyrone by trichoderma harzianum in solid-state fermentation / Produção de 6-pentil-?-pirona por Trichoderma harzianum em fermentação em estado sólido

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline de Souza, Ramos; Sorele Batista, Fiaux; Selma Gomes Ferreira, Leite.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Muitas espécies do gênero Trichoderma são capazes de produzir a substância 6-pentil-?-pirona (6-PP), uma lactona com aroma característico de coco. No presente trabalho, vários parâmetros de cultura foram estudados para aumentar a produção de 6-PP por Trichoderma harzianum 4040 em fermentação em esta [...] do sólido. Pó da casca de coco verde adicionado à uma solução nutriente foi usado como material de suporte para a fermentação. Um planejamento experimental de varredura segundo a técnica de Plackett-Burman foi aplicado, seguido de um planejamento fatorial fracionário. No domínio experimental estudado, as melhores condições de cultura foram (100 g suporte)-1: sacarose, 3 g; NaNO3, 0,24 g; (NH4)2SO4, 0,18 g; KH2PO4, 0,1 g; produção do inóculo, 2,2 x 10(6) esporos; umidade, 55%. A temperatura estabelecida foi de 28ºC. Esse estudo conduziu à concentração de 6-PP seis vezes maior (5,0 mg/g de matéria seca) do que a inicial (0,8 mg/g de matéria seca) após sete dias de cultivo. Abstract in english Many Trichoderma species are able to produce 6-pentyl-?-pyrone (6-PP), a lactone with coconut-like aroma. In the present work, several culture parameters were studied to enhance the production of 6-PP by Trichoderma harzianum 4040 in solid-state fermentation. Green coir powder added to a nutrient so [...] lution was used as support material for fermentation. A Plackett-Burman screening technique was applied, followed by a fractionary factorial design. The best culture conditions within the experimental domain studied were (100 g support)-1: sucrose, 3 g; NaNO3, 0.24 g; (NH4)2SO4, 0.18 g; KH2PO4, 0.1 g; inoculum concentration, 2.2 x 10(6) spores; moisture level, 55%. The temperature established was 28ºC. The fermentation under the selected conditions led to a 6-PP production six times higher (5.0 mg/g dry matter) than the initial one (0.8 mg/g dry matter) after seven days of cultivation.

  14. Produção e qualidade de frutos de clones de videira 'Concord' sobre diferentes porta-enxertos / Production and quality of 'Concord' clones of grapevine fruits on different rootstocks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério de Sá, Borges; Sergio Ruffo, Roberto; Fabio, Yamashita; Adriane Marinho de, Assis; Lilian Yukari, Yamamotoi.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as tradicionais cultivares utilizadas na elaboração de suco de uva, a 'Concord' tem se destacado pelo bom aroma e sabor que confere ao suco. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a produção e qualidade dos frutos de seis clones de videira 'Concord'('22', '28', '49', '202', '211'e '225'), sobre três [...] portaenxertos ('IAC 766', 'IAC 572' e '420-A'). O experimento foi realizado em Rolândia (PR), em esquema fatorial 6x3 (clones x porta-enxertos), em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições e parcelas subdivididas em duas safras (2009/2010 e 2010/2011). As plantas foram conduzidas em sistema de pérgula, no espaçamento de 4,0 m x 2,0 m. O clone '22' sobre o 'IAC 766' destacou-se com médias superiores de produção, produtividade e número de cachos por planta, bem como menor acidez titulável (AT). O clone '211' sobre o 'IAC 572' apresentou menor AT e médias superiores para número de cachos por planta, teor de sólidos solúveis (SS) e relação SS/AT. O porta-enxerto '420-A' proporcionou aos clones de 'Concord' maiores teores de SS e maior relação SS/AT. Abstract in english Among the varieties traditionally used in the grape juice industry, the 'Concord' cultivar has distinguished itself by the good aroma and flavor that it provides to the juice. This study aimed to evaluate the production and quality of six 'Concord' clones of grapevine fruits ('22', '28', '49', '202' [...] , '211'and '225') on three rootstocks ('IAC 766', 'IAC 572' and '420-A'). The experiment was carried out in Rolândia, Paraná State, Brazil, in a 6x3 factorial scheme (clones x rootstocks), in a completely randomized design, with five replications and split-plots, in two growing seasons (2009/2010 and 2010/2011). Plants were trained in a trellis system spaced at 4.0 m x 2.0 m. The '22' clone on 'IAC 766' presented higher means for production, yield and number of bunches per plant, as well as lower titratable acidity (TA). The '211' clone on 'IAC 572' presented lower TA and higher means for number of bunches per plant, soluble solids (SS) and SS/TA ratio. The '420-A' rootstock provided a higher SS and SS/TA ratio to the 'Concord' clones.

  15. Australian wine consumers’ acceptance of and attitudes toward the use of additives in wine and food production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltman Y

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yaelle Saltman, Trent E Johnson, Kerry L Wilkinson, Susan EP Bastian Department of Wine and Food, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Adelaide, SA, Australia. Abstract: Additives are routinely used in food and wine production to enhance product quality and/or prevent spoilage. Compared with other industries, the wine industry is only permitted to use a limited number of additives. Whereas flavor additives are often used to intensify the aroma and flavor of foods and beverages, the addition of flavorings to wine contravenes the legal definition of wine. Given the current legislation, it is perhaps not surprising that the potential use of food additives in wine production has not been explored. This study therefore investigated Australian wine consumers' acceptance of and attitudes toward the use of additives in food and wine production. Consumers (n=1,031 were segmented based on their self-reported wine knowledge (ie, subjective knowledge. Using these ratings, low (n=271, medium (n=528, and high (n=232 knowledge segments were identified. Consumers considered natural flavorings and colors, and additives associated with health benefits (eg, vitamins, minerals, and omega 3 fatty acids, to be acceptable food additives, irrespective of their level of wine knowledge. In contrast, the use of winemaking additives, even commonly used and legally permitted additives such as tartaric acid, preservatives, oak chips, and tannins, were considered far less acceptable, particularly, by less knowledgeable consumers. Surprisingly, natural flavorings were considered more acceptable than currently used winemaking additives. Consumers were therefore asked to identify the flavors they would most prefer in white and red wines. Fruit flavors featured prominently in consumer responses, eg, lemon and apple for white wines and blackcurrant and raspberry for red wines, but vanilla and/or chocolate, ie, attributes typically associated with oak maturation, were also suggested. Keywords: wine quality, segmentation, natural flavors, artificial flavors, wine knowledge

  16. Study of the optimal production process and application of apple fruit (malus domestica (l.) borkh) fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In orchard production, fruit abscission is common due to insect damage, disease, crop thinning and natural dropping. However, the utilization of these discarded plant resources has received little research attention. In this study, we used apple fruit from such plant resources, mainly young and mature dropped fruit, as materials and mixed them with a fermentation agent, brown sugar and water. The effects of the proportion of fermentation agent and the fermentation conditions (O2, temperature, fermenting time and fruit crushing degree) were studied using an orthogonal experimental design. We discovered a novel fermented fertilizer, apple fruit fermentation nutrient solution (AFF), for which the optimal fermentation formula and conditions were comminuted young apples: fermentation agent: brown sugar: water weight ratio of 5:0.1:1:4 and 45 days of aerobic fermentation. Analysis of the fermentation solutions showed that the supernatant obtained using these optimized parameters had the highest mineral element content among the fermentation formulas and conditions studied. The results of a spraying experiment with 200-, 500- and 800-fold dilutions showed that AFF significantly promoted the net photosynthetic rate, leaf area and thickness, specific leaf weight, and chlorophyll and mineral element content in the leaves of young apple trees relative to the control treatment. The effects of 200-fold diluted AFF on the photosynthetic rate, the developmental quality and mineral element contents were greater than those of the 500- and 800-fold dilutions. The results of the spraying of adult trees with 200-fold diluted AFF compared to a water control demonstrated that AFF significantly enhanced the average weight of a single fruit, the shape index, hardness, content of soluble solids, titratable acid content, vitamin C content, and aroma compound content of the fruit of the adult trees. This evidence suggests that the AFF obtained using the optimal production process could effectively improve the vegetative growth and fruit quality of apple trees. (author)

  17. Changes in the physicochemical characteristics, including flavour components and Maillard reaction products, of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikin, Yonathan; Kamiya, Asahiro; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji

    2014-04-15

    Changes in the quality attributes of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar represented by physicochemical characteristics as well as flavour components and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were monitored every 3 months over 1 year of storage. Stored cane brown sugar became darker, and its moisture content and water activity (a(w)) increased during storage. Fructose and glucose levels decreased as non-enzymatic browning via the Maillard reaction occurred in the stored sample, and a similar trend was also discovered in aconitic and acetic acids. Stored cane brown sugar lost its acidic and sulfuric odours (58.70-39.35% and 1.85-0.08%, respectively); subsequently, the nutty and roasted aroma increased from 26.52% to 38.59% due to the volatile MRPs. The browning rate of stored cane brown sugar was positively associated with the development of volatile MRPs (Pearson's coefficient = 0.860), whereas the amount of 3-deoxyglucosone, an intermediate product of the Maillard reaction, had a lower association with the brown colour due to its relatively slow degradation rate. PMID:24295691

  18. Product lines for digital information products

    OpenAIRE

    Pankratius, Victor

    2007-01-01

    Digital information products are an important class of widely used digital products, whose core benefit is the delivery of information or education (e.g., electronic books, online newspapers, e-learning courses). This book introduces a novel and systematic approach, Product Lines for Digital Information Products (PLANT), which focuses on the creation of variants of such products within a product line, and which extends concepts from the area of software product lines.

  19. Hydrogen production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    César A. C., Sequeira; Diogo M. F., Santos.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Discutem-se processos de obtenção de hidrogénio. Em particular, considera-se a produção electrolítica de hidrogénio em meio aquoso, à escala industrial, e à custa de energia eléctrica renovável (solar, vento, marés, etc.). Fazem-se ainda algumas previsões acerca do armazenamento, transporte e possív [...] eis aplicações do hidrogénio electrolítico. Abstract in english Possible means of producing hydrogen are discussed. Emphasis is given on the electrolytic hydrogen production from water electrolysis, at large scale, via the use of renewable electricity (solar, wind, tidal, etc.). Its storage, transport and possible end-uses are also considered. [...

  20. Concrete products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    Increased strength and durability in concrete products can be achieved through the addition of fly ash during the manufacturing process. The properties of concrete are enhanced by fly ash. The benefits include cost and the environment. Fly ash is normally defined as finely divided residue resulting from the combustion of pulverized coal, carried from the combustion chamber to the furnace by exhaust gas. The main applications of fly ash in concrete products are ready mix concrete, bridge decks and support footing, precast structures, blocks and bricks, and pipes. The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) has published standards to ensure that the desired physical properties of the concrete are achieved and the standards are found in CSA A23.1, detailing the engineering materials and mix proportions. The type of fly ash to be used for specific properties is important. Finishing and curing operations must be performed with care. The free lime generated by cement hydration reacts with fly ash, forming additional calcium silicate hydrate. Permeability of the concrete is reduced since the calcium silicate hydrate fills the void resulting from the cement pour. Some of the benefits to be derived from fly ash in concrete are: water reduction, improved workability, high ultimate strength, improved pumpability, and reduced heat of hydration. In addition, the life cycle costs are lower, and great strength is obtained. An environmental benefit results from the reduction of natural resource consumption.

  1. Flavour Compounds in Fungi : Flavour Analysis in Ascomycetes and the Contribution of the Ehrlich Pathway to Flavour Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Ashbya gossypii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravasio, Davide Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Fungi produce a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during their primary or secondary metabolism and with a wide range of functions. The main focus of this research work has been put on flavour molecules that are produced during fermentation processes, mainly esters and alcohols derived from the catabolism of amino acids. These compounds are produced by the Ehrlich pathway. The conversion of amino acids into aroma alcohols is accomplished by three enzymatic steps: i) a transamination, ii) a decarboxylation and iii) a dehydration reaction. The transaminase and decarboxylase enzymes are encoded by the ARO gene family which represents a widely conserved set of genes in the Saccharomyces clade. Comparative genomic analysis revealed conservation of these genes also in the riboflavin over producer Ashbya gossypii, a closely related species belonging to the Eremothecium clade. ARO80 is a transcription factor that represents the key regulator of the ARO gene family. The first part of the thesis will unveil the ARO80-dependent regulation of the Ehrlich pathway in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and A. gossypii. Promoter analyses of the ARO genes in S. cerevisiae showed that the ScARO9 promoter region is directly regulated by the ScAro80 transcription factor. This interaction has been used to create a lacZ-reporter system to correlate the formation of two volatile compounds, 2- phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate in yeast with ARO9 expression levels. This indirect genetic assay also provides a tool for the prediction of volatile production in other Saccharomyces sensu stricto species. It can be used to screen a large number of strains for their flavour production within a short time and with low costs and effort. In Ashbya single mutations in the ARO genes led to a strong reduction in volatile production, especially in the amount of isoamyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol. In contrast, the overexpression of the transcriptional regulator AgARO80 did only increase the level of isoamyl alcohol but did not enhance the 2-phenylethanol yield. Promoter analyses of the ARO genes in A. gossypii identified both ARO8 and ARO10 to be activated by Aro80. In this study we further analyzed the aroma profile of another Eremothecium species, Eremothecium cymbalariae. This species lacks most of the ARO genes involved in amino acid catabolism. The only ARO gene present in E. cymbalariae is a homolog of the A. gossypii ARO8a, which is a non-syntenic homolog of ARO8 in yeast. We compared the VOC profiles of both species in order to investigate the consequences of their different gene set up on their flavour profiles. Here we found that in contrast to A. gossypii E. cymbalariae does not produce 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylacetate. The last part of this thesis presents the initial characterization of twenty non-conventional yeasts (NCY) and their potential application in fermentative processes. These strains have been selected as they have been previously isolated from various fermented food sources. This selection of strains was used in fermentations with the aim of identifying new interesting flavour producers. Fermentation profiles, volatile analyses, off-flavour identification and resistance to osmotic/oxidative stress have been addressed to highlight new candidates to use for industrial applications. This resulted in the identification of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Pichia kluyveri as high producers of esters fruity compounds, which contribute to enhance the complexity of wine and beer product. In addition the strain Debaromyces subglobosus showed high yields of aldehydes and fruity ketones, which constitute active aroma compounds in dry cured ham.

  2. Creation of fragrant rice by targeted knockout of the OsBADH2 gene using TALEN technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Qiwei; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Kunling; Zhang, Kang; Gao, Caixia

    2015-08-01

    Fragrant rice is favoured worldwide because of its agreeable scent. The presence of a defective badh2 allele encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH2) results in the synthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), which is a major fragrance compound. Here, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) were engineered to target and disrupt the OsBADH2 gene. Six heterozygous mutants (30%) were recovered from 20 transgenic hygromycin-resistant lines. Sanger sequencing confirmed that these lines had various indel mutations at the TALEN target site. All six transmitted the BADH2 mutations to the T1 generation; and four T1 mutant lines tested also efficiently transmitted the mutations to the T2 generation. Mutant plants carrying only the desired DNA sequence change but not the TALEN transgene were obtained by segregation in the T1 and T2 generations. The 2AP content of rice grains of the T1 lines with homozygous mutations increased from 0 to 0.35-0.75 mg/kg, which was similar to the content of a positive control variety harbouring the badh2-E7 mutation. We also simultaneously introduced three different pairs of TALENs targeting three separate rice genes into rice cells by bombardment and obtained lines with mutations in one, two and all three genes. These results indicate that targeted mutagenesis using TALENs is a useful approach to creating important agronomic traits. PMID:25599829

  3. Evaluation of fruit productivity and quality in Hass avocado submitted to {sup 60}Co gamma radiation; Evaluacion de productividad y calidad de fruta en aguacate Hass sometido a radiacion gamma de {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz T, E. De la; Ibanez P, J.; Mijares O, P.; Garcia A, J.M. [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Biologia, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Evaluation of productivity, postharvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Hass avocado trees irradiated with {sup 60} Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the ''La Labor'' Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologias del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300 %. In regard to postharvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO{sub 2}/kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This mean that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and postharvest behavior of fruits. (Author)

  4. Use of Optical Oxygen Sensors in Non-Destructively Determining the Levels of Oxygen Present in Combined Vacuum and Modified Atmosphere Packaged Pre-Cooked Convenience-Style Foods and the Use of Ethanol Emitters to Extend Product Shelf-Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas W. Hempel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O2 sensors were used to non-destructively monitor O2 levels in commercially packed pre-cooked, convenience modified atmosphere packaging (MAP foods. A substantial level of O2 (>15% was present in packs resulting in a shorter than expected shelf-life, where the primary spoilage mechanism was found to be mould. Various combinations of vacuum (0–0.6 MPa and gas flush (0.02–0.03 MPa (30% CO2/70% N2 settings were assessed as treatments that result in the desired shelf-life (28 days. This was achieved using the combined treatment of vacuum 0.35 MPa and gas flush 0.02 MPa which resulted in a reduction of 6%–9% O2 in all three samples (battered sausages (BS, bacon slices (BA, and meat and potato pies (PP. Reduced O2 levels reflect the microbial quality of products, which has been successfully reduced. Duplicate samples of all product packs were produced using ethanol emitters (EE to see if shelf-life could be further extended. Results showed a further improvement in shelf-life to 35 days. Sensory analysis showed that ethanol flavour and aroma was not perceived by panellists in two of the three products assessed. This study demonstrates how smart packaging technologies, both intelligent and active, can be used to assist in the modification of conventional packaging systems in order to enhance product quality and safety and through the extension of product shelf-life.

  5. Formulação de "chocolate" de cupuaçu e reologia do produto líquido / Formulation of cupuassu "chocololate" and rheology of liquid product

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Suzana Caetano da Silva, Lannes; Magda Leite, Medeiros; Renata Lira, Amaral.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O "chocolate" de cupuaçu é um produto cujo processo de fabricação consiste na transformação das amêndoas de cupuaçu (sementes após o beneficiamento) em um derivado com sabor, textura, odor e aparência semelhantes ao do chocolate elaborado com cacau. Este produto pode ser processado nas formas de pó [...] e tabletes (meio amargo, ao leite e branco). O cupuaçu é um fruto cilíndrico, sendo que no seu interior possui sementes recobertas inteiramente por uma massa branca e bastante espessa. O presente trabalho apresenta formulações de "chocolates" de cupuaçu (meio amargo, ao leite e branco), em que a fase gordurosa se compõe de mistura de gordura de cupuaçu e manteiga de cacau, juntamente com parâmetros reológicos do produto líquido. Utilizaram-se os sensores vane e cilindro concêntrico para a determinação reológica. Os produtos obtidos apresentaram similaridades com chocolates tradicionais em aroma e nos parâmetros reológicos a 40 ºC, com maior maciez. Abstract in english Cupuassu "chocolate" is a product whose process of manufacture consists to transform cupuassu seeds (after fermentation, toasting and grinding) in derived one with flavour, texture, odor and appearance similar to chocolate elaborated with cocoa. It could be processed as powder and tablets (semi swee [...] t, milk and white types). Cupuassu is a cylindrical fruit, and in its interior there are seeds involved by a white and thick mass. This work intends to show formulations of cupuassu chocolates (semi sweet, milk and white types), where the fatty phase is blends of cupuassu fat and cocoa butter (1 to 5.9 %), and the flow behaviour of the product was evaluated using the vane and coaxial cylinder sensors at 40 ºC. The products obtained were very similar to the tablets of traditional chocolates in flavour and rheological parameters at 40 ºC, with flow properties of soft chocolate.

  6. On Demand Product Development Customized For Production

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Shahriare

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate intention of this thesis was to analyze the present product development and production process at the client organization and to develop methods to improve the agility of the product development and production process. Thus the organization can be ready for on demand product development and corresponding customization in production by maintaining enough agility. The overall study will help the organization to comprehend the present process improvement potentials and guideline to ...

  7. Modifying coffee quality by chemical manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Chiralertpong, Ariya

    2010-01-01

    Chemical modification was applied to a coffee process by-product, silver skin, as well as raw coffee beans, with the aim to improve their aroma quality. Heat treatment in combination with sugar addition or enzyme treatment was applied to silver skin to encourage Maillard reactions. The manipulation applied to silver skin, however, did not give satisfactory results as the treatments neither caused significant increase in coffee aroma levels, nor yielded coffee aroma with quality resembling tha...

  8. Uso de açúcares em produtos panificados / Sugar effect on bakery products

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauricio Sergio, Esteller; Rosa Maria de Oliveira, Yoshimoto; Renata Lira, Amaral; Suzana Caetano da Silva, Lannes.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pão é um produto popular consumido na forma de lanches ou com refeições e apreciado devido a sua aparência, aroma, sabor, preço e disponibilidade. Depois de produzidos, os pães sofrem transformações que levam rapidamente à perda de crocância e ao endurecimento. Este processo tem impacto econômico gr [...] ande, obrigando os produtores a trabalharem com data de validade curta, promoções, retorno de produtos não comercializados e aumento nos custos de produção e distribuição. A maioria dos produtos panificados apresenta algum tipo de açúcar que, além do enriquecimento calórico, funciona como melhorador de sabor, cor, plasticidade, conservação e auxiliar na fermentação. Neste estudo utilizou-se formulação padronizada, substituindo-se a sacarose da formulação inicial por outros açúcares (frutose líquida e cristalina, dextrose anidra, mel e açúcar invertido), mantendo-se o teor de sólidos totais e o de água. O tempo e a temperatura de assamento foram fixados em 8min e 225ºC. Foram elaboradas análises de textura (dureza), umidade, volume, sensorial e vida-de-prateleira. Os resultados mostraram que a utilização de açúcares com características umectantes, se utilizados em quantidade adequada à formulação, podem melhorar a maciez e prolongar a vida-de-prateleira dos pães. Abstract in english Bread is a popular product consumed as a sandwich or during mealtime and appreciated by its appearance, flavor, taste, price and availability. After its production take place changes that leads to loss of crust crispness and increase of crumb firmness. Staling has a significant economic impact that [...] lead the manufacturers to reduce the shelf-life, increase store discounts, production and distribution costs. The majority of bakery products contain some type of sugar which as font of energy improve flavor, color, softness, conservation and fermentation aid. A control bread formula was used changing sucrose from the original formula to different sweeteners (syrup and dry fructose, anhydrous dextrose, honey and inverted sugar), keeping the sweetness, and the amounts of total solids and water. The time and temperature of the oven were fixed in 8 minutes and 225ºC. Texture (firmness), moisture, volume, sensory analysis and shelf-life were evaluated. The results showed that it can be used in bread production different kinds of sugars alone or in combination to improve softness and shelf life of bread.

  9. Uso de açúcares em produtos panificados Sugar effect on bakery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Sergio Esteller

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pão é um produto popular consumido na forma de lanches ou com refeições e apreciado devido a sua aparência, aroma, sabor, preço e disponibilidade. Depois de produzidos, os pães sofrem transformações que levam rapidamente à perda de crocância e ao endurecimento. Este processo tem impacto econômico grande, obrigando os produtores a trabalharem com data de validade curta, promoções, retorno de produtos não comercializados e aumento nos custos de produção e distribuição. A maioria dos produtos panificados apresenta algum tipo de açúcar que, além do enriquecimento calórico, funciona como melhorador de sabor, cor, plasticidade, conservação e auxiliar na fermentação. Neste estudo utilizou-se formulação padronizada, substituindo-se a sacarose da formulação inicial por outros açúcares (frutose líquida e cristalina, dextrose anidra, mel e açúcar invertido, mantendo-se o teor de sólidos totais e o de água. O tempo e a temperatura de assamento foram fixados em 8min e 225ºC. Foram elaboradas análises de textura (dureza, umidade, volume, sensorial e vida-de-prateleira. Os resultados mostraram que a utilização de açúcares com características umectantes, se utilizados em quantidade adequada à formulação, podem melhorar a maciez e prolongar a vida-de-prateleira dos pães.Bread is a popular product consumed as a sandwich or during mealtime and appreciated by its appearance, flavor, taste, price and availability. After its production take place changes that leads to loss of crust crispness and increase of crumb firmness. Staling has a significant economic impact that lead the manufacturers to reduce the shelf-life, increase store discounts, production and distribution costs. The majority of bakery products contain some type of sugar which as font of energy improve flavor, color, softness, conservation and fermentation aid. A control bread formula was used changing sucrose from the original formula to different sweeteners (syrup and dry fructose, anhydrous dextrose, honey and inverted sugar, keeping the sweetness, and the amounts of total solids and water. The time and temperature of the oven were fixed in 8 minutes and 225ºC. Texture (firmness, moisture, volume, sensory analysis and shelf-life were evaluated. The results showed that it can be used in bread production different kinds of sugars alone or in combination to improve softness and shelf life of bread.

  10. Urinary incontinence products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are many products to help you manage urinary incontinence . You can decide which product to choose based ... and dry your skin. WHERE TO BUY URINARY INCONTINENCE PRODUCTS You can find most products at your ...

  11. SaferProducts API

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — On March 11, 2011, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission launched SaferProducts.gov. This site hosts the agency's new Publicly Available Consumer Product...

  12. Study on radiation disinfestation of food and agricultural products in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the status of radiation disinfestation of fresh fruits, vegetables, grains and spices imported into Japan from the U.S.A. and other oriental countries is discussed. An evaluation of the aroma, flavor, colour, and texture of gamma-irradiated, imported fruits is made. (U.K.)

  13. Definición de la categoría "Producto Campesino" en base a preferencias de consumidores del Gran Santiago / Definition of "Peasant Product" category based preferences of consumers in Santiago

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis, Sáez Tonacca; Sandra, Sandoval Moraga; M. Angélica, Ganga Muñoz.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Parte de la Política de Fomento Productivo, orientada al sector de la Agricultura Familiar Campesina, en Chile y otros países de América Latina, propone la elaboración y comercialización de productos tradicionales, cuyo público objetivo son consumidores dispuestos a pagar un mayor precio en comparac [...] ión a las versiones más industriales, debido a sus atributos particulares, no obstante, el desconocimiento de la información que los consumidores disponen de tales atributos, o la manera en que la emplean para juzgar su calidad, hace necesario investigar la forma en que los consumidores juzgan y comparan la calidad de los productos de origen campesino, razón por la cual, el objetivo del presente estudio es generar una definición de categoría que agrupe a los productos de origen campesino, particularmente a los productos procesados. La información empleada corresponde a fuentes secundarias e información primaria, que fue obtenida por medio de seis sesiones de grupos focales y una encuesta, aplicada a una muestra de 660 personas, de estrato socioeconómico ABC1 y C2, que consumen o han consumido productos de origen campesino. Se determinaron atributos relacionados con la materia prima, al producto terminado, al proceso de elaboración y al productor. Los resultados sugieren que los consumidores definen su compra principalmente por la información entregada en la etiqueta, fijándose en el origen del producto y materias primas utilizadas. Debido a ello, fue posible definir que la categoría de productos procesados campesinos, son aquellos que son elaborados directamente por el productor, con uso intensivo de mano de obra, en base a una receta casera-tradicional, utilizando la materia prima de la temporada y proveniente del lugar de elaboración, con un color, aroma y sabor del producto lo más parecida a la materia prima y nutricionalmente beneficiosa para la salud, todo esto acompañado por inocuidad y calidad en sus procesos. Abstract in english Part of Development strategy aimed to support small farmers of in Chile and different Latin American countries, have proposed elaboration and selling of traditional food products, whose target are those consumers willing to pay a higher price compared to industrial food due to its particular quality [...] attributes, nevertheless, lack of knowledge about which information consumers have about such attributes nor consumers' judgment on traditional food quality, makes necessary to propose a category definition grouping food products made by peasants, and particularly processed food products. Information used in this study was reviewed secondary sources and primary data, through six focus groups and surveys, in this case, we defined a sample size of 660 people of socioeconomic ABC1 and C2, which use or have used products from the countryside. Attributes were identified related to the raw material, finished product, the process of development and producer. Results suggest that consumers purchase decision making is mainly defined by label information, specifically origin of the product and raw materials used for its elaboration. From results of this study, it is possible to define category of peasants processed food products, as those that are made directly by the producer, with intensive use of labor, based on a traditional homemade recipe-using raw materials of the season and from the processing site, with a color, aroma and taste of the product as close to raw materials and nutritionally beneficial to health, all accompanied by safety and quality in their processes.

  14. Current state of and perspectives on cocoa production in Mexico / Situación actual y perspectivas de la producción de cacao en México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oscar, Díaz-José; Jorge, Aguilar-Ávila; Roberto, Rendón-Medel; V. Horacio, Santoyo-Cortés.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O. Díaz-José, J. Aguilar-Ávila, R. Rendón-Medel y V.H. Santoyo-Cortés. 2013. Situación actual y perspectivas de la producción de cacao en México. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(2):279-289. El cacao es uno de los recursos agrícolas y culturales más importantes del trópico húmedo mexicano. Actualmente, el sistema [...] cacao enfrenta una crisis productiva sin precedentes debido a varios factores, entre ellos: la presencia de moniliasis (Moniliphthora roreri), abandono de plantaciones y baja rentabilidad en las fincas. El propósito de este trabajo fue formular un plan de mediano plazo para el desarrollo de la cacaocultura en México, a través de la caracterización y construcción de un Mapa de Ruta Tecnológica (MRT). Mediante un modelo econométrico, se analizaron las estadísticas productivas nacionales e internacionales. Se aplicaron 185 encuestas a productores y se realizaron 82 entrevistas a actores clave de la cadena productiva. Los resultados evidencian que durante el periodo 2000-2011, México presenta una tendencia contraria en el crecimiento de la actividad con respecto a la mayoría de las naciones productoras de cacao y su producción disminuyó 43.7%. El MRT indica que el periodo para la ejecución del plan es de seis años e involucra acciones de manejo integrado de plagas, incorporación de buenas prácticas agrícolas y de manejo, mejoramiento genético participativo, generación de sistemas de calidad y promoción del cacao nacional. Esto requiere de la participación de todos los actores involucrados en la cadena productiva, con el propósito de llevar a las fincas hacia la producción especializada de cacao mexicano fino de aroma. Abstract in english O. Díaz-José, J. Aguilar-Ávila, R. Rendón-Medel, and V.H. Santoyo-Cortés. 2013. Current state of and perspectives on cocoa production in Mexico. Cien. Inv. Agr.40(2): 279-289. Cocoa is one of the principal agricultural and cultural resources of the humid Mexican tropics. At present, the cocoa system [...] is facing an unprecedented production crisis in relation to several factors, including the presence of frosty pod rot (Moniliophthora roreri), plantation neglect and low farm profitability. The aim of this study was to formulate a medium-term plan for cocoa production in Mexico by constructing a Technology Roadmap (TRM). Using an econometric model, production statistics were analyzed for national and international data. Producers participated in 185 surveys, and 82 interviews were performed with key actors in the production chain. The results showed that from 2000-2011, Mexico's cocoa production decreased by 43.7%, contrary to the increase seen in most cocoa producing nations during that time. The TRM indicates that a six-year period is needed to implement the plan, which would involve integration of pest management, introduction of good agricultural practices and management, participation in breeding, improvement of quality and promotion of national cocoa. These actions require the participation of all production chain stakeholders to encourage farmers to take part in the specialized production of Mexican fine aroma cocoa.

  15. Definición de la categoría "Producto Campesino" en base a preferencias de consumidores del Gran Santiago Definition of "Peasant Product" category based preferences of consumers in Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sáez Tonacca

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Parte de la Política de Fomento Productivo, orientada al sector de la Agricultura Familiar Campesina, en Chile y otros países de América Latina, propone la elaboración y comercialización de productos tradicionales, cuyo público objetivo son consumidores dispuestos a pagar un mayor precio en comparación a las versiones más industriales, debido a sus atributos particulares, no obstante, el desconocimiento de la información que los consumidores disponen de tales atributos, o la manera en que la emplean para juzgar su calidad, hace necesario investigar la forma en que los consumidores juzgan y comparan la calidad de los productos de origen campesino, razón por la cual, el objetivo del presente estudio es generar una definición de categoría que agrupe a los productos de origen campesino, particularmente a los productos procesados. La información empleada corresponde a fuentes secundarias e información primaria, que fue obtenida por medio de seis sesiones de grupos focales y una encuesta, aplicada a una muestra de 660 personas, de estrato socioeconómico ABC1 y C2, que consumen o han consumido productos de origen campesino. Se determinaron atributos relacionados con la materia prima, al producto terminado, al proceso de elaboración y al productor. Los resultados sugieren que los consumidores definen su compra principalmente por la información entregada en la etiqueta, fijándose en el origen del producto y materias primas utilizadas. Debido a ello, fue posible definir que la categoría de productos procesados campesinos, son aquellos que son elaborados directamente por el productor, con uso intensivo de mano de obra, en base a una receta casera-tradicional, utilizando la materia prima de la temporada y proveniente del lugar de elaboración, con un color, aroma y sabor del producto lo más parecida a la materia prima y nutricionalmente beneficiosa para la salud, todo esto acompañado por inocuidad y calidad en sus procesos.Part of Development strategy aimed to support small farmers of in Chile and different Latin American countries, have proposed elaboration and selling of traditional food products, whose target are those consumers willing to pay a higher price compared to industrial food due to its particular quality attributes, nevertheless, lack of knowledge about which information consumers have about such attributes nor consumers' judgment on traditional food quality, makes necessary to propose a category definition grouping food products made by peasants, and particularly processed food products. Information used in this study was reviewed secondary sources and primary data, through six focus groups and surveys, in this case, we defined a sample size of 660 people of socioeconomic ABC1 and C2, which use or have used products from the countryside. Attributes were identified related to the raw material, finished product, the process of development and producer. Results suggest that consumers purchase decision making is mainly defined by label information, specifically origin of the product and raw materials used for its elaboration. From results of this study, it is possible to define category of peasants processed food products, as those that are made directly by the producer, with intensive use of labor, based on a traditional homemade recipe-using raw materials of the season and from the processing site, with a color, aroma and taste of the product as close to raw materials and nutritionally beneficial to health, all accompanied by safety and quality in their processes.

  16. New particle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lectures on new particle production include production in e+e- annihilation, PSI and PSI- photoproduction and implications for charmed particle photoproduction, PSI and PSI hadronic production and implications for charmed particle production, evidence for the OZI rule in hadronic interactions, and direct lepton production by hadrons and the relevance of this phenomenon to charmed particle production. 109 references

  17. Enhanced acetate ester production of Chinese liquor yeast by overexpressing ATF1 through precise and seamless insertion of PGK1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian; Xu, Haiyan; Zhao, Libin; Chen, Yefu; Zhang, Cuiying; Guo, Xuewu; Hou, Xiaoyue; Chen, Didi; Zhang, Chenxi; Xiao, Dongguang

    2014-12-01

    As the most important group in the flavor profiles of Chinese liquor, ester aroma chemicals are responsible for the highly desired fruity odors. Alcohol acetyltransferase (AATase), which is mainly encoded by ATF1, is one of the most important enzymes for acetate ester synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we overexpressed ATF1 in Chinese liquor yeast through precise and seamless insertion of PGK1 promoter (PGK1p) via a novel fusion PCR-mediated strategy. After two-step integration, PGK1p was embedded in the 5'-terminal of ATF1 exactly without introduction of any extraneous DNA sequence. In the liquid fermentation of corn hydrolysate, both mRNA level and AATase activity of ATF1 in mutant were pronounced higher than the parental strain. Meanwhile, productivity of ethyl acetate increased from 25.04 to 78.76 mg/l. The self-cloning strain without any heterologous sequences residual in its genome would contribute to further commercialization of favorable organoleptic characteristics in Chinese liquor. PMID:25306884

  18. Evaluation of the glycoside hydrolase activity of a Brettanomyces strain on glycosides from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) used in the production of special fruit beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daenen, Luk; Sterckx, Femke; Delvaux, Freddy R; Verachtert, Hubert; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2008-11-01

    The glycoside hydrolase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Brettanomyces custersii was examined on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) glycosides with bound volatile compounds. Refermentations by the beta-glucosidase-negative S. cerevisiae strains LD25 and LD40 of sour cherry juice-supplemented beer demonstrated only a moderate increase of volatiles. In contrast, the beta-glucosidase-positive B. custersii strain LD72 showed a more pronounced activity towards glycosides with aliphatic alcohols, aromatic compounds and terpenoid alcohols. Important contributors to sour cherry aroma such as benzaldehyde, linalool and eugenol were released during refermentation as shown by analytical tools. A gradually increasing release was observed during refermentations by B. custersii when whole sour cherries, sour cherry pulp or juice were supplemented in the beer. Refermentations with whole sour cherries and with sour cherry stones demonstrated an increased formation of benzyl compounds. Thus, amygdalin was partially hydrolysed, and a large part of the benzaldehyde formed was mainly reduced to benzyl alcohol and some further esterified to benzyl acetate. These findings demonstrate the importance and interesting role of certain Brettanomyces species in the production of fruit lambic beers such as 'Kriek'. PMID:18673394

  19. Replacing an Existing Product's Production Within a Similar Product Production by Using a Replacement Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Kova? Kralj; Dejan Bencik

    2011-01-01

    Existing processes for specific products cannot sustain operational profitably over a long period. The product’s price is not much higher than the raw material costs and it is necessary to make certain modifications by using savings or replacements during product production. In our case, the production of methanol having a low market value would be replaced by the production of dimethyl ether (DME). This would create greater demand, especially from the environmental perspective, and ...

  20. PDT (Product Data Technology), Production and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Johan

    1997-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) constitute a genuine technical revolution by enabling a dynamic and flexible support or automation of knowledge and information work. Bearing in mind that products are frozen knowledge, ICT as known will change the way we produce products dramatically. The use of ICT in engineering of products constitutes product data technology (PDT).This paper presents a a basic platform for an understanding the ongoing revolution with focus on the PDT-area taking...

  1. Nail Care Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present practices of use and concentration in nail hardening products, where the concentration of formaldehyde is typically ... Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ...

  2. PENGARUH UKURAN PARTIKEL DAN PROPORSI GULURONAT/MANURONAT DALAM ALGINAT TERHADAP SIFAT DAN SENSORIS PRODUK HASIL RESTRUKTURISASI DARI BUAH SIRSAK [The Influence of Particle size and Guluronic/Mannuronic Proportion of Alginate on Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Restructured Products from Soursop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Raharjo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of restructuring technology is intended to add value for local fruits. Fresh and ripe sour sop fruits are frequently of having defective appearance, irregular shape and size, or showing signs of insect infestation which make the whole fruit is less acceptable by consumers. Previous study has indicated that sour sop fruit can be restructured into a fresh fruit product with acceptable sensory characteristics using calcium alginate gel system. This particular study was intended to determine the effect of alginate powder particles size and its guluronic/mannuronic proportion on the physical and sensorial properties of restructured sour sop. The restructured fruit product was evaluated based on its gel strength, pH colour, and sensory attributes which include taste, aroma, mouth feel, appearance, and hardness. Sour sop restructured by internal setting with coarse alginate powder (36 mesh tend to have softer gel compared to the use of fine alginate powder (120 mesh. Different proportion of guluronic/mannuronic in the alginate used for the restructurization resulted in the same gel strength when calcium lactate powder was used. However, the use of encapsulated calcium lactate resulted in stronger gel with alginate containing higher proportion of mannuronic acid. The alginate particle size and proportion of guluronic/mannuronic content showed no significant difference in product colour and sensory attributes evaluated.

  3. Extracting Product Features from Chinese Product Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Xi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the great development of e-commerce, the number of product reviews grows rapidly on the e-commerce websites. Review mining has recently received a lot of attention, which aims to discover the valuable information from the massive product reviews. Product feature extraction is one of the basic tasks of product review mining. Its effectiveness can influence significantly the performance of subsequent jobs. Double Propagation is a state-of-the-art technique in product feature extraction. In this paper, we apply the Double Propagation to the product feature exaction from Chinese product reviews and adopt some techniques to improve the precision and recall. First, indirect relations and verb product features are introduced to increase the recall. Second, when ranking candidate product features by using HITS, we expand the number of hubs by means of the dependency relation patterns between product features and opinion words to improve the precision. Finally, the Normalized Pattern Relevance is employed to filter the exacted product features. Experiments on diverse real-life datasets show promising results

  4. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HammershØj, Marianne; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk colour, egg albumen, sensory properties, fatty acid and carotenoid composition of the egg yolk. 2. A total of 5 dietary treatments were tested for 5 weeks, consisting of a basal organic feed plus 120 g/ hen.d of the following forage materials: 1) maize silage (control), 2) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced increased significantly with the kale treatment. 4. The egg shell strength tended to be higher with the kale treatment, andegg yolk colour was significantly more red with the kale treatment and more yellow with basil and kale treatments. The albumen DM content and albumen gel strength were lowest with the thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and -carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange xanthophyll, tended to be higher in kale and eggs from hens receiving kale. 5. In conclusion, forage material, especially basil and kale, resulted in increased egg production and eggs of high and differentiable quality.

  5. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammershøj, M; Steenfeldt, S

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk colour, egg albumen, sensory properties, fatty acid and carotenoid composition of the egg yolk. 2. A total of 5 dietary treatments were tested for 5 weeks, consisting of a basal organic feed plus 120?g/hen.d of the following forage materials: 1) maize silage (control), 2) maize silage incl. 15?g/kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30?g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15?g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced increased significantly with the kale treatment. 4. The egg shell strength tended to be higher with the kale treatment, and egg yolk colour was significantly more red with the kale treatment and more yellow with basil and kale treatments. The albumen DM content and albumen gel strength were lowest with the thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and ?-carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange xanthophyll, tended to be higher in kale and eggs from hens receiving kale. 5. In conclusion, forage material, especially basil and kale, resulted in increased egg production and eggs of high and differentiable quality. PMID:22646790

  6. Effect of Cocoa Shell Ash as an Alkalizing Agent on Cocoa Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osundahunsi, O. F.; Bolade, M. K.; Akinbinu, A. A.

    Alkalized cocoa nibs were produced using cocoa shell ash as an alkalizing agent. Conventionally, imported alkalizing agents are used to produce alkalized/dutched nibs in cocoa processing industries. Cocoa powder and cocoa butter were produced from nibs treated with cocoa shell=s ash as an alkalizing agent and compared with products from two industries which used imported alkali as the dutching agent. Cocoa products made from cocoa nibs alkalized with ash for the shell were evaluated for physicochemical properties in comparison with product from Oluji and Stanmark Industries located in Southwestern Nigeria. Flame photometry method was used to determine components of the ash. The pH value of cocoa powder were 6.72 and 6.56 for Oluji and Stanmark samples respectively while 6.59 was reported for the Experimental cocoa powder sample. Percent fat content was 11.56 for Stanmark, 12.20 for Oluji and 10.56 for the Experimental sample. Colour reflectance was highest in Stanmark sample with 8.69 while the least was recorded for Experimental sample (7.18). Percent ash was 6.58, 8.16 and 7.13 for Stanmark, Oluji and Experimental samples respectively. Fat parameters for cocoa butter from the three samples were found to be within International standard for cocoa butter. Percent fatty acid ranged from 1.46 to 1.59. Saponification value was 193 mg KOH gG1 sample for Experimental sample, while Stanmark and Oluji cocoa butter had 196 and 198 mg KOH gG1, respectively. Percent unsaponifiable matter content was 0.30 each for Stanmark and Oluji with 0.39 for Experimental sample. Iodine value was between 35.11 and 38.07 Wij=s. Peroxide value ranged from 26-29 ME kgG1. Major components of cocoa shell ash were found to be potassium, 3.1 g/100 g and sodium, 7.2 g/100 g while sodium carbonate was 33.1 g/100 g. The pH of the ash was 10.8. There were no significant differences (p< 0.05) in all the sensory parameter for cocoa powder. Although, chocolate aroma was found to be less pronounced in the Experimental sample when assessed by sensory panelists, it did not significantly affect the overall acceptability.

  7. Effect of Cocoa Shell Ash as an Alkalizing Agent on Cocoa Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.F. Osundahunsi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkalized cocoa nibs were produced using cocoa shell ash as an alkalizing agent. Conventionally, imported alkalizing agents are used to produce alkalized/dutched nibs in cocoa processing industries. Cocoa powder and cocoa butter were produced from nibs treated with cocoa shell=s ash as an alkalizing agent and compared with products from two industries which used imported alkali as the dutching agent. Cocoa products made from cocoa nibs alkalized with ash for the shell were evaluated for physicochemical properties in comparison with product from Oluji and Stanmark Industries located in Southwestern Nigeria. Flame photometry method was used to determine components of the ash. The pH value of cocoa powder were 6.72 and 6.56 for Oluji and Stanmark samples respectively while 6.59 was reported for the Experimental cocoa powder sample. Percent fat content was 11.56 for Stanmark, 12.20 for Oluji and 10.56 for the Experimental sample. Colour reflectance was highest in Stanmark sample with 8.69 while the least was recorded for Experimental sample (7.18. Percent ash was 6.58, 8.16 and 7.13 for Stanmark, Oluji and Experimental samples respectively. Fat parameters for cocoa butter from the three samples were found to be within International standard for cocoa butter. Percent fatty acid ranged from 1.46 to 1.59. Saponification value was 193 mg KOH gG1 sample for Experimental sample, while Stanmark and Oluji cocoa butter had 196 and 198 mg KOH gG1, respectively. Percent unsaponifiable matter content was 0.30 each for Stanmark and Oluji with 0.39 for Experimental sample. Iodine value was between 35.11 and 38.07 Wij=s. Peroxide value ranged from 26-29 ME kgG1. Major components of cocoa shell ash were found to be potassium, 3.1 g/100 g and sodium, 7.2 g/100 g while sodium carbonate was 33.1 g/100 g. The pH of the ash was 10.8. There were no significant differences (p< 0.05 in all the sensory parameter for cocoa powder. Although, chocolate aroma was found to be less pronounced in the Experimental sample when assessed by sensory panelists, it did not significantly affect the overall acceptability.

  8. Production of medium-chain volatile flavour esters in Pichia pastoris whole-cell biocatalysts with extracellular expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae acyl-CoA: ethanol O-acyltransferase Eht1 or Eeb1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Fu, Junshu

    2015-01-01

    Medium-chain volatile flavour esters are important molecules since they have extensive applications in food, fragrance, cosmetic, paint and coating industries, which determine different characteristics of aroma or taste in commercial products. Biosynthesis of these compounds by alcoholysis is catalyzed by acyl-CoA: ethanol O-acyltransferases Eht1 or Eeb1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, these two yeast enzymes were selected to explore their preparations as the form of whole cell biocatalysts for the production of volatile flavour esters. Here, the novel whole cell biocatalysts Pichia pastoris yeasts with functional extracellular expression of Eht1 or Eeb1 were constructed. Flavour production was established through an integrated process with coupled enzyme formation and ester biosynthesis in the recombinant yeasts in one pot, leading to the formation of volatile C6-C14 methyl and ethyl esters from wort medium. Interestingly, there is no significant difference between P. pastoris-EHT1 and P. pastoris-EEB1 in substrate preference during flavour biosynthesis, indicating a similar role of Eht1 and Eeb1 in P. pastoris cells, in contradiction with previous findings in S. cerevisiae to some extent. Consequently the study not only provides a greater understanding of these two enzymes in a heterogeneous host, but also demonstrated the positive effect of the recombinant Eht1 and Eeb1 in ester formation by P. pastoris live cells, potentially paving the way towards achieving efficient production of volatile flavour by an integrated biocatalytic system composed of recombinant enzyme production and flavour biosynthesis.

  9. Price estimation and economic evaluation of the production cost of red wines produced by immobilized cells on dried raisin berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argiris Tsakiris

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Argiris Tsakiris1, Kiriaki Sotirakoglou2, Panagiotis Kandylis3, Panagiotis Kaldis1, Constantina Tzia4, Yiannis Kourkoutas31Department of Oenology and Beverage Technology, Faculty of Food Technology and Nutrition, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Athens, Greece; 2Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece; 3Applied Microbiology and Molecular Biotechnology Research Group, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 4Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, GreeceAbstract: The aim of the study was initially to estimate the price of red wines produced by immobilized cells on dried raisin berries and subsequently to investigate whether the estimated price was sufficient to counterbalance the increased investment and operational costs required for industrial application of the novel biotechnological process. Price estimation of the experimental wines was based on the correlation of sensory quality, determined by a group of trained tasters, and the price of commercial wines available in a certain market. Application of principal component analysis (PCA provided improved results over simple and exponential regression analysis, as only a part of the relationship between the two variables was represented (68.4% and 75.3%, respectively. However, with PCA the total variance explained by the two components was 100%. Taste was more important than aroma in determining sensory quality, and wine price was mainly affected by sensory quality rather than wine age in the Greek market. The total increase of production cost was estimated to be €0.032/bottle, which is significantly lower than the increase of €2.08/bottle price estimated by PCA for the red wines produced by immobilized cells, due to the improved aromatic potential compared with wines produced by free cells. Hence, profit for the wine industry was estimated to be €1.02/bottle.Keywords: wine market, sensory quality, regression analysis, price, PCA

  10. Thermophilic Biohydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Dark fermentative hydrogen production at thermophilic conditions is attractive process for biofuel production. From thermodynamic point of view, higher temperatures favor biohydrogen production. Highest hydrogen yields are always associated with acetate, or with mixed acetate- butyrate type fermentation. On the contrary the hydrogen yield decreases, with increasing concentrations of lactate, ethanol or propionate. Major factors affecting dark fermentative biohydrogen production are organic loadi...

  11. Thermophilic Biohydrogen Production

    OpenAIRE

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Dark fermentative hydrogen production at thermophilic conditions is attractive process for biofuel production. From thermodynamic point of view, higher temperatures favor biohydrogen production. Highest hydrogen yields are always associated with acetate, or with mixed acetate- butyrate type fermentation. On the contrary the hydrogen yield decreases, with increasing concentrations of lactate, ethanol or propionate. Major factors affecting dark fermentative biohydrogen production are organic lo...

  12. PDT (Product Data Technology), Production and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Johan

    1997-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) constitute a genuine technical revolution by enabling a dynamic and flexible support or automation of knowledge and information work. Bearing in mind that products are frozen knowledge, ICT as known will change the way we produce products dramatically. The use of ICT in engineering of products constitutes product data technology (PDT).This paper presents a a basic platform for an understanding the ongoing revolution with focus on the PDT-area taking outset in the fundamental elements of knowledge and information work: creation, transformation, transmission, storing, and retrieval of knowledge and information.

  13. Designing Product Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1998-01-01

    Manufacturing companies that operate with products aimed at different market segments and applications are experiencing an increasing demand from customers who expect products to be tailored to their exact needs rather than accepting general products based on average customer needs. This trend has led to a new business paradigm, "mass customization", where companies strive to provide highly customized products while still maintaining the efficiency of the classical mass production enterprise. One of the key factors in mass customization has been efficient use of product platforms as a foundation for the customization process, whereby the customized products become variants of a product family with a high degree of reuse and utilization of kinship between the individual variants.With this paper, we will discuss the development of platform based product families from three points of view: Variety, Design Principles, and Product Maturity.

  14. BRAND - PRODUCT INTERDEPENDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Nistorescu, Tudor; C?t?lin Mihail BARBU; Claudia Cristina PLOSCARU

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we conceptually discussed the brands’ role in the society, the dimensions of branding and the relationship between the brand and the products. We adhere to the main ideas expressed in the literature, that the brand is more than a product. However the product is needed to render the brand tangible. The product is the magic box that delivers the brand experience. Without the product, the brand meaning would have difficulties in attracting customers. More studies are needed to inve...

  15. Replacing an Existing Product's Production Within a Similar Product Production by Using a Replacement Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kova? Kralj

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Existing processes for specific products cannot sustain operational profitably over a long period. The product’s price is not much higher than the raw material costs and it is necessary to make certain modifications by using savings or replacements during product production. In our case, the production of methanol having a low market value would be replaced by the production of dimethyl ether (DME. This would create greater demand, especially from the environmental perspective, and can be achieved by using replacement technique. We want to keep and transfer as many of the existing units from the previous production to the new production. Dimethyl ether is an organic compound with the formula CH3OCH3.  It is a colourless gas that is a useful precursor to other organic compounds, and an aerosol propellant. DME can act as a clean fuel when burned in engines properly optimized for DME. The direct production of DME would be cheaper than indirect when applied for new buildings. The same applies for retrofits, or the replacing of existing methanol - specific production – a similar DME product plant would be more rational for the direct production of DME, because of greater efficiency, productivity of DME production, profit, and for 20 % more electricity generation.

    Key words: Dimetyl ether; Replacement; Methanol process; Indirect method; Direct method; Retrofit

  16. Estudo cinético da obtenção de ésteres utilizando enzima lipozyme TL IM como catalisador / Kinetic study of the production of the aliphatic ester n-amyl octanoate by direct esterification using the enzyme Lipozyme TL IM as catalyst

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Everton, Skoronski; Thiago Medeiros, Bonetti; Jair Juarez, João; Agenor, Fúrigo Júnior.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesse trabalho foi estudada a produção do éster alifático octanoato de n-pentila por esterificação direta usando a enzima Lipozyme TL IM como catalisador, sendo esse éster usado como aroma na indústria de alimentos. Foi verificada a influência da concentração inicial de substratos na velocidade inic [...] ial da reação, sendo esta determinada através do consumo de ácido octanoico ao longo do tempo. Modelos cinéticos clássicos descritos na literatura não se ajustaram bem aos dados experimentais. A máxima velocidade da reação foi alcançada a 40 ºC. A enzima Lipozyme TL IM sofre inibição por substrato Abstract in english In this work, the production of the aliphatic ester n-amyl octanoate by direct esterification using the enzyme Lipozyme TL IM as catalyst was studied. The influence of the initial concentration of the substrate on the initial rate of reaction was verified. The initial rate of the reaction was determ [...] ined by the octanoic acid consumption over time. The kinetic models described in the literature did not fit to the experimental data. The maximum rate was reached at 40 ºC. Lipozyme TL IM was inhibited by the initial concentration of the substrate

  17. Product Family Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Morten

    2010-01-01

    This thesis reports the results of a PhD project from the Technical University of Denmark. The research has been carried out in a collaborative project with the Danish company Danfoss Automatic Controls. In the global market companies are struggling to meet customers’ expectation of products that are – at a relatively low price - custom fitted to suit their exact needs and at the same time maintain a profitable business. In the pursuit of growth companies tend to focus on customer demand and market driven product development. While operating in the mass production paradigm and focusing on the cost of the single product this will in time lead to a patchwork of product variants, features, parts, and process technologies – i.e. a product family so complex that it becomes a burden in the companies’ daily operation. As a consequence there has been an increase in the number of companies that are beginning to change their focus from single products to entire product families and try to incorporate the development of product variety into a future product family. The key is to create fit between the product design and production setup. The challenge of understanding this fit and modelling dispositional relations between the existing product design and the production setup with an eye re-design the products and/or the production setup is the main topic for this research project. This research contributes with a visual modelling formalism which has its basis in the Product Family Master Plan (PFMP) presented in the work of Ulf Harlou [2006], hence the notion: PFMP2 – the extended Product Family Master Plan. The model can used to build an overview of dispositional relations between the design of a product family and the production setup. Furthermore, the model links the product design to commercial and quality aspects of the business. Hereby the model supports assessment of the elements in the product family and identification of the good solutions which can be included and the more unfortunate elements that should be avoided in a future product design. The research builds on engineering design science research literature and on the ideas of lean production, plus experiences from the industrial collaboration. The idea of waste from the lean philosophy is brought into a product variety context, and discussed in relation to product development. Verification of the model has been carried out in an industrial setting at Danfoss Automatic Controls. Furthermore, the research has been reviewed by a panel of academic researchers and industrial practitioners as well as through discussion in academic communities. The overall response to the tool has been positive and the single case study at Danfoss reports good usefulness and results.

  18. Powder detergents production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovi? Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for powder detergent production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories, in 1998. - 2000. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with a capacity of 25,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Delta In", Zrenjanin, in 2000.This technology was an innovation, because new approach in mixing a powder materials was used, as well as introducing a new type of dryer in detergent production. The product meets all quality demands for detergents with high specific weight (1000 g/l, as well as environmental regulations. The detergent production process is fully automatized, and the product has uniform quality. There is no waste material in detergent zeolite production, because all products with unsatisfactory quality are returned to the process. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  19. Making Product Customization Profitable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The main result presented in this paper is the Framework for Product Family Master Plan. This framework supports the identification of a product architecture for companies that customize products and services. The framework has five coherent aspects, the market, product assortment, supply-production, organization and work processes. One of the unique results is that these aspects are linked, which make it possible to make explicit recommendations for an architecture (the way a product family should be structured with clear interfaces), architecture elements and consequences. By means of a case study it is shown that the potential EBIT (Earning Before Interests and Taxes) improvement of the case company is 10%.

  20. BRAND - PRODUCT INTERDEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor NISTORESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we conceptually discussed the brands’ role in the society, the dimensions of branding and the relationship between the brand and the products. We adhere to the main ideas expressed in the literature, that the brand is more than a product. However the product is needed to render the brand tangible. The product is the magic box that delivers the brand experience. Without the product, the brand meaning would have difficulties in attracting customers. More studies are needed to investigate the brand-product relationship.

  1. Glocalized Production: The Evolution of Global Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavez, Marianna; Bilberg, Arne

    In light of the challenges of the current globalized production model, four global Danish companies were interviewed with the purpose of exploring “glocalized production” as the new step and solution to the challenges of the “global village.” The research sought to gauge the interest on “glocalized production” by key managers of these companies, and test three hypotheses: that a definition could be established from “glocalization” aspects, that it will reduce supply chain complexity, and that it can affect organizational trust levels. The results are presented along with suggestions to pave the way for future research on this emerging topic.

  2. Increasing productivity: Another approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, F.J.

    1996-06-10

    An engineering information (EI) and information technology (IT) organization that must improve its productivity should work to further its business goals. This paper explores a comprehensive model for increasing EI/IT productivity by supporting organizational objectives.

  3. Phenomenology of lepton production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of lepton production in hadronic collisions is reviewed. The following subjects are developed: the Drell-Yan model for continuous l+l- production, vector mesons and clusters, and other sources of direct leptons

  4. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  5. Problems Digesting Dairy Products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information www.fda.gov/consumer Problems Digesting Dairy Products? D oes your stomach churn after you ... the natural sugar found in milk and other dairy products. People who cannot digest lactose have a ...

  6. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  7. Outdoor Product Related Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — Outdoor Product Related Recalls. CPSC is charged with protecting the public from unreasonable risks of serious injury or death from thousands of types of consumer...

  8. Household Product Related Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — Household Product Related Recalls. CPSC is charged with protecting the public from unreasonable risks of serious injury or death from thousands of types of consumer...

  9. Other Fluoride Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Other Fluoride Products Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... August 17, 2001;50(RR-14):1–42. Fluoride Products Fluoride Toothpaste Form Concentrations of fluoride in ...

  10. Transformer Industry Productivity Slows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Phyllis Flohr

    1981-01-01

    Annual productivity increases averaged 2.4 percent during 1963-79, slowing since 1972 to 1.5 percent; computer-assisted design and product standardization aided growth in output per employee-hour. (Author)

  11. Hydrocodone Combination Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses. Some hydrocodone combination products are used to relieve moderate-to-severe pain. Other hydrocodone combination products are used to relieve cough. Hydrocodone is in a class of medications ...

  12. All Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — Recalls and product safety news. CPSC is charged with protecting the public from unreasonable risks of serious injury or death from thousands of types of consumer...

  13. MEKANISME PRODUKSI MINYAK SEL TUNGGAL DENGAN SISTEM FERMENTASI PADAT PADA MEDIA ONGGOK-AMPAS TAHU DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN KAPANG ASPERGILLUS TERREUS [The Production Mechanism of Single Cell Oil from Aspergillus terreus in a Solid Fermentation System Using a Mixture of Tapioca and Tofu Waste Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tati Sukarti

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Fat is an important nutrient for health. Considering the ever-increasing annual demand for cooking oil as a result of the rapid increase in population new sources of poly-unsaturated fats must be searched for.One potential source is the Single Cell Oil (SCO; production of SCO does not require vast areas of land, production time is relatively short and is not affected by enviromental conditions. Moreover, product synthesis and production volume can be easily controlled; Moreover, the tri-acyl-glyceral produced contain essential fatty acids, i.e linoleic and linolenic acid.The objectives of this research was to study the influence of two mold strains of A. terreus and the C/N ratio of the growth medium consisting of cassava atarch and tofu processing waste on SCO production.This research consisted of two parts. The first part was a study on keeping methods of pure cultures of A. terreus, preparation of starter cultures, isolation of mold from the starter culture and preparation of fermentation media. The second part of the research was fermentation of A. terreus strain FNOC 6039 and FNOC 6040 on solid media made of tapioca and tofu waste having C/N ratios of 25/1, 30/1, 35/1, 40/1 and 45/1. Post-fermentation observations on the growth medium slabs consisted of moisture, starch, total sugars and protein content and SCO production.Both strain of A. terreus and C/N ratio affected moisture, starch, total sugars and protein content of the growth media. The A. terreus FNOC 6040 strain growth on a medium with C/N ratio of 45/1 was the most potential oil producer, i.e. 14,63% crude SCO. The oil was brownish yellow in color and has a slightly fishy aroma.

  14. Product Platform Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Lone

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to improve understanding of platform-based product development by studying platform performance in relation to internal effects in companies. Platform-based product development makes it possible to deliver product variety and at the same time reduce the needed resources, and the subject has gained increased attention in industry and academia the past decade. Literature on platform-based product development is often based on single case studies and it is sparsely verif...

  15. Delayed multiattribute product differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    We develop a two-stage model for versioning products with respect to both vertical and horizontal attributes. At first, a firm positions its top-quality “flagship” product in a market with an imperfectly known distribution of tastes and reservation prices. In the second stage, the firm learns these consumer characteristics and has the option of extending its product line by versioning the flagship product using pure horizontal differentiation, quality degrading, or both. The firm's nonconvex ...

  16. Dry alcohol production plant

    OpenAIRE

    Stankovi? Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.

    2003-01-01

    The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There...

  17. Product Architecture Modularity Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to integrate various perspectives on product architecture modularity into a general framework, and also to propose a way to measure the degree of modularization embedded in product architectures. Various trade-offs between modular and integral product architectures and how components and interfaces influence the degree of modularization are considered. In order to gain a better understanding of product architecture modularity as a strategy, a theoretical framework and ...

  18. Product Platform Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    This PhD thesis has the title Product Platform Modelling. The thesis is about product platforms and visual product platform modelling. Product platforms have gained an increasing attention in industry and academia in the past decade. The reasons are many, yet the increasing globalisation and the change in the global economy seem to be major factors. Manufacturing companies have experienced an intensifying competition and many companies face increasing demands for reductions in costs and lead tim...

  19. Household Products Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Maintenance Arts & Crafts Pet Care Home Office Commercial / Institutional Product Names Types of Products Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ Product Recalls Help Glossary Contact Us More Resources What's under your kitchen sink, in your garage, in your bathroom, and ...

  20. Top quark production

    CERN Document Server

    Boisvert, Veronique; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Recent measurements on top quark production are presented on behalf of Tevatron and LHC experiments. The measurements cover topics like inclusive and differential top quark pair (and single top quark) production cross sections as well as associated production of top quark pairs with a gauge bosons or with b-jets.