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2-acetyl-1-pyrroline - key aroma compound in Mediterranean dried sausages  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In a study characterising sausage types from various parts of Europe, ten Mediterranean and Northern European fermented, dried sausages were compared using static headspace gas chromatography-olfactometry and a sniffing panel of five members. The greatest difference between the Northern and Southern types were attributed to a burned coffee odour from smoke in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The two compounds were 2-furfurylthiol and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. An analysis of five dried, moulded sausages showed that the surface edge of the sausages contained higher amounts of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline than the core, indicating that the mould growing on the surface of Mediterranean products produces 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline.

Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

2000-01-01

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HS-SPME-GC-FID method for detection and quantification of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10702 mediated 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid micro-scale solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) procedure coupled with gas-chromatography with flame ionized detector (GC-FID) was used to extract parts per billion levels of a principle basmati aroma compound "2-acetyl-1-pyrroline" (2-AP) from bacterial samples. In present investigation, optimization parameters of bacterial incubation period, sample weight, pre-incubation time, adsorption time, and temperature, precursors and their concentrations has been studied. In the optimized conditions, detection of 2-AP produced by Bacillus cereus ATCC10702 using only 0.5 g of sample volume was 85 ?g/kg. Along with 2-AP, 15 other compounds produced by B. cereus were also reported out of which 14 were reported for the first time consisting mainly of (E)-2-hexenal, pentadecanal, 4-hydroxy-2-butanone, n-hexanal, 2-6-nonadienal, 3-methoxy-2(5H) furanone and 2-acetyl-1-pyridine and octanal. High recovery of 2-AP (87 %) from very less amount of B. cereus samples was observed. The method is reproducible fast and can be used for detection of 2-AP production by B. cereus. PMID:25196224

Deshmukh, Yogita; Khare, Puja; Patra, D D; Nadaf, Altafhusain B

2014-01-01

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Quantification of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in rice by stable isotope dilution assay through headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new and convenient synthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), a potent flavor compound in rice, and its ring-deuterated analog, 2-acetyl-1-d{sub 2}-pyrroline (2AP-d{sub 2}), was reported. A stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA), involving headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-positive chemical ionization-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-PCI-IT-MS-MS), was developed for 2AP quantification. A divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber was used for HS-SPME procedure and parameters affecting analytes recovery, such as extraction time and temperature, pH and salt, were studied. The repeatability of the method (n = 10) expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was 11.6%. A good linearity was observed from 5.9 to 779 ng of 2AP (r{sup 2} = 0.9989). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for 2AP were 0.1 and 0.4 ng g{sup -1} of rice, respectively. The recovery of spiked 2AP from rice matrix was almost complete. The developed method was applied to the quantification of 2AP in aerial parts and grains of scented and non-scented rice cultivars.

Maraval, Isabelle [UMR Qualisud, CIRAD, 73 Rue J. F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); UMR Qualisud, Universite Montpellier 2, place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Sen, Kemal [Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cukurova, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Agrebi, Abdelhamid; Menut, Chantal; Morere, Alain [UMR 5247, Institut des Biomolecules Max Mousseron (IBMM), CNRS, Universites Montpellier 2 et 1, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Montpellier, 8 Rue de l' Ecole Normale, 34296 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Boulanger, Renaud [UMR Qualisud, CIRAD, 73 Rue J. F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Gay, Frederic [CIRAD, DORAS Centre, Research and Development Building, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Mestres, Christian [UMR Qualisud, CIRAD, 73 Rue J. F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Gunata, Ziya, E-mail: zgunata@univ-montp2.fr [UMR Qualisud, Universite Montpellier 2, place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

2010-08-24

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Quantification of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in rice by stable isotope dilution assay through headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new and convenient synthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), a potent flavor compound in rice, and its ring-deuterated analog, 2-acetyl-1-d2-pyrroline (2AP-d2), was reported. A stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA), involving headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-positive chemical ionization-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-PCI-IT-MS-MS), was developed for 2AP quantification. A divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber was used for HS-SPME procedure and parameters affecting analytes recovery, such as extraction time and temperature, pH and salt, were studied. The repeatability of the method (n = 10) expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was 11.6%. A good linearity was observed from 5.9 to 779 ng of 2AP (r2 = 0.9989). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for 2AP were 0.1 and 0.4 ng g-1 of rice, respectively. The recovery of spiked 2AP from rice matrix was almost complete. The developed method was applied to the quantification of 2AP in aerial parts and grains of scented and non-scented rice cultivars.

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New short and general synthesis of three key Maillard flavour compounds: 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline, 6-acetyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine and 5-acetyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-1,4-thiazine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new general synthetic route towards three key Maillard flavour compounds, namely 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 6-acetyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine and 5-acetyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-1,4-thiazine, was developed. The key step in the process is the methylenation reaction of azaheterocyclic carboxylic esters by means of dimethyltitanocene, giving rise to intermediate vinyl ethers which can be considered as excellent and stable precursors for the title compounds, as a simple acidic treatment of these precursors suffices to release the characteristic Maillard flavours. PMID:25172717

Deblander, Jurgen; Van Aeken, Sam; Adams, An; De Kimpe, Norbert; Abbaspour Tehrani, Kourosch

2015-02-01

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Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one. PMID:23414530

Majcher, Ma?gorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jele?, Henryk H

2013-03-20

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Determination of compounds responsible for tempeh aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tempeh is a fermented food, popular mainly in south-east Asia, but also among vegetarians worldwide. It is produced by fermenting soybean or other beans with Rhizopus strains and usually eaten deep-fried, steamed or roasted. The flavour of tempeh depends upon the fermentation time, beans used and the (eventual) frying process. Our goal was to identify compounds responsible for the unique aroma of fermented and fried soy tempeh. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) with the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) approach, was used to determine key odorants after 1 and 5 days of fermentation and subsequent frying. Comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToF-MS) was used for their quantitation using stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) or standard addition (SA) methods. Odour activity values (OAV) were calculated for 19 out of 21 key odorants. Tempeh was fermented for 5 days and fried, and the main aroma compounds were found to be the following: 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, (FD=1024, OAV 1380), 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (FD=512, OAV 338), dimethyl trisulfide, (FD=512, OAV 900), methional (FD=512, OAV 930), 2-methylpropanal (FD=512, OAV 311) and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (FD=512, OAV 455). The frying process induced the increase or appearance of the main key odorants in tempeh. PMID:23768380

Jele?, Henryk; Majcher, Ma?gorzata; Ginja, Alexandra; Kuligowski, Maciej

2013-11-01

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Key aroma compounds in roasted in-shell peanuts.  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation by using an aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the aroma concentrates made from freshly roasted in-shell peanuts and stored peanuts revealed a total of 43 key aroma compounds, including 8 newly identified compounds in peanuts. Among them, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, exhibiting an earthy note, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, exhibiting a caramel-like note, were detected with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 4096 in the fresh peanuts, followed by 3,5-dimethyl-2-ethylpyrazine, exhibiting a nutty note, as having the next highest FD factor of 1024. A quantitative analysis of the key aroma compounds having high FD factors in the fresh peanuts and stored peanuts revealed that 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, and 3,5-dimethyl-2-vinylpyrazine significantly decreased during storage, while methyl 2-methyl-3-furyl disulfide, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol significantly increased. The sensory experiments revealed that the fresh peanuts presented strong roasty/meaty, popcorn-like, and nutty notes, as well as moderate spicy/burnt and caramel-like notes, whereas the stored peanuts presented significantly weak roasty/meaty and popcorn-like notes and a significantly strong spicy/burnt note. Based on the comparative AEDAs, the quantitative analysis, and the sensory analysis, it was concluded that the freshly roasted peanut aroma comprised the significant contributions of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol exhibiting a roasty/meaty note, and of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline exhibiting a popcorn-like note, and the lesser contribution of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol exhibiting a spicy/burnt note. In particular, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, which was only detected in the freshly roasted peanut aroma concentrate, might be an essential component describing the freshness of the roasted peanut aroma by its diffusive roasty/meaty note. PMID:23832337

Kaneko, Shu; Sakai, Ririka; Kumazawa, Kenji; Usuki, Manabu; Nishimura, Osamu

2013-01-01

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Comparison of aroma active and sulfur volatiles in three fragrant rice cultivars using GC-olfactometry and GC-PFPD.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma volatiles from three cooked fragrant rice types (Jasmine, Basmati and Jasmati) were characterised and identified using SPME GC-O, GC-PFPD and confirmed using GC-MS. A total of 26, 23, and 22 aroma active volatiles were observed in Jasmine, Basmati and Jasmati cooked rice samples. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline was aroma active in all three rice types, but the sulphur-based, cooked rice character impact volatile, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline was aroma active only in Jasmine rice. Five additional sulphur volatiles were found to have aroma activity: dimethyl sulphide, 3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, dimethyl trisulphide, and methional. Other newly-reported aroma active rice volatiles were geranyl acetate, ?-damascone, ?-damascenone, and ?-ionone, contributing nutty, sweet floral attributes to the aroma of cooked aromatic rice. The first two principal components from the principal component analysis of sulphur volatiles explained 60% of the variance. PC1 separated Basmati from the other two cultivars and PC2 completely separated Jasmine from Jasmati cultivars. PMID:24518308

Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Rouseff, Russell L

2014-07-01

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Induction of satiation via aroma in dairy products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sensory satiation is probably one of the most important factors in meal termination. In this paper, the use of aromas to induce satiation via dairy products is illustrated by means of two examples: the use of organic acids, obtained by fermentation; and altering the extent of retro-nasal aroma release. In a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised cross-over preload-test meal design, it was demonstrated that a dairy beverage fermented with propionic acid bacteria was perceived as more satia...

Ruijschop, R.; Boelrijk, A. E. M.; Giffel, M. C.; Graaf, C.; Westerterp-plantenga, M. S.

2009-01-01

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A PCR-based marker for a locus conferring aroma in vegetable soybean (Glycine max L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetable soybean (Glycine max L.) is an important economic and nutritious crop in South and Southeast Asian countries and is increasingly grown in the Western Hemisphere. Aromatic vegetable soybean is a special group of soybean varieties that produce young pods containing a sweet aroma, which is produced mainly by the volatile compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). Due to the aroma, the aromatic vegetable soybean commands higher market prices and gains wider acceptance from unfamiliar consumers. We have previously reported that the GmAMADH2 gene encodes an AMADH that regulates aroma (2AP) biosynthesis in soybeans (Arikit et al. 2010). A sequence variation involving a 2-bp deletion in exon 10 was found in this gene in all investigated aromatic varieties. In this study, a codominant PCR-based marker for the aroma trait in soybeans was designed based on the 2-bp deletion in GmAMADH2. The marker was verified in five aromatic and five non-aromatic varieties as well as in F(2) soybean population segregating for aroma. The aromatic genotype with the 2-bp deletion was completely associated with the five aromatic soybean varieties as well as the aromatic progeny of the F(2) population with seeds containing 2AP. Similarly, the non-aromatic genotype was associated with the five non-aromatic varieties and non-aromatic progeny. The perfect co-segregation of the marker genotypes and aroma phenotypes confirmed that the marker could be efficiently used for molecular breeding of soybeans for aroma. PMID:20852988

Arikit, Siwaret; Yoshihashi, Tadashi; Wanchana, Samart; Tanya, Patcharin; Juwattanasomran, Ruangchai; Srinives, Peerasak; Vanavichit, Apichart

2011-02-01

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Carotenoid breakdown products the-norisoprenoids-in wine aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years there has been much interest in the role that products of carotenoid breakdown--the norisoprenoids--may play in wine aroma. The basis for this interest is that norisoprenoids have very low olfactory perception thresholds and so have a high sensorial impact on wine aroma. The norisoprenoids can be formed by direct degradation of carotenoids such beta-carotene and neoxanthin or they can be stored as glycoconjugates, which can then release their volatile aglycone during fermentation via enzymatic and acid hydrolysis processes. The norisoprenoids identified in wine with important sensory properties are: TCH (2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexanone), beta-damascenone, beta-ionone, vitispirane, actinidiol, TDN (1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene), riesling acetal and TPB (4-(2,3,6-trimethylphenyl)buta-1,3-diene). The grape carotenoid profile, fermentation process and wine storage conditions, are determinant factors for the aroma of wine. The mechanisms involved in overall aroma development from grapes through fermentation to wine are yet to be defined. Progress in this area will be reviewed. PMID:19320050

Mendes-Pinto, Maria Manuela

2009-03-15

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Characterization of the aroma signature of styrian pumpkin seed oil ( Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca) by molecular sensory science.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a distillate prepared from an authentic Styrian pumpkin seed oil followed by identification experiments led to the characterization of 47 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192 among which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Among the set of key odorants, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline and another 20 odorants were identified for the first time as constituents of pumpkin seed oil. To evaluate the aroma contribution in more detail, 31 aroma compounds showing the highest FD factors were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds determined in sunflower oil, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated, and 26 aroma compounds were found to have an OAV above 1. Among them, methanethiol (sulfury), 2-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanal (malty), and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (roasted potato) reached the highest OAVs. Sensory evaluation of an aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 31 key odorants in the concentrations as determined in the oil revealed that the aroma of Styrian pumpkin seed oil could be closely mimicked. Quantitation of 11 key odorants in three commercial pumpkin seed oil revealed clear differences in the concentrations of distinct odorants, which were correlated with the overall aroma profile of the oils. PMID:23461409

Poehlmann, Susan; Schieberle, Peter

2013-03-27

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FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo explorou a versatilidade de Ceratocystis fimbriata de crescer e produzir aromas naturais sobre substratos de resíduos agro-industriais. Bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã, amaranto e soja em diferentes proporções compuseram os sete meios utilizados, mostrando ser substratos adequados par [...] a o crescimento e produção de aroma por este fungo em fermentação no estado sólido. Todos os meios contendo bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã e soja em sua composição proporcionaram um forte aroma frutal, enquanto, o meio de amaranto produziu um agradável aroma de abacaxi. A produção de aroma foi dependente do crescimento, visto que a máxima intensidade do aroma foi detectado poucas horas antes ou depois da atividade respiratória máxima. Foram detectados dezesseis compostos pela cromatografia de gás no headspace das culturas, e quinze deles foram identificados: 1 ácido, 6 alcoois, 1 aldeído, 2 cetonas e 5 ésteres. Abstract in english Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth [...] medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intensity was detected a few hours before or after the maximum respirometric activity. Sixteen compounds were separated by gas cromatography of the components present in the headspace and fifteen of them were identified as acid (1), alcohols (6), aldehyde (1), ketones (2) and esters (5).

Adriana, Bramorski; Carlos R., Soccol; Pierre, Christen; Sergio, Revah.

1998-09-01

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Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried out at room temperature until the media reached pH value of 5. Samples were evaluated for sensory characteristics using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. In all media the target pH was reached after 68-71 hours of fermentation, depending on citrate level. Fermentation and the production of aroma compounds were more intensive in media that contained whey proteins compared to media with only casein. Increased citrate level had a positive influence on the aroma production. Citrate increased the initial pH of the media and acted as a buffer during fermentation, which lead to longer fermentation and prolonged production of aroma compounds. At pH around 5, the desired cultured aroma was the most intensive, whereas sour taste was less dominant. The substrate with 0.25% citrate and 0.1% whey proteins, at pH 5, was rated as best regarding its sensory characteristics.

Nevenka Mazi?

2008-08-01

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FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intensity was detected a few hours before or after the maximum respirometric activity. Sixteen compounds were separated by gas cromatography of the components present in the headspace and fifteen of them were identified as acid (1, alcohols (6, aldehyde (1, ketones (2 and esters (5.

Bramorski Adriana

1998-01-01

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SUGARCANE BAGASSE AS SUPPORT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COCONUT AROMA BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION (SSF  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brazil is one of the major producers of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum in the world and consequently produces large quantities of waste such as sugarcane bagasse, which can be used as inert support for the production of aroma compounds by SSF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the centesimal composition and particle size distribution of sugar cane bagasse, as well as its applicability as support for the production of 6-pentyl-?-pyrone by SSF. Analyses were performed in triplicate to evaluate the levels of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and moisture in the waste. Also evaluated were the particle size distribution and morphology structure of the sugarcane bagasse. The aroma compound produced shows that the studied waste can be used for 6PP production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC 4042 by SSF process. By kinetic production of aroma it is concluded that the seventh day of fermentation yielded the largest production of the aroma compound, as published for other studies

Manoela Pessanha da Penha,

2012-04-01

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Production of aromas and fragrances through microbial oxidation of monoterpenes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Aromas and fragrances can be obtained through the microbial oxidation of monoterpenes. Many microorganisms can be used to carry out extremely specific conversions using substrates of low commercial value. However, for many species, these substrates are highly toxic, consequently inhibiting their met [...] abolism. In this work, the conversion ability of Aspergillus niger IOC-3913 for terpenic compounds was examined. This species was preselected because of its high resistance to toxic monoterpenic substrates. Though it has been grown in media containing R-limonene (one of the cheapest monoterpenic hydrocarbons, which is widely available on the market), the species has not shown the ability to metabolize it, since biotransformation products were not detected in high resolution gas chromatography analyses. For this reason, other monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and camphor) were used as substrates. These compounds were shown to be metabolized by the selected strain, producing oxidized compounds. Four reaction systems were used: a) biotransformation in a liquid medium with cells in growth b) with pre-grown cultures c) with cells immobilized in a synthetic polymer network and d) in a solid medium to which the substrate was added via the gas phase. The main biotransformation products were found in all the reaction systems, although the adoption of previously cultivated cells seemed to favor biotransformation. Cell immobilization seemed to be a feasible strategy for alleviating the toxic effect of the substrate. Through mass spectrometry it was possible to identify verbenone and alpha-terpineol as the biotransformation products of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, respectively. The structures of the other oxidation products are described.

H. F., Rozenbaum; M. L., Patitucci; O. A. C., Antunes; N., Pereira Jr.

2006-09-01

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Production of aromas and fragrances through microbial oxidation of monoterpenes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aromas and fragrances can be obtained through the microbial oxidation of monoterpenes. Many microorganisms can be used to carry out extremely specific conversions using substrates of low commercial value. However, for many species, these substrates are highly toxic, consequently inhibiting their metabolism. In this work, the conversion ability of Aspergillus niger IOC-3913 for terpenic compounds was examined. This species was preselected because of its high resistance to toxic monoterpenic substrates. Though it has been grown in media containing R-limonene (one of the cheapest monoterpenic hydrocarbons, which is widely available on the market, the species has not shown the ability to metabolize it, since biotransformation products were not detected in high resolution gas chromatography analyses. For this reason, other monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and camphor were used as substrates. These compounds were shown to be metabolized by the selected strain, producing oxidized compounds. Four reaction systems were used: a biotransformation in a liquid medium with cells in growth b with pre-grown cultures c with cells immobilized in a synthetic polymer network and d in a solid medium to which the substrate was added via the gas phase. The main biotransformation products were found in all the reaction systems, although the adoption of previously cultivated cells seemed to favor biotransformation. Cell immobilization seemed to be a feasible strategy for alleviating the toxic effect of the substrate. Through mass spectrometry it was possible to identify verbenone and alpha-terpineol as the biotransformation products of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, respectively. The structures of the other oxidation products are described.

H. F. Rozenbaum

2006-09-01

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Development of a single kernel analysis method for detection of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in aromatic rice germplasm  

Science.gov (United States)

Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in conjunction with GC/MS was used to distinguish non-aromatic rice (Oryza sativa, L.) kernels from aromatic rice kernels. In this method, single kernels along with 10 µl of 0.1 ng 2,4,6-Trimethylpyridine (TMP) were placed in sealed vials and heated to 80oC for 18...

 
 
 
 
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Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB) would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried o...

Nevenka Mazi?; Rajka Božani?

2008-01-01

22

Potential applications of glucosyltransferases in terpene glucoside production: impacts on the use of aroma and fragrance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The detection of glucoconjugated forms of monoterpene alcohols in rose petals in the late 1960s opened the new field of nonvolatile aroma precursors in flavor research. It is now well established that odorless glycosides represent a significant pool of aroma precursors in plants where they act as preformed but inactivated defense or attractive chemicals. Technical improvements in the separation and identification of plant secondary metabolites have provided a multitude of chemical structures, but functional characterization of glycosyltransferases that catalyze their formation lags behind. As technical efforts and costs for DNA sequencing dramatically dropped during the last decade, the number of plant genome sequences increased significantly, thus providing opportunities to functionally characterize the glycosyltransferase gene families in plants. These studies yielded the first glycosyltransferase genes that encode efficient biocatalysts for the production of monoterpene glucosides. They have applications in the food, feed, chemical, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries as slow release aroma chemicals. PMID:25431013

Schwab, Wilfried; Fischer, Thilo C; Giri, Ashok; Wüst, Matthias

2015-01-01

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Irradiation and fumigation effects on flavor, aroma and composition of grapefruit products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effects were evaluated on grapefruit treated to meet quarantine restrictions against Caribbean fruit fly infestation. Differences were found in flavor of fresh sections, fresh juice, and aroma of peel oil when obtained from fruit irradiated with x-rays, as compared with products from nonirradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in all pasteurized juices from fruit irradiated at 50-60 krad. Vitamin C levels were significantly lower in juice from most irradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in fresh and pasteurized juice from fruit treated with methyl bromide, and in pasteurized juice from fruit treated with ethylene dibromide. Aroma differences were found in peel oil from fruit treated with phosphine.

Moshonas, M.G.; Shaw, P.E.

1982-05-01

24

Irradiation and fumigation effects on flavor, aroma and composition of grapefruit products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects were evaluated on grapefruit treated to meet quarantine restrictions against Caribbean fruit fly infestation. Differences were found in flavor of fresh sections, fresh juice, and aroma of peel oil when obtained from fruit irradiated with x-rays, as compared with products from nonirradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in all pasteurized juices from fruit irradiated at 5-60 krad. Vitamin C levels were significantly lower in juice from most irradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in fresh and pasteurized juice from fruit treated with methyl bromide, and in pasteurized juice from fruit treated with ethylene dibromide. Aroma differences were found in peel oil from fruit treated with phosphine. (author)

25

Fruiting Body Production and Aroma Profile Analysis of Agrocybe aegerita Cultivated on Different Substrates  

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Full Text Available The industrial cultivated basidiomycete Agrocybe aegerita, also known as “Pioppino” in Italy or “Samthaube” in Germany, is a high quality mushroom with a delicious aroma. Cultivation of A. aegerita on wheat straw supplemented with different residues of the food industry showed the highest yields in fruiting body production with a biological efficiency of 36% when black tea pomace was added. The addition of other substrates resulted in biological efficiencies of 23% to 33%. Besides the mushroom yields, the number and size of fruiting bodies harvested on the different substrates were determined. A comparison of the aroma profiles of A. aegerita grown on wheat straw and on wheat straw supplemented with black tea by means of GC/MS/MS/O is presented.

Vanessa Kleofas

2014-04-01

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Isolation and Identification of Aspergillus oryzae and the Production of Soy Sauce with New Aroma  

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Full Text Available Soy sauce is a dark brown salty liquid with a peculiar and a meaty taste. It is the chief savory-seasoning agent used in Oriental cookery, but it is becoming increasingly popular in many other regions of the world. The purpose of this study was to isolate Aspergillus oryzae strain from contaminated rice, soybean and wheat for using in soy sauce production with new aroma of thyme and dill. Samples of rice, soybeans and wheat assumed to be contaminated with Aspergillus oryzae were used in the isolation. Pure cultures obtained by culturing and subculturing on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA were maintained on PDA slant. All isolates were inoculated on Aspergillus flavus and Parasiticus agar (AFPA medium to differentiate them from Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus based on reverse color. These isolates and the reference strain were inoculated on Czapack Yeast Extract Agar (CYA and the macroscopic characteristics amongst these strains were compared. Slide cultures for these strains were prepared and their microscopic characteristics were compared. The preparation of the soy sauce was carried out by two stages. The first stage was Koji, which was prepared by mixing the isolates and the reference strain separately with steamed soybeans and the crushed millet was incubated for three days. The second stage involved the preparation of brine which consists of a koji and salt solution. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS program. The results of analysis of soy sauce encouraged the use of the isolates, especially the rice isolate in soy sauce production and the addition of dill or thyme gave a specific aroma to the final product.

Abboud Elkichaoui

2010-01-01

27

Genetic analysis of the metabolic pathways responsible for aroma metabolite production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

During alcoholic fermentation, higher alcohols, esters, and acids are formed from amino acids via the Ehrlich pathway by yeast, but many of the genes encoding the enzymes have not yet been identified. When the BAT1/2 genes, encoding transaminases that deaminate amino acids in the first step of the Ehrlich pathway are deleted, higher metabolite formation is significantly decreased. Screening yeast strains with deletions of genes encoding decarboxylases, dehydrogenases, and reductases revealed nine genes whose absence had the most significant impact on higher alcohol production. The seven most promising genes (AAD6, BAT2, HOM2, PAD1, PRO2, SPE1, and THI3) were further investigated by constructing double- and triple-deletion mutants. All double-deletion strains showed a greater decrease in isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, isobutyric, and isovaleric acid production than the corresponding single deletion strains with the double-deletion strains in combination with ?bat2 and the ?hom2-?aad6 strain revealing the greatest impact. BAT2 is the dominant gene in these deletion strains and this suggests the initial transaminase step of the Ehrlich pathway is rate-limiting. The triple-deletion strains in combination with BAT2 (?bat2-?thi3-?aad6 and ?bat2-?thi3-?hom2) had the greatest impact on the end metabolite production with the exception of isoamyl alcohol and isovaleric acid. The strain deleted for two dehydrogenases and a reductase (?hom2-?pro2-?aad6) had a greater effect on the levels of these two compounds. This study contributes to the elucidation of the Ehrlich pathway and its significance for aroma production by fermenting yeast cells. PMID:23111598

Styger, Gustav; Jacobson, Dan; Prior, Bernard A; Bauer, Florian F

2013-05-01

28

Effect of cysteine and cystine addition on sensory profile and potent odorants of extruded potato snacks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aromas generated in extruded potato snacks without and with addition of 0.25, 0.5, and 1% (w/w) of flavor precursors, cysteine and cystine, were compared and evaluated by descriptive sensory profiling. The results showed that high addition of cysteine (0.5 and 1%) resulted in the formation of undesirable odor and taste described as mercaptanic/sulfur, onion-like, and bitter; on the contrary, addition of cystine even at high concentration gave product with pleasant odor and taste, slightly changed into breadlike notes. GC/O analysis showed cysteine to be a much more reactive flavor precursor than cystine, stimulating formation of 12 compounds with garlic, sulfury, burnt, pungent/beer, cabbage/mold, meatlike, roasted, and popcorn odor notes. Further analysis performed by the AEDA technique identified 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (FD 2048) as a most potent odorant of extruded potato snacks with 1% addition of cysteine. Other identified compounds with high FD were butanal, 3-methyl-2-butenethiol, 2-methylthiazole, methional, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone. In the case of cystine addition (1%) the highest FD factors were calculated for butanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, benzenemethanethiol, methional, phenylacetaldehyde, dimethyltrisulfide, 1-octen-3-ol, 1,5-octadien-3-one, and 2-acetylpyrazine. PMID:17567142

Majcher, Ma?gorzata A; Jele?, Henryk H

2007-07-11

29

Coffee residues as substrates for aroma production by Ceratocystis fimbriata in solid state fermentation Produção de aromas por Ceratocystis fimbriata em fermentaç??o no estado sólido utilizando resíduos da agroindústria do café como substratos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ability of two different strains of Ceratocystis fimbriata for fruity aroma production by solid state fermentation (SSF) was tested on coffee pulp and coffee husk complemented with glucose as substrates. Experiments were carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks and the experimental conditions were: 70% of initial moisture, 20% of glucose addition and pH 6.0. Aeration was made by passive diffusion through the gauze covering the flasks. Headspace analysis of the culture by gas chromatography...

Adriane Bianchi Pedroni Medeiros; Pierre Christen; Sevastianos Roussos; Juliana Carine Gern; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

2003-01-01

30

Isolation and Identification of Aspergillus oryzae and the Production of Soy Sauce with New Aroma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soy sauce is a dark brown salty liquid with a peculiar and a meaty taste. It is the chief savory-seasoning agent used in Oriental cookery, but it is becoming increasingly popular in many other regions of the world. The purpose of this study was to isolate Aspergillus oryzae strain from contaminated rice, soybean and wheat for using in soy sauce production with new aroma of thyme and dill. Samples of rice, soybeans and wheat assumed to be contaminated with Aspergillus oryzae were...

Abboud Elkichaoui; Amal Fayyad; Tarek Elbashiti

2010-01-01

31

Aminoacid metabolism and the production of wine aroma compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Os produtos do metabolismo de aminoácidos por leveduras Saccharomyces cerevisiae durante a fermentação alcoólica têm um impacto relevante no perfil sensorial de vinhos. Com o objetivo de estudar a influência da composição de aminoácidos do meio na formação da base do aroma típico de vinho, meios sintéticos contendo diferentes compostos nitrogenados foram fermentados por S. cerevisiae. Em um primeiro experimento, cinco meios de composições distintas quanto à fonte de azoto fora...

Arau?jo, Leandro Dias

2012-01-01

32

Coffee residues as substrates for aroma production by Ceratocystis fimbriata in solid state fermentation Produção de aromas por Ceratocystis fimbriata em fermentaç??o no estado sólido utilizando resíduos da agroindústria do café como substratos  

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Full Text Available The ability of two different strains of Ceratocystis fimbriata for fruity aroma production by solid state fermentation (SSF was tested on coffee pulp and coffee husk complemented with glucose as substrates. Experiments were carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks and the experimental conditions were: 70% of initial moisture, 20% of glucose addition and pH 6.0. Aeration was made by passive diffusion through the gauze covering the flasks. Headspace analysis of the culture by gas chromatography (GC showed that 12 compounds were produced with coffee husk. Maximum total volatiles (TV concentration was reached after 72 h of culture with coffee husk as substrate (28 µmol.L-1.g-1. Ethyl acetate, ethanol and acetaldehyde were the major compounds produced, representing 84.7%, 7.6% and 2.0% of TV, respectively. A pre-treatment with heat (100ºC/ 40 min of substrates did not improve TV production. Respirometry analysis was used to determine the growth of the culture by measuring carbon dioxide produced. Results showed that the CO2 production follows the aroma production. This result shows the great potential for the use coffee pulp and coffee husk as substrates to microbial aroma production by solid state fermentation.Neste trabalho duas diferentes cepas de Ceratocystis fimbriata foram testadas para a produção de aromas frutais em fermentação no estado sólido (FES utilizando como substratos casca e polpa de café, suplementados com glicose. Os experimentos foram realizados em frascos Erlenmeyer de 250 mL. As condições experimentais foram: umidade inicial de 70%, adição de 20% de glicose e pH 6,0. Os frascos foram cobertos com gaze e a aeração ocorreu por difusão passiva. A análise do "headspace"da cultura foi feita por cromatografia gasosa e 12 compostos foram detectados utilizando a casca de café. A análise respirométrica foi realizada para o acompanhamento do crescimento do microrganismo pela determinação do dióxido de carbono produzido. A produção de ésteres caracterizou o aroma frutal da cultura. A concentração máxima de voláteis totais foi alcançada após 72 h de cultivo em casca de café (28 µmol.L-1.g-1. Os principais compostos produzidos foram acetato de etila, etanol e acetaldeído, representando 84,7%, 7,6% and 2,0% dos voláteis totais, respectivamente.

Adriane Bianchi Pedroni Medeiros

2003-07-01

33

Coffee residues as substrates for aroma production by Ceratocystis fimbriata in solid state fermentation / Produção de aromas por Ceratocystis fimbriata em fermentação no estado sólido utilizando resíduos da agroindústria do café como substratos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho duas diferentes cepas de Ceratocystis fimbriata foram testadas para a produção de aromas frutais em fermentação no estado sólido (FES) utilizando como substratos casca e polpa de café, suplementados com glicose. Os experimentos foram realizados em frascos Erlenmeyer de 250 mL. As cond [...] ições experimentais foram: umidade inicial de 70%, adição de 20% de glicose e pH 6,0. Os frascos foram cobertos com gaze e a aeração ocorreu por difusão passiva. A análise do "headspace"da cultura foi feita por cromatografia gasosa e 12 compostos foram detectados utilizando a casca de café. A análise respirométrica foi realizada para o acompanhamento do crescimento do microrganismo pela determinação do dióxido de carbono produzido. A produção de ésteres caracterizou o aroma frutal da cultura. A concentração máxima de voláteis totais foi alcançada após 72 h de cultivo em casca de café (28 µmol.L-1.g-1). Os principais compostos produzidos foram acetato de etila, etanol e acetaldeído, representando 84,7%, 7,6% and 2,0% dos voláteis totais, respectivamente. Abstract in english The ability of two different strains of Ceratocystis fimbriata for fruity aroma production by solid state fermentation (SSF) was tested on coffee pulp and coffee husk complemented with glucose as substrates. Experiments were carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks and the experimental conditions wer [...] e: 70% of initial moisture, 20% of glucose addition and pH 6.0. Aeration was made by passive diffusion through the gauze covering the flasks. Headspace analysis of the culture by gas chromatography (GC) showed that 12 compounds were produced with coffee husk. Maximum total volatiles (TV) concentration was reached after 72 h of culture with coffee husk as substrate (28 µmol.L-1.g-1). Ethyl acetate, ethanol and acetaldehyde were the major compounds produced, representing 84.7%, 7.6% and 2.0% of TV, respectively. A pre-treatment with heat (100ºC/ 40 min) of substrates did not improve TV production. Respirometry analysis was used to determine the growth of the culture by measuring carbon dioxide produced. Results showed that the CO2 production follows the aroma production. This result shows the great potential for the use coffee pulp and coffee husk as substrates to microbial aroma production by solid state fermentation.

Adriane Bianchi Pedroni, Medeiros; Pierre, Christen; Sevastianos, Roussos; Juliana Carine, Gern; Carlos Ricardo, Soccol.

2003-07-01

34

Combined effects of nutrients and temperature on the production of fermentative aromas by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile compounds produced by yeast during fermentation greatly influence the organoleptic qualities of wine. We developed a model to predict the combined effects of initial nitrogen and phytosterol content and fermentation temperature on the production of volatile compounds. We used a Box-Behnken design and response surface modeling to study the response of Lalvin EC1118® to these environmental conditions. Initial nitrogen content had the greatest influence on most compounds; however, there were differences in the value of fermentation parameters required for the maximal production of the various compounds. Fermentation parameters affected differently the production of isobutanol and isoamyl alcohol, although their synthesis involve the same enzymes and intermediate. We found differences in regulation of the synthesis of acetates of higher alcohols and ethyl esters, suggesting that fatty acid availability is the main factor influencing the synthesis of ethyl esters whereas the production of acetates depends on the activity of alcohol acetyltransferases. We also evaluated the effect of temperature on the total production of three esters by determining gas-liquid balances. Evaporation largely accounted for the effect of temperature on the accumulation of esters in liquid. Nonetheless, the metabolism of isoamyl acetate and ethyl octanoate was significantly affected by this parameter. We extended this study to other strains. Environmental parameters had a similar effect on aroma production in most strains. Nevertheless, the regulation of the synthesis of fermentative aromas was atypical in two strains: Lalvin K1M® and Affinity™ ECA5, which produces a high amount of aromatic compounds and was obtained by experimental evolution. PMID:25412578

Rollero, Stéphanie; Bloem, Audrey; Camarasa, Carole; Sanchez, Isabelle; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Dequin, Sylvie; Mouret, Jean-Roch

2014-11-21

35

Lipases microbianas na produção de ésteres formadores de aroma Lipases biocatalysis in the production of flavor esters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram testadas cinco lipases microbianas produzidas no Laboratório de Bioquímica de Alimentos-FEA-UNICAMP, quanto à capacidade de catalisar a síntese de ésteres formadores de aroma por esterificação em meio isento de solvente orgânico. A natureza da enzima assim como o tamanho da cadeia dos ácidos afetaram as taxas de conversão obtidas.Os melhores resultados obtidos foram 88 % de conversão na síntese de laurato de isoamila e 72% para propionato de isoamila pela lipase de Rhizopus sp após 24 horas de incubação, seguido de 82% de conversão na síntese de acetato de isopropila por Alcaligenes sp após 24 horas de incubação.Five lipases produced at UNICAMP were screened for their ability to synthesize flavor esters by esterification in organic solvent free system. The nature of the enzyme, as well as the chain length of the acyl donor used affected the product yields. Lipase from Rhizopus sp and Alcaligenes sp gave the best overall yield (88 and 82%.

Gabriela A. Macedo

1997-08-01

36

PENGOLAHAN BERAS WANGI BUATAN METODE DAN RETENSI SENYAWA AROMA [Processing of Artificial Fragrant Rice The Method and Aroma Retention  

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Processing of artificial fragrant rice in which one or more aroma compounds were introduced into raw milled rice were studied. The end product, which is potentially marketable, showed no visible difference in appearance from the untreated rice, and the cooked product showed perceivable aroma to the consumers. The aromatisation process used liquid carbon dioxide as a vehicle to deliver the aroma. Five aroma compounds of eugenol, iso-eugenol, methyl eugenol, cinnamyl alcohol, and cinnamaldeh...

Filli Pratama

2006-01-01

37

Production of volatile aroma compounds by bacterial strains isolated from different surface-ripened French cheeses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twelve bacterial strains belonging to eight taxonomic groups: Brevibacterium linens, Microbacterium foliorum, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus equorum, Brachybacterium sp., Proteus vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp., isolated from different surface-ripened French cheeses, were investigated for their abilities to generate volatile aroma compounds. Out of 104 volatile compounds, 54 volatile compounds (identified using dynamic headspace technique coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry [GC-MS]) appeared to be produced by the different bacteria on a casamino acid medium. Four out of eight species used in this study: B. linens, M. foliorum, P. vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp. showed a high flavouring potential. Among these four bacterial species, P. vulgaris had the greatest capacity to produce not only the widest varieties but also the highest quantities of volatile compounds having low olfactive thresholds such as sulphur compounds. Branched aldehydes, alcohols and esters were produced in large amounts by P. vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp. showing their capacity to breakdown the branched amino acids. This investigation shows that some common but rarely mentioned bacteria present on the surface of ripened cheeses could play a major role in cheese flavour formation and could be used to produce cheese flavours. PMID:17701035

Deetae, Pawinee; Bonnarme, Pascal; Spinnler, Henry E; Helinck, Sandra

2007-10-01

38

Optimization of the production of aroma compounds by Kluyveromyces marxianus in solid-state fermentation using factorial design and response surface methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies were carried out for the production of aroma compounds in solid-state fermentation using factorial design and response surface methodology (RSM) experiments. Five agro-industrial residues were evaluated as substrate for cultivating a strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus. The results proved the feasibility of using cassava bagasse and giant palm bran (Opuntia ficus indica) as substrates to produce fruity aroma compounds by the yeast culture. In order to test the influence of the process parameters on the culture to produce volatile compounds, two statistical experimental designs were performed. The parameters studied were initial substrate pH, addition of glucose, cultivation temperature, initial substrate moisture and inoculum size. Using a 2(5) factorial design, addition of glucose and initial pH of the substrate was found statistically significant for aroma compounds production on palm bran. Although this experimental design showed that addition of glucose did not have a significant role with cassava bagasse, 2(2) factorial design revealed that glucose addition was significant at higher concentrations. Head-space analysis of the culture by gas chromatography showed the production of nine and eleven compounds from palm bran and cassava bagasse, respectively, which included alcohols, esters and aldehyde. In both the cases, two compounds remained unidentified and ethyl acetate, ethanol and acetaldehyde were the major compounds produced. Esters produced were responsible for the fruity aroma in both the cases. With palm bran, ethanol was the compound produced in highest concentration, and with cassava bagasse (both supplemented with 10% glucose), ethyl acetate was produced at highest concentration, accumulating 418 and 1395µmoll(-1) head-spaceg(-1) substrate in 72h, respectively. PMID:10908866

Medeiros; Pandey; Freitas; Christen; Soccol

2000-08-01

39

Lipases microbianas na produção de ésteres formadores de aroma / Lipases biocatalysis in the production of flavor esters  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram testadas cinco lipases microbianas produzidas no Laboratório de Bioquímica de Alimentos-FEA-UNICAMP, quanto à capacidade de catalisar a síntese de ésteres formadores de aroma por esterificação em meio isento de solvente orgânico. A natureza da enzima assim como o tamanho da cadeia dos ácidos a [...] fetaram as taxas de conversão obtidas.Os melhores resultados obtidos foram 88 % de conversão na síntese de laurato de isoamila e 72% para propionato de isoamila pela lipase de Rhizopus sp após 24 horas de incubação, seguido de 82% de conversão na síntese de acetato de isopropila por Alcaligenes sp após 24 horas de incubação. Abstract in english Five lipases produced at UNICAMP were screened for their ability to synthesize flavor esters by esterification in organic solvent free system. The nature of the enzyme, as well as the chain length of the acyl donor used affected the product yields. Lipase from Rhizopus sp and Alcaligenes sp gave the [...] best overall yield (88 and 82%).

Gabriela A., Macedo; Gláucia M., Pastore.

1997-08-01

40

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mixed Culture of Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L.) Juice: Synergism in the Aroma Compounds Production  

Science.gov (United States)

Blackberry (Rubus sp.) juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574) recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (<6°GL) with potential to be produced at an industrial scale was obtained. Alcoholic fermentations were performed at 28°C, 200?rpm, and noncontrolled pH. The synergistic effect on the aromatic compounds production during fermentation in mixed culture was compared with those obtained by monoculture and physic mixture of spirits produced in monoculture. The aromatic composition was determined by HS-SPME-GC. The differences in aromatic profile principally rely on the proportions in aromatic compounds and not on the number of those compounds. The multivariance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA) permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains. PMID:25506606

Ragazzo-Sánchez, Juan Arturo; Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa Isela; Luna-Solano, Guadalupe; Calderón-Santoyo, Montserrat

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Lipases microbianas na produção de ésteres formadores de aroma Lipases biocatalysis in the production of flavor esters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Foram testadas cinco lipases microbianas produzidas no Laboratório de Bioquímica de Alimentos-FEA-UNICAMP, quanto à capacidade de catalisar a síntese de ésteres formadores de aroma por esterificação em meio isento de solvente orgânico. A natureza da enzima assim como o tamanho da cadeia dos ácidos afetaram as taxas de conversão obtidas.Os melhores resultados obtidos foram 88 % de conversão na síntese de laurato de isoamila e 72% para propionato de isoamila pela lipase de Rhizopus ...

Macedo, Gabriela A.; Pastore, Gla?ucia M.

1997-01-01

42

?-carotene biotransformation to obtain aroma compounds / Biotransformação de ?-caroteno para obtenção de compostos de aroma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Carotenoides são importantes constituintes de alimentos por sua coloração e por seus produtos de degradação gerarem compostos voláteis em alimentos. Compostos de aromas derivados de carotenoides estão distribuídos na natureza, constituem precursores de aromas importantes em alimentos como frutas e e [...] m flores. Apresentam alto potencial aromático e, por isso, são de grande interesse para as indústrias de aromas e fragrâncias. Neste trabalho, mais de 300 microrganismos foram selecionados pelo método da placa, de acordo com sua capacidade de degradar carotenoides presentes no meio de cultura. Cerca de 80 linhagens apresentaram capacidade de produção de aromas e 7 cepas apresentaram descritores e intensidades de aromas de interesse, segundo um painel não treinado de provadores, sendo selecionadas e submetidas à fermentação submersa para produção de compostos aromas derivados de ?-caroteno. ?-Ionona foi o principal produto obtido da degradação de ?-caroteno, encontrado em maiores concentrações nas linhagens CS1 (34,0 mg.L-1) e CF9 (42,4 mg.L-1) em 72 e 24 horas de fermentação nos meios de cultura sem e com pré-inóculo, respectivamente. Os compostos ?-damascona e pseudoionona foram encontrados em baixas concentrações, 1,1,6-trimetil-1,2,3,4-tetraidronaftaleno (TTN) foi tentativamente identificado e apocarotenoides, provavelmente obtidos da clivagem da parte central do carotenoide, foram detectados. Abstract in english Carotenoids are important constituents of food due to their color and because their degradation products generate important volatile compounds in foods. Aroma compounds derived from carotenoids are widely distributed in nature, and they are precursors of many important aromas in foods such as fruits [...] and in flowers as well. They present high aromatic potential and are therefore of great interest to the industries of aromas and fragrances. In this study, more than 300 previously isolated microorganisms with potential for biotransformation of ?-carotene present in the culture medium were selected using the plate method; about 80 strains presented capacity to produce aroma compounds and 7 strains were selected by an untrained panel of tasters to generate aroma compounds. The ?-ionone was the main compound produced by CS1 (34.0 mg.L-1) and CF9 (42.4 mg.L-1) microorganisms at 72 and 24 hours of fermentation, cultured with and without pre-inoculation, respectively. The ?-damascone and pseudoionone were found in low concentrations, 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen (TTN) was tentatively identified and other compounds such as apocarotenoids, apparently obtained from the cleavage of the central part of the carotenoid, were detected.

Mariana, Uenojo; Glaucia Maria, Pastore.

2010-09-01

43

PENGOLAHAN BERAS WANGI BUATAN METODE DAN RETENSI SENYAWA AROMA [Processing of Artificial Fragrant Rice The Method and Aroma Retention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Processing of artificial fragrant rice in which one or more aroma compounds were introduced into raw milled rice were studied. The end product, which is potentially marketable, showed no visible difference in appearance from the untreated rice, and the cooked product showed perceivable aroma to the consumers. The aromatisation process used liquid carbon dioxide as a vehicle to deliver the aroma. Five aroma compounds of eugenol, iso-eugenol, methyl eugenol, cinnamyl alcohol, and cinnamaldehyde were used as model compounds. The results showed that liquid carbon dioxide at a pressure of 8 MPa and an equilibration time of 5 minutes were found to be the optimum conditions for imparting the aroma compounds into the rice. The retention of the model aroma compounds in rice were in the range of 33% to 50%. The aroma carrier was found to be able to carry the model compounds into the core of rice. This was significant, as it potentially provided a longer period for the aroma compounds to remain in the rice.

Filli Pratama

2006-08-01

44

Production of branched-chain aroma compounds by Propionibacterium freudenreichii: links with the biosynthesis of membrane fatty acids.  

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AIMS: Short branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are cheese flavour compounds, which result from the conversion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). In Swiss cheese, the production of short BCFAs is mainly performed by Propionibacterium freudenreichii and is strain dependent. Our aim was to investigate the possible links between the biosynthesis of short BCFAs and membrane BCFAs in P. freudenreichii. METHODS AND RESULTS: Short and membrane BCFAs were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectr...

Dherbecourt, Julien; Maillard, Marie-bernadette; Catheline, Daniel; Thierry, Anne

2008-01-01

45

Biodegradation of C5-C 8 fatty acids and production of aroma volatiles by Myroides sp. ZB35 isolated from activated sludge.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the effluents of a biologically treated wastewater from a heavy oil-refining plant, C5-C8 fatty acids including pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid, heptanoic acid, octanoic acid, and 2-methylbutanoic acid are often detected. As these residual fatty acids can cause further air and water pollution, a new Myroides isolate ZB35 from activated sludge was explored to degrade these C5-C8 fatty acids in this study. It was found that the biodegradation process involved a lag phase that became prolonged with increasing acyl chain length when the fatty acids were individually fed to this strain. However, when fed as a mixture, the ones with longer acyl chains were found to become more quickly assimilated. The branched 2-methylbutanoic acid was always the last one to be depleted among the five fatty acids under both conditions. Metabolite analysis revealed one possible origin of short chain fatty acids in the biologically treated wastewater. Aroma volatiles including 2-methylbutyl isovalerate, isoamyl 2-methylbutanoate, isoamyl isovalerate, and 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutanoate were subsequently identified from ZB35 extracts, linking the source of the fruity odor to these esters excreted by Myroides species. To our best knowledge, this is the first finding of these aroma esters in bacteria. From a biotechnological viewpoint, this study has revealed the potential of Myroides species as a promising source of aroma esters attractive for food and fragrance industries. PMID:24810320

Xiao, Zijun; Zhu, Xiankun; Xi, Lijun; Hou, Xiaoyuan; Fang, Li; Lu, Jian R

2014-05-01

46

Characterization of headspace aroma compounds of freshly brewed arabica coffees and studies on a characteristic aroma compound of Ethiopian coffee.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sampling method to isolate headspace volatiles of freshly brewed drip coffee using a solid-phase microextraction fiber (fiber type: divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane) in a short time (2 min) immediately after extraction has been developed. Volatile compounds and potent odorants obtained from each headspace aroma of various arabica coffee extracts (3 production countries: Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Guatemala; 3 roasting degrees for each country: L26, L23, and L18) using the sampling method were examined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/olfactometry (GC/O, CharmAnalysis). The results of principal component analysis (PCA) using the data of GC/O analysis showed that the aroma profile of Ethiopian coffee was discriminately different from those of Tanzanian coffee and Guatemalan coffee. In addition, it was suggested from the factor loading of the PCA that 4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone (raspberry ketone; sweet-fruity odor) characterized the aroma profile of freshly brewed Ethiopian coffee. Therefore, the 4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone was quantified in the 9 kinds of coffee extracts. Ethiopian coffee extract of the lightly roasted degree (roasting degree: L26) contained the highest amount of this component, while it was only a little over the reported threshold. In the sensory test, the headspace aromas of Tanzanian and Guatemalan coffees in which 4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone was added were, respectively, discriminated from not added samples, and "sweet" odor was selected as an odor description that assessors found similarity between the added Tanzanian or Guatemalan coffee aroma and the Ethiopian coffee aroma. It was suggested that 4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone made some detectable change on total aroma profile even though the added amount was only near threshold level. PMID:18576978

Akiyama, M; Murakami, K; Hirano, Y; Ikeda, M; Iwatsuki, K; Wada, A; Tokuno, K; Onishi, M; Iwabuchi, H

2008-06-01

47

The Development of Aromas in Ruminant Meat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review provides an update on our understanding of the chemical reactions (lipid oxidation, Strecker and Maillard reactions, thiamine degradation and a discussion of the principal aroma compounds derived from those reaction or other sources in cooked meat, mainly focused on ruminant species. This knowledge is essential in order to understand, control, and improve the quality of food products. More studies are necessary to fully understand the role of each compound in the overall cooked meat flavour and their possible effect in consumer acceptability.

María M. Campo

2013-06-01

48

Wine aroma compounds in grapes: a critical review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile organic compounds are vital to wine quality, determining their aroma and varietal characteristics. Which are present, and in what quantity, depends on the cultivar, the situation and soil of the vineyard, weather, cultivation methods, and wine-making practices. Here, we review the literature on the development of wine aroma compounds in grapes, and how it is affected by the above-named factors. Increasing understanding of these processes at the molecular level will aid vine growers in the optimal selection of harvest dates and other decisions favoring the consistent production of balanced, flavorful berries. PMID:24915400

González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

2015-01-01

49

Determination of Favorite Wine from Comparison of Wine Aroma Attributes  

Science.gov (United States)

The decision to choose the appropriate product matching the preference of each individual is based on the psychological impression of the adjective and the alternatives. The preference for a product group and physical condition also affect decision-making. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of differences in the preference of wine and changes in hunger level on the psychological and neuro-physiological aspects of decision-making where the subjects were asked to choose their most favorite wine after sniffing the aroma of several wines. The psychological aspects of decision-making while sniffing five different kinds of wine were evaluated by the analytical hierarchal process (AHP) method, while the neuro-physiological aspects were evaluated by measuring the level of oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations (O2Hb) in the process of smelling the wine aromas within three minutes compared to when the non-odor and alcoholic solutions were presented. AHP analysis showed that the adjective “Favorite” was given the highest importance and a white wine with a sweet aroma was the most favored wine, regardless of the wine preference. The normalized mean O2Hb levels in each minute showed that, in the case of the wine lovers, the time course of the O2Hb level, decreased when they sensed the wine aroma compared to when they sensed non-odor solutions, and, in non-wine lovers, the O2Hb levels remained at higher values compared to the smell of the non-odor solution when they sensed the aroma of the alcoholic solution. The results indicate that there are differences with regard to decision-making between the psychological and physiological aspects when people are made to choose their most favorite wine by sniffing wine aromas.

Koike, Takayuki; Kamimura, Hironobu; Shimada, Kouji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kaneki, Noriaki

50

Analysis of characteristic aroma of fungal fermented Fuzhuan brick-tea by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fuzhuan brick-tea is a popular fermented Chinese dark tea because of its typical fungal aroma. Fungal growth during the production process is the key step in achieving the unique colour, aroma and taste of Fuzhuan brick-tea. To further understand the generation of the characteristic aroma, changes in the main volatile compounds of Fuzhuan brick-tea during the fungal growth stage were studied by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry. The results showed that the content of volatile compound...

Xu, X. Q.; Mo, H. Z.; Yan, M. C.; Yang Zhu

2007-01-01

51

Aroma therapy and medfly SIT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A summary of the main findings of the research program on the biological competence of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (med fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and the development and implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest is presented. The potential application of aroma therapy to improve the mating success of sterile med fly males is studied. The report assumes a loosely chronological framework as it documents progression along two experimental scales: the number of males simultaneously exposed to ginger root oil, starting with small groups of 25 males and ending with rooms with nearly 200 million males; the experimental arena used to test the effects of aroma therapy, progressing from standard field-cages to large field enclosures to the open field. In addition, brief comments are offered regarding the potential negative effects of GRO exposure, the mechanisms underlying GRO-mediated improvement in male mating success, and the financial costs of GRO aroma therapy. (MAC)

Shelly, Todd E., E-mail: todd.e.shelly@aphis.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-APHIS), HI (United States). Animal and Plant Health Inspection

2006-07-01

52

Aroma therapy and medfly SIT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary of the main findings of the research program on the biological competence of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (med fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and the development and implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest is presented. The potential application of aroma therapy to improve the mating success of sterile med fly males is studied. The report assumes a loosely chronological framework as it documents progression along two experimental scales: the number of males simultaneously exposed to ginger root oil, starting with small groups of 25 males and ending with rooms with nearly 200 million males; the experimental arena used to test the effects of aroma therapy, progressing from standard field-cages to large field enclosures to the open field. In addition, brief comments are offered regarding the potential negative effects of GRO exposure, the mechanisms underlying GRO-mediated improvement in male mating success, and the financial costs of GRO aroma therapy. (MAC)

53

Evaluation of aroma generation of Lactococcus lactis with an electronic nose and sensory analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an increased interest in exploring the potential of new Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from different natural ecosystems for the production of aroma compounds. Thus, the objective of this study was to screen the aroma generation of Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from different sources by an electronic nose and sensory evaluation for their potential use in starter cheese cultures. Twenty-three strains of Lactococcus lactis were isolated from dairy sources such as artisanal raw-milk cheeses, nondairy sources, and commercial starter cultures (industrial). All the strains were assessed for their ability to produce aromas by an electronic nose and sensory analysis after their incubation in milk. Some phenotypic characteristics of technological importance such as lactose fermentation, proteolytic activity, and citrate utilization were also evaluated. Lactococcus lactis strains showed clear phenotypic differences related to their isolation source. Strains isolated from raw-milk dairy products or commercial starter cultures presented faster lactose fermentation and proteolytic activity than those presented by strains isolated from nondairy sources. Additionally, strains isolated from dairy and nondairy sources presented better citrate utilization than strains isolated from commercial dairy starters. On the other hand, there was not a clear relationship between the source of isolation and the ability of lactococci strains to produce aroma. Principal components analysis of electronic nose data revealed 4 distinctive groups based on aroma profiles. Additionally, odor intensity scores (yogurt-like and Fresco cheese-like) for these 4 groups revealed the nature of their differences. In general, strains from dairy products presented intense yogurt-like and Fresco cheese-like aromas, with the latter being the most intense for one specific strain. On the other hand, the majority of wild strains from nondairy sources presented a stronger yogurt-like aroma, whereas industrial strains presented low intensity for both aroma descriptors. Additionally, an aroma potentiation effect was observed when mixtures of 2 lactococci strains isolated from different sources acted together. PMID:18096924

Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Vallejo-Cordoba, B; González-Córdova, A F; Nevárez-Moorillón, G V; Rivera-Chavira, B

2008-01-01

54

Aroma formation by immobilized yeast cells in fermentation processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immobilized cell technology has shown a significant promotional effect on the fermentation of alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and cider. However, genetic, morphological and physiological alterations occurring in immobilized yeast cells impact on aroma formation during fermentation processes. The focus of this review is exploitation of existing knowledge on the biochemistry and the biological role of flavour production in yeast for the biotechnological production of aroma compounds of industrial importance, by means of immobilized yeast. Various types of carrier materials and immobilization methods proposed for application in beer, wine, fruit wine, cider and mead production are presented. Engineering aspects with special emphasis on immobilized cell bioreactor design, operation and scale-up potential are also discussed. Ultimately, examples of products with improved quality properties within the alcoholic beverages are addressed, together with identification and description of the future perspectives and scope for cell immobilization in fermentation processes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25267117

Nedovi?, V; Gibson, B; Mantzouridou, T F; Bugarski, B; Djordjevi?, V; Kaluševi?, A; Paraskevopoulou, A; Sandell, M; Šmogrovi?ová, D; Yilmaztekin, M

2015-01-01

55

Aroma and perfume allergy: anathema for some epicurean appeal?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aromas and fragrances are present in many cosmetics, some topical drugs, food and various hygiene, household and industrial products. They can be responsible for contact dermatitis. Multiple sensitizations can even involve in various combinations some fragrance compounds, a given degradation product or a contaminant. The diagnosis relies on clinical examination and oriented anamnesis. A histological examination is sometimes necessary. Specific path testing brings insight on the culprit chemic...

Goffin, Ve?ronique; Nikkels, Arjen; Cornil, F.; Deleixhe-mauhin, F.; Pierard-franchimont, Claudine; Pierard, Ge?rald

2002-01-01

56

Taste and aroma of fresh and stored mandarins.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last decade there has been a continuous rise in consumption of fresh easy-to-peel mandarins. However, mandarins are much more perishable than other citrus fruit, mainly due to rapid deterioration in sensory acceptability after harvest. In the current review we discuss the biochemical components involved in forming the unique flavor of mandarins, and how postharvest storage operations influence taste and aroma and consequently consumer sensory acceptability. What we perceive as mandarin flavor is actually the combination of basic taste, aroma and mouth-feel. The taste of mandarins is principally governed by the levels of sugars and acids in the juice sacs and the relative ratios among them, whereas the aroma of mandarins is derived from a mixture of different aroma volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, terpenes/hydrocarbons and esters. During postharvest storage and marketing there is a gradual decrease in mandarin sensory acceptability, which has been attributed to decreases in acidity and typical mandarin flavor, paralleling an accumulation of off-flavor. Biochemical analysis of volatile and non-volatile constituents in mandarin juice demonstrated that these changes in sensory acceptability were concomitant with decreases in acidity and content of terpenes and aldehydes, which provide green, piney and citrus aroma on the one hand, and increases in ethanol fermentation metabolism products and esters on the other, which are likely to cause 'overripe' and off-flavors. Overall, we demonstrate the vast importance of the genetic background, maturity stage at harvest, commercial postharvest operation treatments, including curing, degreening and waxing, and storage duration on mandarin sensory quality. PMID:20812381

Tietel, Zipora; Plotto, Anne; Fallik, Elazar; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Porat, Ron

2011-01-15

57

Review of the role and methodology of high resolution approaches in aroma analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of the odour complexity in food and beverage products demands high resolution approaches for distinguishing individual aroma-impact compound(s), and for assessing their contribution to the global aroma of a sample. This paper aims to review current applications incorporating different advanced separation methodologies, and their roles in achieving high resolution aroma analysis. This includes prior low resolution gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) with fractionation procedures using chemical manipulation, adsorption chromatography and ion exchange separation. Innovative multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC) arrangements that are appropriately designed with olfactometry are of specific focus here. The revelation of resolved components using these integrated approaches provides significantly improved knowledge of aroma composition in samples. PMID:25479862

Chin, Sung-Tong; Marriott, Philip J

2015-01-01

58

Aroma compounds in Japanese sweet rice wine (Mirin) screened by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA).  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-nine key aroma compounds were newly identified or tentatively identified in the aroma concentrate of Japanese sweet rice wine (Mirin) by an aroma extract dilution analysis technique based on the 68 detected peaks. Among them, 3-(methylthio)propanal, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, 3-methylbutanoic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol were detected with the highest FD factors in this study. PMID:25391446

Kaneko, Shu; Kumazawa, Kenji

2014-11-12

59

Investigation of Sunlight-Induced Deterioration of Aroma of Pummelo (Citrus maxima) Essential Oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deterioration of aromas of pummelo essential oil (EO) induced by sunlight was compared to those induced by heat and oxygen exposure using the techniques of sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis. The sunlight-exposed EO was found to possess an oily off-flavor odor, which was significantly different from its counterparts induced by oxygen and heat. The strong oily note of the sunlight-exposed EO was attributed to the existence of linalool oxides and limonene oxides, as well as the lack of neral and geranial, for which UV sunlight was revealed to be the critical contributor causing the chemical reactions for the aroma changes. The results demonstrated that UV sunlight could significantly affect the aroma of the pummelo EO, providing valuable information that will benefit the production and storage of EO-based aromatic products. PMID:25438994

Sun, Hao; Ni, Hui; Yang, Yuanfan; Wu, Ling; Cai, Hui-Nong; Xiao, An-Feng; Chen, Feng

2014-12-10

60

Organophilic pervaporation for aroma isolation : industrial and commercial prospects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article looks at organophilic pervaporation for aroma isolation. It covers recent developments in this field, and looks at the economic implications of the technology for producing natural aroma extracts.

Willemsen, J. H. A.; Dijkink, B. H.; Togtema, A.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Impact of Fruit Piece Structure in Yogurts on the Dynamics of Aroma Release and Sensory Perception  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma stimuli, which can influence nutritional and hedonic characteristics, as well as consumption behaviors. In yogurts, fruit preparation formulation can be a key factor to modulate aroma stimulation. In this context, the impact of size and hardness of fruit pieces in fat-free pear yogurts was studied. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was used to allow sensitive and on-line monitoring of volatile odorous compound release in the breath during consumption. In parallel, a trained panel used sensory profile and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS methods to characterize yogurt sensory properties and their dynamic changes during consumption. Results showed that the size of pear pieces had few effects on aroma release and perception of yogurts, whereas fruit hardness significantly influenced them. Despite the fact that yogurts presented short and similar residence times in the mouth, this study showed that fruit preparation could be an interesting formulation factor to enhance exposure time to stimuli and thus modify food consumption behaviors. These results could be taken into account to formulate new products that integrate both nutritional and sensory criteria.

Isabelle Souchon

2013-05-01

62

Application of an Electronic Aroma Sensing System to Cork Stopper Quality Control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cork odors were characterized using an electronic aroma sensing system. The electronic system is a compact, benchtop instrument comprising a sensor array, signal processing hardware, a measurement algorithm, and a pattern classification system. The sensor array responds to the presence of aroma volatile compounds by changes in their electrical properties. Resistance changes are displayed as a histogram, which is a fingerprint of the aroma being analyzed. Five different cork odors were studied: NE, which is considered as standard cork odor; CO, exhibiting the pleasant boiled cork odor (it is also considered as a good odor); PO, corresponding to rotten odor; and B and BO, representing moldy and very intensely moldy odors, respectively. This electronic aroma sensing system could discriminate quickly and objectively between acceptable odor and the unacceptable taint. Characterization and selection of a subset of sensors were performed. A relation between sensors and specific odors was established. The system, once trained with representative acceptable and unacceptable samples, could be used as a simple quality control tool and incorporated into the normal quality control procedures for each batch of product, by providing real-time analysis of a sample overall aroma. PMID:10554210

Rocha; Delgadillo; Ferrer Correia AJ; Barros; Wells

1998-01-19

63

Identification of potent odorants in different green tea varieties using flavor dilution technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two kinds of pan-fired green teas (Japanese Kamairi-cha and Chinese Longing tea) were compared with the common Japanese green tea (Sen-cha). Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) using the volatile fraction of the Sen-cha, Kamairi-cha and Longing tea infusions revealed 32, 51, and 52 odor-active peaks with flavor dilution factors between 16 and 1024, respectively. (Z)-1,5-Octadien-3-one (metallic, geranium-like), 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (meaty, black currant-like), methional (potato-like), (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (cucumber-like), and 3-methylnonane-2,4-dione (green, fruity, hay-like) showed high flavor dilution factors in all varieties. In addition, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn-like), 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (nutty), 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (nutty), and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline (popcorn-like) belonged to the most potent odorants only in the pan-fired green teas. Among these odorants, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline were identified for the first time among the tea volatiles. PMID:12236694

Kumazawa, Kenji; Masuda, Hideki

2002-09-25

64

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in Shiraz wine by quantitation, aroma reconstitution, and omission studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The key aroma compounds of premium Australian Shiraz wines from the warm Barossa Valley and cooler Margaret River regions were characterized. GC-Olfactometry was conducted to determine the most important volatile compounds, which were then quantitated. The wine from the Barossa Valley had higher concentrations of ethyl propanoate, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and oak-derived compounds, whereas the Margaret River wine contained above threshold concentrations of the 'cheesy' compounds 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid, as well as rotundone, the 'pepper'-smelling compound. The aromas were reconstituted by combining 44 aroma compounds, and sensory descriptive analysis was used to investigate the importance of the omission of several compounds, including DMS, rotundone, fatty acids, and ?-damascenone, and the influence of nonvolatiles was also assessed. The study showed that the aroma of the Shiraz wines could be reconstituted in both cases, with the changes in the nonvolatile fraction having a large influence. PMID:24745791

Mayr, Christine M; Geue, Jason P; Holt, Helen E; Pearson, Wes P; Jeffery, David W; Francis, I Leigh

2014-05-21

65

Análisis sensorial: los aromas terciarios del vino.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Los aromas terciarios de un vino son aquellos que se desarrollan durante los procesos de crianza en la madera de barricas de roble y de maduración en la propia botella o en grandes depósitos de acero inoxidable, donde se terminan de pulir los vinos.

Vilanova La Torre, Mari?a Del Mar

2007-01-01

66

Characterization of the potent odorants contributing to the characteristic aroma of Chinese green tea infusions by aroma extract dilution analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The volatile fractions of three famous Chinese green tea cultivar infusions (Longjing, Maofeng, and Biluochun) were prepared by a combination of the adsorptive column method and the SAFE techniques. The aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) applied to the volatile fractions revealed 58 odor-active peaks with flavor dilution (FD) factors between 4(1) and 4(7). Forty-six of the odorants, which included six odorants that have not been reported in the literature in Chinese green tea (2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-ethenyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, cis-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-ethylguaiacol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 3-phenylpropionic acid), were identified or tentatively identified by GC-MS and GC-O. Among the perceived odorants, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, coumarin, vanillin, geraniol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 2-methoxyphenol showed high FD factors in all of the cultivars, irrespective of the cultivar or harvesting season, suggesting that these seven odorants are essential for the aroma of Chinese green tea. On the other hand, the contents of the odorants, FD factors of which were uneven between the cultivars, were suggested to influence the characteristic aroma of each cultivar. In addition, the formation mechanism of (E)-isoeugenol, one of the odorants which have not been reported in the literature with a high FD factor common to all the cultivars, was investigated, and it was suggested that the (E)-isoeugenol content of the tea products has a close correlation with the manufacturing process of the tea leaves. PMID:25088347

Baba, Ryoko; Kumazawa, Kenji

2014-08-20

67

Retenção de aroma na secagem em atmosferas normal e modificada: desenvolvimento do sistema de estudo / Aroma retention in drying with normal and modified atmosphere: development of a study system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Na secagem de determinados alimentos, como frutas, juntamente com a água há também a evaporação de outras substâncias voláteis presentes em quantidades menores. Por isso, torna-se interessante considerar nos estudos de secagem a evaporação, além da água, desses outros componentes voláteis. A modific [...] ação da atmosfera tem sido utilizada em armazenamento, principalmente de vegetais, mas pode também ser estendida à secagem, pois pode influenciar a perda de voláteis responsáveis pelas características sensoriais do produto final. No presente trabalho, é apresentado um sistema de secagem previamente desenvolvido, no qual a atmosfera de secagem pode ser modificada pela adição de gases ou líquidos. Desenvolveu-se um sistema-modelo a partir da composição química básica do abacaxi e da adição de outros compostos, contendo um dos principais componentes do aroma desta fruta (hexanoato de etila). Além disso, também foi desenvolvida a metodologia analítica de determinação do aroma no sistema-modelo e no abacaxi, a partir dos estudos de extração de aromas e de análise cromatográfica gasosa. O aroma presente no sistema-modelo foi extraído em hexano e os componentes voláteis do aroma do abacaxi foram extraídos em éter etílico Abstract in english In the drying of some foods such as fruits, besides water there is also the evaporation of other volatile substances present in lesser amounts. Therefore, it is interesting to consider the evaporation of volatile components other than water in drying studies. The modification of atmosphere has been [...] used for storage only, especially for vegetables, but it can be extended to drying since it can influence the loss of volatile components responsible for the sensorial characteristics of the final product. In the present study, a drying system previously developed, in which the drying atmosphere can be modified by the addition of gases or liquids, was presented. A model-system was developed from the basic chemical composition of pineapple and the addition of other compounds containing one of the main aroma components (ethyl hexanoate). An analytical methodology for determing the aroma components present in the model-system and in the pineapple was developed from the studies of aroma extraction and gas chromatography. The aroma present in the model-system was extracted with hexane, and the volatile aroma components of the pineapple were extracted with ethylic ether

Marcilio Machado, Morais; Maria Aparecida, Silva.

2011-06-01

68

Impact of different malolactic fermentation inoculation scenarios on Riesling wine aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

During malolactic fermentation (MLF), lactic acid bacteria influence wine aroma and flavour by the production of volatile metabolites and the modification of aroma compounds derived from grapes and yeasts. The present study investigated the impact of different MLF inoculation strategies with two different Oenococcus oeni strains on cool climate Riesling wines and the volatile wine aroma profile. Four different timings were chosen for inoculation with bacteria to conduct MLF in a Riesling must/wine with a high acidity (pH 2.9-3.1). Treatments with simultaneous inoculation showed a reduced total fermentation time (alcoholic and malolactic) compared to the sequential inoculations. No negative impact of simultaneous alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on fermentation success and on the final wine volatile aroma composition was observed. Compared to sequential inoculation, wines with co-inoculation tended to have higher concentrations of ethyl and acetate esters, including acetic acid phenylethylester, acetic acid 3-methylbutylester, butyric acid ethylester, lactic acid ethylester and succinic acid diethylester. Results of this study provide some alternatives to diversify the number of wine styles by safely conducting MLF in low-pH, cool-climate white musts with potential high alcohol content. PMID:22805835

Knoll, Caroline; Fritsch, Stefanie; Schnell, Sylvia; Grossmann, Manfred; Krieger-Weber, Sibylle; du Toit, Maret; Rauhut, Doris

2012-03-01

69

Identification of impact aroma compounds in Eugenia uniflora L. (Brazilian Pitanga) leaf essential oil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O óleo essencial das folhas de Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) foi obtido a partir do arraste a vapor em aparelhagem de Clevenger e analisado por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas. As folhas foram colhidas e imediatamente extraídas durante cinco dias consecutivos, às 9 e 14h, [...] não sendo observada variação significativa no rendimento dos óleos extraídos no período. Furanodieno e seu produto de rearranjo, furanoelemeno (ou curzereno, num total de 50,2%), beta-elemeno (5,9%) e alfa-cadinol (4,7%) foram os constituintes majoritários. Pela técnica de cromatografia gasosa-olfatometria (CG-O), associada à análise por diluição de aroma AEDA (Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis), foi possível identificar nove substâncias ativas no aroma do óleo de pitanga, sendo que três foram consideradas como de maior impacto: furanodieno (juntamente com furanoelemeno, FD 1024), beta-elemeno (FD 256) e (E,E)-germacrona (FD 256). A mistura destas três substâncias, coletadas a partir do CG-sniffing port, levou a uma essência de pitanga de aroma bastante semelhante à fruta, de acordo com a avaliação por análise olfativa comparativa. Abstract in english The leaf essential oil of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) was extracted by Clevenger apparatus and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The leaves were collected and immediately extracted for five consecutive days at 9:00 am and 2:00 pm. No variance in the oil yields were observ [...] ed in the period. Furanodiene and its rearrangement product, furanoelemene (or curzerene, 50.2%), beta-elemene (5.9%) and alpha-cadinol (4.7%) were identified as the most abundant compounds. GC-Olfatometry (GC-O) associated to Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA) allowed the identification of nine active aroma compounds, where furanodiene (along with furanoelemene, FD 1024), beta-elemene (FD 256) and (E,E)-germacrone (FD 256) were characterized as the main impact aroma compounds in the odor of this essential oil. Those substances were collected through a sniffing port adapted on the GC allowing to obtain a typical essence of pitanga as indicated by comparative olfatometric analysis.

Rosineia M., Melo; Vivian F. S., Corrêa; Ana Carolina L., Amorim; Ana Luisa P., Miranda; Claudia M., Rezende.

70

Aroma characterization of chinese rice wine by gas chromatography-olfactometry, chemical quantitative analysis, and aroma reconstitution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma profile of Chinese rice wine was investigated in this study. The volatile compounds in a traditional Chinese rice wine were extracted using Lichrolut EN and further separated by silica gel normal phase chromatography. Seventy-three aroma-active compounds were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition to acids, esters, and alcohols, benzaldehyde, vanillin, geosmin, and ?-nonalactone were identified to be potentially important to Chinse rice wine. The concentration of these aroma-active compounds in the Chinese rice wine was further quantitated by combination of four different methods, including headsapce-gas chromatography, solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography (SPME)-GC-MS, solid-phase extraction-GC-MS, and SPME-GC-pulsed flame photometric detection (PFPD). Quantitative results showed that 34 aroma compounds were at concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds. On the basis of the odor activity values (OAVs), vanillin, dimethyl trisulfide, ?-phenylethyl alcohol, guaiacol, geosmin, and benzaldehyde could be responsible for the unique aroma of Chinese rice wine. An aroma reconstitution model prepared by mixing 34 aroma compounds with OAVs > 1 in an odorless Chinese rice wine matrix showed a good similarity to the aroma of the original Chinese rice wine. PMID:24099139

Chen, Shuang; Xu, Yan; Qian, Michael C

2013-11-27

71

Differential expression levels of aroma-related genes during ripening of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Fruit aroma is a complex trait, particularly in terms of the number of different biosynthetic pathways involved, the complexity of the final metabolites, and their regulation. In order to understand the underlying biochemical processes involved in apricot aroma, four cDNAs (Pa-aat, EU784138; Pa-adhEU395433; Pa-pdcEU395434; and Pa-loxEU439430) encoding an alcohol acyl transferase (AAT), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), and lipoxygenase (LOX), respectively, were isolated and characterized at four stages of maturity in Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Modesto. We observed a reduction in aldehyde and alcohol production between early-harvested fruit and late-harvest fruit, concomitant with an increase in ester production. qPCR analyses showed that the expression levels of the adh gene and the lox gene stayed constant at all stages. Interestingly, aat levels showed a sharp increase in the late-harvest stages concurrent with the changes observed in ester levels. The significance of these changes in relation to aroma production in apricot is discussed. PMID:19233665

González-Agüero, Mauricio; Troncoso, Sebastián; Gudenschwager, Orianne; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Moya-León, María A; Defilippi, Bruno G

2009-05-01

72

Prediction of aged red wine aroma properties from aroma chemical composition. Partial least squares regression models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models able to predict some of the wine aroma nuances from its chemical composition have been developed. The aromatic sensory characteristics of 57 Spanish aged red wines were determined by 51 experts from the wine industry. The individual descriptions given by the experts were recorded, and the frequency with which a sensory term was used to define a given wine was taken as a measurement of its intensity. The aromatic chemical composition of the wines was determined by already published gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detector and GC-mass spectrometry methods. In the whole, 69 odorants were analyzed. Both matrixes, the sensory and chemical data, were simplified by grouping and rearranging correlated sensory terms or chemical compounds and by the exclusion of secondary aroma terms or of weak aroma chemicals. Finally, models were developed for 18 sensory terms and 27 chemicals or groups of chemicals. Satisfactory models, explaining more than 45% of the original variance, could be found for nine of the most important sensory terms (wood-vanillin-cinnamon, animal-leather-phenolic, toasted-coffee, old wood-reduction, vegetal-pepper, raisin-flowery, sweet-candy-cacao, fruity, and berry fruit). For this set of terms, the correlation coefficients between the measured and predicted Y (determined by cross-validation) ranged from 0.62 to 0.81. Models confirmed the existence of complex multivariate relationships between chemicals and odors. In general, pleasant descriptors were positively correlated to chemicals with pleasant aroma, such as vanillin, beta damascenone, or (E)-beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, and negatively correlated to compounds showing less favorable odor properties, such as 4-ethyl and vinyl phenols, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol, or phenylacetaldehyde. PMID:12696960

Aznar, Margarita; López, Ricardo; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

2003-04-23

73

Effect of added thiamine on the key odorant compounds and aroma of cooked ham.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study shows that thiamine plays a major role in the formation of three key odorants of cooked ham: 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-methyl-3-methyldithiofuran, and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulphide. Analyses revealed that under identical cooking conditions, the productions of these three aroma compounds increase in a closely intercorrelated way when the dose of thiamine increases. Using a specific 2-methyl-3-furanthiol extraction-quantification method, it was possible to relate the amounts of thiamine added in model cooked hams to the amounts of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol produced in the cooking process. Sensory analyses highlighted the role of thiamine as a precursor of cooked ham aroma. PMID:25466091

Thomas, Caroline; Mercier, Frédéric; Tournayre, Pascal; Martin, Jean-Luc; Berdagué, Jean-Louis

2015-04-15

74

Characterization of the most aroma-active compounds in cherry tomato by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma and aroma-active compounds of cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by liquid-liquid extraction was representative of tomato odour. A total of 49 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in fresh cherry tomato. Aldehydes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in cherry tomato, followed by alcohols. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of tomato sample. A total of 21 aroma-active compounds were detected in aromatic extract of fresh tomato, of which 18 were identified. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma-active compounds identified in the extract were (Z)-3-hexenal (FD=1024) and (E)-2-hexenal (FD=256), which were described as the strong green-grassy and green-leafy odour, respectively. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and fructose, respectively. PMID:25038709

Selli, Serkan; Kelebek, Hasim; Ayseli, Mehmet Turan; Tokbas, Habip

2014-12-15

75

Investigation into the aroma of rosemary using multi-channel silicone rubber traps, off-line olfactometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Multi-channel polydimethylsiloxane rubber traps were used to sample the headspace of rosemary samples (two essential oils from different sources, one oleoresin and one dried herb) followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography -time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS) or GC-MS an [...] alyses. The aroma of different headspace samples was characterized using a custom-built olfactory apparatus. The differences between the aroma profiles were evident from bubble plots of the perceived aroma at different temperatures. The samples were heat-treated to simulate cooking of food products, and were then reassessed to determine any changes in the aroma profile. It was found that the intense menthol and cooling aromas subsided in all the samples with heating. GCxGC-TOFMS allowed for separation of the numerous components in the headspace samples. Many terpenes and aliphatics were thus tentatively identified and the relative peak areas were compared to better understand the mixture that contributes to the rosemary aroma.

Leandri, van der Wat; Martin, Dovey; Yvette, Naudé; Patricia B.C., Forbes.

2013-08-01

76

Sensorial analysis and electronic aroma detection to compare olive oils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sensorial analysis and electronic aroma detection to compare olive oils produced by different extraction methods. A sensorial analysis and an aroma analysis by electronic sensory devices were used to compare olive oils produced according to two different extraction methods. The extraction methods compared were the press system and two phase decanter. Samples were taken from the harvests of 2002-2004 and the olives were all from the same variety. The variety used was...

Vaz-freire, L.; Cabrita, M. J.; Gomes Da Silva, M. D. R.; Costa Freitas, A. M.

2011-01-01

77

Aroma barrier properties of sodium caseinate-based films.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mass transport of six different aroma compounds (ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, 2-hexanone, 1-hexanol, and cis-3-hexenol) through sodium caseinate-based films with different oleic acid (OA)/beeswax (BW) ratio has been studied. OA is less efficient than BW in reducing aroma permeability, which can be attributed to its greater polarity. Control film (without lipid) and films prepared with 0:100 OA/BW ratio show the lowest permeability. OA involves a decrease in aroma barrier properties of the sodium caseinate-based films due to its plasticization ability. Preferential sorption and diffusion occurs through OA instead of caseinate matrix and/or BW. The efficiency of sodium caseinate-based films to retain or limit aroma compound transfers depend on the affinity of the volatile compound to the films, which relates physicochemical interaction between volatile compound and film. Specific interactions (aroma compound-hydrocolloid and aroma compound-lipid) induce structural changes during mass transfer. PMID:18361517

Fabra, Maria José; Hambleton, Alicia; Talens, Pau; Debeaufort, Fréderic; Chiralt, Amparo; Voilley, Andrée

2008-05-01

78

Aroma profile and volatiles odor activity along gold cultivar pineapple flesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physicochemical attributes, aroma profile, and odor contribution of pineapple flesh were studied for the top, middle, and bottom cross-sections cut along the central axis of Gold cultivar pineapple. Relationships between volatile and nonvolatile compounds were also studied. Aroma profile constituents were determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction at 30 °C, followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 20 volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Among them, esters were the major components which accounted for 90% of total extracted aroma. Methyl butanoate, methyl 2-methyl butanoate, and methyl hexanoate were the 3 most abundant components representing 74% of total volatiles in pineapple samples. Most odor active contributors were methyl and ethyl 2-methyl butanoate and 2,5-dimethyl 4-methoxy 3(2H)-furanone (mesifuran). Aroma profile components did not vary along the fruit, but volatile compounds content significantly varied (P < 0.05) along the fruit, from 7560 to 10910 ?g/kg, from the top to the bottom cross-sections of the fruit, respectively. In addition, most odor-active volatiles concentration increased from the top to the bottom 3rd of the fruit, concurrently with soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA) differences attributed to fruitlets distinct degree of ripening. Large changes in SSC/TA ratio and volatiles content throughout the fruit found through this study are likely to provoke important differences among individual fresh-cut pineapple trays, compromising consumer perception and acceptance of the product. Such finding highlighted the need to include volatiles content and SSC/TA ratio and their variability along the fruit as selection criteria for pineapples to be processed and quality assessment of the fresh-cut fruit. PMID:21535624

Montero-Calderón, Marta; Rojas-Graü, María Alejandra; Martín-Belloso, Olga

2010-01-01

79

Beyond the characterization of wine aroma compounds: looking for analytical approaches in trying to understand aroma perception during wine consumption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The volatile compounds present in wines are responsible for the quality of the wine aroma. The analysis of these compounds requires different analytical techniques depending on the type of compounds and their concentration. The importance at sensorial level of each compound should be evaluated by using olfactometric techniques and reconstitution and omission studies. In addition, wine aroma is influenced by other factors such as wine matrix, which could affect the compounds’ volatility, dec...

Mun?oz-gonza?lez, Carolina; Rodri?guez-bencomo, Juan Jose?; Moreno Arribas, Mª Victoria; Pozo-bayo?n, Mª A?ngeles

2011-01-01

80

Analysis of neutral volatile aroma components in Tilsit cheese using a combination of dynamic headspace technique, capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tilsit cheese is made by the influence of lab ferment and starter cultures on milk. The ripening is done by repeated inoculation of the surface of the Tilsit cheese with yeasts and read smear cultures. This surface flora forms the typical aroma of the Tilsit cheese during the ripening process. The aim of the work was to receive general knowledge about the kind and amount of the neutral volatile aroma components of Tilsit cheese. Beyond this the ability of forming aroma components by read smear cultures and the dispersion of these components in cheese was to be examined. The results were intended to evaluate the formation of aroma components in Tilsit cheese. The semi-quantitative analyses of the aroma components of all samples were done by combining dynamic headspace extraction, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In this process the neutral volatile aroma components were extracted by dynamic headspace technique, adsorbed on a trap, thermally desorbed, separated by gas chromatography, detected and identified by mass spectrometry. 63 components belonging to the chemical classes of esters, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols and sulfur containing substances as well as aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons were found in the analysed cheese samples of different Austrian Tilsit manufacturing plants. All cheese samples showed a qualitative equal but quantitative varied spectrum of aroma components. The cultivation of pure cultures on a cheese agar ivation of pure cultures on a cheese agar medium showed all analysed aroma components to be involved in the biochemical metabolism of these cultures. The ability to produce aroma components greatly differed between the strains and it was not possible to correlate this ability with the taxonomic classification of the strains. The majority of the components had a non-homogeneous concentration profile in the cheese body. This was explained by effects of diffusion and temporal and spatial different forming of components by the metabolism of the surface flora during ripening. Therefore the conclusion can be drawn that part of the components are formed by the starter cultures and are homogeneous spread in the cheese body at the beginning of the ripening. On the one hand the metabolism of the read smear bacteria and yeasts leads to a reduction of the components. Hereby the concentration gradient is compensated by diffusion of aroma components from the inside to the surface. On the other hand products of the metabolism of the surface flora diffuse into the cheese body. The quantity of the coefficient of diffusion varies timewise and spatially. The concentration profile is influenced not only by the diffusion but also by the shifting of the composition of the surface flora during the ripening period. (author)

 
 
 
 
81

Caracterización anatómica del leño y evolución del crecimiento en ejemplares de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina en la Región Chaqueña, Argentina / Wood anatomical description and growth in individuals of Acacia aroma and Acacia furcatispina in Chaco region, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La madera de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina se emplea para usos de escaso valor como postes, mangos de herramientas o combustible. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estudiar los caracteres anatómicos del leño de ambas especies y analizar el crecimiento de ejemplares aislados con la finalidad [...] de determinar su potencialidad para usos de mayor valor. Se determinó que la madera de estas especies es dura, pesada y de porosidad difusa con tendencia a semicircular. Acacia furcatispina posee un leño con mayor porcentaje de elementos lignificados, mejores cualidades estéticas y mejor estado fitosanitario que el de A. aroma. Los defectos más frecuentes en estas especies fueron la formación de leño decolorado y pudriciones en la zona del duramen por ataque de hongos, asociados a la presencia de cicatrices de fuego. El espesor promedio de los anillos de crecimiento fue 2,1 mm (DE = 0,47 mm) en A. aroma y 1,9 mm, (DE = 0,74 mm) en A. furcatispina. Las curvas de incremento medio anual e incremento corriente anual del diámetro en A. aroma se interceptan a los 24 años mientras que las de A. furcatispina lo hacen a la edad de 10 años. Los resultados indicaron que A. furcatispina es una especie interesante para manejar en plantaciones debido a las cualidades de su madera, aunque permitiría obtener escuadrías menores. Su madera podría destinarse a usos particulares como parquets, tallas artísticas, entre otros. Acacia aroma es una especie apropiada para manejar con el objetivo de producción de leña debido a la capacidad de producir fustes y ramas de mayor diámetro y a que su estado fitosanitario limita su empleo para otros usos de mayor valor. Abstract in english The wood of Acacia aroma and Acacia furcatispina is employed for uses of little value such us posts, tools and firewood. The objectives of this work were to study anatomical characters of wood and to analyze the growth of isolated individuals with the purpose of determining their potential for uses [...] of greater value. We determined that these species have high density and heavy wood, with diffuse porosity and tendency to semicircular. The wood of Acacia furcatispina has greater percentage of ligneous elements, better aesthetics qualities and health state than A. aroma. The most frequent defects in these species are rots within heartwood due to fungi attack, and discolorated wood formation, both related to fire scars. The mean width of the growth rings was 2.1 mm (DE = 0.47 mm) in A. aroma and 1.9 mm (DE = 0.74 mm) in A. furcatispina. In A. aroma, the curve of mean annual increment (IMA) intercepted the curve of current annual increment (ICA) for diameter at an age of 24 years, while in A. furcatispina it happened at 10 years. The results show that A. furcatispina is an interesting species to manage in plantations due to its wood qualities, although it would only allow small sized timber. This wood could be allocated for others uses such us parquets and artistic sculpture. Acacia aroma is a species suitable to manage for firewood production due to its capacity to produce greater diameter boles and branches, and to frequent wood decay that reduces its use for others more valuables uses.

Sandra, Bravo; Ana, Giménez; Juana, Moglia.

82

AROMA: Automatic Generation of Radio Maps for Localization Systems  

CERN Document Server

WLAN localization has become an active research field recently. Due to the wide WLAN deployment, WLAN localization provides ubiquitous coverage and adds to the value of the wireless network by providing the location of its users without using any additional hardware. However, WLAN localization systems usually require constructing a radio map, which is a major barrier of WLAN localization systems' deployment. The radio map stores information about the signal strength from different signal strength streams at selected locations in the site of interest. Typical construction of a radio map involves measurements and calibrations making it a tedious and time-consuming operation. In this paper, we present the AROMA system that automatically constructs accurate active and passive radio maps for both device-based and device-free WLAN localization systems. AROMA has three main goals: high accuracy, low computational requirements, and minimum user overhead. To achieve high accuracy, AROMA uses 3D ray tracing enhanced wi...

Eleryan, Ahmed; Youssef, Moustafa

2010-01-01

83

Wine matrix compounds affect perception of wine aromas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wine is a complex alcoholic beverage. The wine matrix or the components that are present in the wine play an important role in the perceived aroma and flavor of the wine. The wine matrix is composed of two fractions, the nonvolatile fraction, which includes ethanol (in liquid phase), polyphenolic compounds, proteins, and carbohydrates, and the volatile fraction, which incorporates flavor and aroma compounds. Interactions among these compounds may arise through various mechanisms, thus affecting the sensory and chemical properties of the wine. The main focus of this review is to highlight recent research on wine component interactions and their effects on perceived aroma in the wine. An overview of the wine impact odorants and their determination using sensory and chemical methods is also provided in this paper. PMID:23464569

Villamor, Remedios R; Ross, Carolyn F

2013-01-01

84

Feasibility and application of a retronasal aroma-trapping device to study in vivo aroma release during the consumption of model wine-derived beverages.  

Science.gov (United States)

New types of wine-derived beverages are now in the market. However, little is known about the impact of ingredient formulation on aroma release during consumption, which is directly linked to consumer preferences and liking. In this study, the optimization and validation of a retronasal aroma-trapping device (RATD) for the in vivo monitoring of aroma release was carried out. This device was applied to assess the impact of two main ingredients (sugar and ethanol) in these types of beverages on in vivo aroma release. Two aroma-trapping materials (Lichrolut and Tenax) were firstly assayed. Tenax provided higher recovery and lower intra- and inter-trap variability. In in vivo conditions, RATD provided an adequate linear range (R (2) > 0.91) between 0 and 50 mg L(-1) of aroma compounds. Differences in the total aroma release were observed in equally trained panelists. It was proven that the addition of sugar (up to 150 mg kg(-1)) did not have effect on aroma release, while ethanol (up to 40 mg L(-1)) enhanced the aroma release during drinking. The RATD is a useful tool to collect real in vivo data to extract reliable conclusions about the effect of beverage components on aroma release during consumption. The concentration of ethanol should be taken into consideration for the formulation of wine-derived beverages. PMID:25473493

Muñoz-González, Carolina; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Moreno-Arribas, Maria Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, Maria Ángeles

2014-07-01

85

Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice). The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the c...

Haypek E.; Silva L.H.M; Batista E.; Marques D. S.; Meireles M.A.A.; Meirelles A.J.A.

2000-01-01

86

Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and ethanolic extract (EE) of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000??g/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500??g/mL and 100??g/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrat...

Mattana, C. M.; Cangiano, M. A.; L. E. Alcaráz; Sosa, A.; Escobar, F.; Sabini, C.; Sabini, L.; Laciar, A. L.

2014-01-01

87

Effects of fermentation temperature on the formation of aroma components in awamori mash. Awamori moromi no koki ni oyobosu hakko ondo no eikyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All materials for awamori are malt and the fermentation temperature of awamori mash is controlled at 25-30 centigrade, but the concentration of iso-butyl alcohol of the obtained product is higher than that of shochu. In this report, aiming at improvement of aroma composition of awamori, a study was made on synthetic media containing, as a nitrogen source, ammonium sulfate, L-valine and L-leucine, etc., and generation of aroma when culture temperature of awamori mash was changed. As a result, such information was obtained that, when awamori yeast was fermented at a low temperature (15 centigrade), the concentration of iso-butyl alcohol decreased considerably, thereby by producing low temperature mash, the concentration of iso-butyl alcohol of awamori could be controlled and this could be useful for improving its aroma composition. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Nakata, H.; Tsuruta, J.; Nagano, U.; Hosono, Y.; Hosaka, M. (Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Brewing and Fermentation)

1990-07-25

88

Feasibility and application of a retronasal aroma-trapping device to study in vivo aroma release during the consumption of model wine-derived beverages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

New types of wine-derived beverages are now in the market. However, little is known about the impact of ingredient formulation on aroma release during consumption, which is directly linked to consumer preferences and liking. In this study, the optimization and validation of a retronasal aroma-trapping device (RATD) for the in vivo monitoring of aroma release was carried out. This device was applied to assess the impact of two main ingredients (sugar and ethanol) in these types of beverages on...

Mun?oz-gonza?lez, Carolina; Rodri?guez-bencomo, Juan Jose?; Moreno-arribas, Maria Victoria; Pozo-bayo?n, Maria A?ngeles

2014-01-01

89

Which impact for beta-damascenone on red wines aroma?  

Science.gov (United States)

beta-Damascenone, a C-13 norisoprenoid compound, is usually presented as an impact odorant in red wines. Its direct contribution to their aroma was investigated. Both free beta-damascenone and beta-damascenone precursors were isolated from various French red wines and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, revealing concentrations in the vicinity of 1 and 2 microg/L for free compounds and both forms, respectively. Gas chromatography-olfactometry analyses were also performed on dilutions of both red wine extracts and pure beta-damascenone. The very low detection threshold in olfactometry for this compound explains why it is found at the highest dilution factor in aroma extract dilution analysis methods. Moreover, determination of beta-damascenone's odor thresholds confirmed the huge importance of the matrix: beta-Damascenone is characterized by a very low perception threshold in hydroalcoholic solution as compared to red wine, where it is over 1000-fold higher. In hydroalcoholic solution, beta-damascenone enhanced fruity notes of ethyl cinnamate and caproate and masked the herbaceous aroma of IBMP. Globally, these results suggested that beta-damascenone has more an indirect than a direct impact on red wine aroma. PMID:17447790

Pineau, Bénédicte; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Dubourdieu, Denis

2007-05-16

90

Important aroma compounds of black and green tea (Camellia sinensis)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tee ist nach Wasser das meistkonsumierte Getränk der Welt, und wie bei vielen Lebensmitteln hat das Aroma einen entscheidenden Einfluss auf die Qualität. Trotzdem wurde bisher keine systematische sensorische Untersuchung des Teearomas durchgeführt. Über eine Aromaextraktverdünnungsanalyse wurden die bestimmenden Aromastoffe des Schwarztees Darjeeling Gold-Auslese bestimmt und diese nach Identifizierung anschließend über Isoptenverdünnungsanalysen quantifiziert. Zur Bestimmung der Arom...

Schuh, Christian

2007-01-01

91

Optimization extraction process of aroma components in tobacco.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper concerns the optimization of the simultaneous distillation extraction process of volatile aromatic components in flue-cured tobacco leaves by single-factor experiments and response surface methodology (RSM). The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the aroma components was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The single-factor experiments were adopted to investigate the effects of five independent variables (including material/liquid ratio, distillation time, dosage of NaCl, volume of CH(2)Cl(2) and water-bath temperature) on the extraction of aroma components in tobacco. Furthermore, RSM was employed to study the relationship among the five independent variables and their effects on the extraction of aroma components. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were as follows: 1:12 ratio of material to solvent, 3.20 h distillation time, 1:1 ratio of NaCl and tobacco, 2:1 ratio of CH2Cl2 and tobacco, 60°C water-bath temperature. Under the optimized conditions, the maximum extraction amount of aroma components reached 2.27 mg/g. PMID:22907910

Luo, Huayuan; Cheng, Heng; Du, WenJie; Wang, ShaoKun; Wang, Chao; Chang, Shourong; Dong, Shifei; Xu, Chunping; Zhang, Junsong

2013-03-01

92

INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT OAK CHIPS ON AROMA COMPOUNDS IN WINE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oak wood has considerable influence on amount of aroma compounds in wine. During the time, when wine is in contact with oak wood, compounds typical for wood diffuse into wine and enrich its aromatic complexity. Concentration of diffused aroma compounds in wine depends on several factors as contact time, storage conditions, wine properties, geographical origin and toasting degree of oak wood. Because of very small quantities of volatile aroma compounds in wine, it is necessary to use sensitive method as gas chromatography with appropriate sample preparation, to concentrate and analyse the relevant volatiles. In our work, four different wines and eight chips samples with different geographic origin and degree of toasting were used. With GC-MS following substances were determined in wines after 30 days of maceration with oak chips: furfural, 5-methylfurfural, guaiacol, 4-ethylguaiacol, eugenol, isoeugenol, cis- and trans-whiskey lactones, 4-ethylphenol. Our results show, that the degree of toasting influences the concentration of furfural, guaiacol and cis- and trans- whiskeylactone. Higher toasting leads to an increase of furfural and guaiacol and a decrease of cis- and trans-whiskeylactone in wine. The highest increase of volatile aroma compounds was determined in wine samples with French oak chips with intense toasting. We did not find any specific, definite differences among chips with different geographic origin.

Helena Fran?áková

2012-02-01

93

Evaluation of aroma active compounds in Tuber fruiting bodies by gas chromatography-olfactometry in combination with aroma reconstitution and omission test.  

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The aroma active compounds of three Tuber fruiting bodies (i.e., Tuber himalayense, Tuber indicum, and Tuber sinense) were firstly systematically evaluated by instrumental gas chromatography-olfactometry combining with quantitative analysis, aroma reconstitution, and omission tests. Twelve aroma active compounds were characterized by aroma extract dilution analysis, and 3-(methylthio) propanal, 3-methylbutanal, and 1-octen-3-ol with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor (i.e., 1,024-2,048) were suggested as key contributors to the aroma. Odor activity value (OAV) was employed to determine the relative contribution of each compound to the aroma, and the compound with the highest FD factor also had the highest OAV (i.e., 10,234-242,951). Then, the synthetic blends of odorants (aroma reconstitution) were prepared with OAV larger than 15, and their aromas were very similar to the originals. Omission tests were carried out to verify the significance of 3-(methylthio) propanal, 1-octen-3-ol, and 3-methylbutanal as key compounds in the aroma of tested Tuber fruiting bodies. PMID:22246529

Liu, Rui-Sang; Li, Dao-Cheng; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Jie

2012-04-01

94

Influence of volatile thiols in the development of blackcurrant aroma in red wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A strong blackcurrant aroma was recently perceived in some red wines originating from the same appellation. Varietal thiols such as 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (4MMP), 3-(mercapto)hexyl acetate (3MHA) and 3-mercapto-1-hexanol (3MH) are compounds potentially responsible for the development of this aroma. In order to demonstrate the correlation between thiols concentrations in red wines and blackcurrant aroma intensity, a multiple variable analysis was realised with thiols concentrations obtained by chemical analysis and blackcurrant aroma intensities obtained by descriptive sensory analysis. The 4MMP concentration was very well correlated to the blackcurrant aroma, and 3MHA and 3MH present at high concentrations act as enhancers of the perception of this aroma. This correlation was further supported after performing a sensory comparison by classification test. The different factors that could impact on the development of blackcurrant aroma in red wine were discussed. PMID:24001837

Rigou, Peggy; Triay, Aurélie; Razungles, Alain

2014-01-01

95

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in an american bourbon whisky by quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies.  

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Thirty-one of the 45 odor-active compounds previously identified by us in an American Bourbon whisky were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays. Also for this purpose, new synthetic pathways were developed for the synthesis of the deuterium-labeled whisky lactone as well as for gamma-nona- and gamma-decalactone. To obtain the odor activity values (OAVs), the concentrations measured were divided by the odor thresholds of the odorants determined in water/ethanol (6:4 by vol.). Twenty-six aroma compounds showed OAVs >1, among which ethanol, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutanal, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (E)-beta-damascenone, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl octanoate, 2-methylpropanal, (3S,4S)- cis-whiskylactone, (E, E)-2,4-decadienal, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, ethyl-3-methylbutanoate, and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate showed the highest values. The overall aroma of the Bourbon whisky could be mimicked by an aroma recombinate consisting of the 26 key odorants in their actual concentrations in whisky using water/ethanol (6:4 by vol.) as the matrix. Omission experiments corroborated the importance of, in particular, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (3S,4S)-cis-whiskylactone, ethanol, and the entire group of esters for the overall aroma of the Bourbon whisky. PMID:18582086

Poisson, Luigi; Schieberle, Peter

2008-07-23

96

Improving the Performance of an Electronic Nose by Wine Aroma Training to Distinguish between Drip Coffee and Canned Coffee  

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Full Text Available Coffee aroma, with more than 600 components, is considered as one of the most complex food aromas. Although electronic noses have been successfully used for objective analysis and differentiation of total coffee aromas, it is difficult to use them to describe the specific features of coffee aroma (i.e., the type of smell. This is because data obtained by electronic noses are generally based on electrical resistance/current and samples are distinguished by principal component analysis. In this paper, we present an electronic nose that is capable of learning the wine related aromas using the aroma kit “Le Nez du Vin,” and the potential to describe coffee aroma in a similar manner comparable to how wine experts describe wine aroma. The results of our investigation showed that the aromas of three drip coffees were more similar to those of pine and honey in the aroma kit than to the aromas of three canned coffees. Conversely, the aromas of canned coffees were more similar to the kit coffee aroma. In addition, the aromatic patterns of coffees were different from those of green tea and red wine. Although further study is required to fit the data to human olfaction, the presented method and the use of vocabularies in aroma kits promise to enhance objective discrimination and description of aromas by electronic noses.

Kouki Fujioka

2015-01-01

97

Improving the Performance of an Electronic Nose by Wine Aroma Training to Distinguish between Drip Coffee and Canned Coffee.  

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Coffee aroma, with more than 600 components, is considered as one of the most complex food aromas. Although electronic noses have been successfully used for objective analysis and differentiation of total coffee aromas, it is difficult to use them to describe the specific features of coffee aroma (i.e., the type of smell). This is because data obtained by electronic noses are generally based on electrical resistance/current and samples are distinguished by principal component analysis. In this paper, we present an electronic nose that is capable of learning the wine related aromas using the aroma kit "Le Nez du Vin," and the potential to describe coffee aroma in a similar manner comparable to how wine experts describe wine aroma. The results of our investigation showed that the aromas of three drip coffees were more similar to those of pine and honey in the aroma kit than to the aromas of three canned coffees. Conversely, the aromas of canned coffees were more similar to the kit coffee aroma. In addition, the aromatic patterns of coffees were different from those of green tea and red wine. Although further study is required to fit the data to human olfaction, the presented method and the use of vocabularies in aroma kits promise to enhance objective discrimination and description of aromas by electronic noses. PMID:25587981

Fujioka, Kouki; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Shimizu, Nobuo; Ikeda, Keiichi; Manome, Yoshinobu

2014-01-01

98

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in Bartlett pear brandies by means of the sensomics concept.  

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The aroma compounds in two commercial Bartlett pear brandies clearly differing in their overall aroma profiles were detected in the volatile fractions by the aroma extract dilution analysis. In brandy A eliciting the more intense pear-like, fruity aroma, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, (E)-?-damascenone, 1,1-diethoxyethane, 2- and 3-methylbutanol, (S)-2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid, and 2-phenylethanol were found with the highest Flavor Dilution (FD) factors. In brandy B judged to have a weaker overall aroma, also (E)-?-damascenone, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, and 2-phenylethanol revealed high FD factors, while many odorants showed lower FD factors. Fourty-four odor-active compounds were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays, and the odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentrations to odor thresholds) confirmed (E)-?-damascenone and ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate as important aroma compounds in brandy A, while the OAVs of most odorants were much lower in brandy B. By aroma recombination studies, the aromas of both brandies could be matched using reference odorants in the same concentrations as they occurred in the spirits. In 15 commercial Bartlett pear brandies ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate and (E,E)-2,4-decadienoate eliciting a pear-like aroma showed a reasonable correlation of their concentrations with the overall aroma quality. PMID:24004345

Willner, Bianca; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

2013-10-01

99

Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology : Sweeping gas versus vacuum membrane distillation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up. The data were compared to recovery of the aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). The flux of SGMD increased with an increase in temperature, feed flow rate or sweeping gas flow rate. Increased temperature and feed flow rate also increased the concentration factors (Cpermeate/Cfeed) of the aroma compounds. At 45°C the most volatile and hydrophobic aroma compounds obtained the highest concentration factors: 12.1–9.3 (black currant juice) and 17.2–12.8 (model solution). With black currant juice a volume reduction of 13.7% (vol.%) at 45°C, 400L/h, resulted in an aroma recovery of 73–84vol.% for the most volatile compounds. Compared to VMD, the aroma recovery with SGMD was less influenced by the feed flow rate but more influenced by the temperature. Higher fluxes were achieved during concentration by VMD and this reduced the operation time, which in turn reduced the degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevanceHigh temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption. This study gives important clues about the fate of berry juice aroma compounds and polyphenols during concentration by MD, and identifies the main factors influencing the aroma recovery efficiency with MD. Both SGMD and VMD are promising techniques for gentle stripping of berry juice aroma compounds and deserve further consideration as alternative techniques for gentle aroma stripping in industrial fruit juice processing.

Bagger-JØrgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.

2011-01-01

100

Characterization of the key odorants in light aroma type chinese liquor by gas chromatography-olfactometry, quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies.  

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The light aroma type liquor is widely welcomed by consumers due to its pleasant fruity and floral aroma, particularly in northern China. To answer the puzzling question of which key aroma compounds are responsible for the typical aroma, three typical liquors were studied in this paper. A total of 66 aroma compounds were identified in three liquors by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), and 27 odorants were further screened out as the important odorants according to quantitative study and odor activity values (OAVs). For OAV calculation, odor thresholds of the odorants were determined in a hydroalcoholic solution at 46% ethanol by volume. The typical light type aroma dominated by fruity and floral notes was successfully simulated by dissolving these important odorants in the 46% vol hydroalcoholic solution in their natural concentrations. Omission experiments further confirmed ?-damascenone and ethyl acetate as the key odorants and revealed the significance of the entire group of esters, particularly ethyl lactate, geosmin, acetic acid, and 2-methylpropanoic acid, for the overall aroma of the light aroma type Chinese liquor. PMID:24909925

Gao, Wenjun; Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan

2014-06-25

 
 
 
 
101

Influence of thermal treatment of wood on the aroma of a sugar cane spirit (cachaça model-solution Influência do termotratamento da madeira no aroma de uma solução-modelo de cachaça  

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Full Text Available The aging process of alcoholic beverages is generally conducted in wood barrels made with species from Quercus sp. Due to the high cost and the lack of viability of commercial production of these trees in Brazil, there is demand for new alternatives to using other native species and the incorporation of new technologies that enable greater competitiveness of sugar cane spirit aged in Brazilian wood. The drying of wood, the thermal treatment applied to it, and manufacturing techniques are important tools in defining the sensory quality of alcoholic beverages after being placed in contact with the barrels. In the thermal treatment, several compounds are changed by the application of heat to the wood and various studies show the compounds are modified, different aromas are developed, there is change in color, and beverages achieve even more pleasant taste, when compared to non-treated woods. This study evaluated the existence of significant differences between hydro-alcoholic solutions of sugar cane spirits elaborated from different species of thermo-treated and non-treated wood in terms of aroma. An acceptance test was applied to evaluate the solutions preferred by tasters under specific test conditions.As bebidas alcoólicas são, geralmente, envelhecidas em tonéis de madeira fabricados a partir de espécies do gênero Quercus sp. Devido ao alto custo de aquisição e necessidade de importação, existe demanda por alternativas de uso de outras espécies nativas e da incorporação de novas tecnologias que aumentem a competitividade da cachaça brasileira. Sabe-se que, com a aplicação de termotratamento, vários compostos são alterados, desenvolvem-se aromas, altera-se a coloração e as bebidas adquirem gostos mais agradáveis. Este trabalho mostra a diferença significativa entre soluções-modelo hidroalcoólicas de cachaça, envelhecidas em diferentes espécies de madeira, em suas formas termotratadas e não termotratadas, avaliadas em relação a seu aroma. O teste de aceitação aplicado verificou as soluções preferidas pelos provadores, nas condições determinadas do teste.

Marta Helena Fillet Spoto

2011-06-01

102

Effect of the polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of beef muscle on the profile of aroma volatiles.  

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The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in beef muscle on the composition of the aroma volatiles produced during cooking was measured. The meat was obtained from groups of steers fed different supplementary fats: (i) a palm-oil-based control; (ii) bruised whole linseed, which increased muscle levels of alpha-linolenic (C18:3 n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n-3); (iii) fish oil, which increased EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3); (iv) equal quantities of linseed and fish oil. Higher levels of lipid oxidation products were found in the aroma extracts of all of the steaks with increased PUFA content, after cooking. In particular, n-alkanals, 2-alkenals, 1-alkanols, and alkylfurans were increased up to 4-fold. Most of these compounds were derived from the autoxidation of the more abundant mono- and di-unsaturated fatty acids during cooking, and such autoxidation appeared to be promoted by increased levels of PUFAs. PMID:10564028

Elmore, J S; Mottram, D S; Enser, M; Wood, J D

1999-04-01

103

Discrimination of truffle fruiting body versus mycelial aromas by stir bar sorptive extraction.  

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Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) was applied in head space mode (HS), coupled with GC/MS, to compare the aroma profile of three truffle species. A total of 119 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified from the fruiting bodies, of which 70 were not yet described in truffles and 60 in fungi. VOCs profile showed a high intra- and inter-specific variability, with alcohols and sulfur compounds dominating the HS of Tuber borchii and, alcohols, aldehydes and aromatic compounds the HS of T. melanosporum and T. indicum. Despite these variations, eight VOCs markers could be identified allowing the discrimination of the three species. Additionally, T. borchii and T. melanosporum both distinguished themselves from T. indicum due to higher aroma content and larger variety of sulfur containing compounds. Mycelial VOCs production was also investigated under two cultural conditions and led to the identification of eight VOCs. On one side, seven of them were also detected in the fruiting body, confirming their mycelial origin. On the other side, the total absence of some class of compounds (i.e. sulfur) in the mycelium raises questions about their origins in the fruiting bodies and confirms deep metabolic changes between the reproductive (fruiting body) and vegetative (mycelium) stages. PMID:17574637

Splivallo, Richard; Bossi, Simone; Maffei, Massimo; Bonfante, Paola

2007-10-01

104

Influence of water quench cooling on degassing and aroma stability of roasted coffee.  

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Coffee roasting experiments with air cooling versus water quench cooling were carried out on laboratory scale with a fluidized-bed hot air roasting system (200 g batch size) and on production scale with a rotating bowl roaster (320 kg batch size). Two series of coffees with different water contents resulted, which were stored at 25 degrees C under normal atmospheric conditions. Carbon dioxide desorption was followed and stability of selected aroma compounds was tested with headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and stable isotope labeled compounds as internal standards. Degassing is faster in water-quenched coffees with higher moisture content, but pore size distribution in the different coffee samples did not correlate with degassing behavior. Bean firmness, which increases with increasing moisture content, might have an influence on degassing. Air- and water-quenched coffees exhibit similar stability of most aroma compounds despite different degassing behavior. However, evolution of dimethyl trisulfide was different in coffees with increased water content. This suggests higher thiol oxidation rates, a factor that is cited to be related to a faster loss of freshness attributes. PMID:17616133

Baggenstoss, Juerg; Poisson, Luigi; Luethi, Regina; Perren, Rainer; Escher, Felix

2007-08-01

105

Verification of aroma profiles of Jiashi muskmelon juice characterized by odor activity value and gas chromatography-olfactometry/detection frequency analysis: aroma reconstitution experiments and omission tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

To verify the aroma profile of Jiashi muskmelon previously identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry/detection frequency analysis (GC-O/DFA) and odor activity value (OAV) calculation, the synthetic blends of odorants (aroma models) were prepared and then were compared with the original Jiashi muskmelon juice aroma using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and electronic nose analysis (ENA), respectively. QDA and ENA both indicated that the model solution derived from OAV calculation more closely resembled the original melon juice aroma than that based on DFA data. Omission tests corroborated the significant contribution of five unsaturated aldehydes and alcohols with nine carbon atoms as well as five branched esters, in particular, the "fruity"-smelling ethyl butanoate and the "cucumber-like" (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienal to Jiashi muskmelon overall aroma. PMID:22970770

Pang, Xueli; Chen, Dong; Hu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Jihong

2012-10-24

106

Analysis of accelerants and fire debris using aroma detection technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this work was to investigate the utility of electronic aroma detection technologies for the detection and identification of accelerant residues in suspected arson debris. Through the analysis of known accelerant residues, a trained neural network was developed for classifying suspected arson samples. Three unknown fire debris samples were classified using this neural network. The item corresponding to diesel fuel was correctly identified every time. For the other two items, wide variations in sample concentration and excessive water content, producing high sample humidities, were shown to influence the sensor response. Sorbent sampling prior to aroma detection was demonstrated to reduce these problems and to allow proper neural network classification of the remaining items corresponding to kerosene and gasoline.

Barshick, S.A.

1997-01-17

107

Chemical and sensorial aroma characterization of freshly distilled Calvados. 2. Identification of volatile compounds and key odorants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight samples of freshly distilled Calvados were extracted using pentane. Gas chromatography with either a mass spectrometer or flame ionization detector was used to determine the volatile compounds composition of the extracts. More than 120 molecules were identified in Calvados and then correlated with results obtained by olfactometric analysis in our earlier work [Guichard, H.; Lemesle, S.; Ledauphin, J.; Barillier, D.; Picoche, B. Chemical and Sensorial Aroma Characterization of Freshly Distilled Calvados. 1. Evaluation of Quality and Defects on the Basis of Key Odorants by Olfactometry and Sensory Analysis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002, 50, 424-432 (preceding paper in this issue)]. Of these, 16 of the 19 molecules that constitute the "aroma skeleton" were identified, including 5 esters, 2 ketones, 5 phenolic derivatives, 2 alcohols, and 2 carboxylic acids. Numerous compounds were also associated with odors found in part 1. These molecules can be considered as being responsible for the good quality of Calvados or, in contrast, for defects. Relative levels of some major olfactive compounds were also estimated and tentatively compared with olfactometric indices found in part 1. A good correlation was found in many cases. Two important markers of defects in Calvados were also identified. 3-Methylbut-2-en-1-ol leads to an "herbaceous" defect, and 1,1,3-triethoxypropane seems to give an "acrolein" defect in the product. "Floral" notes of the aroma of freshly distilled Calvados seem to be due to the presence of phenolic derivatives such as 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate. Low-molecular-weight esters such as ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, and 3-methylbutyl acetate give, in general, the "fruity" notes. However, the overall aroma of Calvados seems likely to be a subtle balance of various functionalized compounds. PMID:12517107

Ledauphin, Jérôme; Guichard, Hugues; Saint-Clair, Jean-François; Picoche, Bernard; Barillier, Daniel

2003-01-15

108

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in Turkish olive oils from different geographic origins by application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA).  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma and aroma-active compounds of olive oils obtained from Nizip Yaglik (NY) and Kilis Yaglik (KY) cultivars and the effect of the geographical area (southern Anatolian and Aegean regions) on these compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). For this purpose, two oil samples were obtained from their native geographical area including NY from Nizip province and KY from Kilis province (southern Anatolian region of Turkey). Another two oils of the same cultivar, NY-Bornova (NY-B) and KY-Bornova (KY-B), were obtained from the Olive Oil Research Center-Bornova, Izmir province (Aegean region of Turkey) to compare geographical effect on aroma and aroma-active compounds. Simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE) with dichloromethane was used for extraction of volatile components. SDE gave a highly representative aromatic extract of the studied olive oil based on the sensory analysis. Totals of 61, 48, 59, and 48 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in olive oils obtained from NY, NY-B, KY, and KY-B cultivars, respectively. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profile of native region oils was discriminately different from those of Bornova region oils. Aldehydes and alcohols were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in the oil samples. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of olive oils. The number of aroma-active compounds in native region oils was higher than in Bornova region oils. Within the compounds, aldehydes and alcohols were the largest aroma-active compounds in all olive oils. PMID:24387707

Kesen, Songul; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

2014-01-15

109

Taste-Aroma-Matrix Interactions Determine Flavour Perception  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A newly recruited sensory panel was trained in magnitude estimation and time intensity sensory techniques. Sensory analysis was combined with instrumental analysis using MS Nose to investigate the relationship between stimulus and perception using simple model food systems. Volatile release data was collected after swallowing aqueous solutions containing a cocktail of aroma compounds. The compounds varied in their persistence during subsequent exhalations dependent on the degree of assoc...

Hollowood, Tracey Ann

2002-01-01

110

Cava (Spanish sparkling wine) aroma: composition and determination methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cava (Spanish sparkling wine) is one of the most important quality sparkling wines in Europe. It is produced by the traditional method in which a base wine is re-fermented and aged in the same bottle that reaches the consumer. The special ageing in contact with lees gives the cava a particular bouquet with toasty, sweet or lactic notes. These nuances could be related with the chemical composition of aroma. The methods required to analyze the flavor of cava are revised. Th...

Riu Aumatell, Montserrat; Torrens, Jordi; Buxaderas Sa?nchez, Susana; Lo?pez Tamames, Elvira

2013-01-01

111

Psychophysical evaluation of interactive effects between sweeteners and aroma compounds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The presence of intense sweeteners in a light soft drink influences the preferences for, and the flavour profiles of these drinks to various extents, depending on the aroma and sweeteners present. In this study equisweet mixtures of sweeteners were composed at 10% Sucrose Equivalent Value. The sucrose/maltitol and sucrose/aspartame mixtures were additive, whereas equisweet binary sucrose/Na-cyclamate mixtures and ternary sucrose/aspartame/Na-cyclamate mixtures revealed synergistic effects.The...

Nahon, D. F.

1999-01-01

112

Volatile compounds responsible for aroma of Jutrzenka liquer wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jutrzenka is a sweet liquer wine produced in Poland from the grape variety of the same name, developed in Poland to withstand the harsh climate of winery regions. Jutrzenka wine has a characteristic aroma with strong fruity and flowery notes, which make it unique among other liquer wines as demonstrated in sensory profile analysis. The work was aimed at characterization of volatile compounds in this wine, with the emphasis on characterization of compounds responsible for its unique aroma. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) was applied to identify the key odorants using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) approach. To facilitate free and bound terpenes and C(13)-norisoprenoids identification solid phase extraction (SPE) was used followed by GC/MS. Among identified key odorants ?-damascenone was the compound having the highest FD (4096), followed by isoamyl alcohol, 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (FD=2048), methional, linalool, ethyl decanoate (FD=1024) and ethyl hexanoate, furaneol (FD=512). Other significant compounds were ethyl 2-methyl propanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and phenyl ethyl alcohol. Determination of odor activity values (OAV) showed the highest values for ?-damascenone (566), 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (288) ethyl hexanoate (32) and linalool (7). Jutrzenka exhibited also a rich profile of free, and to lesser extent bound terpenes. PMID:21831389

Jele?, Henryk H; Majcher, Ma?gorzata; Dziadas, Mariusz; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, Renata; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; W?sowicz, Erwin

2011-10-21

113

Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Acacia aroma leaf extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and ethanolic extract (EE) of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000??g/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500??g/mL and 100??g/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658??g/mL for EE and 1020??g/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1-20?mg/mL. The EE at 20?mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5?mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings. PMID:25530999

Mattana, C M; Cangiano, M A; Alcaráz, L E; Sosa, A; Escobar, F; Sabini, C; Sabini, L; Laciar, A L

2014-01-01

114

Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic `fingerprint` pattern representative of the vapor- phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The results to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

Barshick, S.-A.; Griest, W.H.; Vass, A.A.

1996-12-31

115

Effects of Film Mulching on Aroma Components of Pineapple Fruits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the effects of film mulching treatment on aroma components of pineapple fruits. In this present study, the pineapple fruits of treatment and control (open field were harvested twice (in winter and summer, respectively to detect the aroma components. The results indicated that esters and alkenes were the main aroma components of both treatment and control pineapple fruits. There were more kinds of esters with higher total relative contents detected in the treatment fruits both harvested in winter and summer. There were fewer kinds of alkenes with lower total relative contents detected in the treatment fruits harvested in summer. There were equal kinds of alkenes detected in both treatment and control fruits harvested in winter. But the total relative content of alkenes of treatment fruits harvested in winter was lower than that of control. There was one ester containing sulfur, propanoic acid, 3-(methylthio-, methyl ester with relative content of 1.40%, detected in the treatment fruits harvested in winter. No ester containing sulfur was detected in the control fruits harvested in winter. In the treatment fruits harvested in summer, two esters containing sulfur, propanoic acid, 3-(methylthio-, methyl ester (2.60% and 3-(methylthio propanoic acid ethyl ester (1.46% were detected. There was only one ester containing sulfur, propanoic acid, 3-(methylthio-, methyl ester (3.01% was detected in the control fruits harvested in summer.

Chuanhe Liu

2011-09-01

116

Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts  

Science.gov (United States)

Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and ethanolic extract (EE) of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000??g/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500??g/mL and 100??g/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658??g/mL for EE and 1020??g/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1–20?mg/mL. The EE at 20?mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5?mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings. PMID:25530999

Mattana, C. M.; Cangiano, M. A.; Alcaráz, L. E.; Sosa, A.; Escobar, F.; Sabini, C.; Sabini, L.; Laciar, A. L.

2014-01-01

117

Characterization of the Volatile Substances and Aroma Components from Traditional Soypaste  

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Full Text Available In this study, the flavor substances of soypaste were extracted by a simultaneous distillation method and identified by GC-MS. The characteristic aroma components of soypaste were determined by the GC-O technique and the FD value of the characteristic aroma components was determined by AEDA method. It could be inferred that the aroma of the soypaste should be attributed to the presence of heterocyclic compounds and organic acids, with the heterocyclic compounds playing a prominent role.

Yan Zhang

2010-05-01

118

Sensory profile and contribution of major components of aroma in dry red wine quality  

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This study aimed to determine the sensory profile and main volatile compounds of a set of commercial wines from two major wine regions in Brazil. A total of 28 descriptors were selected by quantitative descriptive analysis, and “red”, “violet”, “pungent aroma”, “vinegary aroma” and “softness” were the most important descriptors in sample discrimination (p<=0.05). 42 volatile aroma compounds were considered relevant for the evaluation of red wine samples. Several ac...

Luisa Costa de Oliveira; Maria Eugênia de Oliveira Mamede

2012-01-01

119

Aroma-active ester profile of ale beer produced under different fermentation and nutritional conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A broad range of aroma-active esters produced during fermentation are vital for the complex flavour of beer. This study assessed the influence of fermentation temperature, pH, and wort nutritional supplements on the production of yeast-derived ester compounds and the overall fermentation performance. The best fermentation performance was achieved when wort was supplemented with 0.75 g/l l-leucine resulting in highest reducing sugar and FAN (free amino nitrogen) utilization and ethanol production. At optimum fermentation pH of 5, 38.27% reducing sugars and 35.28% FAN was utilized resulting in 4.07% (v/v) ethanol. Wort supplemented with zinc sulphate (0.12 g/l) resulted in 5.01% ethanol (v/v) production and 54.32% reducing sugar utilization. Increase in fermentation temperature from 18°C to room temperature (± 22.5°C) resulted in 17.03% increased ethanol production and 14.42% and 62.82% increase in total acetate ester concentration and total ethyl ester concentration, respectively. Supplementation of worth with 0.12 g/l ZnSO4 resulted in 2.46-fold increase in both isoamyl acetate and ethyl decanoate concentration, while a 7.05-fold and 1.96-fold increase in the concentration of isoamyl acetate and ethyl decanoate, respectively was obtained upon 0.75 g/l l-leucine supplementation. Wort supplemented with l-leucine (0.75 g/l) yielded the highest beer foam head stability with a rating of 2.67, while highest yeast viability was achieved when wort was supplemented with 0.12 g/l zinc sulphate. Results from this study suggest that supplementing wort with essential nutrients required for yeast growth and optimizing the fermentation conditions could be an effective way of improving fermentation performance and controlling aroma-active esters in beer. PMID:23845914

Hiralal, Lettisha; Olaniran, Ademola O; Pillay, Balakrishna

2014-01-01

120

Characterization of cachaça and rum aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cachaça, the most popular alcoholic beverage in Brazil, is a sugar cane spirit similar to rum. Its production is around 2 billion liters per year, of which damascenone along with ethyl butyrate, isobutyrate, and 2-methylbutyrate were at the same potency in both cachaça and rum, whereas the spicy-smelling eugenol, 4-ethylguaiacol, and 2,4-nonadienal were much more potent in cachaça. PMID:16417309

de Souza, Maria D C A; Vásquez, Pablo; Del Mastro, Nélida L; Acree, Terry E; Lavin, Edward H

2006-01-25

 
 
 
 
121

KOMPONEN VOTALIT DANKARAKTERISASI KOMPONEN KUNCI AROMA BUAH ANDALIMAN (Zanthoxylum acanthoodium DC. [Colatile Aroma Constituents and Potent Odorant of Andaliman (Zanthoxylum acanthoodium DC. Fruit  

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Full Text Available Andaliman, a wild spice well known in Northem Sumatera, has a fresh citrusy and warm sweet peppery odor. This research was conducted to analyse pontent odorant from andaliman maceration extract using GC-MS, GC/O and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA method. Monoterpenes were the main constituens among the 24 identified components by GC-MS. Results od AEDA revealed that citronellal and limonene had the greatest impact on the aroma of andaliman with flavour dilution factor 128 and 32. ?-myrcene, 2-?-ocimene, linalool, ?-citronellol, neral, geraniol, gerabial, geranyl acetate, an unkwown compound, and a sesquiterpene also contributed to andaliman fresh citrusy and warm sweet peppery aroma.

Anton Apriyantono 1

2001-08-01

122

Chemical and aroma determination of the pulp and seeds of murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L., Malpighiaceae) é uma pequena fruta tropical de intenso aroma frutal e semelhante a queijo rançoso. Aplicando a cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução-olfatometria acoplada a espectrometria de massas e usando técnica de diluição de aroma ("Aroma extract dilution an [...] alysis"), as substâncias de maior impacto no aroma do murici foram identificadas como sendo: butanoato de etila (frutal, doce), hexanoato de etila (frutal), 1-octeno-3-ol (odor semelhante a cogumelo), ácido butírico (queijo rançoso), ácido hexanóico (pungente, queijo) e 2-feniletanol (floral). A polpa da fruta é principalmente composta por ésteres etílicos, metílicos e feniletílicos, juntamente com ácidos carboxílicos, terpenos, delta-lactonas e algumas substâncias sulfuradas. As sementes, que apresentaram um aroma semelhante ao de óleo rançoso, também lembrando queijo, tem como componentes majoritários os ácidos linoleico, oleico, esteárico e palmítico. Seu aroma foi associado aos ácidos butírico e hexanóico, ambos minoritários. Abstract in english Murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L., Malpighiaceae), a small, tropical fruit, very popular in Brazil, has a strong fruity, rancid cheese aroma. High resolution gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry and aroma extract dilution analysis identified the most potent substances in its aroma as eth [...] yl butanoate (fruity, sweet), ethyl hexanoate (fruity), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom like), butyric acid (rancid, cheese), hexanoic acid (pungent, cheese) and phenylethyl alcohol (floral). Its pulp is mainly composed of ethyl, methyl and phenylethyl esters and by carboxylic acids, terpenoids, delta-lactones and some sulfur compounds. Seed analysis also showed a buttery and oily cheese aroma and GC-MS revealed linoleic, oleic, stearic and palmitic acids as foremost components, while the aroma was associated to the butyric and hexanoic acids present in minor amounts.

Claudia M., Rezende; Sandra R. G., Fraga.

2003-05-01

123

Influence of new generation fungicides on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth, grape must fermentation and aroma biosynthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of ten new generation fungicides (ametoctradin, benthiavalicarb-isopropyl, boscalid, cyazofamid, dimethomorph, fenhexamid, kresoxim-methyl, mepanipyrim, metrafenone, and pyraclostrobin) on the fermentative activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was initially evaluated in pasteurised red must. The presence of ametoctradin, dimethomorph and mepanipyrim seemed to affect sugars-to-ethanol yield in the stationary phase. The same fermentation experiments were carried out for these three fungicides in ecological red must from Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo. When ecological must was unfiltered, the fermentative activity of yeasts was unaffected by the presence of these selected fungicides. However, when ecological must was filtered beforehand, a slight decrease of biomass and ethanol production (in terms of biomass-to-ethanol yield and sugars-to-ethanol yield, respectively), as well as a decrease in fruity aroma, were registered with respect to the control wine. PMID:24176337

Noguerol-Pato, R; Torrado-Agrasar, A; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

2014-03-01

124

Evaluation of new aroma substances for feline minitablet formulation  

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Full Text Available Despite the global interest in companion animal pharmaceuticals, feline peroral medication still lacks tailor-made, palatable and voluntarily accepted pharmaceuticals with suitable size and attractive taste. As a consequence, treating cats with canine and even human pharmaceuticals has weakened patient compliance and treatment commitment, and has even left many pet cats untreated. In future, the companion animal pharmaceutical business will therefore particularly concentrate on cats and the rapid and economic development of palatable feline medication. Following this goal, the overall aim of this study was to facilitate voluntary drug administration to felines. Specifically we aimed to develop sophisticated and tailor-made feline pharmaceuticals, with the focus on flavours in minitablets. Since excipients should be easily obtained and suitable for formulation, we conducted rapid preformulation compatibility and stability screening tests of synthetic flavours with commonly used tableting excipients. On the basis of the feline carnivorous diet, L-methionine, L-leucine, L-proline and thiamine hydrochloride were presented as new aroma substances for the improvement of feline medication palatability. These flavours and a model substance for a bitter taste, denatonium benzoate, were systematically evaluated for their physicochemical properties, stability and physical compatibility. This was done with substances alone and in binary combinations of flavours and excipients. Stability and compatibility were examined employing DSC and XRPD. The results showed that L-proline and denatonium benzoate anhydrate were hygroscopic. Thiamine hydrochloride was incompatible with talc and sodium stearyl fumarate. The known incompatibility between the amines contained in aromas, and ?-lactose monohydrate was used in assessing method sensitivity. Overall, the study provided new information on the compatibility of novel aromas with the tableting excipients. The study also demonstrated the applicability of XRPD and DSC in the rapid evaluation of instability and incompatibility.

Jaana Hautala

2014-06-01

125

Post-harvest ripening increase cultivar specific sensory and analytical aroma profile in apple juice : A study of four commercial cultivars in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Apples are normally produced with focus on the fresh fruit marked, which imply high priority on storability and shelf life. The fruits used for juice are normally those discarded along the post-harvest chain. If the main goal is changed to production of high-quality juice with emphasis on single cultivar characteristic flavours, focus can be on optimal fruit ripening for flavour development. To investigate the juice quality potentials during post-harvest ripening, four apple cultivars: ‘Aroma’, ‘Holsteiner Cox’, ‘Ingrid Marie’ and ‘Rajka’ were sampled and juiced after 5 and 10 days of post-harvest storage at room temperature (20°C). The soluble solids content (SSC) of ‘Ingrid Marie’ fruits increased most, and after 10 days, it had the lowest starch content of the four cultivars studied. The mid-to-late season cultivars ‘Ingrid Marie’, ‘Holsteiner Cox’ and ‘Rajka’ had higher SSC/acidity ratio than the middle early season ‘Aroma’ ‘and all of them showed an increase of the ratio SSC/acidity during storage’. The volatile compound measurements (GC-MS) of the juices indicated that particularly ‘Holsteiner Cox’ and ‘Ingrid Marie’ have the ability to produce fruity volatile compounds like ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, 2-methylpropyl acetate, butyl acetate, hexyl acetate, hexanal, ethyl propanoate, pentyl acetate and ethyl 2-metylbutanoate exhibiting remarkable changes during ripening. These volatile compounds may explain the post-harvest development of interesting fruity nuances perceived by the sensory panel. The terms ‘apricot’, ‘peach’ and ‘pineapple’ were used to describe the odour and flavour properties of these cultivar juices in the sensory analysis. ‘Aroma’ apples ranked high on ‘citrus’, ‘red berries’ and ‘pear’ flavour descriptors after 5 days of storage, whereas ‘Rajka’ showed the weakest aroma profile of the group of cultivars. To exploit the aroma and sensory potential fully, apple cultivars should be further investigated in regards to effects of delayed harvest and different post-harvest treatments.

Martínez Vega, M.; Varming, C.

2014-01-01

126

Understanding aroma release from model cheeses by a statistical multiblock approach on oral processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food oral processing events involved in aroma release during cheese consumption. In vivo aroma release was monitored on forty eight subjects who were asked to eat four different model cheeses varying in fat content and firmness and flavoured with ethyl propanoate and nonan-2-one. A multiblock partial least square regression was performed to explain aroma release from the different physiological data sets (masticatory behaviour, bolus rheology, saliva composition and flux, mouth coating and bolus moistening). This statistical approach was relevant to point out that aroma release was mostly explained by masticatory behaviour whatever the cheese and the aroma, with a specific influence of mean amplitude on aroma release after swallowing. Aroma release from the firmer cheeses was explained mainly by bolus rheology. The persistence of hydrophobic compounds in the breath was mainly explained by bolus spreadability, in close relation with bolus moistening. Resting saliva poorly contributed to the analysis whereas the composition of stimulated saliva was negatively correlated with aroma release and mostly for soft cheeses, when significant. PMID:24691625

Feron, Gilles; Ayed, Charfedinne; Qannari, El Mostafa; Courcoux, Philippe; Laboure, Hélène; Guichard, Elisabeth

2014-01-01

127

Characterization of potent odorants in male giant water bug (Lethocerus indicus Lep. and Serv.), an important edible insect of Southeast Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potent odorants in frozen fresh (FFB) and salted boiled (SBB) male giant water bugs (Lethocerus indicus), or 'Maengdana' in Thai, were characterized by application of direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Twenty and 27 potent odorants were detected in FFB and SBB, respectively. Most odorants were lipid-derived compounds, including the two most abundant volatile components (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenyl butanoate, which contributed banana-like odours. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, responsible for popcorn-like odours, were detected in SBB only. An aroma reconstitution model of SBB was constructed in an oil-in-water emulsion matrix using 12 selected potent odorants based on the results of AEDA, accurate compound quantification and the calculated odour-activity values (OAV). Omission studies were carried out to verify the significance of esters, particularly (E)-2-hexenyl acetate was determined to be an important character-impact odorant in male giant water bug aroma. PMID:25172758

Kiatbenjakul, Patthamawadi; Intarapichet, Kanok-Orn; Cadwallader, Keith R

2015-02-01

128

KOMPONEN VOTALIT DANKARAKTERISASI KOMPONEN KUNCI AROMA BUAH ANDALIMAN (Zanthoxylum acanthoodium DC.) [Colatile Aroma Constituents and Potent Odorant of Andaliman (Zanthoxylum acanthoodium DC.) Fruit  

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Andaliman, a wild spice well known in Northem Sumatera, has a fresh citrusy and warm sweet peppery odor. This research was conducted to analyse pontent odorant from andaliman maceration extract using GC-MS, GC/O and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) method. Monoterpenes were the main constituens among the 24 identified components by GC-MS. Results od AEDA revealed that citronellal and limonene had the greatest impact on the aroma of andaliman with flavour dilution factor 128 and 32. ?-m...

Anton Apriyantono 1); Irene Triyanti Hadiprodjo 2); Hanny Wijaya, C.

2001-01-01

129

PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia  

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Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

Intan Kusumaningrum*

2014-06-01

130

PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME), followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O) with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF) method. A total of 28 ar...

Intan Kusumaningrum*; Hanny Wijaya, C.; Feri Kusnandar3); Misnawi; Ariza Budi Tunjung Sari

2014-01-01

131

Recuperação e concentração de componentes do aroma de caju (Anacardium occidentale L.) por pervaporação Recovery of aroma compounds of cashew apple fruit (Anacardium occidentale L.) by pervaporation  

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A pervaporação é um processo de separação por membranas, no qual misturas líquidas são fracionadas devido à sua vaporização parcial através de uma membrana densa de permeabilidade seletiva. Este processo pode ser utilizado na recuperação e concentração de componentes de aromas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a pervaporação para obtenção de um extrato natural de aroma de caju, que poderá ser utilizado como aditivo na indústria de alimentos. Polpa de caju foi a maté...

André von Randow de Assis; Humberto Ribeiro Bizzo; Virgínia Martins da Matta; Lourdes Maria Corrêa Cabral

2007-01-01

132

Comparison of the sensitivity of different aroma extraction techniques in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to detect minor aroma compounds in wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

MicroVinification platforms are used for screening purposes to study aroma development in wine. These high-throughput methodologies require flavor analysis techniques that allow fast detection of a high number of aroma compounds which often appear in very low concentrations (?g/l). In this work, a selection of aroma extraction techniques in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were evaluated to detect minor wine aroma compounds in low sample volume. The techniques evaluated were headspace (HS), headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction (HS-SPDE), headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (DI-SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and monolithic material sorptive extraction (MMSE). DI-SPME showed the highest sensitivity as expressed by detection of the highest percentage of total aroma compounds at concentrations around 0.1 ?g/l. SBSE and MMSE followed DI-SPME in terms of sensitivity. HS-SPME was less sensitive but considered sensitive enough for detection of most of the volatile compounds present in highly aromatic wines. Matrix effect was shown to strongly affect aroma extraction and therefore the sensitivity of the different extraction methods. PMID:23245586

Gamero, Amparo; Wesselink, Wilma; de Jong, Catrienus

2013-01-11

133

Evaluation of aroma-active compounds in Pontianak orange peel oil ( Citrus nobilis Lour. Var. microcarpa Hassk.) by gas chromatography-olfactometry, aroma reconstitution, and omission test.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma-active compounds of Pontianak orange peel oil ( Citrus nobilis Lour. var. microcarpa Hassk.) were characterized by using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) techniques. Forty-one compounds were found to be aroma-active, which were mainly dominated by saturated and unsaturated aldehydes. The flavor dilution (FD) factor was within the range of 2-2048, and compounds having the highest FD factor were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, linalool, and 2-methoxy-3-(2-methylpropyl) pyrazine, including a few unknown compounds. On the basis of GC-O results, odor activity value (OAV) and relative flavor activity (RFA) were determined for aroma model reconstitution. These resembled the original aroma of the peel oil for the green, fatty, fresh, peely, floral, and tarry attributes, with the model solution derived from OAV being the closest to Pontianak oil. Omission tests were carried out to verify the significance of (Z)-5-dodecenal and 1-phenylethyl mercaptan as key compounds in the aroma of Pontianak orange peel oil. PMID:19061307

Dharmawan, Jorry; Kasapis, Stefan; Sriramula, Praveena; Lear, Martin J; Curran, Philip

2009-01-14

134

Aroma Volatile Compounds from Two Fresh Pineapple Varieties in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Volatile compounds from two pineapples varieties (Tainong No.4 and No.6 were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. In the Tainong No. 4 and No. 6 pineapples, a total of 11 and 28 volatile compounds were identified according to their retention time on capillary columns and their mass spectra, and quantified with total concentrations of 1080.44 µg·kg?1 and 380.66 µg·kg?1 in the Tainong No.4 and No. 6 pineapples, respectively. The odor active values (OAVs of volatile compounds from pineapples were also calculated. According to the OAVs, four compounds were defined as the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 4 pineapple, including furaneol, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid methyl ester, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester and ?-octalactone. The OAVs of five compounds including ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, methyl-2-methylbutyrate, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl hexanoate and decanal were considered to be the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 6 pineapple.

Chang-Bin Wei

2012-06-01

135

A question of scent: lavender aroma promotes interpersonal trust  

Science.gov (United States)

A previous study has shown that the degree of trust into others might be biased by inducing either a more “inclusive” or a more “exclusive” cognitive-control mode. Here, we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by environmental factors, such as odors, that are likely to impact cognitive-control states. Arousing olfactory fragrances (e.g., peppermint) are supposed to induce a more exclusive, and calming olfactory fragrances (e.g., lavender) a more inclusive state. Participants performed the Trust Game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor) transfers to another participant (the trustee), while being exposed to either peppermint or lavender aroma. All participants played the role of trustor. As expected, participants transferred significantly more money to the alleged trustee in the lavender as compared to the peppermint and control (no aroma) conditions. This observation might have various serious implications for a broad range of situations in which interpersonal trust is an essential element, such as cooperation (e.g., mixed-motives situations), bargaining and negotiation, consumer behavior, and group performance. PMID:25628577

Sellaro, Roberta; van Dijk, Wilco W.; Paccani, Claudia Rossi; Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S.

2015-01-01

136

Aroma interactions with starch : Induction of carbohydrate acting enzymes from Aspergillus nidulans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Starches are used to enhance aroma perception in low-fat foods. Aroma compounds can bind physically to the starch in grooves on the surface or they can form complexes inside amylose helices. This study has been divided into two parts: one part regarding binding of aromas to starches and their aroma-release, and another part regarding stimulation of a fungal secretome using different carbohydrates. In the first part, nine aromas and one aroma-mixture were mixed with nine different starches, including genetically modified starches. The objective of this sub-project was to bind aromas to the starches to 15 weight-percent. Aroma binding was tested on both amorphous starches and on native starch granules. A series of aldehydes and alcohols were also tested for binding to the starches. The aromas with the highest volatility were positively retained by starch, whereas for aromas with a lower volatility the starch had a negative effect on retention. No trends were observed that could relate aroma binding or retentionto physical qualities of the starch such as amylose or phosphate content. Still, the physical state of the starch was shown to influence retention of some aromas, possibly by diffusion through the outer layers of the starch granule or binding to grooves on the surface. Chemical reactivity of some of the aromas also influenced the retention. Analysing a series of aldehydes and alcohols revealed an influence of the size of the molecules on retention. Hexanal showed a remarkable drop in retention for all starches, and pentanol showed a favoured retention by native starch granules. The aroma compounds bound to the starch proved very difficult to release as only a minute fraction of the aroma added could be released from the starch, even under conditions favouring aroma release, as monitored by GC-MS and solvent extractions. Addition of water to the extraction lowered the amount of aroma released, and addition of a starch-degrading enzyme, ?-amylase, did not significantly change the amount extracted. Studies by differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray scattering did not show complete complexation of aromas in the amylose helices, but instead changes were observed that could be evidence of partial complexation. This complexation is not exclusive to the amylose helices, but also appears to include interactions in the amylopectin double helices. In particular, one of the analysed aromas showed a very noticeable reduction in melting temperature, but showed only a minor reduction in melting enthalpy and no evidence of amylose complexation. Using an enzyme-discovery approach in the second sub-project, the industrially relevant fungus Aspergillus nidulans was stimulated with different carbohydrates. Stimulation with starch induced expression of starch-degrading enzymes, while stimulation with the hemicellulose xylan induced expression of xylanases. One particular hypothetical protein was ubiquitously expressed. This protein had no apparent homology with known proteins, but may iv be involved in attacking otherorganisms as a weak homology with other proteins involved in membrane attack was detected. Degradation of secreted proteins was observed in some cultures. Identification of a glycoside hydrolase family 61 using xylan as carbon-source was not successful despite previous evidence for the induction of this enzyme.

JØrgensen, Anders Dysted

2011-01-01

137

Approaches to spirit aroma: contribution of some aromatic compounds to the primary aroma in samples of orujo spirits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Terpenes and C(13) norisoprenoids are among the most important aromatic compounds found in a volatile and nonvolatile form in grapes. Aromatic typicity of a spirit could be attributed to these compounds despite the very important presence of volatile compounds produced during alcoholic fermentation. In this study, following a solid phase extraction stage, the determination of the varietal aromatic compounds by gas chromatography was performed on 15 samples of Galician orujo spirits. The results show that significant differences (p < 0.05) exist in the concentrations of varietal aromatic compounds in Galician spirits obtained from different varieties of grapes. alpha-Ionona is the varietal aromatic compound that is most likely to contribute to the aroma of all of the spirits studied. The spirits from Catalan Roxo are the most aromatic, with floral and fruity nuances, while the spirits from Godello were the less aromatic group as far as the varietal compounds studied are concerned. Spirits from Mencia and Treixadura show a similar profile, but the former has a more intensive aroma due to beta-pinene, citronellol, and alpha-ionone. Albariño spirits stand out because of their profile that is marked by the contributions of eugenol and linalool. PMID:14640588

Diéguez, Sandra C; De La Peña, Ma Luisa G; Gómez, Esperanza F

2003-12-01

138

Impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the in vivo aroma release from wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the retronasal aroma release of four volatile compounds added to different types of wines has been evaluated. For this purpose, a tailor-made retronasal aroma trapping device (RATD) was used to entrap the exhaled breath of six panelists previously trained in a specific consumption procedure. Five wines of different composition (white wine, sparkling white wine, young red wine, aged red wine, and a sweet wine) were evaluated. Prior to the evaluation, with the exception of the sweet wine, the wines were adjusted to the same ethanol content and aromatized with a mixture of four target volatile compounds. Aroma release data were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis in order to relate wine chemical composition and aroma release during wine drinking. Results showed interindividual differences and a clustering of panelists among lower and higher aroma releasers, which was in agreement to the differences in their breathing capacity. A significant influence of the matrix composition in the low aroma releasers group during wine consumption was observed. The consumption of red wines provoked a significantly higher aroma release than the consumption of white and sweet wines. From the chemical composition determined in the wine samples (pH, total acidity, total polyphenols, neutral polysaccharides, residual sugar, and nitrogenous compounds), the amount of total polyphenols was better correlated with the observed effect. PMID:24328128

Muñoz-González, Carolina; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

2014-01-01

139

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in beef and pork vegetable gravies á la chef by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

By application of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on an aroma distillate isolated from a freshly prepared, stewed beef/vegetable gravy, 52 odor-active compounds were detected in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 4-4096. On the basis of high FD factors in combination with the results of the identification experiments, 3-(methylthio)propanal (cooked potato), 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol (gravy-like), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (deep-fried, fatty), 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (lovage-like), vanillin (vanilla-like), (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal (deep-fried), and (E)-2-undecenal (metallic) are suggested as key contributors to the aroma of the gravy. To get an insight into the role of the vegetables as sources of gravy odorants, a beef gravy was prepared without vegetables. The AEDA results revealed that, in particular, onions and leek are important sources of gravy aroma compounds, adding particularly the very potent, gravy-like smelling 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol to the overall aroma profile. Further compounds that were clearly derived from the vegetables and, thus, are important modifiers of the overall aroma were 4-vinyl-2-methoxyphenol, (E)-beta-damascenone, beta-ionone, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, and 2-(sec-butyl)-3-methoxypyrazine. Interestingly, none of the key odorants detected in the gravy can be assumed to be formed from a reaction between beef and vegetable constituents. A comparison of the odorants in the beef/vegetable gravy with a gravy prepared according to the same procedure, but substituting beef by pork meat, indicated that most of the aroma compounds were identical-although different in FD factors-but the tallowy smelling 12-methyltridecanal was detected as key odorant only in the beef/vegetable gravy. PMID:19807161

Christlbauer, Monika; Schieberle, Peter

2009-10-14

140

Influence of thermal treatment of wood on the aroma of a sugar cane spirit (cachaça) model-solution / Influência do termotratamento da madeira no aroma de uma solução-modelo de cachaça  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As bebidas alcoólicas são, geralmente, envelhecidas em tonéis de madeira fabricados a partir de espécies do gênero Quercus sp. Devido ao alto custo de aquisição e necessidade de importação, existe demanda por alternativas de uso de outras espécies nativas e da incorporação de novas tecnologias que a [...] umentem a competitividade da cachaça brasileira. Sabe-se que, com a aplicação de termotratamento, vários compostos são alterados, desenvolvem-se aromas, altera-se a coloração e as bebidas adquirem gostos mais agradáveis. Este trabalho mostra a diferença significativa entre soluções-modelo hidroalcoólicas de cachaça, envelhecidas em diferentes espécies de madeira, em suas formas termotratadas e não termotratadas, avaliadas em relação a seu aroma. O teste de aceitação aplicado verificou as soluções preferidas pelos provadores, nas condições determinadas do teste. Abstract in english The aging process of alcoholic beverages is generally conducted in wood barrels made with species from Quercus sp. Due to the high cost and the lack of viability of commercial production of these trees in Brazil, there is demand for new alternatives to using other native species and the incorporatio [...] n of new technologies that enable greater competitiveness of sugar cane spirit aged in Brazilian wood. The drying of wood, the thermal treatment applied to it, and manufacturing techniques are important tools in defining the sensory quality of alcoholic beverages after being placed in contact with the barrels. In the thermal treatment, several compounds are changed by the application of heat to the wood and various studies show the compounds are modified, different aromas are developed, there is change in color, and beverages achieve even more pleasant taste, when compared to non-treated woods. This study evaluated the existence of significant differences between hydro-alcoholic solutions of sugar cane spirits elaborated from different species of thermo-treated and non-treated wood in terms of aroma. An acceptance test was applied to evaluate the solutions preferred by tasters under specific test conditions.

Marta Helena Fillet, Spoto; Marcelo Machado, Leão; José Otávio Otávio, Brito.

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration (AROMA)  

Science.gov (United States)

Automation and Robotics (A&R) systems are a key technology for Mars exploration. All over the world initiatives in this field aim at developing new A&R systems and technologies for planetary surface exploration. From December 2000 to February 2002 Kayser-Threde GmbH, Munich, Germany lead a study called AROMA (Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration) under ESA contract in order to define a reference architecture of A&R elements in support of a human Mars exploration program. One of the goals of this effort is to initiate new developments and to maintain the competitiveness of European industry within this field. c2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Hofmann, Peter; von Richter, Andreas

2003-01-01

142

Aroma behaviour during steam cooking within a potato starch-based model matrix.  

Science.gov (United States)

To help understand the organoleptic qualities of steam cooked foods, the kinetics of aroma release during cooking in a potato starch based model matrix was studied. Behaviour of components having a major impact in potato flavour were studied using solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography (SPME-GC). Evolution of microstructure of potato starch model-matrix during steam cooking process was analyzed using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Both aroma compounds that are naturally present in starch matrix and those that were added were analyzed. Both the aroma compounds naturally presented and those added had different behaviour depending on their physico-chemical properties (hydrophobicity, saturation vapour pressure, molecular weight, etc.). The physical state of potato starch influences of the retention of aromatized matrix with Starch gelatinization appearing to be the major phenomenon influencing aroma release. PMID:23618307

Descours, Emilie; Hambleton, Alicia; Kurek, Mia; Debeaufort, Fréderic; Voilley, Andrée; Seuvre, Anne-Marie

2013-06-01

143

Structural and physical effects of aroma compound binding to native starch granules  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The interaction and physical/structural effects of aroma compounds, at high concentrations on dry native starch granules were studied using eight selected model compounds: acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulphide, diacetyl, allyl isothiocyanate, ethyl butyrate, citral, octanol and butyric acid. The maize, potato and pea starches used represent different typical structural and chemical starch characteristics. Retention of the different aroma compounds varied from a few to one hundred percent and starch was found to induce as well as reduce aroma evaporation depending on the aroma compound and the starch type. As deduced from DSC, powder XRD and SEM analyses, citral, butyric acid and octanol exerted specific effects on the starch granules manifested in local melting of crystalline layers and partial disruption of the granular meso structure. The most prominent effect was obtained with citral that generated surface wrinkles on B? and C?type polymorphic granules and aggregation of A?type polymorphic granules, decreased the melting temperature and suppressed the crystallinity of the starch.

JØrgensen, Anders Dysted; Jensen, Susanne L.

2012-01-01

144

Influence of thermal treatment on black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) juice aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of thermal treatment on black currant juice aroma was investigated in temperature and time ranges relevant for black currant juice concentration processes, namely, 45, 60, 75, and 90 degrees C. Forty-nine aroma compounds were quantified, and the thermal treatment resulted in concentration increases of most terpenes, aldehydes, furans, and phenols, whereas the concentration of esters slightly decreased. Higher temperatures and longer exposure times had larger effects on the aroma compounds. Odor triangle tests showed no sensory difference between pasteurized juice and juice heated at 60 degrees C, whereas juice heated at 90 degrees C differed significantly from pasteurized juice. It is concluded that a 90 degrees C thermal treatment of black currant juice, which is in the temperature range used for conventional evaporation of black currant juice, has an effect on the aroma and sensory properties. PMID:15675814

Varming, Camilla; Andersen, Mogens L; Poll, Leif

2004-12-15

145

Aroma changes due to second fermentation and glycosylated precursors in Chardonnay and Riesling sparkling wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma changes in Chardonnay and Riesling base wines caused by the second fermentation were investigated by a targeted component analysis: A stable isotope dilution approach using headspace solid phase microextraction coupled online to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was applied to quantify 37 compounds relevant for sparkling wine aroma. In an enrichment experiment, glycosylated precursors isolated from one Chardonnay and one Riesling base wine were used to double the original amount in these base wines. Along with increased concentrations of precursor-derived volatiles after the second fermentation, descriptive sensory evaluation revealed an enhancement of fruity aroma impressions reminiscent of, for example, peach or cantaloupe. Except for benzyl alcohol, linalool, and 3-methylpentanol, no quantitative 2-fold increase of volatiles was found with a 2-fold increase in precursor concentration, as other metabolic pathways seem to interfere with aroma formation from glycosides. PMID:21341698

Ganss, Sebastian; Kirsch, Frauke; Winterhalter, Peter; Fischer, Ulrich; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

2011-03-23

146

Sensory profile and contribution of major components of aroma in dry red wine quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the sensory profile and main volatile compounds of a set of commercial wines from two major wine regions in Brazil. A total of 28 descriptors were selected by quantitative descriptive analysis, and “red”, “violet”, “pungent aroma”, “vinegary aroma” and “softness” were the most important descriptors in sample discrimination (p<=0.05. 42 volatile aroma compounds were considered relevant for the evaluation of red wine samples. Several acetates and esters that contribute to the pleasant aroma in wines were found in the samples, but other undesirable compounds were also identified: acetic acid and octanoic acid may have contributed to the vinegary and sulphur odors perceived by a trained team.

Luisa Costa de Oliveira

2012-11-01

147

Aroma of some plants cultivated in Lithuania : Composition, processing and release  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, some factors affecting the aroma of some plants of the families Umbelliferae and Asteraceae were evaluated. The composition of the aromas is influenced by several factors: plant family, harvesting time, anatomical part of plant, method used to isolate volatiles, cultivar, fertilisers used for the growing of plant, cultivation site. The yield of caraway fruits varies over a wide range depending on fertiliser content, cultivation area and the cultivar itself. The trends for the a...

Bylaite, E.

2000-01-01

148

Molecular and biochemical analysis of aroma in CSR10 x Taraori basmati derived Recombinant Inbred Lines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aroma or fragrance of Basmati rice is associated with the presence and content of chemical compound, 2-acetyl-1-pyrrolineand the trait is monogenic recessive. Several PCR-based co-dominant marker based on RG28 locus were developed, which can differentiate between fragrant and non-fragrant rice cultivars. For molecular and biochemical analysis of aroma, a mapping population comprising 208 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a diverse cross between CSR10 and Taraori Basmati through SSD method was used. RILs are among the best mapping populations, which provide a novel material for linkage mapping of genes/QTLs marker for various traits. Biochemical analysis of aroma was performed with the 1.7% KOH solution and molecular analysis of aroma was carried out with microsatellite markers present on chromosome 8 (BAD2, BADEX7-5, SCUSSR1 to determine the extent of association between trait, marker and chromosome 8. Among these markers, BAD2 amplified aroma specific alleles having 256 bp in 72 lines, BADEX7-5 with 95 bp in 74 lines and SCUSSR1 with 129 bp in 79 lines. Mentel test of significance detected by biochemical analysis of RILs (with 1.7 % KOH and molecular marker study revealed high degree (>90 % of association of aroma with the above mentioned markers, respectively. Some of the F10 lines amplified the heterozygous alleles for two sets of specific markers (BAD2 and SCUSSR-1 but did not show the presence of aroma as analyzed by chemical test. Aromatic and non-aromatic lines were almost common in three markers indicating association of markers with the trait and chromosome 8. The results revealed that these markers could be used for marker assisted selection and RIL population for mapping of aroma QTLs/genes.

Pummy Kumari, Uma Ahuja , Sunita Jain and R.K. Jain

2012-06-01

149

Method for recovering aroma concentrate from a caffeine- or theobromine-comprising food base material  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Described is a method for recovering aroma concentrate from a caffeine- or theobromine-comprising food base material, such as coffee or tea, and in particular cocoa, at least comprising the steps of: introducing the food base material into an aqueous extractant and incubating the food base material at a suitable temperature and for a suitable period, substantial extraction of the aromas taking place to form an aqueous food extract, pervaporating the food extract using a hydrophobic pervaporat...

Kattenberg, H. R.; Willemsen, J. H. A.; Starmans, D. A. J.; Hoving, H. D.; Winters, M. G. M.

2002-01-01

150

Studies on the key aroma compounds in soy milk made from three different soybean cultivars.  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the aroma concentrate of soy milk made from a major Japanese soybean cultivar, Fukuyutaka (FK), revealed 20 key aroma compounds having flavor dilution (FD) factors of not less than 64. Among them, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, cis-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, and 2'-aminoacetophenone were identified as the key aroma compounds in soy milk for the first time. (E,E)-2,4-Decadienal exhibiting a fatty note and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal exhibiting a metallic/sweet note were detected as having the highest FD factors of 4096, followed by hexanal (green), (E)-2-nonenal (fatty), and (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal (fatty) having FD factors of 1024. Although all of these compounds might be generated from lipids, various aroma components, which were thought to be generated from amino acids, sugars, and ferulic acid, were detected having FD factors of 64-256. Investigation by comparative AEDA experiments of the soy milk aroma concentrates of two cultivars for soybean curd and soy milk, FK and Vinton81 (VT), and one cultivar for boiled beans, Miyagishirome (MY), revealed that most of the key aroma compounds were common to all of them, but 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, exhibiting a pea-like/earthy note, was detected only in FK and VT. In addition, a sensory experiment revealed that the pea-like/earthy notes in FK and VT were significantly stronger than that in MY. These results demonstrated that a pea-like/earthy note contributed by 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine might be one of the essential characteristics to describe soy milk aromas. PMID:21981068

Kaneko, Shu; Kumazawa, Kenji; Nishimura, Osamu

2011-11-23

151

The influence of Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida utilis on the aroma formation in garlic spiced fermented sausages and model minces.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of the yeast starter cultures Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida utilis on fermented meat aroma was studied in model minces and in commercial-type fermented sausages. Volatile compounds from model minces and sausages were collected using diffusive and dynamic headspace sampling respectively and were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A triangle test was carried out on the sausages to detect whether the yeast influenced the sausage odour. C. utilis demonstrated high metabolic activity in the model minces, producing several volatile compounds, in particularly esters. C. utilis also seemed to ferment the amino acids valine, isoleucine and leucine into compounds important for the aroma of sausages. D. hansenii on the contrary, had very little effect on the production of volatile compounds in the model minces. In the sausage experiment both yeast cultures died out before the ripening process ended and the sensory analysis showed only a slight difference between the sausages. A fungistatic test of the garlic powder added to the sausages indicated that garlic inhibits the growth of the yeast starter cultures. PMID:22062166

Olesen, P T; Stahnke, L H

2000-12-01

152

Aroma constituents and alkylamides of red and green huajiao (Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Zanthoxylum schinifolium).  

Science.gov (United States)

Huajiao denotes the fruits of various species of Zanthoxylum in the plant family Rutaceare used for cooking. The two most commercially popular species are bungeanum (red huajiao) and schinifolium (green huajiao). Fresh huajiao has a very high content of essential oil, up to 11%, which is described as having fresh, spicy, floral, cooling, and green aroma notes. A comprehensive analysis of the essential oils by GC-MS using advanced peak deconvolution and data processing software, revealed many overlapping components. A total of 120 aroma compounds for each species has been found. In the essential oils, linalyl acetate (15%), linalool (13%), and limonene (12%) are the major components of red huajiao, whereas linalool (29%), limonene (14%), and sabinene (13%) are the major components of green huajiao. For estimation of the aroma contribution of individual components, a new concept, "aroma character impact value" (ACI), is introduced as the percentage of the ratio of the concentration of an aroma component to its odor threshold value. Despite the differences in major components, both species have six common compounds of top aroma character impact: linalool, alpha-terpineol, myrcene, 1,8-cineole, limonene, and geraniol. The tingling sensation of huajiao is caused mainly by the alkylamide hydroxy-alpha-sanshool. The tingling compound decomposes easily under hydrolytic conditions or under UV light. PMID:18271544

Yang, Xiaogen

2008-03-12

153

Bacteria associated with truffle-fruiting bodies contribute to truffle aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Truffles, symbiotic fungi renown for the captivating aroma of their fruiting bodies, are colonized by a complex bacterial community of unknown function. We characterized the bacterial community of the white truffle Tuber borchii and tested the involvement of its microbiome in the production of sulphur-containing volatiles. We found that sulphur-containing volatiles such as thiophene derivatives, characteristic of T.?borchii fruiting bodies, resulted from the biotransformation of non-volatile precursor(s) into volatile compounds by bacteria. The bacterial community of T.?borchii was dominated by ?- and ?-Proteobacteria. Interestingly, all bacteria phyla/classes tested in this study were able to produce thiophene volatiles from T.?borchii fruiting body extract, irrespective of their isolation source (truffle or other sources). This indicates that the ability to produce thiophene volatiles might be widespread among bacteria and possibly linked to primary metabolism. Treatment of fruiting bodies with antibacterial agents fully suppressed the production of thiophene volatiles while fungicides had no inhibitory effect. This suggests that during the sexual stage of truffles, thiophene volatiles are exclusively synthesized by bacteria and not by the truffle. At this stage, the origin of thiophenes precursor in T.?borchii remains elusive and the involvement of yeasts or other bacteria cannot be excluded. PMID:24903279

Splivallo, Richard; Deveau, Aurélie; Valdez, Nayuf; Kirchhoff, Nina; Frey-Klett, Pascale; Karlovsky, Petr

2014-06-01

154

Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb : Effect of fermentation temperature and baker’s yeast  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Understanding how the dough fermentation conditions influence the wheat bread production time and the bread aroma is important for the bread industry. The overall purpose of this PhD project is to investigate the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion and aroma in bread crumb. In Paper I the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion were investigated. Wheat doughs were fermented by seven commercial baker’s yeasts (baker’s yeast I to VII) at different yeast concentrations (2.88•1014, 5.76•1014 and 8.64• 1014 CFU/kg flour, corresponding to 20-40, 40-80 and 60-120 g/kg flour) and fermentation temperatures (5, 15, 25 and 35°C). Dough expansion was investigated by monitoring the dough height and the expansion profile was found to be described well by a first order kinetic model. The highest kinetic rate constants corresponding to the shortest fermentation times were found for doughs fermented at 25°C and the highest yeast concentration. Doughs fermented with commercial baker’s yeast I, II, III and V had shorter fermentation times compared to fermentation with baker’s yeast IV, VI and VII. The longest fermentation times were generally found for doughs fermented with all baker’s yeasts at 5°C and the lowest yeast concentration (2.88•1014 CFU/kg flour). In Paper II, III and V wheat breads were produced for volatile analysis. The dough samples were fermented to equal height and baked and the volatile compounds from the bread crumb were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling and analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A wide range of volatile compounds was identified in bread crumb, mainly originating from the activity of yeast and from oxidation of flour lipids. The dominating fermentation compounds were alcohols, aldehydes as well as 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin), esters and acids. Furthermore, oxidation of flour lipids was generating primarily aldehydes and ketones. Quantification of the volatile compounds in bread crumb was performed by multiple headspace extraction (Paper II, III and V). The compounds were evaluated according to their odour activity value (OAV). The most aroma active compounds (OAV > 6) identified in bread crumb were; (E)-2-nonanal (green, tallow), 3-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methyl-1-butanol (balsamic, alcoholic), nonanal (citrus), hexanal (green), 2,3-butanedione (buttery, caramel), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom) and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like). Esters were also identified in bread crumb (e.g. ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate) and they are of interest because of their fruity and pleasant odours, however the OAV’s of the esters were generally low (0.1 to 0.5). In Paper II the effects of yeast level (20, 40 and 60 g baker’s yeast VII/kg flour) and fermentation temperature (5, 15 and 35ºC) on aroma in bread crumb were investigated. Fermentation with the highest yeast concentration (60 g/kg flour) resulted in bread containing the highest concentration of the majority of the compounds formed from yeast activity (e.g. 2,3-butanedione and phenylacetaldehyde), compared to doughs fermented at lower yeast concentrations (20 and 40 g/kg flour). A fermentation temIII perature at 5°C resulted in breads with the highest concentration of the three esters; ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate, compared to breads fermented at higher temperatures (15 and 35°C). Fermentation at 15 and 35°C resulted in breads with the highest concentration of many lipid oxidation compounds (e.g. heptanal and hexanal) compared to breads fermented at 5°C. In Paper III the effect of the type of commercial baker’s yeast (baker’s yeast I to VII, 2.88•1014 yeast CFU/kg flour) on bread aroma was investigated. Breads fermented by commercial baker’s yeast I to IV had the significantly highest concentration of 2,3-butanedione and 1-propanol compared to breads fermented by the other yeasts. Furthermore, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methy

Birch, Anja Niehues

2013-01-01

155

Efecto del deshuesado de la aceituna sobre el aroma del aceite de oliva virgen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Olive fruit stoning gives rise to an important modification in olive oil aroma. The level of this modification is a function of the cultivar. An increment in the content of six-carbon compounds (C6 was observed in olive oils obtained from the cultivars Verdial and Manzanilla, but not in the cultivar Picual. In the three cultivars under study, contents of five-carbon compounds (C5 and esters decreased as a consequence of fruit stoning. The modification of olive oil aroma composition in the cultivar Verdial caused by olive fruit stoning was observed to be due both to tissue wounding and to the absence of the olive seed during the crushing-malaxation process to obtain olive oil aroma. Both factors contribute independently to the content modification of C6, C5 compounds and esters in the olive oil aroma from stoned fruits.El deshuesado de la aceituna da lugar a una importante modificación del aroma del aceite de oliva virgen. La intensidad de esta modificación es característica de cada variedad. En los aceites obtenidos de aceitunas Verdial y Manzanilla se produce un incremento en el contenido de los compuestos de seis átomos de carbono (C6 que no se detecta en la variedad Picual. En las tres variedades estudiadas se observa un descenso del contenido de compuestos de cinco átomos de carbono (C5 así como del contenido en ésteres. En la variedad Verdial se ha comprobado que la modificación del aroma como consecuencia del deshuesado del fruto se debe tanto al daño tisular generado durante este proceso como a la ausencia de la semilla durante la molturación de la aceituna. Ambos factores contribuyen de forma independiente a la modificación del contenido de compuestos C6, C5 y ésteres en el aroma del aceite de oliva virgen procedente de aceituna deshuesada.

Sanz, C.

2004-06-01

156

Sensorial analysis and electronic aroma detection to compare olive oils produced by different extraction methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A sensorial analysis and an aroma analysis by electronic sensory devices were used to compare olive oils produced according to two different extraction methods. The extraction methods compared were the press system and two phase decanter. Samples were taken from the harvests of 2002-2004 and the olives were all from the same variety. The variety used was the Portuguese Galega sp. Olives were picked and technologically handled under predetermined and supervised conditions. Olive oils produced were better classified when the sensory analysis by a panel was applied than when an electronic sensory analysis was performed, even after sensor optimization. This observation is in accordance with the fact that olive oil has a low volatility matrix and “flavor”, rather than aroma, can give a clearer characterization than electronic sensory analysis alone, where aroma is the main characteristic evaluated.

El análisis sensorial y el análisis de aromas por medio de sistemas sensoriales electrónicos han sido utilizado para comparar aceites de oliva producidos a través de dos sistemas de extracción diferentes. Los métodos de extracción comparados han sido el sistema de prensas y el decantador de dos fases. Las muestras fueron producidas durante las cosechas del periodo 2002- 2004, y las aceitunas eran todas de la misma variedad portuguesa Gallega sp. Las aceitunas fueron seleccionadas y tratadas tecnológicamente bajo condiciones predeterminadas y supervisadas. Los aceites producidos resultaron mejor clasificados cuando fue aplicado el análisis sensorial por panel que cuando se utilizó el análisis con detección electrónica de aromas, incluso después de la optimización de los sensores. Esta observación está de acuerdo con el hecho de que los aceites son una matriz poco volátil y que es el “flavour”, más que el aroma, el que junto con el gusto puede proporcionar una caracterización mejor que la detección electrónica, en la que el aroma es la principal característica evaluada.

Vaz Freire, L. T.

2011-12-01

157

Aroma Stripping under various Forms of Membrane Distillation Processes: Experiments and modeling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Concentration of fruit juices by membrane distillation is an interesting process as it can be done at low temperature giving a gentle concentration process with little deterioration of the juices. Since the juices contains many different aroma compounds with a wide range of chemical properties such as volatility, activity coefficient and vapor pressure, it is important to know how these aroma compounds will eventually pass through the membrane. Experiments have been made on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up which can be operated in various types of MD configurations: Vacuum Membrane Distillation , Sweeping Gas Membrane Distillation , Direct Contact Membrane Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation. The influence of feed temperature and feed flow rate on the permeate flux and concentration factor for different types of aroma compounds have been measured for these MD configurations. A general transport model for the flux of water and aroma compounds have been derived and compared with the experimental data. A reasonable agreement between the modelling and the experiments could be obtained. From the modelling it was possible to explain the large different in permeate flux and concentration factor that was observed for the different MD configurations. This is highly related to the heat and mass transfer resistances in the membrane as well as in the boundary layers adjacent to the membrane surface and how the driving force develops along the length of the membrane.

Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

158

Instrumental and sensory approaches for the characterization of compounds responsible for wine aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 800 aromatic compounds have been identified in wine, some of them at the ng/l level. Wine, therefore, constitutes a very complex matrix, from which it is difficult to isolate a specific aroma character. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) applied to wine extracts is used to characterize odor-active zones that are often treated in a hierarchical way by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA). The aromatic impact of the volatiles is evaluated, generally by determining perception thresholds. This methodology has provided convincing results concerning wine flavors, but it does have its limitations. For instance, data on beta-damascenone have demonstrated that these methods could reach their limits for this volatile, in particular, because of the non-quantitative representation of aroma extracts of wines, and because of the difficulty to accurately determine the perception threshold in wines for a compound already present. For beta-damascenone, we have shown that its very low detection threshold with GC-O, its wide range, and its dependence on the composition of the medium resulted in overestimating its direct impact on the aroma of wine. Another way to facilitate the characterization of aromatic compounds was, therefore, investigated. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) methods were developed for the analysis of wine extracts. From an aromatic extract, 25 fractions with various flavors were thus obtained, and reverse-phase methodology was used for the selection and characterization of red- and black-fruit aromas in red wines. PMID:18618403

Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Pineau, Bénédicte; Ferreira, Antonio Cesar Silva

2008-06-01

159

Salt reduction in slow fermented sausages affects the generation of aroma active compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Slow fermented sausages with different salt content were manufactured: control (2.7% NaCl, S), 16% salt reduced (2.26% NaCl, RS) and 16% replaced by KCl (2.26% NaCl and 0.43% KCl, RSK). The effect of salt reduction on microbiology and chemical parameters, sensory characteristics, texture and volatile compounds was studied. The aroma compounds were identified by GC-MS and olfactometry analyses. Small salt reduction (16%) (RS) affected sausage quality producing a reduction in the acceptance of aroma, taste, juiciness and overall quality. The substitution by KCl (RSK) produced the same acceptability by consumers as for high salt (S) treatment except for the aroma that was not improved by KCl addition. The aroma was affected due to the reduction in sulfur and acids and the increase of aldehyde compounds. Aroma compounds that characterized the high salt treatment (S) were dimethyl trisulfide, 3-methyl thiophene, 2,3-butanedione, 2-nonanone and acetic acid. PMID:23261539

Corral, Sara; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mónica

2013-03-01

160

Effect of vine foliar treatments on the varietal aroma of Monastrell wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of four vine treatments, comprising the application of eugenol and guaiacol (individually or as a mixture) or whiskey lactones on the concentration of glycosidically bound aroma precursors, determined as glycosyl glucose content by HPLC-IR, in Monastrell grapes and their wines were studied. The impact of treatments on the free varietal wine aroma determined by SBSE-GC-MS and descriptive analysis after alcoholic and malolactic fermentations and six months of ageing were also determined. A synergistic effect was observed between the eugenol and guaiacol on the glycosidically bound aroma precursor fraction. The rate of release of such aroma precursors was time and treatment dependent. The impact on wines varietal aroma at the end of the alcoholic fermentation was reduced by treatments, whereas the opposite effect was observed in the following samplings. At a sensory level, the wood/oak notes were appreciated in all wines; however, the typicity of the Monastrell variety was especially enhanced at the end of the malolactic fermentation, in the wines from whiskey lactone treatment. PMID:24912724

Pardo-García, A I; de la Hoz, K Serrano; Zalacain, A; Alonso, G L; Salinas, M R

2014-11-15

 
 
 
 
161

Instrumental and sensory characterization of heat-induced odorants in aseptically packaged soy milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predominant heat-induced odorants generated in soy milk by ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) processing were evaluated by sensory and instrumental techniques. Soy milks processed by UHT (143 degrees C/14 s, 143 degrees C/59 s, 154 degrees C/29 s) were compared to a control soy milk (90 degrees C/10 min) after 0, 1, and 7 days of storage (4.4 +/- 1 degrees C). Dynamic headspace dilution analysis (DHDA) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) in conjunction with GC-olfactometry (GCO)/aroma extract dilution techniques and GC-MS were used to identify and quantify major aroma-active compounds. Sensory results revealed that intensities of overall aroma and sulfur and sweet aromatic flavors were affected by the processing conditions. Odorants mainly responsible for the changes in sulfur perception were methional, methanethiol, and dimethyl sulfide. Increases in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-acetyl-thiazole, and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline intensities were associated with roasted aromas. A marginal increase in intensity of sweet aromatic flavor could be explained by increases in 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, beta-damascenone, and 2- and 3-methylbutanal. Predominant lipid-derived odorants, including (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-octenal, 1-octen-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, and (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, were affected by processing conditions. Intensities of overall aroma and sulfur notes in soy milk decreased during storage, whereas other sensory attributes did not change. Color changes, evaluated by using a Chroma-meter, indicated all UHT heating conditions used in this study generated a more yellow and saturated color in soy milk in comparison to the control soy milk. PMID:17373812

Lozano, Patricio R; Drake, Maryanne; Benitez, Daniel; Cadwallader, Keith R

2007-04-18

162

Influence of the food matrix structure on the retention of aroma compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The retention of the aroma compounds in a multicomponent medium like the food matrix is influenced by their affinity with the protein when lipid is present at a low level (0.5%). The effect of the structure of the media is also studied by using two media with the same composition; one was emusified, and the other was not. Among the studied aroma compounds, 2-nonanone and isoamyl acetate present opposite behaviors: the volatility of isoamyl acetate is not affected by the change of the medium structure whereas that of 2-nonanone increases. The decrease of retention of 2-nonanone in an emulsified system would be due to a modification of the fixation site for this compound on the protein or to a competition between the lipid and the aroma compound while the protein is adsorbed at the lipid-water interface. PMID:10995353

Seuvre, A M; Díaz, M A; Voilley, A

2000-09-01

163

Chemical and sensory comparison of fresh and dried lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The odour-active volatile compounds of lulo fruit (Solanum quitoense Lam.) were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). GC-O and GCMS analyses as well as quantitation by internal standard method showed that (Z)-3-hexenal, ethyl butanoate, 3-sulphanylhexyl acetate, and ethyl hexanoate were key aroma compounds in this fruit. Other odorants with relevance because their contribution (high OAVs) to the overall aroma were 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, methyl benzoate, (E)-2-hexenal, and hexanal. Lulo fruit pulp in presence of maltodextrin DE-20 was dried by using four different types of drying methods: hot air-drying (HD), spray drying (SD), lyophilisation (LD), and ultrasonic convective hot air-drying (HUD). LD sample exhibited the highest sensory rank (lulo-like) in comparison with fresh fruit pulp. Hot-air drying processes (HD and HUD) changed adversely the aroma of lulo fruit pulp. PMID:25236202

Forero, Diana Paola; Orrego, Carlos Eduardo; Peterson, Devin Grant; Osorio, Coralia

2015-02-15

164

Recuperação e concentração de componentes do aroma de caju (Anacardium occidentale L.) por pervaporação / Recovery of aroma compounds of cashew apple fruit (Anacardium occidentale L.) by pervaporation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A pervaporação é um processo de separação por membranas, no qual misturas líquidas são fracionadas devido à sua vaporização parcial através de uma membrana densa de permeabilidade seletiva. Este processo pode ser utilizado na recuperação e concentração de componentes de aromas. O objetivo deste trab [...] alho foi avaliar a pervaporação para obtenção de um extrato natural de aroma de caju, que poderá ser utilizado como aditivo na indústria de alimentos. Polpa de caju foi a matéria-prima utilizada no trabalho. O processo de pervaporação foi conduzido a 25 e 35 °C em membranas de polidimetilsiloxano. Foram recolhidas amostras do suco de caju, no início e ao final do processo, e do permeado para a caracterização do perfil aromático através de CG-EM. O processo de pervaporação apresentou um alto fluxo de permeado para o suco de caju, 0,11 e 0,17 kg.hm-2 a 25 e 35 °C, respectivamente. Os cromatogramas revelaram um grande aumento no número de picos nas amostras de permeado em relação aos cromatogramas das amostras do suco de caju original, sendo que cerca de 50% dos componentes identificados no permeado apresentaram um acréscimo em suas áreas em relação aos do suco original, indicando a potencialidade deste processo para a concentração do aroma de caju. Abstract in english Pervaporation is a membrane separation process in which components from liquid mixtures are fractionated due to their partial vaporisation through a dense selective membrane. This process can be used to recover aroma compounds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the pervaporation to obtain a [...] natural aroma extract from cashew apple fruit, which can be used as an additive in the food industry. Cashew pulp was used as raw material. Pervaporation was carried out at 25 and 35 °C using polymethylsiloxane membranes. Samples of the cashew juice in the beginning and at the end of the pervaporation and from the permeate were picked to characterise the aromatic profile by GC-MS. The pervaporation of the cashew juice presented a high permeate flux, 0.11 kgh-1m-2 and 0.17 kg.hm-2, at 25 and 35 °C, respectively. The chromatograms showed an increase in the number of compounds in the permeate samples when compared to the chromatograms of the cashew juice. By comparing the peak areas, it could be observed that almost 50% of the identified components in the permeate samples presented an increase in the peak area, showing the potentiality of this process to the concentration of the aroma of cashew apple juice.

André von Randow de, Assis; Humberto Ribeiro, Bizzo; Virgínia Martins da, Matta; Lourdes Maria Corrêa, Cabral.

2007-06-01

165

Recuperação e concentração de componentes do aroma de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. por pervaporação Recovery of aroma compounds of cashew apple fruit (Anacardium occidentale L. by pervaporation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pervaporação é um processo de separação por membranas, no qual misturas líquidas são fracionadas devido à sua vaporização parcial através de uma membrana densa de permeabilidade seletiva. Este processo pode ser utilizado na recuperação e concentração de componentes de aromas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a pervaporação para obtenção de um extrato natural de aroma de caju, que poderá ser utilizado como aditivo na indústria de alimentos. Polpa de caju foi a matéria-prima utilizada no trabalho. O processo de pervaporação foi conduzido a 25 e 35 °C em membranas de polidimetilsiloxano. Foram recolhidas amostras do suco de caju, no início e ao final do processo, e do permeado para a caracterização do perfil aromático através de CG-EM. O processo de pervaporação apresentou um alto fluxo de permeado para o suco de caju, 0,11 e 0,17 kg.hm-2 a 25 e 35 °C, respectivamente. Os cromatogramas revelaram um grande aumento no número de picos nas amostras de permeado em relação aos cromatogramas das amostras do suco de caju original, sendo que cerca de 50% dos componentes identificados no permeado apresentaram um acréscimo em suas áreas em relação aos do suco original, indicando a potencialidade deste processo para a concentração do aroma de caju.Pervaporation is a membrane separation process in which components from liquid mixtures are fractionated due to their partial vaporisation through a dense selective membrane. This process can be used to recover aroma compounds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the pervaporation to obtain a natural aroma extract from cashew apple fruit, which can be used as an additive in the food industry. Cashew pulp was used as raw material. Pervaporation was carried out at 25 and 35 °C using polymethylsiloxane membranes. Samples of the cashew juice in the beginning and at the end of the pervaporation and from the permeate were picked to characterise the aromatic profile by GC-MS. The pervaporation of the cashew juice presented a high permeate flux, 0.11 kgh-1m-2 and 0.17 kg.hm-2, at 25 and 35 °C, respectively. The chromatograms showed an increase in the number of compounds in the permeate samples when compared to the chromatograms of the cashew juice. By comparing the peak areas, it could be observed that almost 50% of the identified components in the permeate samples presented an increase in the peak area, showing the potentiality of this process to the concentration of the aroma of cashew apple juice.

André von Randow de Assis

2007-06-01

166

O aroma ambiental e sua relação com as avaliações e intenções do consumidor no varejo / Ambient scent and its relationship with consumer evaluations and intentions in retail / El aroma ambiental y su relación con las evaluaciones e intenciones del consumidor en el comercio minorista  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A atmosfera de uma loja é capaz de provocar emoções e comportamentos que estimulam a compra. Entre as suas dimensões, está o aroma ambiental, adicionado artificialmente ao ambiente. Este artigo investiga a relação entre a presença de aroma ambiental no varejo e as avaliações de loja, ambiente de loj [...] a e produtos, além das intenções comportamentais relativas ao retorno e ao tempo gasto na loja. A pesquisa teve uma etapa exploratória, exame de publicações em fisiologia, psicologia e comportamento do consumidor, para construção do referencial teórico e formulação das hipóteses, e outra causal, quase experimento, para identificar as relações de causa e efeito na presença de aroma. O estudo foi conduzido em uma butique de frutos do mar, e os instrumentos de coleta de dados, escalas de diferencial semântico, basearam-se em pesquisas similares. As análises incluíram técnicas de estatística descritiva e teste de hipóteses. Os resultados revelaram que a presença de aroma ambiental não aumentou as avaliações nem a intenção de retorno, mas reteve o consumidor por mais tempo na loja. Abstract in spanish La atmósfera de un negocio es capaz de generar emociones y comportamientos que estimulan la compra. Entre sus dimensiones, está el aroma ambiental, adicionado de modo artificial al ambiente. Este artículo averigua la relación entre la presencia de aroma ambiental en el comercio minorista y las evalu [...] aciones de negocio, ambiente de negocio y productos, además de las intenciones de comportamiento con respecto al retorno y al tiempo dedicado al negocio. La investigación tuvo una etapa exploratoria, examen de publicaciones en fisiología, psicología y comportamiento del consumidor, para construcción del referencial teórico y formulación de las hipótesis, y otra causal, casi-experimento, para identificar las relaciones de causa y efecto en la presencia del aroma. El estudio fue conducido en una especie de boutique para frutos del mar y, los instrumentos de colecta de datos, escalas de diferencial semántico, basaranse en investigaciones similares. Los análisis han incluido técnicas de estadística descriptiva y teste de hipótesis. Los resultados han revelado que la presencia de aroma ambiental no aumentó las evaluaciones ni la intención del retorno, pero mantuvo el consumidor por más tiempo en el negocio. Abstract in english The atmosphere of a store can be used to produce specific emotions that enhance purchase probability, and the ambient scent, artificially added, is among its dimensions. This article investigates the relationship between the presence of an ambient scent in a retail store, and customers' evaluation o [...] f the store, its environment and products, as well as the behavioral intentions related to return and time spent in the store. The research design included an exploratory stage, examination of publications in the fields of physiology, psychology and consumer behavior, to provide the conceptual background and to formulate research hypothesis; and a causal stage, quasi-experiment, to verify the effects of scent presence. Semantic differential scales were employed for data collection. Descriptive statistics and hypothesis test were performed for data analysis and the results revealed that the scent presence did not improve the evaluations or the intent to return but retained the consumer longer in the store.

André Luiz Carvalho Nunes da, Costa; Salomão Alencar de, Farias.

2011-12-01

167

Analysis of aroma-active compounds in three sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) cultivars by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS*  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Aroma is the core factor in aromatherapy. Sensory evaluation of aromas differed among three sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) cultivar groups. The purpose of this study was to investigate the aroma-active compounds responsible for these differences. Methods: Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to analyze the aroma-active compounds and volatiles of creamy-white (‘Houban Yingui’, HBYG), yellow (‘Liuye Jingui’, LYJG), and orange (‘Gecheng Dangui’, GCDG) cultivars. Results: Seventeen aroma-active compounds were detected among 54 volatiles. trans-?-Ocimene, trans-?-ionone, and linalool, which were major volatiles, were identified as aroma-active, while cis-3-hexenyl butanoate, ?-terpinene, and hexyl butanoate were also aroma-active compounds, although their contents were low. Analysis of the odors was based on the sum of the modified frequency (MF) values of aroma-active compounds in different odor groups. HBYG contained more herb odors, contributed by cis-?-ocimene and trans-?-ocimene, while LYJG had more woody/violet/fruity odors released by trans-?-ionone, ?-ionone, and hexyl butanoate. In GCDG, the more floral odors were the result of cis-linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide, and linalool. Conclusions: Aroma-active compounds were not necessarily only the major volatiles: some volatiles with low content also contributed to aroma. The aroma differences among the three cultivars resulted from variation in the content of different odor groups and in the intensities of aroma-active compounds. PMID:25001223

Cai, Xuan; Mai, Rong-zhang; Zou, Jing-jing; Zhang, Hong-yan; Zeng, Xiang-ling; Zheng, Ri-ru; Wang, Cai-yun

2014-01-01

168

Efecto del deshuesado de la aceituna sobre el aroma del aceite de oliva virgen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Olive fruit stoning gives rise to an important modification in olive oil aroma. The level of this modification is a function of the cultivar. An increment in the content of six-carbon compounds (C6) was observed in olive oils obtained from the cultivars Verdial and Manzanilla, but not in the cultivar Picual. In the three cultivars under study, contents of five-carbon compounds (C5) and esters decreased as a consequence of fruit stoning. The modification of olive oil aroma composition in th...

Luaces, Pilar; Pe?rez Rubio, Ana Gracia; Sanz, Carlos

2004-01-01

169

The effect of olive fruit stoning on virgin olive oil aroma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Olive fruit stoning gives rise to an important modification in olive oil aroma. The level of this modification is a function of the cultivar. An increment in the content of six-carbon compounds (C6) was observed in olive oils obtained from the cultivars Verdial and Manzanilla, but not in the cultivar Picual. In the three cultivars under study, contents of five-carbon compounds (C5) and esters decreased as a consequence of fruit stoning. The modification of olive oil aroma composition in the c...

Sanz, C.; P Rez, A. G.; Luaces, P.

2004-01-01

170

[Gas-chromatographic-mass-spectral analysis of aroma-compounds of bread (author's transl)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of aroma compounds of whithe bread by means of a combined gas-chromatographic-mass-spectral method was carried out. 29 organic compounds were identified, 20 of which were reported for the first time in bread aroma. These for the first time reported compounds are: 1, 1-diethoxyisopentane, 2-phenylethylformiate, n-butylformate, 2-isooctenal, 2-octenone-4, sec. nonanol, nonanol-1, 2-nonanone-4, 2-decenone-4, 2-decenone-5, 1-dodecenone-3, 2-dodecenone-4, 2-dodecenone-5, dodecanol, octylacetate, ethylbenzoate, nitrobenzene, pentadecanone-2, heptadecanone-2, tridecadience. PMID:602439

Obretenov, T; Hadjieva, P

1977-12-30

171

Stomatal distribution, stomatal density and daily leaf movement in Acacia aroma (Leguminosae) Distribución y densidad estomática y movimiento diario de la hoja en Acacia aroma (Leguminosae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acacia aroma Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. grows in the Chacoan and Yungas Biogeographic Provinces, Argentina. It has numerous medicinal applications, sweet and edible fruits, and it may be used as forage. The objective of the present contribution was to analyse the stomatal distribution and stomatal density on the secondary leaflet surfaces, in different parts of the leaf, and at different tree crown levels, establishing the leaf movement and environmental condition relationships. The work was per...

Herna?ndez, Marcelo P.; Arambarrii, Ana M.

2010-01-01

172

Analysis of carotenoids in grapes to predict norisoprenoid varietal aroma of wines from Apulia.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine a correlation between carotenoid precursors in grapes and norisoprenoid varietal aroma of wine, carotenoids were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD-MS (ESI+) from four representative wine grape varieties of the Apulian region (Chardonnay, Merlot, Negroamaro, Primitivo) in two years of study (2006-2007), and C13-norisoprenoid aroma potential, DeltaC (microg/kg), was calculated from the difference of total carotenoid concentration between veraison and maturity. C13-norisoprenoids were analyzed by GC-MS in the obtained wines from 2006 and 2007 vintages. Higher DeltaC values, found in Chardonnay and Merlot grapes, corresponded to higher norisoprenoid contents in the respective wines, particularly characterized by highly flavorant compounds such as beta-damascenone and 3-oxo-alpha-ionol. A linear regression was determined that was significant at the 0.01% level (F=36.12, p=0.00096) with R=0.9261, between grape DeltaC values and total norisoprenoid contents in wine. These findings support the hypothesis that DeltaC could be a useful technological tool to predict norisoprenoid aroma of wine and, consequently, to identify grapes with higher aroma potential. PMID:20695424

Crupi, Pasquale; Coletta, Antonio; Antonacci, Donato

2010-09-01

173

Identification and quantification of impact aroma compounds in 4 nonfloral Vitis vinifera varieties grapes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma compounds in grapes of Cabernet gernischt, Cabernet sauvignon, Cabernet franc, and Merlot have been studied by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The GC-O study revealed the presence of 58 aroma compounds in which 53 odorants were identified. The most significant odor active volatiles in 4 grape berries were beta-damascenone, hexanal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, beta-ionone, and unknown (RI = 1612). The quantification of volatile aroma compounds in grapes was developed using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The influences of SPME fiber, extracting temperature, and time on the extraction of volatile compounds in grape were investigated. The aroma compounds in 4 grapes were quantified. According to the odor activity values (OAVs), (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (OAV from 334 to 777), beta-damascenone (OAV 245-790), beta-ionone (OAV 97-193), and acetic acid (OAV 7-165) had comparatively high OVA values. PMID:20492207

Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan; Jiang, Wenguang; Li, Jiming

2010-01-01

174

Evolution of the aroma volatiles of pear fruits supplemented with fatty acid metabolic precursors.  

Science.gov (United States)

To examine the biochemical metabolism of aroma volatiles derived from fatty acids, pear fruits were incubated in vitro with metabolic precursors of these compounds. Aroma volatiles, especially esters, were significantly increased, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in pear fruits fed on fatty acid metabolic precursors. Cultivars having different flavor characteristics had distinctly different aroma volatile metabolisms. More esters were formed in fruity-flavored "Nanguoli" fruits than in green-flavored "Dangshansuli" fruits fed on the same quantities of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexanal and hexanol were more efficient metabolic intermediates for volatile synthesis than linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexyl esters were the predominant esters produced by pear fruits fed on hexanol, and their contents in "Dangshansuli" fruits were higher than in "Nanguoli" fruits. Hexyl esters and hexanoate esters were the primary esters produced in pear fruits fed on hexanal, however the content of hexyl ester in "Dangshansuli" was approximately three times that in "Nanguoli". The higher contents of hexyl esters in "Dangshansuli" may have resulted from a higher level of hexanol derived from hexanal. In conclusion, the synthesis of aroma volatiles was largely dependent on the metabolic precursors presented. PMID:25474290

Qin, Gaihua; Tao, Shutian; Zhang, Huping; Huang, Wenjiang; Wu, Juyou; Xu, Yiliu; Zhang, Shaoling

2014-01-01

175

Chemical composition and aroma evaluation of essential oils from Evolvulus alsinoides L.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and the odor-active compounds of the essential oils from Evolvulus alsinoides, which is a well-known edible and medicinal plant. The volatile compounds in the oils were identified by hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) in combination with GC, GC/MS, GC/O (=olfactometry), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and relative flavor activities (RFA values). The most abundant compound in the HD oil was cis-?-necrodol (12.62%), an irregular monoterpene with a cyclopentane skeleton, which is very unusual in the plant kingdom. In the SAFE oil, the main components included 2-butoxyethanol (9.01%), benzyl alcohol (8.01%), and ?-butyrolactone (7.37%). Through sensory analysis, 21 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC/O. The most intense aroma-active compounds in the HD oil were hexan-1-ol and ?-nonalactone, both of which showed high RFA values. ?-Methyl-?-butyrolactone and dimethyl sulfone contributed more strongly to the aroma of the SAFE oil. These results imply that the essential oils of E. alsinoides deserve further investigation in the food industry. PMID:24634069

Kashima, Yusei; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

2014-03-01

176

Identification of sulphur volatiles and GC-olfactometry aroma profiling in two fresh tomato cultivars.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten sulphur volatiles were observed in two Florida tomato cultivars ('Tasti-Lee' and 'FL 47') harvested at three maturity stages (breaker, turning, and pink) using gas chromatography with a pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD). Eight PFPD peaks were identified using retention values from authentic sulphur standards and GC-MS characteristic masses. Seven were quantified using an internal standard combined with external calibration curves. Dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide 2-propylthiazole and 2-s-butylthiazole were newly identified in fresh tomatoes. Principal component analysis of sulphur volatiles indicated that there were appreciable maturity stage differences clustered in separate quadrants. GC-olfactometry (GC-O) identified 50 aroma-active compounds in 'Tasti-Lee', with 10 reported as odorants in fresh tomatoes for the first time. Four sulphur volatiles exhibited aroma activity, including two of the newly-reported fresh tomato sulphur volatiles, 2-s-butylthiazole and dimethyl sulphide. GC-O aroma profiling indicated that the most intense aroma category was earthy-musty, followed by fruity-floral, green-grassy, sweet-candy and sweaty-stale-sulphurous. PMID:25308674

Du, Xiaofen; Song, Mei; Baldwin, Elizabeth; Rouseff, Russell

2015-03-15

177

Non-smoky glycosyltransferase1 prevents the release of smoky aroma from tomato fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phenylpropanoid volatiles are responsible for the key tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum) aroma attribute termed "smoky." Release of these volatiles from their glycosylated precursors, rather than their biosynthesis, is the major determinant of smoky aroma in cultivated tomato. using a combinatorial omics approach, we identified the non-smoky glycosyltransferase1 (NSGT1) gene. Expression of NSGT1 is induced during fruit ripening, and the encoded enzyme converts the cleavable diglycosides of the smoky-related phenylpropanoid volatiles into noncleavable triglycosides, thereby preventing their deglycosylation and release from tomato fruit upon tissue disruption. In an nsgt1/nsgt1 background, further glycosylation of phenylpropanoid volatile diglycosides does not occur, thereby enabling their cleavage and the release of corresponding volatiles. Using reverse genetics approaches, the NSGT1-mediated glycosylation was shown to be the molecular mechanism underlying the major quantitative trait locus for smoky aroma. Sensory trials with transgenic fruits, in which the inactive nsgt1 was complemented with the functional NSGT1, showed a significant and perceivable reduction in smoky aroma. NSGT1 may be used in a precision breeding strategy toward development of tomato fruits with distinct flavor phenotypes. PMID:23956261

Tikunov, Yury M; Molthoff, Jos; de Vos, Ric C H; Beekwilder, Jules; van Houwelingen, Adele; van der Hooft, Justin J J; Nijenhuis-de Vries, Mariska; Labrie, Caroline W; Verkerke, Wouter; van de Geest, Henri; Viquez Zamora, Marcela; Presa, Silvia; Rambla, Jose Luis; Granell, Antonio; Hall, Robert D; Bovy, Arnaud G

2013-08-01

178

Comparative analysis of aroma compounds and sensorial features of strawberry and lemon guavas (Psidium cattleianum Sabine).  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma of strawberry and lemon guava fruits (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) was studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and quantitative analysis. Volatiles released from the pulps were collected in a trapping system consisting of LiChrolut EN resins and eluted with dichloromethane/methanol. In total, 23 odour zones were detected by GC-O, of which 16 were found in the extract from the strawberry guava pulp and 17 in the extract from the lemon guava pulp. Among the compounds identified, only 10 were common to both strawberry and lemon guavas. The descriptive sensorial analysis differentiated between the aroma profiles of the strawberry guava pulp with the descriptor "tomato" and the lemon guava pulp with the descriptor "tropical fruit". The typical aroma of the guava fruits was dominated by the presence of numerous aldehydes and ketones among which (Z)-3-hexenal was the most intense odorant, while 1,8-cineole and linalool were also revealed as important aroma constituents. PMID:24996334

Egea, Mariana Buranelo; Pereira-Netto, Adaucto Bellarmino; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Lopez, Ricardo

2014-12-01

179

Identification of novel aroma-active thiols in pan-roasted white sesame seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Screening for aroma-active compounds in an aroma distillate obtained from freshly pan-roasted sesame seeds by aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 32 odorants in the FD factor range of 2-2048, 29 of which could be identified. The highest FD factors were found for the coffee-like smelling 2-furfurylthiol, the caramel-like smelling 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, the coffee-like smelling 2-thenylthiol (thiophen-2-yl-methylthiol), and the clove-like smelling 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol. In addition, 9 odor-active thiols with sulfurous, meaty, and/or catty, black-currant-like odors were identified for the first time in roasted sesame seeds. Among them, 2-methyl-1-propene-1-thiol, (Z)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (Z)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, and 4-mercapto-3-hexanone were previously unknown as food constituents. Their structures were confirmed by comparing their mass spectra and retention indices as well as their sensory properties with those of synthesized reference compounds. The relatively unstable 1-alkene-1-thiols represent a new class of food odorants and are suggested as the key contributors to the characteristic, but quickly vanishing, aroma of freshly ground roasted sesame seeds. PMID:20491509

Tamura, Hitoshi; Fujita, Akira; Steinhaus, Martin; Takahisa, Eisuke; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Schieberle, Peter

2010-06-23

180

Evolution of aroma compounds from orange juice stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET).  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of aroma compounds from orange juice made from concentrate and stored in glass, standard monolayer polyethylene terephthalate (PET 1), multilayer PET (PET 2) and plasma-treated PET (internal carbon coating) (PET 3) was investigated. Bottles were stored at room temperature (20 degrees C) under artificial light. Volatile compounds in orange juice samples and corresponding packaging materials were analysed at zero time and after 2, 3 and 5 months of storage. After 5 months of storage, from 0.2 to 0.3% of the initial amounts of limonene and beta-myrcene in the orange juice had been absorbed by the plastic packaging materials. Statistical analyses showed that the evolution of aroma compounds was strongly correlated to the duration of storage, but not to the type of packaging material. Indeed, whatever the stored orange juice samples, the same evolutions were observed, with a decrease in aldehydes and ketones, esters, aliphatic alcohols, sesquiterpene and monoterpene alcohols, and an increase in two aliphatic and monoterpene alcohols (i.e. furfural and 4-vinylguaicol). The results suggest that the losses of aroma compounds from the juice could be attributed to the high acidity of the matrix, implying acid-catalysed reactions. Finally, PET packaging materials and their corresponding oxygen permeabilities showed no correlation with the loss of aroma compounds. PMID:15824008

Berlinet, C; Ducruet, V; Brillouet, J-M; Reynes, M; Brat, P

2005-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Influence of maturity and ripening on aroma volatiles and flavor in avocado  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in aroma volatiles were determined using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography in ripe avocados (Persea americana Mill.) throughout an eight-month maturation period and related to the sensory properties of the fruit. As maturation progressed sensory panelists found the li...

182

Aroma analysis and quality control of food using highly sensitive analytical methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis deals with the development of quality control methods for food based on headspace measurements by Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and with aroma analysis of food using PTR-MS and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O). An objective method was developed for the determination of a herb extract's quality; this quality was checked by a sensory analysis until now. The concentrations of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of 81 different batches were measured by PTR-MS. Based on the sensory judgment of the customer, characteristic differences in the emissions of 'good' and 'bad' quality samples were identified and a method for the quality control of this herb extract was developed. This novel method enables the producing company to check and ensure that they are only selling high-quality products and therefore avoid complaints of the customer. Furthermore this method can be used for controlling, optimizing and automating the production process. VOCs emitted by meat were investigated using PTR-MS to develop a rapid, non-destructive and quantitative technique for determination of the microbial contamination of meat. Meat samples (beef, pork and poultry) that were wrapped into different kinds of packages (air and vacuum) were stored in at 4oC for up to 13 days. The emitted VOCs were measured as a function of storage time and identified partly. The concentration of many of the measured VOCs, e.g. sulfur compounds like measured VOCs, e.g. sulfur compounds like methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide, largely increased over the storage time. There were big differences in the emissions of normal air- and vacuum-packed meat. VOCs typically emitted by air-packaged meat were methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide, while ethanol and methanol were found in vacuum-packaged meat. A comparison of the PTR-MS results with those obtained by a bacteriological examination performed at the same time showed strong correlations (up to 99 %) between the concentrations of some of the VOCs, e.g. dimethylsulfide, and the bacteriological contamination. The concentration of these VOCs increased linearly with the bacterial numbers. This study is a first step towards replacing the time-consuming conventional microbiological analysis via plate counting by fast headspace air measurements where the bacterial spoilage can be determined within minutes instead of days. PTR-MS and GC-O techniques were used to define volatiles and odor active compounds released in the mouth during eating of ripe and unripe banana. The air exhaled through the nose was directly introduced into a PTR-MS and the time-intensity profiles of a series of volatiles were monitored on-line. The breath-by-breath temporal release pattern revealed various dynamic elements that are characteristic of the eating situation. During the eating of unripe banana we observed a gradual increase in 2E-hexenal and hexanal with ongoing mastication, until swallowing. No particular high concentrations were observed in the exhaled air just after swallowing (swallow breath). During the eating of a ripe banana, we observed isopentyl acetate and isobutyl acetate, compounds characteristic of banana aroma. In contrast, volatiles characteristic of unripe banana were largely absent. No gradual increase was observed with mastication, as present during the eating of unripe banana. In contrast, very prominent swallow peaks were observed. For GC-O analysis the volatile compounds contributing to the banana aroma were prepared in an artificial mouth system using three different mastication rates. Large differences were found in the number of odor active compounds of ripe and unripe bananas as well as for the investigated three different mastication rates (0, 26 and 52 min-1). Hexanal was the only compound that was detected by all six assessors for ripe and unripe bananas for each mastication frequency. Eighteen (seven) significant odor active compounds were detected in the odor profile of ripe (unripe) bananas with a mastication rate of 52 min-1, wh

183

Influence of Starter Cultures, Fermentation Techniques, and Acetic Acid on the Volatile Aroma and Sensory Profile of Cocoa Liquor and Chocolate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The majority of the World’s cocoa production originates from the West African countries of Ivory Coast, Ghana and Nigeria. In these countries, cocoa is a crop of great socio-economic importance as it is often the main source of income for families in the rural cocoa growing regions. Being the principal raw material for chocolate production, good quality cocoa beans are in high demand on the World market as a prerequisite for the production of high quality chocolates and other confectionary products. To produce good quality cocoa suitable for chocolate production, it is essential that the beans undergo fermentation and drying processes, during which biochemical reactions lead to the formation of cocoa specific flavour precursors. During subsequent roasting, these precursors are transformed into a wide array of aroma compounds as a result of complex Maillard and Strecker degradation reactions. Despite the importance of a properly conducted fermentation process, poor post-harvest practises, in combination with the unpredictable spontaneous nature of the fermentations, often results in sub-optimal flavour development. Our understanding of the microorganisms responsible for carrying out the fermentation of cocoa has greatly increased during the last decade. To overcome the inherited variability of spontaneous fermentations, this detailed insight into the microbial ecology has led to the development of defined inoculation cultures encompassing yeast and bacterial strains with beneficial functional properties. With the object ive of improving the volatile aroma and sensory properties of Ghanaian Forastero cocoa, the present Ph.D. study investigates the use of two defined mixed starter cultures encompassing strains of Acetobacter pasteurianus and Lactobacillus fermentum in combination with either a commercially available aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus. Fermentations were conducted in an experimental small-scale tray setup at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana during the main crop of 2011/12. Using a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular techniques, the growth and survival of the two yeast inoculation cultures was verified at strain level, whilst the bacterial inoculum was identified at species level. Aroma profiling was conducted using dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for identification and relative quantification of volatile compounds present in roasted and un-roasted cocoa liquors, as well as in finished chocolates. Sensory analyses of un-conched chocolate and finished chocolate was performed using a panel of un-trained judges and ordinary consumers. Furthermore, the present study describes the impact of acetic acid concentration on the generation of flavour precursors and volatile aroma compounds in cocoa beans subjected to incubation in acetic acid buffers. (GTG)5-based rep-PCR fingerprinting in combination with 26S rRNA (D1/D2 region) and actin gene sequencing revealed that during the first 12 hours offermentation, the yeast communities of both inoculated and spontaneous fermentations were dominated by Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora thailandica, with the latter being described for the first time in relation to cocoa fermentation. After 24 hours, the inoculated strains of Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus were dominating the fermentation - composing 39.8% and 51.3% of the total yeast population, respectively. Chromosome Length Polymorphism among yeast populations belongingto the inoculation species was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis. While all K. marxianus isolates were found to be identical to the inoculation strain, four strains of P. kluyveri were identified, with the inoculation strain composing ~88% of the population. The volatile aroma profile of chocolates made from cocoa beans inoculated with P. kluyveri contained significantly higher concentrations of phenylacetaldehyde compared to a spontaneously fermented control, whereas inoculation with K. marxianus led to signifi

Crafack, Michael

2014-01-01

184

Effect of jasmonates on ethylene biosynthesis and aroma volatile emission in Japanese apricot infected by a pathogen (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of the application of the jasmonic acid derivative n-propyl dihydrojasmonate (PDJ) on ethylene biosynthesis, volatile compounds, and endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were examined in Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb.) infected by a pathogen (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). The fruit were dipped into 0.4 mM PDJ solution before inoculation with the pathogen and stored at 25 °C for 6 days. The inoculation induced an increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), ethylene, JA, and MeJA. In contrast, PDJ application reduced the endogenous JA, MeJA, and ethylene production and expression of the ACC oxidase gene (PmACO1) caused by the pathogen infection. The lesion diameter with C. gloeosporioides decreased upon PDJ application. The alcohol, ester, ketone, and lactone concentrations and alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) activity increased in the pathogen-infected fruit, but were decreased by PDJ application. These results suggest that PDJ application might influence ethylene production through PmACO1 and that aroma volatile emissions affected by pathogen infection can be correlated with the ethylene production, which is mediated by the levels of jasmonates. PMID:21599017

Nimitkeatkai, Hataitip; Shishido, Masahiro; Okawa, Katsuya; Ohara, Hitoshi; Ban, Yusuke; Kita, Masayuki; Moriguchi, Takaya; Ikeura, Hiromi; Hayata, Yasuyoshi; Kondo, Satoru

2011-06-22

185

Fragrance Analysis among Recombinant Inbred Lines of Rice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aroma or fragrance of Basmati rice is associated with the presence of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. Aroma in Basmati is reported to be monogenic recessive. Several PCR-based co-dominant markers based on RG28 locus were developed which can differentiate between fragrant and non-fragrant rice cultivars. For analysis of aroma among RILs derived from a diverse cross between CSR 10 and Taraori Basmati through SSD method both molecular as well as biochemical methods were used to clearly distinguish aromatic and non-aromatic RILs of rice RG28 locus specific markers. Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs among various mapping populations provide a noble material for linkage of marker and trait. RILs were analyzed for polymorphism using RG28 locus specific primers (BAD2, BADEX7-5, SCUSSR1. Biochemical analysis of aroma was performed with the 1.7% KOH solution and molecular analysis of aroma was carried out with microsatellite markers present on chromosome 8 to determine the extent of association between trait, marker and chromosome 8. Out of these, BAD 2 amplified aroma specific alleles having 256 bp in 72 lines, BADEX7-5 with 95 bp in 74 lines and SCUSSR1 with 129 bp in 79 lines. Mental test of significance detected by biochemical analysis of RILs (with 1.7% KOH and molecular marker study revealed 97 , 95 and 90.1% of association of aroma with the markers, respectively. Some of the F10 lines amplified the heterozygous alleles by using the 2 sets of specific markers but did not show the presence of aroma as analyzed by chemical test. In Basmati, it seems that aroma is a complex trait and not as simple monogenic (3:1 as reported earlier. Aromatic and non-aromatic lines were almost common in three markers indicating association of markers with the trait and chromosome 8. The results revealed that these markers could be used for marker assisted selection and RIL population for mapping of aroma QTLs/genes.

R.K. Jain

2012-01-01

186

A Box-behnken Design for Characterizing Chinese Truffles (Tuber indicum) Aroma by HS-SPME-GC-MS  

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The aim of the present investigation is to fully characterize the aroma of Chinese truffles (Tuber indicum) by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). To develop an objective method to extract aroma compounds, four different fibers were studied and a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied. From the statistical analysis of the experimental result, it was able to determine that the most important factor was the extraction temperature and the optimum extraction conditi...

Sanping Fang; Biao Pu; Anjun Chen; Kang Zhou; Xiaolin Ao; Danping Xu

2012-01-01

187

Assessment of changes in the aroma and sensory profile of dawadawa due to modification in fermentation conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dawadawa is the most popular traditional condiment in West Africa and is produced by the fermentation of African locust bean seeds. Though the alkaline fermentation results in the production of a tasty condiment, it has a strong ammoniacal odour which some consumers find unattractive and offensive. This work was carried out to develop procedures for reducing the pungent odour of dawadawa in order to increase its popularity and market value especially amongst non-traditional users. Various treatments were applied to the fermenting locust bean seeds 15 hours into the fermentation which lasted for a total of 96 hours. Some treatments were also tested on the beans after fermentation. Treatments which were applied during fementation were fementation under conditions of limited oxygen, low temperature fermentation, irradiation by gamma radiation and steaming. Post-fermentation treatments were partial frying and roasting after fermentation. Samples were taken during fermentation and analyzed for Bacillus count on Nutrient Agar, pH, percentage titratable acidity, moisture content by the oven dry method, crude protein content by the kjeldhal method and texture by the texture analyzer. The final product was analyzed for aroma profile by GC-MS analysis using the Dynamic Headspace Sampling (DHS) method and also by descriptive sensory analysis by a semi-trained panel. Application of all the treatments applied during fermentation resulted in a ten to a hundredfold lower Bacillus counts compared to the control sample at various stages of fermentation. The reduction in the Bacillus activities resulted in a lower rise in pH giving final pH values of 6.8 to 7.53 compared to 8.37 in the control. The rise in pH was due to the proteolytic activity of the Bacillus species which break down the proteins into peptides and amino acids and subsequently utilize the amino acids to produce ammonia leading to the rise in pH. All the samples recorded a simultaneous increase in titratable acidity ranging from 0.006% to 0.037% in the control sample. The moisture content for all samples ranged from 54 to 73% with steaming for 10 minutes recording the highest value due to pick up of moisture during steaming. The protein content of all the samples increased during fermentation with final values which ranged between 30.42 to 37.64%. The texture of all the locust bean cotyledons softened during fermentation and the lowest value of hardness 15 was recorded for the limited oxygen sample and the highest value of 152 for the low temperature fermentation. The results of the instrumental textural analysis were supported by the assessment of the texture by the sensory panel which found the control sample to have the softest and smoothest texture due to the greater degree of fermentation of the control sample and which also results in the more pronounced ammoniacal odour. In the description sensory analysis, the panel assessed higher intensities of the descriptors which were considered undesirable/objectionable in the control sample than in the treated sample. These descriptors were stink fish ( momone), Koobi (salted/fermented tilapia) and sweaty sock. The more neutral/tolerant odour notes of rancid oil, fermented cocoa beans, smoked fish and palm kernel oil were higher in the treated sample. The aroma profile of dawadawa was affected by application of the treatments. Forty-nine aroma compounds in total were isolated form the differently treated dawadawa samples. They included mostly esters of acetic, butanoic and propanoic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, furans, sulfur compounds, pyrazines and a pyrrole. In spite of the known pungent smell of dawadawa, most of the aroma compounds identified were esters which are known for their fruity, pleasant odours. However, about 12 of aroma compounds identified such as the sulfur compounds-dimetyhl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide are reported to have strong pungent odours whilst 2,3-benzohyrrole is known to exhibit the charateristic odour of faeces. The levels of all but eight (2-Methlpropyl acetate; 2- Pentylfuran; 1-P

188

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in apricots (Prunus armeniaca) by application of the molecular sensory science concept.  

Science.gov (United States)

An aroma extract dilution analysis applied on an aroma distillate prepared from fresh apricots revealed (R)-gamma-decalactone, (E)-beta-damascenone, delta-decalactone, and (R/S)-linalool with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors among the 26 odor-active compounds identified. On the basis of quantitative measurements performed by application of stable isotope dilution assays, followed by a calculation of odor activity values (OAVs), beta-ionone, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, gamma-decalactone, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, linalool, and acetaldehyde appeared with OAVs >100, whereas in particular certain lactones, often associated with an apricot aroma note, such as gamma-undecalactone, gamma-nonalactone, and delta-decalactone, showed very low OAVs (<5). An aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 18 most important odorants in concentrations as they occurred in the fresh fruits showed an overall aroma very similar to that of apricots. Omission experiments indicated that previously unknown constituents of apricots, such as (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal or (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, are key contributors to the apricot aroma. PMID:17530862

Greger, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

2007-06-27

189

Chemical interactions between odor-active thiols and melanoidins involved in the aroma staling of coffee beverages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparative aroma dilution analyses of the headspaces of aqueous solutions containing either the total volatiles isolated from a fresh coffee brew, or these volatiles remixed with the melanoidins isolated from coffee brew, revealed a drastic decrease in the concentrations of the odorous thiols 2-furfurylthiol, 3-methyl-2-butenthiol, 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, and methanethiol when melanoidins were present. Among these thiols, 2-furfurylthiol was affected the most: e.g., its concentration decreased by a factor of 16 upon addition of melanoidins. This was accompanied by a decrease in the overall roasty-sulfury aroma. Quantitations performed by means of stable isotope dilution assays confirmed the rapid loss of all thiols with increasing time while keeping the coffee brew warm in a thermos flask. Using [2H2]-2-furfurylthiol as an example, [2H]-NMR and LC/MS spectroscopy gave strong evidence that thiols are covalently bound to the coffee melanoidins via Maillard-derived pyrazinium compounds formed as oxidation products of 1,4-bis-(5-amino-5-carboxy-1-pentyl)pyrazinium radical cations (CROSSPY). Using synthetic 1,4-diethyl diquaternary pyrazinium ions and 2-furfurylthiol, it was shown that 2-(2-furyl)methylthio-1,4-dihydro-pyrazines, bis[2-(2-furyl)methylthio]-1,4-dihydro-pyrazines, and 2-(2-furyl)methylthio-hydroxy-1,4-dihydro-pyrazines were formed as the primary reaction products. Similar results were obtained for models in which either 1,4-diethyl diquaternary pyrazinium ions were substituted by Nalpha-acetyl-L-lysine/glycolaldehyde, or the 2-furfurylthiol by 2-methyl-3-furanthiol and 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate. On the basis of these results it can be concluded that the CROSSPY-derived pyrazinium intermediates are involved in the rapid covalent binding of odorous thiols to melanoidins, and, consequently, are responsible for the decrease in the sulfury-roasty odor quality observed shortly after preparation of the coffee brew. PMID:11782201

Hofmann, Thomas; Schieberle, Peter

2002-01-16

190

Expression profiling of genes involved in the formation of aroma in two peach genotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The expression profile of flavour-related genes during ripening was investigated in two peach genotypes, Bolero and OroA, which have been selected for their contrasting aroma/ripening behaviour. A new peach microarray containing 4776 oligonucleotide probes corresponding to a set of ESTs specifically enriched in secondary metabolism (?PEACH2.0) was designed to investigate transcriptome changes during three fruit ripening stages, revealing 1807 transcripts differentially expressed within and between the two genotypes. Differences in the expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of aroma compounds were detected during the ripening process within and between the two genotypes. In particular, a subset of 12 transcripts involved in metabolism of esters, norisoprenoids, phenylpropanoids and lactones, varied in expression during ripening and between Bolero and OroA. PMID:23043277

Pirona, R; Vecchietti, A; Lazzari, B; Caprera, A; Malinverni, R; Consolandi, C; Severgnini, M; De Bellis, G; Chietera, G; Rossini, L; Pozzi, C

2013-05-01

191

Evolution of aroma and phenolic compounds during ripening of 'superior seedless' grapes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of aroma and phenolic compounds was studied during ripening of Vitis vinifera cv. 'Superior Seedless' grapes in two consecutive years. The major free detected compounds were citral, geraniol, and benzyl alcohol whereas geraniol, citral, nerol, citronellol, dienediol I, linalol oxide I, linalol oxide II, benzyl alcohol, and 2-phenylethanol were identified in the glycosidically bound fraction. Concentrations of the main free terpene alcohols responsible for 'Superior Seedless' aroma decreased during grape development, and bound compounds became predominant at grape maturity. Calculation of odor activity values showed that geraniol was the most active odorant followed to a lesser extent by citral and nerol. With regard to phenolic compound evolution, flavan-3-ols and flavonols were maximal at veraison and decreased throughout the ripening, stilbenes content decreased from the first stage, and total phenolics increased to show a maximum in the ripe grapes. At ripening, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and catechin were the main compounds detected in 'Superior Seedless'. PMID:20438135

Hellín, Pilar; Manso, Angela; Flores, Pilar; Fenoll, José

2010-05-26

192

Effect of Temperature, Water Activity and Storage Time on Color Strength, Aroma and Bitterness of Saffron  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Saffron is one of the most important crops in Iran and the quality of its dried stigma is highly depended on the processing and storage conditions. In this study, the effect of different storage conditions in terms of temperature (20, 30 and 40°C and water activity (0.32, 0.52 and 0.75 during 12 weeks storage on color strength, aroma and bitterness of saffron were investigated. In order to study of moisture (water activity different saturated solution of MgCl2, Mg(NO32, MgBr2 and NaCl in the various temperatures were used. Results showed the color strength decreased as temperature increased. Increasing of water activity resulted in deterioration of crocin and consequently decreasing of color. Furthermore, after 12 weeks of storage, the color strength had a noticeable decrease, the bitterness also decreased but the aroma increased.

R GHasemzadeh

2009-04-01

193

Retention of aroma compounds from Mentha piperita essential oil by cyclodextrins and crosslinked cyclodextrin polymers.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the controlled release of aroma compounds from cyclodextrins (CDs) and CD polymers was studied by multiple headspace extraction (MHE) experiments. Mentha piperita essential oil was obtained by Soxhlet extraction and identification of the major compounds was performed by GC-MS analysis. Menthol, menthone, pulegone and eucalyptol were identified as the major components. Retention of standard compounds in the presence of different CDs and CD polymers has been realised by static headspace gas chromatography (SH-GC) at 25 °C in the aqueous or gaseous phase. Stability constants for standard compounds and for compounds in essential oil have been also determined with monomeric CD derivatives. The obtained results indicated the formation of a 1:1 inclusion complex for all the studied compounds. Molecular modelling was used to investigate the complementarities between host and guest. This study showed that ?-CDs were the most versatile CDs and that ?-CD polymers could perform the controlled release of aroma compounds. PMID:23265490

Ciobanu, A; Mallard, I; Landy, D; Brabie, G; Nistor, D; Fourmentin, S

2013-05-01

194

Effect of oak extract application to Verdejo grapevines on grape and wine aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile compounds from a commercial aqueous oak extract application to white Verdejo grapevines at veraison have been studied. Treated grapes under two types of formulation (25% and 100%) have been analyzed at the optimum maturation time, and winemaking was then subsequently carried out. The volatile compounds were analyzed by stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results suggest that after the grapevine treatments, grapes store the volatiles in the form of nonvolatile precursors, and some of the volatiles are released during the winemaking process, especially six months after the alcoholic fermentation. The sensory analysis shows that wines maintain the typical aroma properties of Verdejo wines at the end of fermentation; but after six months, the wine color is greener and more astringent, and, in terms of aroma, it has wooden notes as if the wine has been aged in oak barrels. PMID:21395258

Martínez-Gil, Ana M; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Martínez, Laura; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

2011-04-13

195

Antibacterial activity of extracts of Acacia aroma against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined usin [...] g agar diffusion and bioautographic methods. Among all assayed organic extracts only ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented highest activities against all tested Staphylococcus strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 2.5 to 10 mg/ml and from 2.5 to 5 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extracts show little antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus strains. The bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against S. aureus in correspondence with flavonoids and saponins. A. aroma would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for skin infections.

C.M., Mattana; S.E., Satorres; A., Sosa; M., Fusco; L.E., Alcaráz.

2010-10-01

196

Antibacterial activity of extracts of Acacia aroma against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined using agar diffusion and bioautographic methods. Among all assayed organic extracts only ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented highest activities against all tested Staphylococcus strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 2.5 to 10 mg/ml and from 2.5 to 5 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extracts show little antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus strains. The bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against S. aureus in correspondence with flavonoids and saponins. A. aroma would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for skin infections.

C.M. Mattana

2010-10-01

197

Distinctive exotic flavor and aroma compounds of some exotic tropical fruits and berries: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The characteristic flavor of exotic tropical fruits is one of their most attractive attributes to consumers. In this article, the enormous diversity of exotic fruit flavors is reviewed. Classifying some of the exotic fruits into two classes on the basis of whether esters or terpenes predominate in the aroma was also attempted. Indeed, as far as exotic tropical fruits are concerned, the majority of fruits have terpenes predominating in their aroma profile. Some of the fruits in this group are the Amazonian fruits such as pitanga, umbu-caja, camu-camu, garcinia, and bacuri. The ester group is made up of rambutan, durians, star fruit, snake fruit, acerola, tamarind, sapodilla, genipap, soursop, cashew, melon, jackfruit, and cupuacu respectively. Also, the role of sulphur-volatiles in some of the exotic fruits is detailed. PMID:22591343

Lasekan, Ola; Abbas, Kassim A

2012-01-01

198

Optimization of an extraction method of aroma compounds in white wine using ultrasound.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple and rapid method is described for the extraction of wine volatile compounds. The procedure was based on the ultrasonic-assisted extraction using a mixing of n-pentane-diethylether (1:2) as solvent. Factorial designs have been used to optimize the sonication process. Factors such as sample volume, extraction time and solvent volume were considered. A statistical approach was used to find suitable conditions for the ultrasound extraction of aroma compounds of wine. A factorial design at two-level revealed that lower sample volume (100 ml instead of 125 ml) and solvent volume of 50 ml instead of 60 ml contributed to improve extraction efficiency. Performance of the method was evaluated, and the procedure applied to the analysis of aroma compound in white wines from 'Condado de Huelva' (Spain). PMID:18967732

Hernanz Vila, D; Heredia Mira, F J; Beltran Lucena, R; Fernández Recamales, M A

1999-09-13

199

Contribution to the aroma of white wines by controlled Torulaspora delbrueckii cultures in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the positive role of non-Saccharomyces yeasts on the overall quality of wine is encouraging research into their oenological potential, current knowledge on the topic is still far from satisfactory. This work analyzes the contribution of starter cultures of Torulaspora delbrueckii, inoculated sequentially with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (multi-starter fermentation), on the fermentation and aromas of two different white style wines, i.e., dry and sweet wines. Chemical analysis of Soave and Chardonnay wines (dry wines) showed that multi-starter fermentation greatly affected the content of several important volatile compounds, including 2-phenylethanol, isoamyl acetate, fatty acid esters, C4-C10 fatty acids and vinylphenols. Moreover, strain-specific contributions have been shown by testing two different T. delbrueckii strains. Evidence of the positive impact of T. delbrueckii activity on wine quality was also demonstrated in Vino Santo, a sweet wine. Due to its low production of acetic acid, this non-Saccharomyces yeast is recommended for the fermentation of high sugar grapes. T. delbrueckii also influenced the content of different variety of chemical groups, including lactones. From a sensory perspective, all wines produced by multi-starter fermentation have greater aromatic intensity and complexity than wines resulting from a monoculture fermentation. These results emphasize the potential of employing T. delbrueckii, in association with S. cerevisiae, for the production of white wines of different styles with improved and enhanced flavour. PMID:25388474

Azzolini, Michela; Tosi, Emanuele; Lorenzini, Marilinda; Finato, Fabio; Zapparoli, Giacomo

2015-02-01

200

Tomato fruits expressing a bacterial feedback-insensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase of the shikimate pathway possess enhanced levels of multiple specialized metabolites and upgraded aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit contains significant amounts of bioactive compounds, particularly multiple classes of specialized metabolites. Enhancing the synthesis and accumulation of these substances, specifically in fruits, are central for improving tomato fruit quality (e.g. flavour and aroma) and could aid in elucidate pathways of specialized metabolism. To promote the production of specialized metabolites in tomato fruit, this work expressed under a fruit ripening-specific promoter, E8, a bacterial AroG gene encoding a 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS), which is feedback-insensitive to phenylalanine inhibition. DAHPS, the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, links between the primary and specialized metabolism derived from aromatic amino acids. AroG expression influenced the levels of number of primary metabolites, such as shikimic acid and aromatic amino acids, as well as multiple volatile and non-volatile phenylpropanoids specialized metabolites and carotenoids. An organoleptic test, performed by trained panellists, suggested that the ripe AroG-expressing tomato fruits had a preferred floral aroma compare with fruits of the wild-type line. These results imply that fruit-specific manipulation of the conversion of primary to specialized metabolism is an attractive approach for improving fruit aroma and flavour qualities as well as discovering novel fruit-specialized metabolites. PMID:24006429

Tzin, Vered; Rogachev, Ilana; Meir, Sagit; Moyal Ben Zvi, Michal; Masci, Tania; Vainstein, Alexander; Aharoni, Asaph; Galili, Gad

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
201

Identification of 3-hydroxy-beta-damascone and related carotenoid-derived aroma compounds as novel potent inducers of Nrf2-mediated phase 2 response with concomitant anti-inflammatory activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural comparison of apple constituents with known inducers of phase two cytoprotective enzymes led to the identification of 3-hydroxy-beta-damascone and related carotenoid derived aroma compounds as potent inducers of NAD(P)H:quinone reductase (QR) activity. Damascone-related compounds were found to be more potent inducers than ionone derivatives, with CD values (concentrations required to double the specific activity of QR in Hepa1c1c7 cell culture) in the range of 1.0-5.7 microM. QR induction by 3-hydroxy-beta-damascone was shown to be mediated via transcription factor Nrf2 signaling in transient transfection experiments. We further identified aroma compounds as potent inhibitors of LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in Raw 264.7 cell culture. Again, damascone derivatives were most potent with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of 1.8-7.9 microM. These results reveal previously unrecognized cancer chemopreventive potential of aroma compounds such as beta-damascenone, 3-hydroxy-beta-damascone, and related substances, which may contribute to the cancer protective efficacy of apple products and other dietary sources in animal models. PMID:19753606

Gerhäuser, Clarissa; Klimo, Karin; Hümmer, Wolfgang; Hölzer, Jana; Petermann, Astrid; Garreta-Rufas, Antonio; Böhmer, Frank-D; Schreier, Peter

2009-10-01

202

Poikilodermatous changes on the forearms of a woman practicing aroma-therapy: extracervical poikiloderma of Civatte?*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report the case of a 48-year-old, Caucasian female who presented with slowly progressing asymptomatic poikilodermatous changes of the extensor aspects of the forearms. She also had typical Poikiloderma of Civatte on the V of the neck and erythemato-telangiectatic rosacea of the central face. The patient had been practicing aroma-therapy for many years. Histologic examination revealed findings consistent with PC. Patch-testing revealed positive reactions to Fragrance mix a...

Katoulis, Alexandros; Makris, Michalis; Gregoriou, Stamatis; Rallis, Eustathios; Kanelleas, Antonis; Stavrianeas, Nicolaos; Rigopoulos, Dimitris

2014-01-01

203

A fragrância da marca como aroma ambiente: estudo exploratório dos seus efeitos no consumidor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O presente estudo visa determinar se a aplicação do aroma ambiente como estímulo ambiental num ambiente de loja real se trata de uma ferramenta de marketing eficaz, capaz de influenciar os comportamentos e atitudes do consumidor. Trata-se de um estímulo cada vez mais utilizado pelos retalhistas, a fim de conseguirem distinguir¬se da concorrência e oferecer uma experiência de compra única. Através de uma estratégia de investigação quantitativa iremos investigar se a presença do pe...

Costa, Sara Joa?o Barros Da

2010-01-01

204

A Study of Inhalation of Peppermint Aroma on the Pain and Anxiety  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objectives: Considering the painfulness of labor and its resulting anxiety, and also, complications such as uterine dysfunction, prolonged labor, and unpleasant memories, the present study was performed aimed to investigate the effect of peppermint aroma on the level of pain and anxiety in the first stage of labor in nulliparous women.Methods: This research was done as a clinical trial study on 128 nulliparous women assigned into two groups (64 subjects in aromatherapy group an...

Giti Ozgoli; Zeinab Aryamanesh; Faraz Mojab; Hamid Alavi Majd

2013-01-01

205

Stereoselective formation of the varietal aroma compound rose oxide during alcoholic fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potent aroma compound rose oxide was quantified in several white wines by a headspace solid-phase microextration stable isotope dilution assay (HS-SPME-SIDA) and the enantiomeric ratios of the cis diastereomers were determined by enantioselective capillary GC. The most odor-active stereoisomer (23)-cis-rose oxide was detectable in all investigated white wines ranging from 0.2 to 12 microg/L. However, its contribution to the overall aroma in some white wine varieties can be neglected as indicated by a low odor activity value (OAV). The highest concentrations were found in Gewürztraminer wines, confirming the importance of rose oxide as a varietal aroma compound in this variety. Surprisingly, the enantiomeric ratio of cis-rose oxide in all investigated wines was substantially lower than in nonfermented musts and in some wines almost racemic cis-rose oxide was detected. Fermentation studies with a model must that contained deuterated water revealed that yeast is capable of reducing the precursor 3,7-dimethyl octa-2,5-dien-1,7-diol (geranyl diol I) yielding 3,7-dimethyl-5-octen-1,7-diol (citronellyl diol I) that gives rise to cis- and trans-rose oxide after acid catalyzed cylization. The deuterium labeling pattern of the resulting rose oxide stereoisomers and a clearly detectable kinetic isotope effect indicate that at least two different reductive pathways in yeast exist that yield cis-rose oxide with different enantiomeric ratios altering the genuine enantiomeric ratio in grape musts. The presence of (+)-cis-rose oxides in wines can therefore be attributed to the reductive yeast metabolism during fermentation. This observation corroborates recent findings that the modification of terpene derived varietal aroma is an integral part of yeast metabolism and not only a simple hydrolytical process. PMID:18247534

Koslitz, Stephan; Renaud, Lauren; Kohler, Marcel; Wüst, Matthias

2008-02-27

206

Recuperação do aroma de café, benzaldeído, em coluna de adsorção utilizando carvão ativado  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Resumo: O consumo de cafés especiais, dentre eles o café solúvel, tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Entretanto, durante o processamento do café solúvel ocorrem perdas de compostos importantes relacionados ao aroma e sabor característicos do café. Estes compostos podem ser recuperados de uma solução aquosa e reincorporados ao produto final. Geralmente o processo de recuperação utiliza processos térmicos que, além de envolver altos gastos energéticos, podem causar degradações dev...

Canteli, Anderson Marcos Dias

2013-01-01

207

Release of aroma compounds from dry-fermented sausages as affected by antioxidant and saliva addition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of the addition of an antioxidant and saliva on the release of aroma compounds from dry fermented sausages was studied by extracting the headspace at different times using solid phase micro-extraction technique. The compounds were analysed by gas chromatography using a FID detector and identified by mass spectrometry. The addition of butylated hydroxytoluene to dry fermented sausages produced a significant reduction of the release of most of the volatile compounds indicating an oxi...

Flores Llovera, Mo?nica; Olivares Sevilla, Alicia

2008-01-01

208

Using pervaporation data in the calculation of vapour permeation hollow-fibre modules for aroma recovery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Taking into account the close similarity between pervaporation and vapour permeation techniques, a method for employing pervaporation flux data in the modelling of vapour permeation modules is proposed. It is based on the use of fugacity gradients across the membrane, instead of concentration ones, as the driving force for mass transfer. This procedure is interesting, for instance, in the case of aroma recovery systems, for which there is much more experimental data on pervaporation available...

Ribeiro Jr, C. P.; Borges, C. P.

2004-01-01

209

Influence of mastication and saliva on aroma release in a model mouth system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The influence of mastication, saliva composition and saliva volume on aroma release from rehydrated diced bell peppers and French beans was studied in a model mouth system. Released volatile compounds were analysed by gas chromatography combined with sniffing port and flame ionisation detection. Compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, resulting in more than 40 compounds to be identified in each vegetable. Mastication increased release from bell peppers significantly...

Ruth, S. M.; Roozen, J. P.

2000-01-01

210

Aroma extraction dilution analysis of Sauternes wines. Key role of polyfunctional thiols.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present work was to investigate Sauternes wine aromas. In all wine extracts, polyfunctional thiols were revealed to have a huge impact. A very strong bacon-petroleum odor emerged at RI = 845 from a CP-Sil5-CB column. Two thiols proved to participate in this perception: 3-methyl-3-sulfanylbutanal and 2-methylfuran-3-thiol. A strong synergetic effect was evidenced between the two compounds. The former, never mentioned before in wines, and not found in the musts of this study, is most probably synthesized during fermentation. 3-Methylbut-2-ene-1-thiol, 3-sulfanylpropyl acetate, 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, and 3-sulfanylheptanal also contribute to the global aromas of Sauternes wines. Among other key odorants, the presence of a varietal aroma (alpha-terpineol), sotolon, fermentation alcohols (3-methylbutan-1-ol and 2-phenylethanol) and esters (ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl isovalerate), carbonyls (trans-non-2-enal and beta-damascenone), and wood flavors (guaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, and Furaneol) is worth stressing. PMID:16968087

Bailly, Sabine; Jerkovic, Vesna; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline; Collin, Sonia

2006-09-20

211

Aroma components of acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein made by partial hydrolysis of rice bran protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) was prepared from rice bran protein concentrate (RBPc) by partial hydrolysis with aqueous 0.5 N HCl at 95 degrees C for 12 or 36 h (H-RBPc-12 and H-RBPc-36, respectively). Aroma components of the RBPc and the HVPs were characterized by gas chromatography-olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, aroma extract dilution analysis, and calculation of odor activity values (OAVs). The predominant odorants in RBPc were 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, 2-aminoacetophenone, (E)-2-nonenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and beta-damascenone. Among these, the odor of 2-aminoacetophenone, present at 59 ng/g in RBPc, was reminiscent of the typical odor of RBPc. Most of the predominant odorants had higher log3FD factors in the H-RBPc-36 as compared to H-RBPc-12. Aroma impact compounds of H-RBPc-12 and H-RBPc-36 were 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)furanone (sotolon), vanillin, 3-methylbutanal, (E)-2-nonenal, 4-vinyl-2-methoxyphenol (p-vinylguaiacol), and beta-damascenone. Guaiacol had the highest OAV values of 2770 and 17650 in H-RBPc-12 and H-RBPc-36, respectively. PMID:17367160

Jarunrattanasri, Arporn; Theerakulkait, Chockchai; Cadwallader, Keith R

2007-04-18

212

Effect of fat nature and aroma compound hydrophobicity on flavor release from complex food emulsions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complex food emulsions containing either hydrogenated palm kernel oil (vegetable fat) or anhydrous milk fat (animal fat) were flavored by using different aroma compounds. The fats differed by their fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions and by their melting behavior, while the aroma compounds (ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, methyl hexanoate, mesifurane, linalool, diacetyl, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, and gamma-octalactone) differed by their hydrophobicity. Application of differential scanning calorimetry to fat samples in bulk and emulsified forms indicated differences in the ratio of solid-to-liquid between temperatures ranging from 10 to 35 degrees C. Solid-phase microextraction coupled with GC-MS analysis indicated that flavor release from food emulsions containing animal or vegetable fat differed depending on both the fat nature and flavor compound hydrophobicity. The release of diacetyl was higher for emulsions containing animal fat, whereas the release of esters was higher for emulsions containing vegetable fat. The release of cis-3-hexenol, linalool, gamma-octalactone, and mesifurane (2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-(2H)-furan-3-one) was very similar for the two fatty systems. The above results were discussed not only in terms of aroma compound hydrophobicity, but also in terms of structural properties of the emulsions as affected by the lipid source. PMID:15453696

Relkin, Perla; Fabre, Marjorie; Guichard, Elisabeth

2004-10-01

213

Aroma-active compounds of Elatostema laetevirens and Elatostema umbellatum var. majus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The essential oils from aerial parts of Elatostema laetevirens and Elatostema umbellatum var. majus were investigated by capillary GC and GC-MS. The important aroma-active compounds were also detected in the oil using GC-MS/O and aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA). As a result, 79 compounds of E. laetevirens and 80 compounds of E. umbellatum var. majus, accounting for 95.41% and 98.37%, were identified, respectively. The major components of E. laetevirens oil were phytol (667.4 microg/100 g fresh samples), neophytadiene (335.2 microg) and gamma-himachalene (49.8 microg). On the other hand, E. umbellatum var. majus oil contained phytol (402.3 microg), linoleic acid (289.4 microg) and palmitic acid (241.4 microg) as the major components. GC-MS/O and AEDA showed that (2E)-hexenal and (2E, 4E)-nonadienal were most aroma compounds of E. laetevirens oil. It seems that these components make the green-floral odor. On the other hands, it seems that (2E)-hexenal, (3Z)-hexenol and 1-octen-3-ol make the green-oily odor of E. umbellatum var. majus oil. PMID:19282638

Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Utsumi, Yuya; Kawata, Jyunichi

2009-01-01

214

Characterization of typical potent odorants in cola-flavored carbonated beverages by aroma extract dilution analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma-active compounds in typical cola-flavored carbonated beverages were characterized using gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The potent odorants in the top three U.S. brands of regular colas were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Among the numerous odorants identified, eugenol (spicy, clovelike, sweet) and coumarin (sweet, herbaceous) were predominant in all colas. Other predominant odorants in at least one brand included guaiacol (smoky) and linalool (floral, sweet), while 1,8-cineole (minty, eucalyptus-like) was a moderately potent odorant in all colas. Determination of the enantiomeric compositions indicated that (R)-(-)-linalool (34.5%) was a more potent odorant than the (S)-(+)-enantiomer (65.6%) due to its much lower odor detection threshold. In addition, lemon-lime and cooling attributes determined by sensory descriptive analysis had the highest odor intensities among the eight sensory descriptors. The aroma profiles of the three colas were in good agreement with the potent odorants identified by AEDA. PMID:25528884

Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa; Cadwallader, Keith R

2015-01-28

215

Coupling gas chromatography and electronic nose detection for detailed cigarette smoke aroma characterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma characterization of whole cigarette smoke samples using sensory panels or electronic nose (E-nose) devices is difficult due to the masking effect of major constituents and solvent used for the extraction step. On the other hand, GC in combination with olfactometry detection does not allow to study the delicate balance and synergetic effect of aroma solutes. To overcome these limitations a new instrumental set-up consisting of heart-cutting gas chromatography using a capillary flow technology based Deans switch and low thermal mass GC in combination with an electronic nose device is presented as an alternative to GC-olfactometry. This new hyphenated GC-E-nose configuration is used for the characterization of cigarette smoke aroma. The system allows the transfer, combination or omission of selected GC fractions before injection in the E-nose. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factor analysis (DFA) allowed clear visualizing of the differences among cigarette brands and classifying them independently of their nicotine content. Omission and perceptual interaction tests could also be carried out using this configuration. The results are promising and suggest that the GC-E-nose hyphenation is a good approach to measure the contribution level of individual compounds to the whole cigarette smoke. PMID:25260341

Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Tienpont, Bart; Mitsui, Kazuhisa; Masugi, Eri; Yoshimura, Yuta; Nagata, Hisanori; David, Frank; Sandra, Pat

2014-10-24

216

Key changes in wine aroma active compounds during bottle storage of Spanish red wines under different oxygen levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples from 16 Spanish red wines have been stored for 6 months at 25 °C under different levels of oxygen (0-56 mg/L). Amino acids, metals, and phenolic compounds were analyzed and related to the production or depletion of key oxidation- and reduction-related aroma compounds. Oxidation brings about sensory-relevant increases in Strecker aldehydes, 1-octen-3-one, and vanillin. Formation of Strecker aldehydes correlates to the wine content on the corresponding amino acid precursor, Zn, and caffeic acid ethyl ester and negatively to some flavonols and anthocyanin derivatives. Formation of most carbonyls correlates to wine-combined SO2, suggesting that part of the increments are the result of the release of aldehydes forming bisulfite combinations once SO2 is oxidized. Methanethiol (MeSH) and dimethylsulfide (DMS), but not H2S levels, increase during storage. MeSH increments correlate to methionine levels and proanthocyanidins and negatively to resveratrol and aluminum. H2S, MeSH, and DMS levels all decreased with oxidation, and for the latter two, there are important effects of Mn and pH, respectively. PMID:25284059

Ferreira, Vicente; Bueno, Mónica; Franco-Luesma, Ernesto; Culleré, Laura; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

2014-10-15

217

Growth and aroma contribution of Microbacterium foliorum, Proteus vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp. during ripening in a cheese model medium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The growth and aroma contribution of Microbacterium foliorum, Proteus vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp., some common but rarely mentioned cheese bacteria, were investigated in a cheese model deacidified by Debaryomyces hansenii during the ripening process. Our results show that these bacteria had distinct growth and cheese flavour production patterns during the ripening process. P. vulgaris had the greatest capacity to produce not only the widest variety but also the highest quantities of volatile compounds with low olfactive thresholds, e.g. volatile sulphur compounds and branched-chain alcohols. Such compounds produced by P. vulgaris increased after 21 days of ripening and reached a maximum at 41 days. The three bacteria studied exhibited various degrees of caseinolytic, aminopeptidase and deaminase activities. Moreover, P. vulgaris had a greater capacity for hydrolysing casein and higher deaminase activity. Our results show that P. vulgaris, a Gram-negative bacterium naturally present on the surface of ripened cheeses, could produce high concentrations of flavour compounds from amino acid degradation during the ripening process. Its flavouring role in cheese cannot be neglected. Moreover, it could be a useful organism for producing natural flavours as dairy ingredients. PMID:19083231

Deetae, Pawinee; Spinnler, Henry-Eric; Bonnarme, Pascal; Helinck, Sandra

2009-02-01

218

Lipase induction in Yarrowia lipolytica for castor oil hydrolysis and its effect on ?-decalactone production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

?-Decalactone is an aromatic compound of industrial interest, resulting from the biotransformation of ricinoleic acid, the major constituent of castor oil. In order to increase the availability of the substrate to the cells for the aroma production, castor oil previously hydrolyzed can be used. This hydrolysis may be promoted by enzymatic action, more specifically by lipases. In this work, the influence upon the aroma production of the lipase produced by Yarrowia lipolytica, a microorganism ...

Braga, Adelaide; Gomes, Nelma; Belo, Isabel

2012-01-01

219

An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-ion-trap mass spectrometer for the on-line analysis of volatile compounds in foods: a tool for linking aroma release to aroma perception.  

Science.gov (United States)

An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion-trap mass spectrometer was set up for the on-line analysis of aroma compounds. This instrument, which has been successfully employed for some years in several in vitro and in vivo flavour release studies, is described for the first time in detail. The ion source was fashioned from polyether ether ketone and operated at ambient pressure and temperature making use of a discharge corona pin facing coaxially the capillary ion entrance of the ion-trap mass spectrometer. Linear dynamic ranges (LDR), limits of detection (LOD) and other analytical characteristics have been re-evaluated. LDRs and LODs have been found fully compatible with the concentrations of aroma compounds commonly found in foods. Thus, detection limits have been found in the low ppt range for common flavouring aroma compounds (for example 5.3?ppt (0.82?ppbV) for ethyl hexanoate and 4.8?ppt (1.0?ppbV) for 2,5-dimethylpyrazine). This makes the instrument applicable for in vitro and in vivo aroma release investigations. The use of dynamic sensory techniques such as the temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) method conducted simultaneously with in vivo aroma release measurements allowed to get some new insights in the link between flavour release and flavour perception. PMID:25230189

Le Quéré, Jean-Luc; Gierczynski, Isabelle; Sémon, Etienne

2014-09-01

220

De aromas e perfumes, o mercado da indústria do "cheiro" From aromas and perfumes, the market of the "smell" industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several flavors and fragrances (F&F companies hold the economic leadership in the market, although not always have also the leadership in patent applications. The ranking of technological production in the fragrance area still remains with industries while scientific knowledge is equally shared between industries and academia. Contextualizing Brazil in this scene, despite all scientific expertise gained over the years, brazilian technological park is still at the beginning of the production of technologies applied directly to the F&F industries. The dependence on foreign technologies is remarkable as indicated by the great trade deficit in this sector.

Marcelo Gomes Speziali

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) using aroma extract dilution analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract of the dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica obtained by extraction with diethyl ether followed by sublimation in vacuo revealed 28 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 4-8192, all of which could be identified. The highest FD factor was found for linalol (floral), followed by (E)-beta-ocimene (flowery), alpha-farnesene (sweet, flowery), beta-pinene (terpeny), alpha-pinene (pine needle-like), myrtenol (flowery), and beta-phellandrene (terpeny). Vanillin (vanilla-like) and 3-ethylphenol (smoky, phenolic) showing somewhat lower FD factors (FD = 128) were detected for the first time as constituents of the dried fruit. PMID:10552646

Tairu, A O; Hofmann, T; Schieberle, P

1999-08-01

222

Multi-volatile method for aroma analysis using sequential dynamic headspace sampling with an application to brewed coffee.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel multi-volatile method (MVM) using sequential dynamic headspace (DHS) sampling for analysis of aroma compounds in aqueous sample was developed. The MVM consists of three different DHS method parameters sets including choice of the replaceable adsorbent trap. The first DHS sampling at 25°C using a carbon-based adsorbent trap targets very volatile solutes with high vapor pressure (>20kPa). The second DHS sampling at 25°C using the same type of carbon-based adsorbent trap targets volatile solutes with moderate vapor pressure (1-20kPa). The third DHS sampling using a Tenax TA trap at 80°C targets solutes with low vapor pressure (0.9910) and high sensitivity (limit of detection: 1.0-7.5ngmL(-1)) even with MS scan mode. The feasibility and benefit of the method was demonstrated with analysis of a wide variety of aroma compounds in brewed coffee. Ten potent aroma compounds from top-note to base-note (acetaldehyde, 2,3-butanedione, 4-ethyl guaiacol, furaneol, guaiacol, 3-methyl butanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine, vanillin, and 4-vinyl guaiacol) could be identified together with an additional 72 aroma compounds. Thirty compounds including 9 potent aroma compounds were quantified in the range of 74-4300ngmL(-1) (RSD<10%, n=5). PMID:25456588

Ochiai, Nobuo; Tsunokawa, Jun; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Hoffmann, Andreas

2014-12-01

223

De aromas e perfumes, o mercado da indústria do "cheiro" / From aromas and perfumes, the market of the "smell" industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Several flavors and fragrances (F&F) companies hold the economic leadership in the market, although not always have also the leadership in patent applications. The ranking of technological production in the fragrance area still remains with industries while scientific knowledge is equally shared bet [...] ween industries and academia. Contextualizing Brazil in this scene, despite all scientific expertise gained over the years, brazilian technological park is still at the beginning of the production of technologies applied directly to the F&F industries. The dependence on foreign technologies is remarkable as indicated by the great trade deficit in this sector.

Marcelo Gomes, Speziali.

224

Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The sensory quality of chocolate is widely determined by the qualitative and quantitative composition of volatile compounds resulting from microbial metabolism during fermentation, and Maillard reactions taking place during drying, roasting and conching. The influence of applying mixed starter cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, and compared to commercially fermented heap and tray cocoa. Although only minor differences in the concentration of free amino acids and reducing sugars was measured, identification and quantification by dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS/GC-MS) revealed pronounced differences in the composition of volatiles in roasted cocoa liquors and finished chocolates. 19 of the 56 volatile compounds identified in the chocolates were found in significantly higher amounts in the tray fermented sample, whilst significantly higher amounts of 2-methoxyphenol was measured in the two inoculated chocolates. The P. kluyveri inoculated chocolate was characterized by a significantly higher concentration of phenylacetaldehyde and the K. marxianus inoculated chocolate by significantly higher amounts of benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol, benzyl acetate and phenethyl acetate compared to a spontaneously fermented control. Sensory profiling described the heap and tray fermented chocolates as sweet with cocoa and caramel flavours, whilst the inoculated chocolates were characterized as fruity, acid and bitter with berry, yoghurt and balsamic flavours. The choice of fermentation technique had the greatest overall impact on the volatile aroma and sensory profile, but whilst the application of starter cultures did affect the volatile aroma profile, differences were too small to significantly change consumer perception of the chocolates as compared to a spontaneously fermented control. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna

2014-01-01

225

The influence of yeast on the aroma of Sauvignon Blanc wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains on the concentration of aroma-enhancing volatile thiols and fermentation metabolites in Sauvignon Blanc wine. Seven commercial wine yeast strains were selected based on their putative ability to modulate the concentrations of the fruity volatile thiols, 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP), 3-mercapto-hexanol (3MH) and 3-mercapto-hexylacetate (3MHA). Each of these yeasts was used to produce Sauvignon Blanc wines under controlled conditions, in triplicate, in 20-L quantities. The levels of 4MMP, 3MH and 3MHA in these wines were quantified using the p-hydroxymercuribenzoate method. In addition, a total of 24 volatile yeast-derived fermentation aroma compounds were also quantified using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Formal sensory analysis was conducted by 12 trained assessors and, additionally, a panel of 24 experienced wine industry professionals assessed the wines and ranked them in order of preference. The results indicated that the yeast strains varied significantly in terms of their capabilities to (i) produce volatile thiols and fermentation metabolites; and (ii) to modulate the varietal characters of Sauvignon Blanc wine. Yeast strains that produced the highest levels of volatile thiols were responsible for wines with the highest perceived intensity of fruitiness, and these wines were preferred by the tasting panels. While the 'green' characters in Sauvignon Blanc wines can be manipulated through vineyard management, the 'tropical fruity' characters appear to be largely dependent on the wine yeast strain used during fermentation. Therefore, the choice of yeast strain offers great potential to modulate wine aroma profiles to definable styles and predetermined consumer market specifications. PMID:19171264

Swiegers, Jan H; Kievit, Robyn L; Siebert, Tracey; Lattey, Kate A; Bramley, Belinda R; Francis, I Leigh; King, Ellena S; Pretorius, Isak S

2009-04-01

226

Effect of Temperature, Water Activity and Storage Time on Color Strength, Aroma and Bitterness of Saffron  

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Saffron is one of the most important crops in Iran and the quality of its dried stigma is highly depended on the processing and storage conditions. In this study, the effect of different storage conditions in terms of temperature (20, 30 and 40°C) and water activity (0.32, 0.52 and 0.75) during 12 weeks storage on color strength, aroma and bitterness of saffron were investigated. In order to study of moisture (water activity) different saturated solution of MgCl2, Mg(NO3)2, MgBr2 and NaCl in...

Ghasemzadeh, R.; Sedaghat, N.; Farhosh, R.; Shahidi, F.; Bolandi, M.

2009-01-01

227

Salt reduction in slow fermented sausages affects the generation of aroma active compounds  

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Slow fermented sausages with different salt content were manufactured: control (2.7% NaCl, S), 16% salt reduced (2.26% NaCl, RS) and 16% replaced by KCl (2.26% NaCl and 0.43% KCl, RSK). The effect of salt reduction on microbiology and chemical parameters, sensory characteristics, texture and volatile compounds was studied. The aroma compounds were identified by GC-MS and olfactometry analyses. Small salt reduction (16%) (RS) affected sausage quality producing a reduction in the acceptance of ...

Corral, Sara; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mo?nica

2013-01-01

228

Influence of the composition and the structure of different media on the release of aroma compounds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The release of 2-nonanone and hexenol (hex-4-en-3-ol) was studied in model media with different structures and compositions: water, a gel of $\\beta$-lactoglobulin, gelified or non-gelified emulsions (5.0% Miglyol, 6.9% $\\beta$-lactoglobulin; the gelation was realized by heating) and milk. The aroma compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography. A strong influence of the nature of the volatile compound on its behavior towards the food matrix was observed: in the case of 2-nonanone, a hydrophob...

Seuvre, Anne-marie; Marian De Los Angeles Espinosa Diaz,; Cayot, Philippe; Voilley, Andre?e

2004-01-01

229

Release and formation of varietal aroma compounds during alcoholic fermentation from nonfloral grape odorless flavor precursors fractions.  

Science.gov (United States)

An odorless flavor precursor fraction extracted from different nonfloral grape varietals has been added to a grape must and has been fermented by three different yeast strains. The wines obtained were analyzed by sensory descriptive analysis and by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to determine more than 90 aroma chemicals. The addition of the precursor fraction brought about a significant increase of the wine floral notes, irrespective of the yeast used. The levels of 51 wine aroma chemicals were found to depend on the precursor fraction addition and, in most cases, also on the yeast strain. Only beta-damascenone, beta-ionone, and vinylphenols were produced at concentrations well above threshold. However, the concerted addition of groups of compounds has shown that lactones, cinnamates, vanillins, and terpenes are together active contributors to the floral note. Different observations suggest that the formation of varietal aroma is an integral part of yeast metabolism and not a simple hydrolytical process. PMID:17616208

Loscos, Natalia; Hernandez-Orte, Purificacion; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

2007-08-01

230

Interactions between aroma and edible films. 1. Permeability Of methylcellulose and low-density polyethylene films to methyl ketones.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work contributes to the study of aroma transfers through edible and plastic packaging films. Permeability, sorption, and diffusivity of three methyl ketones (2-heptanone, 2-octanone, and 2-nonanone) in and through low-density polyethylene and methylcellulose-based edible films have been determined. Permeability was measured using a dynamic method coupled with a gas chromatograph. The methyl ketone permeability of polyethylene films mainly depends on diffusivity of the penetrant in the polymer. In the case of 2-heptanone, a saturation of the polymer network is observed at high vapor concentrations. The formation of clusters could take place when concentrations are higher in the vapor phase. Physicochemical interactions between aroma compounds and components of the methylcellulose-based film induce structural changes such as plasticization. Therefore, the diffusion step depends on the aroma concentration differential, and permeability is essentially driven by the sorption. PMID:10563857

Quezada Gallo, J A; Debeaufort, F; Voilley, A

1999-01-01

231

Aroma active volatiles in four southern highbush blueberry cultivars determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).  

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Aroma active volatiles in four southern highbush blueberry cultivars ('Prima Dona', 'Jewel', 'Snow Chaser', and 'Kestrel') were determined using solid phase microextraction (SPME) in combination with gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and identified via GC-PFPD and GC-MS using retention indices of reference compounds and mass spectral data. The aromas of total, unseparated SPME extracts evaluated using GC-O were rated 8.2-9.0/10 for the four cultivars in terms of similarity to the original blueberry homogenates. In terms of GC-O aroma similarity, those aroma active volatile groups characterized as green, fruity, and floral were most intense. Of the 43 volatiles found to have aroma activity, 38 were identified and 13 had not been previously reported in blueberries. Although linalool and (E)-2-hexenal were common major aroma impact volatiles, dominant aroma-active volatiles were different for each cultivar. Principal component analysis confirmed that each cultivar possessed a unique aroma active profile as each cultivar was clustered into a separate score plot quadrant. PMID:24758568

Du, Xiaofen; Rouseff, Russell

2014-05-21

232

Characterization of aroma compounds in Chinese rice wine Qu by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and headspace solid-phase microextraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma of Chinese rice wine Qu is one of the most important factors that influences the flavor of Chinese rice wine. To better understand the aroma of Qu, aroma compounds in four wheat Qus and two xiao Qus were identified by chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) after solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE). A total of 39 aroma compounds were characterized by GC-O. On the basis of aroma intensity, 1-hexanal, ethyl hexanoate, 1-octen-3-ol, and phenylacetaldehyde were found to be the most important aroma compounds in all six Qus. In addition, 3-methylbutanol and 2-phenylethanol also played an important role in the aroma of two xiao Qus. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was used for quantifying aroma compounds identified in the Qus. The method enabled limits of detection and quantification of <40.8 and <136.0 microg/L, respectively. Linearity and recovery were satisfied in all cases. Quantitative analysis revealed that volatiles of six Qus had a wide range of concentration. Principal component analysis applied to the data differentiated the six Qus well. PMID:20088505

Mo, Xinliang; Xu, Yan; Fan, Wenlai

2010-02-24

233

Sensor responses to fat food aroma: a comprehensive study of dry-cured ham typicality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The physicochemical phenomena that explain the sensing mechanisms of gas sensors have been extensively investigated. Nevertheless, it is arduous to interpret the sensor signals in a practical approach when they response to complex mixtures of compounds responsible for food aroma. Thus, the concomitant interactions between the volatiles and the sensor give up a single response affected by synergic and masking effects between compounds. An experimental procedure is proposed to determine the individual contribution of volatile compounds in the sensor response, illustrated with the examples of aroma of dry-cured hams and metal oxide sensors. The results from mathematical correlations and the analyses of pure standards are previously analyzed to describe the behavior of sensors when interacting with individual compounds. A sensor based olfactory detector (SBOD) entailing the use of a capillary column connected to a sensor array as non-destructive detector in parallel with the flame detector served to provide definitive information about the individual contribution of volatile compounds to sensor responses. The sensor responses in this system, which is referred to as sensorgram, were interpreted by taking into account the volatile composition of the samples determined by GC. PMID:24468380

García-González, Diego L; Tena, Noelia; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Aparicio, Ramón

2014-03-01

234

Lactic fermentation to improve the aroma of protein extracts of sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius).  

Science.gov (United States)

Lupin protein extracts (LPE) are prone to the emission of a beany off-flavour during storage, which confines its application in foods. Fermentation of LPE using several lactic acid bacteria was conducted to reduce off-flavour formation in stored samples. The aroma profile of untreated LPE was compared to those of fermented protein extracts (LPEF). Hexanal and n-hexanol were used as indicator substances of progressing lipid oxidation. The most powerful odourants were evaluated by GC-olfactometry-flavour dilution analysis and identified according to their mass spectra, odour descriptions, and retention indices. Twenty two volatile substances with dilution factors equal to or higher than 100 were determined in both LPE and LPEF, amongst them n-pentanal, n-hexanal, 1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, 1-octen-3-one, 3-octen-2-one, 1-octen-3-ol, and ?-damascenone. The aroma profile was significantly modified by the fermentation process and the off-flavours were reduced and/or masked by newly formed compounds. PMID:25212139

Schindler, Sabrina; Wittig, Maximilian; Zelena, Kateryna; Krings, Ulrich; Bez, Jürgen; Eisner, Peter; Berger, Ralf G

2011-09-15

235

Identification of volatile compounds responsible for prune aroma in prematurely aged red wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The premature aging of red Vitis vinifera L. wines is mainly associated with the formation of an intense off-flavor reminiscent of prunes. The compounds responsible for this deterioration in red wine flavor have not previously been identified. Sensory descriptive analysis associated with a gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) technique was first performed to find characteristic odoriferous zones of 15 aged red wines with or without a marked prune aroma. Afterward, high-pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and multidimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (MDGC-MS) were used to identify the odorants reminiscent of prunes in prematurely aged red wines and in the dried fruit. Three compounds were detected with a strong odor of prunes: gamma-nonalactone, beta-damascenone, and 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione. The perception threshold of the latter beta-diketone in a model hydroalcoholic solution is 16 ng/L. Identified for the first time in aged red wines, this very powerful volatile compound was also suggested to produce the characteristic prune aroma of prematurely aged red wines. The presence of 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione was also detected in prunes for the first time. PMID:18540625

Pons, Alexandre; Lavigne, Valérie; Eric, Frérot; Darriet, Philippe; Dubourdieu, Denis

2008-07-01

236

Aroma chemical composition of red wines from different price categories and its relationship to quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma chemical composition of three sets of Spanish red wines belonging to three different price categories was studied by using an array of gas chromatographic methods. Significant differences were found in the levels of 72 aroma compounds. Expensive wines are richest in wood-related compounds, ethyl phenols, cysteinil-derived mercaptans, volatile sulfur compounds, ethyl esters of branched acids, methional, and phenylacetaldehyde and are poorest in linear and branched fatty acids, fusel alcohols, terpenols, norisoprenoids, fusel alcohol acetates, and ethyl esters of the linear fatty acids; inexpensive wines show exactly the opposite profile, being richest in E-2-nonenal, E-2-hexenal, Z-3-hexenol, acetoin, and ethyl lactate. Satisfactory models relating quality to odorant composition could be built exclusively for expensive and medium-price wines but not for the lower-price sample set in which in-mouth attributes had to be included. The models for quality reveal a common structure, but they are characteristic of a given sample set. PMID:22480297

Juan, Felipe San; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

2012-05-23

237

Stomatal distribution, stomatal density and daily leaf movement in Acacia aroma (Leguminosae Distribución y densidad estomática y movimiento diario de la hoja en Acacia aroma (Leguminosae  

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Full Text Available Acacia aroma Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. grows in the Chacoan and Yungas Biogeographic Provinces, Argentina. It has numerous medicinal applications, sweet and edible fruits, and it may be used as forage. The objective of the present contribution was to analyse the stomatal distribution and stomatal density on the secondary leaflet surfaces, in different parts of the leaf, and at different tree crown levels, establishing the leaf movement and environmental condition relationships. The work was performed with fresh material and herbarium specimens, using conventional anatomical techniques. Stomatal distribution on the secondary leaflet surfaces was established, and differences in stomatal density among basal, medium and apical leaflets were found. A decrease in stomatal density from the lower level to the upper level of the tree crown would be connected with that. The stomatal distribution and density appear related to the secondary leaflet shape and its position on the secondary rachis, interacting with the daily secondary leaflets and leaf movement, and the weather conditions. It is interesting that the medium value of stomata density were found in the middle part of the leaf and at the middle level of the tree crown. Original illustrations are given.Acacia aroma crece en las Provincias Biogeográficas Chaqueña y de las Yungas, Argentina. Este árbol posee numerosas aplicaciones en medicina popular, sus frutos son comestibles y puede ser usada como forraje. Los objetivos de la presente contribución fueron: establecer la distribución y densidad de los estomas en el folíolo secundario, en distintos folíolos secundarios de la misma hoja y en los folíolos secundarios de las hojas de la parte basal, media y superior de la copa del árbol, estableciendo relaciones con el movimiento diario de las hojas y condiciones ambientales. Para el estudio se utilizó material fresco y ejemplares de herbario empleando técnicas de anatomía convencionales. Se estableció la distribución de los estomas sobre las superficies adaxial y abaxial del folíolo secundario. Se encontraron diferencias en la densidad de estomas entre los folíolos secundarios de la parte basal, media y apical de la hoja que están relacionadas a la posición de éstas en la copa del árbol. Dentro de la copa del árbol se encontró que la densidad de estomas decrece desde la parte basal hasta la parte superior. La distribución y densidad estomática estarían relacionadas a la forma del folíolo secundario y posición de éstos sobre el raquis, al movimiento diario de los folíolos secundarios y de la hoja interactuando con los factores ambientales. Cabe destacar que el valor medio de densidad de estomas se halló en la parte media de la hoja y en la parte media de la copa del árbol. El trabajo se acompaña con ilustraciones originales.

Marcelo P. Hernández

2010-12-01

238

Solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography olfactometry analysis of successively diluted samples. A new approach of the aroma extract dilution analysis applied to the characterization of wine aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between the composition and the aroma of the wine can be established by using gas chromatography with olfactometric detection (sniffing or GCO), which combines the chromatographic response with the human nose response. To evaluate the contribution of the odor compounds in wine aroma, we designed a new approach of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) that lies in the GCO analysis of serially diluted wine samples using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) as the extraction technique. The fiber coating used was Flex divinyl-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane. The method developed was applied to determine the aromatic composition of a red Grenache wine from Priorat (Spain). The method allows 38 important odorants to be determined in the AEDA study, 30 of them precisely identified. These results are similar to those reported by other studies related to this variety of wine. HS-SPME is a suitable technique to obtain representative extracts of wine aroma with several advantages such as simplicity, speediness, and little sample manipulation. PMID:14690365

Martí, Maria Pilar; Mestres, Montserrat; Sala, Cristina; Busto, Olga; Guasch, Josep

2003-12-31

239

Dried-bonito aroma components enhance salivary hemodynamic responses to broth tastes detected by near-infrared spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

To elucidate the effects of aroma from dried bonito (katsuo-bushi) on broth tastes caused by the central integration of flavor, optical imaging of salivary hemodynamic responses was conducted using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). A reconstituted dried bonito flavored broth produced a significantly larger hemodynamic response than the odorless broth taste solutions for 5 of the 10 panelists, who felt that the combination of the aroma with the tastes was congruent. In the remaining 5 panelists who felt the combination incongruent, the flavored broth did not cause the enhancement of response. Moreover, when the odor-active smoky parts were removed from the flavoring, the reconstituted flavoring did not enhance the response in the former five panelists. These results indicate that NIRS offers a sensitive method to detect the effect of specific congruent aroma components from dried-bonito broth on the taste-related salivary hemodynamic responses, dependent on the perceptual experience of the combination of aromas and tastes. PMID:22224859

Matsumoto, Tomona; Saito, Kana; Nakamura, Akio; Saito, Tsukasa; Nammoku, Takashi; Ishikawa, Masashi; Mori, Kensaku

2012-01-25

240

Chemical characterization of commercial Sherry vinegar aroma by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-olfactometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sensorial representativeness of the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) aroma extract from commercial Sherry vinegars has been determined by direct gas chromatography-olfactometry (D-GCO). Extracts obtained under optimal conditions were used to characterize the aroma of these vinegars by means of GCO and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Among the 37 different odorants determined, 13 of them were identified for the first time in Sherry vinegars: 2 pyrazines (3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine), 2 sulfur compounds (methanethiol, dimethyl trisulfide), 1 unsaturated ketone (1-octen-3-one), 1 norisoprenoid (?-damascenone), 1 ester (ethyl trans-cinnamate) and 6 aldehydes (2- and 3-methylbutanal, octanal, nonanal, (E)-2-nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal). The determination of the odor thresholds in a hydroacetic solution together with the quantitative analysis-which was also performed using the simple and fast SPME technique-allowed obtaining the odor activity values (OAV) of the aromatic compounds found. Thus, a first pattern of their sensory importance on commercial Sherry vinegar aroma was provided. PMID:21410171

Aceña, Laura; Vera, Luciano; Guasch, Josep; Busto, Olga; Mestres, Montserrat

2011-04-27

 
 
 
 
241

Impact of cover crops in vineyard on the aroma compounds of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared the influence of different cover crops with clean tillage on wine aroma compounds of 5-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines. White clover, alfalfa, and tall fescue were used in the vineyard and compared with clean tillage. Aroma compounds of wine were analysed by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Forty-seven volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Wines made from grapes grown with various cover crops had higher levels of aroma compounds. Ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, phenylethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, linalool, citronellol, ?-damascenone, ?-ionone, and 5-amyl-dihydro-2(3H)-furan were the impact odorants of sample wines. Wines from cover crop also had higher contents of these impact odorants than the control. For different cover crops, alfalfa sward yielded the highest levels, followed by the tall fescue treatment. According to the data analysis of aroma compounds and sensory assess, permanent cover crop may have the potential to improve wine quality. PMID:23140695

Xi, Zhu-Mei; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Li; Li, Hua

2011-07-15

242

The composition of volatile aroma components, flavanones, and polymethoxylated flavones in Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) peels of different cultivation lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus peels are important sources of various pleasant aroma compounds and valuable bioactive substances. To investigate differences in the composition and content of Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) peels from different cultivation lines, the composition of volatile aroma components, flavanones, and polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) in four Shiikuwasha cultivation lines was examined. The composition of volatile aroma components in cold-pressed extracts of Shiikuwasha peels was analyzed using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry. The extracts contained mainly monoterpene hydrocarbons (93.40-97.25%), including limonene (46.52-68.26%) and ?-terpinene (21.48-30.52%). Differences in the composition of volatile aroma compounds in the Shiikuwasha cultivation lines were revealed using principal component analysis. Additionally, the composition of flavanones and PMFs was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography methods. Neohesperidin (96.58%) was the predominant flavanone in 'Izumi kugani' peel, while the other peels had high hesperidin contents (89.26-98.66%). Moreover, the PMFs of Shiikuwasha peels were composed of nobiletin (56.74-64.77%) and tangeretin (23.17-34.70%). PMID:22804782

Asikin, Yonathan; Taira, Ikuko; Inafuku-Teramoto, Sayuri; Sumi, Hidekazu; Ohta, Hideaki; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

2012-08-15

243

Chemical Composition and Aroma Evaluation of Volatile oils from Edible Mushrooms (Pleurotus salmoneostramineus and Pleurotus sajor-caju).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is focused on the volatile oils from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus salmoneostramineus (PS) and P. sajor-caju (PSC), which was extracted by hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) methods. The oils are analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC-olfactometry (GC-O), and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). A total of 31, 31, 45, and 15 components were identified in PS (HD and SAFE) and PSC (HD and SAFE), representing about 80.3%, 92.2%, 88.9%, and 83.0% of the oils, respectively. Regarding the aroma-active components, 13, 12, 13, and 5 components were identified in PS (HD and SAFE) and PSC (HD and SAFE), respectively, by the GC-O analyses. The results of the sniffing test, odor activity value (OAV) and flavor dilution (FD) factor indicate that 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone are the main aroma-active components of PS oils. On the other hands, methional and 1-octen-3-ol were estimated as the main aroma-active components of PSC oils. PMID:25409690

Usami, Atsushi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

2014-12-01

244

Volatile composition and aroma activity of guava puree before and after thermal and dense phase carbon dioxide treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatiles from initially frozen, dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD)- and thermally treated guava purees were isolated by solid phase microextraction (SPME), chromatographically separated and identified using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC-olfactometry (GC-O), and GC-pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD, sulfur mode). Fifty-eight volatiles were identified using GC-MS consisting of: 6 aldehydes, 2 acids, 15 alcohols, 6 ketones, 21 esters, and 8 terpenes. Eleven volatiles were newly identified in guava puree. Hexanal was the most abundant volatile in all 3 types of guava puree. Ten sulfur compounds were identified using GC-PFPD of which 3 possessed aroma activity and 3 were not previously reported in guava puree. Both treatments profoundly reduced total sulfur peak areas and produced different peak patterns compared to control. Thermal treatment reduced total sulfur peak area 47.9% compared to a loss of 34.7% with DPCD treatment. Twenty-six volatiles possessed aroma activity. (Z)-3-Hexenyl hexanoate was the major contributor to the aroma of the freshly thawed and DPCD-treated guava puree. DPCD treatment reduced total MS ion chromatogram (MS TIC) peak area 35% but produced a GC-O aroma profile very similar to control. Whereas thermal treatment reduced total TIC peak area only 8.7% compared to control but produced a 35% loss in total GC-O peak intensities. PMID:25588413

Plaza, Maria Lourdes; Marshall, Maurice R; Rouseff, Russell Lee

2015-02-01

245

Characterization of Fish Sauce Aroma Impact Compounds Using GC-MS, SPME-Osme-GCO, and Stevens' Power Law Exponents  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to characterize volatile compounds and to determine the characteristic aromas associated with impact compounds in 4 fish sauces using solid-phase micro-extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Osme, and gas chromatography olfactometry (SPME-Osme-GCO) couple...

246

Detection of Volatile Aroma Compounds of Morchella by Headspace Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available   This study was conducted at the Horticulture Department of Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey, in 2010 to determine the volatile aroma compounds of Morchella mushroom. Fresh samples of Morchella esculenta (Sample 1 and Morchella elata (Sample 2 were collected from Çanakkale (Sample 1 and Mersin (Sample 2 provinces in Turkey in the spring of 2010. Volatile aroma compounds were analyzed by headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS. A total of 31 aroma compounds were identified in the 2 analyzed samples: 7 alcohols, 7 esters, 7 ketones, 3 acids, 2 aldehydes, 1 terpene, phenol, 1-propanamine, geranyl linalool, and quinoline. Seventeen aroma components were identified in Sample 1, and 18 compounds were found in Sample 2. Phenol was determined as the major aroma compound in both Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 50.888% and 58.293% content, respectively. Alcohols, especially 1-octen-3-ol, were detected as the second major aroma components in Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 15.500% and 5.660% content, respectively. Carbamic acid, methyl ester was found only in Sample 1, at 11.379% content. The aroma components detected in the two samples differed. 1-Octadecanol; cyclooctylalcohol; trans-2-undecen-1-ol; butanoic acid, butyl ester (CAS; carbamic acid, methyl ester; 2-ethylhexyl-2-ethylhexanoate; phthalic acid, decyl isobutyl ester; 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate; decanal; nonanal; 7,9-di-tert-butyl-1-oxaspiro(4.5deca-6,9-diene-2,8-dione; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione; 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl; and trans-alpha-bisabolene were detected only in Sample 1. Ethanol; silanediol, 2-methylaminoethanol; L-alanine, ethyl ester; carbonic acid, dodecyl isobutyl ester; acetic acid; butanoic acid; 2,3,4H-pyran-4-one; 5,9-undecadien-2-one; cyclooctene; 2-cyclopenten-1-one; 1-propanamine; geranyl linalool; and quinoline were determined only in Sample 2.

Hatira TA?KIN

2013-05-01

247

Aroma extract dilution analysis of cv. Meeker (Rubus idaeus L.) red raspberries from Oregon and Washington.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aromas of cultivar Meeker red raspberry from Oregon and Washington were analyzed by aroma extract dilution analysis. Seventy-five aromas were identified [some tentatively (superscript T)] by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-retention index; 53 were common to both, and 22 have not been previously reported in red raspberry. Twenty-one compounds had an equivalent odor impact in both: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-(2H)-furanone, hexanal, 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one, (E)-beta-3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatrieneT, 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptaneT, 1-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1,3-cyclohexadien-1-yl)-2-buten-1-one, ethanoic acid, (Z)-3-hexenalT, 3-methylmercaptopropionaldehyde, (Z)-3-hexenol, 2,6-dimethyl-2,7-octadien-6-ol, butanoic acid, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, (E)-2-hexenal, hexyl formateT, 2,3-butanedione, heptanalT, thiacyclopentadieneT, cyclohexane carbaldehydeT, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-olT, and 4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone. Oregon Meeker had 14 odorants with higher flavor dilution (FD) factors than Washington Meeker: 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-oneT, 1-octanol, 5-isopropyl-2-methylcyclohexa-1,3-dieneT, 7-methyl-3-methylene-1,6-octadieneT, ethyl hexanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetateT, ethyl propanoate, 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanoneT, 2-methylbutanoic acid, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl cyclohexane carboxylateT, 2-methylthiacyclopentadieneT, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetateT, and 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-olT. Washington Meeker had 16 odorants with higher FD factors than Oregon Meeker: 5-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-(5H)-furanoneT, dimethyl sulfideT, 2-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-(2H)-furanoneT, 1-hexanolT, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-yl acetateT, methyl hexanoate, phenyl ethanoic acidT, neo-allo-3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatrieneT, 2-nonanoneT, 2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enyl)propan-2-olT, phenylmethanolT, 5-octanolideT, 2-phenylethanol, 1-isopropyl-4-methylenebicyclo[3.1.0]hexaneT, and 2-undecanone. PMID:15291490

Klesk, Keith; Qian, Michael; Martin, Robert R

2004-08-11

248

Sensory characteristics of European, dried, fermented sausages and the correlation to volatile profile  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the European FAIR-project: Control of Bioflavour and Safety in Northern and Mediterranean Fermented Meat Products (FAIR-CT97-3227) four different sausage types were manufactured in five replicates and characterised by sensory and analytical means. The objective of the present study was to characterise the flavour pattern of the FAIR sausages with regards to sensory perceived compounds and volatile/sensory profiles. According to gas chromatography-olfactometry the greatest differences between the Northern and Mediterranean sausages were attributed to coffee/roasted, phenolic and vinegar odours in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The compounds were 2-furfurylthiol, guaiacol, acetic acid and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. Sausages added garlic contained two specific odours with salami/onion-like notes. The odours were attributed to allylmercaptane and methylthiirane. Correlation of sensory and volatile profile showed that garlic flavour correlated with sulphur compounds from garlic, smoked flavour with most of the cyclic compounds (furanes, phenols etc.), acid flavour with the acids (acetic, butanoic and hexanoic acid), spice and piquante flavour with the terpenes, rancid flavour with hexanal, octanal, nonanal and decanal and maturity with ethyl esters and methyl-ketones.

Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller; Sunesen, Lars Oddershede

1999-01-01

249

Production d'arômes de type lactone par des levures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production of aroma lactones by yeasts. Lactones are widely distributed in foods and beverages as aroma compounds. Their extraction from natural products is very expensive. Most of them can also be obtained in a chemical way, which is not well perceived by consumers. As an alternative, biotechnology proposes to use whole cells or enzymes to produce lactones by biotransformation or bioconversion of fatty acids. Different studies and patents have been conducted on that matter. In most cases, yeasts are the biological agent used. The main concerned lactones are ?- and ?-decalactones, ?-octalactone and ?-dodecalactone. This article describes lactones and their production by yeasts; particular attention will be devoted to the ?-decalactone.

Alchihab, M.

2010-01-01

250

Key volatile aroma compounds of three black velvet tamarind (Dialium) fruit species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nineteen odour-active compounds were quantified in three black velvet tamarind fruit species. Calculation of the odour activity values (OAVs) of the odorants showed that differences in odour profiles of the tamarinds were mainly caused by linalool, limonene, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, nonanal, and (Z)-3-hexenal. On the basis of their high OAVs, cis-linalool oxide (furanoid), geranyl acetone, and cinnamyl acetate were identified as other potent odorants in the three tamarinds. Sensory studies revealed very distinct aroma profiles, which are characteristic of these types of fruits. While the Dialiumguineense elicited floral, flowery, caramel-like notes, the other two species were dominated by leaf-like, caramel, and green notes. PMID:25172748

Lasekan, Ola; See, Ng Siew

2015-02-01

251

IMPORTANCE OF AROMAS ON MOOD PROFILE AND HUMAN AURA (Qualitative Vibrations of Prana  

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Full Text Available The Indian Traditional Concept of “Swastya” means to be stationed in one’s own self or well-being, which means to be beyond body / mind yogically. Sri Aurobindo (1970 stated that “Yoga means a methodized effort towards self-perfection by expression of the potentialities latent in the being” and “…a union of the human individual with the universal and transcendent Existence”. According to Sri Aurobindo (1972 “The Spirit has made itself Matter (body in order to place itself there as an instrument for the well-being and joy “Yogakshema”, of created beings for a self-offering of  physical universal utility of service. Interestingly, WHO has stipulated spiritual health for universal well-being. This opens avenues for experimental studies.  Benson (1976 stated that in the year 1968 opened medical laboratory for studies in transcendental meditation.   Chopra (1993 has spoken that there is enormous latent intelligence in the living organism. The “inexperience” of the organism has placed the mind – body relationship on scientific footing. This relationship opens both ways, on one hand it removes disease state and being at “ease” state. Thus enhancing psychoneurotic immunology where the subject herself / himself learns to manipulate the involved energy and to enhance the delightful state of well-being. Aromas have been an area that can open new areas for research on emotional and psychosomatic well-being.  “Pranayama” recognizes science of holding breath or vitality.  “Willfully” holding moods with awareness / consciousness is to experience spirits flow and its freedom in creating a new inner dimension of highest well-being.   To experience subtle and its power of mood is yogically raise mood profile to the dynamics of the spirit subjectively.  This was taken as an experimental study. The Subjects studying in MSc. in the Department of Food Service Management at Smt. V.H.D. Central Institute of Home Science, Bangalore, India took part in the study. A pre-test was conducted to check the Aura status of all the twenty subjects. Based on pre-test health status a purposive sample was worked out. Those subjects whose health aura was in good condition were selected as Control Group, (n=10 and others whose health aura was affected were chosen as Experimental Group (n=10 and the Experimental Group were subjected to intervention programme along with Aroma Treatment. Based on the investigator’s observations, an experiment was designed to study the influence of Aroma on the subject’s physiological and psychological moods and feelings, effect on Chakras and their Human Aura. Statistical test ?2 (Chi-square was used to test the significance between Experimental and Control Groups for comparison. The aroma Nectar of Divine Joy has yielded significant results both in objective and subjective test obtained by the Experimental group. The result showed that the intervention programme helped in retaining higher emotions. This study points out that the auric field one carries depends upon one’s own thought forms that one generates through emotions and feelings.  To bathe inner organs with the highest mood profile is to experience the highest vitality in body and mind as one vibrates and radiates the well-being around them in homonymous state.  This growth is a teleotic journey in emotions and feelings towards the Divine state.

Srilakshmi R* and N ShakuntalaManay

2013-06-01

252

Effects of elevated temperature postharvest on color aspect, physiochemical characteristics, and aroma components of pineapple fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, 2 separate experiments were performed to describe the influence of elevated temperature treatments postharvest on the color, physiochemical characteristics and aroma components of pineapple fruits during low-temperature seasons. The L* (lightness) values of the skin and pulp of pineapple fruits were decreased. The a* (greenness-redness) and b* (blueness-yellowness) values of the skin and pulp were all markedly increased. The elevated temperature significantly increased the contents of total soluble solids (TSS) and slightly affected contents of vitamin C (nonsignificant). Titratable acidity (TA) of pineapple fruits were notably decreased, whereas the values of TSS/TA of pineapple fruits were significantly increased. The firmness of the pineapple fruits decreased and more esters and alkenes were identified. The total relative contents of esters were increased, and the total relative contents of alkenes were decreased. PMID:25367439

Liu, Chuanhe; Liu, Yan

2014-12-01

253

Transfer of aroma compounds in water-lipid systems: binding tendency of beta-lactoglobulin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interactions of volatile aroma compounds with protein in aqueous solutions, especially whey proteins, have received significant attention in recent years. This work attempts to improve our understanding of the mass transfer in multiphasic systems, such as emulsions at the lipid-water interface, and to reveal the role of beta-lactoglobulin in the release rate of solutes. For this purpose the rotating diffusion cell has been used. From a practical point of view it enables evaluation of the transfer through the aqueous phase, through the oil and the interfacial transfer. The effect of beta-lactoglobulin, medium pH, and solute concentration has been investigated. Benzaldehyde and 2-nonanone have been studied, and miglyol has been chosen as an oil phase. It has been demonstrated that mass transfer has a rate-limiting step, which depends on physicochemical parameters such as hydrophobicity of the volatile, diffusion and partition coefficients, and rheological properties of the aqueous phase. PMID:10563882

Rogacheva, S; Espinosa-Diaz, M A; Voilley, A

1999-01-01

254

Using pervaporation data in the calculation of vapour permeation hollow-fibre modules for aroma recovery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Taking into account the close similarity between pervaporation and vapour permeation techniques, a method for employing pervaporation flux data in the modelling of vapour permeation modules is proposed. It is based on the use of fugacity gradients across the membrane, instead of concentration ones, [...] as the driving force for mass transfer. This procedure is interesting, for instance, in the case of aroma recovery systems, for which there is much more experimental data on pervaporation available in the literature than on vapour permeation. In order to illustrate the application of this method, pervaporation experiments for an isotropic PDMS membrane were conducted with aqueous solutions of ethyl acetate (113-2474 mg/L), and the results obtained were used to enable simulation of different vapour permeation hollow-fibre modules for recovering ethyl acetate from diluted air streams.

C. P., Ribeiro Jr.; C. P., Borges.

2004-12-01

255

Using pervaporation data in the calculation of vapour permeation hollow-fibre modules for aroma recovery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taking into account the close similarity between pervaporation and vapour permeation techniques, a method for employing pervaporation flux data in the modelling of vapour permeation modules is proposed. It is based on the use of fugacity gradients across the membrane, instead of concentration ones, as the driving force for mass transfer. This procedure is interesting, for instance, in the case of aroma recovery systems, for which there is much more experimental data on pervaporation available in the literature than on vapour permeation. In order to illustrate the application of this method, pervaporation experiments for an isotropic PDMS membrane were conducted with aqueous solutions of ethyl acetate (113-2474 mg/L, and the results obtained were used to enable simulation of different vapour permeation hollow-fibre modules for recovering ethyl acetate from diluted air streams.

C. P. Ribeiro Jr.

2004-12-01

256

Associations of Volatile Compounds with Sensory Aroma and Flavor: The Complex Nature of Flavor  

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Full Text Available Attempts to relate sensory analysis data to specific chemicals such as volatile compounds have been frequent. Often these associations are difficult to interpret or are weak in nature. Although some difficulties may relate to the methods used, the difficulties also result from the complex nature of flavor. For example, there are multiple volatiles responsible for a flavor sensation, combinations of volatiles yield different flavors than those expected from individual compounds, and the differences in perception of volatiles in different matrices. This review identifies some of the reasons sensory analysis and instrumental measurements result in poor associations and suggests issues that need to be addressed in future research for better understanding of the relationships of flavor/aroma phenomena and chemical composition.

Edgar Chambers IV

2013-04-01

257

Strategies for the preparation and concentration of mushroom aromatic products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungal aroma comprises at least seven chemical groups of volatile organic compounds, which are plain hydrocarbons, heterocycles, alcohols, phenols, acids and derivatives, carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones), and sulfur containing molecules. This aromatic blend provides the excellent sensory properties to produce and several strategies have been employed to create aromatic products having the aroma and taste of mushrooms and truffles. Nowadays, there are several procedures to obtain aroma concentrates. Among them, the simulation of mushroom aroma by the combination of the main substances responsible for the flavour could be an efficient strategy. Nevertheless, natural procedures are gaining more importance since the concentrate is not a synthetic product and the processes commonly involve the use of mushroom waste. In this field, the maceration with precursor molecules, such as linoleic acid, or different types of enzymes is commonly used in food industry. This article provides a wide view of the most common strategies to produce fungal aroma taking into account the main advantages and disadvantages they present. The article presents some promising patents on strategies for the preparation and concentration of mushroom aromatic products. PMID:22594661

Villares, Ana; Guillamon, Eva; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; D'Arrigo, Matilde; Garcia-Lafuente, Ana

2012-08-01

258

Stomatal distribution, stomatal density and daily leaf movement in Acacia aroma (Leguminosae) / Distribución y densidad estomática y movimiento diario de la hoja en Acacia aroma (Leguminosae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Acacia aroma crece en las Provincias Biogeográficas Chaqueña y de las Yungas, Argentina. Este árbol posee numerosas aplicaciones en medicina popular, sus frutos son comestibles y puede ser usada como forraje. Los objetivos de la presente contribución fueron: establecer la distribución y densidad de [...] los estomas en el folíolo secundario, en distintos folíolos secundarios de la misma hoja y en los folíolos secundarios de las hojas de la parte basal, media y superior de la copa del árbol, estableciendo relaciones con el movimiento diario de las hojas y condiciones ambientales. Para el estudio se utilizó material fresco y ejemplares de herbario empleando técnicas de anatomía convencionales. Se estableció la distribución de los estomas sobre las superficies adaxial y abaxial del folíolo secundario. Se encontraron diferencias en la densidad de estomas entre los folíolos secundarios de la parte basal, media y apical de la hoja que están relacionadas a la posición de éstas en la copa del árbol. Dentro de la copa del árbol se encontró que la densidad de estomas decrece desde la parte basal hasta la parte superior. La distribución y densidad estomática estarían relacionadas a la forma del folíolo secundario y posición de éstos sobre el raquis, al movimiento diario de los folíolos secundarios y de la hoja interactuando con los factores ambientales. Cabe destacar que el valor medio de densidad de estomas se halló en la parte media de la hoja y en la parte media de la copa del árbol. El trabajo se acompaña con ilustraciones originales. Abstract in english Acacia aroma Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. grows in the Chacoan and Yungas Biogeographic Provinces, Argentina. It has numerous medicinal applications, sweet and edible fruits, and it may be used as forage. The objective of the present contribution was to analyse the stomatal distribution and stomatal dens [...] ity on the secondary leaflet surfaces, in different parts of the leaf, and at different tree crown levels, establishing the leaf movement and environmental condition relationships. The work was performed with fresh material and herbarium specimens, using conventional anatomical techniques. Stomatal distribution on the secondary leaflet surfaces was established, and differences in stomatal density among basal, medium and apical leaflets were found. A decrease in stomatal density from the lower level to the upper level of the tree crown would be connected with that. The stomatal distribution and density appear related to the secondary leaflet shape and its position on the secondary rachis, interacting with the daily secondary leaflets and leaf movement, and the weather conditions. It is interesting that the medium value of stomata density were found in the middle part of the leaf and at the middle level of the tree crown. Original illustrations are given.

Marcelo P., Hernández; Ana M., ArambarriI.

2010-12-01

259

Effect of alternative NAD+-regenerating pathways on the formation of primary and secondary aroma compounds in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycerol-defective mutant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae maintains a redox balance under fermentative growth conditions by re-oxidizing NADH formed during glycolysis through ethanol formation. Excess NADH stimulates the synthesis of mainly glycerol, but also of other compounds. Here, we investigated the production of primary and secondary metabolites in S. cerevisiae strains where the glycerol production pathway was inactivated through deletion of the two glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenases genes (GPD1/GPD2) and replaced with alternative NAD(+)-generating pathways. While these modifications decreased fermentative ability compared to the wild-type strain, all improved growth and/or fermentative ability of the gpd1?gpd2? strain in self-generated anaerobic high sugar medium. The partial NAD(+) regeneration ability of the mutants resulted in significant amounts of alternative products, but at lower yields than glycerol. Compared to the wild-type strain, pyruvate production increased in most genetically manipulated strains, whereas acetate and succinate production decreased in all strains. Malate production was similar in all strains. Isobutanol production increased substantially in all genetically manipulated strains compared to the wild-type strain, whereas only mutant strains expressing the sorbitol producing SOR1 and srlD genes showed increases in isoamyl alcohol and 2-phenyl alcohol. A marked reduction in ethyl acetate concentration was observed in the genetically manipulated strains, while isobutyric acid increased. The synthesis of some primary and secondary metabolites appears more readily influenced by the NAD(+)/NADH availability. The data provide an initial assessment of the impact of redox balance on the production of primary and secondary metabolites which play an essential role in the flavour and aroma character of beverages. PMID:21720823

Jain, Vishist K; Divol, Benoit; Prior, Bernard A; Bauer, Florian F

2012-01-01

260

AROMA-AIRWICK: a CHLOE/CDC-3600 system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The AROMA-AIRWICK System for CHLOE, an automatic film scanning equipment built at Argonne by Donald Hodges, and the CDC-3600 computer is a system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks. AROMA-AIRWICK has been an outgrowth of the generally recognized need for the automatic processing of high energy physics data and the fact that the Argonne National Laboratory has been a center of serious spark chamber development in recent years

 
 
 
 
261

Studies on the aroma of different species and strains of Pleurotus measured by GC/MS, sensory analysis and electronic nose  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aroma of several strains of Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Pleurotus djamor was studied by GC/MS. Three main mushrooms aroma constituents: 3-octanol, 3-octanone and 1-octen-3-ol were taken into account for quantitative measurements. The highest amount of 1-octen-3-ol was recorded in P. ostreatus, while considerably lower amounts in P. citrinopileatus. Sensory profile analysis as well as the electronic nose also varied between the three species of Pleurotus. Chiral gas ...

Renata Zawirska-Wojtasiak; Marek Siwulski; Sylwia Mildner-Szkudlarz; Sowicz, Erwin W. X.

2009-01-01

262

Some carbonyl compounds and free fatty acid composition of Afyon Kaymag? (clotted cream and their effects on aroma and flavor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some carbonyl compounds (acetaldeyhde, acetone, butanone-2 and diacetyl, the lactic acid and free fatty acid compositions of Afyon kaymag?, produced from pure buffalo milk obtained from seven different farms, and their effects on aroma and flavor were investigated. Acetone was found in the highest amount of carbonyl compounds. Butyric, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were characteristic free fatty acids for Afyon Kaymag?. The effect of the investigated compounds on the aroma and flavor scores (AFS of Afyon Kaymag? was found to be 93.3%. Lactic acid was negatively correlated but was the second most important compound for the aroma and flavor of Afyon Kaymag? (R2 = 40%. The investigated carbonyl compounds explained only 3.2% of the variation in aroma and flavor of Afyon Kaymag?. Lactic acid, acetone, diacetyl, C4:0, C8:0, C12:0 and C18:0 had negative effects on the AFS, but acetaldehyde, butanone-2, C6:0, C10:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 were positively related to the AFS.

Se han investigado algunos compuestos carbonílicos (acetaldehido, acetona, 2-butanona y diacetil, el ácido láctico y la composición de los ácidos grasos libres de Afyon kaymagi (cuajada, producida sólo a partir de leche de búfalas obtenidas de siete granjas diferentes y sus efectos sobre el aroma y el sabor. Entre los compuestos carbonílicos, la acetona fué el que se encontró en mayor concentración. Butírico, esteárico, oleico, linoleico y linolénico son los ácidos grasos libres característicos de Afyon Kaymag?. El efecto de los compuestos investigados en las puntuaciones (AFS de aroma y sabor de Afyon Kaymag? se encontró que fué del 93,3%. El ácido láctico, segundo compuesto importante, se correlacionó negativamente con el aroma y el sabor de Afyon Kaymag? (R2 = 40%. Los compuestos carbonilos investigados explican sólo el 3,2% de la variación en el aroma y el sabor de Afyon Kaymag?. El ácido láctico, la acetona, diacetil, y los ácidos C4:0, C8:0, C12:0 y C18:0 tienen un efecto negativo en la AFS, pero el acetaldehído, la 2-butanona, y los ácidos C6:0, C10:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 y C18:3 están positivamente relacionados con el AFS.

?enel, E.

2011-12-01

263

Formulation and conservation of a pharmaceutical form with leaf extracts from Acacia aroma Gill. ex Hook et Arn  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Leaf fluid extracts of Acacia aroma GILL. ex Hook et Arn showed antibacterial activity against antibiotic multiresistant bacteria isolated from clinical samples, antioxidant and ant-inflammatory activities. Toxicological studies carried out on Artemia salina and Allium cepa attested none toxicity po [...] tential. The aim of this work was to elaborate a formulation of topical antibacterial hydrogel with Carbopol acrylic acid polymer containing an A. aroma fluid extract in order to compare with a hydrogel containing commercial antibiotic. The optimal extract concentration in this formulation was determined according to the values of minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration for Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant (F7) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (F352). Physical, chemical, rheological and microbiological stability was observed at least during one year. The hydrogel containing Acacia leaves fluid extract shows remarkable antibacterial effect with a broadspectrum efficacy against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria at low concentration.

M. E, Arias; J. D., Gomez; M., Vatuone; M. I., Isla.

264

A powerful aromatic volatile thiol, 2-furanmethanethiol, exhibiting roast coffee aroma in wines made from several Vitis vinifera grape varieties.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical compound 2-furanmethanethiol (2FM), with a strong roast coffee aroma, has been identified in sweet white wines made from the Petit manseng grape variety, and in certain red Bordeaux wines (made from the Merlot, Cabernet franc, and Cabernet sauvignon grape varieties). This was done by extracting specific volatile thiols using p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. The 2FM has also been found in toasted oak used in barrel-making. All the Petit manseng sweet white wines and some of the red Bordeaux wines analyzed contained between a few ng/L and several dozen ng/L of 2FM. Taking into account its very low perception threshold (0.4 ng/L in a model hydro alcoholic environment), 2FM could therefore contribute to the roast coffee aroma of certain wines. PMID:10820097

Tominaga, T; Blanchard, L; Darriet, P; Dubourdieu, D

2000-05-01

265

Development and characterisation of semiconductor gas sensors for the online-detection of formation of aroma compounds during baking processes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

By the combination of methods of chemical analysis with methods of sensory analysis the odour-active substances of deep-fried poultry could be identified and quantified for the first time. Substances corresponding to characteristic sensor-active odours were tested with different sensors by the HRGCC/SOMMSA-method, resulting in correlations of substance/sensor; this allowed optimisation of sensor materials in order to detect aroma compounds. Results were used in a practical experimental setup ...

Liepe, Jens-michael

2007-01-01

266

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in two bavarian wheat beers by means of the sensomics approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatiles isolated from a commercial Bavarian wheat beer (WB A) eliciting its typical aroma profile, best described by a clove-like, phenolic odor quality, revealed 36 odorants in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 16 to 4096. Among them, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like) and 2-phenylethanol (flowery) showed the highest FD factors. AEDA of a second wheat beer (WB B), somewhat lacking the typical wheat beer odor note, revealed 32 odor-active components in the FD factor range from 32 to 8192. Among them, 2-phenylethanol, (E)-?-damascenone (cooked apple-like) and 3-methylbutanol (malty) were detected with the highest FD factors. Next, all odorants evaluated with an FD factor ?32 were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays in both beers, and the odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated. Thereby, ethanol, (E)-?-damascenone, 3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl methylpropanoate, and ethyl butanoate showed the highest OAVs in WB A, followed by acetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanol, and dimethyl sulfide. In WB B, ethanol, (E)-?-damascenone, ethyl methylpropanoate, ethyl butanoate, and 3-methylbutyl acetate showed the highest OAVs. Whereas most aroma compounds were present in the same order of magnitude in both beer samples, in particular, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol (smoky, leather-like) were by factors of 13 and 15, respectively, higher in WB A. For the first time, the overall aroma of wheat beer (WB A) was successfully simulated on the basis of 27 reference compounds in their natural concentrations using water/ethanol (95:5; v/v) as the matrix. PMID:24219571

Langos, Daniel; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

2013-11-27

267

Effect on the Aroma Profile of Graciano and Tempranillo Red Wines of the Application of Two Antifungal Treatments onto Vines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of two antifungals (boscalid + kresoxim-methyl and metrafenone) applied onto vines under Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) on the volatile composition of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines was studied. Changes in aroma profile in the wines were assessed from the combined odour activity values (OAVs) for the volatile compounds in each of seven different odorant series (viz., ripe fruits, fresh fruits, lactic, floral, vinous, spicy and herbaceous). Graciano wines obtained from grape...

Raquel Noguerol-Pato; Thais Sieiro-Sampredro; Carmen González-Barreiro; Beatriz Cancho-Grande; Jesús Simal-Gándara

2014-01-01

268

Characterization of "savory" aroma compounds in aged red wines via gas chromatography-olfactometry and descriptive analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The practice of extended bottle aging to increase wine quality is traditionally carried out by both wine producers as well as wine collectors. Mainly red wines are anaerobically bottle-aged to increase the complexity of sensory characteristics. Past research on the evolution of red wine aroma during aging has mainly focused on wood-derived characters during barrel-aging, or those related to the release of grape-derived, sugar-bound precursors due to acid hydrolysis. The latter reactions ma...

Beatty, Alyssa Mae

2013-01-01

269

Aromas florales y su interacción con los insectos polinizadores Floral scents and their interaction with insect pollinators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las plantas emplean diversas señales visuales y olfativas con la finalidad de atraer a los polinizadores que en su mayoría son insectos. Algunas plantas han desarrollado mecanismos, basándose en mensajes olfativos que los hacen únicos para sus polinizadores específicos. Estos mecanismos, así como las variaciones intra- e interespecíficas en el perfil de los aromas florales han evolucionado para determinadas especies. Los aromas florales son un conjunto de compuestos volátiles orgánicos y para su estudio hay varios métodos que requieren de técnicas que cada vez son más eficientes. El uso de estos aromas podría ser una opción en determinados sistemas de polinización, utilizándolos como atrayente de polinizadores o de depredadores y/o herbívoro para incrementar la producción y disminuir los daños por plagas. En este trabajo se revisan las distintas interacciones de los insectos y los aromas florales, los sistemas específicos planta-polinizador, los métodos de análisis, así como algunos patrones o tendencias de estas interacciones y su aplicación e importancia.Plants use visual and olfactory cues to attract pollinators and to allow them to detect the presence of flowers, which most of them are insects. Some plants have evolved with their pollinators, based on the olfactory messages, which make them unique for their specific pollinators. These mechanisms have evolved in certain plants in relation to their pollinators, and there are also inter and intra-specific variation in fragrance cues which show specific chemical profile for each plant species, so insects attracted are specific to them. Most of the floral scents are organic compounds identified with techniques and methodologies which become more specific and efficient along the time. The application of floral scent could be used as a tool in pollination and pest management. In these studies, insect interaction with floral scent is reviewed and specificity of plant-pollinator, additionally the method of analysis, some patterns and trends in these interactions, the application and its importance are examined.

Julieta Grajales-Conesa

2011-12-01

270

A sensory and chemical approach to the aroma of wooden aged Lourinhã wine brandy / Uma abordagem sensorial e química ao aroma de aguardentes vínicas envelhecidas da Lourinhã  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O envelhecimento das aguardentes vínicas em vasilhas de madeira provoca alterações profundas na composição físico-química e sensorial destas bebidas. Neste trabalho são estudados os odorantes em aguardentes vínicas da região da Lourinhã envelhecidas em diferentes condições. Para o efeito recorreu-se [...] à avaliação dos compostos odorantes por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução acoplada à olfactometria (GC-O), à quantificação de alguns dos compostos odorantes por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução acoplada a um detector de ionização de chama (GC-FID) e à avaliação sensorial das aguardentes. Os resultados de GC-O permitiram identificar 29 odorantes diferentes (álcoois, ésteres, ácidos e fenóis), uns originários do destilado e outros provenientes da madeira. A pesquisa de correlações entre a análise sensorial e a análise química confirmou a importância odorante de vários compostos com origem na madeira, designadamente a vanilina, os fenóis voláteis e os aldeídos furânicos. Estes compostos apresentaram importantes correlações com descritores sensoriais como a baunilha, fumo, torrado, frutos secos, madeira, os quais tem uma correlação positiva com a qualidade da aguardente. Abstract in english The maturation of wine brandies in wooden barrels origin many sensory and physical-chemical changes in these alcoholic beverages. This work studies the odorants in different aged brandies from Lourinhã. These brandies were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry (GC-O). A panel taster [...] profiled these brandies and the identified odorants were also quantified by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The GC-O results showed 29 identified odorants (alcohols, esters, acids and phenols). Some of them are proceeding from the distillate while others are extracted from the wood. The analysis of correlation between the sensory profiles and the odorant quantification pointed out the relevance of several wood compounds for the brandy aroma, namely the vanillin, volatile phenols and furanic aldehydes. These compounds presented important correlations with several olfactory attributes like vanilla, smoke, toasted, dried fruits, woody, which influence positively the quality of the brandies.

Ilda, Caldeira; R. Bruno de, Sousa; A. Pedro, Belchior; M. Cristina, Clímaco.

271

Effect on the aroma profile of Graciano and Tempranillo red wines of the application of two antifungal treatments onto vines.  

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The effect of two antifungals (boscalid+kresoxim-methyl and metrafenone) applied onto vines under Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) on the volatile composition of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines was studied. Changes in aroma profile in the wines were assessed from the combined odour activity values (OAVs) for the volatile compounds in each of seven different odorant series (viz., ripe fruits, fresh fruits, lactic, floral, vinous, spicy and herbaceous). Graciano wines obtained from grapes treated with the antifungals exhibited markedly increased concentrations of varietal volatile compounds (monoterpenes and C13-norisoprenoids) and aldehydes, and decreased concentrations of acetates and aromatic alcohols. By contrast, the concentrations of volatile compounds in Tempranillo wines showed different changes depending on the fungicide applied. Also, the aroma profiles of wines obtained from treated grapes were modified, particularly the ripe fruit nuances in Graciano wines. The OAV of this odorant series underwent an increase by more than 60% with respect to the control wine as a result of the increase of ?-damascenone concentration (which imparts wine a dry plum note). The aroma profile of Tempranillo red wines containing metrafenone residues exhibited marked changes relative to those from untreated grapes. PMID:25123185

Noguerol-Pato, Raquel; Sieiro-Sampredro, Thais; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

2014-01-01

272

Effect on the Aroma Profile of Graciano and Tempranillo Red Wines of the Application of Two Antifungal Treatments onto Vines  

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Full Text Available The effect of two antifungals (boscalid + kresoxim-methyl and metrafenone applied onto vines under Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs on the volatile composition of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines was studied. Changes in aroma profile in the wines were assessed from the combined odour activity values (OAVs for the volatile compounds in each of seven different odorant series (viz., ripe fruits, fresh fruits, lactic, floral, vinous, spicy and herbaceous. Graciano wines obtained from grapes treated with the antifungals exhibited markedly increased concentrations of varietal volatile compounds (monoterpenes and C13-norisoprenoids and aldehydes, and decreased concentrations of acetates and aromatic alcohols. By contrast, the concentrations of volatile compounds in Tempranillo wines showed different changes depending on the fungicide applied. Also, the aroma profiles of wines obtained from treated grapes were modified, particularly the ripe fruit nuances in Graciano wines. The OAV of this odorant series underwent an increase by more than 60% with respect to the control wine as a result of the increase of ?-damascenone concentration (which imparts wine a dry plum note. The aroma profile of Tempranillo red wines containing metrafenone residues exhibited marked changes relative to those from untreated grapes.

Raquel Noguerol-Pato

2014-08-01

273

Chemical and sensory effects of the freezing process on the aroma profile of black truffles (Tuber melanosporum).  

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The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of freezing black truffles (Tuber melanosporum) on their aroma both in sensory and chemical terms. The truffles were frozen at temperatures of -20 to -80°C. Descriptive and discriminative sensory and chemical analyses, based on headspace solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (HS-SPME-GC-MS), were carried out after 1, 20, 40 and 60 days. Fifteen compounds with high aromatic potential in truffles were determined. Their selective ion peak areas were calculated, summed and expressed as percentage of active odour compound, in order to monitor changes in odour profile. The aroma of frozen truffles differed significantly from the aroma of fresh truffles. Volatile composition data revealed that T. melanosporum aromatic profile is deeply modified as a consequence of a freezing process. These aromatic changes could explain the loss of freshness observed in all frozen truffles. Methional and some phenols were suggested as markers of freezing time. Interestingly, 1-octen-3-one appeared as a general marker of freezing process. PMID:23122092

Culleré, Laura; Ferreira, Vicente; Venturini, María E; Marco, Pedro; Blanco, Domingo

2013-01-15

274

Determination of aroma components in Chinese southwest tobacco by directly suspended droplet microextraction combined with GC-MS.  

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In this paper, a simple and efficient approach, directly suspended droplet microextraction (DSDME), has been applied to extract aroma components in Chinese southwest tobacco prior to analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The extraction parameters such as organic solvent type, extraction time, temperature, stirring speed and volume were systemically optimized. A single drop of cyclohexane was placed on the top of the aqueous sample which was used as solvent. Under the optimal conditions of DSDME, 62 aroma components of tobacco were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. The approach was used to determine some important aromas in tobacco with the relative recoveries ranged from 75.92 to 102.88%, relative standard deviations in the range of 3.40-7.14% (n = 5) and the limits of detection of 0.0002-0.002 ?g/mL. Moreover, the DSDME was applied to identify the aromatic components in Chinese southwest tobacco in this research for the first time and the results suggested that the method can be used as rapid determination of the tobacco. This method can enhance the extracting rate of tobacco aromatic components and meet the need of qualitative analysis of large amount samples. PMID:24363270

Wu, Lijun; Li, Qianqian; Li, Chunzi; Cao, Jinli; Lai, Yanqing; Qiu, Kaixian; Min, Shungeng

2014-01-01

275

Characterization of aroma compounds of Chinese famous liquors by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and flash GC electronic-nose.  

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Aroma composition of five Chinese premium famous liquors with different origins and liquor flavor types was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and flash gas chromatographic electronic nose system. Eighty-six aroma compounds were identified, including 5 acids, 34 esters, 10 alcohols, 9 aldehydes, 4 ketones, 4 phenols, and 10 nitrous and sulfuric compounds. To investigate possible correlation between aroma compounds identified by GC-MS and sensory attributes, multivariate ANOVA-PLSR (APLSR) was performed. It turned out that there were 30 volatile composition, ethyl acetate, ethyl propanoate, ethyl 2-methyl butanoate, ethyl 3-methyl butanoate, ethyl lactate, ethyl benzenacetate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, hexyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-heptanol, phenylethyl alcohol, acetaldehyde, 1,1-diethoxy-3-methyl butane, furfural, benzaldehyde, 5-methyl-2-furanal, 2-octanone, 2-n-butyl furan, dimethyl trisulfied and 2,6-dimethyl pyrazine, ethyl nonanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, octanoic acid, ethyl 5-methyl hexanoate, 2-phenylethyl acetate,ethyl oleate, propyl hexanoate, butanoic acid and phenol, ethyl benzenepropanoate, which showed good coordination with Chinese liquor characteristics. The multivariate structure of this electronic nose responses was then processed by principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). According to the obtained results, GC-MS and electronic nose can be used for the differentiation of the liquor origins and flavor types. PMID:24333641

Xiao, Zuobing; Yu, Dan; Niu, Yunwei; Chen, Feng; Song, Shiqing; Zhu, Jiancai; Zhu, Guangyong

2014-01-15

276

A Box-behnken Design for Characterizing Chinese Truffles (Tuber indicum Aroma by HS-SPME-GC-MS  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation is to fully characterize the aroma of Chinese truffles (Tuber indicum by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME. To develop an objective method to extract aroma compounds, four different fibers were studied and a Box-Behnken design (BBD was applied. From the statistical analysis of the experimental result, it was able to determine that the most important factor was the extraction temperature and the optimum extraction conditions were as follows: extraction time 20.6 min, extraction temperature 52.4 oC and equilibrium time 6.8 min, By using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis under the optimal conditions, it identified 24 compounds, three of which were reported for the first time in the Chinese truffle: 2-methylpropanal, 2,3-butanedione, 2-nonanone. And we found that the highest content compound was dimethyl sulfide, followed by 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, 2-butanol and 1-pentanol, 1-octen-3-ol, all of those compounds were previously described as characteristic aroma of truffle.

Sanping Fang

2012-05-01

277

Interactions between beta-lactoglobulin and aroma compounds: different binding behaviors as a function of ligand structure.  

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Interactions between beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) in its monomeric form and a wide range of aroma compounds were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. A screening of the ligands was carried out by FT-IR through the amide I region changes of BLG upon binding. The location of two binding sites was determined by 2D NMR from the study of 10 selected ligands with different structures. All of the data suggest at least two binding behaviors as a function of the chemical class, the hydrophobicity, or the structure of the ligands. The binding of the elongated aroma compounds, such as 2-nonanone or ethyl pentanoate, within the central cavity involves residues located at the entrance of the calyx and Trp19. The binding onto the protein surface of aroma compounds that have or adopt a compact structure occurs in a site located between strand beta-G, alpha helix, and strand beta-I. PMID:18928299

Tavel, Laurette; Andriot, Isabelle; Moreau, Céline; Guichard, Elisabeth

2008-11-12

278

Effects of distillation system and yeast strain on the aroma profile of Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace spirits.  

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Orujo is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in Galicia (northwest Spain) from distillation of grape pomace, a byproduct of the winemaking industry. In this study, the effect of the distillation system (copper charentais alembic versus packed column) and the yeast strain (native yeast L1 versus commercial yeast L2) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of orujo obtained from Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace has been analyzed. Principal component analysis, with two components explaining 74% of the variance, is able to clearly differentiate the distillates according to distillation system and yeast strain. Principal component 1, mainly defined by C6-C12 esters, isoamyl octanoate, and methanol, differentiates L1 from L2 distillates. In turn, principal component 2, mainly defined by linear alcohols, linalool, and 1-hexenol, differentiates alembic from packed column distillates. In addition, an aroma descriptive test reveals that the distillate obtained with a packed column from a pomace fermented with L1 presented the highest positive general impression, which is associated with the highest fruity and smallest solvent aroma scores. Moreover, chemical analysis shows that use of a packed column increases average ethanol recovery by 12%, increases the concentration of C6-C12 esters by 25%, and reduces the concentration of higher alcohols by 21%. In turn, L2 yeast obtained lower scores in the alembic distillates aroma profile. In addition, with L1, 9% higher ethanol yields were achieved, and L2 distillates contained 34%-40% more methanol than L1 distillates. PMID:25307564

Arrieta-Garay, Y; Blanco, P; López-Vázquez, C; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J J; Pérez-Correa, J R; López, F; Orriols, I

2014-10-29

279

Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese.  

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Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acid and the interaction between these environmental factors. Growth models were developed by combining new and existing cardinal parameter values. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameters (?ref at 25°C) were fitted to a total of 52 growth rates from cottage cheese to improve model performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese. The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias- and accuracy factors and with the concept of acceptable simulation zone. Evaluation of predicted growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing resulted in bias-factors (Bf) of 1.07-1.10 with corresponding accuracy factor (Af) values of 1.11 to 1.22. Lactic acid bacteria from added starter culture were on average predicted to grow 16% faster than observed (Bf of 1.16 and Af of 1.32) and growth of the diacetyl producing aroma culture was on average predicted 9% slower than observed (Bf of 0.91 and Af of 1.17). The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new models to successfully predict maximum population density of L. monocytogenes when growing together with lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. 11 of 13 simulations of L. monocytogenes growth were within the acceptable simulation zone, which demonstrated good performance of the empirical inter-bacterial interaction model. The new set of models can be used to predict simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria and L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese during chilled storage at constant and dynamic temperatures. The applied methodology is likely to be applicable for safety prediction of other types of fermented and unripened dairy products where inhibition by lactic acid bacteria is important for growth of pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:25086348

Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

2014-10-01

280

Cell-free supernatants obtained from fermentation of cheese whey hydrolyzates and phenylpyruvic acid by Lactobacillus plantarum as a source of antimicrobial compounds, bacteriocins, and natural aromas.  

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Cheese whey hydrolyzates supplemented with phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) and commercial nutrients can be efficiently metabolized by Lactobacillus plantarum CECT-221 to biosynthesize some compounds with attractive applications in the food market. The main metabolites of cell-free extracts were antimicrobial compounds such as phenyllactic acid (PLA) and lactic acid (LA). The production of PLA by L. plantarum CECT-221 was evaluated in the Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth supplemented with two biosynthetic precursors: phenylalanine or PPA. Using 30.5 mM PPA, the microorganism increased sevenfold the concentration of PLA producing 16.4 mM PLA in 46 h. A concentration of 40 mM PPA was a threshold to avoid substrate inhibition. The biosynthesis of whey hydrolyzates as a carbon source was enhanced by fed-batch fermentation of PPA; the average productivity of PLA increased up to 45.4?±?3.02 mM after 120 h with a product yield of 0.244 mM mM(-1); meanwhile, LA reached 26.1?±?1.3 g L(-1) with a product yield of 0.72 g g(-1). Cell-free fed-batch extracts charged in wells showed bacteriocin activity with halos of 7.49?±?1.44 mm in plates inoculated with Carnobacterium piscicola and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (11.54?±?1.14 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.17?±?2.46 mm), Listeria monocytogenes (7.75?±?1.31 mm), and Salmonella enterica (3.60?±?1.52 mm). Additionally, the analysis of the volatile composition of the headspace of this cell-free extract revealed that L. plantarum is a potential producer for natural aromas, such as acetophenone, with high price in the market. This is the first report of PLA production from cheese whey and PPA. The extracts showed bacteriocin activity and potential to be applied as an antimicrobial in the elaboration of safer foods. PMID:23934083

Rodríguez-Pazo, Noelia; Vázquez-Araújo, Laura; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés-Diéguez, Sandra; Domínguez, José Manuel

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
281

Potent odorants characterize the aroma quality of leaves and stalks in raw and boiled celery.  

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The raw and boiled odors of celery leaves and stalks were investigated. Among 12 compounds identified as potent odorants, 3-n-butylphthalide 1, sedanenolide 2, and trans- and cis-sedanolides 3, 4 were assessed to be most contributive to the overall odor of celery. These three phthalides, (3E,5Z)-1,3,5-undecatriene, myrcene, and (E)-2-nonenal were common to both raw and boiled materials. Two compounds, ((Z)-3-hexenal and (Z)-3-hexenol), were dominant in raw materials and four compounds, (2-methylbutanoic acid, sotolon, beta-damascenone, and beta-ionone), were dominant in boiled materials. Sensory evaluations were performed on natural celery odor and a series of reconstructed model aromas by assigning each intensity ratings for a set of seven odor qualities which aptly describe the odors of raw and boiled celery. According to the evaluation results, six common components contributed to the moderate odor of raw celery, two components dominant in raw materials enhanced the raw celery character, and four components dominant in boiled materials reduced the raw celery character and enhanced the boiled celery character. It was clarified that boiling-induced changes in celery odor were not affected by the amounts of phthalides, but by thermally generated compounds such as sotolon, beta-damascenone, and beta-ionone, which reduce the "green spicy" note. PMID:16636464

Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Kouno, Emi; Fujita, Akira; Morimitsu, Yasujiro; Kubota, Kikue

2006-04-01

282

Aroma profile of star anise and the structure-odor relationship of anethole.  

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Star anise is an important fragrance material that has a characteristic anise-like odor. Although the main component of star anise is (E)-anethole, which accounts for over 90% of the constituents, the odor of (E)-anethole is different from that of the material itself. Here, we examined the aroma profile of star anise. GC-MS analysis of star anise extracts showed that it contains many compounds with structures similar to (E)-anethole. Our results indicate that (E)-anethole is the key compound in the odor of star anise, but structurally similar compounds play an important role in creating its odor. We examined the structure-odor relationship of (E)-anethole, focusing on the methoxy and 1-propenyl substituents. Altering the 1-propenyl group changed the odors of all the anethole derivatives. Replacing the methoxy group with a hydrogen atom created compounds with similar fatty odors. This shows that the methoxy group is important for the characteristic odor of anethole. We synthesized anethole derivatives where the methoxy group was replaced with a methyl group. In both methoxy- and methyl-substituted anethole derivatives, altering the 1-propenyl group changed the odors of the derivatives. Therefore, the methoxy and methyl benzene moieties are important structural features for the odor of star anise. The structural characteristics of anethole are closely related to its odor expression. PMID:24689303

Hasegaw, Toshio; Seimiya, Haruna; Fujihara, Takashi; Fujiwara, Noriko; Yamada, Hideo

2014-02-01

283

Monoterpene synthase from Dracocephalum kotschyi and SPME-GC-MS analysis of its aroma profile  

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Full Text Available Dracocephalum kotschyi (Lamiaceae, as one of the remarkable aromatic plants, widely grows and also is cultivated in various temperate regions of Iran. There are diverse reports about the composition of the oil of this plant representing limonene derivatives as its major compounds. There is no report on cloning of mono- or sesquiterpene synthases from this plant. In the present study, the aroma profile of D. kotschyi has been extracted and analyzed via Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction technique coupled with Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy. In order to determine the sequence of the active terpene synthase in this plant, first mRNA was prepared and cloning was performed by 3’ and 5’-RACEs-PCR method, then cDNA was sequenced and finally aligned with other recognized terpene synthases. The results showed that the plant leaves mainly comprised geranial (37.2%, limonene-10-al (28.5%, limonene (20.1% and 1,1-dimethoxy decane (14.5%. Sequencing the cDNA cloned from this plant revealed the presence of a monoterpene synthase absolutely similar to limonene synthase, responsible in formation of limonene, terpinolene, camphene and some other cyclic monoterpenes in its young leaves.

S. Saeidnia

2014-04-01

284

Influence of grape-harvesting steps on varietal thiol aromas in Sauvignon blanc wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intense tropical fruit aroma of Sauvignon blanc wines has been associated with the varietal thiols 3-mercaptohexanol (3MH), derived from odorless precursors in the grape, and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA), arising from 3MH during fermentation. Grapes and juice were sourced from five locations in Marlborough, New Zealand, taking hand-picked grapes and samples at four stages during the mechanical harvesting process and pressing, which were then fermented in replicated 750 mL bottles. With each set of juices, the highest concentrations of Cys-3MH and Glut-3MH were found in the juices pressed to 1 bar, but these juices produced wines with lower 3MH and 3MHA concentrations. With three of the juices, there was an increase in varietal thiol content for wines made from juices that had been machine harvested compared to the hand-picked samples, which matched earlier findings of lower 3MH and 3MHA levels in wines made from hand-picked grapes. Juices that were more oxidized, and which showed a higher absorbance at 420 nm, were found to produce wines with lower 3MH and 3MHA concentrations. PMID:21854044

Allen, Thomas; Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Girault, Melanie; Butler, Paul; Logan, Gerard; Jouanneau, Sara; Nicolau, Laura; Kilmartin, Paul A

2011-10-12

285

Isolamento e seleção de microrganismos pectinolíticos a partir de resíduos provenientes de agroindústrias para produção de aromas frutais Screening of fruit flavors producing pectinolitic microorganisms isolated from agroindustrial residues  

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Full Text Available As pectinases são enzimas produzidas naturalmente por plantas, fungos, leveduras e bactérias. Estes microrganismos podem ser inoculados em meios contendo resíduos agroindustriais utilizados como fonte de carbono para a produção de compostos de maior valor agregado, como enzimas, etanol, proteínas, aminoácidos e compostos de aroma. Vários microrganismos foram isolados e selecionados quanto à produção de enzimas pectinolíticas pelo método da placa, através de zonas claras de degradação de pectina ao redor da colônia. De 104 linhagens testadas, 18 foram selecionadas para fermentarem em meio líquido, contendo pectina para a determinação de atividade de poligalacturonase (PG e de pectina liase (PMGL, e em meio frutose/extrato de levedura para produção de aromas. As linhagens 2, 9, 20, 39, 70, 74 e 99 apresentaram unidades de atividade de PG superiores a 80 µmol de ácido galacturônico/mL/min, as linhagens 17, 18, 31, 37, 73, 74 e 125 apresentaram unidades de atividade de PMGL superiores a 1000 etamol de produtos insaturados/mL/min e as linhagens 13, 70, 73, 74, 125 e 144 apresentaram os melhores descritores e as maiores intensidades de aromas percebidos por um painel não treinado de provadores.Pectinases are enzymes used in food industries, produced by plants, fungi, yeasts and bacteria. These microorganisms can be inoculated in a medium containing agro-industrial residues from processing agricultural products, used as a carbon source to produce value-added products such as enzymes, ethanol, proteins, amino acids and flavor compounds. Several microorganisms were isolated and selected due to their capacity to produce pectinolytic enzymes in clear halos around colonies by plate assay. From 104 strains, 18 were inoculated in a medium containing pectin as a carbon source and the pectinolytic activities of polygalacturonase (PG and pectin lyase (PMGL were determined. Strains 2, 9, 20, 39, 70, 74, and 99 showed activity units of PG higher than 80 µmol galacturonic acid/mL/minute. Strains 17, 18, 31, 37, 73, 74 and 125 showed activity units of PMGL higher than 1000 etamol unsaturated products/mL/minute. Strains 13, 70, 73, 74, 125 and 144 showed good signs of flavor noticed in the fructose and yeast extract medium and the most intense flavor according to a non-trained board of tasters.

Mariana Uenojo

2006-09-01

286

Comparison of aroma volatiles in commercial Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines using gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seventy-four aroma active compounds were observed in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines produced in California and Australia. Volatiles were sampled using solid phase microextraction and analyzed using time-intensity gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The most intense odorants were 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, octanal, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, beta-damascenone, 2-methoxyphenol, 4-ethenyl-2-methoxy-phenol, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, acetic acid, and 2-phenylethanol. Aroma compounds were classified according to their aroma descriptor similarity and summed into nine distinct categories consisting of fruity, sulfury, caramel/cooked, spicy/peppery, floral, earthy, pungent/chemical, woody, and green/vegetative/fatty. Both Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines were characterized by high fruity, caramel, green, and earthy aroma totals. Although there were distinct quantitative differences between Merlot and Cabernet wines, the relative aroma category profiles of the four wines were similar. Of the 66 volatiles identified by GC-MS, 28 were esters and 19 were minor alcohols. Between 81 and 88% of the total MS total ion chromatogram peak areas from each wine type were produced from only eight compounds: ethanol, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, ethyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl hexanoate, diethyl succinate, and 2-phenylethanol. Merlot wines from both Australia and California contained 4-5 times more ethyl octanoate than Cabernet Sauvignon wines from the same sources. PMID:16719525

Gürbüz, Ozan; Rouseff, June M; Rouseff, Russell L

2006-05-31

287

Characterization of the most odor-active compounds in an American Bourbon whisky by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction carefully isolated from an American Bourbon whisky revealed 45 odor-active areas in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 32-4096 among which (E)-beta-damascenone and delta-nonalactone showed the highest FD factors of 4096 and 2048, respectively. With FD factors of 1024, (3S,4S)-cis-whiskylactone, gamma-decalactone, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (eugenol), and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzaldehyde (vanillin) additionally contributed to the overall vanilla-like, fruity, and smoky aroma note of the spirit. Application of GC-Olfactometry on the headspace above the whisky revealed 23 aroma-active odorants among which 3-methylbutanal, ethanol, and 2-methylbutanal were identified as additional important aroma compounds. Compared to published data on volatile constituents in whisky, besides ranking the whisky odorants on the basis of their odor potency, 13 aroma compounds were newly identified in this study: ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, (E)-2-heptenal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, ethyl phenylacetate, 4-methyl acetophenone, alpha-damascone, 2-phenylethyl propanoate, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, trans-ethyl cinnamate, and (Z)-6-dodeceno-gamma-lactone. PMID:18570373

Poisson, Luigi; Schieberle, Peter

2008-07-23

288

Reconstitution of the flavor signature of Dornfelder red wine on the basis of the natural concentrations of its key aroma and taste compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

By application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction isolated from a Dornfelder red wine, 31 odor-active compounds were identified by means of HRGC-MS and comparison with reference compounds. A total of 27 odorants, judged with high FD factors by means of AEDA, was quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays, and acetaldehyde was determined enzymatically. In addition, 36 taste-active compounds were analyzed by means of HPLC-UV, HPLC-MS/MS, and ion chromatography. The quantitative data obtained for the identified aroma and taste compounds enabled for the first time the reconstruction of the overall flavor of the red wine. Sensory evaluation of both the aroma and taste profiles of the authentic red wine and the recombinate revealed that Dornfelder red wine was closely mimicked. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the high molecular weight fraction of red wine is essential for its astringent taste impression. By comparison of the overall odor of the aroma recombinate in ethanol with that of the total flavor recombinate containing all tastants, it was shown for the first time that the nonvolatile tastants had a strong influence on the intensity of certain aroma qualities. PMID:21744781

Frank, Stephanie; Wollmann, Nadine; Schieberle, Peter; Hofmann, Thomas

2011-08-24

289

A Study of Inhalation of Peppermint Aroma on the Pain and Anxiety  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Considering the painfulness of labor and its resulting anxiety, and also, complications such as uterine dysfunction, prolonged labor, and unpleasant memories, the present study was performed aimed to investigate the effect of peppermint aroma on the level of pain and anxiety in the first stage of labor in nulliparous women.Methods: This research was done as a clinical trial study on 128 nulliparous women assigned into two groups (64 subjects in aromatherapy group and 64 subjects in control group. In aromatherapy group, mixtures containing 0.2ml essence of peppermint and 2ml normal saline impregnated gauze, and in the control group, only 2ml normal saline impregnated gauze were attached to their dress collar, and the administration was repeated every 30 minutes. Level of anxiety was measured in dilatations 3-4 and 8-10cm and the intensity of pain in dilatations 4-5, 6-7, and 8-10cm. The data were collected through demographic and obstetric questionnaire, observation checklist, spielberger anxiety questionnaire, and pain numerical rating scale. Results: In this study, the age, job, education, and gestational age were the same in both groups. Also, the level of anxiety was the same in both groups before the intervention, but after the intervention, anxiety level decreased in intervention group compared to control group (p<0.001. The mean pain score in the dilatations 4-5, 6-7, and 8-10cm decreased in intervention group compared to control group (p<0.001 for all.Conclusion: Aromatherapy with peppermint essence is recommended for the reduction of pain and anxiety level during labor due to its inexpensiveness, ease and non-invasiveness.

Giti Ozgoli

2013-07-01

290

Analysis of volatile aroma constituents of wine produced from Indian mango (Mangifera indica L.) by GC-MS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile aroma compounds are synthesized by wine yeast during wine fermentation. In this study the volatile aroma composition of two varieties of mango wine were determined to differentiate and characterize the wines. The wine was produced from the fruits of two varieties of mango cultivars namely Banginapalli and Alphonso. The volatile compounds formed in mango wine were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thirty-two volatile compounds in wines were determined of which four were new and unidentified present in lower concentration. Apart from the ethanol (8.5 ± 0.28 and 7.2 ± 0.28% v/v), 1-propanol (54.11 ± 0.33 and 42.32 ± 0.57 mg/l), isobutyl alcohol (102 ± 1.57 and 115.14 ± 2.88 mg/l) and isoamyl alcohol (123 ± 2.88 and 108.40 ± 0.23 mg/1) were found to be the major flavouring higher alcohols in the mango wines produced from the fruits of Banginapalli and Alphonso respectively. Ethyl acetate (35 ± 0.57 and 30.42 ±1.15 mg/l) was the major ester component in both wines produced. Besides, other esters like ethyl octonoate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl decanoate were also present in the wines. Cyclohexane methanol (1.45 ± 0.11 mg/l) was present only in wine made from Banginapalli and ?-phenylethyl butanoate (0.62 ± 0.01 mg/1) was found only in Alphonso wine. The results demonstrate that the wine prepared from Banginapalli variety had better aroma composition and good taste than that from the Alphonso variety. PMID:23100826

Reddy, L V A; Sudheer Kumar, Y; Reddy, O V S

2010-06-01

291

Aromas florales y su interacción con los insectos polinizadores / Floral scents and their interaction with insect pollinators  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las plantas emplean diversas señales visuales y olfativas con la finalidad de atraer a los polinizadores que en su mayoría son insectos. Algunas plantas han desarrollado mecanismos, basándose en mensajes olfativos que los hacen únicos para sus polinizadores específicos. Estos mecanismos, así como la [...] s variaciones intra- e interespecíficas en el perfil de los aromas florales han evolucionado para determinadas especies. Los aromas florales son un conjunto de compuestos volátiles orgánicos y para su estudio hay varios métodos que requieren de técnicas que cada vez son más eficientes. El uso de estos aromas podría ser una opción en determinados sistemas de polinización, utilizándolos como atrayente de polinizadores o de depredadores y/o herbívoro para incrementar la producción y disminuir los daños por plagas. En este trabajo se revisan las distintas interacciones de los insectos y los aromas florales, los sistemas específicos planta-polinizador, los métodos de análisis, así como algunos patrones o tendencias de estas interacciones y su aplicación e importancia. Abstract in english Plants use visual and olfactory cues to attract pollinators and to allow them to detect the presence of flowers, which most of them are insects. Some plants have evolved with their pollinators, based on the olfactory messages, which make them unique for their specific pollinators. These mechanisms h [...] ave evolved in certain plants in relation to their pollinators, and there are also inter and intra-specific variation in fragrance cues which show specific chemical profile for each plant species, so insects attracted are specific to them. Most of the floral scents are organic compounds identified with techniques and methodologies which become more specific and efficient along the time. The application of floral scent could be used as a tool in pollination and pest management. In these studies, insect interaction with floral scent is reviewed and specificity of plant-pollinator, additionally the method of analysis, some patterns and trends in these interactions, the application and its importance are examined.

Julieta, Grajales-Conesa; Virginia, Meléndez-Ramírez; Leopoldo, Cruz-López.

1356-13-01

292

Volatile composition and contribution to the aroma of spanish honeydew honeys. Identification of a new chemical marker.  

Science.gov (United States)

Honeydew honeys from holm-oak, oak, and forest were isolated for aroma compounds by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In all, 66 volatile components were identified and quantified. trans-Oak lactone, a characteristic volatile component of oak wood, is proposed as a new chemical marker for the plant origin of honeydew honeys. Other compounds, such as aminoacetophenone and propylanisol, could be considered characteristic of holm-oak honeydew honeys. A total of 15 volatile compounds presented odor activity values (OAVs) greater than 1, with phenylacetaldehyde and beta-damascenone being those with the highest OAVs. PMID:16787032

Castro-Vázquez, Lucia; Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad

2006-06-28

293

Identification of the key odorants in Tahitian cured vanilla beans (Vanilla tahitensis) by GC-MS and an aroma extract dilution analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The key odorants of Tahitian vanilla beans (Vanilla tahitensis) were characterized by a sensory evaluation, aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), quantification, and aroma reconstitution. Vanillin and anisaldehyde were identified in the same highest flavor dilution (FD) factor as the most characteristic odor-active compounds in Tahitian vanilla beans, followed by anisyl alcohol and anisyl acetate. Vanillin and anisyl alcohol were by far the most abundant odorants present with the highest concentration in the beans, followed by acetic acid, anisaldehyde, and anisyl acetate. A sensory evaluation of Tahitian vanilla beans and its reconstitute aroma concentrate characterized both samples as similar. These results indicated vanillin, anisaldehyde, anisyl alcohol, and anisyl acetate to be the key odorants in Tahitian vanilla beans. 3-Methylnonane-2,4-dione were identified for the first time in vanilla beans. ?-Damascenone and phenylacetic acid were identified for the first time in Tahitian vanilla beans. PMID:23470766

Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

2013-01-01

294

Evaluation of differences in the aroma composition of free-run and pressed neutral grape juices obtained from Emir (Vitis vinifera L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the differences in the aroma compounds released after the free-run and pressed juices of cv. Emir grape (Vitis vinifera L.) were evaluated. Aroma compounds were obtained by liquid-liquid extraction with CH(2) Cl(2) , and then analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). According to the results, pressing uniformly increased the levels of the aromatic constituents, but this treatment lowered the grape juice quality for winemaking by increasing the total phenolic compounds, browning index, and C(6) -alcohol levels (green-herbaceaous odor) as compared to the free-run juice. From all the aroma compounds identified in both juices, hexan-1-ol, (E)-hex-2-en-1-ol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, and 2-phenylethanol were the most abundant volatile compounds. PMID:21922666

Selli, Serkan; Bagatar, Berfu; Sen, Kemal; Kelebek, Ha?im

2011-09-01

295

The chemical characterization of the aroma of dessert and sparkling white wines (Pedro Ximénez, Fino, Sauternes, and Cava) by gas chromatography-olfactometry and chemical quantitative analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wines from Pedro Ximénez (PX), Fino, botrytized Sauternes, and Cava were screened by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and the most relevant aroma compounds were further quantified in six different wines of each group. The comparison of GC-O and quantitative data with similar data from white young wines has made it possible to identify the aroma compounds potentially responsible for the specific sensory characteristics of these wines. Results have shown that all these wines are relatively rich in 3-methylbutanal, phenylacetaldehyde, methional, sotolon, and the ethyl esters of 2-, 3-, and 4-methylpentanoic acids. While Cava has a less specific aroma profile halfway between these special wines and young white wines, PX is richest in 3-methylbutanal, furfural, beta-damascenone, ethyl cyclohexanoate, and sotolon; Fino in acetaldehyde, diacetyl, ethyl esters of branched aliphatic acids with four, five, or six carbon atoms, and 4-ethylguaiacol; and Sauternes in phenylacetaldehyde, 3-mercaptohexanol, and 4-methyl-4-mercaptopentanone. PMID:18338867

Campo, Eva; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

2008-04-01

296

Characterization of aroma-active compounds in dry flower of Malva sylvestris L. by GC-MS-O analysis and OAV calculations.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the aroma-active compounds in the dried flower of Malva sylvestris L. were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA). A light yellow oil with a sweet odor was obtained with a percentage yield of 0.039% (w/w), and 143 volatile compounds (89.86%) were identified by GC-MS. The main compounds were hexadecanoic acid (10.1%), pentacosane (4.8%) and 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (4.1%). The essential oil consisted mainly of hydrocarbons (25.40%) followed by, alcohols (18.78%), acids (16.66%), ethers (5.01%) ketones (7.28%), esters(12.43%), aldehydes (2.30%) and others (2.00%). Of these compounds, 20 were determined by GC-O and AEDA, to be odor-active (FD (flavor dilution) factor ? 1). ?-Damascenone (FD = 9, sweet), phenylacetaldehyde (FD = 8, floral, honey-like) and (E)-?-ocimene (FD = 8, spicy) were the most intense aroma-active compounds in M. sylvestris. In order to determine the relative contribution of each of the compounds to the aroma of M. sylvestris, odor activity values (OAVs) were used. ?-Damascenone had the highest odor activity values (OAV) (50,700), followed by (E)-?-ionone (15,444) and decanal (3,510). In particular, ?-damascenone had a high FD factors, and therefore, this compound was considered to be the main aroma-active components of the essential oil. On the basis of AEDA, OAVs, and sensory evaluation results, ?-damascenone is estimated to be the main aroma-active compound of the essential oil. PMID:23985485

Usami, Atsushi; Kashima, Yusei; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

2013-01-01

297

[Effects of soil, climate, and their interaction on some neutral volatile aroma components in flue-cured tobacco leaves from high quality tobacco planting regions of Hunan Province].  

Science.gov (United States)

A pot experiment with the soils from Yongzhou, Liuyang, and Sangzhi, the high-quality tobacco planting regions of Hunan Province, was conducted to study the effects of climate, soil, and their interaction on some neutral volatile aroma components in flue-cured tobacco leaves. The contents of test neutral volatile aroma components in the flue-cured tobacco leaves were of medium variation, and the variation intensity was decreased in the order of dihydroactinolide, damascenone, furfural, total megastigmatrienone, and beta-ionone. Climate, soil, and their interaction affected the neutral volatile aroma components in different degrees. The furfural content was most affected by climate, the damascenone content was most affected by climate and by soil, the total megastigmatrienone and beta-ionone contents were most affected by the interaction of soil and climate, while the dihydroactinolide content was less affected by soil, climate, and their interaction. The contribution of climate, soil, and their interaction to the contents of the five aroma components was 40.82%, 20.67%, and 38.51%, respectively. During different growth periods of tobacco, different climate factors had different effects on the neutral volatile aroma components. The rainfall, cloudiness, and mean air temperature at rooting stage, the diurnal temperature amplitude, sunshine time, and evaporation at vigorous growth stage, and the rainfall, evaporation, and mean air temperature at maturing stage were the top three climate factors affecting the contents of the neutral volatile aroma components in flue-tobacco leaves. For the soil factors, the available potassium, available phosphorus, and pH were the top three factors affecting the contents of the five components. PMID:21043117

Deng, Xiao-Hua; Xie, Peng-Fei; Peng, Xin-Hui; Yi, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Ji-Heng; Zhou, Qing-Ming; Pu, Wen-Xuan; Dai, Yuan-Gang

2010-08-01

298

Use and declaration of additives in meat products: New legal regulations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents the more important additives used in meat products, their functional characteristics, the permitted quantities and declaration in keeping with the new legal regulations. Additives important for meat products, according to their functional characteristics, can be preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers, emulsifying salts, acidity regulators, sequestrants, thickeners, gelling agents, modified starches, acids, colours, aroma enhancers, packaging gases and coating...

Vukovi? Ilija; Milanovi?-Stevanovi? Mirjana

2005-01-01

299

Effects of coffee bean aroma on the rat brain stressed by sleep deprivation: a selected transcript- and 2D gel-based proteome analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was 2-fold: (i) to demonstrate influences of roasted coffee bean aroma on rat brain functions by using the transcriptomics and proteomics approaches and (ii) to evaluate the impact of roasted coffee bean aroma on stress induced by sleep deprivation. The aroma of the roasted coffee beans was administered to four groups of adult male Wistar rats: 1, control group; 2, 24 h sleep deprivation-induced stress group (the stress group); 3, coffee aroma-exposed group without stress (the coffee group); and 4, the stress with coffee aroma group (the stress with coffee group). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of some known genes responsive to aroma or stress was performed using total RNA from these four groups. A total of 17 selected genes of the coffee were differently expressed over the control. Additionally, the expression levels of 13 genes were different between the stress group and the stress with coffee group: Up-regulation was found for 11 genes, and down-regulation was seen for two genes in the stress with coffee group. We also looked to changes in protein profiles in these four samples using two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis; 25 differently expressed gel spots were detected on 2D gels stained by silver nitrate. Out of these, a total of nine proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Identified proteins belonged to five functional categories: antioxidant; protein fate; cell rescue, defense, and virulence; cellular communication/signal transduction mechanism; and energy metabolism. Among the differentially expressed genes and proteins between the stress and the stress with coffee group, NGFR, trkC, GIR, thiol-specific antioxidant protein, and heat shock 70 kDa protein 5 are known to have antioxidant or antistress functions. In conclusion, the roasted coffee bean aroma changes the mRNA and protein expression levels of the rat brain, providing for the first time clues to the potential antioxidant or stress relaxation activities of the coffee bean aroma. PMID:18517217

Seo, Han-Seok; Hirano, Misato; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep; Hwang, In Kyeong; Masuo, Yoshinori

2008-06-25

300

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in rape honey by means of the molecular sensory science concept.  

Science.gov (United States)

By application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction isolated by solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) from unifloral rape honey harvested in July 2009, 28 odor-active areas could be detected within a flavor dilution factor (FD) range of 4-2048. The highest FD factors were found for (E)-?-damascenone (cooked apple-like), phenylacetic acid (honey-like), 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (aniseed-like), 3-phenylpropanoic acid (flowery, waxy), and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like). Twenty-three odorants were then quantitated by application of stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAV, ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated on the basis of newly determined odor thresholds in an aqueous fructose-glucose solution. The highest OAVs were calculated for (E)-?-damascenone, 3-phenylpropanoic acid, phenylacetic acid, dimethyl trisulfide, and phenylacetaldehyde. Quantitative measurements on a rape honey produced in 2011 confirmed the results. A model mixture containing the 12 odorants showing an OAV ? 1 at the same concentrations as they occurred in the rape honey was able to mimick the aroma impression of the original honey. The characterization of the key odorants in rape flowers from the same field suggested 3-phenylpropanoic acid, phenylacetic acid, and three further odorants to be transferred via the bees into the honey. PMID:22489542

Ruisinger, Brigitte; Schieberle, Peter

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
301

A methodological approach to screen diverse cheese-related bacteria for their ability to produce aroma compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microorganisms play an important role in the development of cheese flavor. The aim of this study was to develop an approach to facilitate screening of various cheese-related bacteria for their ability to produce aroma compounds. We combined i) curd-based slurry medium incubated under conditions mimicking cheese manufacturing and ripening, ii) powerful method of extraction of volatiles, headspace trap, coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-trap-GC-MS), and iii) metabolomics-based method of data processing using the XCMS package of R software and multivariate analysis. This approach was applied to eleven species: five lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc lactis, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus helveticus), four actinobacteria (Brachybacterium articum, Brachybacterium tyrofermentans, Brevibacterium aurantiacum, and Microbacterium gubbeenense), Propionibacterium freudenreichii, and Hafnia alvei. All the strains grew, with maximal populations ranging from 7.4 to 9.2 log (CFU/mL). In total, 52 volatile aroma compounds were identified, of which 49 varied significantly in abundance between bacteria. Principal component analysis of volatile profiles differentiated species by their ability to produce ethyl esters (associated with Brachybacteria), sulfur compounds and branched-chain alcohols (H. alvei), branched-chain acids (H. alvei, P. freudenreichii and L. paracasei), diacetyl and related carbonyl compounds (M. gubbeenense and L. paracasei), among others. PMID:25475278

Poga?i?, Tomislav; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Leclerc, Aurélie; Hervé, Christophe; Chuat, Victoria; Yee, Alyson L; Valence, Florence; Thierry, Anne

2015-04-01

302

Studies on some precursors involved in meat flavour formation / Estudos de alguns precursores envolvidos na formação do aroma cárneo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O efeito de alguns precursores na formação do aroma cárneo durante o aquecimento foi investigado. Estudos comparativos da influencia de três diferentes precursores, inosina-5'-monofosfato (5'-IMP), cisteína e tiamina, adicionados aos sistemas cárneos, mostrou que a formação de certos compostos heter [...] ocíclicos, como furanos sulfurados, ditiolanonas e tiofenos, foi significativamente afetada pelas mudanças de concentração dos precursores. Entretanto, compostos alifáticos, tais como: hidrocarbonetos, alcoois e cetonas não foram afetados por estas adições. Inosina-5'-monofosfato apresentou-se como o precursor mais eficiente na formação de alguns voláteis de aroma cárneo, como por exemplo os furanos sulfurados, quando aumentou-se em 10 vezes sua concentração na carne crua. Abstract in english The effect of some precursors on the formation of meat flavour during heating has been investigated. A comparison of the influence of three different precursors, inosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-IMP), cysteine and thiamine, added to the meat systems, showed that formation of certain heterocyclic compoun [...] ds, like sulfur-containing furans, dithiolanones and thiophenes, was significantly affected by changes in the concentration of precursors. However, aliphatic compounds, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols and ketones were not changed by these additions. Inosine-5'-monophosphate was established to be more effective than cysteine or thiamine in the formation of some "meaty" volatiles, i.e. the furanthiols, when its concentration was increased 10 times in raw meat.

M.S., Madruga.

1997-08-01

303

Studies on some precursors involved in meat flavour formation Estudos de alguns precursores envolvidos na formação do aroma cárneo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of some precursors on the formation of meat flavour during heating has been investigated. A comparison of the influence of three different precursors, inosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-IMP, cysteine and thiamine, added to the meat systems, showed that formation of certain heterocyclic compounds, like sulfur-containing furans, dithiolanones and thiophenes, was significantly affected by changes in the concentration of precursors. However, aliphatic compounds, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols and ketones were not changed by these additions. Inosine-5'-monophosphate was established to be more effective than cysteine or thiamine in the formation of some "meaty" volatiles, i.e. the furanthiols, when its concentration was increased 10 times in raw meat.O efeito de alguns precursores na formação do aroma cárneo durante o aquecimento foi investigado. Estudos comparativos da influencia de três diferentes precursores, inosina-5'-monofosfato (5'-IMP, cisteína e tiamina, adicionados aos sistemas cárneos, mostrou que a formação de certos compostos heterocíclicos, como furanos sulfurados, ditiolanonas e tiofenos, foi significativamente afetada pelas mudanças de concentração dos precursores. Entretanto, compostos alifáticos, tais como: hidrocarbonetos, alcoois e cetonas não foram afetados por estas adições. Inosina-5'-monofosfato apresentou-se como o precursor mais eficiente na formação de alguns voláteis de aroma cárneo, como por exemplo os furanos sulfurados, quando aumentou-se em 10 vezes sua concentração na carne crua.

M.S. Madruga

1997-08-01

304

Irrigation and rootstock effects on the phenolic concentration and aroma potential of Vitis vinifera L. cv. cabernet sauvignon grapes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compositional changes of skin and seed phenolic compounds and berry glycosylated aroma precursors were measured in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon onto 1103P and SO4 rootstocks, in three irrigation regimes (FI, 100% of evapotranspiration; DI, 50% of evapotranspiration; and NI, non-irrigated). The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard of central Greece, in a factorial experiment during two growing seasons (2005-2006). Grape samples were obtained at commercial harvest. The deficit water supply decreased berry size but did not affect the skin/pulp weight ratio. Water limitation, especially pre-veraison, caused a substantial increase of skin anthocyanin concentration, and this effect was independent of water deficit-induced reductions in berry size and vine vigor. Among individual anthocyanins, malvidin-3-O-glucoside was mostly affected by water supply. The rootstock genotype did not affect berry growth parameters and skin polyphenol concentrations. The irrigation regime (mainly post-veraison) and rootstock genotype affected total flavan-3-ol monomers in seed tissue, mainly as a result of variations in the catechin amount. The lower seed phenolic concentration was found in non-irrigated and SO4-grafted vines, probably as a result of the restriction of scion vigor caused by these treatments, thereby altering cluster exposure. Skin and seed tannins were not affected by either rootstock or irrigation. The limited water supply was associated with increased aroma potential at harvest. PMID:19722708

Koundouras, Stefanos; Hatzidimitriou, Effimia; Karamolegkou, Margarita; Dimopoulou, Eirini; Kallithraka, Stamatina; Tsialtas, John T; Zioziou, Eleftheria; Nikolaou, Nikolaos; Kotseridis, Yorgos

2009-09-01

305

Relationship of sensory and instrumental aroma measurements of dark chocolate as influenced by fermentation method, roasting and conching conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The investigation was undertaken to establish a relationship between key odorants and perceived flavor attributes of dark chocolate as influenced by cocoa fermentation method, roasting and conching conditions, using multivariate data analysis in an attempt to use one variable to predict the other. Eight of the sixteen flavor attributes used by a trained sensory panel to describe and quantify the intensity of attributes in the samples were significantly different (p?Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares (PLS) were used to investigate quantitative descriptive analysis and GC-O data and also to relate the two sets of data. PLS 1 models based on single sensory attributes gave better models than PLS2 models based on all sixteen sensory attributes. Ethyl-3-methylbutanoate (fruity, flowery); 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (popcorn); dihydro-2(3H)-furanone, (sweet); linalool oxide (sweet, flowery); benzaldehyde (earthy, nutty) and 2/3-methylbutanal (cocoa, roasted) modeled fruit attribute. It was also possible to model the attribute astringent from the aroma compounds 5-methyl-2-phenyl-2-hexenal (sweet, roasted cocoa), ethyl-3-methylbutanoate and pentyl acetate (green, cucumber). Since fruit attribute was higher in unconched samples and astringent higher in unroasted samples, it may be possible to use the levels of these important aroma compounds as indicators of the sensory attributes fruit and astringent. PMID:24425997

Owusu, Margaret; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Heimdal, Hanne

2013-10-01

306

Identification of character-impact odorants in a cola-flavored carbonated beverage by quantitative analysis and omission studies of aroma reconstitution models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty aroma-active components of a cola-flavored carbonated beverage were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. The OAV results revealed that 1,8-cineole, (R)-(-)-linalool, and octanal made the greatest contribution to the overall aroma of the cola. A cola aroma reconstitution model was constructed by adding 20 high-purity standards to an aqueous sucrose-phosphoric acid solution. The results of headspace solid-phase microextraction and sensory analyses were used to adjust the model to better match authentic cola. The rebalanced model was used as a complete model for the omission study. Sensory results indicated that omission of a group consisting of methyleugenol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and (Z)- and (E)-isoeugenols differed from the complete model, while omission of the individual components of this group did not differ from the complete model. These results indicate that a balance of numerous odorants is responsible for the characteristic aroma of cola-flavored carbonated beverages. PMID:25529113

Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa; Cadwallader, Keith R

2015-01-28

307

[Characterization of aroma active compounds in blood orange juice by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry].  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile compounds of fresh blood orange juice were analyzed by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and the aroma active compounds were identified by olfactometry. The volatile compounds were extracted by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using a divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber for 40 min at 40 degrees C. The analysis was carried out using an HP 6890N GC equipped with an HP-5 column (30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 microm ) directly connected to an HP 5975 series mass selective detector and a sniffing port (ODP2, Gerstel) using helium as carrier gas. Compound identifications were made by the comparison of the mass spectra, retention times, retention indices (I(R)) and odor of the volatile components in the extracts with those of the corresponding reference standards. Forty-six compounds were identified by GC-MS and I(R). The major components of the juice were limonene (86.36%), linalool (3.69%), beta-myrcene (1.79%), octanal (1.32%) and valencene (1.27%). GC-MS-olfactometry analysis was performed to determine 34 compounds with aroma activity, of which 23 compounds were identified. The major contributors to orange juice aroma activity are ethyl butanoate, octanal, gamma-terpinene, 4-acetyl-1-methyleyclohexene, decanal, (-)-carvone, geranyl acetate, valencene. These compounds of strong aroma intensity represent 7.22% of the total volatile compounds. Other four unknown compounds (I(R), <800; I(R) = 1020, 1143, 1169, separately) are also the major contributors to the overall aroma. PMID:18959252

Qiao, Yu; Xie, Bijun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yun; Pan, Siyi

2008-07-01

308

Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis beverages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma while roasted mate was defined as having a smooth, slightly burnt aroma. The relationship between the tentatively identified compounds and flavor must be determined by olfatometric analysis.

Carla Carolina Batista Machado

2007-06-01

309

Cooked carrot volatiles. AEDA and odor activity comparisons. Identification of linden ether as an important aroma component.  

Science.gov (United States)

MS with GC-RI evidence was found for the presence of linden ether in cooked carrot (Daucus carota). Evaluation of the GC effluent from cooked carrot volatiles using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) found linden ether with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor. Others with 10-fold lower FD factors were ?-ionone, eugenol, the previously unidentified ?-damascenone, (E)-2-nonenal, octanal (+ myrcene), and heptanal. All other previously identified volatiles showed lower FD factors. Odor thresholds, concentrations, and odor activity values of previously identified compounds are reviewed. This indicated that at least 20 compounds occur in cooked carrots above their odor thresholds (in water). Compounds showing the highest odor activity values included ?-damascenone, (E)-2-nonenal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, ?-ionone, octanal, (E)-2-decenal, eugenol, and p-vinylguaiacol. PMID:24000828

Buttery, Ron G; Takeoka, Gary R

2013-09-25

310

Correlation between Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Activation to Food Aromas and Cue-driven Eating: An fMRI Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food aromas are signals associated with both food's availability and pleasure. Previous research from this laboratory has shown that food aromas under fasting conditions evoke robust activation of medial prefrontal brain regions thought to reflect reward value (Bragulat, et al. 2010). In the current study, eighteen women (eleven normal-weight and seven obese) underwent a two-day imaging study (one after being fed, one while fasting). All were imaged on a 3T Siemens Trio-Tim scanner while sniffing two food (F; pasta and beef) odors, one non-food (NF; Douglas fir) odor, and an odorless control (CO). Prior to imaging, participants rated hunger and perceived odor qualities, and completed the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) to assess "Externality" (the extent to which eating is driven by external food cues). Across all participants, both food and non-food odors (compared to CO) elicited large blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses in olfactory and reward-related areas, including the medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral orbitofrontal cortex, and bilateral piriform cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. However, food odors produced greater activation of medial prefrontal cortex, left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and inferior insula than non-food odors. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the [F > CO] BOLD response in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and "Externality" sub-scale scores of the DEBQ, but only under the fed condition; no such correlation was present with the [NF > CO] response. This suggests that in those with high Externality, ventromedial prefrontal cortex may inappropriately valuate external food cues in the absence of internal hunger. PMID:25485031

Eiler, William J A; Dzemidzic, Mario; Case, K Rose; Considine, Robert V; Kareken, David A

2012-03-01

311

Evaluación interanual de las estrategias regenerativas de la especie exótica invasora Gleditsia triacanthos en relación a la nativa Acacia aroma en el bosque chaqueño serrano de Córdoba (Argentina) / Interannual evaluation of the regenerative strategies of the exotic invasive species Gleditsia triacanthos compared with the native Acacia aroma in the Chaco Serrano Woodland of Cordoba (Argentina)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se ha propuesto que las especies exóticas, en relación a las nativas, difieren en características o estrategias que favorecerían su expansión. Las características regenerativas de las plantas exóticas pueden variar entre temporadas reproductivas, modificando los patrones con respecto a las especies [...] nativas e influyendo en la velocidad de expansión. En este trabajo, en el bosque chaqueño serrano de Córdoba (Argentina), se comparó en al menos dos temporadas reproductivas la producción de frutos, la densidad de semillas en el banco y la densidad de plántulas alrededor de los adultos y distribuidas en el área de estudio entre la especie exótica invasora Gleditsia triacanthos y la nativa Acacia aroma. En cada temporada de muestreo se contó el número de frutos por individuo y se obtuvo alrededor de los adultos de cada especie: a) la densidad de semillas en el banco (en dos momentos del año) y b) la densidad plántulas. Además, se registró la densidad de plántulas de ambas especies dispersas en los sitios de estudio. En dos de las tres temporadas analizadas la producción de frutos fue mayor en la especie exótica. La densidad de semillas en el banco y de plántulas alrededor de los adultos fue mayor en la especie exótica en las dos temporadas registradas. La densidad de plántulas en los sitios no varío entre las especies en ninguna de las temporadas. Las características regenerativas de G. triacanthos y la consistencia observada en las mismas en las distintas temporadas sugerirían una rápida capacidad de expansión en la región. Abstract in english It has been proposed that exotic species, compared with native ones, differed in certain characteristics that may favor their expansion. The regenerative characteristics of exotic species may vary among reproductive seasons, modifying the patterns observed contrasted with native species and hence in [...] fluencing their expansion velocity. In this work, fruit production, seed density in the soil and seedlings density around the con-specifics and in the study sites were compared between the exotic invasive Gleditsia triacanthos and the native Acacia aroma. The study was developed in at least two reproductive seasons, in areas of the Chaco Serrano Woodland of Córdoba (Argentina). In each season, the number of fruits was counted. Around the con-specifics of each species it was obtained: a) the density of seeds in the soil (in two different moments per year) and b) the density of seedlings. In addition, the density of seedlings distributed in the study sites was registered. In two of the three reproductive seasons analyzed, fruit production was higher in the exotic invasive species. In both seasons the density of seeds in the seed bank and of seedlings around the focal individuals was higher in the exotic species. The density of seedlings in the study sites did not vary between species in any of the seasons. The regenerative characteristics observed in G. triacanthos and the consistency in their response in different reproductive seasons suggest a rapid expansion of the species in the region.

Ana Elisa, Ferreras; Guillermo, Funes; Leonardo, Galetto.

312

Stabilization of enzymes activities of lipoxygenase pathway by irradiation to improve the production of olive oil aroma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main purpose of this work was to improve the synthesis of volatile compounds leading to green note in olives and olive tree leaves by improving enzymes activities of lipoxygenase pathway. Lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxyde lyase (HPL) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities were tested in olives and olive tree leaves during maturation. The gamma irradiation effects on these samples were studied. LOX, HPL and ADH showed maximum activities at black stage for olives and in December for olive leaves. Those activities, from olives and Chemlali olive leaves, were improved after irradiation with 0,5KGy. For the case of Chetoui olive leaves, the irradiation treatment was unfavorable because it causes a loss in enzymes activities. (Author)

313

Studies on the aroma of different species and strains of Pleurotus measured by GC/MS, sensory analysis and electronic nose  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aroma of several strains of Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Pleurotus djamor was studied by GC/MS. Three main mushrooms aroma constituents: 3-octanol, 3-octanone and 1-octen-3-ol were taken into account for quantitative measurements. The highest amount of 1-octen-3-ol was recorded in P. ostreatus, while considerably lower amounts in P. citrinopileatus. Sensory profile analysis as well as the electronic nose also varied between the three species of Pleurotus. Chiral gas chromatography showed the high optical purity of (R-(--1-octen-3-ol in P. ostreatus and P. djamor (the highest one in contrast to P. citrinopileatus. Carpophores of P. djamor was characterized relatively high dry matter and protein contents.

Renata Zawirska-Wojtasiak

2009-03-01

314

Odor potency of aroma compounds in Riesling and Vidal blanc table wines and icewines by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to elucidate the odor potency of aroma compounds in Riesling and Vidal blanc (syn. Vidal) table wines and icewines from the Niagara Peninsula using stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry. Dilution analysis determined the most odor-potent compounds in Vidal and Riesling icewines (n = 2) and table wines (n = 2) from a commercial producer. The top 15 odor-potent compounds in each wine were identified and quantified, resulting in 23 and 24 compounds for Riesling and Vidal, respectively. The most odor-potent compounds were ?-damascenone, decanal, 1-hexanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 4-vinylguaiacol, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl 3-methylbutyrate. In general, icewines had higher concentrations of most aroma compounds compared to table wines. Through computation of odor activity values, the compounds with the highest odor activity for the icewines were ?-damascenone, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl octanoate, cis-rose oxide, and ethyl hexanoate. In table wines the highest odor activity values were found for ethyl octanoate, ?-damascenone, ethyl hexanoate, cis-rose oxide, ethyl 3-methylbutyrate, and 4-vinylguaiacol. These findings provide a foundation to determine impact odorants in icewines and the effects of viticultural and enological practices on wine aroma volatile composition. PMID:22324474

Bowen, Amy J; Reynolds, Andrew G

2012-03-21

315

Changes in the bound aroma profiles of 'Hayward' and 'Hort16A' kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) during ripening and GC-olfactometry analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bound volatiles are recognised as a potential source of aroma compounds in fruits. In this study, the bound volatiles of Actinidia deliciosa 'Hayward' and A. chinensis 'Hort16A' were studied at three different ripening stages. The bound volatile content tended to increase as the fruit ripened from under-ripe to ripe, and then decreased in over-ripe fruit. Glycosides of (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and hexanol (green-note volatiles) were present in considerable amounts. ?-Glucosidase activity in 'Hayward' and 'Hort16A' remained fairly constant throughout ripening. GC-olfactometry analysis of the hydrolysates of ripe 'Hayward' and 'Hort16A' revealed the presence of 2-phenylethanol, ?-damascenone, vanillin and 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF). This is the first report of DMHF in 'Hayward' kiwifruit. For both 'Hayward' and 'Hort16A', the odour-active compounds found in the bound volatile extracts were different from those reported as contributors to the aroma of the ripe fruit, suggesting that bound volatiles are probably not significant contributors to the aroma of ripe kiwifruit. PMID:23199989

Garcia, Coralia V; Stevenson, Ralph J; Atkinson, Ross G; Winz, Robert A; Quek, Siew-Young

2013-04-15

316

Development of a method for identification and accurate quantitation of aroma compounds in Chinese Daohuaxiang liquors based on SPME using a sol-gel fibre.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma compositions of Chinese Daohuaxiang liquors, including five kinds of commercial liquors and three kinds of base liquors, were extracted by solid phase microextraction using a sol-gel divinylbenzene/hydroxy-terminated silicone oil fibre. The effectiveness of the fibre was evaluated in comparison with commercial fibres and liquid-liquid extraction. After identification by GC-MS and GC-O, the compounds were accurately quantified by GC-FID using internal standards. Wide linear ranges, low limits of detection, satisfactory precision and recoveries were achieved. A total of 57 volatile compounds were detected and 28 of them were quantified. Most of them were common in these liquors but differed in terms of their relative amounts. Thirteen out of the 28 compounds had odour activity values greater than 1 in all of the liquors, and are suggested to be the key aroma-contributing substances of Daohuaxiang liquors. Besides, the differences among different aroma types and kinds of Daohuaxiang liquors were also discussed. PMID:25236221

Wang, Pei-Pei; Li, Zhao; Qi, Ting-Ting; Li, Xiu-Juan; Pan, Si-Yi

2015-02-15

317

Identification, quantification and comparison between the chemical substances responsible for the irradiated pot still cachaca and commercial rum aromas; Identificacao, quantificacao e comparacao das substancias quimicas responsaveis pelos aromas da cachaca de alambique e do rum comercial tratados pelo processo de irradiacao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The irradiation process has being presented as an alternative technique in food preservation. When applied on beverages, radiation is mainly used for malt decontamination or sterilization of musts and had been proposed also to accelerate aging. Some confusion over rum and cachaca identities has arisen due to the internationalization of cachaca. This research aims to identify, quantify and compare the effect of gamma radiation on the aroma of the Brazilian spirit with rum, irradiated and non irradiated, by instrumental and sensory analysis. Results showed that the content of volatile compounds presented strong correlation with the radiation dose (0,150 and 300 Gy) for all the samples. According to Triangle Test for aroma, all the judges could distinguish among non irradiated and irradiated samples (300 Gy), aged cachaca from rum and non aged cachaca from rum, but they could not distinguish aged cachaca from non aged cachaca. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results from the quantitative descriptive analysis showed that non irradiated non aged cachaca and rum were different in their alcohol, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except caramel and apple aroma attributes. Non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) were different in their apple, caramel, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except alcohol aroma attributes. According to the gas chromatography/olfactometry results, significant difference was found among non irradiated cachaca and rum; non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) when their aromas were compared. (author)

Souza, Maria Djiliah Camargo Alvarenga de

2006-07-01

318

Improvement of production performance of functional fermented whey-based beverage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was improvement of the performances for the production of whey-based beverages with highly productive strains of Lactobacillus. Individual or mixed culture containing Lactobacillus helveticus ATCC 15009, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis NRRL B-4525 and Streptococcus thermophilus S3 were studied. The scientific hypothesis was that production performances, especially aroma and viable cell count, are positively affected by the strain...

Bulatovi? Maja Lj.; Rakin Marica B.; Mojovi? Ljiljana V.; Nikoli? Svetlana B.; Vukašinovi?-Sekuli? Maja S.; ?uki?-Vukovi? Aleksandra P.

2014-01-01

319

The lollipop with strawberry aroma may be promising in reduction of infusion-related nausea and vomiting during the infusion of cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nausea and vomiting during the infusion of cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) are common. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of lollipop with strawberry aroma on the infusion-related nausea and vomiting of cryopreserved autologous PBSCs. We compared 2 groups of adult patients receiving lollipop with strawberry aroma during cryopreserved PBSC infusions or not to assess the incidences of nausea and vomiting occurring during infusions. All patients received granisetron 3 mg i.v. twice a day, and lorazepam 1 mg every 4 hours orally for prophylaxis of the nausea and vomiting during conditioning phase and infusion day. Before infusion, all patients were premedicated with pheniramine maleate 45.5 mg i.v. and paracetamol 500 mg orally. The patients had no evidence of nausea or vomiting prior to cryopreserved PBSC infusions. The patients with ongoing nausea or vomiting owing to conditioning regimens and/or receiving additional antiemetics were excluded from the study. One hundred fifty-eight patients who consecutively underwent autologous stem cell transplantation for malignancy were included in the study. The first 110 patients (median age: 42.5, range: 17-75) were observed for the infusion related adverse effects only. The consecutive 48 patients (median age: 48, range: 18-80) were given a lollipop with strawberry aroma during cryopreserved PBSC infusions and observed for the infusion-related adverse effects. The 2 groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, diagnosis, stem cell collection methods, conditioning regimens administered, total mononuclear cell dose infused, number of total nucleated cells (TNCs) infused, number of CD34+ cells infused, number of bags infused, total volume infused, amount of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and infusion rate. Patients who received a lollipop with a strawberry aroma during infusions had significantly less nausea (6.3%, n = 3 versus 21.8%, n = 24, P = .02) and vomiting (2%, n = 1 versus 13.6%, n = 15, P = .04) than the ones who did not (observation only group). Other infusion-related adverse events were as follows; hypoxia, cough, dyspnea, abdominal cramping, tachycardia, hiccup, fever, chills, chest pain, hypotension, hypertension, agitation, sore throat, and arrhythmia. Incidences of each of these adverse events were <5% in both groups and were comparable. The use of a lollipop with a strawberry aroma during infusion of cryopreserved autologous PBSCs may be promising in reduction of infusion-related nausea and vomiting, with an easy administration at a very cheap cost. PMID:19041066

Ozdemir, Evren; Akgedik, Kiymet; Akdogan, Sadiye; Kansu, Emin

2008-12-01

320

Analysis of sulfur compounds from the in-oven roast beef aroma by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

After a previous investigation of carbonyl compounds in the in-oven top note of roast beef [S. Rochat, A. Chaintreau, J. Agric. Food Chem. 53 (2005) 9578], this paper focuses on the role of sulfur compounds. Because of the complexity of the roast beef headspace where sulfur compounds occur in trace amounts, a high resolution and sensitive technique, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC), was chosen, that allowed the detection of thousands of compounds in the oven headspace. As identifying all of them would be too time consuming, a strategy had to be developed to extract the pertinent information. More than 70 sulfur compounds were found by GC x GC hyphenated to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS), and the identity of 50 of them was confirmed. To overcome the absence of many retention indices in databanks, the missing values were simulated using a multiple linear regression to help the peak identification. The selection of the most important sulfur odorants from this list was achieved by GC-olfactometry, using the GC-"SNIF" technique. Seven compounds have been found for the first time in beef aroma, of which only one has been previously found in nature. PMID:17343865

Rochat, Sabine; Laumer, Jean-Yves de Saint; Chaintreau, Alain

2007-04-13

 
 
 
 
321

The potential of e-nose aroma profiling for identifying the geographical origin of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) roots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Licorice roots cultivated commercially in distinct geographical areas such as China, Iran, Italy (Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily) and Turkey were classified using an artificial olfactive system (e-nose) based on metal oxide semiconductor sensors (MOS). The resultant instrumental data were processed using a multivariate statistical analysis method in order to classify the raw samples according to its origin. The e-nose odourprintings were obtained by a canonical discriminant analysis carried out with the aim of relating the specific data-sets corresponding to whole licorice roots aroma with the e-nose reference dataset. E-nose results were compared to those obtained by SPME/GC-MS. The HS-SPME/GC/MS analysis was used as a control system to check for the actual existence of differences in the chemical composition of sample headspace. These results imply the possibility to use an electronic nose as a tool for a quick, effective and non-destructive authentication of licorice roots. PMID:25038700

Russo, Mariateresa; Serra, Demetrio; Suraci, Francesca; Di Sanzo, Rosa; Fuda, Salvatore; Postorino, Santo

2014-12-15

322

Aroma character impact compounds in Kinokuni mandarin orange (Citrus kinokuni) compared with Satsuma mandarin orange (Citrus unshiu).  

Science.gov (United States)

The odor-active volatiles of Kinokuni mandarin (Citrus kinokuni Hort. ex Tanaka), an original mandarin orange in Japan, were characterized by a combination of instrumental and sensory analyses and compared with those of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch). An aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the polar fractions of Kinokuni and Satsuma mandarin peel oils identified five odorants in common as the most odor-active volatiles: (Z)-hex-3-enal, decanal, linalool, yuzuol, and (2E)-trans-4,5-epoxydec-2-enal. In addition, seven odorants were identified solely in Kinokuni mandarin as significant contributors: octanal, dodecanal, (2E,4E)-deca-2,4-dienal, geraniol, yuzunone, (2E,7Z)-trans-4,5-epoxydeca-2,7-dienal, and thymol. The odor-active volatiles in both the non-polar components of the peel oil and an extract of the juice prepared from Kinokuni mandarin were also identified. The (S)-isomer of linalool in Kinokuni mandarin peel oil was dominant in the enantiomeric distribution (92%), whereas the (R)-isomer was dominant in Satsuma mandarin peel oil (90%). PMID:20378969

Miyazawa, Norio; Fujita, Akira; Kubota, Kikue

2010-01-01

323

Use of stable isotopes for testing aromas: vanillin as an example  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The determination of the origin, natural or synthetic, of vanillin is obtained by mass spectrometry of carbon 13. The depletion in 13C of the natural product is due to the photosynthesis mechanism (crassulacean acid metabolism). Deuterium is also a possible isotopic tracer and NMR an alternative analysis method but requires a more important sample

324

Terpene production in the peel of sweet orange fruits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Terpenoids constitute the largest and most diverse class of natural products. They are important factors for aroma and flavor, and their synthesis is basically done from two compounds: isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Isopentenyl diphosphate is synthesized through two different pathways, one that occurs in the cytoplasm and one in the plastid. With the sequencing of ESTs from citrus, we were able to perform in silico analyses on the pathways that lead to the synthesis of...

Takita, Marco A.; Berger, Irving J.; Ana Carolina Basílio-Palmieri; Borges, Kleber M.; Souza, Juliana M.; Targon, Maria L. N. P.

2007-01-01

325

Projective Mapping and Product Positioning of Deep Fat Fried Snack  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study was carried out to examine the quality parameters of commercially available popular deep-fried snack-Mu- rukku. Eight samples (four spicy and four salty) of most commonly consumed deep-fried snacks in India, viz., murukku (an extruded strands-like product made from the mixture of rice flour and black gram dhal flour) were analyzed for moisture, oil content, CIE instrumental color (L*a*b*), instrumental texture measurement (breaking strength of murukku strands), aroma finger printing b...

Ramasamy Ravi; Vivek Kumar Singh; Maya Prakash

2011-01-01

326

Oxidative stability of fermented meat products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Meat and meat products, which form a major part of our diet, are very susceptible to quality changes resulting from oxidative processes. Quality of fermented food products depends on the course of various physicochemical and biochemical processes. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products may be the result of enzymatic changes occurring as a result of activity of enzymes originating in tissues and microorganisms, as well as lipid peroxidation by free radicals. Primary and secondary products of lipid oxidation are extremely reactive and react with other components of meat, changing their physical and chemical properties. Oxidised proteins take on a yellowish, red through brown hue. Products of lipid and protein degradation create a specifi c fl avour and aroma ; furthermore, toxic substances (such as biogenic amines or new substances are formed as a result of interactions between meat components, e.g. protein-lipid or protein-protein combinations, as well as transverse bonds in protein structures. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products is a particularly diffi cult process. On the one hand it is essential, since the enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid oxidation creates fl avour and aroma compounds characteristic for ripening products; on the other hand excessive amounts or transformations of those compounds may cause the fermented meat product to become a risk to health.

Zbigniew J. Dolatowski

2012-06-01

327

Relevance of nitrate and nitrite in dry-cured ham and their effects on aroma development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Potassium and sodium salts of nitrite (E 249 and E 250 and nitrate (E 251 and E 252 are authorised for use under certain levels in several foodstuffs such as non-heat-treated, cured and dried meat products, other cured meat products, canned meat products and bacon. The key point in the use of nitrate and nitrite as preservatives is to find a balance between ensuring the microbiological safety of the ham and keeping as low as possible the level of nitrosamines in the final product. Nitrites and nitrates are authorised as additives for dry-cured ham in the Directive 2006/52/EC of 5 July 2006 that modifies previous Council Directive 95/2/EC on food additives other than colours and sweeteners. The effect of nitrate and its reduction to nitrite in controlling the lipid oxidation process during the ham ripening is very important for the development of the characteristic cured flavour. The main benefits and drawbacks of the use of nitrites and nitrates in dry-cured ham and how these levels may affect its flavour are discussed in this manuscript.Las sales sódica y potásica del nitrito (E249 y E250 y del nitrato (E251 y E252 están autorizados para su uso en los productos cárnicos, secos, curados y no tratados por el calor, otros productos cárnicos curados, productos cárnicos enlatados y bacon. El punto esencial en el uso de nitrato y nitrito como conservantes consiste en encontrar un balance entre el aseguramiento de la seguridad microbiológica del jamón y mantener el nivel de nitrosaminas tan bajo como sea posible. Los nitratos y nitritos están autorizados como aditivos en el jamón curado según la Directiva Europea 2006/52/EC de 5 de Julio de 2006 que modificaba la previa Directiva Europea 95/2/EC de aditivos alimentarios distintos a los colorantes y edulcorantes. El efecto del nitrato y su reducción a nitrito para controlar la oxidación de los lípidos durante la maduración del jamón es muy importante para el desarrollo del característico flavor a curado. Se presentan en este manuscrito los principales beneficios y problemas del uso de los nitratos y nitritos en el jamón curado así como sus efectos en el flavor.

Flores, Mónica

2009-07-01

328

Comparative transcriptome analysis of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves to identify aroma compound-related genes expressed in different cultivated regions.  

Science.gov (United States)

To identify genes that are differentially expressed in tobacco in response to environmental changes and to decipher the mechanisms by which aromatic carotenoids are formed in tobacco, an Agilent Tobacco Gene Expression microarray was adapted for transcriptome comparison of tobacco leaves derived from three cultivated regions of China, Kaiyang (KY), Weining (WN) and Tianzhu (TZ). A total of 1,005 genes were differentially expressed between leaves derived from KY and TZ, 733 between KY and WN, and 517 between TZ and WN. Genes that were upregulated in leaves from WN and TZ tended to be involved in secondary metabolism pathways, and included several carotenoid pathway genes, e.g., NtPYS, NtPDS, and NtLCYE, whereas those that were down-regulated tended to be involved in the response to temperature and light. The expression of 10 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and found to be consistent with the microarray data. Gene Ontology and MapMan analyses indicate that the genes that were differentially expressed among the three cultivated regions were associated with the light reaction of photosystem II, response to stimuli, and secondary metabolism. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that leaves derived from KY had the lowest levels of lutein, ?-carotene, and neoxanthin, whereas the total carotenoid content in leaves from TZ was greatest, a finding that could well be explained by the expression patterns of DEGs in the carotenoid pathway. These results may help elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying environmental adaptation and accumulation of aroma compounds in tobacco. PMID:23079704

Lei, Bo; Zhao, Xue-Hua; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jie; Ren, Wei; Ren, Zhu; Chen, Yi; Zhao, Hui-Na; Pan, Wen-Jie; Chen, Wei; Li, Hong-Xun; Deng, Wen-Ya; Ding, Fu-Zhang; Lu, Kun

2013-01-01

329

Gas chromatography-olfactometry and chemical quantitative study of the aroma of six premium quality spanish aged red wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma of six premium quality Spanish red wines has been studied by quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and techniques of quantitative chemical analysis. The GC-O study revealed the presence of 85 aromatic notes in which 78 odorants were identified, two of which-1-nonen-3-one (temptatively) and 2-acetylpyrazine-are reported in wine for the first time. Forty out of the 82 quantified odorants may be present at concentrations above their odor threshold. The components with the greatest capacity to introduce differences between these wines are ethyl phenols produced by Brettanomyces yeasts (4-ethylphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, and 4-propyl-2-methoxyphenol), 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol), (Z)-3-hexenol, thiols derived from cysteinic precursors (4-methyl-4-mercaptopentan-2-one, 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, and 3-mercaptohexanol), some components yielded by the wood [(E)-isoeugenol, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, vanillin, 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), and (Z)-whiskylactone], and compounds related to the metabolism (2-phenylethanol, ethyl esters of isoacids, 3-methylbutyl acetate) or oxidative degradation of amino acids [phenylacetaldehyde and 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon)]. The correlation between the olfactometric intensities and the quantitative data is, in general, satisfactory if olfactometric differences between the samples are high. However, GC-O fails in detecting quantitative differences in those cases in which the olfactive intensity is very high or if odors elute in areas in which the odor chromatogram is too complex. PMID:15030226

Culleré, Laura; Escudero, Ana; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

2004-03-24

330

Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae To Release 3-Mercaptohexan-1-ol during Fermentation through Overexpression of an S. cerevisiae Gene, STR3, for Improvement of Wine Aroma?  

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Sulfur-containing aroma compounds are key contributors to the flavor of a diverse range of foods and beverages. The tropical fruit characters of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc wines are attributed to the presence of the aromatic thiols 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH), 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol-acetate, and 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP). These volatile thiols are found in small amounts in grape juice and are formed from nonvolatile cysteinylated precursors during fermentation. In this st...

Holt, Sylvester; Cordente, Antonio G.; Williams, Simon J.; Capone, Dimitra L.; Jitjaroen, Wanphen; Menz, Ian R.; Curtin, Chris; Anderson, Peter A.

2011-01-01

331

Compuestos fenólicos, actividad antioxidante, contenido de resveratrol y componentes del aroma de 8 vinos peruanos / Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, resveratrol content and volatile components of 8 peruvian wines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo de investigación tuvo como objetivo conocer las propiedades fisicoquímicas, actividad antioxidante, componentes del aroma y contenido de resveratrol y quercetina de 8 vinos peruanos. Se encontró que las densidades relativas de los vinos están dentro del rango de 0,9916 a 1,0174 g [...] /mL, mientras que los valores de pH varían de 3,18 a 3,97. Mediante métodos espectrofotométricos se pudo cuantificar la concentración de fenoles totales (2374,25 a 3610,43 mg/L), flavonoides totales (1869,19 a 3138,85 mg/L) y antocianinas totales (102,64 a 317,50 mg/L). Por medio de cromatografía líquida de alta performance (HPLC) se pudo detectar la presencia del compuesto trans-resveratrol en 6 de los 8 vinos peruanos evaluados. El vino Tabernero Malbec-Merlot contiene la mayor concentración de dicho compuesto (0,56 ± 0,03 µg/mL) y, además, es el que presenta la mejor actividad antioxidante en el test de DPPH. Por medio de cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS) se pudo determinar que los compuestos volátiles de mayor concentración en el aroma de los vinos fueron el ácido sórbico, feniletanol, ácido propanoico y monoetil éster del ácido butanodioico. Abstract in english The aim of this investigation was to evaluate some physicochemical properties, the antioxidant activity, the aroma components and resveratrol and quercitin contents of 8 Peruvian wines. We found that the density of the selected wines was in the range of 0,9916 - 1,0174 g/mL, while the pH values were [...] between 3,18 and 3,97. Spectrophotometric methods were used to determine the concentrations of total phenolics (2374,25 - 3610,43 mg/L), flavonoids (1869,19 - 3138,85 mg/L) and anthocyanins (102,64 - 317,50 mg/L). The compound trans-resveratrol was detected by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) on 6 of the 8 Peruvian wines selected for the present study. The Tabernero Malbec-Merlot wine had the highest concentration of this compound (0,56 ± 0,03 µg/mL) and the best antioxidant activity on the DPPH test. GC-MS studies on the aroma of the evaluated wines showed that the major compounds were sorbic acid, phenylethyl alcohol, propanoic acid and ethyl hydrogen succinate.

Rodrigo, Salazar; Giovana, Espinoza; Candy, Ruiz; María de Fátima, Fernández; Rosario, Rojas.

2011-04-01

332

Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) / Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) beverages  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and [...] trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z)-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma while roasted mate was defined as having a smooth, slightly burnt aroma. The relationship between the tentatively identified compounds and flavor must be determined by olfatometric analysis.

Carla Carolina Batista, Machado; Deborah Helena Markowicz, Bastos; Natália Soares, Janzantti; Roselaine, Facanali; Marcia Ortiz M., Marques; Maria Regina Bueno, Franco.

2007-06-01

333

Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma Estudo de compostos voláteis de ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin e estimativa da sua contribuição ao aroma  

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Full Text Available Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values (OAV. The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E-?-ionone, ?-dodecalactone, (Z-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, ?-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, ?-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z-3-hexenol, (Z-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, ?-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.As técnicas de extração-destilação simultâneas (SDE e de headspace-microextração em fase sólida (HS-SPME combinadas com GC-FID e GC-MS foram usadas para analisar compostos voláteis da ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin e para estimar os compostos de aroma mais ativos, pela aplicação de valores de atividade olfativa (OAV, considerando os compostos voláteis presentes no headspace da fruta. As análises levaram à identificação de 148 componentes, incluindo 58 ésteres, 23 terpenoides, 14 aldeídos, 11 álcoois, 10 cetonas, 9 alcanos, 7 ácidos, 4 lactonas, 3 fenóis e 9 outros compostos de diferentes estruturas. De acordo om os resultados de SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS e OAV, 2-metilbutanoato de etila, acetato de hexila, (E-2-nonenal, butanoato de etila, (E-2-decenal, hexanoato de etila, nonanal, decanal, (E-b-ionona, ?-dodecalactona, acetato de (Z-3-hexenila, acetato de pentila, linalool, ?-decalactona, acetato de butila, limoneno, acetato de propila, ?-decalactona, sulfeto de dietila, acetato de (E-2-hexenila, heptanoato de etila, (Z-3-hexenol, hexanoato de (Z-3-hexenila, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, pentanoato de etila, hexil 2-butanoato de metila, hexanoato de isopentila, 1-hexanol, ?-nonalactona, mirceno, acetato de octila, fenilacetaldeído, 1-butanol, acetato de isobutila, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, e nerol são compostos odoríficos característicos em ameixas frescas, já que foram encontrados em concentrações muito acima dos seus limiares de precepção olfativa.

Jorge Antonio Pino

2012-03-01

334

Effect of pH and Water Activity in Generation of Selected Meaty Aroma Compounds in a Meat Model System  

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Full Text Available Longissimus dorsi post rigor minced beef meat was washed repeatedly with 0.02 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.8 to obtain pigment-free muscle fibers. The resultant muscle fiber was freeze dried and used as a meat model system. The results were compared with or without an aqueous model system containing a mixture of cysteine, thiamine and ribose reaction mixture. Gas chromatography-Mass spectrophotometry was used to study the effect of pH and water activity on the generation of volatiles in model systems. Seven sulphur-containing meaty aroma volatiles were identified in the meat fiber model system by odour port analyser and the generated mass spectra. The generation of volatile in reaction mixture as well as in meat fiber model system were strongly influenced by pH. The intensity of 2-methyl tetrahydrothioph-ene-3-one was low (p?0.05 at lower pH. The generation of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol and bis-(2-methyl-3-furyl was more (p?0.05 in reaction mixture model system at a pH 5.5 and 6.5 than at lower pH. However, the increase in generation of 2-methyl thiophene in model systems studied was dependent (p?0.05 on the increase of pH. The volatiles, 2-methyl-4-5-dihydrothiophene, 2-methyl-3-(methylthio furan and 2-methyl-3-thiophenethiol were not detected at low pH in a meat fiber model system. However, their generation in reaction mixture and meat fiber containing reaction mixture system was observed. The formation of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol and bis-(2-methyl-3-furyl was favoured (p?0.05 by higher aw whereas, the formation of thiophene was maximum at aw 0.80. At higher aw, an inverse relationship between aw and quantity of thiophene was observed.

A.J. Taylor

2008-01-01

335

Identification of odorants in frankincense (Boswellia sacra Flueck.) by aroma extract dilution analysis and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Frankincense has been known, traded and used throughout the ages for its exceptional aroma properties, and is still commonly used in both secular and religious settings to convey a pleasant odor. Surprisingly, the odoriferous principle(s) underlying its unique odor profile have never been published. In this study, resin samples of Boswellia sacra Flueck. from both Somalia and Oman were investigated by aroma extract dilution analysis. In a comprehensive, odor-activity guided approach both chemo-analytical and human-sensory parameters were used to identify odor active constituents of the volatile fraction of B. sacra. Among the key odorants found were ?-pinene, ?-myrcene, linalool, p-cresol and two unidentified sesquiterpenoids. Overall, a total of 23 odorants were detected and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry and heart-cut two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry. The majority of the identified odorant compounds were oxygenated monoterpenes, along with some relevant mono- and sesquiterpenes and only one diterpenoid substance. Several of these compounds were reported here for the first time as odorous constituents in B. sacra. Identifying bioactive compounds might support a better understanding with regard to the potential benefits of frankincense, for example in aromatherapy or ecclesial settings. PMID:25468535

Niebler, Johannes; Buettner, Andrea

2015-01-01

336

Influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration treatment on aroma compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in different industrial scale fermenters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration (CM) on Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in two different industrial-scale fermenters was studied. CM treatment had different effects on wine aroma depending on the types of fermenter, being more effective for automatic pumping-over tank (PO-tank) than automatic punching-down tank (PD-tank). When PO-tank was used, CM-treated wine showed a decrease in some fusel alcohols (isobutanol and isopentanol) and an increase in some esters (especially acetate esters). However, no significant changes were detected in these compounds when PD-tank was used. Ethyl 2-hexenoate and diethyl succinate were decreased, while geranylacetone was increased by the CM treatment in both fermenters. ?-Damascenone was increased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines but decreased in PD-tank fermented wines. The fruity, caramel and floral aroma series were enhanced while chemical series were decreased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines. The content of (Z)-6-nonen-1-ol in the final wines was positively correlated to CM treatment. PMID:24518336

Cai, Jian; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Lu, Lin; Lan, Yi-Bin; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

2014-07-01

337

Evaluation of aroma differences between high-salt liquid-state fermentation and low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauces from China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two types of Chinese soy sauce, high-salt liquid-state fermentation soy sauce (HLFSS) and low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce (LSFSS), were used to investigate their differences in aroma profile by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). Results from descriptive sensory analysis showed that the alcoholic, cooked potato-like and caramel-like attributes were significantly higher in HLFSS, while LSFSS exhibited significantly higher sour and burnt attributes. In addition, aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) revealed 37 and 33 odour-active regions for HLFSS and LSFSS, respectively. Ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, phenylacetaldehyde, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 3-(methylthio)propanal detected in HLFSS showed the highest flavour dilution (FD) factors, while 3-methylbutanal, phenylacetaldehyde and ethyl propanoate possessed the highest FD factors in LSFSS. Therefore, the traditional Chinese soy sauce HLFSS contained more complex volatiles and exhibited a richer aromatic profile compared with LSFSS. PMID:24128458

Feng, Yunzi; Cai, Yu; Su, Guowan; Zhao, Haifeng; Wang, Chenxia; Zhao, Mouming

2014-02-15

338

Volatile sulfur production by pig cecal bacteria in batch culture and screening inhibitors of sulfate reducing bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the effects of specific inhibitors of methanogenesis (2-bromoethane sulfonate, BES) and sulfate reduction (sodium molybdate) on volatile sulfur production in batch cultures of pig cecal bacteria. The volatile sulfur concentration in headspace gas was determined by flame-photometric detector gas chromatography. BES stimulated production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methanethiol, and sodium molybdate completely inhibited the production of these volatile sulfur compounds. The results indicated that dissimilate sulfate reduction is mainly responsible for volatile sulfur production in the hindgut. Therefore the extracts of herbs, food colors, and aroma chemicals were tested for their inhibitory effects on H2S production by a dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria. Desulfovibrio desulfuricans DSM642. H2S was measured by the chromatography of the headspace gas, using a flame photometric detector. Of 306 herbal extracts tested, 69 extracts from 38 herbs inhibited H2S production at 1.0 mg/mL. Sisymbrium officinale (hedge mustard) was the most potent inhibitor. Six pigments inhibited H2S release. Erythrosine and rose bengal showed inhibitory effects at 0.01 mg/mL. Peppermint oil and 96 aroma chemicals were assayed for their effects on H2S release. Thirty-two aroma chemicals suppressed H2S production at 0.1 mg/mL, and camphene, 1-decanol, and 2-nonanone were effective at 0.01 mg/mL. PMID:11185657

Arakawa, T; Ishikawa, Y; Ushida, K

2000-08-01

339

Overproduction of 2-phenylethanol by industrial yeasts to improve organoleptic properties of bakers' products.  

Science.gov (United States)

2-Phenylethanol (PEA), an important alcohol derived from phenylalanine, is involved in aroma and flavour of bakers' products. Four spontaneous mutants of an industrial bakers' yeast, V1 strain, were isolated for their resistance to p-fluoro-DL-phenylalanine (PFP), a toxic analogue of L-phenylalanine. Mutants overproduced this amino acid and showed variations in their internal pool for several other amino acids. Moreover, a rise in PEA production after growth in industrial medium (MAB) was observed in three of the mutants, although their growth and fermentative capacities were slightly impaired. However, concentration of PEA remained higher during dough fermentation and also after baking, thus improving taste and aroma in bread. PMID:24769162

Dueñas-Sánchez, Rafael; Pérez, Ana G; Codón, Antonio C; Benítez, Tahía; Rincón, Ana María

2014-06-16

340

Microbiological and aromatic characteristics of fermented maize doughs for kenkey production in Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

A very uniform microflora was demonstrated in 15 samples of fermented maize dough from different larger commercial production sites. At the advanced stage of fermentation, more than 96% of the bacteria present were morphologically and biochemically uniform, obligatively heterofermentative lactobacilli occurring in concentrations about 10(9) cfu/g. Yeast occurred in levels of about 10(6) cfu/g, dominated by Candida and Saccharomyces spp. Studies on microbial successions indicated a selection towards a micropopulation dominated by lactic acid bacteria. The Gram-negative bacteria, catalase-positive Gram-positive bacteria and moulds underwent three to four decimal reductions during the early phase of the process. The aroma components detected were dominated by lactic acid, acetic, butyric and propionic acids. Volatile aroma components demonstrated by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were characteristic for lactic acid bacteria with acetoin and related products as typical examples. PMID:8398627

Halm, M; Lillie, A; Sørensen, A K; Jakobsen, M

1993-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

Banana as adjunct in beer production : applicability and performance of fermentative parameters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditionally, the raw materials for beer production are barley, hops, water, and yeast, but most brewers use also different adjuncts. During the alcoholic fermentation, the contribution of aroma compounds from other ingredients to the final beer flavor depends on the wort composition, on the yeast strain, and mainly on the process conditions. In this context, banana can also be a raw material favorable to alcoholic fermentation being rich in carbohydrates and minerals and providing low acidi...

Carvalho, Giovani B. M.; Silva, Daniel Pereira Da; Bento, Camila V.; Vicente, A. A.; Teixeira, J. A.; Felipe, Maria Das Grac?as A.; Silva, Joa?o B. Almeida E.

2009-01-01

342

Characterisation of apple distillates from native varieties of Sardinia island and comparison with other Italian products  

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The aim of this study was to characterise the aroma fraction of Italian distillates from apples typical of the Province of Sassari in the northern region of Sardinia (Malus pumila, L. cvs. Miali and Appio) in comparison to some international obtained in the northern region of Trentino–Alto Adige (M. pumila, L. cvs. Renetta del Canada (Reinette du Canada or Canadian Rennet), Golden Delicious, Royal Gala, Morgenduft and Gravenstein). The distillates producted in Sardinia were obtained from th...

Versini, Giuseppe; Franco, Mario Andrea; Moser, Sergio; Barchetti, Paolo; Manca, Gavina

2009-01-01

343

Managing sensory expectations concerning products and brands: Capitalizing on the potential of sound and shape symbolism  

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In this article, the evidence demonstrating the existence of a variety of robust crossmodal correspondences between both sounds (phonetic speech sounds, tones, and other parameters of musical expression) and shapes, and the sensory attributes (specifically the taste, flavor, aroma, and oral-somatosensory attributes) of various foods and beverages is reviewed. The available research now clearly suggests that marketers can enhance their consumers' product experiences by ensuring that the sound ...

Spence, C.

2012-01-01

344

Improvement of production performance of functional fermented whey-based beverage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was improvement of the performances for the production of whey-based beverages with highly productive strains of Lactobacillus. Individual or mixed culture containing Lactobacillus helveticus ATCC 15009, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis NRRL B-4525 and Streptococcus thermophilus S3 were studied. The scientific hypothesis was that production performances, especially aroma and viable cell count, are positively affected by the strains combination and temperature. Based on the results, beverages obtained by mixed cultures Lb. helveticus ATCC 15009 - S. thermophilus S3 and Lb. delbrueckii ssp. lactis - S. thermophilus S3 had higher aroma values than beverages obtained by individual strains. The symbiosis of tested strains has positive impact on the aroma of produced beverage. In addition, the temperature has significant influence on cell viability during the storage and fermentation dynamic. The beverages produced by mixed cultures Lb. helveticus ATCC 15009 - S. thermophilus S3 and Lb. delbrueckii ssp. lactis - S. thermophilus S3 at 42 oC achieved higher storage stability (19 to 22 days than beverages produced at 37°C and 45°C (13 to 19 days. Subsequently, at 42 °C fermentation time for both mixed cultures was 1.5 h shorter, compared to the time achieved at 37°C.

Bulatovi? Maja Lj.

2014-01-01

345

Quality and aromatic sensory descriptors (mainly fresh and dry fruit character) of Spanish red wines can be predicted from their aroma-active chemical composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

A satisfactory model explaining quality could be built in a set of 25 high quality Spanish red wines, by aroma-active chemical composition. The quality of the wines was positively correlated with the wine content in fruity esters, acids, enolones, and wood derived compounds, and negatively with phenylacetaldehyde, acetic acid, methional, and 4-ethylphenol. Wine fruitiness was demonstrated to be positively related not only to the wine content on fruity esters and enolones, but to wine volatile fatty acids. Fruitiness is strongly suppressed by 4-ethylphenol, acetic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, and methional, this involved in the perception of dry-fruit notes. Sensory effects were more intense in the presence of ?-damascenone and ?-ionone. A satisfactory model explaining animal notes could be built. Finally, the vegetal character of this set of wines could be related to the combined effect of dimethylsulfide (DMS), 1-hexanol, and methanethiol. PMID:21627324

San-Juan, Felipe; Ferreira, Vicente; Cacho, Juan; Escudero, Ana

2011-07-27

346

Comparison of isolation methods for the determination of important aroma compounds in black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) juice, using nasal impact frequency profiling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of isolation method on the determination of important aroma compounds in black currant juice was investigated by surface of nasal impact frequency (SNIF) gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The applied methods were solvent extraction, static headspace, and purge and trap using 15 and 60 min of purge time. By the four methods, a total of 59 odors were observed, and, of these, 44 corresponded to compounds that could be identified. For the headspace methods increasing purge volumes resulted in recoveries of additional, less volatile compounds. The main compound groups recovered by the headspace methods were esters and terpenes, whereas compounds recovered by solvent extraction were not as dominated by fruity odors. For most compounds there was agreement between the size of the SNIF value obtained by GC-O and the amount of the measurable compound found by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PMID:15030225

Varming, Camilla; Petersen, Mikael A; Poll, Leif

2004-03-24

347

Characterisation of the aroma profiles of different honeys and corresponding flowers using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma profiles of thirteen different honey samples from four botanical origins: heather (Calluna vulgaris), raspberry (Rubus idaeus), rape (Brassica napus), alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus) and the blossoms of the four corresponding flowers were investigated to find odour-active compounds exclusively representing specific honeys based on odour-active compounds from the blossoms. Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas-chromatography-olfactometry were used to determine and identify the odour-active compounds. Data was analysed using agglomerative hierarchical clustering and correspondence analysis. Honeys from the same botanical origin clustered together; however, none of the identified compounds were exclusive to a particular honey/blossom combination. Heather honey had the flavour profile most different to the others. Isophorone and 2-methylbutyric acid were found only in heather honeys. Heather honey was characterised by having more "sweet" and "candy-like" notes, raspberry honeys had more "green" notes, while alder buckthorn had more "honey" and "floral" notes. PMID:25236195

Seisonen, Sirli; Kivima, Evelin; Vene, Kristel

2015-02-15

348

Effect of the use of recent commercial fungicides [under good and critical agricultural practices] on the aroma composition of Monastrell red wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the paper, the effect of several fungicide residues (famoxadone, fenhexamid, fluquinconazole, kresoxim-methyl, quinoxyfen and trifloxystrobin) has been studied in relation to the aroma composition of Monastrell red wines in terms of each compound concentration and OAV (Odour Activity Value) values. Two fungicide treatments were carried out with authorized formulates following the manufacturer doses. The first one was carried out under good agricultural practices (GAP), obeying the preharvest interval, and the second one under critical agricultural practices (CAP), applying at the day of harvesting. The wines obtained in the thirteen trials (one control, six with treated grapes obeying the preharvest interval and six treated at the day of harvesting or at most unfavourable conditions) were analysed by stir bar sorptive extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS). The method proposed showed good linearity over the concentration range tested, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9 for all the analytes. The reproducibility and repeatability of the method was estimated between 1.0 and 18.52%. The detection and quantification limits of all analytes were lower than the concentration found in these Monastrell wines. The identified wine volatile compounds have been grouped according to: ethyl esters, acetates, C(6) compounds, terpenoids, acids and ethyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol and benzaldehyde, as individual level. As results, it was observed that all fungicide treatments significantly affect the wine aroma composition. Each group of compounds has been associated to sensorial descriptor series (fatty, floral, fruity, herbaceous, solvent, rose and vinous), resulting that the best sensory valuated wines were the ones treated with fluquinconazole and fenhexamid under GAP. PMID:18486646

Oliva, José; Zalacain, Amaya; Payá, Paula; Salinas, María Rosario; Barba, Alberto

2008-06-01

349

Qualitative and quantitative analysis on aroma characteristics of ginseng at different ages using E-nose and GC-MS combined with chemometrics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma profiles of ginseng samples at different ages were investigated using electronic nose (E-nose) and GC-MS techniques combined with chemometrics analysis. The bioactive ginsenoside and volatile oil content increased with age. E-nose performed well in the qualitative analyses. Both Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Functions Analysis (DFA) performed well when used to analyze ginseng samples, with the first two principal components (PCs) explaining 85.51% and the first two factors explaining 95.51% of the variations. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) successfully clustered the different types of ginsengs into four groups. A total of 91 volatile constituents were identified. 50 of them were calculated and compared using GC-MS. The main fragrance ingredients were terpenes and alcohols, followed by aromatics and ester. The changes in terpenes, alcohols, aromatics, esters, and acids during the growth year once again confirmed the dominant role of terpenes. The Partial Least Squares (PLS) loading plot of gas sensors and aroma ingredients indicated that particular sensors were closely related to terpenes. The scores plot indicated that terpenes and its corresponding sensors contributed the most in grouping. As regards to quantitative analyze, 7 constituent of terpenes could be accurately explained and predicted by using gas sensors in PLS models. In predicting ginseng age using Back Propagation-Artificial Neural Networks (BP-ANN), E-nose data was found to predict more accurately than GC-MS data. E-nose measurement may be a potential method for determining ginseng age. The combination of GC-MS can help explain the hidden correlation between sensors and fragrance ingredients from two different viewpoints. PMID:25244512

Cui, Shaoqing; Wang, Jun; Yang, Liangcheng; Wu, Jianfeng; Wang, Xinlei

2015-01-01

350

OPTIMIZATION OF 6-PENTYL-ALPHA-PYRONE PRODUCTION BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION USING SUGARCANE BAGASSE AS RESIDUE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solid state fermentation (SSF has been used as a model for the study of metabolism and physiology of microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to enhance 6-PP production by Trichoderma harzianum 4040 in solid state fermentation using sugarcane bagasse as a residue. A fractional factorial design was used to select the components of the nutrient solution. The fermentation was carried out during 9 days, and the aroma extraction was done on the third, fifth, seventh, and ninth days using organic solvent. On the seventh day the major concentration of 6-PP was found. The variables glucose, sucrose, and MgSO4 were found to be significant statistically (p> 0.05 as components of the nutrient solution used in the production of 6-PP by filamentous fungi in SSF using sugarcane bagasse as a residue. GC-MS was used for quantification of 6-PP aroma.

Natalia C. Ladeira

2010-09-01

351

Bronquiolite associada à exposição a aroma artificial de manteiga em trabalhadores de uma fábrica de biscoitos no Brasil Bronchiolitis associated with exposure to artificial butter flavoring in workers at a cookie factory in Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJETIVO: Relatar quatro casos de bronquiolite decorrente de exposição a aroma artificial de manteiga em uma fábrica de biscoitos no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Descrevemos os achados clínicos, espirométricos e tomográficos nos quatro pacientes, assim como achados de biópsia pulmonar em um dos pacientes. RESULTADOS: Os quatro pacientes eram homens jovens, não fumantes, e desenvolveram obstrução persistente ao fluxo aéreo (relação VEF1/CVF reduzida e VEF1 de 25-44% do previsto) após 1-3 an...

Zaida do Rego Cavalcanti; Alfredo Pereira Leite de Albuquerque Filho; Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira; Ester Nei Aparecida Martins Coletta

2012-01-01

352

Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae To Release 3-Mercaptohexan-1-ol during Fermentation through Overexpression of an S. cerevisiae Gene, STR3, for Improvement of Wine Aroma?  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfur-containing aroma compounds are key contributors to the flavor of a diverse range of foods and beverages. The tropical fruit characters of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc wines are attributed to the presence of the aromatic thiols 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH), 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol-acetate, and 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP). These volatile thiols are found in small amounts in grape juice and are formed from nonvolatile cysteinylated precursors during fermentation. In this study, we overexpressed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene, STR3, which led to an increase in 3MH release during fermentation of a V. vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc juice. Characterization of the enzymatic properties of Str3p confirmed it to be a pyridoxal-5?-phosphate-dependent cystathionine ?-lyase, and we demonstrated that this enzyme was able to cleave the cysteinylated precursors of 3MH and 4MMP to release the free thiols. These data provide direct evidence for a yeast enzyme able to release aromatic thiols in vitro that can be applied in the development of self-cloned yeast to enhance wine flavor. PMID:21478306

Holt, Sylvester; Cordente, Antonio G.; Williams, Simon J.; Capone, Dimitra L.; Jitjaroen, Wanphen; Menz, Ian R.; Curtin, Chris; Anderson, Peter A.

2011-01-01

353

Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to release 3-Mercaptohexan-1-ol during fermentation through overexpression of an S. cerevisiae Gene, STR3, for improvement of wine aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfur-containing aroma compounds are key contributors to the flavor of a diverse range of foods and beverages. The tropical fruit characters of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc wines are attributed to the presence of the aromatic thiols 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH), 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol-acetate, and 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP). These volatile thiols are found in small amounts in grape juice and are formed from nonvolatile cysteinylated precursors during fermentation. In this study, we overexpressed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene, STR3, which led to an increase in 3MH release during fermentation of a V. vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc juice. Characterization of the enzymatic properties of Str3p confirmed it to be a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent cystathionine ?-lyase, and we demonstrated that this enzyme was able to cleave the cysteinylated precursors of 3MH and 4MMP to release the free thiols. These data provide direct evidence for a yeast enzyme able to release aromatic thiols in vitro that can be applied in the development of self-cloned yeast to enhance wine flavor. PMID:21478306

Holt, Sylvester; Cordente, Antonio G; Williams, Simon J; Capone, Dimitra L; Jitjaroen, Wanphen; Menz, Ian R; Curtin, Chris; Anderson, Peter A

2011-06-01

354

Entrapment of a volatile lipophilic aroma compound (d-limonene) in spray dried water-washed oil bodies naturally derived from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil bodies are natural emulsions that can be extracted from oil seeds and have previously been shown to be stable after spray drying. The aim of the study was to evaluate for the first time if spray dried water-washed oil bodies are an effective carrier for volatile lipophilic actives (the flavour compound d-limonene was used as an example aroma compound). Water-washed oil bodies were blended with maltodextrin and d-limonene and spray dried using a Buchi B-191 laboratory spray dryer. Lipid and d-limonene retention was 89-93% and 24-27%. Samples were compared to processed emulsions containing sunflower oil and d-limonene and stabilised by either lecithin or Capsul. Lecithin and Capsul processed emulsions had a lipid and d-limonene retention of 82-89%, 7.7-9.1% and 48-50%, 55-59% respectively indicating that water-washed oil bodies could retain the most lipids and Capsul could retain the most d-limonene. This indicates that whilst additional emulsifiers may be required for future applications of water-washed oil bodies as carriers of lipophilic actives, oil bodies are excellent agents for lipid encapsulation. PMID:24235784

Fisk, Ian D; Linforth, Robert; Trophardy, Gil; Gray, David

2013-11-01

355

Characterization of volatiles and aroma-active compounds in honeybush (Cyclopia subternata) by GC-MS and GC-O analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in fermented honeybush, Cyclopia subternata, were sampled by means of a high-capacity headspace sample enrichment probe (SEP) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Stereochemistry was determined by means of enantioselective GC-MS with derivatized ?-cyclodextrin columns as chiral selectors. A total of 183 compounds, the majority of which are terpenoids (103; 56%), were identified by comparing their mass spectra and retention indices with those of reference compounds or tentatively identified by comparison with spectral library or literature data. Of these compounds, 37 were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), using detection frequency (DF) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), to be odor-active (FD ? 2). (E)-?-Damascenone, (R/S)-linalool, (E)-?-damascone, geraniol, (E)-?-ionone, and (7E)-megastigma-5,7,9-trien-4-one were identified with the highest FD factors (?512). The odors of certain compounds, that is, (6E,8Z)-megastigma-4,6,8-trien-3-one, (6E,8E)-megastigma-4,6,8-trien-3-one, (7E)-megastigma-5,7,9-trien-4-one, 10-epi-?-eudesmol, epi-?-muurolol, and epi-?-cadinol, were perceived by GC-O assessors as typically honeybush-like. PMID:22394400

Le Roux, Maritha; Cronje, J Christel; Burger, Barend V; Joubert, Elizabeth

2012-03-14

356

Characterization of Muscat wines aroma evolution using comprehensive gas chromatography followed by a post-analytic approach to 2D contour plots comparison.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents the application of a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method on the analysis of Muscat-based wines volatiles by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The aroma patterns were established for different samples of Asti Spumante and Moscato d'Asti wines, stored in bottles for 6 months at different temperatures. Wines stored at 5 °C for 6 months did not show significant changes in flavor; otherwise, the samples stored at 15 and 25 °C, showed a significant decrease in linalool, ?-damascenone, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate levels. In these last samples, ?-terpineol, hotrienol, nerol oxide, furanic linalool oxides A/B and rose oxide concentrations significantly increased. A mathematical approach was developed and applied to raw data exported after the chromatographic course, in order (i) to normalise different 2D chromatograms, permitting their direct comparison and (ii) to automatically identify and calculate from pixel-to-pixel re-designed 2D chromatograms any differences among key volatile compounds. PMID:23578615

Bordiga, Matteo; Rinaldi, Maurizio; Locatelli, Monica; Piana, Gianluca; Travaglia, Fabiano; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Arlorio, Marco

2013-09-01

357

Influence of thermal treatment of wood on the aroma of a sugar cane spirit (cachaça) model-solution Influência do termotratamento da madeira no aroma de uma solução-modelo de cachaça  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aging process of alcoholic beverages is generally conducted in wood barrels made with species from Quercus sp. Due to the high cost and the lack of viability of commercial production of these trees in Brazil, there is demand for new alternatives to using other native species and the incorporation of new technologies that enable greater competitiveness of sugar cane spirit aged in Brazilian wood. The drying of wood, the thermal treatment applied to it, and manufacturing techniques are impo...

Marta Helena Fillet Spoto; Marcelo Machado Leão; José Otávio Otávio Brito

2011-01-01

358

Determination of blueberry and strawberry maturity and aroma quality and effect of HLB on orange juice aroma: comparison of Z-nose, E-nose and GC-MS technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic nose technology could be very useful in quality control discrimination of products. The Z-nose (Electronic Sensory Technology, Model 4500) was equipped with a Tenax trap (2 mg, 225 ºC), and 1 m DB5 column, an acoustic wave detector and an oven set to ramp from 40-180 ºC at a rate of 10 ºC...

359

Nutrient limitation leads to penetrative growth into agar and affects aroma formation in Pichia fabianii, P. kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among fermentative yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is most frequently used as a model organism, although other yeast species may have special features that make them interesting candidates to apply in food-fermentation processes. In this study, we used three yeast species isolated from fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit, S. cerevisiae 131, Pichia fabianii 65 and Pichia kudriavzevii 129, and determined the impact of nitrogen and/or glucose limitation on surface growth mode and the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All three species displayed significant changes in growth mode in all nutrient-limited conditions, signified by the formation of metafilaments or pseudohyphae. The timing of the transition was found to be species-specific. Transition in growth mode is suggested to be linked to the production of certain fusel alcohols, such as phenylethyl alcohol, which serve as quorum-sensing molecules. Interestingly, we did not observe concomitant increased production of phenylethyl alcohol and filamentous growth. Notably, a broader range of esters was found only for the Pichia spp. grown on nitrogen-limited agar for 21?days compared to nutrient-rich agar, and when grown on glucose- and glucose- plus nitrogen-limited agar. Our data suggest that for the Pichia spp., the formation of esters may play an important role in the switch in growth mode upon nitrogen limitation. Further biological or ecological implications of ester formation are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25308873

van Rijswijck, Irma M H; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith C M; Abee, Tjakko; Smid, Eddy J

2015-01-01

360

Formation of furfurylthiol exhibiting a strong coffee aroma during oak barrel fermentation from furfural released by toasted staves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Furfurylthiol (FFT) is formed in white wines during alcoholic fermentation in the barrel from the furfural released by toasted staves. The quantity of furfural released into the must has a decisive effect on the quantity of FFT in the finished wine. Wines fermented in new barrels thus contain larger quantities of FFT than those fermented in used barrels. Fermentation conditions favorable to an excess production of H(2)S (hydrogen sulfide) by the yeast promote the formation of this volatile thiol. The presence of this volatile thiol in white wines is, therefore, closely related to the yeast's sulfur metabolism. PMID:11600030

Blanchard, L; Tominaga, T; Dubourdieu, D

2001-10-01

 
 
 
 
361

Applied systems biology - vanillin production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Vanillin is the most important aroma compound based on market value, and natural vanillin is extracted from the cured seed pods of the Vanilla orchid. Most of the world’s vanillin, however, is obtained by chemical synthesis from petrochemicals or wood pulp lignins. As an alternative, de novo biosynthesis of vanillin in baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was recently demonstrated by successfully introducing the metabolic pathway for vanillin production in yeast. Nevertheless, the amount of vanillin produced in this S. cerevisiae strain is insufficient for commercial production and improvements need to be done. We have introduced the genes necessary for vanillin production in an identical manner in two different yeast strains S288c and CEN.PK,where comprehensive – omics datasets are available, hence, allowing vanillin production in the two strain backgrounds to be evaluated and compared in a systems biology setting.

Strucko, Tomas; Eriksen, Carsten

2012-01-01

362

Furan in coffee: Pilot studies on formation at roasting and losses during production steps and consumer handling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The occurrence of furan in some food products has been known for a few decades already and it has been reconfirmed in more recent investigations that furan is present in a variety of foodstuffs. This list of products includes roast coffee which has been shown to generate furan as a result of the heat treatment during the roasting reactions which is applied to achieve the desired aroma and flavor profile of a roast coffee. The objective of this study was to provide data to ...

Guenther, Helmut; Hoenicke, Katrin; Biesterveld, Steven; Gerhard-rieben, Elke; Lantz, Ingo

2010-01-01

363

Growth regulators and essential oil production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aroma and fragrance industry is a billion-dollar world market which grows annually. Essential oils comprise the majority of compounds used by these industries. These sets of metabolites are formed mainly by monoterpenes, which are products of the plants' secondary metabolism. Biosynthesized from [...] mevalonate and methylerythitol phosphate, the essential oil production depends not only on genetic factors and the developmental stage of plants, but also on environmental factors which could result in biochemical and physiological alterations in plants modifying the quantity and quality of the essential oil. These modifications impair aromatic plant production aimed at essential oil by reducing their quality. It is desirable to develop techniques of agronomical management to improve essential oil products and their specific compounds. Among other factors influencing essential oil production are plant growth regulators or plant hormones. Endogenous levels as well exogenous application could affect essential oil production and chemical composition. In this review we will present research in which plant growth regulators or their synthetic analogs were used and their effects on essential oil production.

Cláudia L, Prins; Ivo J. C, Vieira; Silvério P, Freitas.

364

Growth regulators and essential oil production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aroma and fragrance industry is a billion-dollar world market which grows annually. Essential oils comprise the majority of compounds used by these industries. These sets of metabolites are formed mainly by monoterpenes, which are products of the plants' secondary metabolism. Biosynthesized from mevalonate and methylerythitol phosphate, the essential oil production depends not only on genetic factors and the developmental stage of plants, but also on environmental factors which could result in biochemical and physiological alterations in plants modifying the quantity and quality of the essential oil. These modifications impair aromatic plant production aimed at essential oil by reducing their quality. It is desirable to develop techniques of agronomical management to improve essential oil products and their specific compounds. Among other factors influencing essential oil production are plant growth regulators or plant hormones. Endogenous levels as well exogenous application could affect essential oil production and chemical composition. In this review we will present research in which plant growth regulators or their synthetic analogs were used and their effects on essential oil production.

Cláudia L Prins

2010-01-01

365

Major contribution of the Ehrlich pathway for 2-phenylethanol/rose flavor production in Ashbya gossypii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma alcohols of fermented food and beverages are derived from fungal amino acids catabolism via the Ehrlich pathway. This linear pathway consists of three enzymatic reactions to form fusel alcohols. Regulation of some of the enzymes occurs on the transcriptional level via Aro80. The riboflavin overproducer Ashbya gossypii produces strong fruity flavours in contrast to its much less aromatic relative Eremothecium cymbalariae. Genome comparisons indicated that A. gossypii harbors genes for aromatic amino acid catabolism (ARO8a, ARO8b, ARO10, and ARO80) while E. cymbalariae only encodes ARO8a and thus lacks major components of aromatic amino acid catabolism. Volatile compound (VOC) analysis showed that both Eremothecium species produce large amounts of isoamyl alcohol while A. gossypii also produces high levels of 2-phenylethanol. Deletion of the A. gossypii ARO-genes did not confer any growth deficiencies. However, A. gossypii ARO-mutants (except Agaro8a) were strongly impaired in aroma production, particularly in the production of the rose flavour 2-phenylethanol. Conversely, overexpression of ARO80 via the AgTEF1 promoter resulted in 50% increase in VOC production. Together these data indicate that A. gossypii is a very potent flavour producer and that amongst the non-Saccharomyces biodiversity strains can be identified that could provide positive sensory properties to fermented beverages. PMID:24920045

Ravasio, Davide; Wendland, Jürgen; Walther, Andrea

2014-09-01

366

Use and declaration of additives in meat products: New legal regulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the more important additives used in meat products, their functional characteristics, the permitted quantities and declaration in keeping with the new legal regulations. Additives important for meat products, according to their functional characteristics, can be preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers, emulsifying salts, acidity regulators, sequestrants, thickeners, gelling agents, modified starches, acids, colours, aroma enhancers, packaging gases and coating powders, and it must be pointed out that many additives have several functional characteristics at the same time. In stating additives in the list of contents of a product, the elementary functional characteristic of the additive is given with the E number or name of the additive in brackets; modified starches are declared as „starch" without giving the E number. The declaration does not state the quantity of the additive added to the product, or the biggest permitted quantity of the additive in the given product.

Vukovi? Ilija

2005-01-01

367

Starter cultures used in probiotic dairy product preparation and popular probiotic dairy drinks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Dairy products that contain probiotic bacteria are those that are produced with various fermentation methods, especially lactic acid fermentation, by using starter cultures and those that have various textures and aromas. Fermented dairy products are popular due to their differences in taste and the [...] ir favourable physiological effects. Today, fermented dairy beverages in general are produced locally by using traditional methods. Recently, due to the increased demand for natural nutrients and probiotic products, fermented dairy beverages have reached a different position and are considered to have an important impact on human health and nutrition. In this article, probiotic bacteria and functional dairy products that are produced by using probiotic bacteria are discussed.

Oktay, Yerlikaya.

2014-06-01

368

Main individual and product characteristics influencing in-mouth flavour release during eating masticated food products with different textures: mechanistic modelling and experimental validation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A mechanistic model predicting flavour release during oral processing of masticated foods was developed. The description of main physiological steps (product mastication and swallowing) and physical mechanisms (mass transfer, product breakdown and dissolution) occurring while eating allowed satisfactory simulation of in vivo release profiles of ethyl propanoate and 2-nonanone, measured by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry on ten representative subjects during the consumption of four cheeses with different textures. Model sensitivity analysis showed that the main parameters affecting release intensity were the product dissolution rate in the mouth, the mass transfer coefficient in the bolus, the air-bolus contact area in the mouth and the respiratory frequency. Parameters furthermore affecting release dynamics were the mastication phase duration, the velopharynx opening and the rate of saliva incorporation into the bolus. Specific retention of 2-nonanone on mucosa was assumed to explain aroma release kinetics and confirmed when gaseous samples were consumed. PMID:24045155

Doyennette, M; Déléris, I; Féron, G; Guichard, E; Souchon, I; Trelea, I C

2014-01-01

369

Terpene production in the peel of sweet orange fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Terpenoids constitute the largest and most diverse class of natural products. They are important factors for aroma and flavor, and their synthesis is basically done from two compounds: isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Isopentenyl diphosphate is synthesized through two different [...] pathways, one that occurs in the cytoplasm and one in the plastid. With the sequencing of ESTs from citrus, we were able to perform in silico analyses on the pathways that lead to the synthesis of terpenes as well as on the terpene synthases present in sweet orange. Moreover, expression analysis using real-time qPCR was performed to verify the expression pattern of a terpene synthase in plants. The results show that all the pathways for isopentenyl diphosphate are present in citrus and a high expression of terpene synthases seems to have an important role in the constitution of the essential oils of citrus.

Marco A., Takita; Irving J., Berger; Ana Carolina, Basílio-Palmieri; Kleber M., Borges; Juliana M. de, Souza; Maria L.N.P., Targon.

370

Evaluation of fruit productivity and quality in Hass avocado submitted to 60Co gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evaluation of productivity, postharvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Hass avocado trees irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the ''La Labor'' Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologias del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300 %. In regard to postharvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO2/kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This mean that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and postharvest behavior of fruits. (Author)

371

Evaluation gives productivity and quality gives fruit in Aguacate subjected has to gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evaluation of productivity, post harvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Has avocado trees irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the La Labor Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300%. In regard to post harvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO2 /kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This means that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and post harvest behavior of fruits

372

Use of simulated annealing in standardization and optimization of the acerola wine production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, seven wine samples were prepared varying the amount of pulp of acerola fruits and the sugar content using the simulated annealing technique to obtain the optimal sensory qualities and cost for the wine produced. S. cerevisiae yeast was used in the fermentation process and the sensory [...] attributes were evaluated using a hedonic scale. Acerola wines were classified as sweet, with 11°GL of alcohol concentration and with aroma, taste, and color characteristics of the acerola fruit. The simulated annealing experiments showed that the best conditions were found at mass ratio between 1/7.5-1/6 and total soluble solids between 28.6-29.0 °Brix, from which the sensory acceptance scores of 6.9, 6.8, and 8.8 were obtained for color, aroma, and flavor, respectively, with a production cost 43-45% lower than the cost of traditional wines commercialized in Brazil.

Sheyla dos Santos, Almeida; Wonder Alexandre Luz, Alves; Sidnei Alves de, Araújo; José Carlos Curvelo, Santana; Narendra, Narain; Roberto Rodrigues de, Souza.

2014-06-01

373

Applicability of Vacuum Impregnation to Modify Physico-Chemical, Sensory and Nutritive Characteristics of Plant Origin Products—A Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food. PMID:25244012

Radziejewska-Kubzdela, El?bieta; Biega?ska-Marecik, Ró?a; Kido?, Marcin

2014-01-01

374

Applicability of Vacuum Impregnation to Modify Physico-Chemical, Sensory and Nutritive Characteristics of Plant Origin Products—A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food.

El?bieta Radziejewska-Kubzdela

2014-09-01

375

Production and Sensory Evaluation of Tigernut Beverages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The acceptability of roasted and non-roasted tiger nut beverages has been investigated. Forty panelists were used in the sensory evaluation study. The panelists compared the two beverages on the bases of mouth feel, texture, taste, aroma, consistency, appearance and general acceptability. Correlation analysis of the results showed that although the texture, aroma, appearance and consistency were important for consumers, mouth feel and taste were more important for the overall acceptance of th...

Sanful, Rita E.

2009-01-01

376

Study of effect of radiation on the parameters of quality of sterile males of Ceratitis Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and their improvement aroma therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this present work, we are interested in studying the various stages in the production of sterile males, the effect of different doses of irradiation on longevity, compatibility and competitiveness of these males. And the effect of exposure of adults and pupae of Ceratitis to different doses of essential oil of ginger on their compatibility and competitiveness. (Author)

377

Chemometric studies of vinegars from different raw materials and processes of production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phenolic composition, aroma compounds, and organic acid content of 83 vinegars have been determined. Multivariate analysis techniques have been used to classify these vinegar samples according to raw material (white wine, red wine, apple, honey, alcohol, balsamic, and malt) and production process (with and without aging in wood). Cluster analysis grouped the samples according to production process. Only a