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Sample records for aroma 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline production

  1. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline - key aroma compound in Mediterranean dried sausages

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    Southern types were attributed to a burned coffee odour from smoke in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The two compounds were 2-furfurylthiol and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. An analysis of five dried, moulded sausages showed that the surface...

  2. Manganese-induced regulations in growth, yield formation, quality characters, rice aroma and enzyme involved in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthesis in fragrant rice.

    Li, Meijuan; Ashraf, Umair; Tian, Hua; Mo, Zhaowen; Pan, Shenggang; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Duan, Meiyang; Tang, Xiangru

    2016-06-01

    Micro-nutrient application is essential for normal plant growth while a little is known about manganese (Mn)-induced regulations in morpho-physiological attributes, aroma formation and enzyme involved in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) biosynthesis in aromatic rice. Present study aimed to examine the influence of four levels of Mn i.e., Mn1 (100 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)), Mn2 (150 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)), Mn3 (200 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)), and Mn4 (250 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)) on the growth, yield formation, quality characters, rice aroma and enzyme involved in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthesis in two fragrant rice cultivars i.e., Meixiangzhan and Nongxiang 18. Pots without Mn application were served as control (Ck). Each pot contained 15 kg of soil. Effects on agronomic characters, quality attributes, 2-AP contents and enzymes involved in 2-AP biosynthesis have been studied in early and late season rice. Results depicted that Mn improved rice growth, yield and related characters, and some quality attributes significantly. It further up-regulated proline, pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid (P5C) (precursors of 2-AP), soluble proteins and activities of proline dehydrogenase (ProDH), Δ(1) pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid synthetase (P5CS) ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) that led to enhanced 2-AP production in rice grains. Moreover, higher Mn levels resulted in increased grain Mn contents in both rice cultivars. Along with growth and yield improvement, Mn application significantly improved rice aromatic contents. Overall, Nongxiang 18 accumulated more 2-AP contents than Meixiangzhan in both seasons under Mn application. This study further explored the importance of Mn in rice aroma formation and signifies that micro-nutrients can play significant roles in rice aroma synthesis; however, intensive studies at molecular levels are still needed to understand the exact mechanisms of Mn to improve rice aroma formation. PMID:26995311

  3. HS-SPME-GC-FID method for detection and quantification of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10702 mediated 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline.

    Deshmukh, Yogita; Khare, Puja; Patra, D D; Nadaf, Altafhusain B

    2014-01-01

    A rapid micro-scale solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) procedure coupled with gas-chromatography with flame ionized detector (GC-FID) was used to extract parts per billion levels of a principle basmati aroma compound "2-acetyl-1-pyrroline" (2-AP) from bacterial samples. In present investigation, optimization parameters of bacterial incubation period, sample weight, pre-incubation time, adsorption time, and temperature, precursors and their concentrations has been studied. In the optimized conditions, detection of 2-AP produced by Bacillus cereus ATCC10702 using only 0.5 g of sample volume was 85 ?g/kg. Along with 2-AP, 15 other compounds produced by B. cereus were also reported out of which 14 were reported for the first time consisting mainly of (E)-2-hexenal, pentadecanal, 4-hydroxy-2-butanone, n-hexanal, 2-6-nonadienal, 3-methoxy-2(5H) furanone and 2-acetyl-1-pyridine and octanal. High recovery of 2-AP (87 %) from very less amount of B. cereus samples was observed. The method is reproducible fast and can be used for detection of 2-AP production by B. cereus. PMID:25196224

  4. Identification and Quantitation of 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline in Manuka Honey (Leptospermum scoparium).

    Rückriemen, Jana; Schwarzenbolz, Uwe; Adam, Simone; Henle, Thomas

    2015-09-30

    Manuka honey from New Zealand is known for its exceptional antibacterial activity, which is due to high amounts of the 1,2-dicarbonyl compound methylglyoxal (MGO). MGO in manuka honey is formed via non-enzymatic dehydration from dihydroxyacetone (DHA) during honey maturation. MGO and DHA are highly reactive substances, leading to a variety of unique chemical reactions. During Strecker reaction between proline and MGO, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP), an important aroma compound, is formed. Using liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, 2-AP was identified unambiguously in manuka honey for the first time. Quantitation was carried out via external matrix calibration, using a synthetic 2-AP standard and artificial honey. The 2-AP concentration in 11 commercial samples of manuka honey ranged from 0.08 to 0.45 mg/kg. For manuka honey samples containing MGO in concentrations above 250 mg/kg, significantly higher amounts of 2-AP were found when compared to non-manuka honeys. When high amounts of MGO were artificially added to non-manuka multifloral honey, an increase of the 2-AP concentration from 0.07 to 0.40 mg/kg after 12 weeks of storage at 37 °C was observed, concomitant with a significant increase in the concentration of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). No increase of 2-AP was found during storage at ambient temperature. 2-AP together with MGO can be a suitable parameter for the quality control of manuka honey. PMID:26365614

  5. 2-Acetyl-1-Pyrroline Augmentation in Scented indica Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Varieties Through ?(1)-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthetase (P5CS) Gene Transformation.

    Kaikavoosi, Kayghobad; Kad, Trupti D; Zanan, Rahul L; Nadaf, Altafhusain B

    2015-12-01

    2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) has been identified as a principal aroma compound in scented rice varieties. ?(1)-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) gene is reported to regulate the proline synthesis in plants and acts as the precursor of 2AP. Two scented indica rice varieties, namely Ambemohar 157 and Indrayani, were subjected to Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation containing P5CS gene. Overexpression of P5CS led to a significant increase in proline, P5CS enzyme activity and 2AP levels in transgenic calli, vegetative plant parts, and seeds over control in both the varieties. 2AP level increased more than twofold in transgenic seeds in both varieties. This is the first report of enhancement in 2AP content through overexpression of using P5CS gene, indicating the role of proline as a precursor amino acid in the biosynthesis of 2AP in scented rice. PMID:26340891

  6. Biosynthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in rice calli cultures: Demonstration of 1-pyrroline as a limiting substrate.

    Poonlaphdecha, Janchai; Gantet, Pascal; Maraval, Isabelle; Sauvage, François-Xavier; Menut, Chantal; Morère, Alain; Boulanger, Renaud; Wüst, Matthias; Gunata, Ziya

    2016-04-15

    The role of 1-pyrroline was studied via feeding experiments using rice calli cultures to gain further insight into the key steps of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) biosynthesis in rice. The origin of the acetyl donor was also studied through stable isotope labelled substrates. Incubation of fresh calli from a fragrant rice variety (Aychade) and a non-fragrant variety (Gladio×Fidji K2) with 1-pyrroline led to a significant increase in 2AP in both varieties. Importantly, the amount of 2AP in the non-fragrant variety could be greatly enhanced by this supplementation. When rice calli were fed with increasing levels of 1-pyrroline, 2AP levels increased accordingly. Our data show that 1-pyrroline is a limiting factor for 2AP synthesis in rice. Heat treatment of calli suggested that 1-pyrroline might be enzymatically acetylated. The presence of labelled 2AP in calli supplemented with [U-(13)C]glucose, sodium acetate (1,2-(13)C2) and sodium octanoate (1,2,3,4-(13)C4) suggested that these compounds are possible candidates for acetyl group-donors of 2AP, predominately in the form of intact labelled (13)C2-units. PMID:26617041

  7. Quantification of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in rice by stable isotope dilution assay through headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    A new and convenient synthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), a potent flavor compound in rice, and its ring-deuterated analog, 2-acetyl-1-d2-pyrroline (2AP-d2), was reported. A stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA), involving headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-positive chemical ionization-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-PCI-IT-MS-MS), was developed for 2AP quantification. A divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber was used for HS-SPME procedure and parameters affecting analytes recovery, such as extraction time and temperature, pH and salt, were studied. The repeatability of the method (n = 10) expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was 11.6%. A good linearity was observed from 5.9 to 779 ng of 2AP (r2 = 0.9989). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for 2AP were 0.1 and 0.4 ng g-1 of rice, respectively. The recovery of spiked 2AP from rice matrix was almost complete. The developed method was applied to the quantification of 2AP in aerial parts and grains of scented and non-scented rice cultivars.

  8. Quantification of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in rice by stable isotope dilution assay through headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Maraval, Isabelle [UMR Qualisud, CIRAD, 73 Rue J. F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); UMR Qualisud, Universite Montpellier 2, place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Sen, Kemal [Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cukurova, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Agrebi, Abdelhamid; Menut, Chantal; Morere, Alain [UMR 5247, Institut des Biomolecules Max Mousseron (IBMM), CNRS, Universites Montpellier 2 et 1, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Montpellier, 8 Rue de l' Ecole Normale, 34296 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Boulanger, Renaud [UMR Qualisud, CIRAD, 73 Rue J. F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Gay, Frederic [CIRAD, DORAS Centre, Research and Development Building, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Mestres, Christian [UMR Qualisud, CIRAD, 73 Rue J. F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Gunata, Ziya, E-mail: zgunata@univ-montp2.fr [UMR Qualisud, Universite Montpellier 2, place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2010-08-24

    A new and convenient synthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), a potent flavor compound in rice, and its ring-deuterated analog, 2-acetyl-1-d{sub 2}-pyrroline (2AP-d{sub 2}), was reported. A stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA), involving headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-positive chemical ionization-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-PCI-IT-MS-MS), was developed for 2AP quantification. A divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber was used for HS-SPME procedure and parameters affecting analytes recovery, such as extraction time and temperature, pH and salt, were studied. The repeatability of the method (n = 10) expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was 11.6%. A good linearity was observed from 5.9 to 779 ng of 2AP (r{sup 2} = 0.9989). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for 2AP were 0.1 and 0.4 ng g{sup -1} of rice, respectively. The recovery of spiked 2AP from rice matrix was almost complete. The developed method was applied to the quantification of 2AP in aerial parts and grains of scented and non-scented rice cultivars.

  9. FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Adriana Bramorski; Carlos R Soccol; Pierre Christen; Sergio Revah

    1998-01-01

    Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intens...

  10. Characterization of the aroma signature of styrian pumpkin seed oil ( Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca) by molecular sensory science.

    Poehlmann, Susan; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-03-27

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a distillate prepared from an authentic Styrian pumpkin seed oil followed by identification experiments led to the characterization of 47 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192 among which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Among the set of key odorants, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline and another 20 odorants were identified for the first time as constituents of pumpkin seed oil. To evaluate the aroma contribution in more detail, 31 aroma compounds showing the highest FD factors were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds determined in sunflower oil, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated, and 26 aroma compounds were found to have an OAV above 1. Among them, methanethiol (sulfury), 2-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanal (malty), and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (roasted potato) reached the highest OAVs. Sensory evaluation of an aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 31 key odorants in the concentrations as determined in the oil revealed that the aroma of Styrian pumpkin seed oil could be closely mimicked. Quantitation of 11 key odorants in three commercial pumpkin seed oil revealed clear differences in the concentrations of distinct odorants, which were correlated with the overall aroma profile of the oils. PMID:23461409

  11. Aroma retention in modern bread production.

    Rothe, M; Ruttloff, H

    1983-01-01

    In highly industrialized countries bread consumption rate decreases in favour of flavour-intensive foods like meat, sweets, cocoa products or alcoholic beverages. This trend which is unfavourable from the nutritional point of view may be forced by flavour losses in modern bread technology itself. Sensory profile studies indicate 4 points which may change the traditional bread flavour, i.e. reduction of flour extraction rate, changes within bread formula, shortening of the dough procedures or of baking time. Possible ways for improving bread flavour in modern technology are discussed. The use of precursor systems as well as of biotechnical procedures deliver chances for future bread production with improved flavour quality. PMID:6888528

  12. OCCURING SOME BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS IN FERMENTED MEAT PRODUCTS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON AROMA DEVELOPMENT

    Gkalp, Hsn Yusuf; ERCO?KUN, Hdayi; on, Ahmet Hilmi

    1998-01-01

    Glycolysis, lipolysis and proteolysis are the main biochemical reactions which effect characteristic flavour, aroma, color and texture development of fermented meat products. These reactions are results of the microorganisms or endogenous meat enzymes. The products which are results of glycolysis are firstly responsible from decreasing of pH. Volatile compounds from glycolysis effect aroma. Compounds formed by lipolysis are the main reason that effect aroma. 60 % volatile compounds formed...

  13. Development of a single kernel analysis method for detection of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in aromatic rice germplasm

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in conjunction with GC/MS was used to distinguish non-aromatic rice (Oryza sativa, L.) kernels from aromatic rice kernels. In this method, single kernels along with 10 µl of 0.1 ng 2,4,6-Trimethylpyridine (TMP) were placed in sealed vials and heated to 80oC for 18...

  14. FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Adriana Bramorski

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intensity was detected a few hours before or after the maximum respirometric activity. Sixteen compounds were separated by gas cromatography of the components present in the headspace and fifteen of them were identified as acid (1, alcohols (6, aldehyde (1, ketones (2 and esters (5.Este estudo explorou a versatilidade de Ceratocystis fimbriata de crescer e produzir aromas naturais sobre substratos de resíduos agro-industriais. Bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã, amaranto e soja em diferentes proporções compuseram os sete meios utilizados, mostrando ser substratos adequados para o crescimento e produção de aroma por este fungo em fermentação no estado sólido. Todos os meios contendo bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã e soja em sua composição proporcionaram um forte aroma frutal, enquanto, o meio de amaranto produziu um agradável aroma de abacaxi. A produção de aroma foi dependente do crescimento, visto que a máxima intensidade do aroma foi detectado poucas horas antes ou depois da atividade respiratória máxima. Foram detectados dezesseis compostos pela cromatografia de gás no headspace das culturas, e quinze deles foram identificados: 1 ácido, 6 alcoois, 1 aldeído, 2 cetonas e 5 ésteres.

  15. Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products

    Nevenka Mazić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried out at room temperature until the media reached pH value of 5. Samples were evaluated for sensory characteristics using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. In all media the target pH was reached after 68-71 hours of fermentation, depending on citrate level. Fermentation and the production of aroma compounds were more intensive in media that contained whey proteins compared to media with only casein. Increased citrate level had a positive influence on the aroma production. Citrate increased the initial pH of the media and acted as a buffer during fermentation, which lead to longer fermentation and prolonged production of aroma compounds. At pH around 5, the desired cultured aroma was the most intensive, whereas sour taste was less dominant. The substrate with 0.25% citrate and 0.1% whey proteins, at pH 5, was rated as best regarding its sensory characteristics.

  16. SUGARCANE BAGASSE AS SUPPORT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COCONUT AROMA BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION (SSF

    Manoela Pessanha da Penha,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the major producers of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum in the world and consequently produces large quantities of waste such as sugarcane bagasse, which can be used as inert support for the production of aroma compounds by SSF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the centesimal composition and particle size distribution of sugar cane bagasse, as well as its applicability as support for the production of 6-pentyl-α-pyrone by SSF. Analyses were performed in triplicate to evaluate the levels of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and moisture in the waste. Also evaluated were the particle size distribution and morphology structure of the sugarcane bagasse. The aroma compound produced shows that the studied waste can be used for 6PP production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC 4042 by SSF process. By kinetic production of aroma it is concluded that the seventh day of fermentation yielded the largest production of the aroma compound, as published for other studies

  17. OCCURING SOME BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS IN FERMENTED MEAT PRODUCTS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON AROMA DEVELOPMENT

    Hsn Yusuf GKALP

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycolysis, lipolysis and proteolysis are the main biochemical reactions which effect characteristic flavour, aroma, color and texture development of fermented meat products. These reactions are results of the microorganisms or endogenous meat enzymes. The products which are results of glycolysis are firstly responsible from decreasing of pH. Volatile compounds from glycolysis effect aroma. Compounds formed by lipolysis are the main reason that effect aroma. 60 % volatile compounds formed in fermented products are results of lipolysis. Because of low pH, low water activity and high salt concentration, proteolysis occurs in a very decreased level and form only a little part of all volatiles. For this reason proteolysis effects aroma much more than flavour.

  18. Production of aromas and fragrances through microbial oxidation of monoterpenes

    H. F. Rozenbaum

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Aromas and fragrances can be obtained through the microbial oxidation of monoterpenes. Many microorganisms can be used to carry out extremely specific conversions using substrates of low commercial value. However, for many species, these substrates are highly toxic, consequently inhibiting their metabolism. In this work, the conversion ability of Aspergillus niger IOC-3913 for terpenic compounds was examined. This species was preselected because of its high resistance to toxic monoterpenic substrates. Though it has been grown in media containing R-limonene (one of the cheapest monoterpenic hydrocarbons, which is widely available on the market, the species has not shown the ability to metabolize it, since biotransformation products were not detected in high resolution gas chromatography analyses. For this reason, other monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and camphor were used as substrates. These compounds were shown to be metabolized by the selected strain, producing oxidized compounds. Four reaction systems were used: a biotransformation in a liquid medium with cells in growth b with pre-grown cultures c with cells immobilized in a synthetic polymer network and d in a solid medium to which the substrate was added via the gas phase. The main biotransformation products were found in all the reaction systems, although the adoption of previously cultivated cells seemed to favor biotransformation. Cell immobilization seemed to be a feasible strategy for alleviating the toxic effect of the substrate. Through mass spectrometry it was possible to identify verbenone and alpha-terpineol as the biotransformation products of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, respectively. The structures of the other oxidation products are described.

  19. Large-scale selection and breeding to generate industrial yeasts with superior aroma production.

    Steensels, Jan; Meersman, Esther; Snoek, Tim; Saels, Veerle; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations and relative ratios of various aroma compounds produced by fermenting yeast cells are essential for the sensory quality of many fermented foods, including beer, bread, wine, and sake. Since the production of these aroma-active compounds varies highly among different yeast strains, careful selection of variants with optimal aromatic profiles is of crucial importance for a high-quality end product. This study evaluates the production of different aroma-active compounds in 301 different Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces paradoxus, and Saccharomyces pastorianus yeast strains. Our results show that the production of key aroma compounds like isoamyl acetate and ethyl acetate varies by an order of magnitude between natural yeasts, with the concentrations of some compounds showing significant positive correlation, whereas others vary independently. Targeted hybridization of some of the best aroma-producing strains yielded 46 intraspecific hybrids, of which some show a distinct heterosis (hybrid vigor) effect and produce up to 45% more isoamyl acetate than the best parental strains while retaining their overall fermentation performance. Together, our results demonstrate the potential of large-scale outbreeding to obtain superior industrial yeasts that are directly applicable for commercial use. PMID:25192996

  20. Media components and amino acid supplements influencing the production of fruity aroma by Geotrichum candidum Influncia da composio do meio de cultivo e da suplementao com aminocidos na produo de aroma frutal por Geotrichum candidum

    T. Pinotti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Geotrichum candidum to produce fruity aroma in food grade sucrose, molasses, corn steep liquor and peptone based culture media was tested by sensory evaluation and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A strong and sweet fruity aroma was produced from molasses, with peptone or corn steep liquor stimulating aroma production. Molasses with peptone supplemented with leucine, valine, or alanine yielded better fruity aroma production and the presence of many esters was consistent with the fruity aroma production.Geotrichum candidum foi cultivado em diversos meios de cultura contendo sacarose ou melao e milhocina ou peptona e a produo de aroma frutal foi verificada atravs de avaliao sensorial e cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas. Os meios contendo melao, peptona e leucina, valina ou alanina apresentaram os melhores resultados e a presena de diversos steres foi consistente com a formao de aroma frutal.

  1. Potential applications of glucosyltransferases in terpene glucoside production: impacts on the use of aroma and fragrance.

    Schwab, Wilfried; Fischer, Thilo C; Giri, Ashok; Wüst, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The detection of glucoconjugated forms of monoterpene alcohols in rose petals in the late 1960s opened the new field of nonvolatile aroma precursors in flavor research. It is now well established that odorless glycosides represent a significant pool of aroma precursors in plants where they act as preformed but inactivated defense or attractive chemicals. Technical improvements in the separation and identification of plant secondary metabolites have provided a multitude of chemical structures, but functional characterization of glycosyltransferases that catalyze their formation lags behind. As technical efforts and costs for DNA sequencing dramatically dropped during the last decade, the number of plant genome sequences increased significantly, thus providing opportunities to functionally characterize the glycosyltransferase gene families in plants. These studies yielded the first glycosyltransferase genes that encode efficient biocatalysts for the production of monoterpene glucosides. They have applications in the food, feed, chemical, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries as slow release aroma chemicals. PMID:25431013

  2. Irradiation and fumigation effects on flavor, aroma and composition of grapefruit products

    Effects were evaluated on grapefruit treated to meet quarantine restrictions against Caribbean fruit fly infestation. Differences were found in flavor of fresh sections, fresh juice, and aroma of peel oil when obtained from fruit irradiated with x-rays, as compared with products from nonirradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in all pasteurized juices from fruit irradiated at 5-60 krad. Vitamin C levels were significantly lower in juice from most irradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in fresh and pasteurized juice from fruit treated with methyl bromide, and in pasteurized juice from fruit treated with ethylene dibromide. Aroma differences were found in peel oil from fruit treated with phosphine. (author)

  3. Irradiation and fumigation effects on flavor, aroma and composition of grapefruit products

    Moshonas, M.G.; Shaw, P.E.

    1982-05-01

    Effects were evaluated on grapefruit treated to meet quarantine restrictions against Caribbean fruit fly infestation. Differences were found in flavor of fresh sections, fresh juice, and aroma of peel oil when obtained from fruit irradiated with x-rays, as compared with products from nonirradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in all pasteurized juices from fruit irradiated at 50-60 krad. Vitamin C levels were significantly lower in juice from most irradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in fresh and pasteurized juice from fruit treated with methyl bromide, and in pasteurized juice from fruit treated with ethylene dibromide. Aroma differences were found in peel oil from fruit treated with phosphine.

  4. Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene.

    Sharon-Asa, Liat; Shalit, Moshe; Frydman, Ahuva; Bar, Einat; Holland, Doron; Or, Etti; Lavi, Uri; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Eyal, Yoram

    2003-12-01

    Citrus fruits possess unique aromas rarely found in other fruit species. While fruit flavor is composed of complex combinations of soluble and volatile compounds, several low-abundance sesquiterpenes, such as valencene, nootkatone, alpha-sinensal, and beta-sinensal, stand out in citrus as important flavor and aroma compounds. The profile of terpenoid volatiles in various citrus species and their importance as aroma compounds have been studied in detail, but much is still lacking in our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of their production. Here, we report on the isolation, functional expression, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a sesquiterpene synthase-encoding gene, involved in citrus aroma formation. The recombinant enzyme encoded by Cstps1 was shown to convert farnesyl diphosphate to a single sesquiterpene product identified as valencene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phylogenetic analysis of plant terpene synthase genes localized Cstps1 to the group of angiosperm sesquiterpene synthases. Within this group, Cstps1 belongs to a subgroup of citrus sesquiterpene synthases. Cstps1 was found to be developmentally regulated: transcript was found to accumulate only towards fruit maturation, corresponding well with the timing of valencene accumulation in fruit. Although citrus fruits are non-climacteric, valencene accumulation and Cstps1 expression were found to be responsive to ethylene, providing further evidence for the role of ethylene in the final stages of citrus fruit ripening. Isolation of the gene encoding valencene synthase provides a tool for an in-depth study of the regulation of aroma compound biosynthesis in citrus and for metabolic engineering for fruit flavor characteristics. PMID:14617067

  5. QTL mapping of the production of wine aroma compounds by yeast

    Steyer Damien

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wine aroma results from the combination of numerous volatile compounds, some produced by yeast and others produced in the grapes and further metabolized by yeast. However, little is known about the consequences of the genetic variation of yeast on the production of these volatile metabolites, or on the metabolic pathways involved in the metabolism of grape compounds. As a tool to decipher how wine aroma develops, we analyzed, under two experimental conditions, the production of 44 compounds by a population of 30 segregants from a cross between a laboratory strain and an industrial strain genotyped at high density. Results We detected eight genomic regions explaining the diversity concerning 15 compounds, some produced de novo by yeast, such as nerolidol, ethyl esters and phenyl ethanol, and others derived from grape compounds such as citronellol, and cis-rose oxide. In three of these eight regions, we identified genes involved in the phenotype. Hemizygote comparison allowed the attribution of differences in the production of nerolidol and 2-phenyl ethanol to the PDR8 and ABZ1 genes, respectively. Deletion of a PLB2 gene confirmed its involvement in the production of ethyl esters. A comparison of allelic variants of PDR8 and ABZ1 in a set of available sequences revealed that both genes present a higher than expected number of non-synonymous mutations indicating possible balancing selection. Conclusions This study illustrates the value of QTL analysis for the analysis of metabolic traits, and in particular the production of wine aromas. It also identifies the particular role of the PDR8 gene in the production of farnesyldiphosphate derivatives, of ABZ1 in the production of numerous compounds and of PLB2 in ethyl ester synthesis. This work also provides a basis for elucidating the metabolism of various grape compounds, such as citronellol and cis-rose oxide.

  6. Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products

    Nevenka Mazić; Rajka Božanić

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB) would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried o...

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of recombinant betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (OsBADH2), a protein involved in jasmine aroma, from Thai fragrant rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Crystals of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 from rice (O. sativa L.) belonged to a C-centred orthorhombic space group and diffraceted X-rays to 2.6 Å resolution. Fragrant rice (Oryza sativa L.) betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (OsBADH2) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of fragrance aroma compounds. The extremely low activity of OsBADH2 in catalyzing the oxidation of acetaldehyde is believed to be crucial for the accumulation of the volatile compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) in many scented plants, including fragrant rice. Recombinant fragrant rice OsBADH2 was expressed in Escherichia coli as an N-terminal hexahistidine fusion protein, purified using Ni Sepharose affinity chromatography and crystallized using the microbatch method. Initial crystals were obtained within 24 h using 0.1 M Tris pH 8.5 with 30%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 0.2 M magnesium chloride as the precipitating agent at 291 K. Crystal quality was improved when the enzyme was cocrystallized with NAD+. Improved crystals were grown in 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.4, 24%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 0.2 M ammonium chloride and diffracted to beyond 2.95 Å resolution after being cooled in a stream of N2 immediately prior to X-ray diffraction experiments. The crystals belonged to space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 66.03, b = 183.94, c = 172.28 Å. An initial molecular-replacement solution has been obtained and refinement is in progress

  8. Determination of sulfur and nitrogen compounds during the processing of dry fermented sausages and their relation to amino acid generation.

    Corral, Sara; Leitner, Erich; Siegmund, Barbara; Flores, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    The identification of odor-active sulfur and nitrogen compounds formed during the processing of dry fermented sausages was the objective of this study. In order to elucidate their possible origin, free amino acids (FAAs) were also determined. The volatile compounds present in the dry sausages were extracted using solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and monitored by one and two-dimensional gas chromatography with different detectors: mass spectrometry (MS), nitrogen phosphorous (NPD), flame photometric (FPD) detectors, as well as gas chromatography-olfactometry. A total of seventeen sulfur and nitrogen compounds were identified and quantified. Among them, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline was the most potent odor active compound, followed by methional, ethylpyrazine and 2,3-dihydrothiophene characterized by toasted, cooked potato, and nutty notes. The degradation of FAAs, generated during processing, was related to the production of aroma compounds, such as methionine forming methional and benzothiazole while ornithine was the precursor compound for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and glycine for ethylpyrazine. PMID:26213023

  9. Aminoacid metabolism and the production of wine aroma compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Arajo, Leandro Dias

    2012-01-01

    Os produtos do metabolismo de aminocidos por leveduras Saccharomyces cerevisiae durante a fermentao alcolica tm um impacto relevante no perfil sensorial de vinhos. Com o objetivo de estudar a influncia da composio de aminocidos do meio na formao da base do aroma tpico de vinho, meios sintticos contendo diferentes compostos nitrogenados foram fermentados por S. cerevisiae. Em um primeiro experimento, cinco meios de composies distintas quanto fonte de azoto foram testados, send...

  10. Production of fermentation aroma compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts: effects of yeast assimilable nitrogen on two model strains.

    Carrau, Francisco M; Medina, Karina; Farina, Laura; Boido, Eduardo; Henschke, Paul A; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2008-11-01

    The contribution of yeast fermentation metabolites to the aromatic profile of wine is well documented; however, the biotechnological application of this knowledge, apart from strain selection, is still rather limited and often contradictory. Understanding and modeling the relationship between nutrient availability and the production of desirable aroma compounds by different strains must be one of the main objectives in the selection of industrial yeasts for the beverage and food industry. In order to overcome the variability in the composition of grape juices, we have used a chemically defined model medium for studying yeast physiological behavior and metabolite production in response to nitrogen supplementation so as to identify an appropriate yeast assimilable nitrogen level for strain differentiation. At low initial nitrogen concentrations, strain KU1 produced higher quantities of esters and fatty acids whereas M522 produced higher concentrations of isoacids, gamma-butyrolactone, higher alcohols and 3-methylthio-1-propanol. We propose that although strains KU1 and M522 have a similar nitrogen consumption profile, they represent useful models for the chemical characterization of wine strains in relation to wine quality. The differential production of aroma compounds by the two strains is discussed in relation to their capacity for nitrogen usage and their impact on winemaking. The results obtained here will help to develop targeted metabolic footprinting methods for the discrimination of industrial yeasts. PMID:18637137

  11. Wine flavor and aroma.

    Styger, Gustav; Prior, Bernard; Bauer, Florian F

    2011-09-01

    The perception of wine flavor and aroma is the result of a multitude of interactions between a large number of chemical compounds and sensory receptors. Compounds interact and combine and show synergistic (i.e., the presence of one compound enhances the perception of another) and antagonistic (a compound suppresses the perception of another) interactions. The chemical profile of a wine is derived from the grape, the fermentation microflora (in particular the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae), secondary microbial fermentations that may occur, and the aging and storage conditions. Grape composition depends on the varietal and clonal genotype of the vine and on the interaction of the genotype and its phenotype with many environmental factors which, in wine terms, are usually grouped under the concept of "terroir" (macro, meso and microclimate, soil, topography). The microflora, and in particular the yeast responsible for fermentation, contributes to wine aroma by several mechanisms: firstly by utilizing grape juice constituents and biotransforming them into aroma- or flavor-impacting components, secondly by producing enzymes that transform neutral grape compounds into flavor-active compounds, and lastly by the de novo synthesis of many flavor-active primary (e.g., ethanol, glycerol, acetic acid, and acetaldehyde) and secondary metabolites (e.g., esters, higher alcohols, fatty acids). This review aims to present an overview of the formation of wine flavor and aroma-active components, including the varietal precursor molecules present in grapes and the chemical compounds produced during alcoholic fermentation by yeast, including compounds directly related to ethanol production or secondary metabolites. The contribution of malolactic fermentation, ageing, and maturation on the aroma and flavor of wine is also discussed. PMID:21786136

  12. Combined effects of nutrients and temperature on the production of fermentative aromas by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation.

    Rollero, Stéphanie; Bloem, Audrey; Camarasa, Carole; Sanchez, Isabelle; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Dequin, Sylvie; Mouret, Jean-Roch

    2015-03-01

    Volatile compounds produced by yeast during fermentation greatly influence the organoleptic qualities of wine. We developed a model to predict the combined effects of initial nitrogen and phytosterol content and fermentation temperature on the production of volatile compounds. We used a Box-Behnken design and response surface modeling to study the response of Lalvin EC1118® to these environmental conditions. Initial nitrogen content had the greatest influence on most compounds; however, there were differences in the value of fermentation parameters required for the maximal production of the various compounds. Fermentation parameters affected differently the production of isobutanol and isoamyl alcohol, although their synthesis involve the same enzymes and intermediate. We found differences in regulation of the synthesis of acetates of higher alcohols and ethyl esters, suggesting that fatty acid availability is the main factor influencing the synthesis of ethyl esters whereas the production of acetates depends on the activity of alcohol acetyltransferases. We also evaluated the effect of temperature on the total production of three esters by determining gas-liquid balances. Evaporation largely accounted for the effect of temperature on the accumulation of esters in liquid. Nonetheless, the metabolism of isoamyl acetate and ethyl octanoate was significantly affected by this parameter. We extended this study to other strains. Environmental parameters had a similar effect on aroma production in most strains. Nevertheless, the regulation of the synthesis of fermentative aromas was atypical in two strains: Lalvin K1M® and Affinity™ ECA5, which produces a high amount of aromatic compounds and was obtained by experimental evolution. PMID:25412578

  13. Aroma interactions with starch

    Jørgensen, Anders Dysted

    Starches are used to enhance aroma perception in low-fat foods. Aroma compounds can bind physically to the starch in grooves on the surface or they can form complexes inside amylose helices. This study has been divided into two parts: one part regarding binding of aromas to starches and their aroma......-release, and another part regarding stimulation of a fungal secretome using different carbohydrates. In the first part, nine aromas and one aroma-mixture were mixed with nine different starches, including genetically modified starches. The objective of this sub-project was to bind aromas to the starches to 15...... weight-percent. Aroma binding was tested on both amorphous starches and on native starch granules. A series of aldehydes and alcohols were also tested for binding to the starches. The aromas with the highest volatility were positively retained by starch, whereas for aromas with a lower volatility the...

  14. Growth and aroma production by Staphylococcus xylosus, S- carnosus and S-equoum - a comparative study in model systems

    Søndergaard, A.K.; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    A laboratory medium inoculated with 20 different Staphylococcus strains was prepared in accordance with a full Factorial experimental design investigating the effect of temperature. pH, NaCl and glucose on growth. The 32 strains most suited to growth in a fermented meat environment were inoculated.......0 and 10 to 26 C. respectively, increased growth of all strains with strong synergy between temperature and pH. Increasing salt concentration from 5% to 15% w/v decreased growth of most strains, but the effect of pH and temperature was much stronger than the effect of salt. Strains of S. carnosus were...... more salt tolerant than strains of S. equorum and S, xylosus, especially at high pH and temperature. Addition of glucose up to 0.5% w/v had no significant influence on growth of any of the strains. With regard to aroma production, species characteristics were detected. S. carnosus and S. xylosus were...

  15. Lipases microbianas na produo de steres formadores de aroma / Lipases biocatalysis in the production of flavor esters

    Gabriela A., Macedo; Glucia M., Pastore.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram testadas cinco lipases microbianas produzidas no Laboratrio de Bioqumica de Alimentos-FEA-UNICAMP, quanto capacidade de catalisar a sntese de steres formadores de aroma por esterificao em meio isento de solvente orgnico. A natureza da enzima assim como o tamanho da cadeia dos cidos a [...] fetaram as taxas de converso obtidas.Os melhores resultados obtidos foram 88 % de converso na sntese de laurato de isoamila e 72% para propionato de isoamila pela lipase de Rhizopus sp aps 24 horas de incubao, seguido de 82% de converso na sntese de acetato de isopropila por Alcaligenes sp aps 24 horas de incubao. Abstract in english Five lipases produced at UNICAMP were screened for their ability to synthesize flavor esters by esterification in organic solvent free system. The nature of the enzyme, as well as the chain length of the acyl donor used affected the product yields. Lipase from Rhizopus sp and Alcaligenes sp gave the [...] best overall yield (88 and 82%).

  16. Study of the production and release of aromas during winemaking carried out by different Saccharomyces species and hybrids

    Gamero Lluna, Amparo

    2011-01-01

    [Español]:El aroma es uno de los más importantes atributos implicados en la calidad del vino. La actual tendencia en vinificación consiste en producir vinos con diferentes matices aromáticos para ofrecer variedad de vinos a un mercado en desarrollo. Varios estudios han demostrado que las fermentaciones a baja temperatura favorecen la síntesis y la retención de los aromas. En este contexto, son necesarias nuevas levaduras vínicas capaces de llevar a cabo fermentaciones a bajas temperaturas y q...

  17. The impact of cold storage and ethylene on volatile ester production and aroma perception in 'Hort16A' kiwifruit.

    Günther, Catrin S; Marsh, Ken B; Winz, Robert A; Harker, Roger F; Wohlers, Mark W; White, Anne; Goddard, Matthew R

    2015-02-15

    Fruit esters are regarded as key volatiles for fruit aroma. In this study, the effects of cold storage on volatile ester levels of 'Hort16A' (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var chinensis) kiwifruit were examined and the changes in aroma perception investigated. Cold storage (1.5°C) for two or four months of fruit matched for firmness and soluble solids concentration resulted in a significant reduction in aroma-related esters such as methyl/ethyl propanoate, methyl/ethyl butanoate and methyl/ethyl hexanoate. Levels of these esters, however, were restored by ethylene treatment (100ppm, 24h) before ripening. A sensory panel found that "tropical" and "fruit candy" aroma was stronger and "green" odour notes less intensively perceived in kiwifruit which were ethylene-treated after cold storage compared to untreated fruit. The key findings presented in this study may lead to further work on the ethylene pathway, and innovative storage and marketing solutions for current and novel fruit cultivars. PMID:25236191

  18. De novo production of six key grape aroma monoterpenes by a geraniol synthase-engineered S. cerevisiae wine strain

    Pardo, Ester; Rico, Juan; Gil, José Vicente; Orejas, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Background Monoterpenes are important contributors to grape and wine aroma. Moreover, certain monoterpenes have been shown to display health benefits with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer or hypotensive properties amongst others. The aim of this study was to construct self-aromatizing wine yeasts to overproduce de novo these plant metabolites in wines. Results Expression of the Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) geraniol synthase (GES) gene in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strain su...

  19. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    VII. The longest fermentation times were generally found for doughs fermented with all baker’s yeasts at 5°C and the lowest yeast concentration (2.88•1014 CFU/kg flour). In Paper II, III and V wheat breads were produced for volatile analysis. The dough samples were fermented to equal height and baked......Understanding how the dough fermentation conditions influence the wheat bread production time and the bread aroma is important for the bread industry. The overall purpose of this PhD project is to investigate the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on...... dough expansion and aroma in bread crumb. In Paper I the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion were investigated. Wheat doughs were fermented by seven commercial baker’s yeasts (baker’s yeast I to VII) at different yeast concentrations (2...

  20. Coffee residues as substrates for aroma production by Ceratocystis fimbriata in solid state fermentation Produção de aromas por Ceratocystis fimbriata em fermentaç��o no estado sólido utilizando resíduos da agroindústria do café como substratos

    Adriane Bianchi Pedroni Medeiros; Pierre Christen; Sevastianos Roussos; Juliana Carine Gern; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

    2003-01-01

    The ability of two different strains of Ceratocystis fimbriata for fruity aroma production by solid state fermentation (SSF) was tested on coffee pulp and coffee husk complemented with glucose as substrates. Experiments were carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks and the experimental conditions were: 70% of initial moisture, 20% of glucose addition and pH 6.0. Aeration was made by passive diffusion through the gauze covering the flasks. Headspace analysis of the culture by gas chromatography...

  1. Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma

    Fisk Ian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew. Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discrimination of products; the concentration in the coffee brew was found to be the least discriminatory and concentration in the headspace above the roast and ground coffee was shown to be most discriminatory. Conclusions All approaches should be taken into consideration when classifying roast and ground coffee especially for alignment to sensory perception and consumer insight data as all offer markedly different discrimination abilities due to the variation in volatility, hydrophobicity, air-water partition coefficient and other physicochemical parameters of the key aroma compounds present.

  2. Food aroma affects bite size

    de Wijk René A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

  3. Identification and quantification of the caproic acid-producing bacterium Clostridium kluyveri in the fermentation of pit mud used for Chinese strong-aroma type liquor production.

    Hu, Xiao-long; Du, Hai; Xu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Chinese strong-aroma type liquor (CSAL) is a popular distilled alcoholic beverage in China. It is produced by a complex fermentation process that is conducted in pits in the ground. Ethyl caproate is a key flavor compound in CSAL and is thought to originate from caproic acid produced by Clostridia inhabiting the fermentation pit mud. However, the particular species of Clostridium associated with this production are poorly understood and problematic to quantify by culturing. In this study, a total of 28 closest relatives including 15 Clostridia and 8 Bacilli species in pit muds from three CSAL distilleries, were detected by culture-dependent and -independent methods. Among them, Clostridium kluyveri was identified as the main producer of caproic acid. One representative strain C. kluyveri N6 could produce caproic, butyric and octanoic acids and their corresponding ethyl esters, contributing significantly to CSAL flavor. A real time quantitative PCR assay of C. kluyveri in pit muds developed showed that a concentration of 1.79×10(7) 16S rRNA gene copies/g pit mud in LZ-old pit was approximately six times higher than that in HLM and YH pits and sixty times higher than that in LZ-new pit respectively. This method can be used to improve the management of pit mud microbiology and its impact on CSAL quality. PMID:26267890

  4. Authenticity of aroma components Enantiomeric separation and compound specific stable isotope analysis

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    The word “authenticity” is increasingly used in the marketing of food products. A product can be marketed claiming its authenticity such as containing only natural ingredients or originating from a special location produced using local traditional production methods. Within the area of food ingredients a problem with authenticity of aroma compounds has occurred, because natural aromas are wholly or partly replaced with synthetic ones. This is a large economic problem, since natural aromas are...

  5. Effect of destoned olive cake on the aromatic profile of cows’ milk and dairy products: comparison of two techniques for the headspace aroma profile analysis

    Anna Rocchina Caputo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, carried out within the NOVOROD project (PSR Campania 2007-2013 Misura 124 HC, was to evaluate the aromatic profile of milk and dairy products of dairy cows supplemented with destoned olive cake (DOC. Two techniques for the headspace aroma profile analysis: the thermal desorption by gas chromatography with a mass selective (GC/MS detector and the electronic nose were compared. The trial was performed into a dairy cow farm. Ten dairy cows were allotted into two homogenous groups: control and experimental. Animals received the same diet, while in the experimental group the concentrate supplementation (15% dry matter was replaced with DOC. After two weeks of adaptation, animals were fed with the experimental diet for other 15 days. During the experimental period, the milk was collected and cumulatively processed in Caciotta cheese (a soft cheese, 25 days ripened and in Semicotto cheese (hard cheese, 3 months ripened for 13 times for each group. Milk and cheese volatile organic compounds (VOCs were extracted and concentrated with dynamic headspace method and determined by GC/MS. Statistical analysis of data, expressed in arbitrary units (a.u.=peak area × 10–6 and allotted in compound classes, was carried out by ANOVA. All data collected of VOCs were processed with principal component analysis (PCA. Milk and cheese samples were comparatively analysed with the electronic nose, fitted with a tenmetal oxide sensors electronic device. PCA has been used for the evaluation of the pattern data. Our results show that the use of DOC, as an unconventional feed for livestock, has no effect on the aromatic profile of both milk and dairy products. In fact, no significant differences were found in both milk and dairy products between the two groups using the GC/MS method. Also the discriminating analysis carried out by electronic nose did not show significant differences between the two groups. The two compared techniques seem to lead to the same result.

  6. The Development of Aromas in Ruminant Meat

    María M. Campo; Ana Escudero; Virginia C. Resconi

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an update on our understanding of the chemical reactions (lipid oxidation, Strecker and Maillard reactions, thiamine degradation) and a discussion of the principal aroma compounds derived from those reaction or other sources in cooked meat, mainly focused on ruminant species. This knowledge is essential in order to understand, control, and improve the quality of food products. More studies are necessary to fully understand the role of each compound in the overall cooked m...

  7. Inhibitory effect of aroma on the bitterness of branched-chain amino acid solutions.

    Mukai, Junji; Tokuyama, Emi; Ishizaka, Toshihiko; Okada, Sachie; Uchida, Takahiro

    2007-11-01

    Nutritional products for patients with liver failure available on the Japanese market contain many branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) such as L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and L-valine, which not only have a bitter taste but also strong, unpleasant odours, leading to low palatability. The palatability of these nutritional products can be significantly improved by the addition of flavoured powders containing various kinds of tastants (sucrose, citric acid, etc.) and odourants (fruit, coffee aromas, etc.). The specific effects of the aroma of flavoured powders have not yet been clearly evaluated. In the present article, the inhibitory effect of aroma on the bitterness of BCAA solutions was examined. The bitterness intensity of a BCAA solution at the same concentration as Aminoleban EN was defined as 3.5 (measured by a previously described gustatory sensation method). The bitterness threshold of a BCAA standard solution without added aroma was estimated to be 1.87, while those of BCAA solutions containing green-tea, coffee, apple, vanilla, or strawberry aromas were 2.02, 1.98, 2.35, 2.40 and 2.87, respectively, when evaluated by the probit method. This shows that the addition of an aroma can elevate the bitterness threshold in human volunteers. The green-tea and coffee aromas predominantly evoked bitterness, while the vanilla aroma predominantly evoked sweetness. Apple and strawberry aromas evoked both sweetness and sourness, with the apple aroma having stronger sourness and the strawberry aroma stronger sweetness. Thus, a 'sweet' aroma suppresses the bitterness of BCAA, with coexisting sourness also participating in the bitterness inhibition. PMID:17978515

  8. Authenticity of aroma components Enantiomeric separation and compound specific stable isotope analysis

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg

    The word “authenticity” is increasingly used in the marketing of food products. A product can be marketed claiming its authenticity such as containing only natural ingredients or originating from a special location produced using local traditional production methods. Within the area of food...... necessary to develop new methods able to verify whether the authenticity of the food products is in agreement with the labelling. Some aroma compounds are chiral, meaning that they can exist as two enantiomers with different spatial orientation. Synthetic aroma compounds will consist of almost equal amounts...... adjacent geographic origins of growth had a tendency to cluster. Compound specific isotope analysis can therefore be a valuable tool in authenticating and tracing a vanilla aroma. Methods for extracting vanilla aroma from food products were investigated and it was found that vanilla aroma could be...

  9. Yeast strains as potential aroma enhancers in dry fermented sausages.

    Flores, Mónica; Corral, Sara; Cano-García, Liliana; Salvador, Ana; Belloch, Carmela

    2015-11-01

    Actual healthy trends produce changes in the sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausages therefore, new strategies are needed to enhance their aroma. In particular, a reduction in the aroma characteristics was observed in reduced fat and salt dry sausages. In terms of aroma enhancing, generally coagulase-negative cocci were selected as the most important group from the endogenous microbiota in the production of flavour compounds. Among the volatile compounds analysed in dry sausages, ester compounds contribute to fruity aroma notes associated with high acceptance of traditional dry sausages. However, the origin of ester compounds in traditional dry sausages can be due to other microorganisms as lactic acid bacteria, yeast and moulds. Yeast contribution in dry fermented sausages was investigated with opposite results attributed to low yeast survival or low activity during processing. Generally, they affect sausage colour and flavour by their oxygen-scavenging and lipolytic activities in addition to, their ability to catabolize fermentation products such as lactate increasing the pH and contributing to less tangy and more aromatic sausages. Recently, the isolation and characterization of yeast from traditional dry fermented sausages made possible the selection of those with ability to produce aroma active compounds. Molecular methods were used for genetic typing of the isolated yeasts whereas their ability to produce aroma compounds was tested in different systems such as in culture media, in model systems and finally on dry fermented sausages. The results revealed that the appropriate selection of yeast strains with aroma potential may be used to improve the sensory characteristics of reformulated fermented sausages. PMID:25765533

  10. Sensory and instrumental analysis of food aromas

    Bult, J.H.F.

    2006-01-01

    Food aromas are generally perceived as unitary aromas, i.e. fried potatoes smell like fried potatoes and roasted coffee smells like roasted coffee. Nonetheless, nearly all food aromas are produced by a multitude of volatile components that contribute to an extensive collection of aromas in various compositions. Of the hundreds of volatiles released from fried potatoes and roasted coffee a major se!ection does not produce an odour, many others do produce an odour that contributes to one of bot...

  11. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in beef extract using aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Takakura, Yukiko; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Hirai, Sachi; Masuzawa, Takuya; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2014-05-01

    Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of an ether extract prepared from beef extract (BE) and subsequent identification experiments led to the determination of seven aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 32-128. Omission experiments to select the most aroma-active compounds from the seven aroma compounds suggested that 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-methylbutanoic acid, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone were the main active compounds contributing to the aroma of BE. Aroma recombination, addition, and omission experiments of the four aroma compounds in taste-reconstituted BE showed that each compound had an individual aroma profile. A comparison of the overall aroma between this recombination mixture and BE showed a high similarity, suggesting that the key aroma compounds had been identified successfully. PMID:24486684

  12. Effect of drying conditions on drying kinetics and quality of aromatic Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves.

    Rayaguru, Kalpana; Routray, Winny

    2010-12-01

    Pandanus amaryllifolius is a plant with aromatic leaves, which impart the characteristic flavour of aromatic rice. The quality of aromatic Pandanus leaves dried at low temperature (35C) and low RH (27%) in a heat pump dryer was evaluated and compared with those obtained from hot air drying at 45C. Thin-layer drying kinetics has been studied for both the conditions. To determine the kinetic parameters, the drying data were fitted to various semi-theoretical models. The goodness of fit was determined using the coefficient of determination, reduced chi square, and root mean square error. Aroma, colour, and overall acceptability determination of fresh and dried leaves were made using sensory evaluation. Drying of leaves took place mainly under the falling-rate period. The Page equation was found to be best among the proposed models to describe the thin-layer drying of Pandanus leaves with higher coefficient of determination. The effective moisture diffusivity values were also determined. The effect of low RH was prominent during the initial drying when the product was moist. The effect of temperature was prominent in the later part of drying, which acted as a driving force for moisture diffusion and hence the total drying time was reduced. Retention of aromatic compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline content was more in low temperature dried samples with higher sensory scores. PMID:23572703

  13. Determination of Favorite Wine from Comparison of Wine Aroma Attributes

    Koike, Takayuki; Kamimura, Hironobu; Shimada, Kouji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kaneki, Noriaki

    The decision to choose the appropriate product matching the preference of each individual is based on the psychological impression of the adjective and the alternatives. The preference for a product group and physical condition also affect decision-making. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of differences in the preference of wine and changes in hunger level on the psychological and neuro-physiological aspects of decision-making where the subjects were asked to choose their most favorite wine after sniffing the aroma of several wines. The psychological aspects of decision-making while sniffing five different kinds of wine were evaluated by the analytical hierarchal process (AHP) method, while the neuro-physiological aspects were evaluated by measuring the level of oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations (O2Hb) in the process of smelling the wine aromas within three minutes compared to when the non-odor and alcoholic solutions were presented. AHP analysis showed that the adjective Favorite was given the highest importance and a white wine with a sweet aroma was the most favored wine, regardless of the wine preference. The normalized mean O2Hb levels in each minute showed that, in the case of the wine lovers, the time course of the O2Hb level, decreased when they sensed the wine aroma compared to when they sensed non-odor solutions, and, in non-wine lovers, the O2Hb levels remained at higher values compared to the smell of the non-odor solution when they sensed the aroma of the alcoholic solution. The results indicate that there are differences with regard to decision-making between the psychological and physiological aspects when people are made to choose their most favorite wine by sniffing wine aromas.

  14. Selective removal of methyl mercaptan in coffee aroma using oxidized microporous carbon

    Sakano, T. [Ajinomoto General Foods Inc., Tokyo (Japan). Central Research Laboratoties; Tamon, H.; Okazaki, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-10-01

    Coffee aroma recovered from the extraction process of roasted coffee beans is used to improve the quality of soluble coffee products. Coffee aroma often has an irritating sulfurous odor. In the present work, it is experimentally elucidated that methyl mercaptan could be selectively removed from the coffee aroma-containing gas by the oxidized microporous carbon. Breakthrough curves of coffee aroma-containing gas on zeolite 5A, microporous carbon (MSC 5A), and MSC 5A oxidized with 13.2N HNO{sub 3} aqueous solution revealed that the adsorption capacity of methyl mercaptan on the oxidized carbon was 4.2 times of that on the zeolite. The loss of desired coffee aroma was decreased using the oxidized carbon in the removal of methyl mercaptan. (author)

  15. Aroma therapy and medfly SIT

    A summary of the main findings of the research program on the biological competence of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (med fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and the development and implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest is presented. The potential application of aroma therapy to improve the mating success of sterile med fly males is studied. The report assumes a loosely chronological framework as it documents progression along two experimental scales: the number of males simultaneously exposed to ginger root oil, starting with small groups of 25 males and ending with rooms with nearly 200 million males; the experimental arena used to test the effects of aroma therapy, progressing from standard field-cages to large field enclosures to the open field. In addition, brief comments are offered regarding the potential negative effects of GRO exposure, the mechanisms underlying GRO-mediated improvement in male mating success, and the financial costs of GRO aroma therapy. (MAC)

  16. Aroma therapy and medfly SIT

    Shelly, Todd E., E-mail: todd.e.shelly@aphis.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-APHIS), HI (United States). Animal and Plant Health Inspection

    2006-07-01

    A summary of the main findings of the research program on the biological competence of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (med fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and the development and implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest is presented. The potential application of aroma therapy to improve the mating success of sterile med fly males is studied. The report assumes a loosely chronological framework as it documents progression along two experimental scales: the number of males simultaneously exposed to ginger root oil, starting with small groups of 25 males and ending with rooms with nearly 200 million males; the experimental arena used to test the effects of aroma therapy, progressing from standard field-cages to large field enclosures to the open field. In addition, brief comments are offered regarding the potential negative effects of GRO exposure, the mechanisms underlying GRO-mediated improvement in male mating success, and the financial costs of GRO aroma therapy. (MAC)

  17. Advances in Fruit Aroma Volatile Research

    Muna Ahmed Mohamed El Hadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fruits produce a range of volatile compounds that make up their characteristic aromas and contribute to their flavor. Fruit volatile compounds are mainly comprised of esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, lactones, terpenoids and apocarotenoids. Many factors affect volatile composition, including the genetic makeup, degree of maturity, environmental conditions, postharvest handling and storage. There are several pathways involved in volatile biosynthesis starting from lipids, amino acids, terpenoids and carotenoids. Once the basic skeletons are produced via these pathways, the diversity of volatiles is achieved via additional modification reactions such as acylation, methylation, oxidation/reduction and cyclic ring closure. In this paper, we review the composition of fruit aroma, the characteristic aroma compounds of several representative fruits, the factors affecting aroma volatile, and the biosynthetic pathways of volatile aroma compounds. We anticipate that this review would provide some critical information for profound research on fruit aroma components and their manipulation during development and storage.

  18. Characteristic Aroma Compounds from Different Pineapple Parts

    Guang-Ming Sun; Wen-Xiu Yang; Ling-Ling Lv; Chang-Bin Wei; Sheng-Hui Liu; Yu-Ge Liu

    2011-01-01

    Characteristic aroma volatile compounds from different parts of cayenne pineapple were analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main volatile compounds were esters, terpenes, ketones and aldehydes. The number and content of aroma compounds detected in pulp were higher than those found in core. In pulp, the characteristic aroma compounds were ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl hexanoate, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone ...

  19. Direct Aromaization of Methane

    George Marcelin

    1997-01-15

    The thermal decomposition of methane offers significant potential as a means of producing higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of reaction is limited. Work in the literature previous to this project had shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds would significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon or heavier (Clo+) materials. This project studied the effect and optimization of the quenching process as a means of increasing the amount of value added products during the pyrolysis of methane. A reactor was designed to rapidly quench the free-radical combustion reaction so as to maximize the yield of aromatics. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts were studied as a means of lowering the reaction temperature. A lower reaction temperature would have the benefits of more rapid quenching as well as a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. It was the goal of the project to identify promising routes from methane to higher hydrocarbons based on the pyrolysis of methane.

  20. Aroma formation by immobilized yeast cells in fermentation processes.

    Nedovi?, V; Gibson, B; Mantzouridou, T F; Bugarski, B; Djordjevi?, V; Kaluevi?, A; Paraskevopoulou, A; Sandell, M; mogrovi?ov, D; Yilmaztekin, M

    2015-01-01

    Immobilized cell technology has shown a significant promotional effect on the fermentation of alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and cider. However, genetic, morphological and physiological alterations occurring in immobilized yeast cells impact on aroma formation during fermentation processes. The focus of this review is exploitation of existing knowledge on the biochemistry and the biological role of flavour production in yeast for the biotechnological production of aroma compounds of industrial importance, by means of immobilized yeast. Various types of carrier materials and immobilization methods proposed for application in beer, wine, fruit wine, cider and mead production are presented. Engineering aspects with special emphasis on immobilized cell bioreactor design, operation and scale-up potential are also discussed. Ultimately, examples of products with improved quality properties within the alcoholic beverages are addressed, together with identification and description of the future perspectives and scope for cell immobilization in fermentation processes. PMID:25267117

  1. A Comparative Analysis of the Influence of Human Salivary Enzymes on Odorant Concentration in Three Palm Wines

    Ola Lasekan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines’ odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs, respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA, and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD factor range of 4-256, and all were subsequently identified. Of the 46 odorants, 41 were identified in the Elaeis guineensis wine, 36 in Raphia hookeri wine and 29 in Borassus flabellifer wine. Among the odorants, the highest FD-factors were obtained from acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Among the 13 potent odorants identified, five aroma compounds are reported here as important contributors to palm wine aroma, namely 3-isobutyl-2-methoxy-pyrazine, acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methylbutylacetate and ethyl hexanoate. Meanwhile, salivary enzymic degradation of odorants was more pronounced among the aldehydes, esters and thiols.

  2. A comparative analysis of the influence of human salivary enzymes on odorant concentration in three palm wines.

    Lasekan, Ola

    2013-01-01

    The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines' odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA) and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs), respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD) factor range of 4-256, and all were subsequently identified. Of the 46 odorants, 41 were identified in the Elaeis guineensis wine, 36 in Raphia hookeri wine and 29 in Borassus flabellifer wine. Among the odorants, the highest FD-factors were obtained from acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Among the 13 potent odorants identified, five aroma compounds are reported here as important contributors to palm wine aroma, namely 3-isobutyl-2-methoxy-pyrazine, acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methylbutylacetate and ethyl hexanoate. Meanwhile, salivary enzymic degradation of odorants was more pronounced among the aldehydes, esters and thiols. PMID:24071987

  3. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    The aroma and flavor of cooked rice are major criteria for preference among consumers. Small variations in these sensory properties can make rice highly desired or unacceptable to consumers. Human sensory analyses have identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental ana...

  4. Taste and aroma of fresh and stored mandarins.

    Tietel, Zipora; Plotto, Anne; Fallik, Elazar; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Porat, Ron

    2011-01-15

    During the last decade there has been a continuous rise in consumption of fresh easy-to-peel mandarins. However, mandarins are much more perishable than other citrus fruit, mainly due to rapid deterioration in sensory acceptability after harvest. In the current review we discuss the biochemical components involved in forming the unique flavor of mandarins, and how postharvest storage operations influence taste and aroma and consequently consumer sensory acceptability. What we perceive as mandarin flavor is actually the combination of basic taste, aroma and mouth-feel. The taste of mandarins is principally governed by the levels of sugars and acids in the juice sacs and the relative ratios among them, whereas the aroma of mandarins is derived from a mixture of different aroma volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, terpenes/hydrocarbons and esters. During postharvest storage and marketing there is a gradual decrease in mandarin sensory acceptability, which has been attributed to decreases in acidity and typical mandarin flavor, paralleling an accumulation of off-flavor. Biochemical analysis of volatile and non-volatile constituents in mandarin juice demonstrated that these changes in sensory acceptability were concomitant with decreases in acidity and content of terpenes and aldehydes, which provide green, piney and citrus aroma on the one hand, and increases in ethanol fermentation metabolism products and esters on the other, which are likely to cause 'overripe' and off-flavors. Overall, we demonstrate the vast importance of the genetic background, maturity stage at harvest, commercial postharvest operation treatments, including curing, degreening and waxing, and storage duration on mandarin sensory quality. PMID:20812381

  5. Key role of lipid management in nitrogen and aroma metabolism in an evolved wine yeast strain

    Rollero, Stéphanie; SANCHEZ, Isabelle; Camarasa, Carole; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Dequin, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Background Fermentative aromas play a key role in the organoleptic profile of young wines. Their production depends both on yeast strain and fermentation conditions. A present-day trend in the wine industry consists in developing new strains with aromatic properties using adaptive evolution approaches. An evolved strain, Affinity™ ECA5, overproducing esters, was recently obtained. In this study, dynamics of nitrogen consumption and of the fermentative aroma synthesis of the evolved and its an...

  6. Aroma compounds in Japanese sweet rice wine (Mirin) screened by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA).

    Kaneko, Shu; Kumazawa, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-nine key aroma compounds were newly identified or tentatively identified in the aroma concentrate of Japanese sweet rice wine (Mirin) by an aroma extract dilution analysis technique based on the 68 detected peaks. Among them, 3-(methylthio)propanal, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, 3-methylbutanoic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol were detected with the highest FD factors in this study. PMID:25391446

  7. Release and perception of aroma compounds during consumption

    Weel, K.G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Key words: MS-Nose, in vivo aroma release, aroma perception, mouth model, artificial throat, liquid protocol, sweeteners, reversible protein-aroma interactions, emulsions, oil content, droplet size distribution, gel hardness, texture, cross-modal interactions.This thesis evaluated and validated the MS-Nose as a tool to measure aroma release during food consumption. Subsequently, the MS-Nose was used to enhance understanding of the interaction between release and perception of aroma during con...

  8. Aroma compounds in fresh cut pomegranate arils.

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum). Although arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing actual compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Since most commercial usage of pomegranates in...

  9. Aroma permeability of hydroxypropyl maize starch films.

    Sereno, Nuno M; Hill, Sandra E; Taylor, Andrew J; Mitchell, John R; Davies, Simon J

    2009-02-11

    In this study, the role of water and the impact of the glass to rubber transition on aroma mass transport through hydroxypropyl maize starch films were followed. The permeability of four aroma compounds (ethanol, pyrazine, menthone, and decanone) was monitored by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectroscopy. The increase in water content within the film promoted greater water diffusion and film flexibility and resulted in enhanced transport of the four aroma compounds through the film. At low water contents in the glassy state, the permeability of ethanol was much higher than those of the other three compounds, which was attributed to its low molecular volume and greater solubility in starch. The structural changes induced by the glass transition resulted in the hydroxypropyl maize starch films displaying poor barrier behavior in the rubbery state for all the aromas studied. PMID:19132859

  10. Aroma potential of oak battens prepared from decommissioned oak barrels.

    Li, Sijing; Crump, Anna M; Grbin, Paul R; Cozzolino, Daniel; Warren, Peter; Hayasaka, Yoji; Wilkinson, Kerry L

    2015-04-01

    During barrel maturation, volatile compounds are extracted from oak wood and impart aroma and flavor to wine, enhancing its character and complexity. However, barrels contain a finite pool of extractable material, which diminishes with time. As a consequence, most barrels are decommissioned after 5 or 6 years. This study investigated whether or not decommissioned barrels can be "reclaimed" and utilized as a previously untapped source of quality oak for wine maturation. Oak battens were prepared from staves of decommissioned French and American oak barrels, and their composition analyzed before and after toasting. The oak lactone glycoconjugate content of untoasted reclaimed oak was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, while the concentrations of cis- and trans-oak lactone, guaiacol, 4-methlyguaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, furfural, and 5-methylfurfural present in toasted reclaimed oak were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aroma potential was then evaluated by comparing the composition of reclaimed oak with that of new oak. Comparable levels of oak lactone glycoconjugates and oak volatiles were observed, demonstrating the aroma potential of reclaimed oak and therefore its suitability as a raw material for alternative oak products, i.e., chips or battens, for the maturation of wine. The temperature profiles achieved during toasting were also measured to evaluate the viability of any yeast or bacteria present in reclaimed oak. PMID:25771908

  11. Seguimiento de la producción del aroma del yogurt durante la fermentación acido láctica mediante nariz electrónica y evaluación sensorial / Monitoring aroma production of yogurt during lactic fermentation by electronic nose and sensory evaluation

    Rúales Guzmán, Bertha Viviana

    2012-01-01

    El yogurt es una de las bebidas fermentadas más consumidas en el mundo por sus propiedades nutricionales, funcionales y sensoriales, por lo tanto la calidad final del producto será de gran importancia para satisfacer las necesidades del consumidor y obtener un posicionamiento en el mercado. El seguimiento de la fermentación es la clave para obtener todas estas propiedades, por tal razón, en la presente investigación se propuso el seguimiento de la producción de aroma como un método alternativ...

  12. Organophilic pervaporation for aroma isolation : industrial and commercial prospects

    Willemsen, J.H.A.; Dijkink, B.H.; Togtema, A.

    2004-01-01

    This article looks at organophilic pervaporation for aroma isolation. It covers recent developments in this field, and looks at the economic implications of the technology for producing natural aroma extracts.

  13. Characteristic Aroma Compounds from Different Pineapple Parts

    Guang-Ming Sun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic aroma volatile compounds from different parts of cayenne pineapple were analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The main volatile compounds were esters, terpenes, ketones and aldehydes. The number and content of aroma compounds detected in pulp were higher than those found in core. In pulp, the characteristic aroma compounds were ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl hexanoate, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H-furanone (DMHF, decanal, ethyl 3-(methylthiopropionate, ethyl butanoate, and ethyl (E-3-hexenoate; while in core the main compounds were ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl hexanoate and DMHF. The highest odor units were found to correspond to ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, followed by ethyl hexanoate and DMHF. The odor units found for pulp were higher than those for core.

  14. Generation of aroma compounds in a fermented sausage meat model system by Debaryomyces hansenii strains.

    Cano-Garca, Liliana; Rivera-Jimnez, Silvia; Belloch, Carmela; Flores, Mnica

    2014-05-15

    The ability of seven Debaryomyces hansenii strains to generate aroma compounds in a fermented sausage model system was evaluated. The presence of the yeast, in the inoculated models, was confirmed by PCR amplification of M13 minisatellite. Volatile compounds production was analysed using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Forty volatile compounds were detected, quantified and their odour activity values (OAVs) calculated. All volatile compounds increased during time in the inoculated models although significant differences were found amongst them. Ester and sulphur production was strongly dependent on the strain inoculated. D. hansenii P2 and M6 strains were the highest producers of sulphur compounds where dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl trisulfide were the most prominent aroma components identified by their OAVs whereas, M4 showed the highest OAVs for ester compounds followed by the P2 strain. The meat model system has been useful to show the real ability of yeast strains to produce aroma compounds. PMID:24423545

  15. Impact of Fruit Piece Structure in Yogurts on the Dynamics of Aroma Release and Sensory Perception

    Isabelle Souchon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma stimuli, which can influence nutritional and hedonic characteristics, as well as consumption behaviors. In yogurts, fruit preparation formulation can be a key factor to modulate aroma stimulation. In this context, the impact of size and hardness of fruit pieces in fat-free pear yogurts was studied. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was used to allow sensitive and on-line monitoring of volatile odorous compound release in the breath during consumption. In parallel, a trained panel used sensory profile and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS methods to characterize yogurt sensory properties and their dynamic changes during consumption. Results showed that the size of pear pieces had few effects on aroma release and perception of yogurts, whereas fruit hardness significantly influenced them. Despite the fact that yogurts presented short and similar residence times in the mouth, this study showed that fruit preparation could be an interesting formulation factor to enhance exposure time to stimuli and thus modify food consumption behaviors. These results could be taken into account to formulate new products that integrate both nutritional and sensory criteria.

  16. Preparation of reminiscent aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce.

    Bonkohara, Kaori; Fuji, Maiko; Nakao, Akito; Igura, Noriyuki; Shimoda, Mitsuya

    2016-03-01

    To prepare an aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce by fewest components, the aroma concentrate of good sensory attributes was prepared by polyethylene membrane extraction, which could extract only the volatiles with diethyl ether. GC-MS-Olfactometry was done with the aroma concentrate, and 28 odor-active compounds were detected. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis to the separated fraction revealed high flavor dilution factors with respect to acetic acid, 4-hydroxy-2(or5)-ethyl-5(or2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol), and 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (methional). A model aroma mixture containing above four odorants showed a good similarity with the aroma of the soy sauce itself. Consequently, the reminiscent aroma mixture of soy sauce was prepared in water. The ratio of acetic acid, HEMF, isoamyl alcohol, and methional was 2500:300:100:1. PMID:26494283

  17. Characterization of the potent odorants contributing to the characteristic aroma of Chinese green tea infusions by aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Baba, Ryoko; Kumazawa, Kenji

    2014-08-20

    The volatile fractions of three famous Chinese green tea cultivar infusions (Longjing, Maofeng, and Biluochun) were prepared by a combination of the adsorptive column method and the SAFE techniques. The aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) applied to the volatile fractions revealed 58 odor-active peaks with flavor dilution (FD) factors between 4(1) and 4(7). Forty-six of the odorants, which included six odorants that have not been reported in the literature in Chinese green tea (2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-ethenyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, cis-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-ethylguaiacol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 3-phenylpropionic acid), were identified or tentatively identified by GC-MS and GC-O. Among the perceived odorants, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, coumarin, vanillin, geraniol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 2-methoxyphenol showed high FD factors in all of the cultivars, irrespective of the cultivar or harvesting season, suggesting that these seven odorants are essential for the aroma of Chinese green tea. On the other hand, the contents of the odorants, FD factors of which were uneven between the cultivars, were suggested to influence the characteristic aroma of each cultivar. In addition, the formation mechanism of (E)-isoeugenol, one of the odorants which have not been reported in the literature with a high FD factor common to all the cultivars, was investigated, and it was suggested that the (E)-isoeugenol content of the tea products has a close correlation with the manufacturing process of the tea leaves. PMID:25088347

  18. Healing of pain by music and aroma

    To see the alteration and modification by music and aroma of the brain activity at the moment of pain stimulus, authors studied 3D images by dynamic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with continuous intravenous 99mTc-HMPAO (hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime) method that they had developed. The radiopharmaceutical was i.v. injected at a constant infusion rate of 1,110 MBq/30 ml/30 min and dynamic SPECT was performed for 30 min at every 2 min interval with the gamma camera GCA 7200A/UI 2-head SPECT system (Toshiba) to make the time-activity curve of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). During the infusion, pain stimulus was given by clipping the tip of third finger for 3 sec repeatedly for 2 min. Subjects, healthy normal or with disease, were 18 cases with no healing, 14 with music and 32 with aroma. Pain alone or plus pop music induced rCBF increase in wide regions of the brain while slow-paced music or calm aroma (rose and lavender) suppressed the rCBF increase by pain in the lateral margin of frontal lobe. These changes were thought to be related to healing effects. (T.I.)

  19. Effects of Fermentation Temperature on Key Aroma Compounds and Sensory Properties of Apple Wine.

    Peng, Bangzhu; Li, Fuling; Cui, Lu; Guo, Yaodong

    2015-12-01

    Fermentation temperature strongly affects yeast metabolism during apple wine making and thus aromatic and quality profiles. In this study, the temperature effect during apple wine making on both the key aroma compounds and sensory properties of apple wine were investigated. The concentration of nine key aroma compounds (ethyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, isopentylacetate, ethyl caprylate, ethyl 4-hydroxybutanoate, isobutylalcohol, isopentylalcohol, 3-methylthio-1-propanol, and benzeneethanol) in apple wine significantly increased with the increase of fermentation temperature from 17 to 20 C, and then eight out of the nine key aroma compounds with an exception of ethyl 4-hydroxybutanoate, decreased when the temperature goes up 20 to 26 C. Sensory analysis showed that the apple wine fermented at 20 C had the highest acceptance for consumers. Fermentation at the temperature of 20 C was therefore considered to be the most suitable condition using the selected yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae AP05) for apple wine making. Changes in the fermentation temperature can considerably affect the production of key aroma compounds and sensory profiles of apple wine. These results could help apple wine producers make better quality production for consumers at the optimal fermentation temperature. PMID:26509667

  20. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Pinelo, Manuel; Varming, Camilla; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2011-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane...... and deserve further consideration as alternative techniques for gentle aroma stripping in industrial fruit juice processing....

  1. Inactive dry yeast application on grapes modify Sauvignon Blanc wine aroma.

    Šuklje, Katja; Antalick, Guillaume; Buica, Astrid; Coetzee, Zelmari A; Brand, Jeanne; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the potential to improve wine aroma by applying two inactive dry yeast products (IDYs) at the onset of ripening on Sauvignon Blanc grapes. Both products led to increased reduced glutathione concentrations in the grape juice and corresponding wines, as well as differences in individual higher alcohol acetates (HAAs) and ethyl esters of straight chain fatty acids (EEFAs) at the end of fermentation. After two months of storage, a significantly slower decrease of EEFAs and to a lesser extent of HAAs was found for wines made from grapes with IDY applications. These wines also resulted in significantly slower synthesis of ethyl esters of branched acids, whereas varietal thiols were altered in a product-specific manner. The modifications in the wine chemical composition were also sensorially corroborated. This study showed that vineyard additions of IDY products directly on the grapes at the onset of ripening have a subsequent benefit to the production and preservation of aroma in wines. PMID:26675843

  2. Aroma characteristics of cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla Chang).

    Wang, Xiujuan; Wang, Dongmei; Li, Jiaxian; Ye, Chuangxing; Kubota, Kikue

    2010-01-01

    Three types of Cocoa tea, green, oolong, and black, were prepared from fresh young leaves of Camellia ptilophylla. Their aroma characteristics were compared by a sensory evaluation with corresponding traditional tea samples made from C. sinensis. The aroma profile of Cocoa green tea was quite different from that of traditional green tea, but fermented Cocoa oolong tea and black tea showed aroma profiles similar to those of traditional oolong tea and black tea. Cocoa green tea contained vanillin as the most abundant aroma constituent. Almost the same aroma compounds of jasmine lactone, indole and monoterpene alcohols, which are known as important aroma constituents in commercial oolong tea and black tea, were identified as the main aroma compounds in the fermented Cocoa tea types. The composition of these aroma compounds well explained the aroma profile of each Cocoa tea. The monoterpene alcohols seemed to be released during fermented tea manufacture, because seventeen glycosides consisting of the aglycons of terpene alcohols were identified in Cocoa tea leaves, and hydrolytic activity of crude enzymes in the p-nitrophenol glycoside substrate was also detected. PMID:20460717

  3. Characterization of key odorants in Chinese chixiang aroma-type liquor by gas chromatography-olfactometry, quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies.

    Fan, Haiyan; Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan

    2015-04-15

    Chixiang aroma-type liquor is extensively welcomed by consumers owing to its typical fatty aroma, particularly in southern China. To our knowledge, no comprehensive characterization of aroma and flavor from chixiang aroma-type liquor has been published. It is still a confused question which components are the most important in characterizing its unique aroma. A total of 56 odorants were identified in chixiang aroma-type liquor by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and in different quantitative measurements, 34 aroma compounds were further demonstrated as important odorants according to odor activity values (OAVs). Furthermore, this research suggested that the aroma of chixiang aroma-type finished liquor could be successfully reconstituted by mixing 34 aroma compounds in the concentrations measured. Omission experiments further confirmed (E)-2-nonenal as the key odorant and revealed the significance of (E)-2-octenal and 2-phenylethanol for the overall aroma of chixiang aroma-type liquor. 3-(Methylthio)-1-propanol (methionol), diethyl 1,7-heptanedioate (diethyl pimelate), diethyl 1,8-octanedioate (diethyl suberate), and diethyl 1,9-nonanedioate (diethyl azelate), identified as the characteristic aromas of chixiang aroma-type liquor in 1995, had no effects on aroma based on omission/addition experiments. PMID:25797496

  4. Characterisation of aroma profiles of commercial soy sauce by odour activity value and omission test.

    Feng, Yunzi; Su, Guowan; Zhao, Haifeng; Cai, Yu; Cui, Chun; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Mouming

    2015-01-15

    Twenty-seven commercial soy sauces produced through three different fermentation processes (high-salt liquid-state fermentation soy sauce, HLFSS; low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce, LSFSS; Koikuchi soy sauce, KSS) were examined to identify the aroma compounds and the effect of fermentation process on the flavour of the soy sauce was investigated. Results showed that 129 volatiles were identified, of which 41 aroma-active components were quantified. The types of odorants occurring in the three soy sauce groups were similar, although their intensities significantly differed. Many esters and phenols were found at relatively high intensities in KSS, whereas some volatile acids only occurred in LSFSS. Furthermore, 23 aroma compounds had average OAVs>1, among which 3-methylbutanal, ethyl acetate, 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-methylbutanal and 3-(methylthio)propanal exhibited the highest average OAVs (>100). In addition, omission tests verified the important contribution of the products resulting from amino acid catabolism to the characteristic aroma of soy sauce. PMID:25148982

  5. Effect of gamma-radiation on major aroma compounds and vanillin glucoside of cured vanilla beans (Vanilla planifolia)

    Radiation processing of food materials by gamma-radiation is a well established method for microbial decontamination and insect disinfestation. Irradiation of spices at doses ranging from 10 to 30 kGy has been reported to result in complete elimination of microorganisms with negligible changes in the flavour quality. The effect of gamma-radiation on microflora and vanillin content of cured vanilla beans in the dose range of 5-50 kGy has been investigated, but its effect on other major aroma compounds and vanillin glucoside (vanillin aroma precursor) remaining after curing have not been studied so far. Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) is one such compound used as a flavouring agent and as a dietary component. It is the major component of natural vanilla, which is one of the most widely used and important flavouring materials throughout the world. Vanillin is an antioxidant capable of protecting membrane against lipid peroxidation and DNA against strand breaks induced by reactive oxygen species. The present work was aimed to study the effect of gamma-radiation processing on the major aroma compounds of cured vanilla beans and also to investigate possible enhancement in vanillin content by the radiolytic breakdown of vanillin glucoside present already. Cured vanilla beans were irradiated (5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 kGy) and the vanillin content of control and irradiated samples were analysed, respectively for a possible enhancement of vanillin content by radiolysis of vanillin glucoside. Radiolytic breakdown of glycosidic precursors of aroma constituents and consequent release of free aroma was shown to result in the enhancement of aroma quality of these products. Since a considerable amount of vanillin exists as its glycosidic precursor in cured vanilla pods, a possible enhancement in yield of vanillin by radiation processing is thus expected. Hence the highly stable oxygen-carbon linkage between vanillin and glucose limits the possible enhancement of aroma quality of irradiated beans. (author)

  6. Aroma Compounds Prevision using Artificial Neural Networks Influence of Newly Indigenous Saccharomyces SPP in White Wine Produced with Vitis Vinifera Cv Siria

    Caldeira, A. Teresa; Martins, M. Rosário; Cabrita, Maria João; Ambrósio, Cristina; Arteiro, José; Neves, José; Vicente, Henrique

    2010-01-01

    Commercial yeasts strains of Saccharomyces cerevisae are frequently used in white wine production as starters in fermentation process, however, these strains can affect the wine characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three strains of Saccharomyces spp. (var. 1, 2 and 3) on wine aroma compounds produced in microvinification assays. Microvinification assays were carried out with Vitis vinifera cv Síria grapes using the strains in study as starters. Aroma compounds ...

  7. Foliar application of amino acids modulates aroma components of 'FUJI' apple (malus domestica L.)

    Volatile flavor compounds play a key role in determining the perception and acceptability as well as enhancing market competitiveness of apple (Malus domestica L.). In our study, we evaluated the effects of foliar-applied four different amino acids, i.e. leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), valine (Val) and alanine (Ala), on aroma components and two key enzymes activities involved in aroma metabolism of Fuji apple. The total amount of aromatic components under Ala treatment was significantly higher than those under other treatments. There was a considerable increase in total aroma content, including hexanal, 2-methyl-butanol, nonanal, (E)-2-hexenal, methyleugenol, ethyl acetate, butanoic acid-pentyl ester, butanoic acid-hexyl ester, butyric acid ethyl ester, acetic acid-2-methyl-butyl ester, treated with spraying amino acids compared with the control. More specifically, hexanal, 2-methyl-butanol, methyleugenol and acetic acid-2-methyl-butyl ester exhibited a greater substantial increase of their contents than those of in other ingredients. However, butanoic acid-2-methyl-2-methyl butyl ester maintained a highest level among all aroma components regardless of different amino acids application. Furthermore, the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) were much higher under Ala treatment than those under other treatments. We concluded that foliar-applied organic nitrogen (N), especially for Ala, can improve aroma metabolism and it could be used in production to enhance fruit quality on a commercial scale. (author)

  8. Stochastic modelling of Listeria monocytogenes single cell growth in cottage cheese with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from aroma producing cultures

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-01-01

    A stochastic model was developed for simultaneous growth of low numbers of Listeria monocytogenes and populations of lactic acid bacteria from the aroma producing cultures applied in cottage cheese. During more than two years, different batches of cottage cheese with aroma culture were analysed for...... pH, lactic acid concentration and initial concentration of lactic acid bacteria. These data and bootstrap sampling were used to represent product variability in the stochastic model. Lag time data were estimated from observed growth data (lactic acid bacteria) and from literature on L. monocytogenes....... 2014. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 188, 15-25]. Growth of L. monocytogenes single cells, using lag time distributions corresponding to three different...

  9. Effects of Botrytis cinerea and Erysiphe necator fungi on the aroma character of grape must: A comparative approach.

    Lopez Pinar, Angela; Rauhut, Doris; Ruehl, Ernst; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-09-15

    Botrytis cinerea and Erysiphe necator are among the most relevant fungi in viticulture. In order to deepen our knowledge about their potential impact on wine quality, their effects on the aroma character of the initial stage of wine production, i.e. the must were studied. The main aroma compounds were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and ranked according to their relative intensities by means of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Clear differences between healthy and infected samples were observed. Botrytis cinerea had a positive impact on fruity and floral notes while several earthy smelling compounds were developed as result of the infection. Unlike in previous studies, however, we did not observe any clear differences in the quantities of earthy-mushroom-like smelling substances as result of the infection process with Erysiphe necator. PMID:27080903

  10. The influence of different types of preparation (espresso and brew) on coffee aroma and main bioactive constituents.

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Cortese, Manuela; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular hot drinks in the world; it may be prepared by several methods, but the most common forms are boiled (brew) and pressurized (espresso). Analytical studies on the substances responsible for the pleasant aroma of roasted coffee have been carried out for more than 100 years. Brew coffee and espresso coffee (EC) have a different and peculiar aroma profile, demonstrating the importance of the brewing process on the final product sensorial quality. Concerning bioactive compounds, the extraction mechanism plays a crucial role. The differences in the composition of coffee brew in chlorogenic acids and caffeine content is the result of the different procedures of coffee preparation. The aim of the present review is to detail how the brewing process affects coffee aroma and composition. PMID:26171629

  11. Investigation into the aroma of rosemary using multi-channel silicone rubber traps, off-line olfactometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Leandri, van der Wat; Martin, Dovey; Yvette, Naud; Patricia B.C., Forbes.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi-channel polydimethylsiloxane rubber traps were used to sample the headspace of rosemary samples (two essential oils from different sources, one oleoresin and one dried herb) followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography -time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS) or GC-MS an [...] alyses. The aroma of different headspace samples was characterized using a custom-built olfactory apparatus. The differences between the aroma profiles were evident from bubble plots of the perceived aroma at different temperatures. The samples were heat-treated to simulate cooking of food products, and were then reassessed to determine any changes in the aroma profile. It was found that the intense menthol and cooling aromas subsided in all the samples with heating. GCxGC-TOFMS allowed for separation of the numerous components in the headspace samples. Many terpenes and aliphatics were thus tentatively identified and the relative peak areas were compared to better understand the mixture that contributes to the rosemary aroma.

  12. Influence of Blending on the Aroma of Malvasia istriana Wine

    Kovačević Ganić, Karin; Staver, Mario; Peršurić, Đordano; Banović, Mara; Komes, Draženka; Gracin, Leo

    2003-01-01

    Malvasia istriana (Vitis vinifera) is a domestic and widespread grape cultivar in the Istrian wine region that gives the characteristic white wine. Istrian region is situated in the western part of Croatia (Adriatic coast). In the ageing process, Malvasia istriana loses its aroma (freshness and fruitiness) and hence it is usually consumed as a young wine. Therefore, blending is used to improve the quality of Malvasia istriana wine, to enrich its aroma and to maintain its varietal recognizabil...

  13. Aroma Potential in Early- and Late-Maturity Pinot noir Grapes Evaluated by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    Yuan, Fang; Qian, Michael C

    2016-01-20

    Aroma potentials in early and late maturity Pinot noir grapes were investigated in two consecutive vintages. The grape samples were hydrolyzed under acidic conditions, and the released odorants were studied by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Forty-nine main odor-active compounds were detected in the AEDA. The odorants released with high flavor dilution values were 1-hexanal, ?-damascenone, guaiacol, and vanillin, together with C6-aldehydes and -alcohols, 4-vinylguaiacol, 4-vinylphenol, and 1-octen-3-one. The concentrations of aroma-active compounds were further quantitated. Compared with early harvest grapes, late harvest grapes released more ?-damascenone, vanillin, 4-vinylguaiacol, and 4-vinylphenol in both years according to both AEDA and quantitation results, suggesting they were important aroma compounds that contribute to the characteristic of matured Pinot noir grapes. PMID:26698292

  14. Beyond the characterization of wine aroma compounds: looking for analytical approaches in trying to understand aroma perception during wine consumption

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Moreno Arribas, Mª Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, Mª Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    The volatile compounds present in wines are responsible for the quality of the wine aroma. The analysis of these compounds requires different analytical techniques depending on the type of compounds and their concentration. The importance at sensorial level of each compound should be evaluated by using olfactometric techniques and reconstitution and omission studies. In addition, wine aroma is influenced by other factors such as wine matrix, which could affect the compounds’ volatility, decre...

  15. Study of the influence of yeast inoculum concentration (Yarrowia lipolytica and Kluyveromyces lactis) on blue cheese aroma development using microbiological models.

    Price, Elliott J; Linforth, Robert S T; Dodd, Christine E R; Phillips, Carol A; Hewson, Louise; Hort, Joanne; Gkatzionis, Konstantinos

    2014-02-15

    Yarrowia lipolytica and Kluyveromyces lactis occur as part of Stilton cheese microflora yet are not controlled during production. This study investigated the influence of their inoculum concentration on aroma production. Models of Y. lipolytica and K. lactis, with Penicillium roqueforti, were analysed using instrumental and sensory analysis. Different concentrations of Y. lipolytica produced important changes in the aroma profiles of microbiological models, analysed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME GC-MS). Sensory analysis with discrimination tests showed differences were detectable via human perception but did not concern the similarity to blue cheese odour. Increasing the inoculum concentration of K. lactis resulted in decreased variation between replicates. Partial least squares (PLS) regression on Flash profile data showed models inoculated with low concentrations of K. lactis exhibited blue cheese-related attributes, associated with increased ketone production. Results suggest that controlling the amount of Y. lipolytica and K. lactis during production offers potential to manipulate blue cheese aroma development. PMID:24128502

  16. Aroma release from wines under dynamic conditions.

    Tsachaki, Maroussa; Linforth, Robert S T; Taylor, Andrew J

    2009-08-12

    Aroma release from wines and model ethanolic solutions during dynamic headspace dilution was measured in real time using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. Model ethanolic solutions maintained the headspace concentration of volatile compounds close to equilibrium values during gas phase dilution over 10 min. Wine samples (with the same ethanol content) did not maintain the headspace concentration of volatiles to the same extent. Wine components and acidity ((+)-catechin, glycerol; pH 3.6) in model ethanolic solutions (120 mL/L) had no effect on the volatile headspace concentration during dynamic headspace dilution. However, in the presence of certain proteins (beta-lactoglobulin, beta-casein, bovine serum albumin), the model ethanolic solutions failed to maintain their volatile headspace concentration upon headspace dilution, but other proteins (thaumatin, mucin, lysozyme) had no effect. Thermal imaging of the model ethanolic samples (with and without beta-casein) under dynamic headspace dilution conditions showed differences in surface temperatures. This observation suggested perturbation of the ethanol monolayer at the air-liquid interface and disruption of the Marangoni effect, which causes bulk convection within ethanolic solutions. Convection carries volatile compounds and warm liquid from the bulk phase to the air-liquid interface, thus replenishing the interfacial concentration and maintaining the gas phase concentration and interfacial surface temperature during headspace dilution. It is postulated that certain proteins may exert a similar effect in wine. PMID:19601627

  17. Analysis of neutral volatile aroma components in Tilsit cheese using a combination of dynamic headspace technique, capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry

    Tilsit cheese is made by the influence of lab ferment and starter cultures on milk. The ripening is done by repeated inoculation of the surface of the Tilsit cheese with yeasts and read smear cultures. This surface flora forms the typical aroma of the Tilsit cheese during the ripening process. The aim of the work was to receive general knowledge about the kind and amount of the neutral volatile aroma components of Tilsit cheese. Beyond this the ability of forming aroma components by read smear cultures and the dispersion of these components in cheese was to be examined. The results were intended to evaluate the formation of aroma components in Tilsit cheese. The semi-quantitative analyses of the aroma components of all samples were done by combining dynamic headspace extraction, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In this process the neutral volatile aroma components were extracted by dynamic headspace technique, adsorbed on a trap, thermally desorbed, separated by gas chromatography, detected and identified by mass spectrometry. 63 components belonging to the chemical classes of esters, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols and sulfur containing substances as well as aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons were found in the analysed cheese samples of different Austrian Tilsit manufacturing plants. All cheese samples showed a qualitative equal but quantitative varied spectrum of aroma components. The cultivation of pure cultures on a cheese agar medium showed all analysed aroma components to be involved in the biochemical metabolism of these cultures. The ability to produce aroma components greatly differed between the strains and it was not possible to correlate this ability with the taxonomic classification of the strains. The majority of the components had a non-homogeneous concentration profile in the cheese body. This was explained by effects of diffusion and temporal and spatial different forming of components by the metabolism of the surface flora during ripening. Therefore the conclusion can be drawn that part of the components are formed by the starter cultures and are homogeneous spread in the cheese body at the beginning of the ripening. On the one hand the metabolism of the read smear bacteria and yeasts leads to a reduction of the components. Hereby the concentration gradient is compensated by diffusion of aroma components from the inside to the surface. On the other hand products of the metabolism of the surface flora diffuse into the cheese body. The quantity of the coefficient of diffusion varies timewise and spatially. The concentration profile is influenced not only by the diffusion but also by the shifting of the composition of the surface flora during the ripening period. (author)

  18. AROMA: Automatic Generation of Radio Maps for Localization Systems

    Eleryan, Ahmed; Youssef, Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    WLAN localization has become an active research field recently. Due to the wide WLAN deployment, WLAN localization provides ubiquitous coverage and adds to the value of the wireless network by providing the location of its users without using any additional hardware. However, WLAN localization systems usually require constructing a radio map, which is a major barrier of WLAN localization systems' deployment. The radio map stores information about the signal strength from different signal strength streams at selected locations in the site of interest. Typical construction of a radio map involves measurements and calibrations making it a tedious and time-consuming operation. In this paper, we present the AROMA system that automatically constructs accurate active and passive radio maps for both device-based and device-free WLAN localization systems. AROMA has three main goals: high accuracy, low computational requirements, and minimum user overhead. To achieve high accuracy, AROMA uses 3D ray tracing enhanced wi...

  19. Sensory interactions between six common aroma vectors explain four main red wine aroma nuances.

    Ferreira, Vicente; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Campo, Eva; Herrero, Paula; de la Fuente, Arancha; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2016-05-15

    This work aims at assessing the aromatic sensory dimensions linked to 6 common wine aroma vectors (N, norisoprenoids; A, branched acids; F, enolones; E, branched ethyl esters; L, fusel alcohols, M, wood compounds) varying in their natural range of occurrence. Wine models were built by adding the vectors at two levels (fractional factorial design 2(VI)) to a de-aromatised aged red wine. Twenty other different models were evaluated by descriptive analysis. Red, black and dried fruits and woody notes were satisfactorily reproduced. Individual vectors explained just 15% of the sensory space, mostly dependent on perceptual interactions. N influences dried and black fruits and suppresses red fruits. A suppresses black fruits and enhances red and dried fruits. F exerts a major role on red fruits. E suppresses dried fruits and modulates black fruits. L is revealed as a strong suppressor of red fruits and particularly of woody notes. PMID:26775994

  20. Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil

    Haypek E.; Silva L.H.M; Batista E.; Marques D. S.; Meireles M.A.A.; Meirelles A.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice). The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the c...

  1. Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil

    Haypek E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice. The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the calculation of the activity coefficients.

  2. [Effect of acid hydrolysis of oak wood on its aroma-forming complex].

    Pisarnitskiĭ, A F; Klimov, S A; Brazhnikova, E V

    2004-01-01

    The effect of acid hydrolysis of English oak (Quercus robur. L) wood on its aroma-forming complex was studied. The contents of methanol, acetic and crotonic acids, and furfural increased considerably in the samples treated with hydrochloric acid. In the composition of minor compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons were synthesized de novo, whereas the contents of volatile phenols, such as vanillin, lilac aldehyde, and coniferaldehyde decreased; relative content of guaiacol and syringol elevated; and acetovanillon and propiovanilIon were formed as well as products of degradation of hexoses-levoglucosenone, 1,4:3,6-dianhydroglucose, maltol, and 1,6-dianhydroglucopyran. PMID:15609864

  3. Volatile Aroma Compounds in Various Brewed Green Teas

    Youngmo Yoon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies and semi-quantifies aroma volatiles in brewed green tea samples. The objectives of this study were to identify using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS paired with a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME the common volatile compounds that may be responsible for aroma/flavor of the brewed liquor of a range of green tea samples from various countries as consumed and to determine if green teas from the same region have similarities in volatile composition when green tea samples are prepared for consumption. Twenty-four green tea samples from eight different countries were brewed as recommended for consumer brewing. The aroma volatiles were extracted by HS-SPME, separated on a gas chromatograph and identified using a mass spectrometer. Thirty-eight compounds were identified and the concentrations were semi-quantified. The concentrations were lower than those reported by other researchers, probably because this research examined headspace volatiles from brewed tea rather than solvent extraction of leaves. No relationship to country of origin was found, which indicates that other factors have a greater influence than country of origin on aroma.

  4. Improving the Performance of an Electronic Nose by Wine Aroma Training to Distinguish between Drip Coffee and Canned Coffee

    Kouki Fujioka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee aroma, with more than 600 components, is considered as one of the most complex food aromas. Although electronic noses have been successfully used for objective analysis and differentiation of total coffee aromas, it is difficult to use them to describe the specific features of coffee aroma (i.e., the type of smell. This is because data obtained by electronic noses are generally based on electrical resistance/current and samples are distinguished by principal component analysis. In this paper, we present an electronic nose that is capable of learning the wine related aromas using the aroma kit “Le Nez du Vin,” and the potential to describe coffee aroma in a similar manner comparable to how wine experts describe wine aroma. The results of our investigation showed that the aromas of three drip coffees were more similar to those of pine and honey in the aroma kit than to the aromas of three canned coffees. Conversely, the aromas of canned coffees were more similar to the kit coffee aroma. In addition, the aromatic patterns of coffees were different from those of green tea and red wine. Although further study is required to fit the data to human olfaction, the presented method and the use of vocabularies in aroma kits promise to enhance objective discrimination and description of aromas by electronic noses.

  5. Determination of antioxidant properties of aroma extracts from various beans.

    Lee, K G; Mitchell, A E; Shibamoto, T

    2000-10-01

    Aroma extracts from fresh soybeans, mung beans, kidney beans, and azuki beans were prepared using simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE) under mild conditions (55 degrees C and 95 mmHg). Extracts were examined for antioxidative activities in two different assays. The aroma extracts isolated from all beans inhibited the oxidation of hexanal for nearly one month at a level of 250 microL/mL. Mung bean and soybean extracts inhibited malonaldehyde (MA) formation from cod-liver oil by 86% and 88%, respectively, at the 250 microL/mL level. Azuki and kidney bean extracts inhibited MA formation from cod-liver oil by 76% and 53%, respectively, at the 250 microL/mL level. The antioxidative activities of mung bean and soybean extracts were comparable with that of the natural antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). PMID:11052738

  6. Analysis of accelerants and fire debris using aroma detection technology

    Barshick, S.A.

    1997-01-17

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the utility of electronic aroma detection technologies for the detection and identification of accelerant residues in suspected arson debris. Through the analysis of known accelerant residues, a trained neural network was developed for classifying suspected arson samples. Three unknown fire debris samples were classified using this neural network. The item corresponding to diesel fuel was correctly identified every time. For the other two items, wide variations in sample concentration and excessive water content, producing high sample humidities, were shown to influence the sensor response. Sorbent sampling prior to aroma detection was demonstrated to reduce these problems and to allow proper neural network classification of the remaining items corresponding to kerosene and gasoline.

  7. Discrimination of truffle fruiting body versus mycelial aromas by stir bar sorptive extraction.

    Splivallo, Richard; Bossi, Simone; Maffei, Massimo; Bonfante, Paola

    2007-10-01

    Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) was applied in head space mode (HS), coupled with GC/MS, to compare the aroma profile of three truffle species. A total of 119 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified from the fruiting bodies, of which 70 were not yet described in truffles and 60 in fungi. VOCs profile showed a high intra- and inter-specific variability, with alcohols and sulfur compounds dominating the HS of Tuber borchii and, alcohols, aldehydes and aromatic compounds the HS of T. melanosporum and T. indicum. Despite these variations, eight VOCs markers could be identified allowing the discrimination of the three species. Additionally, T. borchii and T. melanosporum both distinguished themselves from T. indicum due to higher aroma content and larger variety of sulfur containing compounds. Mycelial VOCs production was also investigated under two cultural conditions and led to the identification of eight VOCs. On one side, seven of them were also detected in the fruiting body, confirming their mycelial origin. On the other side, the total absence of some class of compounds (i.e. sulfur) in the mycelium raises questions about their origins in the fruiting bodies and confirms deep metabolic changes between the reproductive (fruiting body) and vegetative (mycelium) stages. PMID:17574637

  8. Psychophysical evaluation of interactive effects between sweeteners and aroma compounds

    Nahon, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of intense sweeteners in a light soft drink influences the preferences for, and the flavour profiles of these drinks to various extents, depending on the aroma and sweeteners present. In this study equisweet mixtures of sweeteners were composed at 10% Sucrose Equivalent Value. The sucrose/maltitol and sucrose/aspartame mixtures were additive, whereas equisweet binary sucrose/Na-cyclamate mixtures and ternary sucrose/aspartame/Na-cyclamate mixtures revealed synergistic effects.The...

  9. Aroma enhancement and enzymolysis regulation of grape wine using ?-glycosidase

    Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Adding ?-glycosidase into grape wine for enhancing aroma was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Kramer sensory evaluation. Compared with the extract from control wines, the extract from enzyme-treated wines increased more aromatic compounds using steam distillation extraction (SDE) and GC-MS analyses. Theses aromatic compounds were as follows: 3-methyl-1-butanol formate, 3-pentanol, furfural, 3-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl-butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-butanoic a...

  10. Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications

    Barshick, S.-A.; Griest, W.H.; Vass, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic `fingerprint` pattern representative of the vapor- phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The results to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

  11. Volatile compounds responsible for aroma of Jutrzenka liquer wine.

    Jele?, Henryk H; Majcher, Ma?gorzata; Dziadas, Mariusz; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, Renata; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; W?sowicz, Erwin

    2011-10-21

    Jutrzenka is a sweet liquer wine produced in Poland from the grape variety of the same name, developed in Poland to withstand the harsh climate of winery regions. Jutrzenka wine has a characteristic aroma with strong fruity and flowery notes, which make it unique among other liquer wines as demonstrated in sensory profile analysis. The work was aimed at characterization of volatile compounds in this wine, with the emphasis on characterization of compounds responsible for its unique aroma. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) was applied to identify the key odorants using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) approach. To facilitate free and bound terpenes and C(13)-norisoprenoids identification solid phase extraction (SPE) was used followed by GC/MS. Among identified key odorants ?-damascenone was the compound having the highest FD (4096), followed by isoamyl alcohol, 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (FD=2048), methional, linalool, ethyl decanoate (FD=1024) and ethyl hexanoate, furaneol (FD=512). Other significant compounds were ethyl 2-methyl propanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and phenyl ethyl alcohol. Determination of odor activity values (OAV) showed the highest values for ?-damascenone (566), 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (288) ethyl hexanoate (32) and linalool (7). Jutrzenka exhibited also a rich profile of free, and to lesser extent bound terpenes. PMID:21831389

  12. Phytosterols in onion contribute to a sensation of lingering of aroma, a koku attribute.

    Nishimura, Toshihide; Egusa, Ai Saiga; Nagao, Akira; Odahara, Tsutomu; Sugise, Takeshi; Mizoguchi, Noriko; Nosho, Yasuharu

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to examine the substance in a precipitate of heat-treated onion concentrate (HOC) that contributes to a sensation of lingering of aroma, a koku attribute induced by the sensing of richness and persistence in terms of taste, aroma and texture. Adding precipitate, separated from HOC, to consommé enhanced the lingering sensation of aroma in the consommé more than adding the supernatant from HOC. After the precipitate was washed with hot water and ethanol its enhancing effect disappeared. Analysis of the HOC precipitate showed that it contained phytosterols, such as beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Tests of binding to aroma compounds showed that both sterols, as well as the washed precipitate, were able to bind methyl propyl disulfide and N-hexanal. Thus phytosterols in the HOC precipitate seemed to bind and hold the aroma compounds and gradually release them, inducing a lingering sensation of aroma under the koku concept during consumption. PMID:26304403

  13. Characterization of the Volatile Substances and Aroma Components from Traditional Soypaste

    Yan Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the flavor substances of soypaste were extracted by a simultaneous distillation method and identified by GC-MS. The characteristic aroma components of soypaste were determined by the GC-O technique and the FD value of the characteristic aroma components was determined by AEDA method. It could be inferred that the aroma of the soypaste should be attributed to the presence of heterocyclic compounds and organic acids, with the heterocyclic compounds playing a prominent role.

  14. Chemical and aroma determination of the pulp and seeds of murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L.)

    Rezende Claudia M.; Fraga Sandra R. G.

    2003-01-01

    Murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L., Malpighiaceae), a small, tropical fruit, very popular in Brazil, has a strong fruity, rancid cheese aroma. High resolution gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry and aroma extract dilution analysis identified the most potent substances in its aroma as ethyl butanoate (fruity, sweet), ethyl hexanoate (fruity), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom like), butyric acid (rancid, cheese), hexanoic acid (pungent, cheese) and phenylethyl alcohol (floral). Its pulp is ma...

  15. Development of a Time-Intensity Evaluation System for Consumers: Measuring Bitterness and Retronasal Aroma of Coffee Beverages in 106 Untrained Panelists.

    Gotow, Naomi; Moritani, Ami; Hayakawa, Yoshinobu; Akutagawa, Akihito; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Kobayakawa, Tatsu

    2015-06-01

    In order to develop products that are acceptable to consumers, it is necessary to incorporate consumers' intentions into products' characteristics. Therefore, investigation of consumers' perceptions of the taste or smell of common beverages provides information that should be useful in predicting market responses. In this study, we sought to develop a time-intensity evaluation system for consumer panels. Using our system, we performed time-intensity evaluation of flavor attributes (bitterness and retronasal aroma) that consumers perceived after swallowing a coffee beverage. Additionally, we developed quantitative evaluation methods for determining whether consumer panelists can properly perform time-intensity evaluation. In every trial, we fitted an exponential function to measured intensity data for bitterness and retronasal aroma. The correlation coefficients between measured time-intensity data and the fitted exponential curves were greater than 0.8 in about 90% of trials, indicating that we had successfully developed a time-intensity system for use with consumer panelists, even after just a single training trial using a nontrained consumer. We classified participants into two groups based on their consumption of canned coffee beverages. Significant difference was observed in only AUC of sensory modality (bitterness compared with retronasal aroma) among conventional TI parameters using two-way ANOVA. However, three-way ANOVA including a time course revealed significant difference between bitterness and retronasal aroma in the high-consumption group. Moreover, the high-consumption group more easily discriminated between bitterness and retronasal aroma than the low-consumption group. This finding implied that manufacturers should select consumer panelists who are suitable for their concepts of new products. PMID:25943978

  16. Evaluation of new aroma substances for feline minitablet formulation

    Jaana Hautala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the global interest in companion animal pharmaceuticals, feline peroral medication still lacks tailor-made, palatable and voluntarily accepted pharmaceuticals with suitable size and attractive taste. As a consequence, treating cats with canine and even human pharmaceuticals has weakened patient compliance and treatment commitment, and has even left many pet cats untreated. In future, the companion animal pharmaceutical business will therefore particularly concentrate on cats and the rapid and economic development of palatable feline medication. Following this goal, the overall aim of this study was to facilitate voluntary drug administration to felines. Specifically we aimed to develop sophisticated and tailor-made feline pharmaceuticals, with the focus on flavours in minitablets. Since excipients should be easily obtained and suitable for formulation, we conducted rapid preformulation compatibility and stability screening tests of synthetic flavours with commonly used tableting excipients. On the basis of the feline carnivorous diet, L-methionine, L-leucine, L-proline and thiamine hydrochloride were presented as new aroma substances for the improvement of feline medication palatability. These flavours and a model substance for a bitter taste, denatonium benzoate, were systematically evaluated for their physicochemical properties, stability and physical compatibility. This was done with substances alone and in binary combinations of flavours and excipients. Stability and compatibility were examined employing DSC and XRPD. The results showed that L-proline and denatonium benzoate anhydrate were hygroscopic. Thiamine hydrochloride was incompatible with talc and sodium stearyl fumarate. The known incompatibility between the amines contained in aromas, and α-lactose monohydrate was used in assessing method sensitivity. Overall, the study provided new information on the compatibility of novel aromas with the tableting excipients. The study also demonstrated the applicability of XRPD and DSC in the rapid evaluation of instability and incompatibility.

  17. Analysis of aroma compounds of Roselle by Dynamic Headspace Sampling using different preparation methods

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; Varming, Camilla; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    The influence of different methods of sample preparation on the aroma profiles of dried Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) was studied. Least amounts of aroma compounds were recovered by analysis of whole dry calyxes (WD) followed by ground dry (GD), blended together with water (BTW), and ground and...

  18. Interaction of volatiles, sugars and acids on perception of tomato aroma and flavor descriptors

    To better understand the effect of sugars and acid levels on perception of aroma volatiles, intensity of tomato characteristic earthy/medicinal/musty, green/grassy/viny and fruity/floral aroma and flavor descriptors were evaluated using coarsely choped partially deodorized tomato puree spiked with 1...

  19. Stabilization of aroma compounds through sorption-release by packaging polymers.

    Reynier, Alain; Dole, Patrice; Fricoteaux, Florence; Saillard, Philippe; Feigenbaum, Alexandre E

    2004-09-01

    Plastic packaging materials are often associated to aroma losses and to a decrease of the organoleptic quality of foods. This work defines situations where, on the contrary, plastics play a regulating role on the concentration of reactive aroma compounds in foods. These systems can be described by a two step mechanism; first, aroma is sorbed in the polymer, while the fraction in solution degrades quickly; in a second step, as the concentration is close to zero in the solution, the polymer liberates progressively the sorbed aroma back to the food. A simple numerical model is proposed, describing competitive processes of aroma degradation in solution and sorption by a polymer in contact with a homogeneous aqueous food. The classical limonene/low density polyethylene (LDPE) system is studied experimentally for the validation of the model: in an acidic medium, limonene both degrades quickly and is sorbed quickly, with a large solubility in LDPE. To define which aroma packaging systems could also display this interesting behavior, all types of possible interactions, using thermodynamic and kinetic parameters describing most practical situations, are simulated. For that purpose, 35 values of reference diffusion coefficients and 35 partition coefficients of usual aroma compounds between polymers and water have been measured and combined with the few available data from literature. The situations where polymers regulate the aroma concentration in food correspond to large partition coefficients (above 10), large diffusion coefficients (>10(-9) cm2 x s(-1)), and large degradation constants. PMID:15373406

  20. Screening of the key volatile organic compounds of Tuber melanosporum fermentation by aroma sensory evaluation combination with principle component analysis

    Rui-Sang Liu; Guang-Huai Jin; Deng-Rong Xiao; Hong-Mei Li; Feng-Wu Bai; Ya-Jie Tang

    2015-01-01

    Aroma results from the interplay of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the attributes of microbial-producing aromas are significantly affected by fermentation conditions. Among the VOCs, only a few of them contribute to aroma. Thus, screening and identification of the key VOCs is critical for microbial-producing aroma. The traditional method is based on gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), which is time-consuming and laborious. Considering the Tuber melanosporum fermentation system as a...

  1. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    Intan Kusumaningrum*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

  2. Differential effects of exposure to ambient vanilla and citrus aromas on mood, arousal and food choice

    de Wijk René A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost physiological sensors and semi-real life settings. Tests included physiological (heart rate, physical activity and response times, psychological (emotions and mood and behavioral (food choice measures in a semi-real life environment for 22 participants. Results Exposure to ambient citrus aroma increased physical activity (P P P P P Conclusions The test battery used in this study demonstrated aroma-specific physiological, psychological and behavioral effects of aromas with similar appeal and intensities, and similar food-related origins. These effects could be measured in (semi- real life environments for freely moving subjects using relatively inexpensive commercially available physiological sensors.

  3. Partial purification and characterisation of the peptide precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma components.

    Voigt, Jürgen; Janek, Katharina; Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Niewienda, Agathe; Wöstemeyer, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Essential precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma notes are formed during fermentation of the cocoa beans by acid-induced proteolysis. It has been shown that, in addition to free amino acids, hydrophilic peptides derived from the vicilin-class(7S) globular storage protein are required for the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma notes during the roasting process. To identify those peptides responsible for the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma components, we have developed a procedure for the fractionation of the aroma precursor extract from well-fermented cocoa beans by ligand-exchange and subsequent Sephadex-LH20 chromatography. The cocoa-specific aroma precursor fractions were characterised by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and the determination of their amino acid sequences by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). PMID:26304401

  4. Chemical and aroma determination of the pulp and seeds of murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L.

    Rezende Claudia M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L., Malpighiaceae, a small, tropical fruit, very popular in Brazil, has a strong fruity, rancid cheese aroma. High resolution gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry and aroma extract dilution analysis identified the most potent substances in its aroma as ethyl butanoate (fruity, sweet, ethyl hexanoate (fruity, 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom like, butyric acid (rancid, cheese, hexanoic acid (pungent, cheese and phenylethyl alcohol (floral. Its pulp is mainly composed of ethyl, methyl and phenylethyl esters and by carboxylic acids, terpenoids, delta-lactones and some sulfur compounds. Seed analysis also showed a buttery and oily cheese aroma and GC-MS revealed linoleic, oleic, stearic and palmitic acids as foremost components, while the aroma was associated to the butyric and hexanoic acids present in minor amounts.

  5. Aroma Volatile Compounds from Two Fresh Pineapple Varieties in China

    Chang-Bin Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds from two pineapples varieties (Tainong No.4 and No.6 were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. In the Tainong No. 4 and No. 6 pineapples, a total of 11 and 28 volatile compounds were identified according to their retention time on capillary columns and their mass spectra, and quantified with total concentrations of 1080.44 µg·kg−1 and 380.66 µg·kg−1 in the Tainong No.4 and No. 6 pineapples, respectively. The odor active values (OAVs of volatile compounds from pineapples were also calculated. According to the OAVs, four compounds were defined as the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 4 pineapple, including furaneol, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid methyl ester, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester and δ-octalactone. The OAVs of five compounds including ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, methyl-2-methylbutyrate, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl hexanoate and decanal were considered to be the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 6 pineapple.

  6. Aroma improvement by repeated freeze-thaw treatment during Tuber melanosporum fermentation.

    Xiao, Deng-Rong; Liu, Rui-Sang; He, Long; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Ling; Liang, Xin-Hua; Chen, Tao; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The aroma attributes of sulfurous, mushroom and earthy are the most important characteristics of the aroma of Tuber melanosporum. However, these three aroma attributes are absent in the T. melanosporum fermentation system. To improve the quality of the aroma, repeated freeze-thaw treatment (RFTT) was adopted to affect the interplay of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Using RFTT, not only was the score on the hedonic scale of the aroma increased from the "liked slightly" to the "liked moderately" grade, but the aroma attributes of sulfurous, mushroom and earthy could also be smelled in the T. melanosporum fermentation system for the first time. A total of 29 VOCs were identified, and 9 compounds were identified as the key discriminative volatiles affected by RFTT. Amino acid analysis revealed that methionine, valine, serine, phenylalanine, isoleucine and threonine were the key substrates associated with the biosynthesis of the 9 key discriminative VOCs. This study noted that amino acid metabolism played an important role in the regulation of the aroma of the T. melanosporum fermentation system. PMID:26607288

  7. Genetic analysis and gene fine mapping of aroma in rice (Oryza sativa L. Cyperales, Poaceae

    Shu Xia Sun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated inheritance and carried out gene fine mapping of aroma in crosses between the aromatic elite hybrid rice Oryza sativa indica variety Chuanxiang-29B (Ch-29B and the non-aromatic rice O. sativa indica variety R2 and O. sativa japonica Lemont (Le. The F1 grains and leaves were non-aromatic while the F2 non-aroma to aroma segregation pattern was 3:1. The F3 segregation ratio was consistent with the expected 1:2:1 for a single recessive aroma gene in Ch-29B. Linkage analysis between simple sequence repeat (SSR markers and the aroma locus for the aromatic F2 plants mapped the Ch-29B aroma gene to a chromosome 8 region flanked by SSR markers RM23120 at 0.52 cM and RM3459 at 1.23 cM, a replicate F2 population confirming these results. Three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones cover chromosome 8 markers RM23120 and RM3459. Our molecular mapping data from the two populations indicated that the aroma locus occurs in a 142.85 kb interval on BAC clones AP005301 or AP005537, implying that it might be the same gene reported by Bradbury et al (2005a; Plant Biotec J. 3:363-370. The flanking markers Aro7, RM23120 and RM3459 identified by us could greatly accelerate the efficiency and precision of aromatic rice breeding programs.

  8. Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration (AROMA)

    Hofmann, Peter; von Richter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Automation and Robotics (A&R) systems are a key technology for Mars exploration. All over the world initiatives in this field aim at developing new A&R systems and technologies for planetary surface exploration. From December 2000 to February 2002 Kayser-Threde GmbH, Munich, Germany lead a study called AROMA (Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration) under ESA contract in order to define a reference architecture of A&R elements in support of a human Mars exploration program. One of the goals of this effort is to initiate new developments and to maintain the competitiveness of European industry within this field. c2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  9. Inhalation of steaming seafood aroma: sudden death in an asthmatic.

    Obafunwa, J O; Rushton, P; Busuttil, A

    1996-03-01

    A 29-year-old asthmatic with a family history of atopy inhaled a large dose of fumes from sizzling, steaming seafood being served to another client in a restaurant. She immediately developed respiratory distress, loss of consciousness and cyanosis; she also vomited profusely, aspirated and died with 58 min of the onset of symptoms. Autopsy revealed epiglottitis and tracheobronchitis associated with an infiltration by mast cells. The blood IgE was marginally elevated. Death was attributed to upper respiratory airway obstruction due to aspiration of gastric contents, and to bronchospasm following the inhalation of steaming vapour from the seafood dish. The practice of transporting a platter of sizzling, steaming seafood across dining rooms and restaurants with its aroma permeating the entire premises could prove fatal for atopic customers. PMID:15335627

  10. Aroma Stripping under various Forms of Membrane Distillation Processes: Experiments and modeling

    Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    as volatility, activity coefficient and vapor pressure, it is important to know how these aroma compounds will eventually pass through the membrane. Experiments have been made on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up which can be operated in...... compounds have been measured for these MD configurations. A general transport model for the flux of water and aroma compounds have been derived and compared with the experimental data. A reasonable agreement between the modelling and the experiments could be obtained. From the modelling it was possible to...

  11. The impact of wood ice cream sticks' origin on the aroma of exposed ice cream mixes.

    Jiamyangyuen, S; Delwiche, J F; Harper, W J

    2002-02-01

    The effect of volatile compounds in white birch sticks obtained from four different geographical locations on the aroma of ice cream mix was investigated. Sensory evaluation, (specifically, a series of warmed-up paired comparisons) was conducted on stick-exposed ice cream mixes to determine whether aroma differences in those mixes could be detected. Batches of ice cream mix were exposed to the sticks and aged for 6 d at 4 degrees C and then assessed by the panelists by pairwise comparison. Findings suggest that differences in aroma of mixes that have been exposed to white birch sticks from four different geographical origins can be distinguished perceptually. PMID:11913694

  12. Caracterización anatómica del leño y evolución del crecimiento en ejemplares de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina en la Región Chaqueña, Argentina Wood anatomical description and growth in individuals of Acacia aroma and Acacia furcatispina in Chaco region, Argentina

    Sandra Bravo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La madera de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina se emplea para usos de escaso valor como postes, mangos de herramientas o combustible. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estudiar los caracteres anatómicos del leño de ambas especies y analizar el crecimiento de ejemplares aislados con la finalidad de determinar su potencialidad para usos de mayor valor. Se determinó que la madera de estas especies es dura, pesada y de porosidad difusa con tendencia a semicircular. Acacia furcatispina posee un leño con mayor porcentaje de elementos lignificados, mejores cualidades estéticas y mejor estado fitosanitario que el de A. aroma. Los defectos más frecuentes en estas especies fueron la formación de leño decolorado y pudriciones en la zona del duramen por ataque de hongos, asociados a la presencia de cicatrices de fuego. El espesor promedio de los anillos de crecimiento fue 2,1 mm (DE = 0,47 mm en A. aroma y 1,9 mm, (DE = 0,74 mm en A. furcatispina. Las curvas de incremento medio anual e incremento corriente anual del diámetro en A. aroma se interceptan a los 24 años mientras que las de A. furcatispina lo hacen a la edad de 10 años. Los resultados indicaron que A. furcatispina es una especie interesante para manejar en plantaciones debido a las cualidades de su madera, aunque permitiría obtener escuadrías menores. Su madera podría destinarse a usos particulares como parquets, tallas artísticas, entre otros. Acacia aroma es una especie apropiada para manejar con el objetivo de producción de leña debido a la capacidad de producir fustes y ramas de mayor diámetro y a que su estado fitosanitario limita su empleo para otros usos de mayor valor.The wood of Acacia aroma and Acacia furcatispina is employed for uses of little value such us posts, tools and firewood. The objectives of this work were to study anatomical characters of wood and to analyze the growth of isolated individuals with the purpose of determining their potential for uses of greater value. We determined that these species have high density and heavy wood, with diffuse porosity and tendency to semicircular. The wood of Acacia furcatispina has greater percentage of ligneous elements, better aesthetics qualities and health state than A. aroma. The most frequent defects in these species are rots within heartwood due to fungi attack, and discolorated wood formation, both related to fire scars. The mean width of the growth rings was 2.1 mm (DE = 0.47 mm in A. aroma and 1.9 mm (DE = 0.74 mm in A. furcatispina. In A. aroma, the curve of mean annual increment (IMA intercepted the curve of current annual increment (ICA for diameter at an age of 24 years, while in A. furcatispina it happened at 10 years. The results show that A. furcatispina is an interesting species to manage in plantations due to its wood qualities, although it would only allow small sized timber. This wood could be allocated for others uses such us parquets and artistic sculpture. Acacia aroma is a species suitable to manage for firewood production due to its capacity to produce greater diameter boles and branches, and to frequent wood decay that reduces its use for others more valuables uses.

  13. Pre-fermentation fining effects on the aroma chemistry of Marlborough Sauvignon blanc press fractions.

    Parish, Katie J; Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Bouda, Flo; Klaere, Steffen; Fedrizzi, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    In the wine industry, fining agents are commonly used with many choices now commercially available. Here the influence of pre-fermentation fining on wine aroma chemistry has been explored. Free run and press fraction Sauvignon blanc juices from two vineyards were fined using gelatin, activated carbon, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) and a combination agent which included bentonite, PVPP and isinglass. Over thirty aroma compounds were quantified in the experimental wines. Results showed that activated carbon fining led to a significant (p<0.05) concentration decrease of hexan-1-ol and linalool in the experimental wines when compared to a control, consistent across all vineyard and fraction combinations. Other aroma compounds were also influenced by fining agent, even if vineyards and press fractions played a crucial role. This study confirmed that fining agents used pre-fermentation can influence wine aroma profiles and therefore needs specific tailoring addressing style and origin of grape. PMID:27132857

  14. New Methods Of Plant Selection For Food Aroma Recovery Aided By Oxidation Processes

    Bezysov Anatoliy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to the selection of plants to restore the lost aroma based on the oxidation processes. The predisposition of raw material components to lipid oxidation is the basis of selection criteria. It was determined that the content of unsaturated fatty acids in the lipid extract of watermelon, pumpkin, cucumbers is 30-40%, the ratio of linoleic and linolenic acids in fruit is different. The formation of diene conjugates and hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde after various processing treatment methods is shown. The efficiency of aroma restoration depends on the number of formed 9-, 13- hydroperoxides that serve as a substrate for aroma-forming enzymes. The antioxidant capacity and the oxidation-reduction potential of fresh fruits and fruits after cooking have been analyzed. These characteristics determine the fruit ability to repeated formation of aromatic components. It has been ascertained that gourds have sufficient potential to restore aroma by exogenous lipoxygenases.

  15. Umami compounds enhance the intensity of retronasal sensation of aromas from model chicken soups.

    Nishimura, Toshihide; Goto, Shingo; Miura, Kyo; Takakura, Yukiko; Egusa, Ai S; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko

    2016-04-01

    We examined the influence of taste compounds on retronasal aroma sensation using a model chicken soup. The aroma intensity of a reconstituted flavour solution from which glutamic acid (Glu), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), or phosphate was omitted was significantly lower (pmonosodium glutamate (MSG) to aqueous aroma solution containing only ACM enhanced the intensity of retronasal aroma sensation by 2.5-folds with increasing MSG concentration from 0% to 0.3%. Sensation intensity using an umami solution with added MSG and IMP was significantly higher than that with only MSG when the MSG concentration was 0.05%, 0.075%, or 0.1%. However, it plateaued when MSG concentration was beyond 0.3%. PMID:26593530

  16. The influence of pruning and harvest timing on hop aroma, cone appearance, and yield.

    Matsui, Hiroo; Inui, Takako; Oka, Kaneo; Fukui, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    Humulus lupulus (hop) cone is a key ingredient of beer, which determines its taste and aroma. Thus, it is necessary to control its cultivation conditions to acquire suitable quality. Here, cultivation conditions, such as pruning, blooming, and harvest timings, were modified for the Saaz hop variety in the Saaz region of Czech Republic. We investigated the correlation between the abovementioned cultivation factors and hop aroma characteristics, chemical components, appearance, yield, and beer quality in four locations and in three years. Harvest timing had a significant impact on the amount of essential oils, especially monoterpenes. Among them, linalool, geraniol and myrcene, which contribute beer hoppy aroma, increased with delay in harvest timing. These impacts caused by harvest timing were confirmed in all 4 locations and in all 3years. Our findings suggest that harvest timing influences the intensity and quality of beer hoppy aroma. PMID:26920261

  17. Molecular and biochemical analysis of aroma in CSR10 x Taraori basmati derived Recombinant Inbred Lines

    Pummy Kumari, Uma Ahuja , Sunita Jain and R.K. Jain

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aroma or fragrance of Basmati rice is associated with the presence and content of chemical compound, 2-acetyl-1-pyrrolineand the trait is monogenic recessive. Several PCR-based co-dominant marker based on RG28 locus were developed, which can differentiate between fragrant and non-fragrant rice cultivars. For molecular and biochemical analysis of aroma, a mapping population comprising 208 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a diverse cross between CSR10 and Taraori Basmati through SSD method was used. RILs are among the best mapping populations, which provide a novel material for linkage mapping of genes/QTLs marker for various traits. Biochemical analysis of aroma was performed with the 1.7% KOH solution and molecular analysis of aroma was carried out with microsatellite markers present on chromosome 8 (BAD2, BADEX7-5, SCUSSR1 to determine the extent of association between trait, marker and chromosome 8. Among these markers, BAD2 amplified aroma specific alleles having 256 bp in 72 lines, BADEX7-5 with 95 bp in 74 lines and SCUSSR1 with 129 bp in 79 lines. Mentel test of significance detected by biochemical analysis of RILs (with 1.7 % KOH and molecular marker study revealed high degree (>90 % of association of aroma with the above mentioned markers, respectively. Some of the F10 lines amplified the heterozygous alleles for two sets of specific markers (BAD2 and SCUSSR-1 but did not show the presence of aroma as analyzed by chemical test. Aromatic and non-aromatic lines were almost common in three markers indicating association of markers with the trait and chromosome 8. The results revealed that these markers could be used for marker assisted selection and RIL population for mapping of aroma QTLs/genes.

  18. Differential effects of exposure to ambient vanilla and citrus aromas on mood, arousal and food choice

    de Wijk René A; Zijlstra Suzet M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla) could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost physiological sensors and semi-real life settings. Tests included physiological (heart rate, physical activity and response times), psychological (emotions and mood) and behavioral (food choice) measures in a semi-real...

  19. Cooperation between Lactococcus lactis and Nonstarter Lactobacilli in the Formation of Cheese Aroma from Amino Acids

    Kieronczyk, Agnieszka; Skeie, Siv; Langsrud, Thor; Yvon, Mireille

    2003-01-01

    In Gouda and Cheddar type cheeses the amino acid conversion to aroma compounds, which is a major process for aroma formation, is essentially due to lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In order to evaluate the respective role of starter and nonstarter LAB and their interactions in cheese flavor formation, we compared the catabolism of phenylalanine, leucine, and methionine by single strains and strain mixtures of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NCDO763 and three mesophilic lactobacilli. Amino acid ...

  20. Aroma Compounds of Some Traditional Turkish Cheeses and Their Importance for Turkish Cuisine

    Fügen Durlu-Özkaya; İlhan Gün

    2014-01-01

    Cheese is so important to the Turkish cuisine. It is eaten plain as part of the traditional Turkish breakfast, used in salads, and incorporated into cooked foods such as b?rek, pide, menemen and also used for some traditional desserts. There are several types of cheeses with different characteristics and aroma compounds, and they can be used for preparation of various foods as an additive. The formation of cheese aroma basically associated with lipids, proteins and lactose...

  1. Intra-oral adsorption and release of aroma compounds following in-mouth wine exposure.

    Esteban-Fernández, Adelaida; Rocha-Alcubilla, Nuria; Muñoz-González, Carolina; Moreno-Arribas, María Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, María Ángeles

    2016-08-15

    Wine "after-odour" defined as the long lasting aroma perception that remains after wine swallowing is an outstanding characteristic in terms of wine quality but a relatively unstudied phenomenon. Among the different parameters that might affect wine after-odour, the adsorption of odorants by the oral mucosa could be important but has been little explored. In this work, the impact of the chemical characteristics of aroma compounds on intra-oral adsorption was assessed by an in vivo approach that determined the amounts of odorants remaining in expectorated wine samples. In addition, the subsequent aroma release after in-mouth wine exposure was studied by means of intra-oral SPME/GC-MS using three different panellists. Oral adsorption of the aroma compounds added to the wines ranged from 6% to 43%, depending on their physicochemical characteristics. A progressive intra-oral aroma decrease at different decay rates depending on compound type and panellist was also found. The strength of the aroma-oral mucosa interactions seems to explain these results more than the amount of compound adsorbed by the oral mucosa. PMID:27006241

  2. A proteomic study of rice cultivar TNG67 and its high aroma mutant SA0420.

    Lin, Da-Gin; Chou, Szu-Yi; Wang, Arthur Z; Wang, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Shu-Ming; Lai, Chien-Chen; Chen, Liang-Jwu; Wang, Chang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Fragrance is a very important economic trait for rice cultivars. To identify the aroma genes in rice, we performed a proteomics analysis of aroma-related proteins between Tainung 67 (TNG67) and its high aroma mutant SA0420. Seventeen of the differentially identified proteins were close related with the aroma phenotype of SA0420. Among them, 9 were found in leaves and 8 were found in grains. One protein (L3) was identified as the chloroplastic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase B (OsGAPDHB) which was less abundant in SA0420 than TNG67. Sequence analysis demonstrated that this protein in SA0420 carries a P425S mutation in the C-terminal extension domain, which might hinder the formation of holoenzyme, thereby changing the profile of aroma compounds. The protein profile of OsGAPDHB showed only a weak correlation to its transcription profile. This result indicated that the reduction of OsGAPDHB in SA0420 is regulated by post-translational processes and can only be analyzed by proteomics approach. Transgenic lines suppressing OsGAPDHB through RNAi harbored more fragrance than TNG67 but less than SA0420. With betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase as the only fragrance gene identified in rice to date, OsGAPDHB may serve as the second protein known to contribute to the aroma phenotype. PMID:24268160

  3. Inhibition of the compound action potentials of frog sciatic nerves by aroma oil compounds having various chemical structures

    Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Matsushita, Akitomo; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived chemicals including aroma oil compounds have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction and modulate transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Although applying aroma oils to the skin produces a local anesthetic effect, this has not been yet examined throughly. The aim of the present study was to know how nerve conduction inhibitions by aroma oil compounds are related to their chemical structures and whether these activities are mediated by TRP activation. Compound action potenti...

  4. The aroma of the probiotic yogurts with and without supplements

    Mirjana Hruškar

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish the changes in aromacompounds of fermented milks with probiotics during storage as a function of time and temperature. The aroma compounds concentration in probiotic yogurt samples, during storage at + 4 and +20°C were studied. Acetaldehyde, diacetyl, ethanol and organic acids (lactate, acetate, citrate content were determined during 20 days, every fifth day from the beginning of storage. Acetaldehyde, ethanol, lactic, citric and acetic acid concentration were determined using an enzymatic method, while diacetyl concentration was determined using colorimetric method. The results showed that the acetaldehyde decreased during storage. The decrease was higher at elevated temperature. On the other hand, diacetyl, ethanol and acetic acid increased during storage at both temperatures. The concentration of lactic acid increased during storage at both temperature and at the end of storage it was doubled. The amount of citric acid increased in the same manner. The increase of all organic acids during storage was higher at elevated temperature.

  5. How does roasting process influence the retention of coffee aroma compounds by lyophilized coffee extract?

    López-Galilea, I; Andriot, I; de Peña, M P; Cid, C; Guichard, E

    2008-04-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to study the effect of lyophilized coffee extract on the retention of aroma compounds and (2) to study if aroma compounds selected are differently affected by the lyophilized coffee extracts obtained from conventional and Torrefacto coffee brews prepared by filter coffeemaker and by espresso coffee machine. Variable amounts of lyophilized coffee extracts, relative to coffee powder, containing different percentages of high molecular weight compounds, mainly melanoidins (value given in parentheses), were obtained: 20.9% (14.8) and 24.9% (23.3), respectively, for conventional and Torrefacto coffee brew prepared by filter coffeemaker and 18.1% (18.8) and 20.7% (57.5), respectively, for conventional and Torrefacto coffee brew prepared by espresso coffee machine. The retention of aroma compounds increased by increasing the lyophilized coffee extract concentration and was found to be dependent on the aroma compounds. The retention of aroma compounds was found to be slightly different depending on the brewing procedure employed, showing lyophilized coffee extracts obtained with espresso coffee machine had higher retention values that those extracted by filter coffeemaker. Retention capacity of lyophilized coffee extracts obtained from the conventional and the Torrefacto roasted coffee did not show differences except in the case of ethyl nonanoate. PMID:18387130

  6. Recovery of volatile aroma compounds from black currant juice by vacuum membrane distillation

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Warming, C.; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2004-01-01

    esters. The recovered levels of the highly volatile aroma compounds ranged from 68 to 83 vol.% with a feed volume reduction of 5 vol.% (10 degreesC, 400 l/h). The theoretically predicted aroma recovery as a function of the feed volume reduction was in accordance with the experimentally obtained values......This study evaluated the recovery of seven characteristic black currant aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) carried out at low temperatures (10-45 degreesC) and at varying feed flow rates (100-500 l/h) in a lab scale membrane distillation set tip. VMD at feed flow from 100 to 500...... l/h at 30 degreesC gave concentration factors, calculated for each aroma compound as C-permeate/C-feed: from similar to4 to 15. The concentration factors increased with decreased juice temperature during VMD; at 10 degreesC concentration factors of 21-31 were obtained for the highly volatile aroma...

  7. Coffee roasting and aroma formation: application of different time-temperature conditions.

    Baggenstoss, Juerg; Poisson, Luigi; Kaegi, Ruth; Perren, Rainer; Escher, Felix

    2008-07-23

    The impact of time-temperature combinations of roasting processes on the kinetics of aroma formation in coffee was investigated. The development of 16 aroma compounds and the physical properties of coffee beans was followed in a commercial horizontal drum roasting process and in laboratory scale fluidizing-bed roasting processes at high temperature-short time and low temperature-long time conditions. All trials were run to an equal roast end point as defined by the lightness of coffee beans. In addition, the effect of excessive roasting on aroma composition was studied. Compared to low temperature-long time roasting, high temperature-short time roasting resulted in considerable differences in the physical properties and kinetics of aroma formation. Excessive roasting generally led to decreasing or stable amounts of volatile substances, except for hexanal, pyridine, and dimethyl trisulfide, whose concentrations continued to increase during over-roasting. When the drum roaster and the fluidizing bed roaster were operated in the so-called temperature profile mode, that is, along the identical development of coffee bean temperature over roasting time, the kinetics of aroma generation were similar in both processes. PMID:18572953

  8. Aroma composition changes in early season grapefruit juice produced from thermal concentration.

    Lin, Jianming; Rouseff, Russell L; Barros, Sandy; Naim, Michael

    2002-02-13

    Differences in aroma components and total volatiles between a single unpasteurized Marsh grapefruit juice and its 65 Brix concentrate reconstituted to 10 Brix were examined using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-FID. Total volatiles (FID) in the reconstituted concentrate were reduced to less than 5% of initial values, but 57% of total aroma (GC-O) remained. Forty-one aroma-active compounds were observed in unpasteurized single strength juice, whereas 27 components were found in the unflavored reconstituted concentrate. Aroma-active compounds were classified into grapefruit/sulfury, sweet/fruity, fresh/citrusy, green/fatty/metallic, and cooked/meaty groups. Five of six components in the sweet/fruity and 14 of 18 green/fatty/metallic components survived thermal concentration. However, only 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone in the grapefruit/sulfury group, and linalool and nootkatone from the fresh/citrusy group, were found in the reconstituted concentrate. Methional was the only aroma compound in the cooked/meaty category found in both juice types. beta-Damascenone and 1-p-menthen-8-thiol were found only in the reconstituted concentrate. 4-Mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanol was found for the first time in grapefruit juice. PMID:11829649

  9. A further tool to monitor the coffee roasting process: aroma composition and chemical indices.

    Ruosi, Manuela R; Cordero, Chiara; Cagliero, Cecilia; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Bicchi, Carlo; Sgorbini, Barbara; Liberto, Erica

    2012-11-14

    Coffee quality is strictly related to its flavor and aroma developed during the roasting process, that, in their turn, depend on variety and origin, harvest and postharvest practices, and the time, temperature, and degree of roasting. This study investigates the possibility of combining chemical (aroma components) and physical (color) parameters through chemometric approaches to monitor the roasting process, degree of roasting, and aroma formation by analyzing a suitable number of coffee samples from different varieties and blends. In particular, a correlation between the aroma composition of roasted coffee obtained by HS-SPME-GC-MS and degree of roasting, defined by the color, has been researched. The results showed that aroma components are linearly correlated to coffee color with a correlation factor of 0.9387. The study continued looking for chemical indices: 11 indices were found to be linearly correlated to the color resulting from the roasting process, the most effective of them being the 5-methylfurfural/2-acetylfuran ratio (index). PMID:23083340

  10. Aroma analysis and quality control of food using highly sensitive analytical methods

    This thesis deals with the development of quality control methods for food based on headspace measurements by Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and with aroma analysis of food using PTR-MS and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O). An objective method was developed for the determination of a herb extract's quality; this quality was checked by a sensory analysis until now. The concentrations of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of 81 different batches were measured by PTR-MS. Based on the sensory judgment of the customer, characteristic differences in the emissions of 'good' and 'bad' quality samples were identified and a method for the quality control of this herb extract was developed. This novel method enables the producing company to check and ensure that they are only selling high-quality products and therefore avoid complaints of the customer. Furthermore this method can be used for controlling, optimizing and automating the production process. VOCs emitted by meat were investigated using PTR-MS to develop a rapid, non-destructive and quantitative technique for determination of the microbial contamination of meat. Meat samples (beef, pork and poultry) that were wrapped into different kinds of packages (air and vacuum) were stored in at 4oC for up to 13 days. The emitted VOCs were measured as a function of storage time and identified partly. The concentration of many of the measured VOCs, e.g. sulfur compounds like methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide, largely increased over the storage time. There were big differences in the emissions of normal air- and vacuum-packed meat. VOCs typically emitted by air-packaged meat were methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide, while ethanol and methanol were found in vacuum-packaged meat. A comparison of the PTR-MS results with those obtained by a bacteriological examination performed at the same time showed strong correlations (up to 99 %) between the concentrations of some of the VOCs, e.g. dimethylsulfide, and the bacteriological contamination. The concentration of these VOCs increased linearly with the bacterial numbers. This study is a first step towards replacing the time-consuming conventional microbiological analysis via plate counting by fast headspace air measurements where the bacterial spoilage can be determined within minutes instead of days. PTR-MS and GC-O techniques were used to define volatiles and odor active compounds released in the mouth during eating of ripe and unripe banana. The air exhaled through the nose was directly introduced into a PTR-MS and the time-intensity profiles of a series of volatiles were monitored on-line. The breath-by-breath temporal release pattern revealed various dynamic elements that are characteristic of the eating situation. During the eating of unripe banana we observed a gradual increase in 2E-hexenal and hexanal with ongoing mastication, until swallowing. No particular high concentrations were observed in the exhaled air just after swallowing (swallow breath). During the eating of a ripe banana, we observed isopentyl acetate and isobutyl acetate, compounds characteristic of banana aroma. In contrast, volatiles characteristic of unripe banana were largely absent. No gradual increase was observed with mastication, as present during the eating of unripe banana. In contrast, very prominent swallow peaks were observed. For GC-O analysis the volatile compounds contributing to the banana aroma were prepared in an artificial mouth system using three different mastication rates. Large differences were found in the number of odor active compounds of ripe and unripe bananas as well as for the investigated three different mastication rates (0, 26 and 52 min-1). Hexanal was the only compound that was detected by all six assessors for ripe and unripe bananas for each mastication frequency. Eighteen (seven) significant odor active compounds were detected in the odor profile of ripe (unripe) bananas with a mastication rate of 52 min-1, whereas with a mastication rate of 26 min-1 only 15 (3) and without mastication only 3 (2) compounds were observed. Three conventional gas chromatography methods (olfactometry detection (GC-O), flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS)) and two more recently developed direct mass spectrometry techniques (PTR-MS and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (APCI-TOFMS)) were compared when analyzing of the aroma of rehydrated red bell peppers. Sixty-three volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of the bell peppers by GCMS. According to GC-O analysis, 11 compounds possessed odor activity. Consistently across all techniques, 3-methylbutanal was the most abundant odor active compound, followed by 2-methylbutanal. Compounds present at low concentrations were more affected by the methodology. Chromatography methods correlated strongly with each other (correlation coefficient ρ 0.946), whereas the direct mass spectrometry methods showed a less significant correlation (ρ = 0.613). Examining differences across all methods, it appeared that the proportions of the odor active compounds were not significantly different for GC-MS, GC-FID and PTR-MS. Significant differences were observed between APCI-TOFMS and the other techniques (level of significance P < 0.01). (author)

  11. Effects of sugar concentration processes in grapes and wine aging on aroma compounds of sweet wines—a review.

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Dessert sweet wines from Europe and North America are described in this review from two points of view: both their aroma profile and also their sensorial description. There are growing literature data about the chemical composition and sensory properties of these wines. Wines were grouped according to the production method (concentration of sugars in grapes) and to the aging process of wine (oxidative, biological, or a combination of both and aging in the bottle). It was found that wines natively sweets and wines fortified with liquors differ in their volatile compounds. Sensory properties of these wines include those of dried fruit (raisins), red berries, honey, chocolate and vanilla, which is contributing to their growing sales. However, there is still a need for scientific research on the understanding of the mechanisms for wine flavor enhancement. PMID:24915355

  12. Assessment of changes in the aroma and sensory profile of dawadawa due to modification in fermentation conditions

    Dawadawa is the most popular traditional condiment in West Africa and is produced by the fermentation of African locust bean seeds. Though the alkaline fermentation results in the production of a tasty condiment, it has a strong ammoniacal odour which some consumers find unattractive and offensive. This work was carried out to develop procedures for reducing the pungent odour of dawadawa in order to increase its popularity and market value especially amongst non-traditional users. Various treatments were applied to the fermenting locust bean seeds 15 hours into the fermentation which lasted for a total of 96 hours. Some treatments were also tested on the beans after fermentation. Treatments which were applied during fementation were fementation under conditions of limited oxygen, low temperature fermentation, irradiation by gamma radiation and steaming. Post-fermentation treatments were partial frying and roasting after fermentation. Samples were taken during fermentation and analyzed for Bacillus count on Nutrient Agar, pH, percentage titratable acidity, moisture content by the oven dry method, crude protein content by the kjeldhal method and texture by the texture analyzer. The final product was analyzed for aroma profile by GC-MS analysis using the Dynamic Headspace Sampling (DHS) method and also by descriptive sensory analysis by a semi-trained panel. Application of all the treatments applied during fermentation resulted in a ten to a hundredfold lower Bacillus counts compared to the control sample at various stages of fermentation. The reduction in the Bacillus activities resulted in a lower rise in pH giving final pH values of 6.8 to 7.53 compared to 8.37 in the control. The rise in pH was due to the proteolytic activity of the Bacillus species which break down the proteins into peptides and amino acids and subsequently utilize the amino acids to produce ammonia leading to the rise in pH. All the samples recorded a simultaneous increase in titratable acidity ranging from 0.006% to 0.037% in the control sample. The moisture content for all samples ranged from 54 to 73% with steaming for 10 minutes recording the highest value due to pick up of moisture during steaming. The protein content of all the samples increased during fermentation with final values which ranged between 30.42 to 37.64%. The texture of all the locust bean cotyledons softened during fermentation and the lowest value of hardness 15 was recorded for the limited oxygen sample and the highest value of 152 for the low temperature fermentation. The results of the instrumental textural analysis were supported by the assessment of the texture by the sensory panel which found the control sample to have the softest and smoothest texture due to the greater degree of fermentation of the control sample and which also results in the more pronounced ammoniacal odour. In the description sensory analysis, the panel assessed higher intensities of the descriptors which were considered undesirable/objectionable in the control sample than in the treated sample. These descriptors were stink fish ( momone), Koobi (salted/fermented tilapia) and sweaty sock. The more neutral/tolerant odour notes of rancid oil, fermented cocoa beans, smoked fish and palm kernel oil were higher in the treated sample. The aroma profile of dawadawa was affected by application of the treatments. Forty-nine aroma compounds in total were isolated form the differently treated dawadawa samples. They included mostly esters of acetic, butanoic and propanoic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, furans, sulfur compounds, pyrazines and a pyrrole. In spite of the known pungent smell of dawadawa, most of the aroma compounds identified were esters which are known for their fruity, pleasant odours. However, about 12 of aroma compounds identified such as the sulfur compounds-dimetyhl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide are reported to have strong pungent odours whilst 2,3-benzohyrrole is known to exhibit the charateristic odour of faeces. The levels of all but eight (2-Methlpropyl acetate; 2- Pentylfuran; 1-Pentanol; 2,6-dimenthlpyrazine; 2,3,5- Trimethlpyrazine; Phenylethanal; Methyl phenylacetate and Benzyl alcohol) of the aroma compounds were either not identified in the control sample or significantly different ( P≤0.05) in the control compared to the treated samples. Aroma compounds known to have low odour thresholds such as 2-methylfuran; 2-metylfuran, dimethl trisulfide, 2,6-dimethlpyrazine, 2,3,5-trimethlpyrazine and 2,3-benzopyrrole were all at significantly different levels in al the samples they occurred. Generally the odour compunds with pungent and objectionable odours were present at higher levels in the control than in the treated samples. This work has shown that the objectionable/undesirable odour in dawadawa can be reducesd by applying the methods investigated. The most practical effective methods which can be applied by SMEs to reduce the atypical odour of dawadawa is to carry out the fementation in an enclosed chamber with a predetermined oxygen concentration or at a low temperature of 15°C which can be obtained by strong air-conditioning. (au)

  13. Recuperao e concentrao de componentes do aroma de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. por pervaporao Recovery of aroma compounds of cashew apple fruit (Anacardium occidentale L. by pervaporation

    Andr von Randow de Assis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A pervaporao um processo de separao por membranas, no qual misturas lquidas so fracionadas devido sua vaporizao parcial atravs de uma membrana densa de permeabilidade seletiva. Este processo pode ser utilizado na recuperao e concentrao de componentes de aromas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a pervaporao para obteno de um extrato natural de aroma de caju, que poder ser utilizado como aditivo na indstria de alimentos. Polpa de caju foi a matria-prima utilizada no trabalho. O processo de pervaporao foi conduzido a 25 e 35 C em membranas de polidimetilsiloxano. Foram recolhidas amostras do suco de caju, no incio e ao final do processo, e do permeado para a caracterizao do perfil aromtico atravs de CG-EM. O processo de pervaporao apresentou um alto fluxo de permeado para o suco de caju, 0,11 e 0,17 kg.hm-2 a 25 e 35 C, respectivamente. Os cromatogramas revelaram um grande aumento no nmero de picos nas amostras de permeado em relao aos cromatogramas das amostras do suco de caju original, sendo que cerca de 50% dos componentes identificados no permeado apresentaram um acrscimo em suas reas em relao aos do suco original, indicando a potencialidade deste processo para a concentrao do aroma de caju.Pervaporation is a membrane separation process in which components from liquid mixtures are fractionated due to their partial vaporisation through a dense selective membrane. This process can be used to recover aroma compounds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the pervaporation to obtain a natural aroma extract from cashew apple fruit, which can be used as an additive in the food industry. Cashew pulp was used as raw material. Pervaporation was carried out at 25 and 35 C using polymethylsiloxane membranes. Samples of the cashew juice in the beginning and at the end of the pervaporation and from the permeate were picked to characterise the aromatic profile by GC-MS. The pervaporation of the cashew juice presented a high permeate flux, 0.11 kgh-1m-2 and 0.17 kg.hm-2, at 25 and 35 C, respectively. The chromatograms showed an increase in the number of compounds in the permeate samples when compared to the chromatograms of the cashew juice. By comparing the peak areas, it could be observed that almost 50% of the identified components in the permeate samples presented an increase in the peak area, showing the potentiality of this process to the concentration of the aroma of cashew apple juice.

  14. Aroma Characterization and Safety Assessment of a Beverage Fermented by Trametes versicolor.

    Zhang, Yanyan; Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Mller, Julia; Schmitz, Hans-Joachim; Birk, Florian; Schrenk, Dieter; Zorn, Holger

    2015-08-12

    A cereal-based beverage was developed by fermentation of wort with the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor. The beverage possessed a fruity, fresh, and slightly floral aroma. The volatiles of the beverage were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and additionally by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The aroma compounds were analyzed by a gas chromatography system equipped with a tandem mass spectrometer and an olfactory detection port (GC-MS/MS-O) followed by aroma (extract) dilution analysis. Thirty-four different odor impressions were perceived, and 27 corresponding compounds were identified. Fifteen key odorants with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 8 to 128 were quantitated, and their respective odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Six key odorants were synthesized de novo by T. versicolor. Furthermore, quantitative changes during the fermentation process were analyzed. To prepare for the market introduction of the beverage, a comprehensive safety assessment was performed. PMID:26189508

  15. Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate

    Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Saerens, Sofie; Blennow, Andreas; Skovmand-Larsen, Mathias; Swiegers, Jan H.; Petersen, Gert B.; Heimdal, Hanne; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    aroma and sensory profile, but whilst the application of starter cultures did affect the volatile aroma profile, differences were too small to significantly change consumer perception of the chocolates as compared to a spontaneously fermented control. 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, and compared to commercially...... profiling described the heap and tray fermented chocolates as sweet with cocoa and caramel flavours, whilst the inoculated chocolates were characterized as fruity, acid and bitter with berry, yoghurt and balsamic flavours. The choice of fermentation technique had the greatest overall impact on the volatile...

  16. Chemical and sensory comparison of fresh and dried lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit aroma.

    Forero, Diana Paola; Orrego, Carlos Eduardo; Peterson, Devin Grant; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-02-15

    The odour-active volatile compounds of lulo fruit (Solanum quitoense Lam.) were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). GC-O and GCMS analyses as well as quantitation by internal standard method showed that (Z)-3-hexenal, ethyl butanoate, 3-sulphanylhexyl acetate, and ethyl hexanoate were key aroma compounds in this fruit. Other odorants with relevance because their contribution (high OAVs) to the overall aroma were 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, methyl benzoate, (E)-2-hexenal, and hexanal. Lulo fruit pulp in presence of maltodextrin DE-20 was dried by using four different types of drying methods: hot air-drying (HD), spray drying (SD), lyophilisation (LD), and ultrasonic convective hot air-drying (HUD). LD sample exhibited the highest sensory rank (lulo-like) in comparison with fresh fruit pulp. Hot-air drying processes (HD and HUD) changed adversely the aroma of lulo fruit pulp. PMID:25236202

  17. Effect of skin contact on bound aroma and free volatiles of Listán blanco wine.

    Rodrıguez-Bencomo, Juan J; Méndez-Siverio, Juan J; Pérez-Trujillo, Juan P; Cacho, Juan

    2008-09-01

    Listán blanco is the major grape variety of the Canary Islands. Aroma precursors in musts and free volatiles in wines and their variations due to the skin contact process (10°C and 0-12h of maceration) were determined in samples of the Listán blanco grape variety. Aroma precursors of must were isolated by absorption on XAD-2 resin and the aglycone liberated by means of acid hydrolysis. Free volatiles from wines and from aroma precursors were extracted with dichloromethane and then analysed by GC-MS. The results of two consecutive vintages show that only aroma precursors of some terpenes and phenols may affect the final wine aroma. However, the majority of the free compounds of the wines did not present differences in content that could be related to the skin contact process. PMID:26050186

  18. Selection of aroma compounds for the differentiation of wines obtained by fermenting musts with starter cultures of commercial yeast strains.

    Vararu, Florin; Moreno-García, Jaime; Zamfir, Cătălin-Ioan; Cotea, Valeriu V; Moreno, Juan

    2016-04-15

    Nine wines obtained by fermenting Aligoté musts with individual starter cultures of eight Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains and with the indigenous microbiota were compared in terms of their composition in minor volatile aroma compounds. An easy handle methodology Stir-Bar-Sorptive-Adsorption, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry based, permits the identification of 49 aroma compounds. The rearrangement of these aroma compounds in six chemical families permits the establishment of a finger printing for each wine. Eighteen aroma compounds that exhibit a high differentiation power (p⩽0.05) were selected for chemometric analysis. The Principal Component Analysis carried out with these aroma compounds reveal that the first two principal components explain 53.8% and 17.2% of the total variance, respectively, allowing the establishment of nine different groups, in accordance with the wine types obtained. These results reveal analytical differences among the wines that are not recognized by sensorial analysis. PMID:26616963

  19. Sensory and chemical characterisation of the aroma of Prieto Picudo rosé wines: the differential role of autochthonous yeast strains on aroma profiles.

    Álvarez-Pérez, José Manuel; Campo, Eva; San-Juan, Felipe; Coque, Juan José R; Ferreira, Vicente; Hernández-Orte, Purificación

    2012-07-15

    This study evaluates the specific impact of isolated yeast strains on the aromatic profile of fermented musts from Prieto Picudo, an autochthonous Castilla y León (Spain) red grape variety with an increasing demand in the local marketplace. For this purpose, the aroma profiles of wines elaborated from Prieto Picudo grapes have been studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with the aim of determining the potential of each strain to generate distinctive varietal and fermentation-derived aromatic compounds. The results have shown that the yeast strain exerts a critical influence on the levels of some fermentative (linear and branched ethyl esters, fatty acids, ethyl phenylacetate) and varietal compounds (4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone, 3-mercaptohexylacetate, β-damascenone), thus inducing a deep influence on the final aroma of the wine. Combination of both sensory and chemical data arises as a major tool to monitor the different patterns of aroma release and formation from selected yeast strains during the winemaking process. PMID:25683397

  20. Aroma compounds generation in citrate metabolism of Enterococcus faecium: Genetic characterization of type I citrate gene cluster.

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martn; Blancato, Victor S; Magni, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Enterococcus is one of the most controversial genera belonging to Lactic Acid Bacteria. Research involving this microorganism reflects its dual behavior as regards its safety. Although it has also been associated to nosocomial infections, natural occurrence of Enterococcus faecium in food contributes to the final quality of cheese. This bacterium is capable of fermenting citrate, which is metabolized to pyruvate and finally derives in the production of the aroma compounds diacetyl, acetoin and 2,3 butanediol. Citrate metabolism was studied in E. faecium but no data about genes related to these pathways have been described. A bioinformatic approach allowed us to differentiate cit(-) (no citrate metabolism genes) from cit(+) strains in E. faecium. Furthermore, we could classify them according to genes encoding for the transcriptional regulator, the oxaloacetate decarboxylase and the citrate transporter. Thus we defined type I organization having CitI regulator (DeoR family), CitM cytoplasmic soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase (Malic Enzyme family) and CitP citrate transporter (2-hydroxy-carboxylate transporter family) and type II organization with CitO regulator (GntR family), OAD membrane oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex (Na(+)-transport decarboxylase enzyme family) and CitH citrate transporter (CitMHS family). We isolated and identified 17 E. faecium strains from regional cheeses. PCR analyses allowed us to classify them as cit(-) or cit(+). Within the latter classification we could differentiate type I but no type II organization. Remarkably, we came upon E. faecium GM75 strain which carries the insertion sequence IS256, involved in adaptative and evolution processes of bacteria related to Staphylococcus and Enterococcus genera. In this work we describe the differential behavior in citrate transport, metabolism and aroma generation of three strains and we present results that link citrate metabolism and genetic organizations in E. faecium for the first time. PMID:26594791

  1. Characterization of the key odorants in raw Italian hazelnuts ( Corylus avellana L. var. Tonda Romana) and roasted hazelnut paste by means of molecular sensory science.

    Burdack-Freitag, Andrea; Schieberle, Peter

    2012-05-23

    The concentrations of 19 odorants, recently characterized by GC-olfactometry and aroma extract dilution analysis as the most odor-active compounds in raw hazelnuts, were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Calculation of odor activity values (OAV) on the basis of odor thresholds in oil revealed high OAVs, in particular for linalool, 5-methyl-4-heptanone, 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, and 4-methylphenol. A model mixture in sunflower oil containing the 13 odorants showing OAVs above 1 in their natural concentrations resulted in a good similarity compared to the overall nut-like, fruity aroma of the raw hazelnuts. Quantitation of the 25 most odor-active compounds in roasted hazelnut paste by SIDA showed clear changes in the concentrations of most odorants, and formation of new odor-active compounds induced by the roasting process was observed. The highest OAVs were calculated for 3-methylbutanal (malty), 2,3-pentanedione (buttery), 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn), and (Z)-2-nonenal (fatty), followed by dimethyl trisulfide, 2-furfurylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone. The aroma of a model mixture containing the 19 odorants with OAVs above 1 in their actual concentrations in the roasted nut material was judged to elicit a very good similarity to the popcorn-like, coffee-like, and sweet-smoky aroma of the roasted hazelnut paste. New SIDAs were developed for the quantitation of 5-methyl-4-heptanone, 5-methyl-(E)-2-hepten-4-one, 2-thenylthiol, and 3,5,5-trimethyl-2(5H)-furanone. PMID:22515832

  2. Biotechnological production of flavours and fragrances.

    Krings, U; Berger, R G

    1998-01-01

    The biotechnological generation of natural aroma compounds is rapidly expanding. Aroma chemicals, such as vanillin, benzaldehyde (bitter almond, cherry) and 4-(R)-decanolide (fruity-fatty) are marketed on a scale of several thousand tons per year. Their possible production by single-step biotransformations, bioconversions and de novo synthesis using microorganisms, plant cells or isolated enzymes is shown. The perspectives of bioprocesses for the oxifunctionalisation of lower terpenes by genetically modified organisms and economic aspects are discussed. PMID:9487704

  3. Study of combined effect of proteins and bentonite fining on the wine aroma loss.

    Vincenzi, Simone; Panighel, Annarita; Gazzola, Diana; Flamini, Riccardo; Curioni, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The wine aroma loss as a consequence of treatments with bentonite is due to the occurrence of multiple interaction mechanisms. In addition to a direct effect of bentonite, the removal of aroma compounds bound to protein components adsorbed by the clay has been hypothesized but never demonstrated. We studied the effect of bentonite addition on total wine aroma compounds (extracted from Moscato wine) in a model solution in the absence and presence of total and purified (thaumatin-like proteins and chitinase) wine proteins. The results showed that in general bentonite alone has a low effect on the loss of terpenes but removed ethyl esters and fatty acids. The presence of wine proteins in the solution treated with bentonite tended to increase the loss of esters with the longest carbon chains (from ethyl octanoate to ethyl decanoate), and this was significant when the purified proteins were used. The results here reported suggest that hydrophobicity can be one of the driving forces involved in the interaction of aromas with both bentonite and proteins. PMID:25665100

  4. Comparative analysis of aroma compounds and sensorial features of strawberry and lemon guavas (Psidium cattleianum Sabine).

    Egea, Mariana Buranelo; Pereira-Netto, Adaucto Bellarmino; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Lopez, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    The aroma of strawberry and lemon guava fruits (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) was studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and quantitative analysis. Volatiles released from the pulps were collected in a trapping system consisting of LiChrolut EN resins and eluted with dichloromethane/methanol. In total, 23 odour zones were detected by GC-O, of which 16 were found in the extract from the strawberry guava pulp and 17 in the extract from the lemon guava pulp. Among the compounds identified, only 10 were common to both strawberry and lemon guavas. The descriptive sensorial analysis differentiated between the aroma profiles of the strawberry guava pulp with the descriptor "tomato" and the lemon guava pulp with the descriptor "tropical fruit". The typical aroma of the guava fruits was dominated by the presence of numerous aldehydes and ketones among which (Z)-3-hexenal was the most intense odorant, while 1,8-cineole and linalool were also revealed as important aroma constituents. PMID:24996334

  5. Cooperation between Lactococcus lactis and nonstarter lactobacilli in the formation of cheese aroma from amino acids.

    Kieronczyk, Agnieszka; Skeie, Siv; Langsrud, Thor; Yvon, Mireille

    2003-02-01

    In Gouda and Cheddar type cheeses the amino acid conversion to aroma compounds, which is a major process for aroma formation, is essentially due to lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In order to evaluate the respective role of starter and nonstarter LAB and their interactions in cheese flavor formation, we compared the catabolism of phenylalanine, leucine, and methionine by single strains and strain mixtures of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NCDO763 and three mesophilic lactobacilli. Amino acid catabolism was studied in vitro at pH 5.5, by using radiolabeled amino acids as tracers. In the presence of alpha-ketoglutarate, which is essential for amino acid transamination, the lactobacillus strains degraded less amino acids than L. lactis subsp. cremoris NCDO763, and produced mainly nonaromatic metabolites. L. lactis subsp. cremoris NCDO763 produced mainly the carboxylic acids, which are important compounds for cheese aroma. However, in the reaction mixture containing glutamate, only two lactobacillus strains degraded amino acids significantly. This was due to their glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity, which produced alpha-ketoglutarate from glutamate. The combination of each of the GDH-positive lactobacilli with L. lactis subsp. cremoris NCDO763 had a beneficial effect on the aroma formation. Lactobacilli initiated the conversion of amino acids by transforming them mainly to keto and hydroxy acids, which subsequently were converted to carboxylic acids by the Lactococcus strain. Therefore, we think that such cooperation between starter L. lactis and GDH-positive lactobacilli can stimulate flavor development in cheese. PMID:12570989

  6. Changes in key aroma compounds of Criollo cocoa beans during roasting.

    Frauendorfer, Felix; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-11-12

    Application of a comparative aroma extraction dilution analysis on unroasted and roasted Criollo cocoa beans revealed 42 aroma compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 1-4096 for the unroasted and 4-8192 for the roasted cocoa beans. While the same compounds were present in the unroasted and roasted cocoa beans, respectively, these clearly differed in their intensity. For example, 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (rancid) and acetic acid (sour) showed the highest FD factors in the unroasted beans, while 3-methylbutanal (malty), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel-like), and 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (sweaty) were detected with the highest FD factors in the roasted seeds. Quantitation of 30 odorants by means of stable isotope dilution assays followed by a calculation of odor activity values (ratio of the concentration/odor threshold) revealed concentrations above the odor threshold for 22 compounds in the unroasted and 27 compounds in the roasted cocoa beans, respectively. In particular, a strong increase in the concentrations of the Strecker aldehydes 3-methylbutanal and phenylacetaldehyde as well as 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone was measured, suggesting that these odorants should contribute most to the changes in the overall aroma after roasting. Various compounds contributing to the aroma of roasted cocoa beans, such as 3-methylbutanoic acid, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, and 2-phenylethanol, were already present in unroasted, fermented cocoa beans and were not increased during roasting. PMID:18925740

  7. Characteristic aroma-active compounds of Korean perilla (Perilla frutescens Britton) leaf.

    Seo, Won Ho; Baek, Hyung Hee

    2009-12-23

    Aroma-active compounds from Korean perilla (Perilla frutescens Britton) leaf were extracted by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), liquid-liquid continuous extraction (LLCE), and hydrodistillation (HD) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Thirty-three volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS. 1-(3-Furyl)-4-methyl-1-pentanone (perilla ketone) was found to be the most abundant volatile compound, followed in order by (Z)-3-hexenol and 1-octen-3-ol. Perilla ketone comprised 81% (93 ppm), 84% (120 ppm), and 95% (490 ppm) of the volatile compounds obtained from SAFE, LLCE, and HD, respectively. Thirteen aroma-active compounds were detected by GC-O. Perilla ketone, 1-(3-furyl)-4-methyl-3-penten-1-one (egoma ketone), and 1-(3-furyl)-4-methyl-2-penten-1-one (isoegoma ketone) were considered to be the characteristic aroma-active compounds of Korean perilla leaf. Perilla ketone, (Z)-3-hexenal (green), egoma ketone, and isoegoma ketone were the most intense aroma-active compounds in Korean perilla leaf. Other relatively intense odorants included (Z)-3-hexenol (green), (E)-2-hexenal (green), benzaldehyde (almond), 1-octen-3-one (metallic), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom), phenylacetaldehyde (honeysuckle), linalool (lemon), and beta-caryophyllene (woody). PMID:20000853

  8. Aroma of Turmeric: Dependence on the Combination of Groups of Several Odor Constituents.

    Hasegawa, Toshio; Nakatani, Kenta; Fujihara, Takashi; Yamada, Hideo

    2015-06-01

    Turmeric is a popular material that plays an important role in the flavor and fragrance industries. Although many compounds have been reported as components of turmeric, its aroma profile has not been clarified. Recently we have developed a new approach for evaluating the complex odors of materials based on recent research on the mechanism of odor recognition. Here we report the characteristic aroma properties of turmeric obtained through the investigation of its aroma profile. The hexane extract of turmeric had a turmeric-like odor, whereas the steam distillate of turmeric had a pungent, non-turmeric-like odor. We carried out bulb-to-bulb distillations of the extract and the steam distillate. For the hexane extract, two fractions with completely different odors were obtained. One was a high boiling point fraction (group A) with a turmeric-like odor, which consisted of ar-turmerone and ?-turmerone as the main components, and the other was a low boiling point fraction (group B), which consisted of ?-curcumene and ?-sesquiphellandrene. In contrast, the bulb-to-bulb distillation of the steam distillate gave a fraction (group C) with a very different odor from groups A and B. Group C was composed of several kinds of alcohols that were not present in groups A and B. These results indicate that the group C fraction causes the different, pungent odor of the turmeric oil obtained by steam distillation. The variation in the aroma of turmeric depended on the combination of these three groups of odor constituents. PMID:26197548

  9. The Power of Aroma and the Olfactory Experience in the Classroom.

    Sprinkle, Russ

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that despite culturally induced aversions, aromas do have a role to play in writing instruction. Suggest there are many examples in literature of authors' treatment of the olfactory sense. Argues that emphasizing smell as a writing stimulant and encouraging olfactory analyses of literary works can serve as valid ways of introducing…

  10. Efecto del deshuesado de la aceituna sobre el aroma del aceite de oliva virgen

    Sanz, C.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive fruit stoning gives rise to an important modification in olive oil aroma. The level of this modification is a function of the cultivar. An increment in the content of six-carbon compounds (C6 was observed in olive oils obtained from the cultivars Verdial and Manzanilla, but not in the cultivar Picual. In the three cultivars under study, contents of five-carbon compounds (C5 and esters decreased as a consequence of fruit stoning. The modification of olive oil aroma composition in the cultivar Verdial caused by olive fruit stoning was observed to be due both to tissue wounding and to the absence of the olive seed during the crushing-malaxation process to obtain olive oil aroma. Both factors contribute independently to the content modification of C6, C5 compounds and esters in the olive oil aroma from stoned fruits.El deshuesado de la aceituna da lugar a una importante modificación del aroma del aceite de oliva virgen. La intensidad de esta modificación es característica de cada variedad. En los aceites obtenidos de aceitunas Verdial y Manzanilla se produce un incremento en el contenido de los compuestos de seis átomos de carbono (C6 que no se detecta en la variedad Picual. En las tres variedades estudiadas se observa un descenso del contenido de compuestos de cinco átomos de carbono (C5 así como del contenido en ésteres. En la variedad Verdial se ha comprobado que la modificación del aroma como consecuencia del deshuesado del fruto se debe tanto al daño tisular generado durante este proceso como a la ausencia de la semilla durante la molturación de la aceituna. Ambos factores contribuyen de forma independiente a la modificación del contenido de compuestos C6, C5 y ésteres en el aroma del aceite de oliva virgen procedente de aceituna deshuesada.

  11. Screening of the key volatile organic compounds of Tuber melanosporum fermentation by aroma sensory evaluation combination with principle component analysis.

    Liu, Rui-Sang; Jin, Guang-Huai; Xiao, Deng-Rong; Li, Hong-Mei; Bai, Feng-Wu; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Aroma results from the interplay of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the attributes of microbial-producing aromas are significantly affected by fermentation conditions. Among the VOCs, only a few of them contribute to aroma. Thus, screening and identification of the key VOCs is critical for microbial-producing aroma. The traditional method is based on gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), which is time-consuming and laborious. Considering the Tuber melanosporum fermentation system as an example, a new method to screen and identify the key VOCs by combining the aroma evaluation method with principle component analysis (PCA) was developed in this work. First, an aroma sensory evaluation method was developed to screen 34 potential favorite aroma samples from 504 fermentation samples. Second, PCA was employed to screen nine common key VOCs from these 34 samples. Third, seven key VOCs were identified by the traditional method. Finally, all of the seven key VOCs identified by the traditional method were also identified, along with four others, by the new strategy. These results indicate the reliability of the new method and demonstrate it to be a viable alternative to the traditional method. PMID:26655663

  12. Influence of Starter Cultures, Fermentation Techniques, and Acetic Acid on the Volatile Aroma and Sensory Profile of Cocoa Liquor and Chocolate

    Crafack, Michael

    The majority of the World’s cocoa production originates from the West African countries of Ivory Coast, Ghana and Nigeria. In these countries, cocoa is a crop of great socio-economic importance as it is often the main source of income for families in the rural cocoa growing regions. Being the...... principal raw material for chocolate production, good quality cocoa beans are in high demand on the World market as a prerequisite for the production of high quality chocolates and other confectionary products. To produce good quality cocoa suitable for chocolate production, it is essential that the beans...... undergo fermentation and drying processes, during which biochemical reactions lead to the formation of cocoa specific flavour precursors. During subsequent roasting, these precursors are transformed into a wide array of aroma compounds as a result of complex Maillard and Strecker degradation reactions...

  13. Influence of olive oil phenolic compounds on headspace aroma release by interaction with whey proteins.

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; De Luca, Lucia; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-04-22

    The release of volatile compounds in an oil-in-water model system obtained from olive oil-whey protein (WP) pairing was investigated by considering the effect of phenolic compounds. Human saliva was used to simulate mouth conditions by retronasal aroma simulator (RAS) analysis. Twelve aroma compounds were quantified in the dynamic headspace by SPME-GC/MS. The results showed significant influences of saliva on the aroma release of virgin olive oil (VOO) volatiles also in the presence of WP. The interaction between WP and saliva leads to lower headspace release of ethyl esters and hexanal. Salivary components caused lower decrease of the release of acetates and alcohols. A lower release of volatile compounds was found in the RAS essay in comparison to that in orthonasal simulation of only refined olive oil (without addition of saliva or WP), with the exception of hexanal and 1-penten-3-one, where a significantly higher release was found. Our results suggest that the extent of retronasal odor (green, pungent) of these two volatile compounds is higher than orthonasal odor. An extra VOO was used to verify the release in model systems, indicating that WP affected aroma release more than model systems, while saliva seems to exert an opposite trend. A significant increase in aroma release was found when phenolic compounds were added to the system, probably due to the contrasting effects of binding of volatile compounds caused by WP, for the polyphenol-protein interaction phenomenon. Our study could be applied to the formulation of new functional foods to enhance flavor release and modulate the presence and concentrations of phenolics and whey proteins in food emulsions/dispersions. PMID:25832115

  14. Aroma compounds of mountain tea (Sideritis scardica and S. raeseri) from western Balkan.

    Qazimi, Bujar; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Karapandzova, Marija; Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Kulevanova, Svetlana

    2014-09-01

    The composition of the volatile aroma components was defined in the dried and fresh aerial parts of Sideritis scardica Griseb. from R. Macedonia and S. raeseri Boiss. & Heldr. from R. Macedonia, Albania and Greece. Analysis was made by gas chromatography (GC/FID/MS) equipped with a headspace (HS) sampler. Thirty-two components (15 monoterpenes representing 33.2- 62.8% and 17 sesquiterpenes representing 25.2- 51.2% of the entire volatiles) were identified as aroma components of dried plant material of S. scardica. Thirty components {14 monoterpenes (19.3-74.2%), 2 alcohols (6.2- 38.4%) and 14 sesquiterpenes (18.2- 33.5%)} were identified as aroma components in the fresh aerial parts of S. scardica. The predominant components were trans-caryophyllene, ?-pinene, ?-pinene and 1-octen-3-ol, which were found only in the fresh samples. In the aerial parts of S. rteseri, 43 components were identified in the dried samples {22 monoterpenes (65.7-94.3%) and 21 sesquiterpenes (5.4- 27.8%)} and 29 components {15 monoterpenes (77.3-90.7%) and 14 sesquiterpenes (6.3- 18.2%)} in the respective fresh samples. Prevailing components in all tested samples of S. raeseri were ?-pinene, ?-pinene, ?-copaene, sabinene and limonene. Only minor differences were revealed in the qualitative composition of the aroma volatiles between the dried and fresh plant material of both species. Furthermore there was almost no difference in the chemical profiles of the aroma compounds between S. scardica and S. raeseri, except for 1- octen-3-ol, which was present only in fresh S. scardica. PMID:25918814

  15. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Two Commercial Rums by Means of the Sensomics Approach.

    Franitza, Laura; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-01-27

    Two rums differing in their overall aroma profile and price level (rum A, high price; rum B, low price) were analyzed by means of the Sensomics approach. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on a distillate of volatiles prepared from rum A revealed 40 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 8 to 2048. The identification experiments indicated cis-whiskey lactone, vanillin, decanoic acid, and 2- and 3-methylbutanol with the highest FD factors. The AEDA of a distillate prepared from rum B showed only 26 aroma-active compounds in the same FD factor range. Among them, in particular, ethyl butanoate, 1,1-diethoxyethane, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, and decanoic acid appeared with the highest FD factors. Thirty-seven compounds having at least an FD factor ?32 in one of the two rums were quantitated using stable isotope dilution assays or enzyme kits (2 compounds). The calculation of odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to respective odor threshold) indicated ethanol, vanillin, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, and (E)-?-damascenone with the highest OAVs in rum A, whereas ethanol, 2,3-butanedione, 3-methylbutanal, and ethyl butanoate revealed the highest OAVs in rum B. Most compounds were present in similar concentrations in both rums, but significant differences were determined for vanillin, cis-whiskey lactone, and 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (all higher in rum A) and 3-methylbutanal, 2,3-butanedione, and ethyl butanoate (all higher in rum B). Finally, the aromas of both rums were successfully simulated by a recombinate using reference odorants in the same concentrations as they naturally occurred in the spirits. PMID:26715051

  16. Characterization of the key odorants in pan-fried white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) by means of molecular sensory science: comparison with the raw mushroom tissue.

    Grosshauser, Sonja; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-04-24

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction isolated from pan-fried white mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus L.) revealed 40 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192, among which the caramel-like smelling 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one showed the highest FD factor of 8192, followed by 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn-like) and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one (seasoning-like). A total of 36 compounds are reported for the first time in processed mushrooms, and 25 odorants showing the highest FD factors were then quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated as ratio of their concentrations to their odor thresholds. Among them, 3-methylbutanal (malty), 3-(methylthio)propanal (cooked potato), and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn-like) showed the highest OAVs (>100) in the pan-fried mushrooms, followed by 1-octen-3-one, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one, phenylacetaldehyde, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one with OAVs >10. An aqueous aroma recombinate containing 13 odorants (OAV > 1) in their actual concentrations in the fried mushrooms showed a good similarity to the original aroma profile. The quantitation of the key odorants in raw mushrooms, identified with high FD factors during the AEDA, revealed that numerous odorants were quantitatively changed by the frying process, but in particular the concentrations of 2-phenylacetaldehyde and 3-methylbutanal were higher by factors of ∼40 and 6, respectively, compared to the amounts in the processed mushrooms. The data suggested an enzymatic formation of both Strecker aldehydes by the cut mushroom tissue. In total, 26 odorants were newly identified in raw mushrooms. PMID:23581517

  17. Determinaton of Volatile Aroma Components of Gyromitra Mushroom Using Headspace Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS)

    Hatıra Taşkın; Gökhan Baktemur; Ebru Kafkas; Saadet Büyükalaca

    2013-01-01

    Gyromitra is one of the poisonous mushrooms with being evaluated as edible mushrooms in Turkey and in many countries. This study was performed to determine volatile aroma compounds of Gyromitra collected from Turkey at Horticulture Department of Çukurova University, Adana-Turkey in 2011. Gyromitra mushroom samples collected from Adana province of Turkey were used as material. Volatile aroma compounds were determined using Headspace Gas Kromotografi Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS) technique. Twen...

  18. Determination of Volatile Aroma Compounds of Ganoderma Lucidum by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS)

    Taşkın, Hatıra; Kafkas, Ebru; Çakıroğlu, Özgün; Büyükalaca, Saadet

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted at Horticulture Department of Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey during 2010–2011. Fresh sample of Ganoderma lucidum collected from Mersin province of Turkey was used as material. Volatile aroma compounds were performed by Headspace Gas Chromatography (HS-GC/MS). Alcohols, aldehydes, acids, phenol, L-Alanine, d-Alanine, 3Methyl, 2-Butanamine, 2-Propanamine were determined. 1-Octen-3-ol (Alcohol) and 3-methyl butanal (Aldehyde) were identified as major aroma compounds.

  19. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality

    Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N; David S. Nichols; Michael C. Breadmore; Robert A. Shellie; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular ...

  20. Comparison between aroma compounds in wines from four Vitis vinifera grape varieties grown in different shoot positions

    Guo Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aroma characteristics of wines from four Vitis vinifera grape varieties (‘Cabernet sauvignon’, ‘Merlot’, ‘Chardonnay’, and ‘Italian Riesling’ grown in three shoot positions were evaluated by HS-SPME-GC/MS. In this study, the numerous significant differences found in most of the aromatic compounds influence of different shoot positions on the quality of wine. The results showed that the middle shoot position increased significantly the aroma concentration in the majority of wines investigated. The volatile components showing the greatest differences in the wines of different cultivars were aldehydes and terpenes. 8 and 11 compounds were found and quantified (OAVs>1 in the two red wines and white wines at concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds, respectively; and therefore they significantly contributed to the wine aromas. According to their OAVs, fruity, floral, cheese and fatty aroma strongly influenced the characteristics of the four monovarietal wines, while the two white wines showed the green and fresh aroma characteristics. These results are related to the different microclimate of the canopies of the different shoot positions and varieties. They suggest that proper elevating the fruiting zones could improve the accumulation of aroma compounds in wines from the different varieties. On the other hand, grapevines trained to systems with uniform fruiting zones could improve the quality of wine.

  1. Distinctive exotic flavor and aroma compounds of some exotic tropical fruits and berries: a review.

    Lasekan, Ola; Abbas, Kassim A

    2012-01-01

    The characteristic flavor of exotic tropical fruits is one of their most attractive attributes to consumers. In this article, the enormous diversity of exotic fruit flavors is reviewed. Classifying some of the exotic fruits into two classes on the basis of whether esters or terpenes predominate in the aroma was also attempted. Indeed, as far as exotic tropical fruits are concerned, the majority of fruits have terpenes predominating in their aroma profile. Some of the fruits in this group are the Amazonian fruits such as pitanga, umbu-caja, camu-camu, garcinia, and bacuri. The ester group is made up of rambutan, durians, star fruit, snake fruit, acerola, tamarind, sapodilla, genipap, soursop, cashew, melon, jackfruit, and cupuacu respectively. Also, the role of sulphur-volatiles in some of the exotic fruits is detailed. PMID:22591343

  2. Characterization of fruity aroma modifications in red wines during malolactic fermentation.

    Antalick, Guillaume; Perello, Marie-Claire; de Revel, Gilles

    2012-12-19

    The role of malolactic fermentation (MLF) in the fruity aroma of red wines was investigated by an analytical study on more than 60 volatile compounds in 48 red wines made in varied conditions and supplemented by a sensory study. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) modify the fruity notes of red wines but without a specific trend. The absence, in the short term, of a lactic mask was emphasized, whereas the existence of a smoked/toasted reduction-like mask note was evoked but not characterized. Variations in the composition of the fruity aroma markers were predominant. Although LAB ?-glycosidase activities were not very involved, on the other hand, esterase seemed to play a central role that was sometimes associated with the metabolism of the sulfur-containing compounds. New insights in ester metabolism in enological LAB and the importance of wine composition on bacterial variations in metabolites and aromatic alterations were emphasized. PMID:23163662

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Extracts of Acacia Aroma Against Methicillin-Resistant And Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus

    Mattana, C.M.; Satorres, S.E.; Sosa, A.; Fusco, M.; Alcar, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined using agar diffusion and bioautographic methods. Among all assayed organic extracts only ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented highest activities against all tested Staphylococcus strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 2.5 to 10 mg/ml and from 2.5 to 5 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extracts show little antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus strains. The bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against S. aureus in correspondence with flavonoids and saponins. A. aroma would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for skin infections. PMID:24031532

  4. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Acacia aroma against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus

    C.M. Mattana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined using agar diffusion and bioautographic methods. Among all assayed organic extracts only ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented highest activities against all tested Staphylococcus strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 2.5 to 10 mg/ml and from 2.5 to 5 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extracts show little antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus strains. The bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against S. aureus in correspondence with flavonoids and saponins. A. aroma would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for skin infections.

  5. Non-Destructive Assessment of Aroma Volatiles from a Climacteric Near-Isogenic Line of Melon Obtained by Headspace Stir-Bar Sorptive Extraction

    Juan Pablo Fernndez-Trujillo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A climacteric aromatic near-isogenic line (NIL of melon (Cucumis melo L. SC3-5-1 contained an introgression of the non-climacteric Korean cultivar Shongwan Charmi accession PI 161375 (SC in the genetic background of the non-climacteric cultivar Piel de Sapo (PS. The aroma production was monitored during ripening at 21 C in intact fruit using headspace sorptive bar extraction (HSSE. Bars were composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and aromas were desorbed and analyzed by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry. The aromatic profile was composed of 70 aromatic compounds plus 21 alkanes with a predominance of esters, particularly acetate (2-methylbutyl acetate, 2-methylpropyl acetate, hexyl acetate, and phenylmethyl acetate. Some compounds were severely affected by postharvest time. The acetate esters (3-methylbutyl acetate, butan-2-yl acetate and phenylmethyl acetate decreased with ripening and sulfur-derived compounds (S-methyl butanethioate and S-methyl 3-methylbutanethioate increased gradually with ripening. A few compounds increased at the senescence phase (propyl ethanoate. Other compounds such as hexadecanoic acid showed a marked decrease after harvest, some decreasing from a relative maximum at harvest (2-methylpropyl hexanoate; n-hexanoic acid; nonanoic acid.

  6. Eco Extraction of essential oils and aromas for their use as antioxydants and antimicrobials

    Mnayer, Dima

    2014-01-01

    Plant essential oils and aromas are a real potential for the industry to substitute the synthetic compounds that might have harmful effects on the human health and the environment. In order to contribute to the green chemistry principles, this study focuses on the “eco-extraction” and valorization of natural plant extracts and the development of a new «green» technology for the extraction of aromatic compounds. The first part of this manuscript highlights the biological properties of the esse...

  7. Monoterpene synthase from Dracocephalum kotschyi and SPME-GC-MS analysis of its aroma profile

    S Saeidnia; Sepehrizadeh, Z; Gohari, A.R.; Amin, G.; A. Manayi; A. Hadjiakhoondi

    2014-01-01

    Dracocephalum kotschyi (Lamiaceae), as one of the remarkable aromatic plants, widely grows and also is cultivated in various temperate regions of Iran. There are diverse reports about the composition of the oil of this plant representing limonene derivatives as its major compounds. There is no report on cloning of mono- or sesquiterpene synthases from this plant. In the present study, the aroma profile of D. kotschyi has been extracted and analyzed via Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction te...

  8. Discrimination of Complex Mixtures by a Colorimetric Sensor Array: Coffee Aromas

    Suslick, Benjamin A.; Feng, Liang; Kenneth S. Suslick

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of complex mixtures presents a difficult challenge even for modern analytical techniques, and the ability to discriminate among closely similar such mixtures often remains problematic. Coffee provides a readily available archetype of such highly multicomponent systems. The use of a low-cost, sensitive colorimetric sensor array for the detection and identification of coffee aromas is reported. The color changes of the sensor array were used as a digital representation of the array...

  9. Contribution to the aroma of white wines by controlled Torulaspora delbrueckii cultures in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Azzolini, Michela; Tosi, Emanuele; Lorenzini, Marilinda; Finato, Fabio; Zapparoli, Giacomo

    2015-02-01

    Although the positive role of non-Saccharomyces yeasts on the overall quality of wine is encouraging research into their oenological potential, current knowledge on the topic is still far from satisfactory. This work analyzes the contribution of starter cultures of Torulaspora delbrueckii, inoculated sequentially with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (multi-starter fermentation), on the fermentation and aromas of two different white style wines, i.e., dry and sweet wines. Chemical analysis of Soave and Chardonnay wines (dry wines) showed that multi-starter fermentation greatly affected the content of several important volatile compounds, including 2-phenylethanol, isoamyl acetate, fatty acid esters, C4-C10 fatty acids and vinylphenols. Moreover, strain-specific contributions have been shown by testing two different T. delbrueckii strains. Evidence of the positive impact of T. delbrueckii activity on wine quality was also demonstrated in Vino Santo, a sweet wine. Due to its low production of acetic acid, this non-Saccharomyces yeast is recommended for the fermentation of high sugar grapes. T. delbrueckii also influenced the content of different variety of chemical groups, including lactones. From a sensory perspective, all wines produced by multi-starter fermentation have greater aromatic intensity and complexity than wines resulting from a monoculture fermentation. These results emphasize the potential of employing T. delbrueckii, in association with S. cerevisiae, for the production of white wines of different styles with improved and enhanced flavour. PMID:25388474

  10. Mating system and population structure of Acacia aroma and A. macracantha (Fabaceae).

    Casiva, Paola Vanesa; Vilardi, Juan César; Cialdella, Ana María; Saidman, Beatriz O

    2004-01-01

    Acacia aroma and A. macracantha are closely related species that inhabit northern and central Argentina. The reproductive barriers between them seem to be weak. They exhibit low genetic differentiation, high levels of interspecific gene flow, and extensive areas of sympatry. Isoenzymatic approaches were used to evaluate the population structure and mating system parameters in natural Argentine populations of A. aroma and A. macracantha and to provide new tools for the analysis of relationships between these two species. All studied populations had high levels of genetic variability and no significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg expectations, but the two species did not differ from each other. Most variability occured within populations. Mating system analysis showed high levels of outcrossing, no biparental inbreeding, and a high probability that individuals within progeny arrays are full rather than half sibs. In all A. aroma and A. macracantha populations, polymorphic loci had the same allelic variants, and no geographic or genetic isolation between species was found. The results favor the hypothesis that these two entities represent a single polymorphic species rather than two distinct species. PMID:21653363

  11. Identification and characterization of the aroma-impact components of Thai fish sauce.

    Lapsongphon, Nawaporn; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-03-18

    Comprehensive analysis of the potent odorants in Thai premium fish sauce samples was accomplished by use of complementary volatile isolation methods combined with gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-mass spectrometry. Odorants of intermediate and low volatility were determined by direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (DSE-SAFE) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Meanwhile, static headspace dilution analysis (SHDA) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (H-SPME) were used to determine the highly volatile odorants. Results of AEDA indicated the importance (log3FD factor?6) of five acidic odorants (butanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone, and 2-phenylacetic acid) and four neutral/basic odorants (3-methylbutanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, phenylacetaldehyde, and o-aminoacetophone). Results of SHDA indicated the predominant (log3FD factors?5) headspace odorants were methanethiol, 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, dimethyl trisulfide, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and butanoic acid. Concentrations for 21 odorants were determined by stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA), and their odor-activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Among these, methanethiol, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, dimethyl trisulfide, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and butanoic acid had the highest OAVs (>500). Results of aroma recombination and omission studies revealed the importance of acids, aldehydes, and sulfur-containing compounds to the overall aroma of the Thai fish sauce. PMID:25730550

  12. Aroma precursors and methylpyrazines in underfermented cocoa beans induced by endogenous carboxypeptidase.

    Jinap, S; Ikrawan, Y; Bakar, J; Saari, N; Lioe, H N

    2008-09-01

    Cocoa-specific aroma precursors and methylpyrazines in underfermented cocoa beans obtained from fermentation induced by indigenous carboxypeptidase have been investigated. Fermentation conditions and cocoa bean components were analyzed during 0 to 3 d of fermentation. Underfermented cocoa beans were characterized as having hydrophilic peptides and free hydrophobic amino acids much higher than unfermented ones. These 2 key components of cocoa aroma precursors may be produced from the breakdown of proteins and polypeptides by endogenous carboxypeptidase during the fermentation process. The enzyme was activated during fermentation. Polypeptides of 47, 31, and 19 kDa were observed in the samples throughout the 3-d fermentation period; however, only the first 2 polypeptides were remarkably reduced during fermentation. Since the 1st day of fermentation, underfermented cocoa beans contained methylpyrazines, a dominant group of cocoa-specific aroma. This might be due to microbial activities during fermentation, observed through a decrease of pH value and an increase of temperature of cocoa beans. The concentration of tetramethylpyrazines was significantly increased during the 3 d of fermentation. This may increase the cocoa-specific flavor to the beans. PMID:18803708

  13. Prerrafaelismo y quietismo estético en Aromas de leyenda

    Sánchez Moreiras, Miriam

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In my Aromas de leyenda study, book of poems wroten by the Spanish Modernist author Valle- Inclán, I have attempted to show how this work is in debt to Pre-Raphaelite aesthetics and, also, to esoteric and mystic doctrines, strongly present in the last years of XIX century and relaborated by Valle in his book La lámpara maravillosa. At the same time, I have identified, although lightly, the figure oí ambivalence, which is, like the scholarship Peter Zima has showed, the main Modernism aesthetic innovation and which makes in clear the links between this Valle's work and the art of his time.Con el análisis de Aromas de leyenda de Valle Inclán he pretendido demostrar la deuda que esta obra tiene tanto con el código estético prerrafaelita como con las doctrinas esotéricas y místicas, de gran vigencia a finales del siglo XIX y reelaboradas por Valle en su libro de 1916 La lámpara maravillosa. Igualmente he identificado, aunque de modo muy leve, la presencia en Aromas de la figura de la ambivalencia, que es, como demuestra el estudioso Peter Zima, la principal innovación estética del Modernismo y que pone en evidencia la filiación de esta obra de Valle con el arte de su tiempo.

  14. Potential of Glycosidase from Non-Saccharomyces Isolates for Enhancement of Wine Aroma.

    Hu, Kai; Qin, Yi; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Zhu, Xiao-Lin; Peng, Chuan-Tao; Ullah, Niamat

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to rapidly screen indigenous yeasts with high levels of β-glucosidase activity and assess the potential of glycosidase extracts for aroma enhancement in winemaking. A semiquantitative colorimetric assay was applied using 96-well plates to screen yeasts from 3 different regions of China. Isolates with high β-glucosidase activity were confirmed by the commonly used pNP assay. Among 493 non-Saccharomyces isolates belonging to 8 generas, 3 isolates were selected for their high levels of β-glucosidase activity and were identified as Hanseniaspora uvarum, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa by sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain. β-Glucosidase in the glycosidase extract from H. uvarum strain showed the highest activity in winemaking conditions among the selected isolates. For aroma enhancement in winemaking, the glycosidase extract from H. uvarum strain exhibited catalytic specificity for aromatic glycosides of C13 -norisoprenoids and some terpenes, enhancing fresh floral, sweet, berry, and nutty aroma characteristics in wine. PMID:26954887

  15. Fractionation and identification of minor and aroma-active constituents in Kangra orthodox black tea.

    Joshi, Robin; Gulati, Ashu

    2015-01-15

    The aroma constituents of Kangra orthodox black tea were isolated by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), supercritical fluid extraction and beverage method. The aroma-active compounds were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry. Geraniol, linalool, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, (E)-2-hexenal, phytol, ?-ionone, hotrienol, methylpyrazine and methyl salicylate were major volatile constituents in all the extracts. Minor volatile compounds in all the extracts were 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, ethylpyrazine, 2-6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, acetylfuran, hexanoic acid, dihydroactinidiolide and (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal. The concentrated SDE extract was fractionated into acidic, basic, water-soluble and neutral fractions. The neutral fraction was further chromatographed on a packed silica gel column eluted with pentane and diethyl ether to separate minor compounds. The aroma-active compounds identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry were 2-amylfuran, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 1-pentanol, epoxylinalool, (Z)-jasmone, 2-acetylpyrrole, farnesyl acetone, geranyl acetone, cadinol, cubenol and dihydroactinidiolide. AEDA studies showed 2-hexenal, 3-hexenol, ethylpyrazine, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, linalool, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, geraniol, phenylethanol, ?-ionone, hotrienol and dihydroactinidiolide to be odour active components. PMID:25148991

  16. Aroma extraction dilution analysis of Sauternes wines. Key role of polyfunctional thiols.

    Bailly, Sabine; Jerkovic, Vesna; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline; Collin, Sonia

    2006-09-20

    The aim of the present work was to investigate Sauternes wine aromas. In all wine extracts, polyfunctional thiols were revealed to have a huge impact. A very strong bacon-petroleum odor emerged at RI = 845 from a CP-Sil5-CB column. Two thiols proved to participate in this perception: 3-methyl-3-sulfanylbutanal and 2-methylfuran-3-thiol. A strong synergetic effect was evidenced between the two compounds. The former, never mentioned before in wines, and not found in the musts of this study, is most probably synthesized during fermentation. 3-Methylbut-2-ene-1-thiol, 3-sulfanylpropyl acetate, 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, and 3-sulfanylheptanal also contribute to the global aromas of Sauternes wines. Among other key odorants, the presence of a varietal aroma (alpha-terpineol), sotolon, fermentation alcohols (3-methylbutan-1-ol and 2-phenylethanol) and esters (ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl isovalerate), carbonyls (trans-non-2-enal and beta-damascenone), and wood flavors (guaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, and Furaneol) is worth stressing. PMID:16968087

  17. The Role of the Microbiome of Truffles in Aroma Formation: a Meta-Analysis Approach.

    Vahdatzadeh, Maryam; Deveau, Aurlie; Splivallo, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Truffles (Tuber spp.) are ascomycete subterraneous fungi that form ectomycorrhizas in a symbiotic relationship with plant roots. Their fruiting bodies are appreciated for their distinctive aroma, which might be partially derived from microbes. Indeed, truffle fruiting bodies are colonized by a diverse microbial community made up of bacteria, yeasts, guest filamentous fungi, and viruses. The aim of this minireview is two-fold. First, the current knowledge on the microbial community composition of truffles has been synthesized to highlight similarities and differences among four truffle (Tuber) species (T. magnatum, T. melanosporum, T. aestivum, and T. borchii) at various stages of their life cycle. Second, the potential role of the microbiome in truffle aroma formation has been addressed for the same four species. Our results suggest that on one hand, odorants, which are common to many truffle species, might be of mixed truffle and microbial origin, while on the other hand, less common odorants might be derived from microbes only. They also highlight that bacteria, the dominant group in the microbiome of the truffle, might also be the most important contributors to truffle aroma not only in T. borchii, as already demonstrated, but also in T. magnatum, T. aestivum, and T. melanosporum. PMID:26187969

  18. Characterization of the major aroma-active compounds in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi by application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Munafo, John P; Didzbalis, John; Schnell, Raymond J; Schieberle, Peter; Steinhaus, Martin

    2014-05-21

    The aroma-active compounds present in tree-ripened fruits of the five mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometery (GC-O). Application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) afforded 54 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to ?2048, 16 of which are reported for the first time in mango. The results of the identification experiments in combination with the FD factors revealed 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone as an important aroma compound in all cultivars analyzed. Twenty-seven aroma-active compounds were present in at least one mango cultivar at an FD factor ?128. Clear differences in the FD factors of these odorants between each of the mango cultivars suggested that they contributed to the unique sensory profiles of the individual cultivars. PMID:24766361

  19. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in a commercial Amontillado sherry wine by means of the sensomics approach.

    Marcq, Pauline; Schieberle, Peter

    2015-05-20

    An aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) carried out on the volatile fraction isolated by extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) distillation from a commercial Amontillado sherry wine revealed 37 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors in the range of 16-4096. Among them, 2-phenylethanol (flowery, honey-like) and ethyl methylpropanoate (fruity) showed the highest FD factors, followed by ethyl (2S,3S)-2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoate (fruity) reported for the first time in sherry wine. A total of 36 aroma-active compounds located by AEDA were then quantitated by a stable isotope dilution assay, and their odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated. The highest OAV was displayed by 1,1-diethoxyethane (2475; fruity), followed by 2- and 3-methylbutanals (574; malty) and methylpropanal (369; malty). Aroma reconstitution experiments and a comparative aroma profile analysis revealed that the entire orthonasal aroma profile of the Amontillado sherry wine could be closely mimicked. PMID:25921555

  20. Aroma Profile of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Wine Fermented by Single and Co-culture Starters of Autochthonous Saccharomyces and Non-saccharomyces Yeasts

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Di Gianvito, Paola; Pizzoni, Daniel; Arfelli, Giuseppe; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Montepulciano d'Abruzzo is a native grape variety of Vitis vinifera L., grown in central Italy and used for production of high quality red wines. Limited studies have been carried out to improve its enological characteristics through the use of indigenous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main objective of the present work was to test two indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae (SRS1, RT73), a strain of Starmerella bacillaris (STS12), one of Hanseniaspora uvarum (STS45) and a co-culture of S. cerevisiae (SRS1) and S. bacillaris (STS12), in an experimental cellar to evaluate their role in the sensory characteristic of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine. A S. cerevisiae commercial strain was used. Fermentations were conducted under routine Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine production, in which the main variables were the yeast strains used for fermentation. Basic winemaking parameters, some key chemical analysis and aroma compounds were considered. S. cerevisiae strain dynamics during fermentation were determined by molecular methods. The musts inoculated with the co-culture were characterized by a faster fermentation start and a higher content of glycerol after 3 days of fermentation, as well as the musts added with strains S. bacillaris (STS12) and H. uvarum (STS45). At the end of fermentation the parameters studied were quite similar in all the wines. Total biogenic amines (BA) content of all the wines was low. Ethanolamine was the predominant BA, with a concentration ranging from 21 to 24 mg/l. Wines were characterized by esters and alcohols. In particular, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methylbut-1-yl methanoate, and ethyl ethanoate were the major aroma volatile compounds in all wines. Statistical analysis highlighted the different role played by aroma compounds in the differentiation of wines, even if it was impossible to select a single class of compounds as the most important for a specific yeast. The present study represents a further step toward the use of tailored autochthonous strains to impart the specific characteristics of a given wine which are an expression of a specific terroir. PMID:27199939

  1. Opportunities of marker-assisted selection for rice fragrance through marker-trait association analysis of microsatellites and gene-based markers.

    Golestan Hashemi, F S; Rafii, M Y; Razi Ismail, M; Mohamed, M T M; Rahim, H A; Latif, M A; Aslani, F

    2015-09-01

    Developing fragrant rice through marker-assisted/aided selection (MAS) is an economical and profitable approach worldwide for the enrichment of an elite genetic background with a pleasant aroma. The PCR-based DNA markers that distinguish the alleles of major fragrance genes in rice have been synthesised to develop rice scent biofortification through MAS. Thus, the present study examined the aroma biofortification potential of these co-dominant markers in a germplasm panel of 189 F2 progeny developed from crosses between a non-aromatic variety (MR84) and a highly aromatic but low-yielding variety (MRQ74) to determine the most influential diagnostic markers for fragrance biofortification. The SSRs and functional DNA markers RM5633 (on chromosome 4), RM515, RM223, L06, NKSbad2, FMbadh2-E7, BADEX7-5, Aro7 and SCU015RM (on chromosome 8) were highly associated with the 2AP (2-acetyl-1-pyrroline) content across the population. The alleles traced via these markers were also in high linkage disequilibrium (R(2) > 0.70) and explained approximately 12.1, 27.05, 27.05, 27.05, 25.42, 25.42, 20.53, 20.43 and 20.18% of the total phenotypic variation observed for these biomarkers, respectively. F2 plants harbouring the favourable alleles of these effective markers produced higher levels of fragrance. Hence, these rice plants can be used as donor parents to increase the development of fragrance-biofortified tropical rice varieties adapted to growing conditions and consumer preferences, thus contributing to the global rice market. PMID:25865409

  2. Supercritical CO2 extraction applied toward the production of a functional beverage from wine

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Fornari, Tiziana; Jaime, Laura; Vázquez, E.; Amador, Beatriz; Nieto, Juan Antonio; Reglero, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical CO2 extraction has been proved to be a potential tool in the recovery of aroma compounds from different natural sources and in the removal of ethanol from aqueous solutions. In this work, both ideas are combined to develop a two-step process toward the production of a low-alcohol beverage from wine, but maintaining the aroma and the antioxidant activity similar to that of the original wine. First, the recovery of aroma from wine was attained in a countercurrent packed column (wh...

  3. Role of glutathione enriched inactive yeast preparations on the aroma of wines

    Andújar-Ortiz, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J. J.; Moreno Arribas, Mª Victoria; Martín Álvarez, Pedro Jesús; Pozo-Bayón, Mª Ángeles

    2010-01-01

    [EN]: The effect of commercial glutathione enriched winemaking Inactive Dry Yeast preparations (GSH-IDY) to protect wine aroma during storage has been investigated. To do so, rosé Grenache wines were industrially manufactured with and without the addition of a GSH-IDY preparation. The volatile composition was determined over the shelf-life of the wines (1 to 9 months). In addition, by using experiments in model wines the effect of different types of commercial GSH-IDY preparations on represen...

  4. Structural and physical effects of aroma compound binding to native starch granules

    Jørgensen, Anders Dysted; Jensen, Susanne L.; Ziegler, Gregory; Pandeya, Anuranjan; Buléon, Alain; Svensson, Birte; Blennow, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The interaction and physical/structural effects of aroma compounds, at high concentrations on dry native starch granules were studied using eight selected model compounds: acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulphide, diacetyl, allyl isothiocyanate, ethyl butyrate, citral, octanol and butyric acid. The maize...... type. As deduced from DSC, powder XRD and SEM analyses, citral, butyric acid and octanol exerted specific effects on the starch granules manifested in local melting of crystalline layers and partial disruption of the granular meso structure. The most prominent effect was obtained with citral that...

  5. Glucosylation of aroma chemicals and hydroxy fatty acids.

    Huang, Fong-Chin; Hinkelmann, Jens; Schwab, Wilfried

    2015-12-20

    To explore the utility of glycosyltransferases as novel biocatalysts, we isolated the glycosyltransferase genes CaUGT2 and SbUGTA1 from Catharanthus roseus and Starmerella bombicola, respectively and heterologously expressed them in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant proteins were assayed with a variety of small molecule substrates. Carvacrol and its phenol isomer thymol are efficiently glucosylated by CaUGT2. The Vmax/Km ratios show that CaUGT2 exhibits the highest specificity towards carvacrol, followed by thymol, geraniol, eugenol, vanillin, menthol, and tyrosol. In contrast, SbUGTA1 accepts ω-hydroxy fatty acids and 1-alkanols as substrates. The Vmax/Km ratios indicate that SbUGTA1 exhibits the highest specificity towards 16-hydroxy palmitic acid, followed by octanol, decanol, and hexadecanol. In biotransformation experiments 23, 88 and 99% of octanol, 16-hydroxy palmitic acid, and decanol, respectively is converted into the corresponding β-glucosides by E. coli cells expressing SbUGTA1 whereas those cells expressing CaUGT2 glucosylate 18, 61, 77 and 97% of applied eugenol, thymol, vanillin, and carvacrol, respectively. To optimize the biotransformation rate, the effects of the concentration of IPTG, glucose, and substrate on the production of glucosides were tested. Taken together, this procedure is a simple operation, environmentally friendly, and is useful for the preparation of glycosides as additives for food and cosmetics. PMID:26481830

  6. Stochastic modelling of Listeria monocytogenes single cell growth in cottage cheese with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from aroma producing cultures

    stergaard, Nina Bjerre; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-01-01

    A stochastic model was developed for simultaneous growth of low numbers of Listeria monocytogenes and populations of lactic acid bacteria from the aroma producing cultures applied in cottage cheese. During more than two years, different batches of cottage cheese with aroma culture were analysed for....... 2014. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 188, 15-25]. Growth of L. monocytogenes single cells, using lag time distributions corresponding to three different...... stress levels, was simulated. The simulated growth was subsequently compared to growth of low concentrations (0.4-1.0CFU/g) of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese, exposed to similar stresses, and in general a good agreement was observed. In addition, growth simulations were performed using population...

  7. Aroma compound analysis of Eruca sativa (Brassicaceae) SPME headspace leaf samples using GC, GC-MS, and olfactometry.

    Jirovetz, Leopold; Smith, David; Buchbauer, Gerhard

    2002-07-31

    The aroma compounds of rocket salad (Eruca sativa) SPME headspace samples of fresh leaves were analyzed using GC, GC-MS, and olfactometry. More than 50 constituents of the Eruca headspace could be identified to be essential volatiles, responsible for the characteristic intense green; herbal; nutty and almond-like; Brassicaceae-like (direction of cabbage, broccoli, and mustard); and horseradish-like aroma of these salad leaves. As aroma impact compounds, especially isothiocyanates, and derivatives of butane, hexane, octane, and nonane were identified. 4-Methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate (14.2%), cis-3-hexen-1-ol (11.0%), cis-3-hexenyl butanoate (10.8%), 5-methylthiopentyl isothiocyanate (9.3%), cis-3-hexenyl 2-methylbutanoate (5.4%), and 5-methylthiopentanenitrile (5.0%) were found in concentrations higher than 5.0% (calculated as % peak area of GC analysis using a nonpolar column). PMID:12137490

  8. Functional characterization of three Coffea arabica L. monoterpene synthases: insights into the enzymatic machinery of coffee aroma.

    Del Terra, Lorenzo; Lonzarich, Valentina; Asquini, Elisa; Navarini, Luciano; Graziosi, Giorgio; Suggi Liverani, Furio; Pallavicini, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    The chemical composition of the coffee beverage is extremely complex, being made up of hundreds of volatile and non-volatile compounds, many of which are generated in the thermal reactions that occur during the roasting process. However, in the raw coffee bean there are also compounds that survive roasting and are therefore extracted into the beverage. Monoterpenes are an example of this category, as their presence has been reported in the coffee flower, fruit, seed, roasted bean and in the beverage aroma. The present work describes the isolation, heterologous expression and functional characterization of three Coffea arabica cDNAs coding for monoterpene synthases. RNA was purified from C. arabica (cv. Catuai Red) flowers, seeds and fruits at 4 successive ripening stages. Degenerate primers were designed on the most conserved regions of the monoterpene synthase gene family, and then used to isolate monoterpene synthase-like sequences from the cDNA libraries. After 5'- and 3'-RACE, the complete transcripts of 4 putative C. arabica monoterpene synthases (CofarTPS) were obtained. Gene expression in different tissues and developmental stages was analysed. After heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, enzyme activity and substrate specificity were evaluated in vitro by incubation of the recombinant proteins with geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP), geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) and farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), precursors respectively of mono-, di- and sesquiterpenes. The reaction products were characterized by HS-SPME GC-MS. CofarTPS1 was classified as a limonene synthase gene, while CofarTPS2 and 3 showed lower activity with the production of linalool and β-myrcene. PMID:23398891

  9. VPPD Lab - The Chemical Product Simulator

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Hussain, Rehan; Elbashir, Nimir; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    product performance models and product-chemical property models are used to evaluate different classes of product. The product classes are single molecular structure chemicals (lipids, solvents, aroma, etc.), blended products (gasoline, jet-fuels, lubricants, etc.), and emulsified product (hand wash...... highlighted for the case study of tailor made design of jet-fuels. VPPD-Lab works in the same way as a typical process simulator. It enhances the future development of chemical product design....

  10. Lipase induction in Yarrowia lipolytica for castor oil hydrolysis and its effect on γ-decalactone production

    Braga, Adelaide; Gomes, Nelma; Belo, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    γ-Decalactone is an aromatic compound of industrial interest, resulting from the biotransformation of ricinoleic acid, the major constituent of castor oil. In order to increase the availability of the substrate to the cells for the aroma production, castor oil previously hydrolyzed can be used. This hydrolysis may be promoted by enzymatic action, more specifically by lipases. In this work, the influence upon the aroma production of the lipase produced by Yarrowia lipolytica, a microorganism a...

  11. New Green Tea Cultivar 'Yumewakaba' which Quality is High on Aroma and Taste by Slight Half Fermentation of Leaves.

    Uchino, Hiroshi; Honda, Yusuke; Nakajima, Kenta; Sasaki, Koji; Kobayashi, Akira; Tanaka, Eri; Kume, Nobuo; Sakai, Takashi; Shimazaki, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Iwao; Okano, Nobuo; Kyougoku, Hideo; Funakoshi, Shouji; Kitada, Kaichi; Fuchinoue, Yasumoto; Tanaka, Mankichi

    New green tea cultivar‘Yumewakaba’has been bred at the Green Tea and Local Products Laboratory of Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center. The clone was crossed between‘Yabukita’and Saitama No.9’in 1968. Local adaptability, tolerance to bark split frost injury, and Blister blight were tested at 17 prefectural tea experiment stations from 1994 to 2002. It was registered as ‘Norin No.53’and named ‘Yumewakaba’in 20The characteristics of the cultivar are as follows The shape of the cultivar is erect type, and spread of tea bush is the same as‘Yabukita’.The size of mature leaves are smaller than those of ‘Yabukita’. Immature leaves are lustrougreen and soft. The rooting ability of nursery plants are high and taking roots after planting is good. The plucking time of the first crop of this cultivar in Saitama is 1 or 2 days later than that of ‘Yabukita’.‘Yumewakaba’is middle budding cultivar. The yield of 1st or 2nd crop is the same that of‘Yabukita. ‘Yumewakaba’is resistance to cold drought and bark split frost injury. Thlevel of resistance to freezing injur y is stronger than that of ‘Yabukita’ The damage Anthracnose is less than that of ‘Yabukita. The appearance is better than that of ‘Yabukita’, and the quality of liquor is the same as ‘Yabukita’. The quality of processed goods from slightly half fermented leaves of this cultivar is high on the aroma and the taste. ‘Yumewakaba’is suitable for northern tea producing areas, and cool semi-mountainousareas.

  12. Chemical composition and aroma evaluation of volatile oils from edible mushrooms (Pleurotus salmoneostramineus and Pleurotus sajor-caju).

    Usami, Atsushi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    This study is focused on the volatile oils from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus salmoneostramineus (PS) and P. sajor-caju (PSC), which was extracted by hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) methods. The oils are analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC-olfactometry (GC-O), and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). A total of 31, 31, 45, and 15 components were identified in PS (HD and SAFE) and PSC (HD and SAFE), representing about 80.3%, 92.2%, 88.9%, and 83.0% of the oils, respectively. Regarding the aroma-active components, 13, 12, 13, and 5 components were identified in PS (HD and SAFE) and PSC (HD and SAFE), respectively, by the GC-O analyses. The results of the sniffing test, odor activity value (OAV) and flavor dilution (FD) factor indicate that 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone are the main aroma-active components of PS oils. On the other hands, methional and 1-octen-3-ol were estimated as the main aroma-active components of PSC oils. PMID:25409690

  13. Determinaton of Volatile Aroma Components of Gyromitra Mushroom Using Headspace Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS

    Hatıra Taşkın

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gyromitra is one of the poisonous mushrooms with being evaluated as edible mushrooms in Turkey and in many countries. This study was performed to determine volatile aroma compounds of Gyromitra collected from Turkey at Horticulture Department of Çukurova University, Adana-Turkey in 2011. Gyromitra mushroom samples collected from Adana province of Turkey were used as material. Volatile aroma compounds were determined using Headspace Gas Kromotografi Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS technique. Twenty-four different volatile aroma compounds were detected in this study. Phenol was identified as the major aroma component at 47.10% content. This compound was followed with Carbamic acid methyl ester (14.12%, Acetic acid (4.47%, 1-Octen-3-ol (4.14% and Acetaldehyde (4.10%. Phenol is an antioxidant compound and it has anti-carcinogenic effect. 1-Octen-3-ol is an alcohol which commonly found in mushroom. Acetic acid and Acetaldehyde are poisonous compounds. Although high number of phenol and 1-Octen-3-ol in Gyromitra fungus is displayed as flavor and significant in terms of health, containing toxic compounds such as acetic acid and the acid aldehyde raises the risk factors in exhaustion.

  14. Characterizing endogenous and oxidative low molecular weight flavor/aroma compounds in fresh squeezed/blended pomegranate juice.

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum) juices. Although, arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing volatile and semi-volatile compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Only two reports w...

  15. Selected Ion Flow Tube-Mass Spectrometry for Absolute Quantification of Aroma Compounds in the Headspace of Dry Fermented Sausages

    Olivares, A.; Dryahina, Kseniya; Navarro, J. L.; Flores, M.; Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 13 (2010), s. 5819-5829. ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : mass spectrometry * aroma compounds * dry fermented sausages Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.874, year: 2010

  16. Volatile composition and aroma activity of guava puree before and after thermal and dense phase carbon dioxide treatments.

    Plaza, Maria Lourdes; Marshall, Maurice R; Rouseff, Russell Lee

    2015-02-01

    Volatiles from initially frozen, dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD)- and thermally treated guava purees were isolated by solid phase microextraction (SPME), chromatographically separated and identified using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC-olfactometry (GC-O), and GC-pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD, sulfur mode). Fifty-eight volatiles were identified using GC-MS consisting of: 6 aldehydes, 2 acids, 15 alcohols, 6 ketones, 21 esters, and 8 terpenes. Eleven volatiles were newly identified in guava puree. Hexanal was the most abundant volatile in all 3 types of guava puree. Ten sulfur compounds were identified using GC-PFPD of which 3 possessed aroma activity and 3 were not previously reported in guava puree. Both treatments profoundly reduced total sulfur peak areas and produced different peak patterns compared to control. Thermal treatment reduced total sulfur peak area 47.9% compared to a loss of 34.7% with DPCD treatment. Twenty-six volatiles possessed aroma activity. (Z)-3-Hexenyl hexanoate was the major contributor to the aroma of the freshly thawed and DPCD-treated guava puree. DPCD treatment reduced total MS ion chromatogram (MS TIC) peak area 35% but produced a GC-O aroma profile very similar to control. Whereas thermal treatment reduced total TIC peak area only 8.7% compared to control but produced a 35% loss in total GC-O peak intensities. PMID:25588413

  17. Highly efficient production of nootkatone, the grapefruit aroma from valencene, by biotransformation.

    Furusawa, Mai; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Noma, Yoshiaki; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2005-11-01

    Nootkatone, the most important and expensive aromatic of grapefruit, decreases the somatic fat ratio, and thus its demand is increasing in the cosmetic and fiber sectors. A sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, (+)-valencene, which is cheaply obtained from Valencia orange, was biotransformed by the green algae Chlorella species and fungi such as Mucor species, Botryosphaeria dothidea, and Botryodiplodia theobromae to afford nootkatone in high yield. PMID:16272746

  18. Detection of Volatile Aroma Compounds of Morchella by Headspace Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS

    Hatira TAŞKIN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   This study was conducted at the Horticulture Department of Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey, in 2010 to determine the volatile aroma compounds of Morchella mushroom. Fresh samples of Morchella esculenta (Sample 1 and Morchella elata (Sample 2 were collected from Çanakkale (Sample 1 and Mersin (Sample 2 provinces in Turkey in the spring of 2010. Volatile aroma compounds were analyzed by headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS. A total of 31 aroma compounds were identified in the 2 analyzed samples: 7 alcohols, 7 esters, 7 ketones, 3 acids, 2 aldehydes, 1 terpene, phenol, 1-propanamine, geranyl linalool, and quinoline. Seventeen aroma components were identified in Sample 1, and 18 compounds were found in Sample 2. Phenol was determined as the major aroma compound in both Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 50.888% and 58.293% content, respectively. Alcohols, especially 1-octen-3-ol, were detected as the second major aroma components in Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 15.500% and 5.660% content, respectively. Carbamic acid, methyl ester was found only in Sample 1, at 11.379% content. The aroma components detected in the two samples differed. 1-Octadecanol; cyclooctylalcohol; trans-2-undecen-1-ol; butanoic acid, butyl ester (CAS; carbamic acid, methyl ester; 2-ethylhexyl-2-ethylhexanoate; phthalic acid, decyl isobutyl ester; 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate; decanal; nonanal; 7,9-di-tert-butyl-1-oxaspiro(4.5deca-6,9-diene-2,8-dione; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione; 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl; and trans-alpha-bisabolene were detected only in Sample 1. Ethanol; silanediol, 2-methylaminoethanol; L-alanine, ethyl ester; carbonic acid, dodecyl isobutyl ester; acetic acid; butanoic acid; 2,3,4H-pyran-4-one; 5,9-undecadien-2-one; cyclooctene; 2-cyclopenten-1-one; 1-propanamine; geranyl linalool; and quinoline were determined only in Sample 2.

  19. Inhibition of the compound action potentials of frog sciatic nerves by aroma oil compounds having various chemical structures.

    Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Matsushita, Akitomo; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2015-03-01

    Plant-derived chemicals including aroma oil compounds have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction and modulate transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Although applying aroma oils to the skin produces a local anesthetic effect, this has not been yet examined throughly. The aim of the present study was to know how nerve conduction inhibitions by aroma oil compounds are related to their chemical structures and whether these activities are mediated by TRP activation. Compound action potentials (CAPs) were recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. Citral (aldehyde), which activates various types of TRP channels, attenuated the peak amplitude of CAP with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 0.46mmol/L. Another aldehyde (citronellal), alcohol (citronellol, geraniol, ()-linalool, (-)-linalool, (+)-borneol, (-)-borneol, ?-terpineol), ester (geranyl acetate, linalyl acetate, bornyl acetate), and oxide (rose oxide) compounds also reduced CAP peak amplitudes (IC50: 0.50, 0.35, 0.53, 1.7, 2.0, 1.5, 2.3, 2.7, 0.51, 0.71, 0.44, and 2.6mmol/L, respectively). On the other hand, the amplitudes were reduced by a small extent by hydrocarbons (myrcene and p-cymene) and ketone (camphor) at high concentrations (2-5mmol/L). The activities of citral and other TRP agonists ((+)-borneol and camphor) were resistant to TRP antagonist ruthenium red. An efficacy sequence for the CAP inhibitions was generally aldehydes ? esters ? alcohols > oxides > hydrocarbons. The CAP inhibition by the aroma oil compound was not related to its octanol-water partition coefficient. It is suggested that aroma oil compounds inhibit nerve conduction in a manner specific to their chemical structures without TRP activation. PMID:26038703

  20. Identification, quantification and comparison between the chemical substances responsible for the irradiated pot still cachaca and commercial rum aromas

    The irradiation process has being presented as an alternative technique in food preservation. When applied on beverages, radiation is mainly used for malt decontamination or sterilization of musts and had been proposed also to accelerate aging. Some confusion over rum and cachaca identities has arisen due to the internationalization of cachaca. This research aims to identify, quantify and compare the effect of gamma radiation on the aroma of the Brazilian spirit with rum, irradiated and non irradiated, by instrumental and sensory analysis. Results showed that the content of volatile compounds presented strong correlation with the radiation dose (0,150 and 300 Gy) for all the samples. According to Triangle Test for aroma, all the judges could distinguish among non irradiated and irradiated samples (300 Gy), aged cachaca from rum and non aged cachaca from rum, but they could not distinguish aged cachaca from non aged cachaca. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results from the quantitative descriptive analysis showed that non irradiated non aged cachaca and rum were different in their alcohol, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except caramel and apple aroma attributes. Non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) were different in their apple, caramel, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except alcohol aroma attributes. According to the gas chromatography/olfactometry results, significant difference was found among non irradiated cachaca and rum; non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) when their aromas were compared. (author)

  1. IMPORTANCE OF AROMAS ON MOOD PROFILE AND HUMAN AURA (Qualitative Vibrations of Prana

    Srilakshmi R* and N ShakuntalaManay

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Traditional Concept of “Swastya” means to be stationed in one’s own self or well-being, which means to be beyond body / mind yogically. Sri Aurobindo (1970 stated that “Yoga means a methodized effort towards self-perfection by expression of the potentialities latent in the being” and “…a union of the human individual with the universal and transcendent Existence”. According to Sri Aurobindo (1972 “The Spirit has made itself Matter (body in order to place itself there as an instrument for the well-being and joy “Yogakshema”, of created beings for a self-offering of  physical universal utility of service. Interestingly, WHO has stipulated spiritual health for universal well-being. This opens avenues for experimental studies.  Benson (1976 stated that in the year 1968 opened medical laboratory for studies in transcendental meditation.   Chopra (1993 has spoken that there is enormous latent intelligence in the living organism. The “inexperience” of the organism has placed the mind – body relationship on scientific footing. This relationship opens both ways, on one hand it removes disease state and being at “ease” state. Thus enhancing psychoneurotic immunology where the subject herself / himself learns to manipulate the involved energy and to enhance the delightful state of well-being. Aromas have been an area that can open new areas for research on emotional and psychosomatic well-being.  “Pranayama” recognizes science of holding breath or vitality.  “Willfully” holding moods with awareness / consciousness is to experience spirits flow and its freedom in creating a new inner dimension of highest well-being.   To experience subtle and its power of mood is yogically raise mood profile to the dynamics of the spirit subjectively.  This was taken as an experimental study. The Subjects studying in MSc. in the Department of Food Service Management at Smt. V.H.D. Central Institute of Home Science, Bangalore, India took part in the study. A pre-test was conducted to check the Aura status of all the twenty subjects. Based on pre-test health status a purposive sample was worked out. Those subjects whose health aura was in good condition were selected as Control Group, (n=10 and others whose health aura was affected were chosen as Experimental Group (n=10 and the Experimental Group were subjected to intervention programme along with Aroma Treatment. Based on the investigator’s observations, an experiment was designed to study the influence of Aroma on the subject’s physiological and psychological moods and feelings, effect on Chakras and their Human Aura. Statistical test χ2 (Chi-square was used to test the significance between Experimental and Control Groups for comparison. The aroma Nectar of Divine Joy has yielded significant results both in objective and subjective test obtained by the Experimental group. The result showed that the intervention programme helped in retaining higher emotions. This study points out that the auric field one carries depends upon one’s own thought forms that one generates through emotions and feelings.  To bathe inner organs with the highest mood profile is to experience the highest vitality in body and mind as one vibrates and radiates the well-being around them in homonymous state.  This growth is a teleotic journey in emotions and feelings towards the Divine state.

  2. Radiation dose and storage temperature and period effects on the flavor and aroma of orange juice

    Effects of storage temperature and period on orange juice concentrates were studied for samples irradiated with 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy doses from a gamma-ray source as well as for untreated samples. All samples were stored at 00 C, 50 C and 250 C for periods of 1,30, 60 and 90 days. Samples stored for more than one day underwent a diminution in storage attribute rating with corresponding increase in ratings for the bitterness, medicinal and cooked attributes. Storage at 00 C and 50 C seems to have smaller effects on the sweetness rating as well as on the oily, acid and medicinal flavor characteristics. Effect of radiation dose level on the flavor and aroma attributes depended on the storage temperature and time. In most cases, higher radiation levels are associated by lower orange attribute values and higher bitter medicinal and cooked ratings. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Using pervaporation data in the calculation of vapour permeation hollow-fibre modules for aroma recovery

    C. P. Ribeiro Jr.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the close similarity between pervaporation and vapour permeation techniques, a method for employing pervaporation flux data in the modelling of vapour permeation modules is proposed. It is based on the use of fugacity gradients across the membrane, instead of concentration ones, as the driving force for mass transfer. This procedure is interesting, for instance, in the case of aroma recovery systems, for which there is much more experimental data on pervaporation available in the literature than on vapour permeation. In order to illustrate the application of this method, pervaporation experiments for an isotropic PDMS membrane were conducted with aqueous solutions of ethyl acetate (113-2474 mg/L, and the results obtained were used to enable simulation of different vapour permeation hollow-fibre modules for recovering ethyl acetate from diluted air streams.

  4. Key volatile aroma compounds of three black velvet tamarind (Dialium) fruit species.

    Lasekan, Ola; See, Ng Siew

    2015-02-01

    Nineteen odour-active compounds were quantified in three black velvet tamarind fruit species. Calculation of the odour activity values (OAVs) of the odorants showed that differences in odour profiles of the tamarinds were mainly caused by linalool, limonene, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, nonanal, and (Z)-3-hexenal. On the basis of their high OAVs, cis-linalool oxide (furanoid), geranyl acetone, and cinnamyl acetate were identified as other potent odorants in the three tamarinds. Sensory studies revealed very distinct aroma profiles, which are characteristic of these types of fruits. While the Dialiumguineense elicited floral, flowery, caramel-like notes, the other two species were dominated by leaf-like, caramel, and green notes. PMID:25172748

  5. Quantification of megastigmatrienone, a potential contributor to tobacco aroma in spirits.

    Slaghenaufi, Davide; Perello, Marie-Claire; Marchand, Stéphanie; de Revel, Gilles

    2016-07-15

    A SPME-GC-MS method was adapted and validated in order to quantify 5 megastigmatrienones and related odorous compounds from oak wood: guaiacol, cis-whisky lactone, trans-whisky lactone, γ-nonalactone, eugenol, vanillin, and acetovanillone in a single run. The five megastigmatrienone isomers (tabanones) were quantified, for the first time, in Cognac, Armagnac and rum, as contributors to tobacco-like aromas. Spirits aged in oak barrels contain higher amounts, but megastigmatrienones are also present in freshly-distilled spirits. Statistical analysis revealed that freshly-distilled and barrel-aged spirits were differentiated by their megastigma-4,7E,9-trien-3-one levels. The Armagnac and Cognac samples were distinguished by their concentrations of the megastigma-4,6Z,8E-trien-3-one isomer. PMID:26948587

  6. Associations of Volatile Compounds with Sensory Aroma and Flavor: The Complex Nature of Flavor

    Edgar Chambers IV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to relate sensory analysis data to specific chemicals such as volatile compounds have been frequent. Often these associations are difficult to interpret or are weak in nature. Although some difficulties may relate to the methods used, the difficulties also result from the complex nature of flavor. For example, there are multiple volatiles responsible for a flavor sensation, combinations of volatiles yield different flavors than those expected from individual compounds, and the differences in perception of volatiles in different matrices. This review identifies some of the reasons sensory analysis and instrumental measurements result in poor associations and suggests issues that need to be addressed in future research for better understanding of the relationships of flavor/aroma phenomena and chemical composition.

  7. Lipases microbianas na produção de ésteres formadores de aroma

    Gabriela A. Macedo

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram testadas cinco lipases microbianas produzidas no Laboratório de Bioquímica de Alimentos-FEA-UNICAMP, quanto à capacidade de catalisar a síntese de ésteres formadores de aroma por esterificação em meio isento de solvente orgânico. A natureza da enzima assim como o tamanho da cadeia dos ácidos afetaram as taxas de conversão obtidas.Os melhores resultados obtidos foram 88 % de conversão na síntese de laurato de isoamila e 72% para propionato de isoamila pela lipase de Rhizopus sp após 24 horas de incubação, seguido de 82% de conversão na síntese de acetato de isopropila por Alcaligenes sp após 24 horas de incubação.

  8. Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate

    Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Saerens, Sofie; Blennow, Andreas; Skovmand-Larsen, Mathias; Swiegers, Jan H.; Petersen, Gert B.; Heimdal, Hanne; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, and compared to commercially...... fermented heap and tray cocoa. Although only minor differences in the concentration of free amino acids and reducing sugars was measured, identification and quantification by dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS/GC-MS) revealed pronounced differences in the composition of volatiles in...... roasted cocoa liquors and finished chocolates. 19 of the 56 volatile compounds identified in the chocolates were found in significantly higher amounts in the tray fermented sample, whilst significantly higher amounts of 2-methoxyphenol was measured in the two inoculated chocolates. The P. kluyveri...

  9. Identification of Key Odorants in Withering-Flavored Green Tea by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    This research aims to identify key odorants in withering-flavored green tea. Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis using the volatile fraction of green tea and withering-flavored green tea revealed 25 and 35 odor-active peaks with the flavor dilution factors of≥4, respectively. 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, (E)-2-nonenal, linalool, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal and 3-methylnonane-2,4-dione were key odorants in green tea with the flavor dilution factor of≥16. As well as these 5 odorants, 1-octen-3-one, β-damascenone, geraniol, β-ionone, (Z)-methyljasmonate, indole and coumarine contributed to the withering flavor of green tea.

  10. Olfactory Impact of Higher Alcohols on Red Wine Fruity Ester Aroma Expression in Model Solution.

    Cameleyre, Margaux; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-11

    This study focused on the impact of five higher alcohols on the perception of fruity aroma in red wines. Various aromatic reconstitutions were prepared, consisting of 13 ethyl esters and acetates and 5 higher alcohols, all at the average concentrations found in red wine. These aromatic reconstitutions were prepared in several matrices. Sensory analysis revealed the interesting behavior of certain compounds among the five higher alcohols following their individual addition or omission. The "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool was evaluated in several matrices: dilute alcohol solution, dilute alcohol solution containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol individually, and dilute alcohol solution containing the mixture of five higher alcohols, blended together at various concentrations. The presence of 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol alone led to a significant decrease in the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity reconstitution, whereas the mixture of alcohols raised the olfactory threshold. Sensory profiles highlighted changes in the perception of fruity nuances in the presence of the mixture of higher alcohols, with specific perceptive interactions, including a relevant masking effect on fresh- and jammy-fruit notes of the fruity mixture in both dilute alcohol solution and dearomatized red wine matrices. When either 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol was added to the fruity reconstitution in dilute alcohol solution, an enhancement of butyric notes was reported with 3-methylbutan-1-ol and fresh- and jammy-fruit with butan-1-ol. This study, the first to focus on the impact of higher alcohols on fruity aromatic expression, revealed that these compounds participate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in masking fruity aroma perception in a model fruity wine mixture. PMID:26529563

  11. Ability of Thermophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria To Produce Aroma Compounds from Amino Acids

    Helinck, Sandra; Le Bars, Dominique; Moreau, Daniel; Yvon, Mireille

    2004-01-01

    Although a large number of key odorants of Swiss-type cheese result from amino acid catabolism, the amino acid catabolic pathways in the bacteria present in these cheeses are not well known. In this study, we compared the in vitro abilities of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Streptococcus thermophilus to produce aroma compounds from three amino acids, leucine, phenylalanine, and methionine, under mid-pH conditions of cheese ripening (pH 5.5), and we investigated the catabolic pathways used by these bacteria. In the three lactic acid bacterial species, amino acid catabolism was initiated by a transamination step, which requires the presence of an α-keto acid such as α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) as the amino group acceptor, and produced α-keto acids. Only S. thermophilus exhibited glutamate dehydrogenase activity, which produces α-KG from glutamate, and consequently only S. thermophilus was capable of catabolizing amino acids in the reaction medium without α-KG addition. In the presence of α-KG, lactobacilli produced much more varied aroma compounds such as acids, aldehydes, and alcohols than S. thermophilus, which mainly produced α-keto acids and a small amount of hydroxy acids and acids. L. helveticus mainly produced acids from phenylalanine and leucine, while L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis produced larger amounts of alcohols and/or aldehydes. Formation of aldehydes, alcohols, and acids from α-keto acids by L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis mainly results from the action of an α-keto acid decarboxylase, which produces aldehydes that are then oxidized or reduced to acids or alcohols. In contrast, the enzyme involved in the α-keto acid conversion to acids in L. helveticus and S. thermophilus is an α-keto acid dehydrogenase that produces acyl coenzymes A. PMID:15240255

  12. Analysis of volatile compounds responsible for kiwifruit aroma by desiccated headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Zhang, Chun-Yun; Zhang, Qiong; Zhong, Cai-Hong; Guo, Ming-Quan

    2016-04-01

    A new method for desiccated headspace (DHS) sampling of aqueous sample to GC-MS for the analysis of volatile compounds responsible for kiwifruit aroma in different kiwifruit cultivars has been developed based on the complete hydrate formation between the sample solvent (water) with anhydrous salt (calcium chloride) at an elevated temperature (above the boiling point of the aqueous sample) in a non-contact format, which overcame the water-effect challenge to directly introduce aqueous sample into GC-MS analysis. By means of DHS, the volatile compounds in three different kiwifruit cultivars were analyzed and compared under the optimized operating conditions, mainly time and temperature for headspace equilibration, column temperature program for GC-MS measurement. As a result, 20 peaks of volatile compounds responsible for kiwifruit aroma were detected and remarkable differences were found in the relative contents of three major volatile compounds among the three different kiwifruit cultivars, i.e., acetaldehyde, ethanol and furfural. The DHS sampling technique used in the present method can make the GC-MS analysis of volatile compounds in the aqueous sample within complex matrix possible without contaminating the GC-MS instrument. In terms of the analysis of volatile compounds in kiwifruit, the present method enabled a direct measurement on the filtrate of the aqueous kiwifruit pulp, without intermediate trap phase for the extraction of analytes, which will be more reliable and simpler as compared with any other headspace method in use. Thus, DHS coupled with GC-MS will be a new valuable tool available for the kiwifruit related research and organoleptic quality control. PMID:26922094

  13. Production d'armes de type lactone par des levures

    Alchihab, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of aroma lactones by yeasts. Lactones are widely distributed in foods and beverages as aroma compounds. Their extraction from natural products is very expensive. Most of them can also be obtained in a chemical way, which is not well perceived by consumers. As an alternative, biotechnology proposes to use whole cells or enzymes to produce lactones by biotransformation or bioconversion of fatty acids. Different studies and patents have been conducted on that matter. In most cases, yeasts are the biological agent used. The main concerned lactones are ?- and ?-decalactones, ?-octalactone and ?-dodecalactone. This article describes lactones and their production by yeasts; particular attention will be devoted to the ?-decalactone.

  14. AROMA-AIRWICK: a CHLOE/CDC-3600 system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks

    The AROMA-AIRWICK System for CHLOE, an automatic film scanning equipment built at Argonne by Donald Hodges, and the CDC-3600 computer is a system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks. AROMA-AIRWICK has been an outgrowth of the generally recognized need for the automatic processing of high energy physics data and the fact that the Argonne National Laboratory has been a center of serious spark chamber development in recent years

  15. AROMA-AIRWICK: a CHLOE/CDC-3600 system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks

    Clark, R K

    1980-06-26

    The AROMA-AIRWICK System for CHLOE, an automatic film scanning equipment built at Argonne by Donald Hodges, and the CDC-3600 computer is a system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks. AROMA-AIRWICK has been an outgrowth of the generally recognized need for the automatic processing of high energy physics data and the fact that the Argonne National Laboratory has been a center of serious spark chamber development in recent years.

  16. Formulation and conservation of a pharmaceutical form with leaf extracts from Acacia aroma Gill. ex Hook et Arn

    M. E, Arias; J. D., Gomez; M., Vatuone; M. I., Isla.

    Full Text Available Leaf fluid extracts of Acacia aroma GILL. ex Hook et Arn showed antibacterial activity against antibiotic multiresistant bacteria isolated from clinical samples, antioxidant and ant-inflammatory activities. Toxicological studies carried out on Artemia salina and Allium cepa attested none toxicity po [...] tential. The aim of this work was to elaborate a formulation of topical antibacterial hydrogel with Carbopol acrylic acid polymer containing an A. aroma fluid extract in order to compare with a hydrogel containing commercial antibiotic. The optimal extract concentration in this formulation was determined according to the values of minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration for Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant (F7) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (F352). Physical, chemical, rheological and microbiological stability was observed at least during one year. The hydrogel containing Acacia leaves fluid extract shows remarkable antibacterial effect with a broadspectrum efficacy against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria at low concentration.

  17. How do esters and dimethyl sulphide concentrations affect fruity aroma perception of red wine? Demonstration by dynamic sensory profile evaluation.

    Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Marchand, Stéphanie; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Our study focused on variations in wine aroma perception and molecular composition during tasting over a period of 30min. In parallel, dynamic analytical and sensory methods were applied to study changes in the wines' molecular and aromatic evolution. Dynamic sensory profile evaluations clearly confirmed the evolution of the wine's fruity notes during sensory analysis, highlighting significant differences for red-berry and fresh fruit as well as black berry and jammy fruit, after 5 and 15min, respectively. Dynamic analytical methods revealed a decrease in ester and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) concentrations in the first few minutes. Sensory profiles of aromatic reconstitutions demonstrated that the aromatic modulation of fruity notes observed during wine tasting was explained by changes in ester and DMS concentrations. These results revealed that variations in concentrations of DMS and esters during wine tasting had a qualitative impact, by modulating fruity aromas in red wine. PMID:26471544

  18. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in two bavarian wheat beers by means of the sensomics approach.

    Langos, Daniel; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-11-27

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatiles isolated from a commercial Bavarian wheat beer (WB A) eliciting its typical aroma profile, best described by a clove-like, phenolic odor quality, revealed 36 odorants in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 16 to 4096. Among them, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like) and 2-phenylethanol (flowery) showed the highest FD factors. AEDA of a second wheat beer (WB B), somewhat lacking the typical wheat beer odor note, revealed 32 odor-active components in the FD factor range from 32 to 8192. Among them, 2-phenylethanol, (E)-β-damascenone (cooked apple-like) and 3-methylbutanol (malty) were detected with the highest FD factors. Next, all odorants evaluated with an FD factor ≥32 were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays in both beers, and the odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated. Thereby, ethanol, (E)-β-damascenone, 3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl methylpropanoate, and ethyl butanoate showed the highest OAVs in WB A, followed by acetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanol, and dimethyl sulfide. In WB B, ethanol, (E)-β-damascenone, ethyl methylpropanoate, ethyl butanoate, and 3-methylbutyl acetate showed the highest OAVs. Whereas most aroma compounds were present in the same order of magnitude in both beer samples, in particular, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol (smoky, leather-like) were by factors of 13 and 15, respectively, higher in WB A. For the first time, the overall aroma of wheat beer (WB A) was successfully simulated on the basis of 27 reference compounds in their natural concentrations using water/ethanol (95:5; v/v) as the matrix. PMID:24219571

  19. The Efficacy of Molecular Markers Analysis with Integration of Sensory Methods in Detection of Aroma in Rice

    Yeap, H. Y.; Faruq, G.; Zakaria, H. P.; Harikrishna, J A

    2013-01-01

    Allele Specific Amplification with four primers (External Antisense Primer, External Sense Primer, Internal Nonfragrant Sense Primer, and Internal Fragrant Antisense Primer) and sensory evaluation with leaves and grains were executed to identify aromatic rice genotypes and their F1 individuals derived from different crosses of 2 Malaysian varieties with 4 popular land races and 3 advance lines. Homozygous aromatic (fgr/fgr) F1 individuals demonstrated better aroma scores compared to both hete...

  20. Comparison of the efficacy of aroma-acupressure and aromatherapy for the treatment of dementia-associated agitation

    Yang, Man-Hua; Lin, Li-Chan; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Wang, Pei-Ning; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the most common symptoms observed in patients with dementia is agitation, and several non-pharmacological treatments have been used to control this symptom. However, because of limitations in research design, the benefit of non-pharmacological treatments has only been demonstrated in certain cases. The purpose of this study was to compare aroma-acupressure and aromatherapy with respect to their effects on agitation in patients with dementia. Methods In this experimental stud...

  1. Characterisation of the aroma components of clonal grapes and wines from Aragonez and Trincadeira Vitis vinifera L. cultivars

    Botelho, Goreti Maria dos Anjos

    2008-01-01

    A grande variabilidade e diversidade dos vinhos tintos produzidos em Portugal provenientes de castas nacionais Vitis vinifera L. justificam a sua caracterizao aromtica e fsico-qumica. Essa caracterizao, tem por objectivos, preservar a qualidade e a tipicidade dos vinhos de diferentes regies, bem como, contribuir para aprofundar o conhecimento de castas que proliferam no mundo vitivincola. Alm disso, a caracterizao do aroma de vinhos clonais apresenta um interesse inegvel para a i...

  2. Effect on the Aroma Profile of Graciano and Tempranillo Red Wines of the Application of Two Antifungal Treatments onto Vines

    Raquel Noguerol-Pato; Thais Sieiro-Sampredro; Carmen Gonzlez-Barreiro; Beatriz Cancho-Grande; Jess Simal-Gndara

    2014-01-01

    The effect of two antifungals (boscalid + kresoxim-methyl and metrafenone) applied onto vines under Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) on the volatile composition of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines was studied. Changes in aroma profile in the wines were assessed from the combined odour activity values (OAVs) for the volatile compounds in each of seven different odorant series (viz., ripe fruits, fresh fruits, lactic, floral, vinous, spicy and herbaceous). Graciano wines obtained from grape...

  3. Altered Levels of Aroma and Volatiles by Metabolic Engineering of Shikimate Pathway Genes in Tomato Fruits

    Vered Tzin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum fruit is an excellent source of antioxidants, dietary fibers, minerals and vitamins and therefore has been referred to as a “functional food”. Ripe tomato fruits produce a large number of specialized metabolites including volatile organic compounds. These volatiles serve as key components of the tomato fruit flavor, participate in plant pathogen and herbivore defense, and are used to attract seed dispersers. A major class of specialized metabolites is derived from the shikimate pathway followed by aromatic amino acid biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. We attempted to modify tomato fruit flavor by overexpressing key regulatory genes in the shikimate pathway. Bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive variants of 3-Deoxy-D-Arabino-Heptulosonate 7-Phosphate Synthase (DAHPS; AroG209-9 and bi-functional Chorismate Mutase/Prephenate Dehydratase (CM/PDT; PheA12 were expressed under the control of a fruit-specific promoter. We crossed these transgenes to generate tomato plants expressing both the AroG209 and PheA12 genes. Overexpression of the AroG209-9 gene had a dramatic effect on the overall metabolic profile of the fruit, including enhanced levels of multiple volatile and non-volatile metabolites. In contrast, the PheA12 overexpression line exhibited minor metabolic effects compared to the wild type fruit. Co-expression of both the AroG209-9 and PheA12 genes in tomato resulted overall in a similar metabolic effect to that of expressing only the AroG209-9 gene. However, the aroma ranking attributes of the tomato fruits from PheA12//AroG209-9 were unique and different from those of the lines expressing a single gene, suggesting a contribution of the PheA12 gene to the overall metabolic profile. We suggest that expression of bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive enzymes of the shikimate pathway in tomato fruits provides a useful metabolic engineering tool for the modification of fruits aroma and the generation of new combinations of tomato flavors.

  4. Real-Time Emulation of Heterogeneous Wireless Networks with End-to-Edge Quality of Service Guarantees: The AROMA Testbed

    Anna Umbert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents and describes the real-time testbed for all-IP Beyond 3G (B3G heterogeneous wireless networks that has been developed in the framework of the European IST AROMA project. The main objective of the AROMA testbed is to provide a highly accurate and realistic framework where the performance of algorithms, policies, protocols, services, and applications for a complete heterogeneous wireless network can be fully assessed and evaluated before bringing them to a real system. The complexity of the interaction between all-IP B3G systems and user applications, while dealing with the Quality of Service (QoS concept, motivates the development of this kind of emulation platform where different solutions can be tested in realistic conditions that could not be achieved by means of simple offline simulations. This work provides an in-depth description of the AROMA testbed, emphasizing many interesting implementation details and lessons learned during the development of the tool that may result helpful to other researchers and system engineers in the development of similar emulation platforms. Several case studies are also presented in order to illustrate the full potential and capabilities of the presented emulation platform.

  5. Characterization of aroma compounds of Chinese famous liquors by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and flash GC electronic-nose.

    Xiao, Zuobing; Yu, Dan; Niu, Yunwei; Chen, Feng; Song, Shiqing; Zhu, Jiancai; Zhu, Guangyong

    2014-01-15

    Aroma composition of five Chinese premium famous liquors with different origins and liquor flavor types was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and flash gas chromatographic electronic nose system. Eighty-six aroma compounds were identified, including 5 acids, 34 esters, 10 alcohols, 9 aldehydes, 4 ketones, 4 phenols, and 10 nitrous and sulfuric compounds. To investigate possible correlation between aroma compounds identified by GC-MS and sensory attributes, multivariate ANOVA-PLSR (APLSR) was performed. It turned out that there were 30 volatile composition, ethyl acetate, ethyl propanoate, ethyl 2-methyl butanoate, ethyl 3-methyl butanoate, ethyl lactate, ethyl benzenacetate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, hexyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-heptanol, phenylethyl alcohol, acetaldehyde, 1,1-diethoxy-3-methyl butane, furfural, benzaldehyde, 5-methyl-2-furanal, 2-octanone, 2-n-butyl furan, dimethyl trisulfied and 2,6-dimethyl pyrazine, ethyl nonanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, octanoic acid, ethyl 5-methyl hexanoate, 2-phenylethyl acetate,ethyl oleate, propyl hexanoate, butanoic acid and phenol, ethyl benzenepropanoate, which showed good coordination with Chinese liquor characteristics. The multivariate structure of this electronic nose responses was then processed by principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). According to the obtained results, GC-MS and electronic nose can be used for the differentiation of the liquor origins and flavor types. PMID:24333641

  6. Phytochemical, sensory attributes and aroma stability of dense phase carbon dioxide processed Hibiscus sabdariffa beverage during storage.

    Ramírez-Rodrigues, Milena M; Plaza, Maria L; Azeredo, Alberto; Balaban, Murat O; Marshall, Maurice R

    2012-10-01

    The effect of dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) processing (34.5 MPa, 8% CO₂, 6.5 min, and 40 °C) on phytochemical, sensory and aroma compounds of hibiscus beverage was compared to a conventional thermal process (HTST) (75 °C for 15 s) and a control (untreated beverage) during refrigerated storage (4 °C). The overall likeability of the hibiscus beverage for all treatments was not affected by storage up to week 5. DPCD process retained more aroma volatiles as compared to HTST. Aroma profiles in the beverages were mainly composed of alcohols and aldehydes with 1-octen-3-ol, decanal, octanal, 1-hexanol, and nonanal as the compounds with the highest relative percentage peak areas. A loss of only 9% anthocyanins was observed for the DPCD processed hibiscus beverage. Phytochemical profiles in the hibiscus beverage included caffeoylquinic acids, anthocyanins, and flavonols. No major changes in total phenolics and antioxidant capacity occurred during the 14 weeks of storage. PMID:25005962

  7. Chemical and sensory effects of the freezing process on the aroma profile of black truffles (Tuber melanosporum).

    Culler, Laura; Ferreira, Vicente; Venturini, Mara E; Marco, Pedro; Blanco, Domingo

    2013-01-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of freezing black truffles (Tuber melanosporum) on their aroma both in sensory and chemical terms. The truffles were frozen at temperatures of -20 to -80C. Descriptive and discriminative sensory and chemical analyses, based on headspace solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (HS-SPME-GC-MS), were carried out after 1, 20, 40 and 60 days. Fifteen compounds with high aromatic potential in truffles were determined. Their selective ion peak areas were calculated, summed and expressed as percentage of active odour compound, in order to monitor changes in odour profile. The aroma of frozen truffles differed significantly from the aroma of fresh truffles. Volatile composition data revealed that T. melanosporum aromatic profile is deeply modified as a consequence of a freezing process. These aromatic changes could explain the loss of freshness observed in all frozen truffles. Methional and some phenols were suggested as markers of freezing time. Interestingly, 1-octen-3-one appeared as a general marker of freezing process. PMID:23122092

  8. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality

    Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles.

  9. Extraction and GC determination of volatile aroma compounds from extracts of three plant species of the Apiaceae family

    Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.; Copolovici, L.; MǎruÅ£oiu, C.

    2013-11-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and celery (Apium graveolens), three aromatic plants belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) botanical family, were selected as sources of essential or volatile oils. Essential oils are composed of a large diversity of volatile aroma compounds. Plant-derived essential oils and extracts have long been used as natural agents in food preservation, pharmaceuticals and medicinal therapies. In the present study, the plant extracts from leaves of parsley, dill and celery, were obtained by maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. All extractions were performed at 30°C, using different solvents (ethanol, diethyl ether, n-hexane) and solvent mixtures (1:1, v/v). The most effective solvent system for the extraction of volatile aroma compounds was diethyl ether - n-hexane (1:1, v/v). Extraction efficiency and determination of aroma volatiles were performed by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The major volatile compounds present in plant extracts were myristicin, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, apiol, dill ether and allyl phenoxyacetate.

  10. Electrodialytic removal of nitrate from pineapple juice: effect on selected physicochemical properties, amino acids, and aroma components of the juice.

    Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds. PMID:25827307

  11. Effect on the Aroma Profile of Graciano and Tempranillo Red Wines of the Application of Two Antifungal Treatments onto Vines

    Raquel Noguerol-Pato

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two antifungals (boscalid + kresoxim-methyl and metrafenone applied onto vines under Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs on the volatile composition of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines was studied. Changes in aroma profile in the wines were assessed from the combined odour activity values (OAVs for the volatile compounds in each of seven different odorant series (viz., ripe fruits, fresh fruits, lactic, floral, vinous, spicy and herbaceous. Graciano wines obtained from grapes treated with the antifungals exhibited markedly increased concentrations of varietal volatile compounds (monoterpenes and C13-norisoprenoids and aldehydes, and decreased concentrations of acetates and aromatic alcohols. By contrast, the concentrations of volatile compounds in Tempranillo wines showed different changes depending on the fungicide applied. Also, the aroma profiles of wines obtained from treated grapes were modified, particularly the ripe fruit nuances in Graciano wines. The OAV of this odorant series underwent an increase by more than 60% with respect to the control wine as a result of the increase of ?-damascenone concentration (which imparts wine a dry plum note. The aroma profile of Tempranillo red wines containing metrafenone residues exhibited marked changes relative to those from untreated grapes.

  12. A model explaining and predicting lamb flavour from the aroma-active chemical compounds released upon grilling light lamb loins.

    Bueno, Mónica; Campo, M Mar; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the work is to understand the role of the different aroma compounds in the perception of the local "lamb flavour" concept. For this, a set of 70 loins (Longissimus dorsi) from approximately seventy day-old Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were grilled and the aroma-active chemicals released during the grilling process were trapped and analyzed. Carbonyl compounds were derivatizated and determined by GC-NCI-MS, whereas other aromatic compounds were directly analyzed by GC-GC-MS. Odour activity values (OAVs) were calculated using their odour threshold values in air. Lamb flavour could be satisfactory explained by a partial least-squares model (74% explained variance in cross-validation) built by the OAVs of 32 aroma-active chemical compounds. The model demonstrates that the lamb flavour concept is the result of a complex balance. Its intensity critically and positively depends to the levels of volatile fatty acids and several dimethylpyrazines while is negatively influenced by the different alkenals and alkadienals. (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and (E)-2-nonenal showed top OAVs. PMID:25089786

  13. Radiation dose and storage temperature and period effects on the flavor and aroma of orange juice

    Spoto, M.H.F.; Domarco, R.E.; Walder, J.M.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Scarminio, I.S. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Bruns, R.E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1995-12-31

    Effects of storage temperature and period on orange juice concentrates were studied for samples irradiated with 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy doses from a gamma-ray source as well as for untreated samples. All samples were stored at 0{sup 0} C, 5{sup 0} C and 25{sup 0} C for periods of 1,30, 60 and 90 days. Samples stored for more than one day underwent a diminution in storage attribute rating with corresponding increase in ratings for the bitterness, medicinal and cooked attributes. Storage at 0{sup 0} C and 5{sup 0} C seems to have smaller effects on the sweetness rating as well as on the oily, acid and medicinal flavor characteristics. Effect of radiation dose level on the flavor and aroma attributes depended on the storage temperature and time. In most cases, higher radiation levels are associated by lower orange attribute values and higher bitter medicinal and cooked ratings. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs.

  14. Chemical composition, aroma evaluation, and inhibitory activity towards acetylcholinesterase of essential oils from Gynura bicolor DC.

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Usami, Atsushi; Matsuda, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    The compositions of the essential oils obtained from leaves and stems of Gynura bicolor DC. were analyzed by GC-MS. One hundred eight components of these oils were identified. (E)-?-caryophyllene (31.42%), ?-pinene (17.11%), and bicyclogermacrene (8.09%) were found to be the main components of the leaf oil, while ?-pinene (61.42%), ?-pinene (14.39%), and myrcene (5.10%) were the major constituents of the stem oil. We found 73 previously unidentified components in these oils from G. bicolor. The oils were also subjected to odor evaluation. Eleven and 12 aroma-active compounds were detected in the leaf and stem oils, respectively. The abilities of these oils to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were determined. The sesquiterpenoids in the oils were found to inhibit AChE activity more strongly than the monoterpenoids in the oils did. It was suggested that the three main components in each essential oil act synergistically against AChE activity. These results show that the essential oils obtained from G. bicolor are a good dietary source of AChE activity inhibition. PMID:26758617

  15. The Effects of Aroma Foot Massage on Blood Pressure and Anxiety in Japanese Community-Dwelling Men and Women: A Crossover Randomized Controlled Trial

    Tomooka, Kiyohide; Ohira, Tetsuya; Ogino, Keiki; Tanigawa, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aroma foot massage on blood pressure, anxiety, and health-related quality of life (QOL) in Japanese community-dwelling men and women using a crossover randomized controlled trial. Methods Fifty-seven eligible participants (5 men and 52 women) aged 27 to 72 were randomly divided into 2 intervention groups (group A: n = 29; group B: n = 28) to participate in aroma foot massages 12 times during the 4-week intervention period. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively), heart rate, state anxiety, and health-related QOL were measured at the baseline, 4-week follow-up, and 8-week follow-up. The effects of the aroma foot massage intervention on these factors and the proportion of participants with anxiety were analyzed using a linear mixed-effect model for a crossover design adjusted for participant and period effects. Furthermore, the relationship between the changes in SBP and state anxiety among participants with relieved anxiety was assessed using a linear regression model. Results Aroma foot massage significantly decreased the mean SBP (p = 0.02), DBP (p = 0.006), and state anxiety (p = 0.003) as well as the proportion of participants with anxiety (p = 0.003). Although it was not statistically significant (p = 0.088), aroma foot massage also increased the score of mental health-related QOL. The change in SBP had a significant and positive correlation with the change in state anxiety (p = 0.01) among participants with relieved anxiety. Conclusion The self-administered aroma foot massage intervention significantly decreased the mean SBP and DBP as well as the state anxiety score, and tended to increase the mental health-related QOL scores. The results suggest that aroma foot massage may be an easy and effective way to improve mental health and blood pressure. Trial Registration University Hospital Medical Information Network 000014260 PMID:27010201

  16. Isolamento e seleo de microrganismos pectinolticos a partir de resduos provenientes de agroindstrias para produo de aromas frutais / Screening of fruit flavors producing pectinolitic microorganisms isolated from agroindustrial residues

    Mariana, Uenojo; Glaucia Maria, Pastore.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available As pectinases so enzimas produzidas naturalmente por plantas, fungos, leveduras e bactrias. Estes microrganismos podem ser inoculados em meios contendo resduos agroindustriais utilizados como fonte de carbono para a produo de compostos de maior valor agregado, como enzimas, etanol, protenas, a [...] minocidos e compostos de aroma. Vrios microrganismos foram isolados e selecionados quanto produo de enzimas pectinolticas pelo mtodo da placa, atravs de zonas claras de degradao de pectina ao redor da colnia. De 104 linhagens testadas, 18 foram selecionadas para fermentarem em meio lquido, contendo pectina para a determinao de atividade de poligalacturonase (PG) e de pectina liase (PMGL), e em meio frutose/extrato de levedura para produo de aromas. As linhagens 2, 9, 20, 39, 70, 74 e 99 apresentaram unidades de atividade de PG superiores a 80 mol de cido galacturnico/mL/min, as linhagens 17, 18, 31, 37, 73, 74 e 125 apresentaram unidades de atividade de PMGL superiores a 1000 etamol de produtos insaturados/mL/min e as linhagens 13, 70, 73, 74, 125 e 144 apresentaram os melhores descritores e as maiores intensidades de aromas percebidos por um painel no treinado de provadores. Abstract in english Pectinases are enzymes used in food industries, produced by plants, fungi, yeasts and bacteria. These microorganisms can be inoculated in a medium containing agro-industrial residues from processing agricultural products, used as a carbon source to produce value-added products such as enzymes, ethan [...] ol, proteins, amino acids and flavor compounds. Several microorganisms were isolated and selected due to their capacity to produce pectinolytic enzymes in clear halos around colonies by plate assay. From 104 strains, 18 were inoculated in a medium containing pectin as a carbon source and the pectinolytic activities of polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin lyase (PMGL) were determined. Strains 2, 9, 20, 39, 70, 74, and 99 showed activity units of PG higher than 80 mol galacturonic acid/mL/minute. Strains 17, 18, 31, 37, 73, 74 and 125 showed activity units of PMGL higher than 1000 etamol unsaturated products/mL/minute. Strains 13, 70, 73, 74, 125 and 144 showed good signs of flavor noticed in the fructose and yeast extract medium and the most intense flavor according to a non-trained board of tasters.

  17. Isolamento e seleo de microrganismos pectinolticos a partir de resduos provenientes de agroindstrias para produo de aromas frutais Screening of fruit flavors producing pectinolitic microorganisms isolated from agroindustrial residues

    Mariana Uenojo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available As pectinases so enzimas produzidas naturalmente por plantas, fungos, leveduras e bactrias. Estes microrganismos podem ser inoculados em meios contendo resduos agroindustriais utilizados como fonte de carbono para a produo de compostos de maior valor agregado, como enzimas, etanol, protenas, aminocidos e compostos de aroma. Vrios microrganismos foram isolados e selecionados quanto produo de enzimas pectinolticas pelo mtodo da placa, atravs de zonas claras de degradao de pectina ao redor da colnia. De 104 linhagens testadas, 18 foram selecionadas para fermentarem em meio lquido, contendo pectina para a determinao de atividade de poligalacturonase (PG e de pectina liase (PMGL, e em meio frutose/extrato de levedura para produo de aromas. As linhagens 2, 9, 20, 39, 70, 74 e 99 apresentaram unidades de atividade de PG superiores a 80 mol de cido galacturnico/mL/min, as linhagens 17, 18, 31, 37, 73, 74 e 125 apresentaram unidades de atividade de PMGL superiores a 1000 etamol de produtos insaturados/mL/min e as linhagens 13, 70, 73, 74, 125 e 144 apresentaram os melhores descritores e as maiores intensidades de aromas percebidos por um painel no treinado de provadores.Pectinases are enzymes used in food industries, produced by plants, fungi, yeasts and bacteria. These microorganisms can be inoculated in a medium containing agro-industrial residues from processing agricultural products, used as a carbon source to produce value-added products such as enzymes, ethanol, proteins, amino acids and flavor compounds. Several microorganisms were isolated and selected due to their capacity to produce pectinolytic enzymes in clear halos around colonies by plate assay. From 104 strains, 18 were inoculated in a medium containing pectin as a carbon source and the pectinolytic activities of polygalacturonase (PG and pectin lyase (PMGL were determined. Strains 2, 9, 20, 39, 70, 74, and 99 showed activity units of PG higher than 80 mol galacturonic acid/mL/minute. Strains 17, 18, 31, 37, 73, 74 and 125 showed activity units of PMGL higher than 1000 etamol unsaturated products/mL/minute. Strains 13, 70, 73, 74, 125 and 144 showed good signs of flavor noticed in the fructose and yeast extract medium and the most intense flavor according to a non-trained board of tasters.

  18. Estudio qumico del aroma de la guayaba (Psidium guajava L. variedades Regional Roja y Regional Blanca) proveniente de la Hoya del Ro Surez / Chemical studies on the aroma of guava (Psidium guajava L. varieties Regional Roja and Regional Blanca) from Hoya del Ro Surez

    Sinuco Len, Diana Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Se presenta el estudio qumico del aroma de dos variedades de guayaba colombiana (Psidium guajava L.), regional roja y regional blanca, mediante el uso de una metodologa analtica sistemtica que contempla los siguientes pasos: 1. extraccin suave de los compuestos voltiles por SAFE (Solvent Assisted Flavor Extraction); 2. deteccin de las zonas activas olfativamente por cromatografa de gases acoplada a olfatometra (CG-O) y aplicacin del AEDA (Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis); 3. identif...

  19. Determination of the effects of different washing processes on aroma characteristics in silver carp mince by MMSE-GC-MS, e-nose and sensory evaluation.

    Zhou, Xuxia; Chong, Yunqing; Ding, Yuting; Gu, Saiqi; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-15

    The present study investigated the volatile compounds of silver carp mince and the effects of washing processes on the integral aroma characteristics and aroma-active compounds (AACs) of the mince. 57 volatile compounds were identified by monolithic material sorptive extraction (MMSE) and GC-MS analysis, and 13 volatile compounds with odor activity values greater than 1 (OAVs>1) were further selected as AACs contributing primarily to the integral aroma profile of silver carp. Washing methods affected the overall aroma profiles of fish samples by washing away or facilitating the release of AACs but to different extents. Compared with water washing, washing with saline and weak alkaline solution removed more AACs. Washing with water three times (T2) exhibited a relatively stronger removal effect on most AACs compared to washing with water twice (T1). Washing with a high concentration of saline (T4) produced a strong removal effect on AACs. The results of sensory evaluation and electronic nose (e-nose) detection for distinguishing the aroma characteristics of different samples demonstrated good agreement with those obtained by OAV analysis. PMID:27080898

  20. Characterization of the most odor-active compounds in an American Bourbon whisky by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Poisson, Luigi; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-07-23

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction carefully isolated from an American Bourbon whisky revealed 45 odor-active areas in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 32-4096 among which (E)-beta-damascenone and delta-nonalactone showed the highest FD factors of 4096 and 2048, respectively. With FD factors of 1024, (3S,4S)-cis-whiskylactone, gamma-decalactone, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (eugenol), and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzaldehyde (vanillin) additionally contributed to the overall vanilla-like, fruity, and smoky aroma note of the spirit. Application of GC-Olfactometry on the headspace above the whisky revealed 23 aroma-active odorants among which 3-methylbutanal, ethanol, and 2-methylbutanal were identified as additional important aroma compounds. Compared to published data on volatile constituents in whisky, besides ranking the whisky odorants on the basis of their odor potency, 13 aroma compounds were newly identified in this study: ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, (E)-2-heptenal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, ethyl phenylacetate, 4-methyl acetophenone, alpha-damascone, 2-phenylethyl propanoate, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, trans-ethyl cinnamate, and (Z)-6-dodeceno-gamma-lactone. PMID:18570373

  1. A Study of Inhalation of Peppermint Aroma on the Pain and Anxiety

    Giti Ozgoli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Considering the painfulness of labor and its resulting anxiety, and also, complications such as uterine dysfunction, prolonged labor, and unpleasant memories, the present study was performed aimed to investigate the effect of peppermint aroma on the level of pain and anxiety in the first stage of labor in nulliparous women.Methods: This research was done as a clinical trial study on 128 nulliparous women assigned into two groups (64 subjects in aromatherapy group and 64 subjects in control group. In aromatherapy group, mixtures containing 0.2ml essence of peppermint and 2ml normal saline impregnated gauze, and in the control group, only 2ml normal saline impregnated gauze were attached to their dress collar, and the administration was repeated every 30 minutes. Level of anxiety was measured in dilatations 3-4 and 8-10cm and the intensity of pain in dilatations 4-5, 6-7, and 8-10cm. The data were collected through demographic and obstetric questionnaire, observation checklist, spielberger anxiety questionnaire, and pain numerical rating scale. Results: In this study, the age, job, education, and gestational age were the same in both groups. Also, the level of anxiety was the same in both groups before the intervention, but after the intervention, anxiety level decreased in intervention group compared to control group (p<0.001. The mean pain score in the dilatations 4-5, 6-7, and 8-10cm decreased in intervention group compared to control group (p<0.001 for all.Conclusion: Aromatherapy with peppermint essence is recommended for the reduction of pain and anxiety level during labor due to its inexpensiveness, ease and non-invasiveness.

  2. Retención de aroma durante el secado de extracto de café en un sistema cerrado

    J.F. Vílchez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el secado de alimentos líquidos, componentes volátiles presentes en baja concentración que contribuyen al aroma y sabor del producto final son removidos junto con el agua. En consecuencia la calidad del producto final es considerablemente afectada por la cantidad de substancias volátiles que son retenidas durante el proceso de secado. En el extracto de café, por ejemplo, existen cientos de tales compuestos, la mayoría de ellos altamente volátiles por lo que se pierden cuando el extracto es transformado en polvo seco. Independientemente del método utilizado, parece ser imposible evitar completamente la perdida de compuestos volátiles durante el secado. Un método potencial para mejorar la retención del aroma durante el secado es utilizar un sistema que trabaje a ciclo cerrado. Con el propósito de estudiar este proceso una planta piloto que consiste de un secador por aspersión, un secador de lecho fluidizado vibratorio, un sistema de recuperación de vapores e intercambiadores de calor para recalentar el aire reciclado ha sido diseñada y esta en la fase final de instalación en la Facultad de Ingeniería Química de la Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, en Managua, para hacer un estudio del método potencial de recuperación de aroma del extracto de café. Este estudio tendrá como resultado no solo un café soluble de mejor calidad sino que además un método capaz de mejorar el procesamiento de muchos otros alimentos líquidos.

  3. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculum size on wine fermentation aroma compounds and its relation with assimilable nitrogen content.

    Carrau, Francisco; Medina, Karina; Faria, Laura; Boido, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2010-09-30

    Different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains have been applied at the winemaking level, trying to establish a dominant population of selected strains from the start of fermentation and ensuring the complete consumption of sugars. Although a large population of active yeast cells can be introduced in the inoculated wines, resulting in a complete fermentation, this does not necessarily mean an improvement of the sensory characteristics of the wines. The impact of the size of the inocula in wine quality parameters has been very little studied, and in no case the nutrient balance of the grape must utilized was taken into account. In this work we present results obtained for wine aroma compounds at three inoculum levels (10(4), 10(5) and 10(6)cells/mL), and two different yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) in a white grape must, using two S. cerevisiae strains commonly used for winemaking. A significant effect in the final concentrations of higher alcohols, esters, fatty acids, free monoterpenes and lactones was attributed to the size of inoculum in both strains but not in an easily predictable way. However, a consistent increase of desired aroma compounds (esters, lactones and free monoterpenes), and a decrease of less desired compounds for white wine (higher alcohols and medium chain fatty acids), was shown at inoculum sizes of 10(5)cells/mL for both strains in real winemaking conditions. In a discriminant analysis six aroma compounds discriminate the three inoculum sizes for all wine samples: 1,8-terpine, hodiol I (trans-3,7-dimethyl-1,5-octadiene-3,7-diol), isobutyl alcohol, iso C4 acid, ethyl C6 ester and C8 acid. PMID:20692063

  4. Screening for key odorants in Moroccan green olives by gas chromatography-olfactometry/aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Iraqi, Rafika; Vermeulen, Catherine; Benzekri, Amale; Bouseta, Amina; Collin, Sonia

    2005-02-23

    "Spanish style" Moroccan green table olives were screened for potent odorants by gas chromatography-olfactometry/aroma extraction dilution analysis of a representative Likens-Nickerson extract. (Z)-3-Hexenal [flavor dilution factor (FD) = 256], (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (FD = 128), and (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal (FD = 64) were revealed to confer green and coriander/paraffin oil odors to both fruit and oil extracts, whereas guaiacol (FD = 128) imparted a bad olive, phenolic note. Methional (3-methylthiopropionaldehyde, FD = 128) and several terpenes (FD oil constituents. PMID:15713037

  5. Einfluss der Temperatur beim Rösten von Sesam auf Aroma und antioxidative Eigenschaften des Öls

    Kim, Jeong Seon

    2001-01-01

    Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, die durch Röstung von Sesam bewirkte antioxidative Wirkung des Produktes in eine Korrelation zum Aroma zu setzen. Durch Säulenchromatographie wurden die wichtigsten Antioxidantien des Sesamöls identifiziert: Sesamin wirkt im Körper bedingt antioxidativ. Es ist noch bei 180°C stabil, zersetzt sich aber bei 200°C. Sesamol verstärkt seine Konzentration mit steigender Temperatur auch über 200°C. Es wird vermutet, dass es durch thermischen Abbau des Sesamolins ...

  6. Aroma Quality of Fruits of Wild and Cultivated Strawberry (FRAGARIA SPP.) in Relation to the Flavour-Related Gene Expression

    Bianchi Giulia; Lovazzano Andrea; Lanubile Alessandra; Marocco Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Expression profiles of flavour-related genes and the aroma quality of fruit headspace were investigated in the four strawberry genotypes ‘Reine des Vallées’ (Fragaria vesca), ‘Profumata di Tortona’ (F mos-chata), ‘Onda’ and VR 177 selection (F” x ananassa). Differences in the expression level of genes coding of strawberry alcohol acyltransferase (SAAT), F. x ananassa nerolidol synthase 1 (FaNESl) and F vesca monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases (FvPINS and PINS1, respectively) were detecte...

  7. Aromas florales y su interacción con los insectos polinizadores Floral scents and their interaction with insect pollinators

    Julieta Grajales-Conesa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas emplean diversas señales visuales y olfativas con la finalidad de atraer a los polinizadores que en su mayoría son insectos. Algunas plantas han desarrollado mecanismos, basándose en mensajes olfativos que los hacen únicos para sus polinizadores específicos. Estos mecanismos, así como las variaciones intra- e interespecíficas en el perfil de los aromas florales han evolucionado para determinadas especies. Los aromas florales son un conjunto de compuestos volátiles orgánicos y para su estudio hay varios métodos que requieren de técnicas que cada vez son más eficientes. El uso de estos aromas podría ser una opción en determinados sistemas de polinización, utilizándolos como atrayente de polinizadores o de depredadores y/o herbívoro para incrementar la producción y disminuir los daños por plagas. En este trabajo se revisan las distintas interacciones de los insectos y los aromas florales, los sistemas específicos planta-polinizador, los métodos de análisis, así como algunos patrones o tendencias de estas interacciones y su aplicación e importancia.Plants use visual and olfactory cues to attract pollinators and to allow them to detect the presence of flowers, which most of them are insects. Some plants have evolved with their pollinators, based on the olfactory messages, which make them unique for their specific pollinators. These mechanisms have evolved in certain plants in relation to their pollinators, and there are also inter and intra-specific variation in fragrance cues which show specific chemical profile for each plant species, so insects attracted are specific to them. Most of the floral scents are organic compounds identified with techniques and methodologies which become more specific and efficient along the time. The application of floral scent could be used as a tool in pollination and pest management. In these studies, insect interaction with floral scent is reviewed and specificity of plant-pollinator, additionally the method of analysis, some patterns and trends in these interactions, the application and its importance are examined.

  8. Effects of bite size and duration of oral processing on retro-nasal aroma release - features contributing to meal termination

    Ruijschop, R.M.A.J.; N. Zijlstra; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Dijkstra, A.; Burgering, M.J.M.; Graaf, de, WA; Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    The brain response to a retro-nasally sensed food odour signals the perception of food and it is suggested to be related to satiation. It is hypothesised that consuming food either in multiple small bite sizes or with a longer durations of oral processing may evoke substantial oral processing per gram consumed and an increase in transit time in the oral cavity. This is expected to result in a higher cumulative retro-nasal aroma stimulation, which in turn may lead to increased feelings of sati...

  9. HS/GC-MS analyzed chemical composition of the aroma of fruiting bodies of two species of genus Lentinus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Mata, Gerardo; Valdez, Karina; Mendoza, Remedios; Trigos, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of the aroma of fresh fruiting bodies of the cultivated mushroom Lentinus boryanus is described here and compared with medicinal shiitake mushroom L. edodes. Volatile compounds were analyzed through headspace sampling coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mushrooms under study were grown on different substrates based on barley straw, sugarcane bagasse, oak wood sawdust, and beech leaf litter. It was determined that L. boryanus as well as L. edodes contain an abundant amount of a volatile compound identified as 3-octanone with a sweet fruity aroma. On the other hand, only L. boryanus produced 3-octanol a characteristic aroma of cod liver oil. In total, 10 aromatic compounds were identified, some of which were obtained exclusively in one species or substrate. PMID:25271982

  10. Metabolic Engineering of the Phenylpropanoid and Its Primary, Precursor Pathway to Enhance the Flavor of Fruits and the Aroma of Flowers

    Hadas Peled-Zehavi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce a diverse repertoire of specialized metabolites that have multiple roles throughout their life cycle. Some of these metabolites are essential components of the aroma and flavor of flowers and fruits. Unfortunately, attempts to increase the yield and prolong the shelf life of crops have generally been associated with reduced levels of volatile specialized metabolites and hence with decreased aroma and flavor. Thus, there is a need for the development of new varieties that will retain their desired traits while gaining enhanced scent and flavor. Metabolic engineering holds great promise as a tool for improving the profile of emitted volatiles of domesticated crops. This mini review discusses recent attempts to utilize metabolic engineering of the phenylpropanoid and its primary precursor pathway to enhance the aroma and flavor of flowers and fruits.

  11. Inline roasting hyphenated with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as an innovative approach for assessment of cocoa fermentation quality and aroma formation potential.

    Van Durme, Jim; Ingels, Isabel; De Winne, Ann

    2016-08-15

    Today, the cocoa industry is in great need of faster and robust analytical techniques to objectively assess incoming cocoa quality. In this work, inline roasting hyphenated with a cooled injection system coupled to a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (ILR-CIS-GC-MS) has been explored for the first time to assess fermentation quality and/or overall aroma formation potential of cocoa. This innovative approach resulted in the in-situ formation of relevant cocoa aroma compounds. After comparison with data obtained by headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME-GC-MS) on conventional roasted cocoa beans, ILR-CIS-GC-MS data on unroasted cocoa beans showed similar formation trends of important cocoa aroma markers as a function of fermentation quality. The latter approach only requires small aliquots of unroasted cocoa beans, can be automatated, requires no sample preparation, needs relatively short analytical times (<1h) and is highly reproducible. PMID:27006215

  12. Characterization of Aroma Active Compounds in Fruit Juice and Peel Oil of Jinchen Sweet Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by GC-MS and GC-O

    Si Yi Pan; Xiao Lin Yao; Gang Fan; Yun Zhang; Yan Zhang; Bi Jun Xie; Yu Qiao

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC-O) were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve comp...

  13. Identification of Piperitone as an Aroma Compound Contributing to the Positive Mint Nuances Perceived in Aged Red Bordeaux Wines.

    Picard, Magali; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; de Revel, Gilles; Marchand, Stéphanie

    2016-01-20

    Although a sensory definition of the aging bouquet of red Bordeaux wines was recently established, its chemical transcription has only partially been elucidated. A multiple-step approach, combining sensory evaluations of red Bordeaux wines and aromatic reconstitutions of wine extract fractions, was used to identify the molecular markers involved. One wine with a high aging-bouquet score and a mint nuance has received particular attention. Various reconstitution and omission tests highlighted the contribution of two specific fractions to the intensity of the perception of mint aroma. Gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry and mass spectrometry was applied to the targeted fractions to identify molecular marker(s) responsible for the mint nuance in fine red Bordeaux wines. A similar analytical process was applied to selected fractions of essential oils presenting mint odors to characterize them and interpret the mass spectrometry data. This approach resulted in the detection of piperitone, a monoterpene ketone that, to the best of our knowledge, was reported for the first time as a contributor to the positive mint aroma of aged red Bordeaux wines. PMID:26735409

  14. Classification of E-Nose Aroma Data of Four Fruit Types by ABC-Based Neural Network.

    Adak, M Fatih; Yumusak, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    Electronic nose technology is used in many areas, and frequently in the beverage industry for classification and quality-control purposes. In this study, four different aroma data (strawberry, lemon, cherry, and melon) were obtained using a MOSES II electronic nose for the purpose of fruit classification. To improve the performance of the classification, the training phase of the neural network with two hidden layers was optimized using artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC), which is known to be successful in exploration. Test data were given to two different neural networks, each of which were trained separately with backpropagation (BP) and ABC, and average test performances were measured as 60% for the artificial neural network trained with BP and 76.39% for the artificial neural network trained with ABC. Training and test phases were repeated 30 times to obtain these average performance measurements. This level of performance shows that the artificial neural network trained with ABC is successful in classifying aroma data. PMID:26927124

  15. [Influence of teas with fruit aroma and ice teas on pH and buffer capacity of saliva].

    van Nieuw Amerongen, A; van den Keijbus, P A; Veerman, E C

    2004-03-01

    A number of teas with fruit aroma and ice teas has been tested on erosivity. The teas with a fruit taste have at their drinking temperature (45 degrees C) a pH between 6.2 to 7.4. Even teas with a citron or citrus flavour are neutral. The most acidic tea tested has a mango-peach-taste, but contains no buffer system. After mixing 1 ml of total saliva up to 10 ml tea or by rinsing the oral cavity with tea the pH of oral fluid was hardly lowered (minimum 6.3). In contrast, ice teas are rather acidic (pH ice tea resulted in a decrease of the pH of the oral fluid to 4.1-4.9. However, within 2 minutes the pH in the oral fluid was already increased to 5.9-7.1 and after 5 minutes to 6.3-7.1. In other words, the teas with fruit aroma, based on organic taste components do not have an erosive potential. On the other hand, ice teas decrease the pH of the oral fluid drastically to a level that they become erosive. Therefore, from a dental point of view, teas with only a taste of fruit can be advised to replace drinking of soft drinks, but ice teas not. PMID:15058242

  16. Past and Future of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts: From Spoilage Microorganisms to Biotechnological Tools for Improving Wine Aroma Complexity.

    Padilla, Beatriz; Gil, José V; Manzanares, Paloma

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, considered in the past as undesired or spoilage yeasts, can enhance the analytical composition, and aroma profile of the wine. The contribution of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, including the ability to secret enzymes and produce secondary metabolites, glycerol and ethanol, release of mannoproteins or contributions to color stability, is species- and strain-specific, pointing out the key importance of a clever strain selection. The use of mixed starters of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts with strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an alternative to both spontaneous and inoculated wine fermentations, taking advantage of the potential positive role that non-Saccharomyces wine yeast species play in the organoleptic characteristics of wine. In this context mixed starters can meet the growing demand for new and improved wine yeast strains adapted to different types and styles of wine. With the aim of presenting old and new evidences on the potential of non-Saccharomyces yeasts to address this market trend, we mainly review the studies focused on non-Saccharomyces strain selection and design of mixed starters directed to improve primary and secondary aroma of wines. The ability of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts to produce enzymes and metabolites of oenological relevance is also discussed. PMID:27065975

  17. Relationship of sensory and instrumental aroma measurements of dark chocolate as influenced by fermentation method, roasting and conching conditions.

    Owusu, Margaret; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Heimdal, Hanne

    2013-10-01

    The investigation was undertaken to establish a relationship between key odorants and perceived flavor attributes of dark chocolate as influenced by cocoa fermentation method, roasting and conching conditions, using multivariate data analysis in an attempt to use one variable to predict the other. Eight of the sixteen flavor attributes used by a trained sensory panel to describe and quantify the intensity of attributes in the samples were significantly different (p fermented samples but the reduction in tray-fermented samples was not significant. Unconched samples were rated higher in banana attribute than conched samples. Multivariate data analytical tools, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares (PLS) were used to investigate quantitative descriptive analysis and GC-O data and also to relate the two sets of data. PLS 1 models based on single sensory attributes gave better models than PLS2 models based on all sixteen sensory attributes. Ethyl-3-methylbutanoate (fruity, flowery); 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (popcorn); dihydro-2(3H)-furanone, (sweet); linalool oxide (sweet, flowery); benzaldehyde (earthy, nutty) and 2/3-methylbutanal (cocoa, roasted) modeled fruit attribute. It was also possible to model the attribute astringent from the aroma compounds 5-methyl-2-phenyl-2-hexenal (sweet, roasted cocoa), ethyl-3-methylbutanoate and pentyl acetate (green, cucumber). Since fruit attribute was higher in unconched samples and astringent higher in unroasted samples, it may be possible to use the levels of these important aroma compounds as indicators of the sensory attributes fruit and astringent. PMID:24425997

  18. Classification of E-Nose Aroma Data of Four Fruit Types by ABC-Based Neural Network

    Adak, M. Fatih; Yumusak, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    Electronic nose technology is used in many areas, and frequently in the beverage industry for classification and quality-control purposes. In this study, four different aroma data (strawberry, lemon, cherry, and melon) were obtained using a MOSES II electronic nose for the purpose of fruit classification. To improve the performance of the classification, the training phase of the neural network with two hidden layers was optimized using artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC), which is known to be successful in exploration. Test data were given to two different neural networks, each of which were trained separately with backpropagation (BP) and ABC, and average test performances were measured as 60% for the artificial neural network trained with BP and 76.39% for the artificial neural network trained with ABC. Training and test phases were repeated 30 times to obtain these average performance measurements. This level of performance shows that the artificial neural network trained with ABC is successful in classifying aroma data. PMID:26927124

  19. A methodological approach to screen diverse cheese-related bacteria for their ability to produce aroma compounds.

    Pogačić, Tomislav; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Leclerc, Aurélie; Hervé, Christophe; Chuat, Victoria; Yee, Alyson L; Valence, Florence; Thierry, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Microorganisms play an important role in the development of cheese flavor. The aim of this study was to develop an approach to facilitate screening of various cheese-related bacteria for their ability to produce aroma compounds. We combined i) curd-based slurry medium incubated under conditions mimicking cheese manufacturing and ripening, ii) powerful method of extraction of volatiles, headspace trap, coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-trap-GC-MS), and iii) metabolomics-based method of data processing using the XCMS package of R software and multivariate analysis. This approach was applied to eleven species: five lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc lactis, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus helveticus), four actinobacteria (Brachybacterium articum, Brachybacterium tyrofermentans, Brevibacterium aurantiacum, and Microbacterium gubbeenense), Propionibacterium freudenreichii, and Hafnia alvei. All the strains grew, with maximal populations ranging from 7.4 to 9.2 log (CFU/mL). In total, 52 volatile aroma compounds were identified, of which 49 varied significantly in abundance between bacteria. Principal component analysis of volatile profiles differentiated species by their ability to produce ethyl esters (associated with Brachybacteria), sulfur compounds and branched-chain alcohols (H. alvei), branched-chain acids (H. alvei, P. freudenreichii and L. paracasei), diacetyl and related carbonyl compounds (M. gubbeenense and L. paracasei), among others. PMID:25475278

  20. Past and Future of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts: From Spoilage Microorganisms to Biotechnological Tools for Improving Wine Aroma Complexity

    Padilla, Beatriz; Gil, José V.; Manzanares, Paloma

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, considered in the past as undesired or spoilage yeasts, can enhance the analytical composition, and aroma profile of the wine. The contribution of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, including the ability to secret enzymes and produce secondary metabolites, glycerol and ethanol, release of mannoproteins or contributions to color stability, is species- and strain-specific, pointing out the key importance of a clever strain selection. The use of mixed starters of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts with strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an alternative to both spontaneous and inoculated wine fermentations, taking advantage of the potential positive role that non-Saccharomyces wine yeast species play in the organoleptic characteristics of wine. In this context mixed starters can meet the growing demand for new and improved wine yeast strains adapted to different types and styles of wine. With the aim of presenting old and new evidences on the potential of non-Saccharomyces yeasts to address this market trend, we mainly review the studies focused on non-Saccharomyces strain selection and design of mixed starters directed to improve primary and secondary aroma of wines. The ability of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts to produce enzymes and metabolites of oenological relevance is also discussed. PMID:27065975

  1. Classification of E-Nose Aroma Data of Four Fruit Types by ABC-Based Neural Network

    M. Fatih Adak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose technology is used in many areas, and frequently in the beverage industry for classification and quality-control purposes. In this study, four different aroma data (strawberry, lemon, cherry, and melon were obtained using a MOSES II electronic nose for the purpose of fruit classification. To improve the performance of the classification, the training phase of the neural network with two hidden layers was optimized using artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC, which is known to be successful in exploration. Test data were given to two different neural networks, each of which were trained separately with backpropagation (BP and ABC, and average test performances were measured as 60% for the artificial neural network trained with BP and 76.39% for the artificial neural network trained with ABC. Training and test phases were repeated 30 times to obtain these average performance measurements. This level of performance shows that the artificial neural network trained with ABC is successful in classifying aroma data.

  2. Selective oxidation of carotenoid-derived aroma compounds by CYP260B1 and CYP267B1 from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56.

    Litzenburger, Martin; Bernhardt, Rita

    2016-05-01

    Due to their bioactive properties as well as their application as precursors in chemical synthesis, hydroxylated isoprenoids and norisoprenoids are very valuable compounds. The efficient hydroxylation of such compounds remains a challenge in organic chemistry caused by the formation of a variety of side products and lack of overall regio- and stereoselectivity. In contrast, cytochromes P450 are known for their selective oxidation under mild conditions. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the ability of myxobacterial CYP260B1 and CYP267B1 from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56 to oxidize such carotenoid-derived aroma compounds. A focused library of 14 substrates such as ionones, damascones, as well as some of their isomers and derivatives was screened in vitro. Both P450s were capable of an efficient oxidation of all tested compounds. CYP260B1-dependent conversions mainly formed multiple products, whereas conversions by CYP267B1 resulted predominantly in a single product. To identify the main products by NMR spectroscopy, an Escherichia coli-based whole-cell system was used. CYP267B1 showed a hydroxylase activity towards the formation of allylic alcohols. Likewise, CYP260B1 performed the allylic hydroxylation of β-damascone [(E)-1-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)but-2-en-1-one] and δ-damascone [(E)-1-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-3-enyl)but-2-en-1-one]. Moreover, CYP260B1 showed an epoxidase activity towards β-ionone [(E)-4-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)but-3-en-2-one] as well as the methyl-substituted α-ionone derivatives raldeine [(E)-1-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-enyl)pent-1-en-3-one] and isoraldeine [(E)-3-methyl-4-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-enyl)but-3-en-2-one]. In addition, to known products, also novel products such as 2-OH-δ-damascone [(E)-1-(5-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-3-enyl)but-2-en-1-one], 3-OH-allyl-α-ionone [(E)-1-(4-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-enyl)hepta-1,6-dien-3-one], and 4-OH-allyl-β-ionone [(E)-1-(3-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)hepta-1,6-dien-3-one] were identified during our studies. PMID:26767988

  3. The impact of kitchen and food service preparation practices on the volatile aroma profile in ripe tomatoes: Effects of refrigeration and blanching

    Both refrigeration and blanching of red stage tomatoes are common practices in Japan home kitchens and in food service operations. However, little is reported on the impact of such practices on aroma profiles in tomato fruits. In this study, ‘FL 47’ tomatoes at red stage were dipped in 50 °C hot wat...

  4. Quantification of Selected Aroma-Active Compounds in Strawberries by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography and Correlation with Sensory Descriptive Analysis

    Selected aroma-active compounds in strawberries were quantified using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography. Ten strawberry cultivars grown in California and Oregon were studied. The standard curves were built in a synthetic matrix and quantification was achieved using multipl...

  5. Changes in physico-chemical and volatile aroma compound composition of Gewürztraminer wine as a result of late and ice harvest.

    Lukić, Igor; Radeka, Sanja; Grozaj, Nikola; Staver, Mario; Peršurić, Đordano

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the changes in physico-chemical and aroma composition after late and ice harvest, Gewürztraminer wines were subjected to standard, enzymatic and GC/MS analysis. Late harvest (LHGW) and ice wines (IHGW) contained more sugars, extract and volatile acidity than standard wines (SGW). IHGW had elevated glycerol and gluconic acid amounts. LHGW was richer in monoterpenol oxides, β-damascenone, 1-octen-3-ol, acetates, ethyl cinnamate and 4-vinylguaiacol than SGW. IHGW contained even higher amounts, with increased citronellol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, dicarboxylic acids esters, benzenoids, furans and acetals, and reduced fermentation aroma compounds. Based on odour activity values, the strongest odorants in SGW were fruity esters. In LHGW the impact of esters increased, while in IHGW cis-rose oxide, β-damascenone and 1,1-diethoxyethane emerged as the most potent. Fruity and sweet were the dominant aroma compound series in SGW and LHGW, but in IHGW declined, while terpenic, floral, chemical, pungent and ripe fruit aroma compound series increased. PMID:26593588

  6. Study of contents in cells and must of aroma fractions during the vinification with three types of Sacharomyces cerevisiae; Estudio de los contenidos en celulas y mostos de compuestos del aroma durante la vinificacion con tres razas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Zea, L.; Moreno, J.; Medina, M [Universidad de Cordoba. (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    The contents of different aroma fractions in cells and must during 134 days of vinification with Saccharomyces cerevisiae races cerevisiae, bayanues and capensis are studied.During the first 72 fermentation hours the ethyl esters of C3-C16 acids present the highest value of the cell/must ratio, while during the remaining vinification time the higher ratio corresponding to ethyl lactate. The higher alcohols and lactones groups are the comounds that present the smallest ratio during the study. Intermediate values of this ratio are shown by the medium chain fatty acids, terpenes and acetates. After 134 days race capensis developed a thick flor film yeast, while bayanus a thin film and cerevisae fomed no film. The values of the ratio for bayanus race during 31-134 days confirm that this yeast grow more slowly than capensis races on the wine surface, although a more active metabolism. (Author) 22 refs.

  7. [Characterization of aroma active compounds in blood orange juice by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry].

    Qiao, Yu; Xie, Bijun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yun; Pan, Siyi

    2008-07-01

    Volatile compounds of fresh blood orange juice were analyzed by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and the aroma active compounds were identified by olfactometry. The volatile compounds were extracted by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using a divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber for 40 min at 40 degrees C. The analysis was carried out using an HP 6890N GC equipped with an HP-5 column (30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 microm ) directly connected to an HP 5975 series mass selective detector and a sniffing port (ODP2, Gerstel) using helium as carrier gas. Compound identifications were made by the comparison of the mass spectra, retention times, retention indices (I(R)) and odor of the volatile components in the extracts with those of the corresponding reference standards. Forty-six compounds were identified by GC-MS and I(R). The major components of the juice were limonene (86.36%), linalool (3.69%), beta-myrcene (1.79%), octanal (1.32%) and valencene (1.27%). GC-MS-olfactometry analysis was performed to determine 34 compounds with aroma activity, of which 23 compounds were identified. The major contributors to orange juice aroma activity are ethyl butanoate, octanal, gamma-terpinene, 4-acetyl-1-methyleyclohexene, decanal, (-)-carvone, geranyl acetate, valencene. These compounds of strong aroma intensity represent 7.22% of the total volatile compounds. Other four unknown compounds (I(R), <800; I(R) = 1020, 1143, 1169, separately) are also the major contributors to the overall aroma. PMID:18959252

  8. Sensory profile of breast meat from broilers reared in an organic niche production system and conventional standard broilers

    Horsted, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Bodil Helene; Hermansen, John Erik; Kongsted, Anne Grete

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast meat from broilers produced in very different production systems may vary considerable in sensory profile, which may affect consumer interests. In this study the aim was to evaluate differences in the sensory profiles of breast meat from five broiler products: two conventional...... ‘fat’ aroma. CONCLUSION: The sensory profiles differed particularly between conventional standard broilers and organic niche broilers, although differences were also found between breeds. The present study indicates that aroma and taste attributes were more important for the assessors than meat...

  9. Direct atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation ion trap mass spectrometry for aroma analysis: Speed, sensitivity and resolution of isobaric compounds

    Jublot, Lionel; Linforth, Robert S. T.; Taylor, Andrew J.

    2005-06-01

    Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) sources were developed for real time analysis of volatile release from foods using an ion trap (IT) mass spectrometer (MS). Key objectives were spectral simplicity (minimal fragmentation), response time and signal to noise ratio. The benefits of APCI-IT-MS were assessed by comparing the performance for in vivo and headspace analyses with that obtained using APCI coupled to a quadrupole mass analyser. Using MS-MS, direct APCI-IT-MS was able to differentiate mixtures of some C6 and terpene isobaric aroma compounds. Resolution could be achieved for some compounds by monitoring specific secondary ions. Direct resolution was also achieved with two of the three isobaric compounds released from chocolate with time as the sample was eaten.

  10. Flavor and stability of milk proteins.

    Smith, T J; Campbell, R E; Jo, Y; Drake, M A

    2016-06-01

    A greater understanding of the nature and source of dried milk protein ingredient flavor(s) is required to characterize flavor stability and identify the sources of flavors. The objective of this study was to characterize the flavor and flavor chemistry of milk protein concentrates (MPC 70, 80, 85), isolates (MPI), acid and rennet caseins, and micellar casein concentrate (MCC) and to determine the effect of storage on flavor and functionality of milk protein concentrates using instrumental and sensory techniques. Spray-dried milk protein ingredients (MPC, MPI, caseins, MCC) were collected in duplicate from 5 commercial suppliers or manufactured at North Carolina State University. Powders were rehydrated and evaluated in duplicate by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Compounds were identified by comparison of retention indices, odor properties, and mass spectra against reference standards. A subset of samples was selected for further analysis using direct solvent extraction with solvent-assisted flavor extraction, and aroma extract dilution analysis. External standard curves were created to quantify select volatile compounds. Pilot plant manufactured MPC were stored at 3, 25, and 40°C (44% relative humidity). Solubility, furosine, sensory properties, and volatile compound analyses were performed at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 mo. Milk proteins and caseins were diverse in flavor and exhibited sweet aromatic and cooked/milky flavors as well as cardboard, brothy, tortilla, soapy, and fatty flavors. Key aroma active compounds in milk proteins and caseins were 2-aminoacetophenone, nonanal, 1-octen-3-one, dimethyl trisulfide, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, heptanal, methional, 1-hexen-3-one, hexanal, dimethyl disulfide, butanoic acid, and acetic acid. Stored milk proteins developed animal and burnt sugar flavors over time. Solubility of MPC decreased and furosine concentration increased with storage time and temperature. Solubility of MPC 80 was reduced more than that of MPC 45, but time and temperature adversely affected solubility of both proteins, with storage temperature having the greatest effect. Flavor and shelf stability of milk proteins provide a foundation of knowledge to improve the flavor and shelf-life of milk proteins. PMID:27060829

  11. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  12. Stabilization of enzymes activities of lipoxygenase pathway by irradiation to improve the production of olive oil aroma

    The main purpose of this work was to improve the synthesis of volatile compounds leading to green note in olives and olive tree leaves by improving enzymes activities of lipoxygenase pathway. Lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxyde lyase (HPL) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities were tested in olives and olive tree leaves during maturation. The gamma irradiation effects on these samples were studied. LOX, HPL and ADH showed maximum activities at black stage for olives and in December for olive leaves. Those activities, from olives and Chemlali olive leaves, were improved after irradiation with 0,5KGy. For the case of Chetoui olive leaves, the irradiation treatment was unfavorable because it causes a loss in enzymes activities. (Author)

  13. Studies on the aroma of different species and strains of Pleurotus measured by GC/MS, sensory analysis and electronic nose

    Renata Zawirska-Wojtasiak

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aroma of several strains of Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Pleurotus djamor was studied by GC/MS. Three main mushrooms aroma constituents: 3-octanol, 3-octanone and 1-octen-3-ol were taken into account for quantitative measurements. The highest amount of 1-octen-3-ol was recorded in P. ostreatus, while considerably lower amounts in P. citrinopileatus. Sensory profile analysis as well as the electronic nose also varied between the three species of Pleurotus. Chiral gas chromatography showed the high optical purity of (R-(--1-octen-3-ol in P. ostreatus and P. djamor (the highest one in contrast to P. citrinopileatus. Carpophores of P. djamor was characterized relatively high dry matter and protein contents.

  14. Identification of the possible new odor-active compounds "12-methyltridecanal and its analogs" responsible for the characteristic aroma of ripe Gouda-type cheese.

    Inagaki, Satsuki; Fujikawa, Seiji; Wada, Yoshiyuki; Kumazawa, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The aroma concentrates of the three maturation stages of Gouda-type cheeses were prepared by combining the solvent extraction and the solvent assisted flavor evaporation techniques. The aroma extract dilution analysis applied to the volatile fraction revealed 31 odorants that were identified or tentatively identified from the 38 odor-active peaks with FD factors between 4(3) and 4(8). By comparison with the FD factors in the three maturation stages of the cheeses, 16 odorants, including 12-methyltridecanal, which is a newly identified odorant from the cheese, increased with the increasing maturation stage of the cheese. In addition, many iso- and anteiso-methyl-branched long-chain aliphatic aldehydes could be identified as the analogs of 12-methyltridecanal, which have a unique odor note. It may be then expected that these aldehydes were able to influence the flavor of the highly ripened Gouda cheese, since these compounds also increased with the increasing maturation stage. PMID:26223460

  15. Comparison of Essential Oils Obtained from Different Extraction Techniques as an Aid in Identifying Aroma Significant Compounds of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans).

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, S Prasad

    2015-08-01

    Distribution of volatile constituents in the essential oil of nutmeg obtained by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), high vacuum distillation (HVD) and super critical fluid extraction (SFE) was compared with reduced pressure distillation (RPD) and head space (HS) analysis. HS and RPD volatiles were characterized by a high content of sabinene, followed by ?-pinene and ?-pinene. Interestingly, unlike the SDE, HVD and SFE oils, distillates from HS and RPD were marked by the absence of phenolic ethers namely myristicin, elemicin and safrole. The HS and RPD volatiles possessed a pleasant nutmeg aroma indicating a significant role of terpenic constituents in contributing to the top aroma note. GC-olfactometry (GC-O) of the oils aided in establishing the role of sabinene, ?-pinene and ?-pinene in contributing to the distinctive note of the spice. A high odor activity value (OAV) of sabinene and ?-pinene established the role of these two constituents in imparting the characteristic nutmeg odor. PMID:26434138

  16. Some carbonyl compounds and free fatty acid composition of Afyon Kaymagı (clotted cream and their effects on aroma and flavor

    Şenel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Some carbonyl compounds (acetaldeyhde, acetone, butanone-2 and diacetyl, the lactic acid and free fatty acid compositions of Afyon kaymagı, produced from pure buffalo milk obtained from seven different farms, and their effects on aroma and flavor were investigated. Acetone was found in the highest amount of carbonyl compounds. Butyric, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were characteristic free fatty acids for Afyon Kaymagı. The effect of the investigated compounds on the aroma and flavor scores (AFS of Afyon Kaymagı was found to be 93.3%. Lactic acid was negatively correlated but was the second most important compound for the aroma and flavor of Afyon Kaymagı (R2 = 40%. The investigated carbonyl compounds explained only 3.2% of the variation in aroma and flavor of Afyon Kaymagı. Lactic acid, acetone, diacetyl, C4:0, C8:0, C12:0 and C18:0 had negative effects on the AFS, but acetaldehyde, butanone-2, C6:0, C10:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 were positively related to the AFS.

    Se han investigado algunos compuestos carbonílicos (acetaldehido, acetona, 2-butanona y diacetil, el ácido láctico y la composición de los ácidos grasos libres de Afyon kaymagi (cuajada, producida sólo a partir de leche de búfalas obtenidas de siete granjas diferentes y sus efectos sobre el aroma y el sabor. Entre los compuestos carbonílicos, la acetona fué el que se encontró en mayor concentración. Butírico, esteárico, oleico, linoleico y linolénico son los ácidos grasos libres característicos de Afyon Kaymagı. El efecto de los compuestos investigados en las puntuaciones (AFS de aroma y sabor de Afyon Kaymagı se encontró que fué del 93,3%. El ácido láctico, segundo compuesto importante, se correlacionó negativamente con el aroma y el sabor de Afyon Kaymagı (R2 = 40%. Los compuestos carbonilos investigados explican sólo el 3,2% de la variación en el aroma y el sabor de Afyon Kaymagı. El ácido láctico, la acetona, diacetil, y los ácidos C4:0, C8:0, C12:0 y C18:0 tienen un efecto negativo en la AFS, pero el acetaldehído, la 2-butanona, y los ácidos C6:0, C10:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 y C18:3 están positivamente relacionados con el AFS.

  17. Effect of Inhalation of Aroma of Geranium Essence on Anxiety and Physiological Parameters during First Stage of Labor in Nulliparous Women: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Fahimeh Rashidi Fakari; Mahbubeh Tabatabaeichehr; Hossian Kamali; Farzaneh Rashidi Fakari; Maryam Naseri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Anxiety increases significantly during labor, especially among nulliparous women. Such anxiety may affect the progress of labor and physiological parameters. The use of essential oils of aromatic plants, or aromatherapy, is a non-invasive procedure that can decrease childbirth anxiety. This study examined the effect of inhalation of the aroma of geranium essential oil on the level of anxiety and physiological parameters of nulliparous women in the first stage of labor. Methods: ...

  18. Fusion of aroma, FT-IR and UV sensor data based on the Bayesian inference. Application to the discrimination of white grape varieties

    Roussel, S; Bellon-Maurel, V; Roger, J.M.; Grenier, P.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present a fusion method based on the Bayesian inference to combine the outputs of various sensors. The sensors studied here are aroma sensors, FT-IR and UV spectrometers. The application deals with classifying musts of white grapes according to their variety. The fusion procedure is not based on the combination of the signals, but of the class assignments provided individually by each sensor. Two methods have been developed based on the Bayesian inference: th...

  19. A ?-glucosidase from Oenococcus oeni ATCC BAA-1163 with potential for aroma release in wine: Cloning and expression in E. coli

    Michlmayr, Herbert; Schmann, Christina; Wurbs, Phillip; Barreira Braz da Silva, Nuno M.; Rogl, Veronika; Kulbe, Klaus D; del Hierro, Andrs M

    2010-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are responsible for olfactory changes in wine during malolactic fermentation (MLF). A side characteristic of MLF is the release of grape derived aroma compounds from their glycosylated precursors by ?-glycosidase activities of these bacteria. Apart from Oenococcus oeni, which is regarded as the most promising species for MLF, glycosidic activities have also been observed in wine related members of the genera Lactobacillus and Pediococcus. Nevertheless, information o...

  20. Role of glycosidic aroma precursors on the odorant profiles of Grenache noir and Syrah wines from the Rhone valley. Part 2: characterisation of derived compounds

    Segurel, Marie; Baumes, Raymond; Langlois, Dominique; Riou, C.; Razungles, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Grenache noir and Syrah are the predominant grape varieties in the French Rhone valley vineyard. This study aimed at identifying the odorants generated from glycoconjugates extracted from wines made with Grenache noir and Syrah.Methods and results: Synthetic model wines enriched with glycoconjugates. treated or not with enzymes. were stored at 45 degrees C for 3 weeks. or at 13 degrees C for 18 months. Aromas generated were extracted and analyzed by GC-Olfactometry (only samples from ac...

  1. A hs–spme–gc–ms analysis of ir heated wood: impact of the water content on the depth profile of oak wood aromas extractability

    Duval, Charlie J.; Gourrat, Karine; Perre, Patrick; Prida, Andréi; Gougeon, Régis D.

    2013-01-01

    Controlled and reproducible IR heat treatments were applied to oak wood surfaces in order to establish a depth-profiled picture of the extractability of volatile compounds, with particular emphasis on the impact of the initial water content. Headspace–solid phase microextraction–gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HS–SPME–GC–MS) has been used to compare the concentrations of six aroma compounds (vanillin, furfural, eugenol; guaiacol and cis- and trans-whisky lactones) in hydroalc...

  2. Comparative analysis of fruit aroma patterns in the domesticated wild strawberries Profumata di Tortona (F. moschata) and Regina delle Valli (F. vesca)

    Negri, Alfredo S.; Allegra, Domenico; Simoni, Laura; Rusconi, Fabio; Tonelli, Chiara; Espen, Luca; Galbiati, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Strawberry is one of the most valued fruit worldwide. Modern cultivated varieties (Fragaria ananassa) exhibit large fruits, with intense color and prolonged shell life. Yet, these valuable traits were attained at the cost of the intensity and the variety of the aroma of the berry, two characteristics highly appreciated by consumers. Wild species display smaller fruits and reduced yield compared with cultivated varieties but they accumulate broader and augmented blends of volatile compounds. Because of the large diversity and strength of aromas occurring in natural and domesticated populations, plant breeders regard wild strawberries as important donors of novel scented molecules. Here we report a comprehensive metabolic map of the aroma of the wild strawberry Profumata di Tortona (PdT), an ancient clone of F. moschata, considered as one of the most fragrant strawberry types of all. Comparison with the more renowned woodland strawberry Regina delle Valli (RdV), an aromatic cultivar of F. vesca, revealed a significant enrichment in the total level of esters, alcohols and furanones and a reduction in the content of ketones in in the aroma of PdT berries. Among esters, particularly relevant was the enhanced accumulation of methyl anthranilate, responsible for the intensive sweetish impression of wild strawberries. Interestingly, increased ester accumulation in PdT fruits correlated with enhanced expression of the Strawberry Alcohol Acyltransferase (SAAT) gene, a key regulator of flavor biogenesis in ripening berries. We also detected a remarkable 900-fold increase in the level of mesifurane, the furanone conferring the typical caramel notes to most wild species. PMID:25717332

  3. Comparative analysis of fruit aroma patterns in the domesticated wild strawberries “Profumata di Tortona” (F. moschata) and “Regina delle Valli” (F. vesca)

    Negri, Alfredo S.; Allegra, Domenico; Simoni, Laura; Rusconi, Fabio; Tonelli, Chiara; Espen, Luca; Galbiati, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Strawberry is one of the most valued fruit worldwide. Modern cultivated varieties (Fragaria × ananassa) exhibit large fruits, with intense color and prolonged shell life. Yet, these valuable traits were attained at the cost of the intensity and the variety of the aroma of the berry, two characteristics highly appreciated by consumers. Wild species display smaller fruits and reduced yield compared with cultivated varieties but they accumulate broader and augmented blends of volatile compounds....

  4. Comparative analysis of fruit aroma patterns in the domesticated wild strawberries "Profumata di Tortona" (F. moschata) and "Regina delle Valli" (F. vesca).

    Negri, Alfredo S; Allegra, Domenico; Simoni, Laura; Rusconi, Fabio; Tonelli, Chiara; Espen, Luca; Galbiati, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Strawberry is one of the most valued fruit worldwide. Modern cultivated varieties (Fragaria × ananassa) exhibit large fruits, with intense color and prolonged shell life. Yet, these valuable traits were attained at the cost of the intensity and the variety of the aroma of the berry, two characteristics highly appreciated by consumers. Wild species display smaller fruits and reduced yield compared with cultivated varieties but they accumulate broader and augmented blends of volatile compounds. Because of the large diversity and strength of aromas occurring in natural and domesticated populations, plant breeders regard wild strawberries as important donors of novel scented molecules. Here we report a comprehensive metabolic map of the aroma of the wild strawberry Profumata di Tortona (PdT), an ancient clone of F. moschata, considered as one of the most fragrant strawberry types of all. Comparison with the more renowned woodland strawberry Regina delle Valli (RdV), an aromatic cultivar of F. vesca, revealed a significant enrichment in the total level of esters, alcohols and furanones and a reduction in the content of ketones in in the aroma of PdT berries. Among esters, particularly relevant was the enhanced accumulation of methyl anthranilate, responsible for the intensive sweetish impression of wild strawberries. Interestingly, increased ester accumulation in PdT fruits correlated with enhanced expression of the Strawberry Alcohol Acyltransferase (SAAT) gene, a key regulator of flavor biogenesis in ripening berries. We also detected a remarkable 900-fold increase in the level of mesifurane, the furanone conferring the typical caramel notes to most wild species. PMID:25717332

  5. Effect of Inhalation of Aroma of Geranium Essence on Anxiety and Physiological Parameters during First Stage of Labor in Nulliparous Women: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Fahimeh Rashidi Fakari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anxiety increases significantly during labor, especially among nulliparous women. Such anxiety may affect the progress of labor and physiological parameters. The use of essential oils of aromatic plants, or aromatherapy, is a non-invasive procedure that can decrease childbirth anxiety. This study examined the effect of inhalation of the aroma of geranium essential oil on the level of anxiety and physiological parameters of nulliparous women in the first stage of labor. Methods: In study, was carried out on 100 nulliparous women admitted to Bent al-Hoda Hospital in the city of Bojnord in North Khorasan province of Iran during 2012-2013. The women were randomly assigned to two groups of equal size, one experimental group (geranium essential oil and one control (placebo group. Anxiety levels were measured using Spielberger’s questionnaire before and after intervention. Physiological parameters (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, pulse rate were also measured before and after intervention in both groups. Data analysis was conducted using the x2 test, paired t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Wilcox on test on SPSS 11.5. Results: The mean anxiety score decreased significantly after inhalation of the aroma of geranium essential oil. There was also a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure.Conclusion: Aroma of essential oil of geraniums can effectively reduce anxiety during labor and can be recommended as a non-invasive anti-anxiety aid during childbirth.

  6. Characterization of Aroma Active Compounds in Fruit Juice and Peel Oil of Jinchen Sweet Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck by GC-MS and GC-O

    Si Yi Pan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC-O were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve components were the odorants perceived in both samples. The aromatic compositions of fruit juice were more complex than that of peel oil. Ethyl butanoate, β-myrcene, octanal, linalool, α-pinene, and decanal were found to be responsible for the aromatic notes in fruit juice and peel oil. Nineteen components have been perceived only in the juice and ten compounds were described as aromatic components of only the peel oil by the panelists. These differences lead to the different overall aroma between fruit juice and peel oil.

  7. Decoding the combinatorial aroma code of a commercial Cognac by application of the sensomics concept and first insights into differences from a German brandy.

    Uselmann, Verena; Schieberle, Peter

    2015-02-25

    In the volatile fraction isolated from a commercial Cognac by means of extraction/SAFE distillation, 39 odor-active areas were detected, among which (E)-?-damascenone showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 2048 followed by 2- and 3-methylbutanol, (S)-2-methylbutanol, 1,1-diethoxyethane, ethyl methylpropanoate, and ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, as well as 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanilla-like) and 2-phenylethanol. The quantitation of 37 odorants by stable isotope dilution assays and a calculation of odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) resulted in 34 odorants with OAVs > 1. Among them (E)-?-damascenone, methylpropanal, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, ethyl methylpropanoate, and ethyl 3-methylbutanoate together with ethanol were established as key contributors to the Cognac aroma. Finally, the overall aroma of the Cognac could be mimicked by an aroma recombinate consisting of these 34 key odorants on the basis of their natural concentrations in the Cognac using an odorless matrix to simulate the influence of the nonvolatile constituents. A comparison of the FD factors of the key odorants identified in a German brandy to those in the Cognac suggested the pair (E)-?-damascenone and ethyl pentanoate as indicators to differentiate various Cognacs from German, French, and Spanish brandies. This was confirmed by calculating a ratio of the concentrations of (E)-?-damascenone to ethyl pentanoate for 12 Cognacs and 7 brandies from Germany and 2 from France and Spain, respectively. PMID:25641554

  8. Studies on the Simultaneous Formation of Aroma-Active and Toxicologically Relevant Vinyl Aromatics from Free Phenolic Acids during Wheat Beer Brewing.

    Langos, Daniel; Granvogl, Michael

    2016-03-23

    During the brewing process of wheat beer, the desired aroma-active vinyl aromatics 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol as well as the undesired and toxicologically relevant styrene are formed from their respective precursors, free ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and cinnamic acid, deriving from the malts. Analysis of eight commercial wheat beers revealed high concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol always in parallel with high concentrations of styrene or low concentrations of the odorants in parallel with low styrene concentrations, suggesting a similar pathway. To better understand the formation of these vinyl aromatics, each process step of wheat beer brewing and the use of different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated. During wort boiling, only a moderate decarboxylation of free phenolic acids and formation of desired and undesired vinyl aromatics were monitored due to the thermal treatment. In contrast, this reaction mainly occurred enzymatically catalyzed during fermentation with S. cerevisiae strain W68 with normal Pof(+) activity (phenolic off-flavor) resulting in a wheat beer eliciting the typical aroma requested by consumers due to high concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (1790 μg/L) and 4-vinylphenol (937 μg/L). Unfortunately, also a high concentration of undesired styrene (28.3 μg/L) was observed. Using a special S. cerevisiae strain without Pof(+) activity resulted in a significant styrene reduction (wheat beer aroma. PMID:26800353

  9. El aroma al evaluar el involucramiento del consumidor con un producto y su percepción de calidad

    Ana M. Arboleda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio analiza en qué medida, usando el aroma como fuente de información de artículos como bol-sos o maletines, el involucramiento del consumidor y la calidad percibida explican el precio percibido. Elmétodo es un dise˜no experimental intragrupo completo donde los sujetos evalúan 3 estímulos olfativos:cuero, cuero sintético y tela. Los resultados muestran que al emplear el involucramiento y la percep-ción de calidad como 2 perspectivas independientes y simultáneas al momento de evaluar el producto,el involucramiento no es relevante. Por lo tanto, es la variable calidad y no el involucramiento la quedetermina el precio percibido.© 2015 Universidad ICESI. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo lalicencia CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

  10. Effect of screwcap and cork closures on SO2 levels and aromas in a Sauvignon Blanc wine.

    Brajkovich, Michael; Tibbits, Nigel; Peron, Guilaine; Lund, Cynthia M; Dykes, Stuart I; Kilmartin, Paul A; Nicolau, Laura

    2005-12-28

    The development of a Sauvignon Blanc wine sealed under screwcap and cork was undertaken using different fill heights and initial levels of free SO2 (20, 25, and 30 mg/L) over 2 years. More SO2 was lost for wines under cork over the first 3 months, corresponding to a higher level of dissolved oxygen at bottling. From this time wines under cork and screwcap lost SO2 at a similar rate and retained dissolved CO2 equally well, indicating that both types of closure presented a similar effective barrier to gas movement. After 2 years in the bottle, the different treatments retained similar levels of the volatile thiols 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA) and 3-mercaptohexanol (3MH) responsible for fruity aromas, with initial SO2 levels having no effect, but the thiol concentrations were 18-23% lower under cork, which may be due to absorption of volatiles into the cork. Levels of polyphenols such as caftaric acid and the absorbance at 420 nm were the same for wines under cork and screwcap, whereas some indication was given that more oxidation occurred with a lower level of initial free SO2. Although the different treatments were not readily distinguished by a sensory panel, the data for individual wines showed a positive correlation between passion fruit descriptors and levels of 3MHA and 3MH. PMID:16366687

  11. Impact of crema on the aroma release and the in-mouth sensory perception of espresso coffee.

    Barron, D; Pineau, N; Matthey-Doret, W; Ali, S; Sudre, J; Germain, J C; Kolodziejczyk, E; Pollien, P; Labbe, D; Jarisch, C; Dugas, V; Hartmann, C; Folmer, B

    2012-09-01

    A set of six espresso coffees with different foam characteristics and similar above cup and in-mouth flavour sensory profiles was produced by combination of two varying parameters, the extraction pressure and the filtration of the coffee beverage. The coffees were subsequently evaluated in a comparative manner by a set of analytical (headspace, nose-space) and sensory (Temporal Dominance of Sensations) techniques. The presence of espresso crema in its standard quantity was demonstrated to be associated with the optimum release of pleasant high volatiles, both in the above cup headspace and in-mouth. On the other hand, the TDS study demonstrated that increasing amount of crema was associated with increasing roasted dominance along coffee consumption. Furthermore, a parallel was established between the roasted sensory dominance and the dominant release of 2-methylfuran in the nose-space. This was, however, an indirect link as 2-methylfuran was indeed a chemical marker of roasting but does not contribute to the roasted aroma. Lowering the standard amount of crema by filtration clearly decreased the release of pleasant high volatiles and the in-mouth roasted sensory dominance. On the other hand, increasing the usual crema volume by increasing the extraction pressure did not bring any added value concerning the above cup and in-mouth release of pleasant high volatiles. PMID:22706310

  12. Proteins involved in wine aroma compounds metabolism by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae flor-velum yeast strain grown in two conditions.

    Moreno-Garca, Jaime; Garca-Martnez, Teresa; Milln, M Carmen; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; Moreno, Juan

    2015-10-01

    A proteomic and exometabolomic study was conducted on Saccharomyces cerevisiae flor yeast strain growing under biofilm formation condition (BFC) with ethanol and glycerol as carbon sources and results were compared with those obtained under no biofilm formation condition (NBFC) containing glucose as carbon source. By using modern techniques, OFFGEL fractionator and LTQ-Orbitrap for proteome and SBSE-TD-GC-MS for metabolite analysis, we quantified 84 proteins including 33 directly involved in the metabolism of glycerol, ethanol and 17 aroma compounds. Contents in acetaldehyde, acetic acid, decanoic acid, 1,1-diethoxyethane, benzaldehyde and 2-phenethyl acetate, changed above their odor thresholds under BFC, and those of decanoic acid, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate and isoamyl acetate under NBFC. Of the twenty proteins involved in the metabolism of ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,1-diethoxyethane, benzaldehyde, organic acids and ethyl esters, only Adh2p, Ald4p, Cys4p, Fas3p, Met2p and Plb1p were detected under BFC and as many Acs2p, Ald3p, Cem1p, Ilv2p, Ilv6p and Pox1p, only under NBFC. Of the eight proteins involved in glycerol metabolism, Gut2p was detected only under BFC while Pgs1p and Rhr2p were under NBFC. Finally, of the five proteins involved in the metabolism of higher alcohols, Thi3p was present under BFC, and Aro8p and Bat2p were under NBFC. PMID:26187821

  13. Characterization of key aroma compounds in distiller's grains from wheat as a basis for utilization in the food industry.

    Roth, M; Meiringer, M; Kollmannsberger, H; Zarnkow, M; Jekle, M; Becker, T

    2014-11-12

    The limited use of distiller's grains (DG) in the food industry depends occasionally on the characteristic odor of DG. For a better understanding of this typical odor, a sensory evaluation was performed first. The impressions seasoninglike, roasty/breadlike, and malty/caramellike were revealed as the most intensive odors. Furthermore, analysis of volatile flavor compounds was applied on dried DG from wheat. Isolation was performed by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction, solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), and simultaneous distillation/extraction and identification with gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry. As a result, 42 odor-active compounds could be identified in total. Among 24 of the 42 odor-active compounds obtained by SAFE, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (seasoninglike) showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor, and 7 compounds (3-methylbutanioc acid, dimethyl trisulfide, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-phenylethanol, 2,6-nonadienal, and 5-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2(5H)-furanone) with a FD factor ? 32 were identified as key aroma compounds in DG from wheat. PMID:25243324

  14. Genetic analysis of the biosynthesis of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine, a major grape-derived aroma compound impacting wine quality.

    Guillaumie, Sabine; Ilg, Andrea; Rty, Stphane; Brette, Maxime; Trossat-Magnin, Claudine; Decroocq, Stphane; Lon, Cline; Keime, Cline; Ye, Tao; Baltenweck-Guyot, Raymonde; Claudel, Patricia; Bordenave, Louis; Vanbrabant, Sandra; Duchne, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Darriet, Philippe; Hugueney, Philippe; Goms, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Methoxypyrazines (MPs) are strongly odorant volatile molecules with vegetable-like fragrances that are widespread in plants. Some grapevine (Vitis vinifera) varieties accumulate significant amounts of MPs, including 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (IBMP), which is the major MP in grape berries. MPs are of particular importance in white Sauvignon Blanc wines. The typicality of these wines relies on a fine balance between the pea pod, capsicum character of MPs and the passion fruit/grapefruit character due to volatile thiols. Although MPs play a crucial role in Sauvignon varietal aromas, excessive concentrations of these powerful odorants alter wine quality and reduce consumer acceptance, particularly in red wines. The last step of IBMP biosynthesis has been proposed to involve the methoxylation of the nonvolatile precursor 2-hydroxy-3-isobutylpyrazine to give rise to the highly volatile IBMP. In this work, we have used a quantitative trait loci approach to investigate the genetic bases of IBMP biosynthesis. This has led to the identification of two previously uncharacterized S-adenosyl-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferase genes, termed VvOMT3 and VvOMT4. Functional characterization of these two O-methyltransferases showed that the VvOMT3 protein was highly specific and efficient for 2-hydroxy-3-isobutylpyrazine methylation. Based on its differential expression in high- and low-MP-producing grapevine varieties, we propose that VvOMT3 is a key gene for IBMP biosynthesis in grapevine. PMID:23606597

  15. Quantification of aroma constituents of mango sap from different Pakistan mango cultivars using gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Uddin, Jalal; Siddiqui, Amna Jabbar; Akram, Muhammad Irfan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a quantitative method was developed based on gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QQQ-MS) for the analysis of aroma component of mango sap (latex) in nine Pakistani varieties that are Anmol, Began pali, Badami, Caroba, Chaunsa, Lal patra, Neelum, Sohnara and Tota pari. The non-aqueous phase of sap was studied and a total seven selected terpenes that are α-pinene, α-phellandrene, (+)-3-carene, sabinene, γ-terpinene, (-)-trans-caryophyllene and α-humulene were quantified using GC-QQQ-MS in MRM (multiple reaction mode) mode. Calibration curves were generated and R(2)>0.99 was found for all analytes. Intra-day and inter-day precision (% R.S.D.) of the developed method was less than 4% while % accuracy was in the range of 95.3-105.1 for all analytes. Among all the varieties, Neelum contains the highest amount of four terpenes out of seven quantified terpenes. PMID:26593627

  16. Aromatic compound in different peach cultivars and effect of preservatives on the final aroma of cooked fruits

    Bavcon-Kralj Mojca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we were used four yellow-fleshed peach cultivars ‟Royal Glory‟, „Redhaven", 'Maria Marta' and 'Norman', during two-year period. The characterization of aromatic constituents of investigated cultivars was done using headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME. The intention was to make implicit discrimination between cultivars by analysis of components present in all cultivars during two-year period. Also, the impact of added preservatives (Na-benzoate and citric acid on the final aroma of cooked peaches was studied. The cultivars' differences and the impact of preservatives (Na-benzoate and citric acid were statistically evaluated. Multiple discriminant analysis of peaches‟ aromatic profile was used to segregate investigated peach cultivars. Although they were very similar, the cultivars were segregated by two discriminant function, function 1 (which accounted for 56.9% of this peach model and function 2 (31.7%. The use of preservatives had also an important impact on the aromatic profile of cooked peaches. The statistical analysis indicated that from 57 identified volatiles, 40 volatiles showed statistically significant difference regarding the way of preservation. The main negative impact had Na-benzoate compared to control or samples preserved with citric acid.

  17. Influence of Food-Derived Maillard Reaction Products on the Cellular Response of Macrophages

    Muscat, Sonja

    2007-01-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRPs) are formed through a non-enzymatical reaction between reducing sugars and proteins or amino acids. This so called Maillard reaction takes place in heated foods such as bakery products and roasted meat. A wide range of MRPs are responsible for aroma- and flavour-formation in cooked food. The colour of many kinds of food, e.g. coffee has its origin in the Maillard reaction. Furthermore, so called "advanced glycation end products" (AGEs) are formed through analo...

  18. Biological production of hydroxylated aromatics: Optimization strategies for Pseudomonas putida S12

    A. Verhoef

    2010-01-01

    To replace environmentally unfriendly petrochemical production processes, the demand for bio-based production of organic chemicals is increasing. This thesis focuses on the biological production of hydroxylated aromatics from renewable substrates by engineered P. putida S12 including several cases of strain improvement. Chapter 2 describes the construction of a P. putida S12 strain that produces p-hydroxybenzoate via the aromatic amino acid tyrosine. Previous research on biosynthesis of aroma...

  19. Improvement of production performance of functional fermented whey-based beverage

    Bulatović Maja Lj.; Rakin Marica B.; Mojović Ljiljana V.; Nikolić Svetlana B.; Vukašinović-Sekulić Maja S.; Đukić-Vuković Aleksandra P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was improvement of the performances for the production of whey-based beverages with highly productive strains of Lactobacillus. Individual or mixed culture containing Lactobacillus helveticus ATCC 15009, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis NRRL B-4525 and Streptococcus thermophilus S3 were studied. The scientific hypothesis was that production performances, especially aroma and viable cell count, are positively affected by the strain...

  20. Characterisation of aroma volatiles of indigenous alcoholic beverages: burukutu and pito.

    Onyenekwe, Paul C; Erhabor, Graham Osas; Akande, Sarah A

    2016-03-01

    Pito and burukutu are indigenous alcoholic beverages in Nigeria, and are fermentation products of Sorghum bicolor and Sorghum vulgare. The production is similar to that of beer, which involves steeping, malting, mashing and fermenting. A total of 30 volatile organic compounds were identified by gas chromatography. These compounds can be broadly grouped into alkanols, phenols, acids, esters, ketones and aldehydes. Although few acids are present, they are dominant (30.887% and 27.669%) and followed by esters (26.467% and 27.442%) in pito and burukutu, respectively. Alkanols constitute the next dominant group after acids and esters; however, ethanol was not identified as a constituent. The health and social implication of the constituents are explained. PMID:25894868

  1. AROMA 2.2 - a Monte Carlo generator for heavy flavour events in ep collisions

    A program to simulate the production of heavy quarks through the boson-gluon fusion process in ep collisions is presented. The full electroweak structure of the electron-gluon interaction is taken into account as well as the masses of the produced heavy quarks. Higher order QCD radiation is treated using initial and final state parton showers, and hadronization is performed using the Lund string model. Physics and programming aspects are described in this manual. (orig.)

  2. / production

    François Arleo; Pol-Bernard Gossiaux; Thierry Gousset; Jörg Aichelin

    2003-04-01

    For more than 25 years /Ψ production has helped to sharpen our understanding of QCD. In proton induced reaction some observations are rather well understood while others are still unclear. The current status of the theory of /Ψ production will be sketched, paying special attention to the issues of formation time and /Ψ re-interaction in a nuclear medium.

  3. Applied systems biology - vanillin production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Strucko, Tomas; Eriksen, Carsten; Nielsen, J.(Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, United States); Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin is the most important aroma compound based on market value, and natural vanillin is extracted from the cured seed pods of the Vanilla orchid. Most of the world’s vanillin, however, is obtained by chemical synthesis from petrochemicals or wood pulp lignins. As an alternative, de novo biosynthesis of vanillin in baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was recently demonstrated by successfully introducing the metabolic pathway for vanillin production in yeast. Nevertheless, the amount of...

  4. Relevance of nitrate and nitrite in dry-cured ham and their effects on aroma development

    Flores, Mónica

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Potassium and sodium salts of nitrite (E 249 and E 250 and nitrate (E 251 and E 252 are authorised for use under certain levels in several foodstuffs such as non-heat-treated, cured and dried meat products, other cured meat products, canned meat products and bacon. The key point in the use of nitrate and nitrite as preservatives is to find a balance between ensuring the microbiological safety of the ham and keeping as low as possible the level of nitrosamines in the final product. Nitrites and nitrates are authorised as additives for dry-cured ham in the Directive 2006/52/EC of 5 July 2006 that modifies previous Council Directive 95/2/EC on food additives other than colours and sweeteners. The effect of nitrate and its reduction to nitrite in controlling the lipid oxidation process during the ham ripening is very important for the development of the characteristic cured flavour. The main benefits and drawbacks of the use of nitrites and nitrates in dry-cured ham and how these levels may affect its flavour are discussed in this manuscript.Las sales sódica y potásica del nitrito (E249 y E250 y del nitrato (E251 y E252 están autorizados para su uso en los productos cárnicos, secos, curados y no tratados por el calor, otros productos cárnicos curados, productos cárnicos enlatados y bacon. El punto esencial en el uso de nitrato y nitrito como conservantes consiste en encontrar un balance entre el aseguramiento de la seguridad microbiológica del jamón y mantener el nivel de nitrosaminas tan bajo como sea posible. Los nitratos y nitritos están autorizados como aditivos en el jamón curado según la Directiva Europea 2006/52/EC de 5 de Julio de 2006 que modificaba la previa Directiva Europea 95/2/EC de aditivos alimentarios distintos a los colorantes y edulcorantes. El efecto del nitrato y su reducción a nitrito para controlar la oxidación de los lípidos durante la maduración del jamón es muy importante para el desarrollo del característico flavor a curado. Se presentan en este manuscrito los principales beneficios y problemas del uso de los nitratos y nitritos en el jamón curado así como sus efectos en el flavor.

  5. Oxidative stability of fermented meat products

    Zbigniew J. Dolatowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Meat and meat products, which form a major part of our diet, are very susceptible to quality changes resulting from oxidative processes. Quality of fermented food products depends on the course of various physicochemical and biochemical processes. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products may be the result of enzymatic changes occurring as a result of activity of enzymes originating in tissues and microorganisms, as well as lipid peroxidation by free radicals. Primary and secondary products of lipid oxidation are extremely reactive and react with other components of meat, changing their physical and chemical properties. Oxidised proteins take on a yellowish, red through brown hue. Products of lipid and protein degradation create a specifi c fl avour and aroma ; furthermore, toxic substances (such as biogenic amines or new substances are formed as a result of interactions between meat components, e.g. protein-lipid or protein-protein combinations, as well as transverse bonds in protein structures. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products is a particularly diffi cult process. On the one hand it is essential, since the enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid oxidation creates fl avour and aroma compounds characteristic for ripening products; on the other hand excessive amounts or transformations of those compounds may cause the fermented meat product to become a risk to health.

  6. Approaches of aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA) for headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-olfactometry (HS-SPME-GC-O): Altering sample amount, diluting the sample or adjusting split ratio?

    Feng, Yunzi; Cai, Yu; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Cui, Chun; Su, Guowan; Lin, Lianzhu; Zhao, Mouming

    2015-11-15

    Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) is widely used for the screening of aroma-active compounds in gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). In this study, three aroma dilution methods, (I) using different test sample volumes, (II) diluting samples, and (III) adjusting the GC injector split ratio, were compared for the analysis of volatiles by using HS-SPME-AEDA. Results showed that adjusting the GC injector split ratio (III) was the most desirable approach, based on the linearity relationships between Ln (normalised peak area) and Ln (normalised flavour dilution factors). Thereafter this dilution method was applied in the analysis of aroma-active compounds in Japanese soy sauce and 36 key odorants were found in this study. The most intense aroma-active components in Japanese soy sauce were: ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, ethyl 4-methylpentanoate, 3-(methylthio)propanal, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-methoxyphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 2-phenylethanol, and 4-hydroxy-5-ethyl-2-methyl-3(2H)-furanone. PMID:25976996

  7. Aroma Quality of Fruits of Wild and Cultivated Strawberry (FRAGARIA SPP. in Relation to the Flavour-Related Gene Expression

    Bianchi Giulia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Expression profiles of flavour-related genes and the aroma quality of fruit headspace were investigated in the four strawberry genotypes ‘Reine des Vallées’ (Fragaria vesca, ‘Profumata di Tortona’ (F mos-chata, ‘Onda’ and VR 177 selection (F” x ananassa. Differences in the expression level of genes coding of strawberry alcohol acyltransferase (SAAT, F. x ananassa nerolidol synthase 1 (FaNESl and F vesca monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases (FvPINS and PINS1, respectively were detected among these genotypes. In fruits of F. x ananassa the terpenoid profile was dominated by nerolidol, whereas wild spe–cies produced mainly monoterpenes. It was correlated with the higher induction of FaNES1 in cultivated and PINS gene in the wild Fragaria species. The flavour biogenesis in ripening fruits was determined by the expression of SAAT gene, especially visible for ‘Profumata di Tortona’ and ‘Onda’ strawberries. The fruit solid-phase microextraction (SPME headspace was analysed using the Gas Chromatography-Olfac–tometry (GC-O, that allows for the chromatographic separation of volatiles together with their olfactomet-ric evaluation. ‘Reine des Vallées’ fruits have a peculiar profile characterized by high concentrations of limonene, linalool and mesifurane that resulted in “spiced”, “citrus, floral” and “sweet, baked” descriptors. The character impact compound in ‘Profumata di Tortona’ fruits was ethyl butanoate, responsible for “sweet” and “fruity, strawberry” descriptors. However, it was detected in lower amount in comparison to the data obtained for F. x ananassa strawberries. The sesquiterpene nerolidol was identified in both culti–vated strawberry genotypes.

  8. Presence of monoterpene synthase in four Labiatae species and Solid-Phase Microextraction- Gas chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis of their aroma profiles

    Soodabeh Saeidnia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The family Lamiaceae (Labiatae has included some medicinal plants. some monoterpene synthases, including linalool and limonene synthases, have been cloned and functionally characterized from several plants of Labiatae family. Materials and Methods: In this study, presence of linalool and limonene synthases, in four species of Labiatae family including Nepeta cataria, Lavandula angustifolia, Hyssopus officinalis and Salvia sclarea has been determined by molecular biological techniques together with the Head space SPME - GC-MS analysis of the aroma profile of these species. Results: Indicated that none of the plant species produced distinguishable bands with primer pairs related to d-limonene synthase. Distinguishable bands around 1800 bp in cDNA samples of L. angustifolia, H. officinalis and S. sclarea were observed regarding to the presence of linalool synthase. Head space SPME-GC-MS analysis of the aroma profiles of the above-mentioned plants showed that linalool (31.0%, linalyl acetate (18.2%, were found as the major compounds of L. angustifolia, while geraniol (5.5%, nerol (34.0% and α- citral (52.0% were identified as the main compounds of the N. cataria. The major components of H. officinalis and S. sclarea oils were determined as cis-pinocamphone (57.3%, and linalool (19.0%, linalyl acetate (51.5%, respectively. Conclusion: H. officinalis was rich of cyclic monoterpenes, L. angustifolia, N. cataria and S. sclarea showed considerable amount of linear monoterpenes. The aroma profile of the above-mentioned plants contained low concentration of sesquiterpenes except N. cataria, which indicated no sesquiterpene. The profiles of the main components of these plants are in agreement with molecular assays.

  9. PERFECTION OF TECHNOLOGY OF BAKERY PRODUCTS ON A BASIS TRITICALE TORMENTS WITH USE OF AROMATIC ADDITIVES

    Asmaeva, Z.; Dyachenko, Т.; Skakunov, А.; Varelas, A

    2009-01-01

    Possibility of use of products СО2-extraction of seeds of aromatic plants is investigated at preparation of bakery products from triticale torments. Positive influence СО2-shrots and СО2-extracts seeds of parsley, fennel, a celery and a coriander on baking properties triticale torments is shown, structure properties of the dough and quality of finished goods, thus bread gets pleasant taste and the aroma inherent in the certain aromatic additive.

  10. Starter cultures used in probiotic dairy product preparation and popular probiotic dairy drinks

    Oktay Yerlikaya

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products that contain probiotic bacteria are those that are produced with various fermentation methods, especially lactic acid fermentation, by using starter cultures and those that have various textures and aromas. Fermented dairy products are popular due to their differences in taste and their favourable physiological effects. Today, fermented dairy beverages in general are produced locally by using traditional methods. Recently, due to the increased demand for natural nutrients and p...

  11. Identification of odorants in frankincense (Boswellia sacra Flueck.) by aroma extract dilution analysis and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry.

    Niebler, Johannes; Buettner, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Frankincense has been known, traded and used throughout the ages for its exceptional aroma properties, and is still commonly used in both secular and religious settings to convey a pleasant odor. Surprisingly, the odoriferous principle(s) underlying its unique odor profile have never been published. In this study, resin samples of Boswellia sacra Flueck. from both Somalia and Oman were investigated by aroma extract dilution analysis. In a comprehensive, odor-activity guided approach both chemo-analytical and human-sensory parameters were used to identify odor active constituents of the volatile fraction of B. sacra. Among the key odorants found were ?-pinene, ?-myrcene, linalool, p-cresol and two unidentified sesquiterpenoids. Overall, a total of 23 odorants were detected and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry and heart-cut two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry. The majority of the identified odorant compounds were oxygenated monoterpenes, along with some relevant mono- and sesquiterpenes and only one diterpenoid substance. Several of these compounds were reported here for the first time as odorous constituents in B. sacra. Identifying bioactive compounds might support a better understanding with regard to the potential benefits of frankincense, for example in aromatherapy or ecclesial settings. PMID:25468535

  12. Characteristic Chemical Components and Aroma-active Compounds of the Essential Oils from Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus Used in Japanese Traditional Food.

    Nakaya, Satoshi; Usami, Atsushi; Yorimoto, Tomohito; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus is an aquatic macrophyte; it is known as a wild edible plant in Japan for a long time. In this study, the essential oils from the fresh and dried aerial parts of R. nipponicus var. submersus were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, important aroma-active compounds were also detected in the oil using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Thus, 98 compounds (accounting for 93.86%) of the oil were identified. The major compounds in fresh plant oil were phytol (41.94%), heptadecane (5.92%), and geranyl propionate (5.76%), while those of. Dried plant oil were ?-ionone (23.54%), 2-hexenal (8.75%), and dihydrobovolide (4.81%). The fresh and dried oils had the green-floral and citrus-floral odor, respectively. The GC-O and AEDA results show that phenylacetaldehyde (green, floral odor, FD-factor = 8) and ?-ionone (violet-floral odor, FD-factor = 8) were the most characteristic odor compounds of the fresh oils. ?-Cyclocitral (citrus odor, FD-factor = 64) and ?-ionone (violet-floral odor, FD-factor = 64) were the most characteristic odor compounds of the dried oil. These compounds are thought to contribute to the flavor of R. nipponicus var. submersus. PMID:25891110

  13. Improvement of soluble coffee aroma using an integrated process of supercritical CO2 extraction with selective removal of the pungent volatiles by adsorption on activates carbon

    S. Lucas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a two-step integrated process consisting of CO2 supercritical extraction of volatile coffee compounds (the most valuable from roasted and milled coffee, and a subsequent step of selective removal of pungent volatiles by adsorption on activated carbon is presented. Some experiments were carried out with key compounds from roasted coffee aroma in order to study the adsorption step: ethyl acetate as a desirable compound and furfural as a pungent component. Operational parameters such as adsorption pressure and temperature and CO2 flowrate were optimized. Experiments were conducted at adsorption pressures of 12-17 MPa, adsorption temperatures of 35-50ºC and a solvent flow rate of 3-5 kg/h. In all cases, the solute concentration and the activated particle size were kept constant. Results show that low pressures (12 MPa, low temperatures (35ºC and low CO2 flowrates (3 kg/h are suitable for removing the undesirable pungent and smell components (e.g. furfural and retaining the desirable aroma compounds (e.g. ethyl acetate. The later operation with real roasted coffee has corroborated the previous results obtained with the key compounds.

  14. Characterization of the Major Odor-Active Compounds in the Leaves of the Curry Tree Bergera koenigii L. by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    Steinhaus, Martin

    2015-04-29

    Curry leaves are a popular seasoning herb with a pronounced sulfury and burnt odor, the molecular background of which was yet unclear. Application of an aroma extract dilution analysis to the volatile fraction of curry leaves isolated by solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation afforded 23 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 1 to 8192. On the basis of the comparison of their retention indices, mass spectra, and odor properties with data of reference compounds, the structures of 22 odorants could be assigned, 15 of which had not been reported in curry leaves before. Odorants with high FD factors included 1-phenylethanethiol (FD factor 8192), linalool (4096), α-pinene (2048), 1,8-cineole (1024), (3Z)-hex-3-enal (256), 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (128), myrcene (64), (3Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol (32), and (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienal (32). The unique sulfury and burnt odor exhibited by 1-phenylethanethiol in combination with its high FD factor suggested that it constitutes the character impact compound of fresh curry leaf aroma. PMID:25857926

  15. Low intramuscular fat (but high in PUFA) content in cooked cured pork ham decreased Maillard reaction volatiles and pleasing aroma attributes.

    Benet, Iu; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Ibañez, Carles; Solà, Josep; Arnau, Jacint; Roura, Eugeni

    2016-04-01

    The influence of intramuscular fat content (high - HI versus low - LI) and fatty acid composition on pork cooked cured ham flavour was analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry using nasal impact frequency (GC-O/NIF) and quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Potential relationships were studied by principal component analysis (PCA). Sixteen and fourteen odourants were identified by GC-O/NIF in LI and HI cooked hams, respectively. The two ham types differed in lipid oxidation odourants: polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) derivatives hexanal, 1-octen-3-one and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were higher in LI ham; while monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivative decanal was higher in HI. HI samples resulted in higher values for odour-active aroma compounds from Maillard reaction, which are related to roast flavour and a higher overall flavour liking. In summary, our results suggest that Maillard derived odour-active aroma compounds were partially inhibited in LI samples (high in PUFA), resulting in lower positive sensory ratings. PMID:26593467

  16. Product which is fermented without lactose from a shake comprising non-vegetable dried fruits and/or orgeat

    Pérez Martínez, Gaspar; Miralles, María del Carmen; Martí Vidagany, Adolfo; Martínez Ortiz, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to products which are fermented with probiotic lactic bacteria from milk or a shake comprising almonds (Prunus Amygdalus, var. dulcis), other non-vegetable dried fruits or orgeat obtained from chufa tubers (Cyperus esculentus). The inventive products deliver the nutritional benefits of the dried fruits, the orgeat and the added probiotic bacteria, with a unique flavour and a consistency, acidity and aroma similar to yoghurt. Optionally, if the sugar content is kept ...

  17. Australian wine consumers’ acceptance of and attitudes toward the use of additives in wine and food production

    Saltman Y; Johnson TE; Wilkinson KL; Bastian SEP

    2015-01-01

    Yaelle Saltman, Trent E Johnson, Kerry L Wilkinson, Susan EP Bastian Department of Wine and Food, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Adelaide, SA, Australia. Abstract: Additives are routinely used in food and wine production to enhance product quality and/or prevent spoilage. Compared with other industries, the wine industry is only permitted to use a limited number of additives. Whereas flavor additives are often used to intensify the aroma and f...

  18. Production of 6-pentyl-α-pyrone by trichoderma harzianum in solid-state fermentation

    de Souza Ramos, Aline; Fiaux, Sorele Batista; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Many Trichoderma species are able to produce 6-pentyl-α-pyrone (6-PP), a lactone with coconut-like aroma. In the present work, several culture parameters were studied to enhance the production of 6-PP by Trichoderma harzianum 4040 in solid-state fermentation. Green coir powder added to a nutrient solution was used as support material for fermentation. A Plackett-Burman screening technique was applied, followed by a fractionary factorial design. The best culture conditions within the experimen...

  19. Production, chemical characterization, and sensory profile of a novel spirit elaborated from spent coffee ground

    Sampaio, Armando; Dragone, Giuliano; Vilanova, Mar; Oliveira, J.M.; Teixeira, J. A.; Solange I. Mussatto

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a process for the production of a spirit from spent coffee ground (SCG), the chemical composition, and sensory profile of this distillate. The process consisted in three steps starting with the extraction of aroma compounds by hydrothermal treatment of SCG, followed by the fermentation of this extract supplemented with sucrose to ethanol, and the fermented broth distillation. Seventeen volatile compounds were identified in the distillate (including alcohols, esters, aldeh...

  20. Characterisation of the aroma profiles of different honeys and corresponding flowers using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry.

    Seisonen, Sirli; Kivima, Evelin; Vene, Kristel

    2015-02-15

    The aroma profiles of thirteen different honey samples from four botanical origins: heather (Calluna vulgaris), raspberry (Rubus idaeus), rape (Brassica napus), alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus) and the blossoms of the four corresponding flowers were investigated to find odour-active compounds exclusively representing specific honeys based on odour-active compounds from the blossoms. Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas-chromatography-olfactometry were used to determine and identify the odour-active compounds. Data was analysed using agglomerative hierarchical clustering and correspondence analysis. Honeys from the same botanical origin clustered together; however, none of the identified compounds were exclusive to a particular honey/blossom combination. Heather honey had the flavour profile most different to the others. Isophorone and 2-methylbutyric acid were found only in heather honeys. Heather honey was characterised by having more "sweet" and "candy-like" notes, raspberry honeys had more "green" notes, while alder buckthorn had more "honey" and "floral" notes. PMID:25236195

  1. Development of a SPME-GC-MS method for the determination of volatile compounds in Shanxi aged vinegar and its analytical characterization by aroma wheel.

    Zhu, Hong; Zhu, Jie; Wang, Lili; Li, Zaigui

    2016-01-01

    A solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed to determine the volatile compounds in Shanxi aged vinegar. The optimal extraction conditions were: 50 °C for 20 min with a PDMS/DVB fiber. This analytical method was validated and showed satisfactory repeatability (0.5 %furfural were the most powerful odorants. The aroma wheel of Shanxi aged vinegar showed that the classes of sensory descriptors are first fatty and roasty, next woody and nutty and minor fruity and floral. Principal component analysis enabled us to investigate dissimilarity/similarity of Shanxi aged vinegar sample of different raw material and ageing time. PMID:26787940

  2. Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis beverages

    Carla Carolina Batista Machado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma while roasted mate was defined as having a smooth, slightly burnt aroma. The relationship between the tentatively identified compounds and flavor must be determined by olfatometric analysis.

  3. Produção de compostos de aroma através da biotransformação do Limoneno por fermentação em estado sólido utilizando resíduo natural de laranja como substrato

    Bier, Mário César Jucoski

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Aromas e fragrâncias incorporadas em alimentos, perfumes e cosméticos possuem alto valor comercial, possibilitando um grande potencial econômico para obtenção de uma ampla variedade de biomoléculas de interesse nestas áreas. A produção industrial de aromas corresponde a 25% do mercado mundial de aditivos alimentares. Entre os métodos para produção de aromas, a biotransformação de terpenos representa uma alternativa muito atrativa. Esta é uma via biotecnológica que apresenta vários ben...

  4. Preparation of an Aroma Fraction from Dried Bonito by Steam Distillation and Its Effect on Modification of Salty and Umami Taste Qualities.

    Ogasawara, Yasushi; Mochimaru, Shinsuke; Ueda, Reiko; Ban, Masayasu; Kabuto, Shizuya; Abe, Keiko

    2016-02-01

    To study the effects of dried bonito aroma on taste perception, dried bonito aroma fraction (DBAF) as a steam distillate in liquid was added to the salt solutions containing 5 different salt concentrations (0.68% to 1.5% [w/v]) before sensory evaluations. Perception of the taste qualities of salt solutions with added DBAF varied depending on the salt concentration. At low salt concentrations (0.68% to 0.83%), after-taste intensity of saltiness and overall taste intensity were significantly enhanced by the addition of DBAF. This suggests that DBAF can be applied to a low-salt seasoning at these salt concentrations. Umami taste intensity was significantly enhanced by the addition of DBAF at all salt concentrations (0.68% to 1.5%). The addition of heat-treated DBAF, which no longer had the dried bonito odor, exerted no significant influences on any taste descriptors. As the result of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, sulfur-containing compounds, pyrazines, alcohols, and phenols were contained in DBAF and not detected in heat-treated DBAF. Because these compounds contributed to the dried bonito odor, the taste modifications were thought to be induced by these compounds. The effects of the DBAF on Japanese noodle soup (mentsuyu) were also examined. The saltiness intensity of 1.2% salt concentration of mentsuyu containing both DBAF and DBS (dried bonito stock) as a hot water extract of dried bonito was not significantly differ from that of 1.5% salt concentration of mentsuyu not containing any of them. It will thus be possible to develop a reduced salt seasoning by combining DBAF and DBS. PMID:26719948

  5. Improvement of production performance of functional fermented whey-based beverage

    Bulatović Maja Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was improvement of the performances for the production of whey-based beverages with highly productive strains of Lactobacillus. Individual or mixed culture containing Lactobacillus helveticus ATCC 15009, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis NRRL B-4525 and Streptococcus thermophilus S3 were studied. The scientific hypothesis was that production performances, especially aroma and viable cell count, are positively affected by the strains combination and temperature. Based on the results, beverages obtained by mixed cultures Lb. helveticus ATCC 15009 - S. thermophilus S3 and Lb. delbrueckii ssp. lactis - S. thermophilus S3 had higher aroma values than beverages obtained by individual strains. The symbiosis of tested strains has positive impact on the aroma of produced beverage. In addition, the temperature has significant influence on cell viability during the storage and fermentation dynamic. The beverages produced by mixed cultures Lb. helveticus ATCC 15009 - S. thermophilus S3 and Lb. delbrueckii ssp. lactis - S. thermophilus S3 at 42 oC achieved higher storage stability (19 to 22 days than beverages produced at 37°C and 45°C (13 to 19 days. Subsequently, at 42 °C fermentation time for both mixed cultures was 1.5 h shorter, compared to the time achieved at 37°C.

  6. Comparison of the Volatile Compounds among Different Production Regions of Green Tea using Simultaneous Distillation Extraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry

    J.S. Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chinese green teas are mainly made of the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis and mainly distributed in provinces of Zhejiang, Anhui, Henan and Jiangsu, etc. Because of having same tea varieties and processing technology, different origins of green teas are very similar in appearance. Whereas different production areas and climatic conditions between them may have cause different quality characters, such as aroma and taste. So it is very necessary to study the different regions of green teas and explore environment and geographical factors to volatile components influence. In this study, the aroma components of four typical green teas: Xihulongjing, Xinyangmaojian, Lu’anguapian and Biluochun, from Zhejiang, Henan, Anhui and Jiangsu in China, were extracted by Simultaneous Distillation Extraction (SDE and identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS, then compared the similarities and differences between them on the aroma components was made. The result showed that 61 aroma constituents were indentified in four green teas, mainly including alcohols, hydrocarbons and ketones compounds. Through contrast and comparison of results, we find that these different origins of green teas have some differences, but also share some similarities based on the volatile components. The difference of place of origin and elevation will grow different tea plants and will have different volatile components due to the environment.

  7. Utilization of Lactobacillus fermentum andSaccharomyces cerevisiae as starter cultures in the production of ‘dolo'

    Glover, R.L.K.; Sawadogo-Lingani, H.; Diawara, B.; Jespersen, Lene; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    Objective:  The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of representative strains ofpredominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast as starter cultures in the production of dolo (a type of sorghum beer) of comparable consistency and organoleptic quality to the commercial product in......H, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. Dolo produced from starter combinations of one strain of L. fermentum and both S....... cerevisiae strains had taste and aroma that did not differ significantly from the commercial product, while single isolate combinations gave better mouth feel. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of representative strains ofpredominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast as starter...

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF 6-PENTYL-ALPHA-PYRONE PRODUCTION BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION USING SUGARCANE BAGASSE AS RESIDUE

    Natalia C. Ladeira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentation (SSF has been used as a model for the study of metabolism and physiology of microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to enhance 6-PP production by Trichoderma harzianum 4040 in solid state fermentation using sugarcane bagasse as a residue. A fractional factorial design was used to select the components of the nutrient solution. The fermentation was carried out during 9 days, and the aroma extraction was done on the third, fifth, seventh, and ninth days using organic solvent. On the seventh day the major concentration of 6-PP was found. The variables glucose, sucrose, and MgSO4 were found to be significant statistically (p> 0.05 as components of the nutrient solution used in the production of 6-PP by filamentous fungi in SSF using sugarcane bagasse as a residue. GC-MS was used for quantification of 6-PP aroma.

  9. Volatile Profile of Cashew Apple Juice Fibers from Different Production Steps

    Ana Carolina de Oliveira Nobre

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the volatile profile of cashew apple fibers to verify which compounds are still present after successive washings and thus might be responsible for the undesirable remaining cashew-like aroma present in this co-product, which is used to formulate food products like vegetarian burgers and cereal bars. Fibers were obtained from cashew apple juice processing and washed five times in an expeller press. Compounds were analyzed by the headspace solid-phase micro extraction technique (HS-SPME and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, using a DB-5 column. Sensory analysis was also performed to compare the intensity of the cashew-like aroma of the fibers with the original juice. Altogether, 80 compounds were detected, being esters and terpenes the major chemical classes. Among the identified substances, 14 were classified as odoriferous in the literature, constituting the matrix used in the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Odoriferous esters were substantially reduced, but many compounds were extracted by the strength used in the expeller press and remained until the last wash. Among them are the odoriferous compounds ethyl octanoate, γ-dodecalactone, (E-2-decenal, copaene, and caryophyllene that may contribute for the mild but still perceptible cashew apple aroma in the fibers that have been pressed and washed five times. Development of a deodorization process should include reduction of pressing force and stop at the second wash, to save water and energy, thus reducing operational costs and contributing to process sustainability.

  10. Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) beverages

    Carla Carolina Batista Machado; Deborah Helena Markowicz Bastos; Natália Soares Janzantti; Roselaine Facanali; MARCIA ORTIZ M. MARQUES; Maria Regina Bueno Franco

    2007-01-01

    Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z)-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma whi...

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF 6-PENTYL-ALPHA-PYRONE PRODUCTION BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION USING SUGARCANE BAGASSE AS RESIDUE

    Natalia C. Ladeira; Vania Jordão Peixoto; Manoela Peçanha Penha; Elisabete Barbosa de Paula Barros; Selma Gomes Ferreira Leite

    2010-01-01

    Solid state fermentation (SSF) has been used as a model for the study of metabolism and physiology of microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to enhance 6-PP production by Trichoderma harzianum 4040 in solid state fermentation using sugarcane bagasse as a residue. A fractional factorial design was used to select the components of the nutrient solution. The fermentation was carried out during 9 days, and the aroma extraction was done on the third, fifth, seventh, and ninth days using ...

  12. Comprehensive Study of Volatile Compounds in Two Australian Rosé Wines: Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA) of Extracts Prepared Using Solvent-Assisted Flavor Evaporation (SAFE) or Headspace Solid-Phase Extraction (HS-SPE).

    Wang, Jiaming; Gambetta, Joanna M; Jeffery, David W

    2016-05-18

    Two rosé wines, representing a tropical and a fruity/floral style, were chosen from a previous study for further exploration by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and quantitative analysis. Volatiles were extracted using either liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) or a recently developed dynamic headspace (HS) sampling method utilizing solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. AEDA was conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O) and a total of 51 aroma compounds with a flavor dilution (FD) factor ≥3 were detected. Quantitative analysis of 92 volatiles was undertaken in both wines for calculation of odor activity values. The fruity and floral wine style was mostly driven by 2-phenylethanol, β-damascenone, and a range of esters, whereas 3-SHA and several volatile acids were seen as essential for the tropical style. When extraction methods were compared, HS-SPE was as efficient as SAFE for extracting most esters and higher alcohols, which were associated with fruity and floral characters, but it was difficult to capture volatiles with greater polarity or higher boiling point that may still be important to perceived wine aroma. PMID:27141971

  13. Production and Preservation of Passion Fruit Juice

    U. G. AKPAN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Production and preservation of Passion Fruit Juice was examined to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the juice using chemical preservatives. The preservation of the juice was carried out using sugar, benzoic acid, citric and a combination of citric and benzoic acid under room temperature.The result revealed that the juice maintained its color, aroma and tastes for at least one month when 30% benzoic acid was used as preservative. This happens to be the best among all. The juice under other preservation like 4% sugar went bad after three days, while that of 4% citric acid maintained its qualities for one week and some days, but thereafter the aroma started to fade. The combination of 3% benzoic acid and 4% citric acid maintained the qualities of the juice fairly between two to three weeks. The alcoholic content was also estimated and it was discovered that the juice containing citric acid and sugar has the highest percentage of alcohol. The preservation used also altered the pH so that it is impossible for pathogens to exist at such a low pH environment.

  14. Insight into the time-resolved extraction of aroma compounds during espresso coffee preparation: online monitoring by PTR-ToF-MS.

    Sánchez-López, José A; Zimmermann, Ralf; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2014-12-01

    Using proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS), we investigated the extraction dynamic of 95 ion traces in real time (time resolution = 1 s) during espresso coffee preparation. Fifty-two of these ions were tentatively identified. This was achieved by online sampling of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in close vicinity to the coffee flow, at the exit of the extraction hose of the espresso machine (single serve capsules). Ten replicates of six different single serve coffee types were extracted to a final weight between 20-120 g, according to the recommended cup size of the respective coffee capsule (Ristretto, Espresso, and Lungo), and analyzed. The results revealed considerable differences in the extraction kinetics between compounds, which led to a fast evolution of the volatile profiles in the extract flow and consequently to an evolution of the final aroma balance in the cup. Besides exploring the time-resolved extraction dynamics of VOCs, the dynamic data also allowed the coffees types (capsules) to be distinguished from one another. Both hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed full separation between the coffees types. The methodology developed provides a fast and simple means of studying the extraction dynamics of VOCs and differentiating between different coffee types. PMID:25372898

  15. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae To Release 3-Mercaptohexan-1-ol during Fermentation through Overexpression of an S. cerevisiae Gene, STR3, for Improvement of Wine Aroma?

    Holt, Sylvester; Cordente, Antonio G.; Williams, Simon J.; Capone, Dimitra L.; Jitjaroen, Wanphen; Menz, Ian R.; Curtin, Chris; Anderson, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur-containing aroma compounds are key contributors to the flavor of a diverse range of foods and beverages. The tropical fruit characters of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc wines are attributed to the presence of the aromatic thiols 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH), 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol-acetate, and 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP). These volatile thiols are found in small amounts in grape juice and are formed from nonvolatile cysteinylated precursors during fermentation. In this study, we overexpressed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene, STR3, which led to an increase in 3MH release during fermentation of a V. vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc juice. Characterization of the enzymatic properties of Str3p confirmed it to be a pyridoxal-5?-phosphate-dependent cystathionine ?-lyase, and we demonstrated that this enzyme was able to cleave the cysteinylated precursors of 3MH and 4MMP to release the free thiols. These data provide direct evidence for a yeast enzyme able to release aromatic thiols in vitro that can be applied in the development of self-cloned yeast to enhance wine flavor. PMID:21478306

  16. Genetic Analysis of the Biosynthesis of 2-Methoxy-3-Isobutylpyrazine, a Major Grape-Derived Aroma Compound Impacting Wine Quality1[W

    Guillaumie, Sabine; Ilg, Andrea; Rty, Stphane; Brette, Maxime; Trossat-Magnin, Claudine; Decroocq, Stphane; Lon, Cline; Keime, Cline; Ye, Tao; Baltenweck-Guyot, Raymonde; Claudel, Patricia; Bordenave, Louis; Vanbrabant, Sandra; Duchne, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Darriet, Philippe; Hugueney, Philippe; Goms, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Methoxypyrazines (MPs) are strongly odorant volatile molecules with vegetable-like fragrances that are widespread in plants. Some grapevine (Vitis vinifera) varieties accumulate significant amounts of MPs, including 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (IBMP), which is the major MP in grape berries. MPs are of particular importance in white Sauvignon Blanc wines. The typicality of these wines relies on a fine balance between the pea pod, capsicum character of MPs and the passion fruit/grapefruit character due to volatile thiols. Although MPs play a crucial role in Sauvignon varietal aromas, excessive concentrations of these powerful odorants alter wine quality and reduce consumer acceptance, particularly in red wines. The last step of IBMP biosynthesis has been proposed to involve the methoxylation of the nonvolatile precursor 2-hydroxy-3-isobutylpyrazine to give rise to the highly volatile IBMP. In this work, we have used a quantitative trait loci approach to investigate the genetic bases of IBMP biosynthesis. This has led to the identification of two previously uncharacterized S-adenosyl-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferase genes, termed VvOMT3 and VvOMT4. Functional characterization of these two O-methyltransferases showed that the VvOMT3 protein was highly specific and efficient for 2-hydroxy-3-isobutylpyrazine methylation. Based on its differential expression in high- and low-MP-producing grapevine varieties, we propose that VvOMT3 is a key gene for IBMP biosynthesis in grapevine. PMID:23606597

  17. Understanding the Constitutive and Induced Biosynthesis of Mono- and Sesquiterpenes in Grapes (Vitis vinifera): A Key to Unlocking the Biochemical Secrets of Unique Grape Aroma Profiles.

    Schwab, Wilfried; Wüst, Matthias

    2015-12-16

    The present review integrates current knowledge on mono- and sesquiterpenes in grapes with a special focus on biochemical and physiological aspects. Recent research has impressively shown the prominence of terpenoid metabolism in grapevine (Vitis sp). The 69 putatively functional mono- and sesquiterpene synthases that were identified by the analysis of the updated 12-fold sequencing and assembly of the grapevine genome deliver the scaffolds for structural diversity and display a surprising expansion of the terpene synthase (TPS) gene family in grapevine when compared to other plants like Arabidopsis thaliana (32 TPS). While monoterpenes occur as highly functionalized compounds and are stored as their corresponding glycoconjugates in berry tissues, sesquiterpenes are mainly present as unsaturated hydrocarbons and accumulate in the epicuticular wax layer of intact berries. Interestingly, both groups of terpenes appear to be involved as volatile organic compounds in plant defense and their biosynthesis is enhanced via the jasmonic acid signaling pathway. These novel aspects will help to understand how environmental cues affect the genes and enzymes of various metabolic pathways of relevant wine aroma compounds with numerous links to enology and wine flavor chemistry. PMID:26592256

  18. A ?-glucosidase from Oenococcus oeni ATCC BAA-1163 with potential for aroma release in wine: Cloning and expression in E. coli.

    Michlmayr, Herbert; Schmann, Christina; Wurbs, Phillip; Barreira Braz da Silva, Nuno M; Rogl, Veronika; Kulbe, Klaus D; Del Hierro, Andrs M

    2010-07-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are responsible for olfactory changes in wine during malolactic fermentation (MLF). A side characteristic of MLF is the release of grape derived aroma compounds from their glycosylated precursors by ?-glycosidase activities of these bacteria. Apart from Oenococcus oeni, which is regarded as the most promising species for MLF, glycosidic activities have also been observed in wine related members of the genera Lactobacillus and Pediococcus. Nevertheless, information on the involved enzymes including their potential use in winemaking is limited. In this study we report that ?-glucosidases with similar protein sequences can be identified in the genomes of Lactobacillus brevis, O. oeni and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. TTG serves as start codon for the glucosidase gene of O. oeni. The ?-glucosidase of O. oeni ATCC BAA-1163 was expressed in E. coli and partially characterized. The enzyme displayed characteristics similar to ?-glucosidases isolated from L. brevis and L. mesenteroides. A pH optimum between 5.0 and 5.5, and a K(m) of 0.17 mmol L(-1 )pNP-?-D-glucopyranoside were determined. A glycosyltransferase activity was observed in the presence of ethanol. The enzyme from O. oeni was capable to hydrolyze glycosides extracted from Muskat wine. This study also contains a report on glycosidase activities of several LAB species including Oenococcus kitaharae. PMID:21243086

  19. Characterisation of aroma-active and off-odour compounds in German rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Part I: Case of aquaculture water from earthen-ponds farming.

    Mahmoud, Mohamed Ahmed Abbas; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Comprehensive analyses were accomplished to explore the odorous molecules responsible for off-odour development in earthen-ponds rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture farming in Germany. In this part of the study, water odorants were extracted using solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE); then, extracts were analysed by one- and two- dimensional high resolution gas chromatography coupled with olfactometry and mass spectrometry using two columns with different polarity (DB-FFAP and DB-5). Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the solvent extract samples revealed 54 odorants, and 47 of them were identified. In this study, a series of compounds is described for the first time in German earthen-ponds rainbow trout aquaculture water including, amongst others, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol), vanillin, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-ethyloctanoic acid, 3-methylindole (skatole), 5α-androst-16-en-3-one (androstenone), and 2-(2-butoxyethoxy) ethanol. Moreover, the sensory experiment indicated that (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, and 1-octen-3-one are the main contributors to the metallic, cucumber, and mushroom notes of the samples. PMID:27211690

  20. Analytical and sensory characterization of the aroma of "Langhe D.O.C. Nebbiolo" wines: influence of the prefermentative cold maceration with dry ice.

    Petrozziello, Maurizio; Guaita, Massimo; Motta, Silvia; Panero, Loretta; Bosso, Antonella

    2011-05-01

    The present work concerns the determination of the volatile compounds, as well as the description of the olfactory characteristics, of "Langhe DOC Nebbiolo" wines produced through the prefermentative cold maceration with dry ice, on full scale (30 quintals) in private cellars. The free volatile compounds and those obtained by enzymatic and chemical hydrolysis of the glycosilated precursors were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among free volatile compounds, a loss of alcohols with 6 carbon atoms in the cryo-macerated trials was observed. The cryo-maceration technique, when correctly applied, increased the floral and fruity notes (blackberry, cherry, and plum). This increase is related to the extraction of polyphenolic compounds (maceration effect), but no volatile compounds, neither in free form, nor produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of the glycosilated precursors, can discriminate the wines according to their content of polyphenols. Only some compounds produced by chemical hydrolysis of the precursors can discriminate the wines (statistically significant differences): 3-hydroxy-β-damascone, methylvanillate, and blumenol C. These compounds, however, form during aging and do not have any influence on young wines aroma. PMID:22417331

  1. A comparative study on aromatic profiles of strawberry vinegars obtained using different conditions in the production process.

    Ubeda, Cristina; Callejn, Raquel M; Troncoso, Ana M; Moreno-Rojas, Jose M; Pea, Francisco; Morales, M Lourdes

    2016-02-01

    Impact odorants in strawberry vinegars produced in different containers (glass, oak and cherry barrels) were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry using modified frequency (MF) technique, and dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aromatic profile of vinegar from strawberry cooked must was also studied. All strawberry vinegars retained certain impact odorants from strawberries: 3-nonen-2-one, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, guaiacol, nerolidol, pantolactone+furaneol, eugenol, ?-dodecalactone and phenylacetic acid. Isovaleric acid, pantolactone+furaneol, p-vinylguaiacol, phenylacetic acid and vanillin were the most important aroma-active compounds in all vinegars. The strawberry cooked must vinegar accounted for the highest number of impact odorants. Wood barrels provided more aroma complexity than glass containers. Impact odorants with grassy characteristics were predominant in vinegar from glass containers, and those with sweet and fruity characteristics in vinegars from wood barrels. Principal component analysis indicated that the production process led to differences in the impact odorants. PMID:26304447

  2. Real Time Detection of Aroma Compounds in Meat and Meat Products by SIFT-MS and Comparison to Conventional Techniques (SPME-GC-MS)

    Flores, M.; Olivares, A.; Dryahina, Kseniya; Španěl, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2013), s. 622-630. ISSN 1573-4110 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/09/P172; GA ČR GA203/09/0256 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : volatile compounds * flovar * meat Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.194, year: 2013

  3. Determination of blueberry and strawberry maturity and aroma quality and effect of HLB on orange juice aroma: comparison of Z-nose, E-nose and GC-MS technologies

    Electronic nose technology could be very useful in quality control discrimination of products. The Z-nose (Electronic Sensory Technology, Model 4500) was equipped with a Tenax trap (2 mg, 225 C), and 1 m DB5 column, an acoustic wave detector and an oven set to ramp from 40-180 C at a rate of 10 C...

  4. Some non-thermal microbial inactivation methods in dairy products

    During the production of dairy products, some thermal processes such as pasteurization and sterilization are used commonly to inactive microorganisms. But as a result of thermal processes, loss of nutrient and aroma, non-enzymatic browning and organoleptic differentiation especially in dairy products are seen. Because of this, alternative methods are needed to provide microbial inactivation and as major problems are caused by high temperatures, non-thermal processes are focused on. For this purpose, some methods such as high pressure (HP), pulsed light (PL), ultraviolet radiation (UV), supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) or pulsed electric field (PEF) are used in food. These methods products are processed in ambient temperature and so not only mentioned losses are minimized but also freshness and naturality of products can be preserved. In this work, we will try to be given information about methods of non-thermal microbial inactivation of dairy products. (author)

  5. Comparison of the Volatile Compounds among Different Production Regions of Green Tea using Simultaneous Distillation Extraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry

    Zhou, J.S.; S.D. Lv; Lian, M.; Wang, C.; Meng, Q. X.

    2015-01-01

    Chinese green teas are mainly made of the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis and mainly distributed in provinces of Zhejiang, Anhui, Henan and Jiangsu, etc. Because of having same tea varieties and processing technology, different origins of green teas are very similar in appearance. Whereas different production areas and climatic conditions between them may have cause different quality characters, such as aroma and taste. So it is very necessary to study the different regions of green tea...

  6. Nutrient limitation leads to penetrative growth into agar and affects aroma formation in Pichia fabianii, P. kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    van Rijswijck, Irma M H; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith C M; Abee, Tjakko; Smid, Eddy J

    2015-01-01

    Among fermentative yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is most frequently used as a model organism, although other yeast species may have special features that make them interesting candidates to apply in food-fermentation processes. In this study, we used three yeast species isolated from fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit, S. cerevisiae 131, Pichia fabianii 65 and Pichia kudriavzevii 129, and determined the impact of nitrogen and/or glucose limitation on surface growth mode and the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All three species displayed significant changes in growth mode in all nutrient-limited conditions, signified by the formation of metafilaments or pseudohyphae. The timing of the transition was found to be species-specific. Transition in growth mode is suggested to be linked to the production of certain fusel alcohols, such as phenylethyl alcohol, which serve as quorum-sensing molecules. Interestingly, we did not observe concomitant increased production of phenylethyl alcohol and filamentous growth. Notably, a broader range of esters was found only for the Pichia spp. grown on nitrogen-limited agar for 21?days compared to nutrient-rich agar, and when grown on glucose- and glucose- plus nitrogen-limited agar. Our data suggest that for the Pichia spp., the formation of esters may play an important role in the switch in growth mode upon nitrogen limitation. Further biological or ecological implications of ester formation are discussed. PMID:25308873

  7. Increase of fruity aroma during mixed T. delbrueckii/S. cerevisiae wine fermentation is linked to specific esters enhancement.

    Renault, Philippe; Coulon, Joana; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Bely, Marina

    2015-08-17

    The aim of this work was to study ester formation and the aromatic impact of Torulaspora delbrueckii when used in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the alcoholic fermentation of must. In order to evaluate the influence of the inoculation procedure, sequential and simultaneous mixed cultures were carried out and compared to pure cultures of T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae. Our results showed that mixed inoculations allowed the increase, in comparison to S. cerevisiae pure culture, of some esters specifically produced by T. delbrueckii and significantly correlated to the maximal T. delbrueckii population reached in mixed cultures. Thus, ethyl propanoate, ethyl isobutanoate and ethyl dihydrocinnamate were considered as activity markers of T. delbrueckii. On the other hand, isobutyl acetate and isoamyl acetate concentrations were systematically increased during mixed inoculations although not correlated with the development of either species but were rather due to positive interactions between these species. Favoring T. delbrueckii development when performing sequential inoculation enhanced the concentration of esters linked to T. delbrueckii activity. On the contrary, simultaneous inoculation restricted the growth of T. delbrueckii, limiting the production of its activity markers, but involved a very important production of numerous esters due to more important positive interactions between species. These results suggest that the ester concentrations enhancement via interactions during mixed modalities was due to S. cerevisiae production in response to the presence of T. delbrueckii. Finally, sensory analyses showed that mixed inoculations between T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae allowed to enhance the complexity and fruity notes of wine in comparison to S. cerevisiae pure culture. Furthermore, the higher levels of ethyl propanoate, ethyl isobutanoate, ethyl dihydrocinnamate and isobutyl acetate in mixed wines were found responsible for the increase of fruitiness and complexity. PMID:26001522

  8. Non-Conventional Yeasts Whole Cells as Efficient Biocatalysts for the Production of Flavors and Fragrances

    Luca Forti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The rising consumer requests for natural flavors and fragrances have generated great interest in the aroma industry to seek new methods to obtain fragrance and flavor compounds naturally. An alternative and attractive route for these compounds is based on bio-transformations. In this review, the application of biocatalysis by Non Conventional Yeasts (NCYs whole cells for the production of flavor and fragrances is illustrated by a discussion of the production of different class of compounds, namely Aldehydes, Ketones and related compounds, Alcohols, Lactones, Terpenes and Terpenoids, Alkenes, and Phenols.

  9. Surprising structural lability of a cysteine-S-conjugate precursor of 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one, a varietal aroma in wine of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc.

    Shinkaruk, Svitlana; Thibon, Ccile; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Babin, Pierre; Tominaga, Takatoshi; Degueil, Marie; Desbat, Bernard; Jussier, Christophe; Bennetau, Bernard; Dubourdieu, Denis; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine

    2008-05-01

    4-Methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (1; 4MSP) provides a characteristic aroma compound of wines made from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc. 4MSP has a strong box-tree odor with a very low perception threshold and is derived from the cysteinylated precursor S-(1,1-dimethyl-3-oxobutyl)cysteine (4; P-4MSP). P-4MSP is transformed into 4MSP during alcoholic fermentation and is an excellent marker of varietal aroma potential. An improved synthesis of P-4MSP as well as of its deuterium-labeled analogue [D(6)]-P-4MSP is described. Several analytical methods (NMR, IR, LSI-MS, GC/MS, ESI-MS(n)) were combined to elucidate spontaneous reversible structural changes of P-4MSP at different pH values. At low pH, P-4MSP has a linear keto form. The keto-enol tautomerism was observed at neutral pH. At pH 8, the formation of N-substituted intramolecular hemiaminal was characterized by ESI-MS and ESI-MS(n) experiments. The hemiaminal loses H(2)O at high pH to produce a cycloimine, which is easily opened by acid hydrolysis. The keto-enol tautomerism explained the incorporation of only six D-atoms during the preparation of the P-4MSP deuterated standard even if [D(10)]mesityl oxide was used. Derivatization conditions for GC/MS analysis strongly affected the ratio of the monosilylated intramolecular cyclic form and the disilylated linear form of P-4MSP. The structural changes of P-4MSP may have a considerable impact on the development of methods of measuring varietal aroma potential. PMID:18493966

  10. Discrimination of aromas from several kinds of alcohol using synthetic-resin-film-coated quartz resonator smell sensor; Gosei jushimaku wo tofushita suisho shindoshishiki nioi sensor ni yoru sake no shurui hanbetsu

    Kondo, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Morita, T. Dogami, N.; Nanto, H. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan); Doguchi, Y. [Industrial Research Institute of Ishikawa Prefecture, Ishikawa (Japan)

    1997-08-20

    Transient response curves for aromas from several kinds of alcohol such as Fruit Liquor (8%), Wine (14%), Japanese Sake (15%) and Whisky (43%) are observed using quartz-crystal-resonator gas sensor coated with synthetic-resin-film(acrylic resin, alkyd resin or urethane resin). The pattern recognition analysis using principal component analysis or neural network analysis is carried out using four parameters which characterize the transient response curves. The recognition probability of neural network for four kinds of alcohol is 100% for 20 trials. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Contribution of Bacillus Isolates to the Flavor Profiles of Vanilla Beans Assessed through Aroma Analysis and Chemometrics

    Fenglin Gu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Colonizing Bacillus in vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews beans is involved in glucovanillin hydrolysis and vanillin formation during conventional curing. The flavor profiles of vanilla beans under Bacillus-assisted curing were analyzed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, electronic nose, and quantitative sensory analysis. The flavor profiles were analytically compared among the vanilla beans under Bacillus-assisted curing, conventional curing, and non-microorganism-assisted curing. Vanilla beans added with Bacillus vanillea XY18 and Bacillus subtilis XY20 contained higher vanillin (3.58% ± 0.05% and 3.48% ± 0.10%, respectively than vanilla beans that underwent non-microorganism-assisted curing and conventional curing (3.09% ± 0.14% and 3.21% ± 0.15%, respectively. Forty-two volatiles were identified from endogenous vanilla metabolism. Five other compounds were identified from exogenous Bacillus metabolism. Electronic nose data confirmed that vanilla flavors produced through the different curing processes were easily distinguished. Quantitative sensory analysis confirmed that Bacillus-assisted curing increased vanillin production without generating any unpleasant sensory attribute. Partial least squares regression further provided a correlation model of different measurements. Overall, we comparatively analyzed the flavor profiles of vanilla beans under Bacillus-assisted curing, indirectly demonstrated the mechanism of vanilla flavor formation by microbes.

  12. Contribution of Bacillus Isolates to the Flavor Profiles of Vanilla Beans Assessed through Aroma Analysis and Chemometrics.

    Gu, Fenglin; Chen, Yonggan; Fang, Yiming; Wu, Guiping; Tan, Lehe

    2015-01-01

    Colonizing Bacillus in vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) beans is involved in glucovanillin hydrolysis and vanillin formation during conventional curing. The flavor profiles of vanilla beans under Bacillus-assisted curing were analyzed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, electronic nose, and quantitative sensory analysis. The flavor profiles were analytically compared among the vanilla beans under Bacillus-assisted curing, conventional curing, and non-microorganism-assisted curing. Vanilla beans added with Bacillus vanillea XY18 and Bacillus subtilis XY20 contained higher vanillin (3.58%±0.05% and 3.48%±0.10%, respectively) than vanilla beans that underwent non-microorganism-assisted curing and conventional curing (3.09%±0.14% and 3.21%±0.15%, respectively). Forty-two volatiles were identified from endogenous vanilla metabolism. Five other compounds were identified from exogenous Bacillus metabolism. Electronic nose data confirmed that vanilla flavors produced through the different curing processes were easily distinguished. Quantitative sensory analysis confirmed that Bacillus-assisted curing increased vanillin production without generating any unpleasant sensory attribute. Partial least squares regression further provided a correlation model of different measurements. Overall, we comparatively analyzed the flavor profiles of vanilla beans under Bacillus-assisted curing, indirectly demonstrated the mechanism of vanilla flavor formation by microbes. PMID:26473810

  13. Quantitation and Enantiomeric Ratios of Aroma Compounds Formed by an Ehrlich Degradation of l-Isoleucine in Fermented Foods.

    Matheis, Katrin; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-01-27

    The conversion of parent free amino acids into alcohols by an enzymatic deamination, decarboxylation, and reduction caused by microbial enzymes was first reported more than 100 years ago and is today known as the Ehrlich pathway. Because the chiral center at the carbon bearing the methyl group in l-isoleucine should not be prone to racemization during the reaction steps, the analysis of the enantiomeric distribution in 2-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanol, and 2-methylbutanoic acid as well as in the compounds formed by secondary reactions, such as ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and 2-methylbutyl acetate, are an appropriate measure to follow the proposed degradation mechanism in the Ehrlich reaction. On the basis of a newly developed method for quantitation and chiral analysis, the enantiomers of the five metabolites were determined in a great number of fermented foods. Whereas 2-methylbutanol occurred as pure (S)-enantiomer in nearly all samples, a ratio of almost 1:1 of (S)- and (R)-2-methylbutanal was found. These data are not in agreement with the literature suggesting the formation of 2-methylbutanol by an enzymatic reduction of 2-methylbutanal. Also, the enantiomeric distribution in 2-methylbutanoic acid was closer to that in 2-methylbutanol than to that found in 2-methylbutanal, suggesting that also the acid is probably not formed by oxidation of the aldehyde as previously proposed. Additional model studies with (S)-2-methylbutanal did not show a racemization under the conditions of food production or during workup of the sample for volatile analysis. Therefore, the results establish that different mechanisms might be responsible for the formation of aldehydes and acids from the parent amino acids in the Ehrlich pathway. PMID:26717969

  14. Production of the sesquiterpenoid (+)-nootkatone by metabolic engineering of Pichia pastoris.

    Wriessnegger, Tamara; Augustin, Peter; Engleder, Matthias; Leitner, Erich; Müller, Monika; Kaluzna, Iwona; Schürmann, Martin; Mink, Daniel; Zellnig, Günther; Schwab, Helmut; Pichler, Harald

    2014-07-01

    The sesquiterpenoid (+)-nootkatone is a highly demanded and highly valued aroma compound naturally found in grapefruit, pummelo or Nootka cypress tree. Extraction of (+)-nootkatone from plant material or its production by chemical synthesis suffers from low yields and the use of environmentally harmful methods, respectively. Lately, major attention has been paid to biotechnological approaches, using cell extracts or whole-cell systems for the production of (+)-nootkatone. In our study, the yeast Pichia pastoris initially was applied as whole-cell biocatalyst for the production of (+)-nootkatone from (+)-valencene, the abundant aroma compound of oranges. Therefore, we generated a strain co-expressing the premnaspirodiene oxygenase of Hyoscyamus muticus (HPO) and the Arabidopsis thaliana cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) that hydroxylated extracellularly added (+)-valencene. Intracellular production of (+)-valencene by co-expression of valencene synthase from Callitropsis nootkatensis resolved the phase-transfer issues of (+)-valencene. Bi-phasic cultivations of P. pastoris resulted in the production of trans-nootkatol, which was oxidized to (+)-nootkatone by an intrinsic P. pastoris activity. Additional overexpression of a P. pastoris alcohol dehydrogenase and truncated hydroxy-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (tHmg1p) significantly enhanced the (+)-nootkatone yield to 208mg L(-1) cell culture in bioreactor cultivations. Thus, metabolically engineered yeast P. pastoris represents a valuable, whole-cell system for high-level production of (+)-nootkatone from simple carbon sources. PMID:24747046

  15. Use of Probiotics in Fermented Meat Products

    Recep Palamutoğlu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a negative judgements among consumers about meat and meat products, in human nutrition meat and meat products are important for nutrient components which they contain essential nutrients. Intensively produced fermented meat product such as sucuk in our country and lactic acid bacteria (LAB are used for production of various fermented sausages all over the world. LAB primarily used in order to increase the food safety of such products. LAB with probiotic properties have effect on product taste, flavour and aroma as well as the positive effects on functional and physiological properties. Positive effects of probiotics in human health and product properties in the absence of any adverse effects various cultures have been used for the production of probiotic fermented meat products. In the production of such products prepared dough which have meat and fat in the matrix form a suitable vehicle for probiotic cells. During production of products formation of lactic acid reduced the pH, during ripening conditions water activity reduced so these factors adversely affect viability of probiotic cells. For this reason protecting probiotic cultures from negative effects during exposure in the product and vitality of cells in human gastro-intestinal system to continue operating for consumption to be provided during the order process the cells are coated with microencapsuation. The use of probiotic microorganisms isolated from various foods is being investigated for the production of sausages. Studies on the effects of probiotics on human health of meat products are also needed. In this study the probiotic microorganisms used in the production of probiotic fermented sausages were investigated.

  16. Furan in coffee: Pilot studies on formation at roasting and losses during production steps and consumer handling

    Guenther, Helmut; Hoenicke, Katrin; Biesterveld, Steven; Gerhard-Rieben, Elke; Lantz, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The occurrence of furan in some food products has been known for a few decades already and it has been reconfirmed in more recent investigations that furan is present in a variety of foodstuffs. This list of products includes roast coffee which has been shown to generate furan as a result of the heat treatment during the roasting reactions which is applied to achieve the desired aroma and flavor profile of a roast coffee. The objective of this study was to provide data to ...

  17. Peroxisomal β-oxidation and Production of γ-decalactone by the Yeast Rhodotorula aurantiaca

    Mohamed ALCHIHAB

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available γ-Decalactone is a fruity aroma compound resulting from the peroxisomal β-oxidation of ricinoleic acid by yeasts. During the β-oxidation of fatty acids, the acyl-CoA oxidase and thioesterase play an important role. In R. aurantiaca, we demonstrated the presence of partial gene sequences homologous to acyl-CoA oxidase and thioesterase involved in the pathways synthesis of γ-decalactone. This preliminary work is expected to characterize the relationship between the γ-decalactone production and the transcription of these partial gene sequences of R. aurantiaca probably involved in the oxidation of ricinoleic acid.

  18. On the Physics of Fizziness: How liquid properties control bursting bubble aerosol production?

    Ghabache, Elisabeth; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Josserand, Christophe; Seon, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Either in a champagne glass or at the oceanic scales, the tiny capillary bubbles rising at the surface burst in ejecting myriads of droplets. Focusing on the ejected droplets produced by a single bubble, we investigate experimentally how liquid properties and bubble size affect their characteristics: number, ejection velocities, sizes and ejection heights. These results allow us to finely tune the bursting bubble aerosol production. In the context of champagne industry, aerosols play a major role by spreading wine aroma above the glass. We demonstrate that this champagne fizz can be enhanced by selecting the wine viscosity and the bubble size, thanks to specially designed glass.

  19. Tuning Chocolate Flavor through Development of Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Starter Cultures with Increased Acetate Ester Production.

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Struyf, Nore; Paulus, Tinneke; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Allegaert, Leen; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Microbial starter cultures have extensively been used to enhance the consistency and efficiency of industrial fermentations. Despite the advantages of such controlled fermentations, the fermentation involved in the production of chocolate is still a spontaneous process that relies on the natural microbiota at cocoa farms. However, recent studies indicate that certain thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures can be used as starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentation. In this study, we investigate the potential of specifically developed starter cultures to modulate chocolate aroma. Specifically, we developed several new S. cerevisiae hybrids that combine thermotolerance and efficient cocoa pulp fermentation with a high production of volatile flavor-active esters. In addition, we investigated the potential of two strains of two non-Saccharomyces species that produce very large amounts of fruity esters (Pichia kluyveri and Cyberlindnera fabianii) to modulate chocolate aroma. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the cocoa liquor revealed an increased concentration of various flavor-active esters and a decrease in spoilage-related off-flavors in batches inoculated with S. cerevisiae starter cultures and, to a lesser extent, in batches inoculated with P. kluyveri and Cyb. fabianii. Additionally, GC-MS analysis of chocolate samples revealed that while most short-chain esters evaporated during conching, longer and more-fat-soluble ethyl and acetate esters, such as ethyl octanoate, phenylethyl acetate, ethyl phenylacetate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate, remained almost unaffected. Sensory analysis by an expert panel confirmed significant differences in the aromas of chocolates produced with different starter cultures. Together, these results show that the selection of different yeast cultures opens novel avenues for modulating chocolate flavor. PMID:26590272

  20. Production of 6-pentyl-α-pyrone by trichoderma harzianum in solid-state fermentation Produção de 6-pentil-α-pirona por Trichoderma harzianum em fermentação em estado sólido

    Aline de Souza Ramos; Sorele Batista Fiaux; Selma Gomes Ferreira Leite

    2008-01-01

    Many Trichoderma species are able to produce 6-pentyl-α-pyrone (6-PP), a lactone with coconut-like aroma. In the present work, several culture parameters were studied to enhance the production of 6-PP by Trichoderma harzianum 4040 in solid-state fermentation. Green coir powder added to a nutrient solution was used as support material for fermentation. A Plackett-Burman screening technique was applied, followed by a fractionary factorial design. The best culture conditions within the expe...

  1. Cheese production using kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins.

    Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kanellaki, Maria

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of kefir culture entrapped in casein and in whey protein as starter cultures for the production of Feta-type cheese. Microbiological analysis showed that counts of enterobacteria, coliforms, and staphylococci were significantly reduced due to kefir culture. In addition, the effect of kefir culture on the formation of volatile compounds, such as esters, organic acids, alcohols, carbonyl compounds, and lactones, was also investigated using the SPME GC/MS technique. Cheese samples produced with kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins presented improved profile of aroma-related compounds. Principal component analysis of the results indicated that the volatile composition of the different cheese types was dependent on the nature of the starter culture. Finally, the sensory evaluation showed that the products produced with kefir culture had a soft, fine taste, and were of improved quality. PMID:25809991

  2. Greenhouse production in Macedonia - challenges and opportunities

    Greenhouse tomato makes the largest share of vegetable production in the World. The developments of biological sciences and high technology in the protected crops sector have enabled drastic increase in the yield and contributed to improvement of the fruit quality. Main indicators for the fruit quality still remain to be evaluated by appearance (shape, color, size) whereas the sensor traits (taste and aroma) are somehow neglected. Among the consumers there is general impression that tomatoes grown on substrates are artificial, plastic, tasteless products, compared to the “genuine” tomato raised on soil. On the other hand, Macedonian vegetables have a very good reputation in the region with their fresh recognizable taste and aroma. It will be a challenge in the future to preserve it. Limiting factors for profitable glass house production in the Republic of Macedonia are the extreme temperatures in winter and in summer time. For that reason, not only that the glass house capacities are under utilized, but the expensive tomato hybrids that are intended for at least 10 months cropping period cannot return the profit within the short cropping period of 3-4 months. The institutional and educational systems in Macedonia do not keep the pace with latest developments in the greenhouse industry. Some of the Macedonian operators have made large investments in greenhouse production to be able to follow the market demands. In the newly erected greenhouses in Macedonia on total area of 7 ha in two locations (Kocani and Gevgelija) tomato is grown on substrates and the production is completely atomized in regards to fertirigation, environment control etc. This technology gives room for larger plants density and consequently, higher yields per unit of area. However, the substrate cultivation is not entirely adopted by the operators and they are completely dependent on the services provided by the supplier. It is of crucial importance to support them in this initial period of new production in identifying the bottlenecks and providing eventually intervention for optimal usage of the new technology. (Author)

  3. Fermented Meat Products: Organoleptic Qualities and Biogenic Amines-a Review

    Akhilesh K. Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods are value added products which have higher nutrients, prolong shelf life and easy in digestibility and are more suitable for the intestinal tract. The organoleptic qualities of such foods are higher particularly in terms of flavour, taste, aroma and colour. For the production of fermented products we require starter culture such as Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB strains, most of the meat starter cultures are Lactobacillus pentosus, L. casei L. curvetus, L. planterum, L. sakei, Pediococcus acidilactici and P. pentosaceus. These foods are also able to produce certain biogenic amines; the most commonly found biogenic amines in the meat and meat products are tyramine, cadaverine, putrescine and also histamine. The formation of such bioamines further enhances the functional properties of the foods besides addition in nutrients.

  4. Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma Estudo de compostos voláteis de ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin e estimativa da sua contribuição ao aroma

    Jorge Antonio Pino

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values (OAV. The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E-β-ionone, Γ-dodecalactone, (Z-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, Γ-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, Δ-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z-3-hexenol, (Z-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, Γ-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.As técnicas de extração-destilação simultâneas (SDE e de headspace-microextração em fase sólida (HS-SPME combinadas com GC-FID e GC-MS foram usadas para analisar compostos voláteis da ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin e para estimar os compostos de aroma mais ativos, pela aplicação de valores de atividade olfativa (OAV, considerando os compostos voláteis presentes no headspace da fruta. As análises levaram à identificação de 148 componentes, incluindo 58 ésteres, 23 terpenoides, 14 aldeídos, 11 álcoois, 10 cetonas, 9 alcanos, 7 ácidos, 4 lactonas, 3 fenóis e 9 outros compostos de diferentes estruturas. De acordo om os resultados de SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS e OAV, 2-metilbutanoato de etila, acetato de hexila, (E-2-nonenal, butanoato de etila, (E-2-decenal, hexanoato de etila, nonanal, decanal, (E-b-ionona, Γ-dodecalactona, acetato de (Z-3-hexenila, acetato de pentila, linalool, Γ-decalactona, acetato de butila, limoneno, acetato de propila, Δ-decalactona, sulfeto de dietila, acetato de (E-2-hexenila, heptanoato de etila, (Z-3-hexenol, hexanoato de (Z-3-hexenila, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, pentanoato de etila, hexil 2-butanoato de metila, hexanoato de isopentila, 1-hexanol, Γ-nonalactona, mirceno, acetato de octila, fenilacetaldeído, 1-butanol, acetato de isobutila, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, e nerol são compostos odoríficos característicos em ameixas frescas, já que foram encontrados em concentrações muito acima dos seus limiares de precepção olfativa.

  5. Evaluation gives productivity and quality gives fruit in Aguacate subjected has to gamma radiation

    Evaluation of productivity, post harvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Has avocado trees irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the La Labor Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300%. In regard to post harvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO2 /kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This means that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and post harvest behavior of fruits

  6. Evaluation of fruit productivity and quality in Hass avocado submitted to 60Co gamma radiation

    Evaluation of productivity, postharvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Hass avocado trees irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the ''La Labor'' Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologias del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300 %. In regard to postharvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO2/kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This mean that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and postharvest behavior of fruits. (Author)

  7. Flavour production of Stilton blue cheese microflora

    Gkatzionis, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    In the blue cheese Stilton the starter mould Penicillium roqueforti grows and sporulates during the ripening period and is considered to be responsible for the unique blue cheese aroma. However, the sporulation of the mould, which results in the formation of blue veins, takes place in a fraction of the Stilton matrix which overall is very heterogeneous. Most blue cheeses develop a secondary microflora of yeasts which may affect their aroma. The aim of this study was to investigate the yeast f...

  8. Chocolate: A Marvelous Natural Product of Chemistry

    Tannenbaum, Ginger

    2004-08-01

    Chocolate is a natural product as ubiquitous as television. Of course, it is eaten, but it is also found in air fresheners, marking pens, flavoring in a multitude of products including soda pop, and as an aroma in "chocolate-dyed" T-shirts. However, most of us are completely unaware of the complex chemical reactions that take place to produce chocolate and the necessary technology that has evolved to produce chocolate and all its byproducts. Processing results in a mixture of many components, an interesting contrast to most of the simple, one-step reactions introduced at the high school level. This article is a survey of chocolate from tree to table. After a brief introduction to the history of chocolate and how and where it is grown, the manufacturing process is examined, and the chemistry is explored. A bit of the jargon used in the industry is mentioned. Cocoa butter is a significant ingredient in chocolate, and an investigation of it introduces triglycerides, fatty acids, polymorphic behavior, and molecular packing of the fats in chocolate and how they affect the tempering process. There is a brief discussion of chocolate's non-Newtonian behavior and the resulting challenges presented in the manufacturing process. See Featured Molecules Featured on the Cover

  9. Applicability of Vacuum Impregnation to Modify Physico-Chemical, Sensory and Nutritive Characteristics of Plant Origin ProductsA Review

    El?bieta Radziejewska-Kubzdela

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food.

  10. Study of effect of radiation on the parameters of quality of sterile males of Ceratitis Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and their improvement aroma therapy

    In this present work, we are interested in studying the various stages in the production of sterile males, the effect of different doses of irradiation on longevity, compatibility and competitiveness of these males. And the effect of exposure of adults and pupae of Ceratitis to different doses of essential oil of ginger on their compatibility and competitiveness. (Author)

  11. Investigation of bias of hedonic scores when co-eliciting product attribute information using CATA questions

    Jaeger, Sara R.; Giacalone, Davide; Roigard, Cristina M.; Pineau, Benedicte; Vidal, Leticia; Giménez, Ana; Frøst, Michael Bom; Ares, Gaston

    2013-01-01

    (appearance, aroma, flavour, taste, aftertaste, mouthfeel). The present research suggests that co-elicitation of hedonic scores and product attribute information using CATA questions may bias the hedonic scores, but not that it certainly will do so. This needs to be recognised, leading to more widespread......Sensory and consumer scientists disagree on the practice of concurrently obtaining sensory information in hedonic tests. This is in part due to different mindsets about what consumers are able to do and evidence that such co-elicitation may bias hedonic scores. Check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions...... questions. The use of CATA concurrently with hedonic was benchmarked against concurrent attribute liking scores, attribute intensity scores and just-about-right scaling. Across a range of product categories (beer, fresh fruit, tea, flavoured water, crackers, savoury dips), only weak and transient evidence...

  12. Wine Production by Guava Piece Immobilized Yeast from Indian Cultivar Grapes and its Volatile Composition

    L.V.A. Reddy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Suitability of guava pieces for the preparation of immobilized yeast biocatalyst for wine production was investigated by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in repeated batch fermentation. The fermentation rate and other parameters were compared with free yeast cells at different temperatures. The volatile compounds, methanol, ethyl acetate, 1-propanol, isobutanol and amyl alcohols which, formed during fermentation were analyzed with the help of GC-FID. The concentrations of ethyl acetate and methanol were not more than 100 mg L-1 in all cases, indicating an improvement in the product. There are no changes in cell metabolism of immobilized yeast. Preliminary sensory tests established the fruity aroma, fine taste and the overall improved quality of the produced wines.

  13. Investigation of cumulative production of neutral resonanses using the Foton-Masser device

    A Cherenkov multipurpose mass spectrometer the investigation into processes of the cumulative production of neutral resonances at the FOTON-MASSER device is described. Experimental apparatus include beam detectors consisting of scintillation counters and six one-coordinate proportional chambers, gamma quantum and electron detector consisting of magnetostrictive spark, scintillation hodoscope counters and Cherenkov multichannel spectrometer of complete absorption. Apparatus parameters and basic experimental results are given. It is suggested that further modernization of the existing ''Masser-130'' device will permit to elucidate the role of multibaryon clusters in reactions of cumulative particle production, to study dependences of cumulative process cross sections on aromas and to test a number of theoretical predictions based on a quark model

  14. Influence of thermal treatment of wood on the aroma of a sugar cane spirit (cachaça) model-solution

    Marta Helena Fillet Spoto; Marcelo Machado Leão; José Otávio Otávio Brito

    2011-01-01

    The aging process of alcoholic beverages is generally conducted in wood barrels made with species from Quercus sp. Due to the high cost and the lack of viability of commercial production of these trees in Brazil, there is demand for new alternatives to using other native species and the incorporation of new technologies that enable greater competitiveness of sugar cane spirit aged in Brazilian wood. The drying of wood, the thermal treatment applied to it, and manufacturing techniques are impo...

  15. Physicochemical and sensory characterization of refined and deodorized tuna (Thunnus albacares) by-product oil obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis.

    de Oliveira, Dayse A S B; Minozzo, Marcelo G; Licodiedoff, Silvana; Waszczynskyj, Nina

    2016-09-15

    In this study, the effects of chemical refining and deodorization on fatty acid profiles and physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the tuna by-product oil obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis were evaluated. Enzymatic extraction was conducted for 120min at 60°C and pH 6.5 using Alcalase at an enzyme-substrate ratio of 1:200 w/w. The chemical refining of crude oil consisted of degumming, neutralization, washing, drying, bleaching, and deodorization; deodorization was conducted at different temperatures and processing times. Although chemical refining was successful, temperature and chemical reagents favored the removal of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from the oil. Aroma attributes of fishy odor, frying odor, and rancid odor predominantly contributed to the sensory evaluation of the product. Deodorization conditions of 160°C for 1h and 200°C for 1h were recommended for the tuna by-product oil, which is rich in PUFA. PMID:27080896

  16. ‘Hicaznar’ Çeşidinde Farklı Uygulamaların Soğukta Depolama Süresince Fitokimyasal ve Uçucu Aroma Bileşimine Etkileri

    Ayşe Tülin Öz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ‘Hicaznar’ çeşidi açıkta ve modifiye atmosfer ambalajlarında (MAP +7°C sıcaklık ve %85-90 oransal nemde 18 hafta süreyle muhafaza edilmiştir. ‘Hicaznar’ meyvelerinde depolama süresince; ağırlık kaybı, CO2/O2 gaz değişimi, nar tane rengi [L (parlaklık, C (Chroma], Suda Çözünür Kuru Madde (SÇKM miktarı, pH, titre edilebilir asitlik (TA, toplam fenolik madde miktarı (mg/100mL, toplam flavonoid madde miktarı (mg/100mL, antioksidan aktivite miktarı (%, malik asit (%, şeker (glikoz, fruktoz, sakkaroz, sorbitol (% ve uçucu aroma bileşikleri değişimi belirlenmiştir. Muhafaza sonunda ‘Hicaznar’ meyvelerinin ortalama ağırlık kaybında ve nar tane L (parlaklık değerinde artış görülürken Chroma renk değerinde hafif düşüşler meydana gelmiştir. Depolama süresinin sonunda, nar meyve suyu toplam fenolik madde miktarı kontrol grubunda 109,5 mg/100mL iken MAP grubunda 127,83 olarak saptanmış; toplam flavonoid madde miktarı ise sırası ile 26,8 (kontrol ve 27,1 (MAP düşmüştür. SÇKM miktarındaki azalışlar istatistiksel anlamda önemli bulunmuştur. Ayrıca 18 hafta süreyle açıkta ve MAP’da depolanan ‘Hicaznar’ çeşidi meyvelerinde otomatik tepe boşluğu katı faz mikro-ekstraksiyon gaz kromatografisi-kütle spektrofotometre (HS-SPME GC/MS tekniği kullanılarak alkol, aldehit, alkan, asit, ester, terpen ve diğer bileşikler olmak üzere toplam 27 farklı uçucu aroma bileşiği tespit edilmiştir. Depolama farklılıklarının ve süresinin uçucu bileşiklere etkisi incelendiğinde genel olarak tepen bileşikleri muhafaza sonunda her iki muhafaza yönteminde artış olduğu ve bu artışın MAP depolanan meyvelerde daha fazla olduğu belirlenmiştir. Alkollerde, aldehitlerde ve asitlerde ise her iki uygulamada muhafaza sonunda düşüşler meydana gelmiştir.

  17. VOLÁTILES DE MAÍZ (lea mays, CEBADA (Hordeum vulgare Y CAFE (Coffea arábica TOSTADOS. INFLUENCIA DE LA ADICIÓN DE ESTOS CEREALES EN EL AROMA DEL CAFÉ

    Alvaro Duarte Ruiz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Los volátiles de café a dos grados de torrefacción, como también los del maíz y los de cebada tostados, fueron extraídos por "Headspace" dinámico. La composición de los volátiles fue determinada por Cromatografía de Gases de Alta Resolución acoplada a Espectrometría de Masas (CGAREM. Los constituyentes mayoritarios del café torrefactado a 230 "C durante 8 minutos fueron el furfural 2-metil-3 dihidrofuranona y 2,3- pentadiona mientras que a230"Cy 10 minutos fueron el 2-furanmetanol, 3 metilpirazina, la 1,6-dimetilpirazina y acetato de 2-furanmetanol. Los constituyentes de mayor concentración en el maíz fueron el furfural y el 5-metilfurfuraI y en la cebada el 2-metilbutanal, el 3 metilbutanal y el furano. El análisis sensorial del café y mezclas de café con maiz y cebada permitió detectar adulteración a partir de 20% de cereal en un café torrefactado durante 8 min., pero cuando la torrefacción se realizó por 10 min. fue muy difícil percibir el aroma a cereal, principalmente cuando éste es cebada. Los resultados fueron utilizados como indicadores de la adulteración del café con cereales y como un criterio de evaluación para garantizar la pureza del café Colombiano.

  18. Yeast: the soul of beer's aroma--a review of flavour-active esters and higher alcohols produced by the brewing yeast.

    Pires, Eduardo J; Teixeira, Jos A; Brnyik, Toms; Vicente, Antnio A

    2014-03-01

    Among the most important factors influencing beer quality is the presence of well-adjusted amounts of higher alcohols and esters. Thus, a heavy body of literature focuses on these substances and on the parameters influencing their production by the brewing yeast. Additionally, the complex metabolic pathways involved in their synthesis require special attention. More than a century of data, mainly in genetic and proteomic fields, has built up enough information to describe in detail each step in the pathway for the synthesis of higher alcohols and their esters, but there is still place for more. Higher alcohols are formed either by anabolism or catabolism (Ehrlich pathway) of amino acids. Esters are formed by enzymatic condensation of organic acids and alcohols. The current paper reviews the up-to-date knowledge in the pathways involving the synthesis of higher alcohols and esters by brewing yeasts. Fermentation parameters affecting yeast response during biosynthesis of these aromatic substances are also fully reviewed. PMID:24384752

  19. O AROMA AMBIENTAL E SUA RELAÇÃO COM AS AVALIAÇÕES E INTENÇÕES DO CONSUMIDOR NO VAREJO

    André Luiz Carvalho Nunes da Costa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The atmosphere of a store can be used to produce specific emotions that enhance purchase probability, and the ambient scent,artificially added, is among its dimensions. This article investigates the relationship between the presence of an ambient scent in a retail store, and customers’ evaluation of the store, its environment and products, as well as the behavioral intentions related to return and time spent in the store. The research design included an exploratory stage, examination of publications in the fields of physiology, psychology and consumer behavior, to provide the conceptual background and to formulate research hypothesis; and a causal stage, quasi-experiment,to verify the effects of scent presence. Semantic differential scales were employed for data collection. Descriptive statistics and hypothesistest were performed for data analysis and the results revealed that the scent presence did not improve the evaluations or the intent to return but retained the consumer longer in the store.

  20. Consumer acceptance of vegetarian sweet potato products intended for space missions.

    Wilson, C D; Pace, R D; Bromfield, E; Jones, G; Lu, J Y

    1998-01-01

    Sweet potato is one of the crops selected for NASA's Advanced Life Support Program for potential long-duration lunar/Mars missions. This article presents recipes of products made from sweet potato and determines the consumer acceptability of products containing from 6% to 20% sweet potato on a dry weight basis. These products were developed for use in nutritious and palatable meals for future space explorers. Sensory evaluation (appearance/color, aroma, texture, flavor/taste, and overall acceptability) studies were conducted to determine the consumer acceptability of vegetarian products made with sweet potato using panelists at NASA/Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX. None of these products including the controls, contained any ingredient of animal origin with the exception of sweet potato pie. A 9-point hedonic scale (9 being like extremely and 1 being dislike extremely) was used to evaluate 10 products and compare them to similar commercially available products used as controls. The products tested were pancakes, waffles, tortillas, bread, pie, pound cake, pasta, vegetable patties, doughnuts, and pretzels. All of the products were either liked moderately or liked slightly with the exception of the sweet potato vegetable patties, which were neither liked nor disliked. Mean comparisons of sensory scores of sweet potato recipes and their controls were accomplished by using the Student t-test. Because of their nutritional adequacy and consumer acceptability, these products are being recommended to NASA's Advanced Life Support Program for inclusion in a vegetarian menu plan designed for lunar/Mars space missions. PMID:11876201

  1. Production of β-ionone by combined expression of carotenogenic and plant CCD1 genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Lopez, Javiera; Essus, Karen; Kim, Il-Kwon; Pereira, Rui; Herzog, Jan; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens; Agosin, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Apocarotenoids, like the C13-norisoprenoids, are natural compounds that contribute to the flavor and/or aroma of flowers and foods. They are produced in aromatic plants-like raspberries and roses-by the enzymatic cleavage of carotenes. Due to their pleasant aroma and flavour...... cells. The additional integration of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase gene from the plant Petunia hybrida (PhCCD1) let to the production of low amounts of beta-ionone (0.073 ± 0.01 mg/g DCW) and changed the color of the strain from orange to yellow. The expression of the crtYB gene from a high copy...... carotenogenic crtYB, crtI genes and the plant PhCCD1 gene-the highest β-ionone concentration reported to date by a cell factory was achieved. This microbial cell factory represents a starting point for flavor production by a sustainable and efficient process that could replace current methods....

  2. Análisis del metabolismo nitrogenado durante la fermentación alcohólica en levaduras vínicas (Nitrogen metaolism in wine yeast during alcoholic fermentation: effect on growth, fermentation activity and aroma production)

    Gutiérrez Linares, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    La carencia de nitrógeno es uno de los principales problemas encontrados en la elaboración del vino, especialmente relacionados con fermentaciones lentas e incompletas. En condiciones de vinificación, bajos niveles iniciales de nitrógeno limitan el crecimiento y la producción de biomasa, provocando una baja tasa de fermentación. Los compuestos nitrogenados presentes en el mosto también influyen en la producción de metabolitos volátiles y no volátiles que son los que regula...

  3. Chemometric techniques on evaluation of the flavor of irradiated orange juice concentrate; Tecnicas quimiometricas na avaliacao do sabor de aroma do suco de laranja concentrado e irradiado

    Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    1994-12-31

    The effects of storage temperature and time on can orange juice concentrated were studied for samples irradiated at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy doses from a gamma-ray source as well as for untreated samples. All samples were stored at 0{sup 0} C, 5{sup 0} C and 25{sup 0} C for periods of 1, 30, 60 and 90 days. The concentrated orange juice was subjected to sensorial evaluations and gas chromatographic analysis. The free profile technique was applied using eight trained panel applying the Quantitative Descriptive Analyses, using a 10 cm unstructured category scale for each attribute. Samples stored for more than one day showed a diminution in the orange attribute rating and correspondent increases in ratings for the bitterness, medicinal and cooked attributes. Storage at 0{sup 0} C and 5{sup 0} C showed smaller effects on the sweetness ratings as well as on the oily, acidic and medicinal flavor characteristics. In most cases increased radiation levels were accompanied by lower intensity of orange attribute values and higher intensity of bitter, medicinal and cooked attributes. Forty three chemical compounds were characterized. Mircene, octanal, {delta}-3-carene, limonene, citronelal, and neral were highly correlated and statistically significant correlation coefficients. All these components showed low, but 95% confidence significant level correlations with the orange attribute. On the other hand the correlated group of hexanal, octanol, oxidation products, terpinene-4-ol, cis-carveol, nerol, carvona, geraniol, perilyl alcohol and cariophilene substances can be associated the bitter, medicinal and cooked attributes of the irradiated orange juice concentrate. (author). 83 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Hydrogen sulfide production during yeast fermentation causes the accumulation of ethanethiol, S-ethyl thioacetate and diethyl disulfide.

    Kinzurik, Matias I; Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Gardner, Richard C; Fedrizzi, Bruno

    2016-10-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is produced by yeast during winemaking and possesses off-flavors reminiscent of rotten eggs. The production of H2S during fermentation has also been associated in the finished wine with the rise of additional volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) with strong aromas of cooked onions and vegetables. To characterize these more complex VSCs produced from H2S, we performed fermentations in synthetic grape juice. H2S production was manipulated experimentally by feeding increasing concentrations of sulfate to mutant strains that are unable to incorporate H2S efficiently as part of the sulfur assimilation pathway. In finished wines from these mutants, three VSCs - ethanethiol, S-ethyl thioacetate and diethyl disulfide - increased proportionally to H2S. (34)S-labeled sulfate fed to the MET17-deleted strain was incorporated into same three VSCs, demonstrating that they are formed directly from H2S. PMID:27173572

  5. Production of radioisotope products

    For more than 20 years medicines, compounds and products with radioactive isotopes for medicine, science and technique which are used in the Republic and exported in Community countries, Europe, USA are fabricated at 'Radiopreparat' enterprise of Nuclear Physics Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences. Number of products fabricated now at 'Radiopreparat' enterprise exceeds 70 descriptions. The technologies for production of these medicines are unique and simple. Quality of the products yielded doesn't concede to worldwide analog. The products may be divided into 5 sorts: 1. Radiopharmaceutical medicines and products. 2. Compounds tagged with radioisotopes for biotechnology and genetic engineering. 3. Medicines of common use. 4. Radioisotope generators of technetium-99m. 5. Sources for X-ray fluorescent analysis from iron - 55

  6. Bioflavour production from orange peel hydrolysate using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Lalou, Sofia; Mantzouridou, Fani; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Bugarski, Branko; Levic, Steva; Nedovic, Victor

    2013-11-01

    The rising trend of bioflavour synthesis by microorganisms is hindered by the high manufacturing costs, partially attributed to the cost of the starting material. To overcome this limitation, in the present study, dilute-acid hydrolysate of orange peel was employed as a low-cost, rich in fermentable sugars substrate for the production of flavour-active compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With this purpose, the use of immobilized cell technology to protect cells against the various inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate was evaluated with regard to yeast viability, carbon and nitrogen consumption and cell ability to produce flavour active compounds. For cell immobilization the encapsulation in Ca alginate beads was used. The results were compared with those obtained using free-cell system. Based on the data obtained immobilized cells showed better growth performance and increased ability for de novo synthesis of volatile esters of "fruity" aroma (phenylethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate and dodecanoate) than those of free cells. The potential for in situ production of new formulations containing flavour-active compounds derive from yeast cells and also from essential oil of orange peel (limonene, ?-terpineol) was demonstrated by the fact that bioflavour mixture was found to accumulate within the beads. Furthermore, the ability of the immobilized yeast to perform efficiently repeated batch fermentations of orange peel hydrolysate for bioflavour production was successfully maintained after six consecutive cycles of a total period of 240 h. PMID:23995224

  7. Immobilized rennin in TC/SG composite in cheese production.

    Barouni, Eleftheria; Petsi, Theano; Kolliopoulos, Dionysios; Vasileiou, Dimitrios; Panas, Panagiotis; Bekatorou, Argyro; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-06-01

    The object of the current study was to develop a new process for continuous Feta-type cheese production using a biocatalyst consisting of immobilized rennin on a tubular cellulose/starch gel (TC/SG) composite, which has been proven to be an appropriate carrier for enzyme immobilization. Different methodologies were used in order to prepare four biocatalysts. The most effective was selected for cheese production in a 1L continuous system, providing two economically useful results for the dairy industries: (i) increase of productivity by the continuous coagulation of milk, and (ii) saving of the rennin enzyme expenses of the batch coagulation of milk. The criteria used to choose the appropriate biocatalyst was based on the time of coagulation in successive batches, the concentration of immobilized rennin combined with the filter efficiency and its application in the continuous system. Physicochemical analyses of the cheeses at various stages of the ripening were performed. No significant differences compared to cheeses prepared with the traditional method were found. Aroma compounds were determined by SPME GC-MS. PMID:26830563

  8. Perspectives for the biotechnological production of ethyl acetate by yeasts.

    Lser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Bley, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Ethyl acetate is an environmentally friendly solvent with many industrial applications. The production of ethyl acetate currently proceeds by energy-intensive petrochemical processes which are based on natural gas and crude oil without exception. Microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate could become an interesting alternative. The formation of esters as aroma compounds in food has been repeatedly reviewed, but a survey which deals with microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate as a bulk product is missing. The ability of yeasts for producing larger amounts of this ester is known for a long time. In the past, this potential was mainly of scientific interest, but in the future, it could be applied to large-scale ester production from renewable raw materials. Pichia anomala, Candida utilis, and Kluyveromyces marxianus are yeasts which convert sugar into ethyl acetate with a high yield where the latter is the most promising one. Special attention was paid to the mechanism of ester synthesis including regulatory aspects and to the maximum and expectable yield. Synthesis of much ethyl acetate requires oxygen which is usually supplied by aeration. Ethyl acetate is highly volatile so that aeration results in its phase transfer and stripping. This stripping process cannot be avoided but requires adequate handling during experimentation and offers a chance for a cost-efficient process-integrated recovery of the synthesized ester. PMID:24788328

  9. Evaluation of Fermentation Products of Palm Wine Yeasts and Role of Sacoglottis gabonensis Supplement on Products Abundance

    Ogueri Nwaiwu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary evaluation of yeast fermented palm wine sourced from Imo State in Nigeria was carried out to establish compounds that contribute to the distinct flavor of the beverage and to determine if the product abundance is affected when the drink is supplemented with Sacoglottis gabonensis. Palm wine samples from two different trees Elaeis sp. and Raphia sp. (pH less than 5 that contain Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeast species identified by sequencing the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA genes were used. Evaluation was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Samples contained 5.9–11.6, 2.2–7.1, 4.2–43.0, and 4.4–43.7 g/L of acetic acid, lactic acid, ethanol and glucose, respectively. Ethyl acetate, acetic acid and ethanol had the most aroma intensity and an assessment on the yeast metabolome database showed that 23 out of the 31 products detected were present in the database. Addition of Sacoglottis gabonensis supplement to a Raphia sp. palm wine sample showed lower abundance of acetoin, acetic acid, methylpropyl lactate, ethyl octanoate and propyl acetate. We conclude that Sacoglottis gabonensis supplementation could suppress specific compounds during palm wine fermentation. This knowledge could be applied in new product development for the beverage.

  10. MET2 affects production of hydrogen sulfide during wine fermentation.

    Huang, Chien; Roncoroni, Miguel; Gardner, Richard C

    2014-08-01

    The production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) during yeast fermentation contributes negatively to wine aroma. We have mapped naturally occurring mutations in commercial wine strains that affect production of H2S. A dominant R310G mutant allele of MET2, which encodes homoserine O-acetyltransferase, is present in several wine yeast strains as well as in the main lab strain S288c. Reciprocal hemizygosity and allele swap experiments demonstrated that the MET2 R310G allele confers reduced H2S production. Mutations were also identified in genes encoding the two subunits of sulfite reductase, MET5 and MET10, which were associated with reduced H2S production. The most severe of these, an allele of MET10, showed five additional phenotypes: reduced growth rate on sulfate, elevated secretion of sulfite, and reduced production in wine of three volatile sulfur compounds: methionol, carbon disulfide and methylthioacetate. Alleles of MET5 and MET10, but not MET2, affected H2S production measured by colour assays on BiGGY indicator agar, but MET2 effects were seen when bismuth was added to agar plates made with Sauvignon blanc grape juice. Collectively, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that H2S production during wine fermentation results predominantly from enzyme activity in the sulfur assimilation pathway. Lower H2S production results from mutations that reduce the activity of sulfite reductase, the enzyme that produces H2S, or that increase the activity of L-homoserine-O-acetyltransferase, which produces substrate for the next step in the sulfur assimilation pathway. PMID:24841117

  11. Avaliação do uso de inibidores de etileno sobre a produção de compostos voláteis e de mangiferina em manga Evaluation of the use of ethylene inhibitors on production of volatile compounds and mangiferin in mango fruit

    Kirley Marques Canuto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of two ethylene inhibitors, 1-methylcylopropene (1-MCP and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, on production of volatile compounds and mangiferin (a bioactive xanthone in 'Tommy Atkins' mango fruit were investigated. Volatile composition and mangiferin content, in treated and untreated fruits at three maturity, stages were determined by SPME-GC-MS and HPLC, respectively. These chromatographical analysis revealed that the volatile profiles and mangiferin concentrations were not significantly different, suggesting that the use of ethylene inhibitors does not affect the mango aroma and functional properties relative to this xanthone. Moreover, a simple, precise and accurate HPLC method was developed for quantifying mangiferin in mango pulp.

  12. Production of volatiles in fresh-cut apple: effect of applying alginate coatings containing linoleic acid or isoleucine.

    Maya-Meraz, Irma O; Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Molina-Corral, Francisco J; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Jacobo-Cuellar, Juan L; Sepulveda, David R; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2014-11-01

    One of the main quality parameters in apples is aroma, its main precursors are fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). In this study, alginate edible coatings were used as carriers of linoleic acid or isoleucine to serve as precursors for the production of aroma in cut apples. Apple wedges were immersed in a CaCl2 solution and coated with one of the following formulations: alginate solution (Alg-Ca), Alg-Ca-low-level linoleic acid (0.61 g/Lt), (LFA), Alg-Ca-high-level linoleic acid (2.44 g/L; HFA), Alg-Ca-low-level isoleucine (0.61 g/L; LAA), and Alg-Ca-high-level isoleucine (2.44 g/L; HAA). Apple wedges were stored at 3 °C and 85% relative humidity for 21 d and key volatiles were studied during storage. Addition of precursors, mainly isoleucine, showed to increase the production of some key volatiles on coated fresh-cut apples during storage. The concentration of 2-methyl-1-butanol was 4 times higher from day 12 to day 21 in HAA, while 2-methyl butyl acetate increased from day 12 to day 21 in HAA. After 21 d, HAA-apples presented a 40-fold value of 2-methyl-butyl acetate, compared to Alg-Ca cut apples. Values of hexanal increased during cut apple storage when the coating carried linoleic acid, mainly on HFA, from 3 to 12 d. The ability of apples to metabolize AA and FA depends on the concentration of precursors, but also depends on key enzymes, previous apple storage, among others. Further studies should be done to better clarify the behavior of fresh-cut apples as living tissue to metabolize precursors contained in edible coatings for the production of volatiles. PMID:25296624

  13. Electronic Nose Monitoring the Maillard Reaction Flavors of Sesame Oil from Different Production Processes

    Su Dong-Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this study was to evaluate the capacity of electronic nose to monitoring the effect of different Maillard reaction processes on natural flavors of sesame oil, using a specific Electronic Nose device (PEN3. The flavors were prepared by Maillard reaction using chemical constituents from water extract of Lentinus and other precursors. The optimum conditions of reaction process was determined by using orthogonal test design, then an Electronic Nose (PEN3was used to characterize and classify eight different flavors from different reaction process and sesame oil from market. This method firstly sampled aroma composition emanating from the flavors by PEN3 systems and then obtained response values of PEN3. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA were used in order to investigate whether the electronic nose was able to distinguish among different Maillard Reaction Production (MRP. The loadings analysis was used to identify the sensors responsible for discrimination in the current pattern file. The results of this study showed that the basic components added with lysine, xylose and glycerin, heated in glycerine bath at 140?C for 120 min, was a novel flavors with sesame oil flavor and taste. The electronic nose PEN 3 can discriminate successfully different MRPs using both PCA and LDA analysis. But, it was not able to detect a clear difference in the sample of similar aroma with sesame oil using PCA analysis. Some sensors have the highest influence in the current pattern file for electronic nose PEN 3. A subset of few sensors can be chosen to explain all the variance. This result could be used in further studies to optimize the number of sensors.

  14. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality

    Hammershøj, Marianne; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk...... increased significantly with the kale treatment. 4. The egg shell strength tended to be higher with the kale treatment, and egg yolk colour was significantly more red with the kale treatment and more yellow with basil and kale treatments. The albumen DM content and albumen gel strength were lowest with the...... thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and -carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange...

  15. Hydrogen production

    England, C.; Chirivella, J. E.; Fujita, T.; Jeffe, R. E.; Lawson, D.; Manvi, R.

    1975-01-01

    The state of hydrogen production technology is evaluated. Specific areas discussed include: hydrogen production fossil fuels; coal gasification processes; electrolysis of water; thermochemical production of hydrogen; production of hydrogen by solar energy; and biological production of hydrogen. Supply options are considered along with costs of hydrogen production.

  16. The Nose Knows: Biotechnological Production of Vanillin

    Winter, Remko T.; van Beek, Hugo L.; Fraaije, Marco W.

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin, the compound responsible for the well-known vanilla aroma, is almost exclusively produced via a chemical process, with only a small fraction extracted from natural sources, namely, the bean of the orchid "Vanilla planifolia". Research is being done towards a green chemistry process to obtain natural vanillin. A model biotechnological…

  17. The Nose Knows: Biotechnological Production of Vanillin

    Winter, Remko T.; van Beek, Hugo L.; Fraaije, Marco W.

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin, the compound responsible for the well-known vanilla aroma, is almost exclusively produced via a chemical process, with only a small fraction extracted from natural sources, namely, the bean of the orchid "Vanilla planifolia". Research is being done towards a green chemistry process to obtain natural vanillin. A model biotechnological

  18. Oxidation and formation of oxidation products of ?-carotene at boiling temperature.

    Zeb, Alam

    2012-04-01

    ?-Carotene is one of the most important lipid component extensively used in food industries as source of pro-vitamin A and colorant. During processing and storage ?-carotene is oxidized and degraded to various oxidation compounds. Some of these compounds are also the key aroma compounds in certain flowers, vegetables and fruits. The methods for analysis and determination of these oxidized products formed during food boiling or preparation are key to the understanding the chemistry of these compounds. This paper presents a novel analytical method incorporating high performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometric detection for the characterization of oxidation, isomerization and oxidation products of ?-carotene in toluene at boiling temperature. HPLC and APCI-MS was optimized using oxidized sample and flow injection analysis of the standard ?-carotene respectively. ?-Carotene was oxidized in the Rancimat at 110C for 30, 60 and 90 min. The oxidized samples were than analyzed by HPLC system at 450 nm and 350 nm as well as scanning and single ion monitoring mass spectrometry. A total of ten oxidation products and three Z-isomers were reported. Extensive isomerization was observed during treatment at the control accelerated conditions. The oxidation products include five apo-carotenals, three diepoxides, one mono-epoxide and one short chain species. Results show that the method was reproducible, accurate and reliable for the separation and identification of oxidation products of ?-carotene. PMID:22387098

  19. Utilization of concentrated cheese whey for the production of protein concentrate fuel alcohol and alcoholic beverages

    Krishnamurti, R.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to recover the major components of whey and to develop food applications for their incorporation/conversion into acceptable products of commercial value. Reconstituted dried sweet whey with 36% solids was ultrafiltered to yield a protein concentrate (WPC) and a permeate containing 24% lactose and 3.7% ash. Orange juice fortified up to 2.07% and chocolate milks fortified up to 5.88% total protein levels with WPC containing 45% total protein were acceptable to about 90% of a panel of 24 individuals. Fermentation of demineralized permeate at 30/sup 0/C with Kluyveromyces fragilis NRRL Y 2415 adapted to 24% lactose levels, led to 13.7% (v/v) ethanol in the medium at the end of 34 hours. Batch productivity was 3.2 gms. ethanol per liter per hour and conversion efficiency was 84.26% of the theoretical maximum. Alcoholic fermentation of permeate and subsequent distillation produced compounds with desirable aroma characters in such products. This study suggests that there is potential for the production of protein fortified non-alcoholic products and alcoholic beverages of commercial value from whey, thus providing a cost effective solution to the whey utilization problem.

  20. CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL AND SENSORY ANALYSIS OF ACTIVITY DIFFERENT YEAST SPECIES ON IDENTICAL SUBSTRATE IN WINE PRODUCTION

    Vladimr Vietoris

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rizling vlask is the second most important variety in Slovakia. The science of wine production includes a summary of knowledge and experience in the field of grape growing and wine making, or the production of different types of wines using specific methods of production. Wine quality is the result of the interaction between yeast, bacteria and microscopic funguses. In this research, we studied the effects of active dry wine yeasts on chemical, physical and sensory parameters in wine production. We have applied five kinds of yeasts (FERMIVIN, FERMIVIN PDV, FERMICRU AR2, FERMIFLOR and FERMICRU VB1. It can be concluded that the application of active dry wine yeasts is beneficial for the production of rizling vlask. The best showing were yeasts FERMIFLOR and FERMIVIN PDM. In the last sample where they were left the original yeasts the varietal aroma was preserved. It can be noted that the wine was right technologically produced and all wines were harmonious with a pleasant fresh taste.

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation for inactivating Salmonella Typhimurium in peanut butter product during storage.

    Ban, Ga-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Three types (A, B, and C) of peanut butter product with different water activities (0.18, 0.39, and 0.65 aw) inoculated with a 3-strain mixture of Salmonella Typhimurium were subjected to gamma irradiation (⁶⁰Co) treatment, with doses ranging from 0 to 3 kGy. The inactivation of S. Typhimurium in the 3 types of treated peanut butter product over a 14 day storage period and the influence of storage temperature at 4 (refrigerated) and 25 °C (ambient), and peanut butter product formulation were investigated. Three types of peanut butter product inoculated with S. Typhimurium to a level of ca. 6.6 log CFU/g and subjected to gamma irradiation experienced significant (ppeanut butter product to undetectable levels was 14, 5, and 5 days at 25°C after exposure to 3 kGy for products A, B, and C, respectively, and 7 days at 25 °C following exposure to 2 kGy for product C. During storage at 4 and 25 °C, survival of S. Typhimurium was lowest in product C compared to products A and B. Water activity (a(w)) of peanut butter product was likely the most critical factor affecting pathogen survival. When a(w) is reduced, radiolysis of water is reduced, thereby decreasing antimicrobial action. Overall, death was more rapid at 25 °C versus 4 °C for all peanut butter products during 14 day storage. Following gamma irradiation, acid values of peanut butter product were not significantly different from the control, and general observations failed to detect changes in color and aroma, even though lightness observed using a colorimeter was slightly reduced on day 0. The use of gamma irradiation has potential in preventing spoilage of post-packaged food by destroying microorganisms and improving the safety and quality of foods without compromising sensory quality. PMID:24321602

  2. Tocopherol measurement in edible products of vegetable origin.

    Gómez-Coronado, Diego J M; Ibañez, Elena; Rupérez, F Javier; Barbas, Coral

    2004-10-29

    Since natural antioxidants present increasing interest for food industry due to their beneficial effect on health, new potential sources have been screened among edible aromatic plants and a microalgae, Spirulina platensis. The determination was performed after optimising a previously validated method, because important differences have been found among values described in literature for tocopherol content in products of vegetable origin. Values obtained ranged from 3.42 mg alpha-tocopherol/100 g of dill to 132.2 mg/100 g of fresh bay and from 0.14 mg gamma-tocopherol/100 g of spearmint to 3.45 mg/100 g of parsley. In all cases results were calculated from fresh leaves. Preliminary experiments were developed with bay (Laurus nobilis) plant to devise the supercritical fluid extraction of tocopherols, generating environmentally friendly processes to selectively extract fractions enriched with antioxidant compounds while removing fractions corresponding to essential oils, that is, those that correspond to the characteristic aroma of the plants. Another striking result has been the tocopherol content in the microalgae, 1.3 mg alpha-tocopherol/100 g of dried commercial spirulina, which do not justify the supposed source of antioxidant vitamins. Results suggest the need of more reliable determinations of tocopherols in vegetable sources to be included in databases. PMID:15553148

  3. POTENCIAL PRODUTIVO DE CULTIVARES DE MORANGUEIRO / PRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF STRAWBERRY CULTIVARS

    AMANDA GONALVES, GUIMARES; VALTER CARVALHO DE, ANDRADE JNIOR; AHMED YOUSSEF ABDELNABI MOHAMED, ELSAYED; JOS SEBASTIO CUNHA, FERNANDES; MARCOS AURLIO MIRANDA, FERREIRA.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo foi avaliar o potencial produtivo de cultivares de morangueiro em regio representativa do Alto Jequitinhonha. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Mape Frutas Ltda., localizada no municpio de Datas-MG, em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com oito cultivares de morangueiro em q [...] uatro repeties, para verificar a produo de mudas e de frutos. A contagem da produo de estoles e de mudas foi realizada aos 180 dias aps o plantio. A avaliao das variveis relacionadas produo de frutos foi feita duas vezes por semana, no perodo de maio a outubro de 2012. Das cultivares de dias curtos (Festival, Campinas, Toyonoka, Dover, Oso Grande e Camarosa) e dias neutros (Diamante e Aromas), apenas Toyonoka foi a que apresentou menor desempenho para as variveis. A significativa superioridade das cultivares Camarosa e Festival, para praticamente todas as variveis avaliadas, permite recomend-las para regies com caractersticas edafoclimticas semelhantes s da regio onde o experimento foi conduzido. Dentre as cultivares avaliadas, as mais precoces tenderam a apresentar maior desempenho para variveis relacionadas produo de frutos. Abstract in english ABSTRACT This study was conducted in order to evaluate the productive potential of strawberry cultivars in a representative region of Alto Jequitinhonha - Brazil. The experiment was conducted at farm Mape Frutas Ltda, located in the municipality of dates, MG, in randomized block design with eight s [...] trawberry cultivars in four replications to verify the production of seedlings and fruit. Counting of production of stolons and seedlings was performed at 180 days after planting. The assessment of variables related to fruit production was done twice a week from May to October 2012. Cultivars of short days (Festival, Campinas, Toyonoka, Dover, Oso Grande and Camarosa) and day neutral (Diamante and Aromas), only Toyonoka showed the lowest performance for the variables. The significant superiority of the cultivars Camarosa and Festival for virtually all variables allows recommends it for regions with similar climatic edaphic characteristics of the region where the experiment was conducted. Among the cultivars, the earlier tended to have higher performance for variables related to fruit production.

  4. Product Attachment

    Mugge, R

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral research is the concept of product attachment for ordinary consumer durables. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a specific product. Specifically, the research investigated how this bond develops over time and the relationship between product attachment and product lifetime. In addition, we studied which determinants may affect the strength of the emotional bond with products and uncovered the role of the ...

  5. Product Charisma

    Gotzsch, Josiena

    2002-01-01

    Consumers are attracted by product designs that feel “alive” and that contain surprise elements. The right expressions in a product contribute to its attractiveness or “charisma”. Today, these intangible product attributes are an important way to differentiate a product from competitor's products. Companies in mature markets, especially, have a competitive advantage when they succeed in integrating “expressions” or “messages” into the product design that touches its user. This paper presents ...

  6. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: To day, more and more products are customized. Trends are not only to sell a product to the customer, but to sell a product system. The system can either be a combination of physical products or physical products together with some kind of service. Customers get in this way not a product...... but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks....... Here the decoupling point has a central role. The scope for this article is therefore to analyse the possibilities for using modularisation in designing and controlling a production system. How will the development of modularised product systems influence the production system? In the paper, a case...

  7. Two key polymorphisms in a newly discovered allele of the Vitis vinifera TPS24 gene are responsible for the production of the rotundone precursor α-guaiene.

    Drew, Damian Paul; Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Sweetman, Crystal; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Ford, Christopher; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-02-01

    Rotundone was initially identified as a grape-derived compound responsible for the peppery aroma of Shiraz wine varieties. It has subsequently been found in black and white pepper and several other spices. Because of its potent aroma, the molecular basis for rotundone formation is of particular relevance to grape and wine scientists and industry. We have identified and functionally characterized in planta a sesquiterpene synthase, VvGuaS, from developing grape berries, and have demonstrated that it produces the precursor of rotundone, α-guaiene, as its main product. The VvGuaS enzyme is a novel allele of the sesquiterpene synthase gene, VvTPS24, which has previously been reported to encode VvPNSeInt, an enzyme that produces a variety of selinene-type sesquiterpenes. This newly discovered VvTPS24 allele encodes an enzyme 99.5% identical to VvPNSeInt, with the differences comprising just 6 out of the 561 amino acid residues. Molecular modelling of the enzymes revealed that two of these residues, T414 and V530, are located in the active site of VvGuaS within 4 Å of the binding-site of the substrate, farnesyl pyrophosphate. Mutation of these two residues of VvGuaS into the corresponding polymorphisms in VvPNSeInt results in a complete functional conversion of one enzyme into the other, while mutation of each residue individually produces an intermediate change in the product profile. We have therefore demonstrated that VvGuaS, an enzyme responsible for production of the rotundone precursor, α-guaiene, is encoded by a novel allele of the previously characterized grapevine gene VvTPS24 and that two specific polymorphisms are responsible for functional differences between VvTPS24 alleles. PMID:26590310

  8. Two key polymorphisms in a newly discovered allele of the Vitis vinifera TPS24 gene are responsible for the production of the rotundone precursor α-guaiene

    Drew, Damian Paul; Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Sweetman, Crystal; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Ford, Christopher; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Rotundone was initially identified as a grape-derived compound responsible for the peppery aroma of Shiraz wine varieties. It has subsequently been found in black and white pepper and several other spices. Because of its potent aroma, the molecular basis for rotundone formation is of particular relevance to grape and wine scientists and industry. We have identified and functionally characterized in planta a sesquiterpene synthase, VvGuaS, from developing grape berries, and have demonstrated that it produces the precursor of rotundone, α-guaiene, as its main product. The VvGuaS enzyme is a novel allele of the sesquiterpene synthase gene, VvTPS24, which has previously been reported to encode VvPNSeInt, an enzyme that produces a variety of selinene-type sesquiterpenes. This newly discovered VvTPS24 allele encodes an enzyme 99.5% identical to VvPNSeInt, with the differences comprising just 6 out of the 561 amino acid residues. Molecular modelling of the enzymes revealed that two of these residues, T414 and V530, are located in the active site of VvGuaS within 4 Å of the binding-site of the substrate, farnesyl pyrophosphate. Mutation of these two residues of VvGuaS into the corresponding polymorphisms in VvPNSeInt results in a complete functional conversion of one enzyme into the other, while mutation of each residue individually produces an intermediate change in the product profile. We have therefore demonstrated that VvGuaS, an enzyme responsible for production of the rotundone precursor, α-guaiene, is encoded by a novel allele of the previously characterized grapevine gene VvTPS24 and that two specific polymorphisms are responsible for functional differences between VvTPS24 alleles. PMID:26590310

  9. Banana as adjunct in beer production: applicability and performance of fermentative parameters.

    Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Bento, Camila V; Vicente, Antnio A; Teixeira, Jos A; Felipe, Maria das Graas A; Almeida E Silva, Joo B

    2009-05-01

    Traditionally, the raw materials for beer production are barley, hops, water, and yeast, but most brewers use also different adjuncts. During the alcoholic fermentation, the contribution of aroma compounds from other ingredients to the final beer flavor depends on the wort composition, on the yeast strain, and mainly on the process conditions. In this context, banana can also be a raw material favorable to alcoholic fermentation being rich in carbohydrates and minerals and providing low acidity. In this work, the objective was to evaluate the performance of wort adjusted with banana juice in different concentrations. For this, static fermentations were conducted at 15 degrees C at pilot scale (140 L of medium). The addition of banana that changed the concentration of all-malt wort from 10 degrees P to 12 and 15 degrees P were evaluated ( degrees P is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution, at 20 degrees C). The results showed an increase in ethanol production, with approximately 0.4 g/g ethanol yield and 0.6 g/L h volumetric productivity after 84 h of processing when concentrated wort was used. Thus, it was concluded that banana can be used as an adjunct in brewing methods, helping in the development of new products as well as in obtaining concentrated worts. PMID:19089653

  10. Product Customization

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Riis, Jesper

    For the majority of industrial companies, customizing products and services is among the most critical means to deliver true customer value and achieve superior competitive advantage. The challenge is not to customize products and services in itself – but to do it in a profitable way. The...... reduction of the resources spent for the specification of customized products, and the possibility of optimizing the products according to customer demands. This book presents an operational procedure for the design of product configuration systems in industrial companies, based on the experience gained...... from more than 40 product configuration projects in companies providing customer tailored products and services....

  11. Evaluation of an autochthonous starter culture on the production of a traditional dry fermented sausage from Chaco (Argentina) at a small-scale facility.

    Palavecino Prpich, Noelia Z; Garro, Oscar A; Romero, Mara; Judis, María A; Cayré, María E; Castro, Marcela P

    2016-05-01

    The performance of a mixed starter culture, SAS-1, comprised of the autochthonous strains Lactobacillus sakei ACU-2 and Staphylococcus vitulinus ACU-10, was evaluated into the production process of a traditional dry sausage. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory analyses were carried out to accomplish this goal. Results showed an improvement in performance through the introduction of SAS-1; adding mixed starter culture rapidly decreased pH, inhibited the growth of contaminant microorganisms and enhanced the beneficial ones, diminished TBARS, and highlighted color and aroma attributes. However, most influential organoleptic descriptors among consumer acceptance were not affected by the addition of the starter. This starter culture would represent a valuable tool to improve the homogeneity of artisanal manufacture of this traditional food. PMID:26820805

  12. Primary productivity

    Verlecar, X.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Photosynthetic production in the oceans in relation to light, nutrients and mixing processes is discussed. Primary productivity in the estuarine region is reported to be high in comparison to coastal and oceanic waters. Upwelling phenomenon...

  13. Productivity policy

    Abramovsky, L.; Bond, S.; Harrison, R.; Simpson, H.

    2005-01-01

    In this Briefing Note, we first present internationally comparative evidence on the UK's productivity performance (Section 2) and some of the underlying "drivers" of productivity identified by the government (Section 3). We then provide an overview of productivity policy under both Labour governments since 1997, and discuss the recent direction of policy in this 2005 Election Briefing area (Section 4). Finally, we discuss the proposals of the three main parties in the area of productivity pol...

  14. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

  15. Biotechnological process for obtaining new fermented products from cashew apple fruit by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Araújo, Suzane Macêdo; Silva, Cristina Ferraz; Moreira, Jane Jesus Silveira; Narain, Narendra; Souza, Roberto Rodrigues

    2011-09-01

    In Brazil, the use of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) to obtain new products by biotechnological process represents an important alternative to avoid wastage of a large quantity of this fruit, which reaches about 85% of the annual production of 1 million tons. This work focuses on the development of an alcoholic product obtained by the fermentation of cashew apple juice. The inoculation with two different strains of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae viz. SCP and SCT, were standardized to a concentration of 10(7 )cells ml(-1). Each inoculum was added to 1,500 ml of cashew must. Fermentation was performed at 28 ± 3°C and aliquots were withdrawn every 24 h to monitor soluble sugar concentrations, pH, and dry matter contents. The volatile compounds in fermented products were analyzed using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system. After 6 days, the fermentation process was completed, cells removed by filtration and centrifugation, and the products were stabilized under refrigeration for a period of 20 days. The stabilized products were stored in glass bottles and pasteurized at 60 ± 5°C/30 min. Both fermented products contained ethanol concentration above 6% (v v(-1)) while methanol was not detected and total acidity was below 90 mEq l(-1), representing a pH of 3.8-3.9. The volatile compounds were characterized by the presence of aldehyde (butyl aldehyde diethyl acetal, 2,4-dimethyl-hepta-2,4-dienal, and 2-methyl-2-pentenal) and ester (ethyl α-methylbutyrate) representing fruity aroma. The strain SCT was found to be better and efficient and this produced 10% more alcohol over that of strain SCP. PMID:21069555

  16. The acceptance of gamma irradiated pre-cooked processed chicken meat products

    A study was carried out to determine suitable dose, microbiological counts including pathogens and sensory evaluation of pre-cooked chicken meat products in assessing the acceptability of irradiated pre-cooked chicken meat products. Packed pre-cooked chicken sausages and burger samples (sealed individually in plastic-polyethylene pouches) were irradiated at the following doses: 2.5 kGy, 3.5 kGy and 5.5 kGy using 60Co gamma irradiation at MINTec-Sinagama. Acceptability of the sausages was determined through sensory evaluation by 30 members of untrained panelists comprising staff of Malaysian Nuclear Agency. A 5-points hedonic rating scale was used. The attributes evaluated were taste, texture, chewiness, juiciness, aroma, colour, shape and overall acceptance. Samples irradiated with dose of 5.5 kGy were the most acceptable, followed by samples irradiated at 3.5 kGy and 10 kGy. Irradiation at doses up to 3.5 kGy render undetectable microorganisms/fungi and pathogens (faecal coliforms, Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) in pre-cooked chicken sausages, and doses up to 5.5 kGy for pre-cooked chicken burgers

  17. Production of 6-pentyl-α-pyrone by trichoderma harzianum in solid-state fermentation

    de Souza Ramos, Aline; Fiaux, Sorele Batista; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Many Trichoderma species are able to produce 6-pentyl-α-pyrone (6-PP), a lactone with coconut-like aroma. In the present work, several culture parameters were studied to enhance the production of 6-PP by Trichoderma harzianum 4040 in solid-state fermentation. Green coir powder added to a nutrient solution was used as support material for fermentation. A Plackett-Burman screening technique was applied, followed by a fractionary factorial design. The best culture conditions within the experimental domain studied were (100 g support)−1: sucrose, 3 g; NaNO3, 0.24 g; (NH4)2SO4, 0.18 g; KH2PO4, 0.1 g; inoculum concentration, 2.2 × 106 spores; moisture level, 55%. The temperature established was 28°C. The fermentation under the selected conditions led to a 6-PP production six times higher (5.0 mg/g dry matter) than the initial one (0.8 mg/g dry matter) after seven days of cultivation. PMID:24031295

  18. The production of the sesquiterpene ?-caryophyllene in a transgenic strain of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis.

    Reinsvold, Robert E; Jinkerson, Robert E; Radakovits, Randor; Posewitz, Matthew C; Basu, Chhandak

    2011-05-15

    The plant secondary metabolite, ?-caryophyllene, is a ubiquitous component of many plant resins that has traditionally been used in the cosmetics industry to provide a woody, spicy aroma to cosmetics and perfumes. Clinical studies have shown it to be potentially effective as an antibiotic, anesthetic, and anti-inflammatory agent. Additionally, there is significant interest in engineering phototrophic microorganisms with sesquiterpene synthase genes for the production of biofuels. Currently, the isolation of ?-caryophyllene relies on purification methods from oleoresins extracted from large amounts of plant material. An engineered cyanobacterium platform that produces ?-caryophyllene may provide a more sustainable and controllable means of production. To this end, the ?-caryophyllene synthase gene (QHS1) from Artemisia annua was stably inserted, via double homologous recombination, into the genome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803. Gene insertion into Synechocystis was confirmed through PCR assays and sequencing reactions. Transcription and expression of QHS1 were confirmed using RT-PCR, and synthesis of ?-caryophyllene was confirmed in the transgenic strain using GC-FID and GC-MS analysis. PMID:21185107

  19. The influence of biosynthesized exopolysaccharides on some characteristics of fermented dairy products

    INA VASILEAN

    Full Text Available In the current technology of fermented milk products, the ability to form exopolysaccharides (EPS is a basic criterion to be used for the selection of starter cultures, together with their capacity to produce lactic acid, aroma substances, stability and texture. This paper aimed at screening lactic acid bacteria to be used as starter cultures for yogurt production based on their ability to biosynthesized exopolysaccharides. In case of the YF-L812 starter culture, the ability to synthesize EPS depended on the dry matter (DM of the milk: a quantity of 93 mg EPS/l was recorded for the whole milk reconstituted to 14.5% DM and 80 mg EPS/l for the sample reconstituted to 11.5% DM. The investigation at the microstructure level revealed that yogurt obtained from reconstituted milk to 14.5% DM had a dense network gel with a high syneresis phenomenon, whereas yogurt made from reconstituted milk to 11.5% DM formed a network gel with large alveolar cavity enough to hold the entire amount of whey.

  20. Potential of membrane distillation for production of high quality fruit juice concentrate.

    Onsekizoglu Bagci, Pelin

    2015-01-01

    Fruit juices are generally concentrated in order to improve the stability during storage and to reduce handling, packaging, and transportation costs. Thermal evaporation is the most widely used technique in industrial fruit juice concentrate production. In addition to high energy consumption, a large part of the characteristics determining the quality of the fresh juice including aroma, color, vitamins, and antioxidants undergoes remarkable alterations through the use of high operation temperatures. Increasing consumer demand for minimally or naturally processed stable products able to retain as much possible the uniqueness of the fresh fruit has engendered a growing interest for development of nonthermal approaches for fruit juice concentration. Among them, membrane distillation (MD) and its variants have attracted much attention for allowing very high concentrations to be reached under atmospheric pressure and temperatures near ambient temperature. This review will provide an overview of the current status and recent developments in the use of MD for concentration of fruit juices. In addition to the most basic concepts of MD variants, crucial suggestions for membrane selection and operating parameters will be presented. Challenges and future trends for industrial adaptation taking into account the possibility of integrating MD with other existing processes will be discussed. PMID:24915342

  1. Swine production.

    Plain, Ronald L; Lawrence, John D

    2003-07-01

    The US swine industry is large and growing. The quantity of pork desired by consumers of US pork is growing at the rate of 1.5%/y. New production systems and new technology have enabled production per sow to grow at a rate of 4% annually in recent years. Consequently, the number of sows in the United States is declining. Because productivity growth is outpacing demand growth, the deflated price of hogs and pork is declining. Hog production and prices continue to exhibit strong seasonal and cyclic patterns. Pork production is usually lowest in the summer and highest in the fall. Production and prices tend to follow 4-year patterns. The US swine industry continues to evolve toward fewer and larger producers who rely on contracts for both hog production and marketing. In 2000, over half of the hogs marketed were from approximately 156 firms marketing more than 50,000 head annually. These producers finished 60% of their production in contract facilities. Over 90% of their marketings were under contract or were owned by a packer. These producers expressed a high level of satisfaction with hog production. Both they and their contract growers were satisfied with production contracts. These large producers were satisfied with their marketing contracts and planned to continue them in the future. The hog industry has changed a great deal in the last decade. There is little reason to believe this rapid rate of change will not continue. This swine industry is highly competitive and profit driven. Profit margins are too small to allow producers the luxury of ignoring new technology and innovative production systems. Consequently, hog production will continue its rapid evolution from traditional agriculture to typical industry. PMID:12951736

  2. Hydrogen Production

    None

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  3. Agricultural Production.

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the

  4. Production Office

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on the construction of the "Production Office". This Production Office illustrates and explains the principles underlying the main construction processes examined during the virtual site visits and tours in this part of CIVCAL.

  5. Upscale of recombinant α-L-rhamnosidase production by Pichia pastoris Mut(S) strain.

    Markošová, Kristína; Weignerová, Lenka; Rosenberg, Michal; Křen, Vladimír; Rebroš, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Pichia pastoris is currently one of the most preferred microorganisms for recombinant enzyme production due to its efficient expression system. The advantages include the production of high amounts of recombinant proteins containing the appropriate posttranslational modifications and easy cultivation conditions. α-L-Rhamnosidase is a biotechnologically important enzyme in food and pharmaceutical industry, used for example in debittering of citrus fruit juices, rhamnose pruning from naringin, or enhancement of wine aromas, creating a demand for the production of an active and stable enzyme. The production of recombinant α-L-rhamnosidase cloned in the Mut(S) strain of P. pastoris KM71H was optimized. The encoding gene is located under the control of the AOX promoter, which is induced by methanol whose concentration is instrumental for these strain types. Fermentation was upscaled in bioreactors employing various media and several methanol-feeding strategies. It was found that fed batch with BSM media was more effective compared to BMMH (Buffered Methanol-complex Medium) media due to lower cost and improved biomass formation. In BSM (Basal Salt Medium) medium, the dry cell weight reached approximately 60 g/L, while in BMMH it was only 8.3 g/L, without additional glycerol, which positively influenced the amount of enzyme produced. New methanol feeding strategy, based on the level of dissolved oxygen was developed in this study. This protocol that is entirely independent on methanol monitoring was up scaled to a 19.5-L fermenter with 10-L working volume with the productivity of 13.34 mgprot/L/h and specific activity of α-L-rhamnosidase of 82 U/mg. The simplified fermentation protocol was developed for easy and effective fermentation of P. pastoris Mut(S) based on dissolved oxygen monitoring in the induction phase of an enzyme production. PMID:26539173

  6. Upscale of recombinant α-L-rhamnosidase production by Pichia pastoris MutS strain

    Markošová, Kristína; Weignerová, Lenka; Rosenberg, Michal; Křen, Vladimír; Rebroš, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Pichia pastoris is currently one of the most preferred microorganisms for recombinant enzyme production due to its efficient expression system. The advantages include the production of high amounts of recombinant proteins containing the appropriate posttranslational modifications and easy cultivation conditions. α-L-Rhamnosidase is a biotechnologically important enzyme in food and pharmaceutical industry, used for example in debittering of citrus fruit juices, rhamnose pruning from naringin, or enhancement of wine aromas, creating a demand for the production of an active and stable enzyme. The production of recombinant α-L-rhamnosidase cloned in the MutS strain of P. pastoris KM71H was optimized. The encoding gene is located under the control of the AOX promoter, which is induced by methanol whose concentration is instrumental for these strain types. Fermentation was upscaled in bioreactors employing various media and several methanol-feeding strategies. It was found that fed batch with BSM media was more effective compared to BMMH (Buffered Methanol-complex Medium) media due to lower cost and improved biomass formation. In BSM (Basal Salt Medium) medium, the dry cell weight reached approximately 60 g/L, while in BMMH it was only 8.3 g/L, without additional glycerol, which positively influenced the amount of enzyme produced. New methanol feeding strategy, based on the level of dissolved oxygen was developed in this study. This protocol that is entirely independent on methanol monitoring was up scaled to a 19.5-L fermenter with 10-L working volume with the productivity of 13.34 mgprot/L/h and specific activity of α-L-rhamnosidase of 82 U/mg. The simplified fermentation protocol was developed for easy and effective fermentation of P. pastoris MutS based on dissolved oxygen monitoring in the induction phase of an enzyme production. PMID:26539173

  7. Highly selective generation of vanillin by anodic degradation of lignin: a combined approach of electrochemistry and product isolation by adsorption

    Dominik Schmitt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative degradation of lignin into a variety of valuable products has been under investigation since the first half of the last century. Especially, the chance to claim this cheap, abundant and renewable source for the production of the important aroma chemical vanillin (1 was one of the major driving forces of lignin research. So far most of the developed methods fail in technical application since no viable concept for work-up is included. This work represents a combined approach of electrochemical conversion of Kraft lignin and product recovery by adsorption on a strongly basic anion exchange resin. Electrolysis conditions are optimized regarding reaction temperatures below 100 °C allowing operation of aqueous electrolytes in simple experimental set-up. Employing ion exchange resins gives rise to a selective removal of low molecular weight phenols from the strongly alkaline electrolyte without acidification and precipitation of remaining lignin. The latter represents a significant advantage compared with conventional work-up protocols of lignin solutions.

  8. Highly selective generation of vanillin by anodic degradation of lignin: a combined approach of electrochemistry and product isolation by adsorption.

    Schmitt, Dominik; Regenbrecht, Carolin; Hartmer, Marius; Stecker, Florian; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative degradation of lignin into a variety of valuable products has been under investigation since the first half of the last century. Especially, the chance to claim this cheap, abundant and renewable source for the production of the important aroma chemical vanillin (1) was one of the major driving forces of lignin research. So far most of the developed methods fail in technical application since no viable concept for work-up is included. This work represents a combined approach of electrochemical conversion of Kraft lignin and product recovery by adsorption on a strongly basic anion exchange resin. Electrolysis conditions are optimized regarding reaction temperatures below 100 °C allowing operation of aqueous electrolytes in simple experimental set-up. Employing ion exchange resins gives rise to a selective removal of low molecular weight phenols from the strongly alkaline electrolyte without acidification and precipitation of remaining lignin. The latter represents a significant advantage compared with conventional work-up protocols of lignin solutions. PMID:25977721

  9. Production models

    Svensson, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The Project is co-financed with Nilpeter A/S and investigates the industrialization of build to order production. Project content: - Enterprise engineering - Specification processes - Mass Customization/ Build To Order - Knowledge/information management - Configuration - Supply Chain Management -...

  10. Product Classification

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services This database contains medical device names and associated information developed by the Center. It includes a three letter device product code and a Device Class...

  11. Product Classification

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database contains medical device names and associated information developed by the Center. It includes a three letter device product code and a Device Class...

  12. Process Optimization for Solid Extraction, Flavor Improvement and Fat Removal in the Production of Soymilk From Full Fat Soy Flakes

    Stanley Prawiradjaja

    2003-05-31

    Traditionally soymilk has been made with whole soybeans; however, there are other alternative raw ingredients for making soymilk, such as soy flour or full-fat soy flakes. US markets prefer soymilk with little or no beany flavor. modifying the process or using lipoxygenase-free soybeans can be used to achieve this. Unlike the dairy industry, fat reduction in soymilk has been done through formula modification instead of by conventional fat removal (skimming). This project reports the process optimization for solids and protein extraction, flavor improvement and fat removal in the production of 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk from full fat soy flakes and whole soybeans using the Takai soymilk machine. Proximate analyses, and color measurement were conducted in 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk. Descriptive analyses with trained panelists (n = 9) were conducted using 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix lipoxygenase-free and high protein blend soy flake soymilks. Rehydration of soy flakes is necessary to prevent agglomeration during processing and increase extractability. As the rehydration temperature increases from 15 to 50 to 85 C, the hexanal concentration was reduced. Enzyme inactivation in soy flakes milk production (measured by hexanal levels) is similar to previous reports with whole soybeans milk production; however, shorter rehydration times can be achieved with soy flakes (5 to 10 minutes) compared to whole beans (8 to 12 hours). Optimum rehydration conditions for a 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk are 50 C for 5 minutes, 85 C for 5 minutes and 85 C for 10 minutes, respectively. In the flavor improvement study of soymilk, the hexanal date showed differences between undeodorized HPSF in contrast to triple null soymilk and no differences between deodorized HPSF in contrast to deodorized triple null. The panelists could not differentiate between the beany, cereal, and painty flavors. However, the panelists responded that the overall aroma of deodorized 8 {sup o}Brix triple null and HPSF soymilk are lower than the undeodorized triple null and HPSF soymilk. The triple null soymilk was perceived to be more bitter than the HPSF soymilk by the sensory panel due to oxidation on the triple null soy flakes. This oxidation may produce other aroma that was not analyzed using the GC but noticed by the panelists. The sensory evaluation results did show that the deodorizer was able to reduce the soymilk aroma in HPSF soymilk so it would be similar to triple null soymilk at 8 {sup o}Brix level. Regardless of skimming method and solids levels, the fat from the whole soybean milk was removed less efficiently than soy flake milk (7 to 30% fat extraction in contrast to 50 to 80% fat extraction respectively). In soy flake milk, less fat was removed as the % solid increases regardless of the processing method. In whole soybean milk, the fat was removed less efficiently at lower solids level milk using the commercial dairy skimmer and more efficient at lower solids level using the centrifuge-decant method. Based on the Hunter L, a, b measurement, the color of the reduced fat soy flake milk yielded a darker, greener and less yellow colored milk than whole soymilk ({alpha} < 0.05), whereas no differences were noticed in reduced fat soybean milk ({alpha} < 0.05). Color comparison of whole and skim cow's milk showed the same the same trend as in the soymilk.

  13. Production of Low Calorie Bakery Product with Pleasant Flavour, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities

    Hussein Ahmed M.S.; Shaheen Mohamed S.; Abdel-Kalek Hanan H.; El-Nor S.A.H. Abo

    2014-01-01

    Aromatic plants are considered sources of antioxidants, antimicrobial and favouring agents. Four aromatic plants (Thymus vulgaris L., Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum L. and Trigonellafoenum-graecum L.) were analysed in the study. Yoghurt was used to produce a low calorie pie. Chemical and rheological parameters, baking performance, staling rate and sensory properties of the pie were investigated. Volatile aroma compounds were anal-ysed with GC and GC/ MS, and antioxidant activity was ev...

  14. Impact of cooking and handling conditions on furanic compounds in breaded fish products.

    Pérez-Palacios, T; Petisca, C; Henriques, R; Ferreira, I M P L V O

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of cooking and handling conditions on the quantity of furanic compounds (furan, 2-furfural, furfuryl alcohol, 2-pentylfuran, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) in breaded fish products. Oven-baking and reheating in the microwave lead to low furanic compounds formation in comparison with deep-frying. The use of olive oil for deep-frying promoted higher levels of furanic compounds than sunflower oil. The amounts of these compounds diminished as the temperature and time of deep-frying decreased as well as after a delay after deep-frying. Thus, the generation of furanic compounds can be minimized by adjusting the cooking method and conditions, such as using an electric oven, deep-frying in sunflower oil at 160°C during 4min, or waiting 10min after cooking. However, these conditions that reduce furanic compounds levels also reduce the content of volatile compounds related to the aroma and flavour of fried foods. In this sense, new efforts should be done to reduce the formation of furanic compounds without being detrimental to the volatile profile. PMID:23340093

  15. Systemic productivity must complement structural productivity

    Lavie, René-Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Linguistic productivity is not just structural productivity (the making of assemblies), it also contains 'systemic productivity' (the productive placement within pluridimensional paradigms). An occurrential, dynamic model provides a cognitively founded explanation of systemic productivity.

  16. Cordless Products

    2001-01-01

    Apollo-era technology spurred the development of cordless products that we take for granted everyday. In the 1960s, NASA asked Black Decker to develop a special drill that would be powerful enough to cut through hard layers of the lunar surface and be lightweight, compact, and operate under its own power source, allowing Apollo astronauts to collect lunar samples further away from the Lunar Experiment Module. In response, Black Decker developed a computer program that analyzed and optimized drill motor operations. From their analysis, engineers were able to design a motor that was powerful yet required minimal battery power to operate. Since those first days of cordless products, Black Decker has continued to refine this technology and they now sell their rechargeable products worldwide (i.e. the Dustbuster, cordless tools for home and industrial use, and medical tools.)

  17. Bottom production

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  18. Product customization

    Lueg, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    This case study deals with the extension, customization, and profitability of two new product lines of a bicycle manufacturer. It can serve both as a discussion basis in class as well as an exam for advanced Master students in management, marketing, and ccounting. The case illustrates how variance...... analysis and Activity-based Costing help managers to better understand the different profitability of customized product lines. The rather open questions at the end of the case study allow for an adjustment to the level of knowledge of the students. Students will need to reflect on how a mechanical...

  19. Volátiles De Maíz {lea mays, cebada (Hordeum vulgare y café (Coffea arábica tostados. influencia de la adición de estos cereales en el aroma del café

    Margoth Suárez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Los volátiles de café a dos grados de torrefacción, como también los del maíz y los de cebada tostados, fueron extraídos por "Headspace" dinámico. La composición de los volátiles fue determinada por Cromatografía de Gases de Alta Resolución acoplada a Espectrometría de Masas (CGAREM. Los constituyentes mayoritarios del café torrefactado a 230 "C durante 8 minutos fueron el furfural 2-metil-3-dihidrofuranona y 2,3- pentadiona mientras que a230"Cy 10 minutos fueron el 2-furanmetanol, 3-metilpirazina, la 1,6-dimetilpirazina y acetato de 2-furanmetanol. Los constituyentes de mayor concentración en el maíz fueron el furfural y el 5-metilfurfuraI y en la cebada el 2-metilbutanal, el 3-metilbutanal y el furano. El análisis sensorial del café y mezclas de café con maiz y cebada permitió detectar adulteración a partir de 20% de cereal en un café torrefactado durante 8 min., pero cuando la torrefacción se realizó por 10 min. fue muy difícil percibir el aroma a cereal, principalmente cuando éste es cebada. Los resultados fueron utilizados como indicadores de la adulteración del café con cereales y como un criterio de evaluación para garantizar la pureza del café Colombiano.

  20. Production balance

    In terms of the environment, the year 2011 was balanced in the company Slovenske elektrarne. The trend of a high share of electricity production from nuclear and hydro power plants persisted; therefore, a greater part of electricity supplies (88.5%) was not loaded by emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere. (author)

  1. Novolak Production

    Aiba, Hiroshi

    Novolak resins are produced by reacting formaldehyde (30-55% concentration) with phenol under acidic conditions, with oxalic acid as the preferred catalyst and in special conditions, sulfuric acid. Depending on the batch size, all raw material components can be introduced into the reactor, or when there is an increase in the batch size as well as in the reactor volume, the reaction exotherm is controlled by a gradual addition of formaldehyde. Modern novolak production facilities are automated and programmed for reduced operational cost. A flow diagram of a general production line for the manufacture of novolak is shown. Recovery of the novolak is accomplished by the removal of water and devolatilization of crude novolak to molten, low-free phenol novolak resin which can be isolated as flake or pastille or dissolved in appropriate solvents. Novolak is stored either in a solid flake or pastille form or in solution. Most production is conducted under atmospheric conditions, but there are some recent, novel activities such as pressure in a hermetically-closed reactor reaching 0.1-10 MPa by using the heat of reaction without reflux to shorten reaction time, accelerating dehydration time by flash distillation, and providing economic benefit in the cost of novolak production.

  2. Uranium production

    The domestic uranium industry is in a state of stagflation. Costs continue to rise while the market for the product remains stagnant. During the last 12 months, curtailments and closures of mines and mills have eliminated over 5000 jobs in the industry, plus many more in those industries that furnish supplies and services. By January 1982, operations at four mills and the mines that furnish them ore will have been terminated. Other closures may follow, depending on cost trends, duration of current contracts, the degree to which mills have been amortized, the feasibility of placing mines on standby, the grade of the ore, and many other factors. Open-pit mines can be placed on standby without much difficulty, other than the possible cost of restoration before all the ore has been removed. There are a few small, dry, underground mines that could be mothballed; however, the major underground producers are wet sandstone mines that in most cases could not be reopened after a prolonged shutdown; mills can be mothballed for several years. Figure 8 shows the location of all the production centers in operation, as well as those that have operated or are on standby. Table 1 lists the same production centers plus those that have been deferred, showing nominal capacity of conventional mills in tons of ore per calendar day, and the industry production rate for those mills as of October 1, 1981

  3. INVESTIGATION ON THE PRODUCTION OF L-GLUTAMINASE FROM PSEUDOMONAS STUTZERI STRAIN UNDER SOLID STATE FERMENTATION USING VARIOUS AGRO RESIDUES

    R N Athira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentation was carried out for the production of L-glutaminase by Pseudomonas stutzeri PIMS6 using different agro residues including green gram husk, Bengal gram husk, cattle feed, wheat bran and groundnut oil cake as solid substrates. L-glutaminase has received significant attention in recent years owing to its potential applications in medicine as an anticancer agent, as an efficient anti-retroviral agent and as a biosensor. In food industries it is used as a flavor and aroma enhancing agent. The maximum yield (55.24 U/gds of L-glutaminase by Pseudomomonas stutzeri PIMS6 was obtained using cattle feed at 75% initial moisture content, initial pH 8.0, supplemented with glucose (1.0%, ammonium sulphate (1.0%, inoculated with 5% of inoculum and incubated at 37C for 96 h. Both physico-chemical and nutritional parameters played a significant role in the production of the enzyme L-glutaminase.

  4. Product Configuration Systems and Productivity

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Twelve companies have been interviewed with the purpose to get information about technical, economic and organisational matters in respect of Product Configuration Systems (PCS).Combinations of qualitative interviews and quantitative scoring have been used in ranking expected and realized results...

  5. Lepton Production

    2002-01-01

    *Participation in Soft Photon Study .ce HELIOS Collaboration This experiment aims to settle open questions in the hadronic production of electrons, muons and neutrinos. Prominent among these are e/@m universality, the contribution of charm decay to lepton pair production, and the ``anomalous'' low mass pairs.\\\\ \\\\ The experimental design aims to optimize the combination of: .point begin electron identification .point muon identification .point missing energy measurement for neutrinos .point vertex identification (for @t @= @t^c^h^a^r^m). .point end \\\\ \\\\ The major components of the apparatus are shown in the figure. In the vertex region a proton beam of transverse size @=50~@m impinges on a beryllium target of diameter 50~@m, and high precision tracking in the vertex region is achieved by silicon strip detectors. Charged particle momenta are measured using a dipole magnet and high resolution drift chambers. Electrons are identified by the combination of the transition radiation detector and the finely segment...

  6. Basophil Production

    Denburg, Judah A.; Davison, Maureen; Bienenstock, John

    1980-01-01

    Factors influencing basophil production from the bone marrow of ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized guinea pigs have been examined in vitro. Autologous co-cultures of marrow and spleen cells from OA-immune animals contained significantly higher numbers of basophils after 7 d of liquid culture in the presence of OA, compared with control co-cultures or with marrow cultures alone (P < 0.005).

  7. Production processes

    In this historical review, covering roughly the years from 1960 to 1980, some contributions are presented in an exemplary selection that bubble chambers have made to our understanding of particle production processes within the framework of the following phenomenological models: One-particle exchange (in particular one-pion exchange); Regge-pole exchange; duality, finite-energy sum rules and Veneziano models; multiperipheral model, multi-Regge exchange, loongitudinal phase space and diffraction dissociation. (orig.)

  8. Presence production

    Knudsen, Claus Jørgen Schibsted

    2004-01-01

    This investigation has been carried out at the RoyalInstitute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm. The main goal hasbeen to investigate the factors determining the production of asense of presence and reality in video mediated communication.Presenceis in these studies defines as the subjectiveexperience of being together in one place when one isphysically situated in another. Presence is an emergentproperty; it has no physicality, but arises as a mentalsensation. Special attention has been paid ...

  9. Diboson production

    Evans D.L.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of diboson production cross sections in pp collisions at the LHC at a centre of mass energy √s = 7 and 8 TeV, and in pp̅ collisions at the Tevatron at √s = 1.96 TeV are reviewed and compared with standard model predictions. Limits on charged and neutral anomalous triple gauge couplings extracted from the selected diboson event samples are also compared.

  10. Hydrogen production

    The realization of the hydrogen as an energy carrier for future power sources relies on a practical method of producing hydrogen in large scale with no emission of green house gases. Combustion of fossil fuels currently provides about 86% of the world's energy. The conventional fossil fuel produces a great deal of greenhouse gas which was assumed to be responsible for the global warming. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive alternative to replace fossil fuels, but current hydrogen production uses fossil fuels as a raw material. Hydrogen production by thermo chemical water splitting, a process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, is an environmentally attractive way to produce hydrogen without using fossil fuels. Hydrogen is considered as an excellent candidate for the future energy system with its many advantages. Hydrogen can be transported for long distance; it can be stored in the form of compressed gas, liquids or hydrogenated compounds. It is clean, as water is the only product after burning. Therefore hydrogen is a promising candidate of alternate energy carrier in our future energy system

  11. Product separator

    A description is given of a secondary light sensitive photoelectric product separator for use with a primary product separator that concentrates a material so that it is visually distinguishable from adjacent materials. The concentrate separation is accomplished first by feeding the material onto a vibratory inclined surface with a liquid flow, such as a wet concentrating table. Vibrations generally perpendicular to the stream direction of flow cause the concentrate to separate from its mixture according to its color. When the concentrate and its surrounding stream reach the recovery end of the table, a detecting device notes the line of color demarcation and triggers a signal if it differs from a normal condition. If no difference is noted, nothing moves on the second separator. However, if a difference is detected in the constant monitoring of the color line's location, a product splitter and recovery unit normally positioned near the color line at the recovery end, moves to a new position. In this manner the selected separated concentrate is recovered at a maximum rate regardless of variations in the flow stream or other conditions present

  12. Product design - Molecules, devices, functional products, and formulated products

    Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, Ka M.

    2015-01-01

    design is carried out by modeling the product based on thermodynamics, kinetics and transport processes, by performing experiments, and by decision making based on rule-based methods The results are product specifications in terms of the type of ingredients, composition, and the structure, form, shape or......Chemical product design is a multidisciplinary and diverse subject. This article provides an overview of product design while focusing on product conceptualization. Four product types are considered - molecular products, formulated products, devices and functional products. For molecular products......, computer-aided design tools are used to predict the physicochemical properties of single molecules and blends. For formulated products, an integrated experiment-modeling approach is used to generate the formula with the specified product attributes. For devices and functional products, conceptual product...

  13. Product design - Molecules, devices, functional products, and formulated products

    Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, Ka M.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical product design is a multidisciplinary and diverse subject. This article provides an overview of product design while focusing on product conceptualization. Four product types are considered - molecular products, formulated products, devices and functional products. For molecular products......, computer-aided design tools are used to predict the physicochemical properties of single molecules and blends. For formulated products, an integrated experiment-modeling approach is used to generate the formula with the specified product attributes. For devices and functional products, conceptual product...... design is carried out by modeling the product based on thermodynamics, kinetics and transport processes, by performing experiments, and by decision making based on rule-based methods The results are product specifications in terms of the type of ingredients, composition, and the structure, form, shape or...

  14. Evaluation of freeze-dried kefir coculture as starter in feta-type cheese production.

    Kourkoutas, Y; Kandylis, P; Panas, P; Dooley, J S G; Nigam, P; Koutinas, A A

    2006-09-01

    The use of freeze-dried kefir coculture as a starter in the production of feta-type cheese was investigated. Maturation of the produced cheese at 4 degrees C was monitored for up to 70 days, and the effects of the starter culture, the salting method, and the ripening process on quality characteristics were studied. The use of kefir coculture as a starter led to increased lactic acid concentrations and decreased pH values in the final product associated with significantly higher conversion rates compared to salted rennet cheese. Determination of bacterial diversity at the end of the ripening process in salted kefir and rennet cheeses by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technology, based on both DNA and RNA analyses, suggested a potential species-specific inhibition of members of the genera Staphylococcus and Psychrobacter by kefir coculture. The main active microbial associations in salted kefir cheese appeared to be members of the genera Pseudomonas and Lactococcus, while in salted rennet cheese, Oxalobacteraceae, Janthinobacterium, Psychrobacter, and Pseudomonas species were noted. The effect of the starter culture on the production of aroma-related compounds responsible for cheese flavor was also studied by the solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. Kefir coculture also appeared to extend the shelf life of unsalted cheese. Spoilage of kefir cheese was observed on the 9th and 20th days of preservation at 10 and 5 degrees C, respectively, while spoilage in the corresponding rennet cheese was detected on the 7th and 16th days. Microbial counts during preservation of both types of unsalted cheese increased steadily and reached similar levels, with the exception of staphylococci, which were significantly lower in unsalted kefir cheese. All types of cheese produced with kefir as a starter were approved and accepted by the panel during the preliminary sensory evaluation compared to commercial feta-type cheese. PMID:16957238

  15. Production of tomato flavor volatiles from a crude enzyme preparation using a hollow-fiber reactor.

    Cass, B J; Schade, F; Robinson, C W; Thompson, J E; Legge, R L

    2000-02-01

    In recent years there has been an increase in the interest in the production of compounds by isolation from natural sources or through processes that can be deemed "natural". This is of particular interest in the food and beverage industry for flavors and aromas. Hexanal, organoleptically known to possess "green character", is of considerable commercial interest. The objective of this study was to determine if the enzyme template known to be responsible for the synthesis of hexanal from linoleic acid (18:2) in tomato fruits could be harnessed using a hollow-fiber reactor. A hollow-fiber reactor system was set up and consisted of a XAMPLER ultrafiltration module coupled to a reservoir. The enzyme template was extracted from ripe tomato fruits and processed through an ultrafiltration unit (NMWC of 100 kDa) to produce a retentate enriched in soluble and membrane-associated lipoxygenase (LOX) and hydroperoxide lyase (HPL). This extract was recirculated through the lumen of the hollow-fiber ultrafiltration unit with the addition of substrate in the form of linoleic acid, with buffer addition to the reaction flask to maintain a constant retentate volume. Product formation was measured in the permeate using solid phase microextraction (SPME) developed for this system. At exogenous substrate concentrations of 16 mM and a transmembrane pressure of 70 kPa, hexanal production rates are in the order of 5.1 microg/min. Addition of Triton X-100 resulted in membrane fouling and reduced flux. The reactor system has been run for periods of up to 1 week and has been shown to be stable over this period. PMID:10620268

  16. Hydrogen production

    Csar A. C., Sequeira; Diogo M. F., Santos.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Discutem-se processos de obteno de hidrognio. Em particular, considera-se a produo electroltica de hidrognio em meio aquoso, escala industrial, e custa de energia elctrica renovvel (solar, vento, mars, etc.). Fazem-se ainda algumas previses acerca do armazenamento, transporte e possv [...] eis aplicaes do hidrognio electroltico. Abstract in english Possible means of producing hydrogen are discussed. Emphasis is given on the electrolytic hydrogen production from water electrolysis, at large scale, via the use of renewable electricity (solar, wind, tidal, etc.). Its storage, transport and possible end-uses are also considered. [...

  17. Phenotypic identification and technological attributes of native lactic acid bacteria present in fermented bamboo shoot products from North-East India.

    Sonar, Nitin R; Halami, Prakash M

    2014-12-01

    Fermented bamboo shoots such as Soibum, Soidon, Eup, Hirring, Hecche and Ekung etc. are non-salted acidic products obtained by natural fermentation predominantly with lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we have characterized 11-representative LAB that includes, Lactobacillus sp. (n?=?2), Lactobacillus plantarum (n?=?3), and one each of Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus sp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus curvatus, Leuconostoc sp. and Lactobacillus xylosus. Subsequently, these cultures were studied for their technological and functional properties. Different isolates exhibited variation in their activities. L. brevis showed maximum phytic acid degradation ability (19.33 U ml (-1) ). L. xylosus had highest protease activity (64.2nmol/ml) and also exhibited lipolytic activity. In addition, degree of cell hydrophobicity among these cultures ranged between 12.5 and 93.48% with L. plantarum (SM2) showing highest degree of activity. Lactobacillus plantarum was the most common species found in the product studied. Results indicated that most of the LABs showed putative probiotic as well as antagonistic properties against the selected pathogenic bacteria. Characteristic aroma, flavour and texture in the fermented bamboo shoot products could be attributed to presence of these new LAB isolates. PMID:25477695

  18. Concrete products

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    Increased strength and durability in concrete products can be achieved through the addition of fly ash during the manufacturing process. The properties of concrete are enhanced by fly ash. The benefits include cost and the environment. Fly ash is normally defined as finely divided residue resulting from the combustion of pulverized coal, carried from the combustion chamber to the furnace by exhaust gas. The main applications of fly ash in concrete products are ready mix concrete, bridge decks and support footing, precast structures, blocks and bricks, and pipes. The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) has published standards to ensure that the desired physical properties of the concrete are achieved and the standards are found in CSA A23.1, detailing the engineering materials and mix proportions. The type of fly ash to be used for specific properties is important. Finishing and curing operations must be performed with care. The free lime generated by cement hydration reacts with fly ash, forming additional calcium silicate hydrate. Permeability of the concrete is reduced since the calcium silicate hydrate fills the void resulting from the cement pour. Some of the benefits to be derived from fly ash in concrete are: water reduction, improved workability, high ultimate strength, improved pumpability, and reduced heat of hydration. In addition, the life cycle costs are lower, and great strength is obtained. An environmental benefit results from the reduction of natural resource consumption.

  19. Perfil aromtico e qualidade qumica da carne de caprinos Saanen alimentados com diferentes nveis de concentrado Aroma profile and chemical quality of goat Saanen meat fed with different levels of concentrate

    Marta Suely Madruga

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do nvel de concentrado na dieta sobre a qualidade da carne de caprinos machos Saanen no-castrados. Foram utilizados 15 cabritos com peso vivo inicial de 16 0,3 kg e 4 meses de idade alimentados com dietas formuladas com 80, 65 ou 50% de concentrado at que atingissem 22 kg de peso vivo mdio final. As raes foram formuladas para promover ganho de peso de 150 g/animal/dia. Nas 15 paletas caprinas, foram avaliados a composio centesimal, a cor, a textura, o pH, o perfil lipdico e o perfil de componentes volteis. Os nveis de concentrado e volumoso utilizados na alimentao dos caprinos Saanen no influenciaram os parmetros qumicos e fsico-qumicos de umidade, cinzas, protenas, colesterol, fosfolipdios, pH, Aw, a*, b*, L* da carne. No entanto, a concentrao de gordura, os percentuais de cidos graxos insaturados (mono e poli e a textura da carne diferiram significativamente entre os nveis de concentrado usados. Tanto na anlise qualitativa quanto na quantitativa de componentes volteis, o extrato da carne de caprinos alimentados com 50% de concentrado apresentou melhor qualidade aromtica. A relao 50:50 volumoso:concentrado foi a mais vivel para a alimentao de caprinos machos Saanen para abate aos 22 kg de peso vivo, considerando os aspectos de reduo de custo e qualidade qumica e aromtica da carne caprina produzida.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the levels concentrate of the diet on meat quality of no castrated male kid Saanen goats. Fifteen male goat with initial 16 0.3 kg BW and four months old were fed diets formulated with 80, 65 e 50 of concentrate up to the animals reached a final a 22 kg BW. The rations were formulated to promote a weight gain of 150g/anim.day. Centesimal composition, colour, texture, lipid and volatile components profile were evaluated in fifteen goat shoulders. The concentrate and forage levels used in the feeding of male kid Saanen goats did not influenced the chemical and physical-chemical parameters of humidity, ashes, proteins, cholesterol, phospholipids, pH, Aw, a*, b*, L* of goat meat. However, the concentration of fat, the percentages of unsaturated fatty acid (mono and poly and the texture of meat were affected by the used concentrate levels. In both qualitative and quantitative of volatile components analysis, the extract of the goat meat fed with 50% of concentrate showed better aromatic quality. The use of 50:50 forage to concentre ratio was most viable for the feeding male kid Saanen goats slaughtered at 22 kg BW, considering both the aspects of reducing cost of production and chemical and aromatic quality of the produced goat meat.

  20. Production of vanillin: a biotechnological opportunity

    Natural aroma compounds are of major interest to the food and fragrance industry. Vanillin (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) was isolated from the vanilla beans in 1816 and its world consumption has reached today about 12000 tons per year. But only approximately 50 tons per year are extracted from vanilla pods (Vanilla planifolia). The remainder is provided by synthetic vanillin. This review is about alternative processes to produce natural vanillin de novo or by biotransformation using biotechnological methods involving enzymes, microorganisms and plant cells. (author)

  1. D-meson production by muons in the COMPASS experiment at CERN

    Zvyagin, Alexander

    2011-01-21

    One of the physics goals of the COMPASS experiment at CERN was to measure the contribution of gluons to the nucleon spin. To achieve this, it was proposed to scatter polarized 160 GeV/c muons on a polarized deuteron target and to detect D mesons in the final state. The underlying process in this D meson production is supposed to be the Photon-Gluon Fusion (PGF), where a virtual photon emitted by the muon interacts with a gluon from the target nucleon, producing a charm-anticharm quark pair. Fragmentation of a charm (anticharm) quark leads with high probability to the creation of a D{sup 0} or D{sup *} meson, which COMPASS detects via the D{sup 0}{yields}K{pi} and D{sup *}{yields}D{sup 0}{pi}{yields}K{pi}{pi} decay modes. From the longitudinal cross section spin asymmetries of the D meson production and theoretical predictions for the PGF cross section, the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin has been measured by the COMPASS experiment. The results presented in the thesis are the following. Based on data from the year 2004 a total visible cross section of 1.8{+-}0.4 nb, for the D{sup *} meson production, has been measured, with the error being dominated by systematic effects. It is validated that the D mesons are indeed produced through the PGF process, by comparison of measured D meson kinematic distributions to the ones predicted by a theory (AROMA generator). A good agreement was found for the distribution shapes, which confirms that PGF plays a major role. However, a 20% difference was found in the number of produced D{sup 0} and D{sup 0} mesons (and for the D{sup *+} and D{sup *-} mesons as well) which is significantly larger than predicted by AROMA. Kinematic distributions of D{sup 0} and D{sup *} mesons were compared with the background and also with the nearby K{sup *}{sub 2}(1430){sup 0} resonance, using all longitudinal data taken in 2002-2006. The particle-antiparticle asymmetry has been studied as a function of several kinematic variables. The 20% excess of mesons decaying into K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} over mesons decaying into K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} was observed for all three mesons. The behavior of the D{sup 0}/D{sup 0} (and D{sup *+}/D{sup *-}) asymmetries as a function of virtual photon energy suggests that associated production of D{sup *-}{lambda}{sup +}{sub c} or D{sup 0}{lambda}{sup +}{sub c} may be responsible for the observed effect. The longitudinal double spin asymmetries have been studied for the D{sup 0}, D{sup *} and K{sup *}{sub 2}(1430){sup 0} mesons separately for particle, antiparticle and for the sum of particle and antiparticle. It was found that the asymmetries extracted for D{sup 0} and D{sup *} mesons are compatible with zero. A 3-sigma deviation from zero asymmetry was observed for the K{sup *}{sub 2}(1430){sup 0} meson. An investigation of the K{sup *}{sub 2}(1430){sup 0} double spin asymmetry reveals a dependence as function of the Bjorken x{sub Bj} variable. (orig.)

  2. Bagging treatment influences production of C6 aldehydes and biosynthesis-related gene expression in peach fruit skin.

    Shen, Ji-Yuan; Wu, Lei; Liu, Hong-Ru; Zhang, Bo; Yin, Xue-Ren; Ge, Yi-Qiang; Chen, Kun-Song

    2014-01-01

    Bagging is a useful method to improve fruit quality by altering its exposure to light, whereas its effect on fruit volatiles production is inconsistent, and the genes responsible for the observed changes remain unknown. In the present study, single-layer yellow paper bags were used to study the effects of bagging treatment on the formation of C6 aldehydes in peach fruit (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. Yulu) over two succeeding seasons. Higher concentrations of n-hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal, which are characteristic aroma volatiles of peach fruit, were induced by bagging treatment. After bagging treatment, peach fruit had significantly higher LOX and HPL enzyme activities, accompanying increased contents of C6 aldehydes. The gene expression data obtained through real-time PCR showed that no consistent significant differences in transcript levels of LOX genes were observed over the two seasons, but significantly up-regulated expression was found for PpHPL1 after bagging treatment In addition, bagging-treated fruit produced more (E)-2-hexenal and had higher expression levels of PpHPL1 during postharvest ripening at room temperature. The regulatory role of the LOX-HPL pathway on the biosynthesis of n-hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal in response to bagging treatment during peach fruit development is discussed in the text. PMID:25178066

  3. Physico-Chemical Characterization of Brew during the Brewing Corn Malt in the Production of Maize Beer in Congo

    P. Diakabana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study consists in the production of a traditional beer from maize in the Congo. The traditional method of brewing corn malt has three main stages: malting corn, brewing corn malt and fermentation. During the brewing corn malt, endogenous amylase activity is destroyed during the stiffening of the starch to about 80°C. A pre-cooking of the mash is necessitated to promote amylolyse at 50°C with an exogenous enzyme. The use of a preparation of α-amylase can liquefy the mash and produce a sweet wort (average density = 12.5° Balling rich in dextrin corresponding to an apparent extract of 4° Balling in beer. The rising profile of the pH of the corn malt mash, from mashing to extract the wort does not affect the pH of the beer produced. This beer, slightly alcoholic (3.6% ethanol, is characterized by a nomal acid pH (pH = 4.15 on average and a brown color (25 EBC units. Its slight bitterness (21 EBU and the fine aroma of a beer closer barley produced industrially in the Congo.

  4. From Product Models to Product State Models

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    A well-known technology designed to handle product data is Product Models. Product Models are in their current form not able to handle all types of product state information. Hence, the concept of a Product State Model (PSM) is proposed. The PSM and in particular how to model a PSM is the Research...

  5. Study of the optimal production process and application of apple fruit (malus domestica (l.) borkh) fermentation

    In orchard production, fruit abscission is common due to insect damage, disease, crop thinning and natural dropping. However, the utilization of these discarded plant resources has received little research attention. In this study, we used apple fruit from such plant resources, mainly young and mature dropped fruit, as materials and mixed them with a fermentation agent, brown sugar and water. The effects of the proportion of fermentation agent and the fermentation conditions (O2, temperature, fermenting time and fruit crushing degree) were studied using an orthogonal experimental design. We discovered a novel fermented fertilizer, apple fruit fermentation nutrient solution (AFF), for which the optimal fermentation formula and conditions were comminuted young apples: fermentation agent: brown sugar: water weight ratio of 5:0.1:1:4 and 45 days of aerobic fermentation. Analysis of the fermentation solutions showed that the supernatant obtained using these optimized parameters had the highest mineral element content among the fermentation formulas and conditions studied. The results of a spraying experiment with 200-, 500- and 800-fold dilutions showed that AFF significantly promoted the net photosynthetic rate, leaf area and thickness, specific leaf weight, and chlorophyll and mineral element content in the leaves of young apple trees relative to the control treatment. The effects of 200-fold diluted AFF on the photosynthetic rate, the developmental quality and mineral element contents were greater than those of the 500- and 800-fold dilutions. The results of the spraying of adult trees with 200-fold diluted AFF compared to a water control demonstrated that AFF significantly enhanced the average weight of a single fruit, the shape index, hardness, content of soluble solids, titratable acid content, vitamin C content, and aroma compound content of the fruit of the adult trees. This evidence suggests that the AFF obtained using the optimal production process could effectively improve the vegetative growth and fruit quality of apple trees. (author)

  6. Production of sensory compounds by means of the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis in different nitrogen sources with the prospect of producing cachaça.

    Castro Parente, Denise; Vidal, Esteban Espinosa; Leite, Fernanda Cristina Bezerra; de Barros Pita, Will; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The distilled spirit made from sugar cane juice, also known as cachaça, is a traditional Brazilian beverage that in recent years has increased its market share among international distilled beverages. Several volatile compounds produced by yeast cells during the fermentation process are responsible for the unique taste and aroma of this drink. The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has acquired increasing importance in the fermented beverage production, as the different metabolites produced by this yeast may be either beneficial or harmful to the end-product. Since D. bruxellensis is often found in the fermentation processes carried out in ethanol fuel distillation in Brazil, we employed this yeast to analyse the physiological profile and production of aromatic compounds and to examine whether it is feasible to regard it as a cachaça-producing microorganism. The assays were performed on a small scale and simulated the conditions for the production of handmade cachaça. The results showed that the presence of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids in the medium has a strong influence on the metabolism and production of flavours by D. bruxellensis. The assimilation of these alternative nitrogen sources led to different fermentation yields and the production of flavouring compounds. The influence of the nitrogen source on the metabolism of fusel alcohols and esters in D. bruxellensis highlights the need for further studies of the nitrogen requirements to obtain the desired level of sensory compounds in the fermentation. Our results suggest that D. bruxellensis has the potential to play a role in the production of cachaça. PMID:25345668

  7. Australian wine consumers’ acceptance of and attitudes toward the use of additives in wine and food production

    Saltman Y

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yaelle Saltman, Trent E Johnson, Kerry L Wilkinson, Susan EP Bastian Department of Wine and Food, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Adelaide, SA, Australia. Abstract: Additives are routinely used in food and wine production to enhance product quality and/or prevent spoilage. Compared with other industries, the wine industry is only permitted to use a limited number of additives. Whereas flavor additives are often used to intensify the aroma and flavor of foods and beverages, the addition of flavorings to wine contravenes the legal definition of wine. Given the current legislation, it is perhaps not surprising that the potential use of food additives in wine production has not been explored. This study therefore investigated Australian wine consumers' acceptance of and attitudes toward the use of additives in food and wine production. Consumers (n=1,031 were segmented based on their self-reported wine knowledge (ie, subjective knowledge. Using these ratings, low (n=271, medium (n=528, and high (n=232 knowledge segments were identified. Consumers considered natural flavorings and colors, and additives associated with health benefits (eg, vitamins, minerals, and omega 3 fatty acids, to be acceptable food additives, irrespective of their level of wine knowledge. In contrast, the use of winemaking additives, even commonly used and legally permitted additives such as tartaric acid, preservatives, oak chips, and tannins, were considered far less acceptable, particularly, by less knowledgeable consumers. Surprisingly, natural flavorings were considered more acceptable than currently used winemaking additives. Consumers were therefore asked to identify the flavors they would most prefer in white and red wines. Fruit flavors featured prominently in consumer responses, eg, lemon and apple for white wines and blackcurrant and raspberry for red wines, but vanilla and/or chocolate, ie, attributes typically associated with oak maturation, were also suggested. Keywords: wine quality, segmentation, natural flavors, artificial flavors, wine knowledge

  8. On Demand Product Development Customized For Production

    Mahmood, Shahriare

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate intention of this thesis was to analyze the present product development and production process at the client organization and to develop methods to improve the agility of the product development and production process. Thus the organization can be ready for on demand product development and corresponding customization in production by maintaining enough agility. The overall study will help the organization to comprehend the present process improvement potentials and guideline to ...

  9. Relation between coumarate decarboxylase and vinylphenol reductase activity with regard to the production of volatile phenols by native Dekkera bruxellensis strains under 'wine-like' conditions.

    Sturm, M E; Assof, M; Fanzone, M; Martinez, C; Ganga, M A; Jofré, V; Ramirez, M L; Combina, M

    2015-08-01

    Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis is considered a major cause of wine spoilage, and 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol are the most abundant off-aromas produced by this species. They are produced by decarboxylation of the corresponding hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs), followed by a reduction of the intermediate 4-vinylphenols. The aim of the present study was to examine coumarate decarboxylase (CD) and vinylphenol reductase (VR) enzyme activities in 5 native D. bruxellensis strains and determine their relation with the production of ethylphenols under 'wine-like' conditions. In addition, biomass, cell culturability, carbon source utilization and organic acids were monitored during 60 days. All strains assayed turned out to have both enzyme activities. No significant differences were found in CD activity, whilst VR activity was variable among the strains. Growth of D. bruxellensis under 'wine-like' conditions showed two growth phases. Sugars were completely consumed during the first growth phase. Transformation of HCAs into ethylphenols also occurred during active growth of the yeast. No statistical differences were observed in volatile phenol levels produced by the strains growing under 'wine-like' conditions, independently of the enzyme activity previously recorded. Furthermore, our results demonstrate a relationship between the physiological state of D. bruxellensis and its ability to produce ethylphenols. Inhibition of growth of D. bruxellensis in wine seems to be the most efficient way to avoid ethylphenol production and the consequent loss of wine quality. PMID:25955288

  10. Comparative human-sensory evaluation and quantitative comparison of odour-active oxidation markers of encapsulated fish oil products used for supplementation during pregnancy and the breastfeeding period.

    Sandgruber, Stefanie; Buettner, Andrea

    2012-07-15

    Three different commercial encapsulated fish oil supplements were evaluated by orthonasal sensory evaluation of the encapsulated oil samples, and were rated according to characteristic odour qualities and hedonic impact. The potent odourants of the fish oil samples were obtained by solvent extraction followed by high vacuum transfer of the volatiles, and were evaluated by means of high resolution gas chromatography-olfactometry (HRGC-O). Comparative aroma extract dilution analysis of the solvent extract samples revealed 40 odourants. Most of these were identified based on their respective retention indices on two capillaries of different polarities, their mass spectral data, as well as their odour characteristics during HRGC-O, in comparison with the respective reference compounds. Thereby (poly)unsaturated fatty acid oxidation products were demonstrated to play a significant role in the volatile fraction of the fish oil supplements. Quantification of selected oxidation marker substances confirmed predominant presence of these compounds in the investigated samples, but also major quantitative differences between samples with regard to specific compounds. These data may be used as the basis for future evaluation of sensory quality of encapsulated fish oil supplements, and might relate to the degree of acceptance or rejection by the mothers being supplemented with the respective products. PMID:25683420

  11. IMPORTANCE OF PROTEATIC ENZYMES IN FERMENTED MEAT PRODUCTS

    Meltem SERDAROĞLU; Sumru TÖMEK

    1995-01-01

    The formation of aroma and taste in fermented sausages is based on proteolytic breakdown. Proteolysis during fermentation and ripening is reflected in an increase in non-protein nitrogen compounds. The fermenting sausage provides optimal conditions for proteolytic enzymes. Muscle proteinases are mainly active during initial fermentation, involuing degradation of myosin and actin, bacterial proteases are more important during the drying period. Added proteolytic enzymes to fermented meat produ...

  12. Ethological and aroma-analytical investigations on human milk odour

    Loos, Helene

    2015-01-01

    Birth is the most challenging transition in the life cycle of mammals, requiring the mother-infant-dyad to adapt physiologically and behaviourally to postpartum life. In humans, the mother is around the infant most of the time, ensuring neonatal energy uptake through regular breastfeeding sessions. Successful breastfeeding is thought to be supported by olfactory cues related to lactation. However, neonatal olfactory perception and motivational state towards single odorants from lacteal fluids...

  13. Using Orthonasal Aroma Evaluation to Predict Consumer Liking

    Gaelle Lecourt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The perception of food involves the activation of orthonasal and retronasal olfactory processes. Prior studies have indicated that the sensation perceived is dependent upon the route of administration. Similarly, we found that the sensory profiling of strawberry and chicken flavors differed depending on whether the stimuli were evaluated orthonasally or retronasally. Presently, we were interested to know if the hedonic tones of flavor stimuli are similarly dependent upon administration route. Out of a Design of Experiment (DOE where consumers evaluated 67 flavors, 5 of them were both evaluated by smell and by taste in a broth application. Additionally, 3 optimized flavors calculated from the DOE were evaluated in broth. The results indicated that hedonic responses seem to be relatively stable: flavors liked by smell tended to be liked by taste whereas flavors disliked by smell tended to be disliked by taste. Similarly, optimized flavors also tended to be preferred compared to the non optimized flavors. These differences can potentially be minimized more as flavorists have the critical training and tools to rebalance flavors according to application type and match by taste what the consumers have evaluated by nose.

  14. Using Orthonasal Aroma Evaluation to Predict Consumer Liking

    Gaelle Lecourt

    2009-01-01

    The perception of food involves the activation of orthonasal and retronasal olfactory processes. Prior studies have indicated that the sensation perceived is dependent upon the route of administration. Similarly, we found that the sensory profiling of strawberry and chicken flavors differed depending on whether the stimuli were evaluated orthonasally or retronasally. Presently, we were interested to know if the hedonic tones of flavor stimuli are similarly dependent upon administration route....

  15. A Compact and Low Cost Electronic Nose for Aroma Detection

    Ramón Gallardo Caballero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explains the development of a prototype of a portable and a very low-cost electronic nose based on an mbed microcontroller. Mbeds are a series of ARM microcontroller development boards designed for fast, flexible and rapid prototyping. The electronic nose is comprised of an mbed, an LCD display, two small pumps, two electro-valves and a sensor chamber with four TGS Figaro gas sensors. The performance of the electronic nose has been tested by measuring the ethanol content of wine synthetic matrices and special attention has been paid to the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurements taken on different days. Results show that the electronic nose with a neural network classifier is able to discriminate wine samples with 10, 12 and 14% V/V alcohol content with a classification error of less than 1%.

  16. Aroma components from dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1994-01-01

    Sausages with and without Staphylococcus xylosus were manufactured with four replicates. Antibiotics and a fungicide to inhibit growth of naturally occuring microorganisms were added to the control sausages. The volatile compounds from the sausages were collected and identified by gas chromatogra...

  17. Innovation in Product Development

    McAloone, Tim C.; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2005-01-01

    The course on Innovation in Product Development attempts to identify and understand the nature of innovation and product development and their important factors. The course takes both a theoretical and a practical approach and employs a mix of lectures, project work and group discussion. Format The...... insight. Course content The following aspects of innovation in product development are considered: - Humans and products - Needs and products - Product life - Teams creating products - Products creating business - Product development models - Organising product development - Product development tools...... - The future of product development....

  18. SaferProducts API

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — On March 11, 2011, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission launched SaferProducts.gov. This site hosts the agency's new Publicly Available Consumer Product...

  19. Use of electronic nose and tongue for separation of fruit aromas and non-aroma compounds for quality evaluation

    The electronic nose (e-nose) was used to distinguish differences between mango fruit of different harvest maturities, apple fruit to which different coatings were applied, cut apple subjected to heat and ethanol treatments as well as strawberries of different ripeness stages, based on their volatile...

  20. The structuring of products and product programmes

    Andreasen, Mogens myrup; Hansen, Claus thorp; Mortensen, Niels henrik

    Structure means the way in which things are build up. A composed product does not exhibit one structure, but hides in its structure of parts several different structuring principles, which fit the product for production and service and make it a member of a product programme, where other family...... members may be created by variation.The structuring of products and product families is a complex design task. This article aims at classifying the many structuring types, which are built into a product. The fact that different structures are superimposed in the final product, makes the design synthesis...... complex and raises a need for aids.Among aids for structuring computer support seems feasible. The need for modelling the product and its structural aspects is eluciated. A modelling framework is proposed, and the need for modelling different structure types by use of an enhanced modelling is shown. This...