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Sample records for aroma 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline production

  1. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline - key aroma compound in Mediterranean dried sausages

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    2000-01-01

    Southern types were attributed to a burned coffee odour from smoke in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The two compounds were 2-furfurylthiol and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. An analysis of five dried, moulded sausages showed that the surface...

  2. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline - key aroma compound in Mediterranean dried sausages

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    2000-01-01

    In a study characterising sausage types from various parts of Europe, ten Mediterranean and Northern European fermented, dried sausages were compared using static headspace gas chromatography-olfactometry and a sniffing panel of five members. The greatest difference between the Northern and...... Southern types were attributed to a burned coffee odour from smoke in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The two compounds were 2-furfurylthiol and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. An analysis of five dried, moulded sausages showed that the surface...

  3. Manganese-induced regulations in growth, yield formation, quality characters, rice aroma and enzyme involved in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthesis in fragrant rice.

    Li, Meijuan; Ashraf, Umair; Tian, Hua; Mo, Zhaowen; Pan, Shenggang; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Duan, Meiyang; Tang, Xiangru

    2016-06-01

    Micro-nutrient application is essential for normal plant growth while a little is known about manganese (Mn)-induced regulations in morpho-physiological attributes, aroma formation and enzyme involved in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) biosynthesis in aromatic rice. Present study aimed to examine the influence of four levels of Mn i.e., Mn1 (100 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)), Mn2 (150 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)), Mn3 (200 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)), and Mn4 (250 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)) on the growth, yield formation, quality characters, rice aroma and enzyme involved in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthesis in two fragrant rice cultivars i.e., Meixiangzhan and Nongxiang 18. Pots without Mn application were served as control (Ck). Each pot contained 15 kg of soil. Effects on agronomic characters, quality attributes, 2-AP contents and enzymes involved in 2-AP biosynthesis have been studied in early and late season rice. Results depicted that Mn improved rice growth, yield and related characters, and some quality attributes significantly. It further up-regulated proline, pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid (P5C) (precursors of 2-AP), soluble proteins and activities of proline dehydrogenase (ProDH), Δ(1) pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid synthetase (P5CS) ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) that led to enhanced 2-AP production in rice grains. Moreover, higher Mn levels resulted in increased grain Mn contents in both rice cultivars. Along with growth and yield improvement, Mn application significantly improved rice aromatic contents. Overall, Nongxiang 18 accumulated more 2-AP contents than Meixiangzhan in both seasons under Mn application. This study further explored the importance of Mn in rice aroma formation and signifies that micro-nutrients can play significant roles in rice aroma synthesis; however, intensive studies at molecular levels are still needed to understand the exact mechanisms of Mn to improve rice aroma formation. PMID:26995311

  4. Identification and Quantitation of 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline in Manuka Honey (Leptospermum scoparium).

    Rückriemen, Jana; Schwarzenbolz, Uwe; Adam, Simone; Henle, Thomas

    2015-09-30

    Manuka honey from New Zealand is known for its exceptional antibacterial activity, which is due to high amounts of the 1,2-dicarbonyl compound methylglyoxal (MGO). MGO in manuka honey is formed via non-enzymatic dehydration from dihydroxyacetone (DHA) during honey maturation. MGO and DHA are highly reactive substances, leading to a variety of unique chemical reactions. During Strecker reaction between proline and MGO, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP), an important aroma compound, is formed. Using liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, 2-AP was identified unambiguously in manuka honey for the first time. Quantitation was carried out via external matrix calibration, using a synthetic 2-AP standard and artificial honey. The 2-AP concentration in 11 commercial samples of manuka honey ranged from 0.08 to 0.45 mg/kg. For manuka honey samples containing MGO in concentrations above 250 mg/kg, significantly higher amounts of 2-AP were found when compared to non-manuka honeys. When high amounts of MGO were artificially added to non-manuka multifloral honey, an increase of the 2-AP concentration from 0.07 to 0.40 mg/kg after 12 weeks of storage at 37 °C was observed, concomitant with a significant increase in the concentration of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). No increase of 2-AP was found during storage at ambient temperature. 2-AP together with MGO can be a suitable parameter for the quality control of manuka honey. PMID:26365614

  5. Biosynthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in rice calli cultures: Demonstration of 1-pyrroline as a limiting substrate.

    Poonlaphdecha, Janchai; Gantet, Pascal; Maraval, Isabelle; Sauvage, François-Xavier; Menut, Chantal; Morère, Alain; Boulanger, Renaud; Wüst, Matthias; Gunata, Ziya

    2016-04-15

    The role of 1-pyrroline was studied via feeding experiments using rice calli cultures to gain further insight into the key steps of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) biosynthesis in rice. The origin of the acetyl donor was also studied through stable isotope labelled substrates. Incubation of fresh calli from a fragrant rice variety (Aychade) and a non-fragrant variety (Gladio×Fidji K2) with 1-pyrroline led to a significant increase in 2AP in both varieties. Importantly, the amount of 2AP in the non-fragrant variety could be greatly enhanced by this supplementation. When rice calli were fed with increasing levels of 1-pyrroline, 2AP levels increased accordingly. Our data show that 1-pyrroline is a limiting factor for 2AP synthesis in rice. Heat treatment of calli suggested that 1-pyrroline might be enzymatically acetylated. The presence of labelled 2AP in calli supplemented with [U-(13)C]glucose, sodium acetate (1,2-(13)C2) and sodium octanoate (1,2,3,4-(13)C4) suggested that these compounds are possible candidates for acetyl group-donors of 2AP, predominately in the form of intact labelled (13)C2-units. PMID:26617041

  6. Quantification of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in rice by stable isotope dilution assay through headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    A new and convenient synthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), a potent flavor compound in rice, and its ring-deuterated analog, 2-acetyl-1-d2-pyrroline (2AP-d2), was reported. A stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA), involving headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-positive chemical ionization-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-PCI-IT-MS-MS), was developed for 2AP quantification. A divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber was used for HS-SPME procedure and parameters affecting analytes recovery, such as extraction time and temperature, pH and salt, were studied. The repeatability of the method (n = 10) expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was 11.6%. A good linearity was observed from 5.9 to 779 ng of 2AP (r2 = 0.9989). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for 2AP were 0.1 and 0.4 ng g-1 of rice, respectively. The recovery of spiked 2AP from rice matrix was almost complete. The developed method was applied to the quantification of 2AP in aerial parts and grains of scented and non-scented rice cultivars.

  7. Quantification of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in rice by stable isotope dilution assay through headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Maraval, Isabelle [UMR Qualisud, CIRAD, 73 Rue J. F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); UMR Qualisud, Universite Montpellier 2, place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Sen, Kemal [Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cukurova, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Agrebi, Abdelhamid; Menut, Chantal; Morere, Alain [UMR 5247, Institut des Biomolecules Max Mousseron (IBMM), CNRS, Universites Montpellier 2 et 1, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Montpellier, 8 Rue de l' Ecole Normale, 34296 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Boulanger, Renaud [UMR Qualisud, CIRAD, 73 Rue J. F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Gay, Frederic [CIRAD, DORAS Centre, Research and Development Building, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Mestres, Christian [UMR Qualisud, CIRAD, 73 Rue J. F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Gunata, Ziya, E-mail: zgunata@univ-montp2.fr [UMR Qualisud, Universite Montpellier 2, place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2010-08-24

    A new and convenient synthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), a potent flavor compound in rice, and its ring-deuterated analog, 2-acetyl-1-d{sub 2}-pyrroline (2AP-d{sub 2}), was reported. A stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA), involving headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-positive chemical ionization-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-PCI-IT-MS-MS), was developed for 2AP quantification. A divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber was used for HS-SPME procedure and parameters affecting analytes recovery, such as extraction time and temperature, pH and salt, were studied. The repeatability of the method (n = 10) expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was 11.6%. A good linearity was observed from 5.9 to 779 ng of 2AP (r{sup 2} = 0.9989). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for 2AP were 0.1 and 0.4 ng g{sup -1} of rice, respectively. The recovery of spiked 2AP from rice matrix was almost complete. The developed method was applied to the quantification of 2AP in aerial parts and grains of scented and non-scented rice cultivars.

  8. Characterization of Key Aroma Compounds in Raw and Thermally Processed Prawns and Thermally Processed Lobsters by Application of Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    Mall, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-08-24

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to an aroma distillate of blanched prawn meat (Litopenaeus vannamei) (BPM) revealed 40 odorants in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to 1024. The highest FD factors were assigned to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. To understand the influence of different processing conditions on odorant formation, fried prawn meat was investigated by means of AEDA in the same way, revealing 31 odorants with FD factors between 4 and 2048. Also, the highest FD factors were determined for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, followed by 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. As a source of the typical marine, sea breeze-like odor attribute of the seafood, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole was identified in raw prawn meat as one of the contributors. Additionally, the aroma of blanched prawn meat was compared to that of blanched Norway and American lobster meat, respectively (Nephrops norvegicus and Homarus americanus). Identification experiments revealed the same set of odorants, however, with differing FD factors. In particular, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone was found as the key aroma compound in blanched Norway lobster, whereas American lobster contained 3-methylindole with a high FD factor. PMID:27486834

  9. Production of aroma compounds in lactic fermentations.

    Smid, E J; Kleerebezem, M

    2014-01-01

    This review describes recent scientific research on the production of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fermented food products. We discuss the various precursor molecules for the formation of aroma compounds in connection with the metabolic pathways involved. The roles of nonmetabolic properties such as cell lysis are also described in relation to aroma formation. Finally, we provide an overview of the literature on methods to steer and control aroma formation by LAB in mixed culture fermentations. We demonstrate that the technological progress made recently in high-throughput analysis methods has been driving the development of new approaches to understand, control, and steer aroma formation in (dairy) fermentation processes. This currently entails proposing new rules for designing stable, high-performance mixed cultures constituting a selection of strains, which in concert and on the basis of their individual predicted gene contents deliver the required functionalities. PMID:24580073

  10. FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Adriana Bramorski; Soccol, Carlos R.; Pierre Christen; Sergio Revah

    1998-01-01

    Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intens...

  11. Characterization of the aroma signature of styrian pumpkin seed oil ( Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca) by molecular sensory science.

    Poehlmann, Susan; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-03-27

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a distillate prepared from an authentic Styrian pumpkin seed oil followed by identification experiments led to the characterization of 47 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192 among which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Among the set of key odorants, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline and another 20 odorants were identified for the first time as constituents of pumpkin seed oil. To evaluate the aroma contribution in more detail, 31 aroma compounds showing the highest FD factors were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds determined in sunflower oil, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated, and 26 aroma compounds were found to have an OAV above 1. Among them, methanethiol (sulfury), 2-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanal (malty), and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (roasted potato) reached the highest OAVs. Sensory evaluation of an aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 31 key odorants in the concentrations as determined in the oil revealed that the aroma of Styrian pumpkin seed oil could be closely mimicked. Quantitation of 11 key odorants in three commercial pumpkin seed oil revealed clear differences in the concentrations of distinct odorants, which were correlated with the overall aroma profile of the oils. PMID:23461409

  12. Application of an Effective Statistical Technique for an Accurate and Powerful Mining of Quantitative Trait Loci for Rice Aroma Trait.

    Farahnaz Sadat Golestan Hashemi

    Full Text Available When a phenotype of interest is associated with an external/internal covariate, covariate inclusion in quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses can diminish residual variation and subsequently enhance the ability of QTL detection. In the in vitro synthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP, the main fragrance compound in rice, the thermal processing during the Maillard-type reaction between proline and carbohydrate reduction produces a roasted, popcorn-like aroma. Hence, for the first time, we included the proline amino acid, an important precursor of 2AP, as a covariate in our QTL mapping analyses to precisely explore the genetic factors affecting natural variation for rice scent. Consequently, two QTLs were traced on chromosomes 4 and 8. They explained from 20% to 49% of the total aroma phenotypic variance. Additionally, by saturating the interval harboring the major QTL using gene-based primers, a putative allele of fgr (major genetic determinant of fragrance was mapped in the QTL on the 8th chromosome in the interval RM223-SCU015RM (1.63 cM. These loci supported previous studies of different accessions. Such QTLs can be widely used by breeders in crop improvement programs and for further fine mapping. Moreover, no previous studies and findings were found on simultaneous assessment of the relationship among 2AP, proline and fragrance QTLs. Therefore, our findings can help further our understanding of the metabolomic and genetic basis of 2AP biosynthesis in aromatic rice.

  13. Optimising aroma quality in curry sauce products using in vivo aroma release measurements.

    Hatakeyama, Jun; Davidson, James M; Kant, Avinash; Koizumi, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Fumiyo; Taylor, Andrew J

    2014-08-15

    Reducing fat content in foods to meet consumers' preferences and to address the obesity issue is a key task for food manufacturers but simply reducing fat content affects aroma quality adversely. Measuring the aroma release from regular and low-fat samples during eating to rebalance the aroma release has proved successful in model systems. Here, the reformulation of the spice content in a low fat curry sauce is described. Volatile markers of the key spices (coriander, cumin and turmeric) were selected and used to measure aroma release in regular (10 g oil/100 g) and low (2.5 or 5 g oil/100 g) fat sauces. Regression models were used to adjust the ingredient formulation so that the aroma release profiles in vivo were the same for the regular and reduced oil curry sauces and sensory analysis showed no significant difference between these samples. Despite the complexity of spice aromas, rebalancing was successful. PMID:24679775

  14. Fruity aroma production in solid state fermentation by Ceratocystis fimbriata : influence of the substrate type and the presence of precursors

    CHRISTEN, Pierre; Meza, J.C.; Revah, S.

    1997-01-01

    Wheat bran, cassava bagasse and sugar cane bagasse were shown to be adequate substrates for the growth and aroma production by the mould #Ceratocystis fimbriata$. Among the nutritive media tested, sugar cane bagasse complemented with a synthetic medium containing glucose (200 g/l) gave a fruity aroma while the leucine or valine-containing medium gave a strong banana aroma. Aroma production was dependent on growth and the maximum aroma intensity was detected at about the time of the maximum re...

  15. OCCURING SOME BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS IN FERMENTED MEAT PRODUCTS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON AROMA DEVELOPMENT

    Gökalp, Hüsnü Yusuf; Hüdayi ERCOŞKUN; Ahmet Hilmi ÇON

    1998-01-01

    Glycolysis, lipolysis and proteolysis are the main biochemical reactions which effect characteristic flavour, aroma, color and texture development of fermented meat products. These reactions are results of the microorganisms or endogenous meat enzymes. The products which are results of glycolysis are firstly responsible from decreasing of pH. Volatile compounds from glycolysis effect aroma. Compounds formed by lipolysis are the main reason that effect aroma. 60 % volatile compounds formed...

  16. Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products

    Nevenka Mazić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried out at room temperature until the media reached pH value of 5. Samples were evaluated for sensory characteristics using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. In all media the target pH was reached after 68-71 hours of fermentation, depending on citrate level. Fermentation and the production of aroma compounds were more intensive in media that contained whey proteins compared to media with only casein. Increased citrate level had a positive influence on the aroma production. Citrate increased the initial pH of the media and acted as a buffer during fermentation, which lead to longer fermentation and prolonged production of aroma compounds. At pH around 5, the desired cultured aroma was the most intensive, whereas sour taste was less dominant. The substrate with 0.25% citrate and 0.1% whey proteins, at pH 5, was rated as best regarding its sensory characteristics.

  17. FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Adriana Bramorski

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intensity was detected a few hours before or after the maximum respirometric activity. Sixteen compounds were separated by gas cromatography of the components present in the headspace and fifteen of them were identified as acid (1, alcohols (6, aldehyde (1, ketones (2 and esters (5.Este estudo explorou a versatilidade de Ceratocystis fimbriata de crescer e produzir aromas naturais sobre substratos de resíduos agro-industriais. Bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã, amaranto e soja em diferentes proporções compuseram os sete meios utilizados, mostrando ser substratos adequados para o crescimento e produção de aroma por este fungo em fermentação no estado sólido. Todos os meios contendo bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã e soja em sua composição proporcionaram um forte aroma frutal, enquanto, o meio de amaranto produziu um agradável aroma de abacaxi. A produção de aroma foi dependente do crescimento, visto que a máxima intensidade do aroma foi detectado poucas horas antes ou depois da atividade respiratória máxima. Foram detectados dezesseis compostos pela cromatografia de gás no headspace das culturas, e quinze deles foram identificados: 1 ácido, 6 alcoois, 1 aldeído, 2 cetonas e 5 ésteres.

  18. SUGARCANE BAGASSE AS SUPPORT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COCONUT AROMA BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION (SSF

    Manoela Pessanha da Penha,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the major producers of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum in the world and consequently produces large quantities of waste such as sugarcane bagasse, which can be used as inert support for the production of aroma compounds by SSF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the centesimal composition and particle size distribution of sugar cane bagasse, as well as its applicability as support for the production of 6-pentyl-α-pyrone by SSF. Analyses were performed in triplicate to evaluate the levels of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and moisture in the waste. Also evaluated were the particle size distribution and morphology structure of the sugarcane bagasse. The aroma compound produced shows that the studied waste can be used for 6PP production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC 4042 by SSF process. By kinetic production of aroma it is concluded that the seventh day of fermentation yielded the largest production of the aroma compound, as published for other studies

  19. Production of aromas and fragrances through microbial oxidation of monoterpenes

    H. F. Rozenbaum

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Aromas and fragrances can be obtained through the microbial oxidation of monoterpenes. Many microorganisms can be used to carry out extremely specific conversions using substrates of low commercial value. However, for many species, these substrates are highly toxic, consequently inhibiting their metabolism. In this work, the conversion ability of Aspergillus niger IOC-3913 for terpenic compounds was examined. This species was preselected because of its high resistance to toxic monoterpenic substrates. Though it has been grown in media containing R-limonene (one of the cheapest monoterpenic hydrocarbons, which is widely available on the market, the species has not shown the ability to metabolize it, since biotransformation products were not detected in high resolution gas chromatography analyses. For this reason, other monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and camphor were used as substrates. These compounds were shown to be metabolized by the selected strain, producing oxidized compounds. Four reaction systems were used: a biotransformation in a liquid medium with cells in growth b with pre-grown cultures c with cells immobilized in a synthetic polymer network and d in a solid medium to which the substrate was added via the gas phase. The main biotransformation products were found in all the reaction systems, although the adoption of previously cultivated cells seemed to favor biotransformation. Cell immobilization seemed to be a feasible strategy for alleviating the toxic effect of the substrate. Through mass spectrometry it was possible to identify verbenone and alpha-terpineol as the biotransformation products of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, respectively. The structures of the other oxidation products are described.

  20. QTL mapping of the production of wine aroma compounds by yeast

    Steyer Damien; Ambroset Chloe; Brion Christian; Claudel Patricia; Delobel Pierre; Sanchez Isabelle; Erny Claude; Blondin Bruno; Karst Francis; Legras Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Wine aroma results from the combination of numerous volatile compounds, some produced by yeast and others produced in the grapes and further metabolized by yeast. However, little is known about the consequences of the genetic variation of yeast on the production of these volatile metabolites, or on the metabolic pathways involved in the metabolism of grape compounds. As a tool to decipher how wine aroma develops, we analyzed, under two experimental conditions, the producti...

  1. Comparative Characterization of Aroma Volatiles and Related Gene Expression Analysis at Vegetative and Mature Stages in Basmati and Non-Basmati Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars.

    Hinge, Vidya; Patil, Hemant; Nadaf, Altafhusain

    2016-02-01

    Aroma volatiles in Basmati-370, Ambemohar-157 (non-basmati scented), and IR-64 (non-scented) rice cultivars were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed at vegetative and maturity stages to study their differential accumulation using headspace solid-phase microextraction, followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GCMS) with selected ion monitoring (SIM) approach. In addition, expression analysis of major aroma volatile 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP)-related genes, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (badh2) and Δ(1)-pyrolline-5-carboxylic acid synthetase (P5CS), were studied by real-time PCR. Maximum number of volatiles recorded at vegetative (72-58) than at mature stage (54-39). Twenty new compounds (12 in scented and 8 in both) were reported in rice. N-containing aromatic compounds were major distinguishing class separating scented from non-scented. Among quantified 26 volatiles, 14 odor-active compounds distinguished vegetative and mature stage. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for 2AP was 0.001 mg/kg of 2AP and 0.01 g of rice, respectively. 2AP accumulation in mature grains was found three times more than in leaves of scented rice. Positive correlation of 2AP with 2-pentylfuran, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and (E)-2-nonenal suggests their major role as aroma contributors. The badh2 expression was inversely and P5CS expression was positively correlated with 2AP accumulation in scented over non-scented cultivar. PMID:26481230

  2. Potential applications of glucosyltransferases in terpene glucoside production: impacts on the use of aroma and fragrance.

    Schwab, Wilfried; Fischer, Thilo C; Giri, Ashok; Wüst, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The detection of glucoconjugated forms of monoterpene alcohols in rose petals in the late 1960s opened the new field of nonvolatile aroma precursors in flavor research. It is now well established that odorless glycosides represent a significant pool of aroma precursors in plants where they act as preformed but inactivated defense or attractive chemicals. Technical improvements in the separation and identification of plant secondary metabolites have provided a multitude of chemical structures, but functional characterization of glycosyltransferases that catalyze their formation lags behind. As technical efforts and costs for DNA sequencing dramatically dropped during the last decade, the number of plant genome sequences increased significantly, thus providing opportunities to functionally characterize the glycosyltransferase gene families in plants. These studies yielded the first glycosyltransferase genes that encode efficient biocatalysts for the production of monoterpene glucosides. They have applications in the food, feed, chemical, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries as slow release aroma chemicals. PMID:25431013

  3. Irradiation and fumigation effects on flavor, aroma and composition of grapefruit products

    Moshonas, M.G.; Shaw, P.E.

    1982-05-01

    Effects were evaluated on grapefruit treated to meet quarantine restrictions against Caribbean fruit fly infestation. Differences were found in flavor of fresh sections, fresh juice, and aroma of peel oil when obtained from fruit irradiated with x-rays, as compared with products from nonirradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in all pasteurized juices from fruit irradiated at 50-60 krad. Vitamin C levels were significantly lower in juice from most irradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in fresh and pasteurized juice from fruit treated with methyl bromide, and in pasteurized juice from fruit treated with ethylene dibromide. Aroma differences were found in peel oil from fruit treated with phosphine.

  4. Irradiation and fumigation effects on flavor, aroma and composition of grapefruit products

    Effects were evaluated on grapefruit treated to meet quarantine restrictions against Caribbean fruit fly infestation. Differences were found in flavor of fresh sections, fresh juice, and aroma of peel oil when obtained from fruit irradiated with x-rays, as compared with products from nonirradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in all pasteurized juices from fruit irradiated at 5-60 krad. Vitamin C levels were significantly lower in juice from most irradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in fresh and pasteurized juice from fruit treated with methyl bromide, and in pasteurized juice from fruit treated with ethylene dibromide. Aroma differences were found in peel oil from fruit treated with phosphine. (author)

  5. Biotechnological production of γ-decalactone, a peach like aroma, by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Braga, A; Belo, I

    2016-10-01

    The request for new flavourings increases every year. Consumer perception that everything natural is better is causing an increase demand for natural aroma additives. Biotechnology has become a way to get natural products. γ-Decalactone is a peach-like aroma widely used in dairy products, beverages and others food industries. In more recent years, more and more studies and industrial processes were endorsed to cost-effect this compound production. One of the best-known methods to produce γ-decalactone is from ricinoleic acid catalyzed by Yarrowia lipolytica, a generally regarded as safe status yeast. As yet, several factors affecting γ-decalactone production remain to be fully understood and optimized. In this review, we focus on the aromatic compound γ-decalactone and its production by Y. lipolytica. The metabolic pathway of lactone production and degradation are addressed. Critical analysis of novel strategies of bioprocess engineering, metabolic and genetic engineering and other strategies for the enhancement of the aroma productivity are presented. PMID:27565779

  6. Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene.

    Sharon-Asa, Liat; Shalit, Moshe; Frydman, Ahuva; Bar, Einat; Holland, Doron; Or, Etti; Lavi, Uri; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Eyal, Yoram

    2003-12-01

    Citrus fruits possess unique aromas rarely found in other fruit species. While fruit flavor is composed of complex combinations of soluble and volatile compounds, several low-abundance sesquiterpenes, such as valencene, nootkatone, alpha-sinensal, and beta-sinensal, stand out in citrus as important flavor and aroma compounds. The profile of terpenoid volatiles in various citrus species and their importance as aroma compounds have been studied in detail, but much is still lacking in our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of their production. Here, we report on the isolation, functional expression, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a sesquiterpene synthase-encoding gene, involved in citrus aroma formation. The recombinant enzyme encoded by Cstps1 was shown to convert farnesyl diphosphate to a single sesquiterpene product identified as valencene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phylogenetic analysis of plant terpene synthase genes localized Cstps1 to the group of angiosperm sesquiterpene synthases. Within this group, Cstps1 belongs to a subgroup of citrus sesquiterpene synthases. Cstps1 was found to be developmentally regulated: transcript was found to accumulate only towards fruit maturation, corresponding well with the timing of valencene accumulation in fruit. Although citrus fruits are non-climacteric, valencene accumulation and Cstps1 expression were found to be responsive to ethylene, providing further evidence for the role of ethylene in the final stages of citrus fruit ripening. Isolation of the gene encoding valencene synthase provides a tool for an in-depth study of the regulation of aroma compound biosynthesis in citrus and for metabolic engineering for fruit flavor characteristics. PMID:14617067

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of recombinant betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (OsBADH2), a protein involved in jasmine aroma, from Thai fragrant rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Crystals of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 from rice (O. sativa L.) belonged to a C-centred orthorhombic space group and diffraceted X-rays to 2.6 Å resolution. Fragrant rice (Oryza sativa L.) betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (OsBADH2) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of fragrance aroma compounds. The extremely low activity of OsBADH2 in catalyzing the oxidation of acetaldehyde is believed to be crucial for the accumulation of the volatile compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) in many scented plants, including fragrant rice. Recombinant fragrant rice OsBADH2 was expressed in Escherichia coli as an N-terminal hexahistidine fusion protein, purified using Ni Sepharose affinity chromatography and crystallized using the microbatch method. Initial crystals were obtained within 24 h using 0.1 M Tris pH 8.5 with 30%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 0.2 M magnesium chloride as the precipitating agent at 291 K. Crystal quality was improved when the enzyme was cocrystallized with NAD+. Improved crystals were grown in 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.4, 24%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 0.2 M ammonium chloride and diffracted to beyond 2.95 Å resolution after being cooled in a stream of N2 immediately prior to X-ray diffraction experiments. The crystals belonged to space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 66.03, b = 183.94, c = 172.28 Å. An initial molecular-replacement solution has been obtained and refinement is in progress

  8. Encapsulation of Aroma

    Zuidam, Nicolaas Jan; Heinrich, Emmanuel

    Flavor is one of the most important characteristics of a food product, since people prefer to eat only food products with an attractive flavor (Voilley and Etiévant 2006). Flavor can be defined as a combination of taste, smell and/or trigeminal stimuli. Taste is divided into five basic ones, i.e. sour, salty, sweet, bitter and umami. Components that trigger the so-called gustatory receptors for these tastes are in general not volatile, in contrast to aroma. Aroma molecules are those that interact with the olfactory receptors in the nose cavity (Firestein 2001). Confusingly, aroma is often referred to as flavor. Trigeminal stimuli cause sensations like cold, touch, and prickling. The current chapter only focuses on the encapsulation of the aroma molecules.

  9. Determination of sulfur and nitrogen compounds during the processing of dry fermented sausages and their relation to amino acid generation.

    Corral, Sara; Leitner, Erich; Siegmund, Barbara; Flores, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    The identification of odor-active sulfur and nitrogen compounds formed during the processing of dry fermented sausages was the objective of this study. In order to elucidate their possible origin, free amino acids (FAAs) were also determined. The volatile compounds present in the dry sausages were extracted using solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and monitored by one and two-dimensional gas chromatography with different detectors: mass spectrometry (MS), nitrogen phosphorous (NPD), flame photometric (FPD) detectors, as well as gas chromatography-olfactometry. A total of seventeen sulfur and nitrogen compounds were identified and quantified. Among them, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline was the most potent odor active compound, followed by methional, ethylpyrazine and 2,3-dihydrothiophene characterized by toasted, cooked potato, and nutty notes. The degradation of FAAs, generated during processing, was related to the production of aroma compounds, such as methionine forming methional and benzothiazole while ornithine was the precursor compound for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and glycine for ethylpyrazine. PMID:26213023

  10. Relationships among Note, Aroma Quality and Aroma type in Full-aroma-style Flue-cured Tobacco Production Areas%浓香型产区烤烟香韵与香气质量及香型关系研究

    王雪丽; 赵铭钦; 任伟; 张俊; 刘鹏飞

    2014-01-01

    Statistical analysis, including gray correlation analysis, partial correlation analysis, and stepwise regression analysis, were conducted to identify the relationship between style and quality characteristics of aromatic flue-cured tobacco. Total of 264 tobacco samples from 8 provinces of production areas with aroma style tobacco were used to analysis the relationships of note indicators, aroma quality and aroma type. The results showed that the note which influenced the quality of aroma the most was burnt-sweetness aroma and hay incense. The note which influenced the quantity of aroma most was hay incense and burnt-sweetness aroma. The note that influenced the type most was burnt-sweetness aroma and pure-sweetness aroma. Partial correlation analysis showed that the hay incense and burnt-sweetness aroma were significantly related with sweet temperament, hay incense was significantly related with aroma quantity, pure-sweetness aroma was significantly related with aroma type, burnt-sweetness aroma was extremely significantly correlated with aroma type. Model, which was constructed by stepwise regression analysis, can be used to predict the aroma quality and aroma type.%为明确浓香型烟叶风格特征与品质特征之间的联系,以8个浓香型产区2011-2012年的264份烟叶样品为材料,运用灰色关联度分析、偏相关分析和逐步回归分析等方法分析了感官评价中的香韵指标(焦甜香、焦香、正甜香、干草香、木香、坚果香、辛香)与烟叶香气质量及香型之间的关系。结果表明:(1)香韵对香气质影响以焦甜香、干草香为最大;香韵对香气量影响以干草香、焦甜香为最大;香韵对香型影响以焦甜香、正甜香为最大。(2)干草香与香气质呈显著正相关,焦甜香与香气质呈显著负相关;干草香与香气量呈显著正相关;正甜香与香型呈显著正相关,焦甜香与香型呈极显著正相关。(3)通过逐步回

  11. Production of the aroma chemicals 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol and 3-(methylthio)-propylacetate with yeasts.

    Etschmann, M M W; Kötter, P; Hauf, J; Bluemke, W; Entian, K-D; Schrader, J

    2008-09-01

    Yeasts can convert amino acids to flavor alcohols following the Ehrlich pathway, a reaction sequence comprising transamination, decarboxylation, and reduction. The alcohols can be further derivatized to the acetate esters by alcohol acetyl transferase. Using L: -methionine as sole nitrogen source and at high concentration, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol (methionol) and 3-(methylthio)-propylacetate (3-MTPA) were produced with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Methionol and 3-MTPA acted growth inhibiting at concentrations of >5 and >2 g L(-1), respectively. With the wild type strain S. cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D, 3.5 g L(-1) methionol and trace amounts of 3-MTPA were achieved in a bioreactor. Overexpression of the alcohol acetyl transferase gene ATF1 under the control of a TDH3 (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) promoter together with an optimization of the glucose feeding regime led to product concentrations of 2.2 g L(-1) 3-MTPA plus 2.5 g L(-1) methionol. These are the highest concentrations reported up to now for the biocatalytic synthesis of these flavor compounds which are applied in the production of savory aroma compositions such as meat, potato, and cheese flavorings. PMID:18597084

  12. Genetic analysis of the metabolic pathways responsible for aroma metabolite production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Styger, Gustav; Jacobson, Dan; Prior, Bernard A; Bauer, Florian F

    2013-05-01

    During alcoholic fermentation, higher alcohols, esters, and acids are formed from amino acids via the Ehrlich pathway by yeast, but many of the genes encoding the enzymes have not yet been identified. When the BAT1/2 genes, encoding transaminases that deaminate amino acids in the first step of the Ehrlich pathway are deleted, higher metabolite formation is significantly decreased. Screening yeast strains with deletions of genes encoding decarboxylases, dehydrogenases, and reductases revealed nine genes whose absence had the most significant impact on higher alcohol production. The seven most promising genes (AAD6, BAT2, HOM2, PAD1, PRO2, SPE1, and THI3) were further investigated by constructing double- and triple-deletion mutants. All double-deletion strains showed a greater decrease in isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, isobutyric, and isovaleric acid production than the corresponding single deletion strains with the double-deletion strains in combination with ∆bat2 and the ∆hom2-∆aad6 strain revealing the greatest impact. BAT2 is the dominant gene in these deletion strains and this suggests the initial transaminase step of the Ehrlich pathway is rate-limiting. The triple-deletion strains in combination with BAT2 (∆bat2-∆thi3-∆aad6 and ∆bat2-∆thi3-∆hom2) had the greatest impact on the end metabolite production with the exception of isoamyl alcohol and isovaleric acid. The strain deleted for two dehydrogenases and a reductase (∆hom2-∆pro2-∆aad6) had a greater effect on the levels of these two compounds. This study contributes to the elucidation of the Ehrlich pathway and its significance for aroma production by fermenting yeast cells. PMID:23111598

  13. Growth and aroma production by Staphylococcus xylosus, S- carnosus and S-equoum - a comparative study in model systems

    Søndergaard, A.K.; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2002-01-01

    in sausage minces together with Pediococcus pentosaceus, incubated at 25 C for I week and the produced aroma compounds collected. The data were analysed by multiple linear regression and partial least squares regression analysis. The results showed that increasing pH and temperature from 4.6 to 6...... more salt tolerant than strains of S. equorum and S, xylosus, especially at high pH and temperature. Addition of glucose up to 0.5% w/v had no significant influence on growth of any of the strains. With regard to aroma production, species characteristics were detected. S. carnosus and S. xylosus were......A laboratory medium inoculated with 20 different Staphylococcus strains was prepared in accordance with a full Factorial experimental design investigating the effect of temperature. pH, NaCl and glucose on growth. The 32 strains most suited to growth in a fermented meat environment were inoculated...

  14. A continuous and adsorptive bioprocess for efficient production of the natural aroma chemical 2-phenylethanol with yeast.

    Wang, Hang; Dong, Qingfeng; Meng, Chun; Shi, Xian Ai; Guo, Yanghao

    2011-04-01

    Natural 2-phenylethanol is a high value aroma chemical and can be produced from l-phenylalanine via Ehrlich pathway by yeasts. Due to serious product inhibition, the space-time yield is usually low. A continuous approach using macroporous resin as in situ adsorbent made it possible that the quantity and viability of the cells were improved simultaneously. With Saccharomyces cerevisiae sp. strain R-UV3, the highest space-time yield of 0.90 gL(-1)h(-1) reported so far was obtained. PMID:22112957

  15. Prediction of the production kinetics of the main fermentative aromas in winemaking fermentations

    Mouret, Jean-Roch; Farines, Vincent; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Trelea, Ioan-Cristian

    2015-01-01

    A novel dynamic model was developed for predicting the synthesis kinetics of the principal aroma compounds produced by yeasts during winemaking fermentations: isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate. The parameters of the model were identified from nine fermentations performed at temperatures between 18 and 30 degrees C and with different initial nitrogen contents, in the range of 70 to 410 mgN/L. The model was validated in six independent experiments...

  16. Aminoacid metabolism and the production of wine aroma compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Araújo, Leandro Dias

    2012-01-01

    Os produtos do metabolismo de aminoácidos por leveduras Saccharomyces cerevisiae durante a fermentação alcoólica têm um impacto relevante no perfil sensorial de vinhos. Com o objetivo de estudar a influência da composição de aminoácidos do meio na formação da base do aroma típico de vinho, meios sintéticos contendo diferentes compostos nitrogenados foram fermentados por S. cerevisiae. Em um primeiro experimento, cinco meios de composições distintas quanto à fonte de azoto foram testados, send...

  17. Combined effects of nutrients and temperature on the production of fermentative aromas by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation.

    Rollero, Stéphanie; Bloem, Audrey; Camarasa, Carole; Sanchez, Isabelle; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Dequin, Sylvie; Mouret, Jean-Roch

    2015-03-01

    Volatile compounds produced by yeast during fermentation greatly influence the organoleptic qualities of wine. We developed a model to predict the combined effects of initial nitrogen and phytosterol content and fermentation temperature on the production of volatile compounds. We used a Box-Behnken design and response surface modeling to study the response of Lalvin EC1118® to these environmental conditions. Initial nitrogen content had the greatest influence on most compounds; however, there were differences in the value of fermentation parameters required for the maximal production of the various compounds. Fermentation parameters affected differently the production of isobutanol and isoamyl alcohol, although their synthesis involve the same enzymes and intermediate. We found differences in regulation of the synthesis of acetates of higher alcohols and ethyl esters, suggesting that fatty acid availability is the main factor influencing the synthesis of ethyl esters whereas the production of acetates depends on the activity of alcohol acetyltransferases. We also evaluated the effect of temperature on the total production of three esters by determining gas-liquid balances. Evaporation largely accounted for the effect of temperature on the accumulation of esters in liquid. Nonetheless, the metabolism of isoamyl acetate and ethyl octanoate was significantly affected by this parameter. We extended this study to other strains. Environmental parameters had a similar effect on aroma production in most strains. Nevertheless, the regulation of the synthesis of fermentative aromas was atypical in two strains: Lalvin K1M® and Affinity™ ECA5, which produces a high amount of aromatic compounds and was obtained by experimental evolution. PMID:25412578

  18. Media components and amino acid supplements influencing the production of fruity aroma by Geotrichum candidum Influência da composição do meio de cultivo e da suplementação com aminoácidos na produção de aroma frutal por Geotrichum candidum

    T. Pinotti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Geotrichum candidum to produce fruity aroma in food grade sucrose, molasses, corn steep liquor and peptone based culture media was tested by sensory evaluation and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A strong and sweet fruity aroma was produced from molasses, with peptone or corn steep liquor stimulating aroma production. Molasses with peptone supplemented with leucine, valine, or alanine yielded better fruity aroma production and the presence of many esters was consistent with the fruity aroma production.Geotrichum candidum foi cultivado em diversos meios de cultura contendo sacarose ou melaço e milhocina ou peptona e a produção de aroma frutal foi verificada através de avaliação sensorial e cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas. Os meios contendo melaço, peptona e leucina, valina ou alanina apresentaram os melhores resultados e a presença de diversos ésteres foi consistente com a formação de aroma frutal.

  19. Aroma interactions with starch

    Jørgensen, Anders Dysted

    Starches are used to enhance aroma perception in low-fat foods. Aroma compounds can bind physically to the starch in grooves on the surface or they can form complexes inside amylose helices. This study has been divided into two parts: one part regarding binding of aromas to starches and their aroma......-release, and another part regarding stimulation of a fungal secretome using different carbohydrates. In the first part, nine aromas and one aroma-mixture were mixed with nine different starches, including genetically modified starches. The objective of this sub-project was to bind aromas to the starches to 15...... weight-percent. Aroma binding was tested on both amorphous starches and on native starch granules. A series of aldehydes and alcohols were also tested for binding to the starches. The aromas with the highest volatility were positively retained by starch, whereas for aromas with a lower volatility the...

  20. Linking gene regulation and the exo-metabolome: A comparative transcriptomics approach to identify genes that impact on the production of volatile aroma compounds in yeast

    Bauer Florian F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Omics' tools provide novel opportunities for system-wide analysis of complex cellular functions. Secondary metabolism is an example of a complex network of biochemical pathways, which, although well mapped from a biochemical point of view, is not well understood with regards to its physiological roles and genetic and biochemical regulation. Many of the metabolites produced by this network such as higher alcohols and esters are significant aroma impact compounds in fermentation products, and different yeast strains are known to produce highly divergent aroma profiles. Here, we investigated whether we can predict the impact of specific genes of known or unknown function on this metabolic network by combining whole transcriptome and partial exo-metabolome analysis. Results For this purpose, the gene expression levels of five different industrial wine yeast strains that produce divergent aroma profiles were established at three different time points of alcoholic fermentation in synthetic wine must. A matrix of gene expression data was generated and integrated with the concentrations of volatile aroma compounds measured at the same time points. This relatively unbiased approach to the study of volatile aroma compounds enabled us to identify candidate genes for aroma profile modification. Five of these genes, namely YMR210W, BAT1, AAD10, AAD14 and ACS1 were selected for overexpression in commercial wine yeast, VIN13. Analysis of the data show a statistically significant correlation between the changes in the exo-metabome of the overexpressing strains and the changes that were predicted based on the unbiased alignment of transcriptomic and exo-metabolomic data. Conclusion The data suggest that a comparative transcriptomics and metabolomics approach can be used to identify the metabolic impacts of the expression of individual genes in complex systems, and the amenability of transcriptomic data to direct applications of

  1. Sensory characteristics of European, dried, fermented sausages and the correlation to volatile profile

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller; Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; De Smedt, Anny

    1999-01-01

    in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The compounds were 2-furfurylthiol, guaiacol, acetic acid and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. Sausages added garlic contained two specific odours with salami/onion-like notes. The odours were attributed to...

  2. Aroma profiles of vegetable oils varying in fatty acid composition vs. concentrations of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products

    Ruth, van S.M.; Roozen, J.P.; Jansen, F.J.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    The aroma compositions of oxidised sunflower oil, linseed oil and a blend thereof (85/15) were compared with frequently used indicators for primary and secondary lipid oxidation. Primary lipid oxidation was followed by the formation of conjugated dienes, secondary lipid oxidation by proponal and hex

  3. The impact of cold storage and ethylene on volatile ester production and aroma perception in 'Hort16A' kiwifruit.

    Günther, Catrin S; Marsh, Ken B; Winz, Robert A; Harker, Roger F; Wohlers, Mark W; White, Anne; Goddard, Matthew R

    2015-02-15

    Fruit esters are regarded as key volatiles for fruit aroma. In this study, the effects of cold storage on volatile ester levels of 'Hort16A' (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var chinensis) kiwifruit were examined and the changes in aroma perception investigated. Cold storage (1.5°C) for two or four months of fruit matched for firmness and soluble solids concentration resulted in a significant reduction in aroma-related esters such as methyl/ethyl propanoate, methyl/ethyl butanoate and methyl/ethyl hexanoate. Levels of these esters, however, were restored by ethylene treatment (100ppm, 24h) before ripening. A sensory panel found that "tropical" and "fruit candy" aroma was stronger and "green" odour notes less intensively perceived in kiwifruit which were ethylene-treated after cold storage compared to untreated fruit. The key findings presented in this study may lead to further work on the ethylene pathway, and innovative storage and marketing solutions for current and novel fruit cultivars. PMID:25236191

  4. Tea aroma formation

    Chi-Tang Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds and aroma (volatile compounds. All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Maillard reaction. In the current review, we focus on the formation mechanism of main aromas during the tea manufacturing process.

  5. Fermentative capability and aroma compound production by yeast strains isolated from Agave tequilana Weber juice

    Diaz-Montano, Dulce Maria; Délia, Marie-Line; Estarron-Espinosa, Mirna; Strehaiano, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Five yeast strains isolated from agave juice were studied for their fermentative and aromatic capacity. The experiments were performed using agave juice supplemented with ammonium sulphate, as is commonly done in tequila distilleries. Three strains classified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed high biomass and ethanol production, as well as higher ethanol tolerance than those classified as Kloeckera africana and Kloeckera apiculata, which showed scarce growth. The results suggest that Kloecke...

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mixed Culture of Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L. Juice: Synergism in the Aroma Compounds Production

    Pedro Ulises Bautista-Rosales

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blackberry (Rubus sp. juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574 recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (<6GL° with potential to be produced at an industrial scale was obtained. Alcoholic fermentations were performed at 28C°, 200 rpm, and noncontrolled pH. The synergistic effect on the aromatic compounds production during fermentation in mixed culture was compared with those obtained by monoculture and physic mixture of spirits produced in monoculture. The aromatic composition was determined by HS-SPME-GC. The differences in aromatic profile principally rely on the proportions in aromatic compounds and not on the number of those compounds. The multivariance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA, and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains.

  7. Flavour perception: aroma, taste and texture interactions

    Tournier, Carole; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Flavour perception is determinant for the acceptability of food products by consumers. Aroma and taste play an important role in flavour perception and it is well known that the chemical composition of the matrix and consequently its structure influences release and perception of flavour. However, from simultaneous measurements of human perception and physical concentration in vivo, texture – aroma and texture – taste interactions are not always explained by physico-chemical mechanisms. Moreo...

  8. Characterisation of aroma profiles of commercial sufus by odour activity value, gas chromatography-olfactometry, aroma recombination and omission studies.

    Xiao, Zuobing; Shang, Yi; Chen, Feng; Niu, Yunwei; Gu, Yongbo; Liu, Shengjiang; Zhu, Jiancai

    2015-01-01

    Sufu is a solid-state fermented product made from soya beans. For the sake of quality control and regulation purposes, it is essential to be able to identify key odorants of various commercial sufus. To identify the aroma-active compounds in sufus, gas chromatography-olfactometry/aroma extract dilution analysis (GC-O/AEDA) was performed, and odour activity value (OAV) was estimated. The correlations between aroma profiles and identified aroma-active compounds were also investigated by principal component analysis. Results showed that 35 aroma-active compounds were detected through OAV calculation, while 28 compounds were identified by using GC-O/AEDA. Quantitative descriptive analysis revealed that aroma recombination model based on OAV calculation was more similar to original sufu in terms of aroma comparing to aroma recombination model based on GC-O/AEDA. Omission experiments further confirmed that the aroma compounds, such as ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl hexanoate, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, contributed most significantly to the characteristic aroma of a commercial sufu. PMID:25790084

  9. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    Understanding how the dough fermentation conditions influence the wheat bread production time and the bread aroma is important for the bread industry. The overall purpose of this PhD project is to investigate the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on...... dough expansion and aroma in bread crumb. In Paper I the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion were investigated. Wheat doughs were fermented by seven commercial baker’s yeasts (baker’s yeast I to VII) at different yeast concentrations (2...... VII. The longest fermentation times were generally found for doughs fermented with all baker’s yeasts at 5°C and the lowest yeast concentration (2.88•1014 CFU/kg flour). In Paper II, III and V wheat breads were produced for volatile analysis. The dough samples were fermented to equal height and baked...

  10. Differences in Enzymatic Properties of the Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces uvarum Alcohol Acetyltransferases and Their Impact on Aroma-Active Compounds Production

    Stribny, Jiri; Querol, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Higher alcohols and acetate esters belong to the most important yeast secondary metabolites that significantly contribute to the overall flavor and aroma profile of fermented products. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, esterification of higher alcohols is catalyzed mainly by the alcohol acetyltransferases encoded by genes ATF1 and ATF2. Previous investigation has shown other Saccharomyces species, e.g., S. kudriavzevii and S. uvarum, to vary in aroma-active higher alcohols and acetate esters formation when compared to S. cerevisiae. Here, we aimed to analyze the enzymes encoded by the ATF1 and ATF2 genes from S. kudriavzevii (SkATF1, SkATF2) and S. uvarum (SuATF1, SuATF2). The heterologous expression of the individual ATF1 and ATF2 genes in a host S. cerevisiae resulted in the enhanced production of several higher alcohols and acetate esters. Particularly, an increase of 2-phenylethyl acetate production by the strains that harbored ATF1 and ATF2 genes from S. kudriavzevii and S. uvarum was observed. When grown with individual amino acids as the nitrogen source, the strain that harbored SkATF1 showed particularly high 2-phenylethyl acetate production and the strains with introduced SkATF2 or SuATF2 revealed increased production of isobutyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and 2-phenylethyl acetate compared to the reference strains with endogenous ATF genes. The alcohol acetyltransferase activities of the individual Atf1 and Atf2 enzymes measured in the cell extracts of the S. cerevisiae atf1 atf2 iah1 triple-null strain were detected for all the measured substrates. This indicated that S. kudriavzevii and S. uvarum Atf enzymes had broad range substrate specificity as S. cerevisiae Atf enzymes. Individual Atf1 enzymes exhibited markedly different kinetic properties since SkAtf1p showed c. twofold higher and SuAtf1p c. threefold higher Km for isoamyl alcohol than ScAtf1p. Together these results indicated that the differences found among the three Saccharomyces species during the

  11. Coffee residues as substrates for aroma production by Ceratocystis fimbriata in solid state fermentation Produção de aromas por Ceratocystis fimbriata em fermentaç��o no estado sólido utilizando resíduos da agroindústria do café como substratos

    Adriane Bianchi Pedroni Medeiros; Pierre Christen; Sevastianos Roussos; Juliana Carine Gern; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

    2003-01-01

    The ability of two different strains of Ceratocystis fimbriata for fruity aroma production by solid state fermentation (SSF) was tested on coffee pulp and coffee husk complemented with glucose as substrates. Experiments were carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks and the experimental conditions were: 70% of initial moisture, 20% of glucose addition and pH 6.0. Aeration was made by passive diffusion through the gauze covering the flasks. Headspace analysis of the culture by gas chromatography...

  12. Studies on Application of Aroma Finish on Silk Fabric

    Hipparagi, Sanganna Aminappa; Srinivasa, Thirumalappa; Das, Brojeswari; Naik, Subhas Venkatappa; Purushotham, Serampur Parappa

    2016-06-01

    Aromatic treatments on textiles have gained importance in the recent years. In the present article work has been done on fragrance finish application on silk material. Silk is an expensive natural fibre used for apparel purpose and known for its feel and appeal. Incorporation of fragrance material in silk product, will add more value to it. Present work focuses to impart durable aroma finish for silk products to be home washed or subjected to dry cleaning. Microencapsulated aroma chemical has been used for the treatment. Impregnation method, Exhaust method, Dip-Pad-Dry method and Spray method have been used to see the influence of application method on the uptake and performance. Evaluation of the aroma treated material has been done through subjective evaluation as per Odor Intensity Reference Scaling (OIRS). Effect of the aroma finishing on the physical properties of the fabric has also been studied. No adverse effect has been observed on the stiffness of the fabric after the aroma treatment.

  13. Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma

    Fisk Ian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew. Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discrimination of products; the concentration in the coffee brew was found to be the least discriminatory and concentration in the headspace above the roast and ground coffee was shown to be most discriminatory. Conclusions All approaches should be taken into consideration when classifying roast and ground coffee especially for alignment to sensory perception and consumer insight data as all offer markedly different discrimination abilities due to the variation in volatility, hydrophobicity, air-water partition coefficient and other physicochemical parameters of the key aroma compounds present.

  14. Aroma: a larger than life experience?

    Delphine DE SWARDT

    2015-01-01

    Aroma is today an essential part of our diet. Often used to reinforce the initial neutral taste of the food produced on an industrial scale, it is sometimes the main course, at the core of many edible products. First thought as accessory, it now takes the lead. From this observation and through the review of examples of the food industry, this article puts forward the hypothesis that the aroma supplants the food –in the relation of resemblance between the original model and its representation...

  15. Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces uvarum differ from Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the production of aroma-active higher alcohols and acetate esters using their amino acidic precursors.

    Stribny, Jiri; Gamero, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Querol, Amparo

    2015-07-16

    Higher alcohols and acetate esters are important flavour and aroma components in the food industry. In alcoholic beverages these compounds are produced by yeast during fermentation. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most extensively used species, other species of the Saccharomyces genus have become common in fermentation processes. This study analyses and compares the production of higher alcohols and acetate esters from their amino acidic precursors in three Saccharomyces species: Saccharomyces kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces uvarum and S. cerevisiae. The global volatile compound analysis revealed that S. kudriavzevii produced large amounts of higher alcohols, whereas S. uvarum excelled in the production of acetate esters. Particularly from phenylalanine, S. uvarum produced the largest amounts of 2-phenylethyl acetate, while S. kudriavzevii obtained the greatest 2-phenylethanol formation from this precursor. The present data indicate differences in the amino acid metabolism and subsequent production of flavour-active higher alcohols and acetate esters among the closely related Saccharomyces species. This knowledge will prove useful for developing new enhanced processes in fragrance, flavour, and food industries. PMID:25886016

  16. Chemical-analytical and sensory characterisation of kettle hoppy aroma of beer

    Praet, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Hops constitute an indispensable raw material for beer production. The hop essential oil (-derived) volatiles are at the origin of the highly desired hoppy aroma of beer. (Bio)chemical transformations and losses during the brewing process alter the hop oil volatile fingerprint, resulting in hoppy aroma in beer that is clearly different from the aroma of the hops. Nevertheless, the nature of hoppy aroma is up-to-date far from understood. Especially ‘noble kettle hop’ aroma, which is a typical ...

  17. Food aroma affects bite size

    de Wijk René A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

  18. The effect of dispersion mechanisms on aroma delivery

    Pearson, Kris S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Dispersion of aroma compounds in food matrices is a common process in the production of many food products. However, the degrees of dispersion on the distribution and subsequent release of these compounds during consumption may have considerable consequences for perception of these flavours. This thesis investigates the effects of a range of dispersion techniques on the delivery and release of aroma compounds from several solid and semi-solid matrices which commonly contain added flavouri...

  19. Authenticity of aroma components Enantiomeric separation and compound specific stable isotope analysis

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    The word “authenticity” is increasingly used in the marketing of food products. A product can be marketed claiming its authenticity such as containing only natural ingredients or originating from a special location produced using local traditional production methods. Within the area of food ingredients a problem with authenticity of aroma compounds has occurred, because natural aromas are wholly or partly replaced with synthetic ones. This is a large economic problem, since natural aromas are...

  20. Identification and quantification of the caproic acid-producing bacterium Clostridium kluyveri in the fermentation of pit mud used for Chinese strong-aroma type liquor production.

    Hu, Xiao-long; Du, Hai; Xu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Chinese strong-aroma type liquor (CSAL) is a popular distilled alcoholic beverage in China. It is produced by a complex fermentation process that is conducted in pits in the ground. Ethyl caproate is a key flavor compound in CSAL and is thought to originate from caproic acid produced by Clostridia inhabiting the fermentation pit mud. However, the particular species of Clostridium associated with this production are poorly understood and problematic to quantify by culturing. In this study, a total of 28 closest relatives including 15 Clostridia and 8 Bacilli species in pit muds from three CSAL distilleries, were detected by culture-dependent and -independent methods. Among them, Clostridium kluyveri was identified as the main producer of caproic acid. One representative strain C. kluyveri N6 could produce caproic, butyric and octanoic acids and their corresponding ethyl esters, contributing significantly to CSAL flavor. A real time quantitative PCR assay of C. kluyveri in pit muds developed showed that a concentration of 1.79×10(7) 16S rRNA gene copies/g pit mud in LZ-old pit was approximately six times higher than that in HLM and YH pits and sixty times higher than that in LZ-new pit respectively. This method can be used to improve the management of pit mud microbiology and its impact on CSAL quality. PMID:26267890

  1. Aroma transition from rosemary leaves during aromatization of olive oil

    Mustafa Yılmazer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aroma profile of aromatized olive oil was determined in this study. The primary objective was to investigate the transition of major aroma compounds from rosemary and olive fruit during the kneading step of olive oil production by response surface methodology. For this purpose, temperature, time, and amount of rosemary leaves were determined as independent variables. The results indicated that temperature and time did not affect the transition of target compounds, but rosemary leaves addition had a strong influence on transition, especially for characteristic aroma compounds of this herb. Adequacies of developed models were found to be high enough to predict each aromatic component of interest.

  2. Effect of destoned olive cake on the aromatic profile of cows’ milk and dairy products: comparison of two techniques for the headspace aroma profile analysis

    Anna Rocchina Caputo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, carried out within the NOVOROD project (PSR Campania 2007-2013 Misura 124 HC, was to evaluate the aromatic profile of milk and dairy products of dairy cows supplemented with destoned olive cake (DOC. Two techniques for the headspace aroma profile analysis: the thermal desorption by gas chromatography with a mass selective (GC/MS detector and the electronic nose were compared. The trial was performed into a dairy cow farm. Ten dairy cows were allotted into two homogenous groups: control and experimental. Animals received the same diet, while in the experimental group the concentrate supplementation (15% dry matter was replaced with DOC. After two weeks of adaptation, animals were fed with the experimental diet for other 15 days. During the experimental period, the milk was collected and cumulatively processed in Caciotta cheese (a soft cheese, 25 days ripened and in Semicotto cheese (hard cheese, 3 months ripened for 13 times for each group. Milk and cheese volatile organic compounds (VOCs were extracted and concentrated with dynamic headspace method and determined by GC/MS. Statistical analysis of data, expressed in arbitrary units (a.u.=peak area × 10–6 and allotted in compound classes, was carried out by ANOVA. All data collected of VOCs were processed with principal component analysis (PCA. Milk and cheese samples were comparatively analysed with the electronic nose, fitted with a tenmetal oxide sensors electronic device. PCA has been used for the evaluation of the pattern data. Our results show that the use of DOC, as an unconventional feed for livestock, has no effect on the aromatic profile of both milk and dairy products. In fact, no significant differences were found in both milk and dairy products between the two groups using the GC/MS method. Also the discriminating analysis carried out by electronic nose did not show significant differences between the two groups. The two compared techniques seem to lead to

  3. Analysis of characteristic aroma of fungal fermented Fuzhuan brick-tea by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry

    Xu, X.Q.; Mo, H.Z.; Yan, M.C.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2007-01-01

    Fuzhuan brick-tea is a popular fermented Chinese dark tea because of its typical fungal aroma. Fungal growth during the production process is the key step in achieving the unique colour, aroma and taste of Fuzhuan brick-tea. To further understand the generation of the characteristic aroma, changes i

  4. Food aroma affects bite size

    Wijk, de R.A.; Polet, I.A.; Boek, W.; Coenraad, S.; Bult, J.H.F.

    2012-01-01

    Background
    To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined b

  5. Coffee residues as substrates for aroma production by Ceratocystis fimbriata in solid state fermentation Produção de aromas por Ceratocystis fimbriata em fermentaç��o no estado sólido utilizando resíduos da agroindústria do café como substratos

    Adriane Bianchi Pedroni Medeiros

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of two different strains of Ceratocystis fimbriata for fruity aroma production by solid state fermentation (SSF was tested on coffee pulp and coffee husk complemented with glucose as substrates. Experiments were carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks and the experimental conditions were: 70% of initial moisture, 20% of glucose addition and pH 6.0. Aeration was made by passive diffusion through the gauze covering the flasks. Headspace analysis of the culture by gas chromatography (GC showed that 12 compounds were produced with coffee husk. Maximum total volatiles (TV concentration was reached after 72 h of culture with coffee husk as substrate (28 µmol.L-1.g-1. Ethyl acetate, ethanol and acetaldehyde were the major compounds produced, representing 84.7%, 7.6% and 2.0% of TV, respectively. A pre-treatment with heat (100ºC/ 40 min of substrates did not improve TV production. Respirometry analysis was used to determine the growth of the culture by measuring carbon dioxide produced. Results showed that the CO2 production follows the aroma production. This result shows the great potential for the use coffee pulp and coffee husk as substrates to microbial aroma production by solid state fermentation.Neste trabalho duas diferentes cepas de Ceratocystis fimbriata foram testadas para a produção de aromas frutais em fermentação no estado sólido (FES utilizando como substratos casca e polpa de café, suplementados com glicose. Os experimentos foram realizados em frascos Erlenmeyer de 250 mL. As condições experimentais foram: umidade inicial de 70%, adição de 20% de glicose e pH 6,0. Os frascos foram cobertos com gaze e a aeração ocorreu por difusão passiva. A análise do "headspace"da cultura foi feita por cromatografia gasosa e 12 compostos foram detectados utilizando a casca de café. A análise respirométrica foi realizada para o acompanhamento do crescimento do microrganismo pela determinação do dióxido de carbono

  6. Aroma production by Yarrowia lipolytica in airlift and stirred tank bioreactors : differences in yeast metabolism and morphology

    Braga, Adelaide; Mesquita, D. P.; Amaral, A.L.; Ferreira, E. C.; Belo, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The production of γ-decalactone from castor oil in batch cultures of Yarrowia lipolytica W29 was compared in stirred tank (STR) and airlift bioreactors. Oxygen mass transfer from air to biphasic medium was characterized in both bioreactors trough correlations for kLa with power input and superficial gas velocity. Different conditions of oxygen transfer rate (OTR) were selected to perform biotransformations and for both bioreactors improvement of γ-decalactone productivity was obtained with OT...

  7. The Development of Aromas in Ruminant Meat

    María M. Campo; Ana Escudero; Virginia C. Resconi

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an update on our understanding of the chemical reactions (lipid oxidation, Strecker and Maillard reactions, thiamine degradation) and a discussion of the principal aroma compounds derived from those reaction or other sources in cooked meat, mainly focused on ruminant species. This knowledge is essential in order to understand, control, and improve the quality of food products. More studies are necessary to fully understand the role of each compound in the overall cooked m...

  8. Aroma: a larger than life experience?

    Delphine DE SWARDT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aroma is today an essential part of our diet. Often used to reinforce the initial neutral taste of the food produced on an industrial scale, it is sometimes the main course, at the core of many edible products. First thought as accessory, it now takes the lead. From this observation and through the review of examples of the food industry, this article puts forward the hypothesis that the aroma supplants the food –in the relation of resemblance between the original model and its representation, which falls under the inculcation – and eclipses it. Potentially strong on the palate, it is a promise of intense experience. This is particularly true in the case of flavors without pre-established references. Pure abstract aromatic constructions allow greater freedom of projection, and foster discursive emphasis. In these cases, the taste alone, uncorrelated with prerogatives of nutrition, becomes the support of a hyperesthesic experience.

  9. Inhibitory effect of aroma on the bitterness of branched-chain amino acid solutions.

    Mukai, Junji; Tokuyama, Emi; Ishizaka, Toshihiko; Okada, Sachie; Uchida, Takahiro

    2007-11-01

    Nutritional products for patients with liver failure available on the Japanese market contain many branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) such as L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and L-valine, which not only have a bitter taste but also strong, unpleasant odours, leading to low palatability. The palatability of these nutritional products can be significantly improved by the addition of flavoured powders containing various kinds of tastants (sucrose, citric acid, etc.) and odourants (fruit, coffee aromas, etc.). The specific effects of the aroma of flavoured powders have not yet been clearly evaluated. In the present article, the inhibitory effect of aroma on the bitterness of BCAA solutions was examined. The bitterness intensity of a BCAA solution at the same concentration as Aminoleban EN was defined as 3.5 (measured by a previously described gustatory sensation method). The bitterness threshold of a BCAA standard solution without added aroma was estimated to be 1.87, while those of BCAA solutions containing green-tea, coffee, apple, vanilla, or strawberry aromas were 2.02, 1.98, 2.35, 2.40 and 2.87, respectively, when evaluated by the probit method. This shows that the addition of an aroma can elevate the bitterness threshold in human volunteers. The green-tea and coffee aromas predominantly evoked bitterness, while the vanilla aroma predominantly evoked sweetness. Apple and strawberry aromas evoked both sweetness and sourness, with the apple aroma having stronger sourness and the strawberry aroma stronger sweetness. Thus, a 'sweet' aroma suppresses the bitterness of BCAA, with coexisting sourness also participating in the bitterness inhibition. PMID:17978515

  10. Authenticity of aroma components Enantiomeric separation and compound specific stable isotope analysis

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg

    The word “authenticity” is increasingly used in the marketing of food products. A product can be marketed claiming its authenticity such as containing only natural ingredients or originating from a special location produced using local traditional production methods. Within the area of food...... ingredients a problem with authenticity of aroma compounds has occurred, because natural aromas are wholly or partly replaced with synthetic ones. This is a large economic problem, since natural aromas are often more expensive than artificial ones. Furthermore, the European Union has legal requirements...... necessary to develop new methods able to verify whether the authenticity of the food products is in agreement with the labelling. Some aroma compounds are chiral, meaning that they can exist as two enantiomers with different spatial orientation. Synthetic aroma compounds will consist of almost equal amounts...

  11. Yeast strains as potential aroma enhancers in dry fermented sausages.

    Flores, Mónica; Corral, Sara; Cano-García, Liliana; Salvador, Ana; Belloch, Carmela

    2015-11-01

    Actual healthy trends produce changes in the sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausages therefore, new strategies are needed to enhance their aroma. In particular, a reduction in the aroma characteristics was observed in reduced fat and salt dry sausages. In terms of aroma enhancing, generally coagulase-negative cocci were selected as the most important group from the endogenous microbiota in the production of flavour compounds. Among the volatile compounds analysed in dry sausages, ester compounds contribute to fruity aroma notes associated with high acceptance of traditional dry sausages. However, the origin of ester compounds in traditional dry sausages can be due to other microorganisms as lactic acid bacteria, yeast and moulds. Yeast contribution in dry fermented sausages was investigated with opposite results attributed to low yeast survival or low activity during processing. Generally, they affect sausage colour and flavour by their oxygen-scavenging and lipolytic activities in addition to, their ability to catabolize fermentation products such as lactate increasing the pH and contributing to less tangy and more aromatic sausages. Recently, the isolation and characterization of yeast from traditional dry fermented sausages made possible the selection of those with ability to produce aroma active compounds. Molecular methods were used for genetic typing of the isolated yeasts whereas their ability to produce aroma compounds was tested in different systems such as in culture media, in model systems and finally on dry fermented sausages. The results revealed that the appropriate selection of yeast strains with aroma potential may be used to improve the sensory characteristics of reformulated fermented sausages. PMID:25765533

  12. 氨基酸对美拉德反应产物呈香特性的研究进展%The Research Progress of Amino Acids on Aroma Characteristics of Maillard Reaction Products

    王旭; 冯涛; 庄海宁

    2013-01-01

    Maillard Reaction is a main source of food flavor and color.There are many factors that affect this reaction,one of which is amino acid.Now there are mainly two research directions,including model system and real food for researching the effects of amino acids on aroma characteristics of Maillard Reaction products.Some recent research results of the two directions are reviewed in this paper in order to help predict the aroma characteristics of Maillard Reaction products.%美拉德反应是食物产生香气和颜色的主要原因.影响美拉德反应的因素有很多,氨基酸是其中的一种.目前,在研究氨基酸对美拉德反应产物呈香特性的影响方面可以分为两个方向——模型体系和真实食物.文章综述了一些近年来在这两个方面的研究成果,以期对预测美拉德反应产物呈香特性有所帮助.

  13. Effects of Oak Products on Oak-related Aroma Components in Dry Red Wines%橡木制品对干红葡萄酒中橡木香气成分的影响研究

    李春光; 赵新节; 孙玉霞; 栾红蕾; 隋寿山

    2014-01-01

    在酒精发酵过程中和发酵结束后两个阶段添加不同类型的橡木制品,研究橡木处理对干红葡萄酒中橡木香气成分和感官品质的影响。通过GC-MS对丁子香酚、愈创木酚、威士忌内酯、香草醛、5-甲基糠醛和糠醛6种橡木香气成分的分析,发现发酵过程中和发酵后添加法国中度烘烤橡木粉都可以获得含量较高的橡木香气成分,而发酵后添加国产中度烘烤橡木片较相同烘烤程度的法国和美国橡木片能获得含量更高的橡木香气成分。感官分析结果表明,在酒精发酵中添加橡木制品进行处理,酒体橡木香气与果香融合较好,香气协调;而在发酵结束后添加不同类型的橡木制品,添加美国中度烘烤橡木片和法国轻度烘烤橡木粉的葡萄酒香气较好;其他酒样酒体呈现的橡木味偏重、不协调。%In the experiment, different types of oak wood products were added during or at the end of the fermentation to investigate their effects on oak-related volatile aroma components and sensory quality of dry red wine. Six kinds of oak-related aroma components including eugenol, guaiacol, cis-whisky lactone, vanillin, 5-methyl furfural and furfural were determined by SPME-GC/MS. The results showed that, higher concen-tration of oak-related aroma components was obtained by adding French oak chips with medium toasting during and after the fermentation, and the addition of homemade oak chips with medium roasting after the fermentation could achieve higher content of oak-related aroma components compared with the addition of French or American oak chips of the same roasting degree. Sensory analysis results suggested that, fruit flavor and oak aroma were balanced in wine as oak chips was added during the fermentation, however, if oak chips was added after the fermentation, the wine was unbalanced with heavy oak aroma except the addition of American oak chips with medium roasting and the

  14. The Development of Aromas in Ruminant Meat

    María M. Campo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an update on our understanding of the chemical reactions (lipid oxidation, Strecker and Maillard reactions, thiamine degradation and a discussion of the principal aroma compounds derived from those reaction or other sources in cooked meat, mainly focused on ruminant species. This knowledge is essential in order to understand, control, and improve the quality of food products. More studies are necessary to fully understand the role of each compound in the overall cooked meat flavour and their possible effect in consumer acceptability.

  15. Wine aroma compounds in grapes: a critical review.

    González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds are vital to wine quality, determining their aroma and varietal characteristics. Which are present, and in what quantity, depends on the cultivar, the situation and soil of the vineyard, weather, cultivation methods, and wine-making practices. Here, we review the literature on the development of wine aroma compounds in grapes, and how it is affected by the above-named factors. Increasing understanding of these processes at the molecular level will aid vine growers in the optimal selection of harvest dates and other decisions favoring the consistent production of balanced, flavorful berries. PMID:24915400

  16. Selective removal of methyl mercaptan in coffee aroma using oxidized microporous carbon

    Sakano, T. [Ajinomoto General Foods Inc., Tokyo (Japan). Central Research Laboratoties; Tamon, H.; Okazaki, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-10-01

    Coffee aroma recovered from the extraction process of roasted coffee beans is used to improve the quality of soluble coffee products. Coffee aroma often has an irritating sulfurous odor. In the present work, it is experimentally elucidated that methyl mercaptan could be selectively removed from the coffee aroma-containing gas by the oxidized microporous carbon. Breakthrough curves of coffee aroma-containing gas on zeolite 5A, microporous carbon (MSC 5A), and MSC 5A oxidized with 13.2N HNO{sub 3} aqueous solution revealed that the adsorption capacity of methyl mercaptan on the oxidized carbon was 4.2 times of that on the zeolite. The loss of desired coffee aroma was decreased using the oxidized carbon in the removal of methyl mercaptan. (author)

  17. A Comparative Analysis of the Influence of Human Salivary Enzymes on Odorant Concentration in Three Palm Wines

    Ola Lasekan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines’ odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs, respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA, and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD factor range of 4-256, and all were subsequently identified. Of the 46 odorants, 41 were identified in the Elaeis guineensis wine, 36 in Raphia hookeri wine and 29 in Borassus flabellifer wine. Among the odorants, the highest FD-factors were obtained from acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Among the 13 potent odorants identified, five aroma compounds are reported here as important contributors to palm wine aroma, namely 3-isobutyl-2-methoxy-pyrazine, acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methylbutylacetate and ethyl hexanoate. Meanwhile, salivary enzymic degradation of odorants was more pronounced among the aldehydes, esters and thiols.

  18. A comparative analysis of the influence of human salivary enzymes on odorant concentration in three palm wines.

    Lasekan, Ola

    2013-01-01

    The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines' odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA) and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs), respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD) factor range of 4-256, and all were subsequently identified. Of the 46 odorants, 41 were identified in the Elaeis guineensis wine, 36 in Raphia hookeri wine and 29 in Borassus flabellifer wine. Among the odorants, the highest FD-factors were obtained from acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Among the 13 potent odorants identified, five aroma compounds are reported here as important contributors to palm wine aroma, namely 3-isobutyl-2-methoxy-pyrazine, acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methylbutylacetate and ethyl hexanoate. Meanwhile, salivary enzymic degradation of odorants was more pronounced among the aldehydes, esters and thiols. PMID:24071987

  19. Aroma therapy and medfly SIT

    A summary of the main findings of the research program on the biological competence of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (med fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and the development and implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest is presented. The potential application of aroma therapy to improve the mating success of sterile med fly males is studied. The report assumes a loosely chronological framework as it documents progression along two experimental scales: the number of males simultaneously exposed to ginger root oil, starting with small groups of 25 males and ending with rooms with nearly 200 million males; the experimental arena used to test the effects of aroma therapy, progressing from standard field-cages to large field enclosures to the open field. In addition, brief comments are offered regarding the potential negative effects of GRO exposure, the mechanisms underlying GRO-mediated improvement in male mating success, and the financial costs of GRO aroma therapy. (MAC)

  20. Aroma therapy and medfly SIT

    Shelly, Todd E., E-mail: todd.e.shelly@aphis.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-APHIS), HI (United States). Animal and Plant Health Inspection

    2006-07-01

    A summary of the main findings of the research program on the biological competence of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (med fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and the development and implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest is presented. The potential application of aroma therapy to improve the mating success of sterile med fly males is studied. The report assumes a loosely chronological framework as it documents progression along two experimental scales: the number of males simultaneously exposed to ginger root oil, starting with small groups of 25 males and ending with rooms with nearly 200 million males; the experimental arena used to test the effects of aroma therapy, progressing from standard field-cages to large field enclosures to the open field. In addition, brief comments are offered regarding the potential negative effects of GRO exposure, the mechanisms underlying GRO-mediated improvement in male mating success, and the financial costs of GRO aroma therapy. (MAC)

  1. Combined heterogeneous distribution of salt and aroma in food enhances salt perception.

    Emorine, Marion; Septier, Chantal; Andriot, Isabelle; Martin, Christophe; Salles, Christian; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry

    2015-05-01

    Aroma-taste interactions and heterogeneous spatial distribution of tastants were used as strategies for taste enhancement. This study investigated the combination of these two strategies through the effect of heterogeneous salt and aroma distribution on saltiness enhancement and consumer liking for hot snacks. Four-layered cream-based products were designed with the same total amount of sodium and ham aroma but varied in their spatial distribution. Unflavoured products containing the same amount of salt and 35% more salt were used as references. A consumer panel (n = 82) rated the intensity of salty, sweet, sour, bitter and umami tastes as well as ham and cheese aroma intensity for each product. The consumers also rated their liking for the products in a dedicated sensory session. The results showed that adding salt-associated aroma (ham) led to enhancement of salty taste perception regardless of the spatial distribution of salt and aroma. Moreover, products with a higher heterogeneity of salt distribution were perceived as saltier (p salty taste perception. Furthermore, heterogeneous products were well liked by consumers compared to the homogeneous products. PMID:25856503

  2. Effect of oxidoreduction potential on aroma biosynthesis by lactic acid bacteria in nonfat yogurt.

    Martin, F; Cachon, R; Pernin, K; De Coninck, J; Gervais, P; Guichard, E; Cayot, N

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oxidoreduction potential (Eh) on the biosynthesis of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria in non-fat yogurt. The study was done with yogurts fermented by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The Eh was modified by the application of different gaseous conditions (air, nitrogen, and nitrogen/hydrogen). Acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulfide, diacetyl, and pentane-2,3-dione, as the major endogenous odorant compounds of yogurt, were chosen as tracers for the biosynthesis of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria. Oxidative conditions favored the production of acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulfide, and diketones (diacetyl and pentane-2,3-dione). The Eh of the medium influences aroma production in yogurt by modifying the metabolic pathways of Lb. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus. The use of Eh as a control parameter during yogurt production could permit the control of aroma formation. PMID:21257030

  3. Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release.

    Li, Jia-Jia; Dong, Man; Liu, Yan-Long; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zi-Yu; Ren, Jing-Nan; Pan, Si-Yi; Fan, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying degrees of influence of sucrose fatty acid ester, soybean lecithin, Tween 80 and xanthan gum on the release of aroma compounds. Compared with other aroma compounds, ethyl acetate was more likely to be conserved in the solution system, while the amount of limonene released was the highest among these seven aroma compounds. In conclusion, different emulsifiers and complexes showed different surface properties that tend to interact with different aroma molecules. The present studies showed that the composition and structure of emulsifiers and specific interactions between emulsifiers and aroma molecules have significant effects on aroma release. PMID:27110762

  4. Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release

    Jia-Jia Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying degrees of influence of sucrose fatty acid ester, soybean lecithin, Tween 80 and xanthan gum on the release of aroma compounds. Compared with other aroma compounds, ethyl acetate was more likely to be conserved in the solution system, while the amount of limonene released was the highest among these seven aroma compounds. In conclusion, different emulsifiers and complexes showed different surface properties that tend to interact with different aroma molecules. The present studies showed that the composition and structure of emulsifiers and specific interactions between emulsifiers and aroma molecules have significant effects on aroma release.

  5. Aroma and perfume allergy: anathema for some epicurean appeal?

    Goffin, Véronique; Nikkels, Arjen; Cornil, F.; Deleixhe-Mauhin, F.; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine; Pierard, Gérald

    2002-01-01

    Aromas and fragrances are present in many cosmetics, some topical drugs, food and various hygiene, household and industrial products. They can be responsible for contact dermatitis. Multiple sensitizations can even involve in various combinations some fragrance compounds, a given degradation product or a contaminant. The diagnosis relies on clinical examination and oriented anamnesis. A histological examination is sometimes necessary. Specific path testing brings insight on the culprit chemic...

  6. Direct Aromaization of Methane

    George Marcelin

    1997-01-15

    The thermal decomposition of methane offers significant potential as a means of producing higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of reaction is limited. Work in the literature previous to this project had shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds would significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon or heavier (Clo+) materials. This project studied the effect and optimization of the quenching process as a means of increasing the amount of value added products during the pyrolysis of methane. A reactor was designed to rapidly quench the free-radical combustion reaction so as to maximize the yield of aromatics. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts were studied as a means of lowering the reaction temperature. A lower reaction temperature would have the benefits of more rapid quenching as well as a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. It was the goal of the project to identify promising routes from methane to higher hydrocarbons based on the pyrolysis of methane.

  7. Taste and aroma of fresh and stored mandarins.

    Tietel, Zipora; Plotto, Anne; Fallik, Elazar; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Porat, Ron

    2011-01-15

    During the last decade there has been a continuous rise in consumption of fresh easy-to-peel mandarins. However, mandarins are much more perishable than other citrus fruit, mainly due to rapid deterioration in sensory acceptability after harvest. In the current review we discuss the biochemical components involved in forming the unique flavor of mandarins, and how postharvest storage operations influence taste and aroma and consequently consumer sensory acceptability. What we perceive as mandarin flavor is actually the combination of basic taste, aroma and mouth-feel. The taste of mandarins is principally governed by the levels of sugars and acids in the juice sacs and the relative ratios among them, whereas the aroma of mandarins is derived from a mixture of different aroma volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, terpenes/hydrocarbons and esters. During postharvest storage and marketing there is a gradual decrease in mandarin sensory acceptability, which has been attributed to decreases in acidity and typical mandarin flavor, paralleling an accumulation of off-flavor. Biochemical analysis of volatile and non-volatile constituents in mandarin juice demonstrated that these changes in sensory acceptability were concomitant with decreases in acidity and content of terpenes and aldehydes, which provide green, piney and citrus aroma on the one hand, and increases in ethanol fermentation metabolism products and esters on the other, which are likely to cause 'overripe' and off-flavors. Overall, we demonstrate the vast importance of the genetic background, maturity stage at harvest, commercial postharvest operation treatments, including curing, degreening and waxing, and storage duration on mandarin sensory quality. PMID:20812381

  8. Identification of tartary buckwheat tea aroma compounds with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Qin, Peiyou; Ma, Tingjun; Wu, Li; Shan, Fang; Ren, Guixing

    2011-08-01

    Tartary buckwheat tea, which is an important and healthy product, has a distinct malty aroma. However, its characteristic aroma compounds have not been elucidated. The aims of present study were identification and quantification of its aroma compounds. The analyses were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after 3 different isolation techniques. Seventy-seven compounds were identified. Among these compounds, 35 were quantified by available standards. The compounds with a high probability of contribution to the tartary buckwheat tea aroma (OAV ≥ 10) were as follows: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone, nonanal, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, benzeneacetaldehyde, maltol, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazine. Some nutritional and bioactive compounds were also identified in this study, such as linoleic acid, niacin, vanillic acid, 7-hydroxycoumarin, butylated hydroxytoluene. Practical Application: Tartary buckwheat, one type of buckwheat, has gained much attention from nutritionists and medical doctors in recent years. It is rich in rutin, quercetin, and other nutrients that are good for health. Tartary buckwheat-based product such as tartary buckwheat tea is an important and popular healthy product in China, Japan,South Korea, European countries as well as in American countries. It has a distinct malty aroma. The present study first identified and quantified of its aroma compounds. The results will draw attention to other researchers in food flavor and buckwheat filed. PMID:22417522

  9. Release and perception of aroma compounds during consumption

    Weel, K.G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Key words: MS-Nose, in vivo aroma release, aroma perception, mouth model, artificial throat, liquid protocol, sweeteners, reversible protein-aroma interactions, emulsions, oil content, droplet size distribution, gel hardness, texture, cross-modal interactions.This thesis evaluated and validated the MS-Nose as a tool to measure aroma release during food consumption. Subsequently, the MS-Nose was used to enhance understanding of the interaction between release and perception of aroma during con...

  10. Barrier Properties of Polymeric Packaging Materials to Major Aroma Volatiles in Herbs

    Leelaphiwat Pattarin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the main transport coefficients (diffusion, solubility and permeability of key aroma compounds present in tropical herbs (eucalyptol and estragol through low‒density polyethylene (LDPE, polypropylene (PP, nylon (Nylon, polyethylene terephthalate (PET, metalized‒polyethylene terephthalate (MPET and poly(lactic acid (PLA films at 15 and 25 °C. The concentration of aroma compounds permeating through the films were evaluated at various time intervals using a gas chromatograph flame ionization detector (GC–FID. Results showed that the diffusion coefficients of aroma compounds were highest in LDPE whereas the solubility coefficients were highest in PLA at both temperatures. PLA had the highest permeability coefficients for estragol at both temperatures. PP and LDPE had the highest permeability coefficients for eucalyptol at 15 and 25 °C, respectively. MPET had the lowest permeability for both aroma compounds studied. Aroma barrier properties can be used when selecting polymeric packaging materials to prevent aroma loss in various food and consumer products.

  11. Aroma compounds in fresh cut pomegranate arils.

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum). Although arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing actual compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Since most commercial usage of pomegranates in...

  12. Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma

    Fisk Ian; Kettle Alec; Hofmeister Sonja; Virdie Amarjeet; Kenny Javier

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew). Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discr...

  13. Seguimiento de la producción del aroma del yogurt durante la fermentación acido láctica mediante nariz electrónica y evaluación sensorial / Monitoring aroma production of yogurt during lactic fermentation by electronic nose and sensory evaluation

    Rúales Guzmán, Bertha Viviana

    2012-01-01

    El yogurt es una de las bebidas fermentadas más consumidas en el mundo por sus propiedades nutricionales, funcionales y sensoriales, por lo tanto la calidad final del producto será de gran importancia para satisfacer las necesidades del consumidor y obtener un posicionamiento en el mercado. El seguimiento de la fermentación es la clave para obtener todas estas propiedades, por tal razón, en la presente investigación se propuso el seguimiento de la producción de aroma como un método alternativ...

  14. Generation of aroma compounds in a fermented sausage meat model system by Debaryomyces hansenii strains.

    Cano-García, Liliana; Rivera-Jiménez, Silvia; Belloch, Carmela; Flores, Mónica

    2014-05-15

    The ability of seven Debaryomyces hansenii strains to generate aroma compounds in a fermented sausage model system was evaluated. The presence of the yeast, in the inoculated models, was confirmed by PCR amplification of M13 minisatellite. Volatile compounds production was analysed using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Forty volatile compounds were detected, quantified and their odour activity values (OAVs) calculated. All volatile compounds increased during time in the inoculated models although significant differences were found amongst them. Ester and sulphur production was strongly dependent on the strain inoculated. D. hansenii P2 and M6 strains were the highest producers of sulphur compounds where dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl trisulfide were the most prominent aroma components identified by their OAVs whereas, M4 showed the highest OAVs for ester compounds followed by the P2 strain. The meat model system has been useful to show the real ability of yeast strains to produce aroma compounds. PMID:24423545

  15. Investigation of sunlight-induced deterioration of aroma of pummelo (Citrus maxima) essential oil.

    Sun, Hao; Ni, Hui; Yang, Yuanfan; Wu, Ling; Cai, Hui-nong; Xiao, An-feng; Chen, Feng

    2014-12-10

    Deterioration of aromas of pummelo essential oil (EO) induced by sunlight was compared to those induced by heat and oxygen exposure using the techniques of sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis. The sunlight-exposed EO was found to possess an oily off-flavor odor, which was significantly different from its counterparts induced by oxygen and heat. The strong oily note of the sunlight-exposed EO was attributed to the existence of linalool oxides and limonene oxides, as well as the lack of neral and geranial, for which UV sunlight was revealed to be the critical contributor causing the chemical reactions for the aroma changes. The results demonstrated that UV sunlight could significantly affect the aroma of the pummelo EO, providing valuable information that will benefit the production and storage of EO-based aromatic products. PMID:25438994

  16. Characteristic Aroma Compounds from Different Pineapple Parts

    Guang-Ming Sun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic aroma volatile compounds from different parts of cayenne pineapple were analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The main volatile compounds were esters, terpenes, ketones and aldehydes. The number and content of aroma compounds detected in pulp were higher than those found in core. In pulp, the characteristic aroma compounds were ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl hexanoate, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H-furanone (DMHF, decanal, ethyl 3-(methylthiopropionate, ethyl butanoate, and ethyl (E-3-hexenoate; while in core the main compounds were ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl hexanoate and DMHF. The highest odor units were found to correspond to ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, followed by ethyl hexanoate and DMHF. The odor units found for pulp were higher than those for core.

  17. Release and perception of aroma compounds during consumption

    Weel, K.G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Key words: MS-Nose, in vivo aroma release, aroma perception, mouth model, artificial throat, liquid protocol, sweeteners, reversible protein-aroma interactions, emulsions, oil content, droplet size distribution, gel hardness, texture, cross-modal interactions.This thesis evaluated and validated the

  18. Impact of Fruit Piece Structure in Yogurts on the Dynamics of Aroma Release and Sensory Perception

    Isabelle Souchon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma stimuli, which can influence nutritional and hedonic characteristics, as well as consumption behaviors. In yogurts, fruit preparation formulation can be a key factor to modulate aroma stimulation. In this context, the impact of size and hardness of fruit pieces in fat-free pear yogurts was studied. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was used to allow sensitive and on-line monitoring of volatile odorous compound release in the breath during consumption. In parallel, a trained panel used sensory profile and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS methods to characterize yogurt sensory properties and their dynamic changes during consumption. Results showed that the size of pear pieces had few effects on aroma release and perception of yogurts, whereas fruit hardness significantly influenced them. Despite the fact that yogurts presented short and similar residence times in the mouth, this study showed that fruit preparation could be an interesting formulation factor to enhance exposure time to stimuli and thus modify food consumption behaviors. These results could be taken into account to formulate new products that integrate both nutritional and sensory criteria.

  19. Adsorption Dynamics of Calyx Aroma onto Basic Tea in Scenting Process of Calyx-scented Tea

    Changhui CHEN

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The paper was to study adsorption dynamics of calyx aroma onto basic tea in scenting process of calyx-scented tea, so as to increase aroma and quality of products. [Method] Adsorption experiment was carried out in a hermetic container, and the effect of calyx amount, contact time, moisture content of basic tea and temperature on the scenting process was studied. [Result] The optimal moisture and temperature for scenting process was 4% and 10 ℃, respectively. [Conclusion] The scenting process accorded pseudo-first-order kinetic model, and the adsorption dynamic data of total process could better fit pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  20. Preparation of reminiscent aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce.

    Bonkohara, Kaori; Fuji, Maiko; Nakao, Akito; Igura, Noriyuki; Shimoda, Mitsuya

    2016-01-01

    To prepare an aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce by fewest components, the aroma concentrate of good sensory attributes was prepared by polyethylene membrane extraction, which could extract only the volatiles with diethyl ether. GC-MS-Olfactometry was done with the aroma concentrate, and 28 odor-active compounds were detected. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis to the separated fraction revealed high flavor dilution factors with respect to acetic acid, 4-hydroxy-2(or5)-ethyl-5(or2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol), and 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (methional). A model aroma mixture containing above four odorants showed a good similarity with the aroma of the soy sauce itself. Consequently, the reminiscent aroma mixture of soy sauce was prepared in water. The ratio of acetic acid, HEMF, isoamyl alcohol, and methional was 2500:300:100:1. PMID:26494283

  1. Inactive dry yeast application on grapes modify Sauvignon Blanc wine aroma.

    Šuklje, Katja; Antalick, Guillaume; Buica, Astrid; Coetzee, Zelmari A; Brand, Jeanne; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the potential to improve wine aroma by applying two inactive dry yeast products (IDYs) at the onset of ripening on Sauvignon Blanc grapes. Both products led to increased reduced glutathione concentrations in the grape juice and corresponding wines, as well as differences in individual higher alcohol acetates (HAAs) and ethyl esters of straight chain fatty acids (EEFAs) at the end of fermentation. After two months of storage, a significantly slower decrease of EEFAs and to a lesser extent of HAAs was found for wines made from grapes with IDY applications. These wines also resulted in significantly slower synthesis of ethyl esters of branched acids, whereas varietal thiols were altered in a product-specific manner. The modifications in the wine chemical composition were also sensorially corroborated. This study showed that vineyard additions of IDY products directly on the grapes at the onset of ripening have a subsequent benefit to the production and preservation of aroma in wines. PMID:26675843

  2. Healing of pain by music and aroma

    To see the alteration and modification by music and aroma of the brain activity at the moment of pain stimulus, authors studied 3D images by dynamic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with continuous intravenous 99mTc-HMPAO (hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime) method that they had developed. The radiopharmaceutical was i.v. injected at a constant infusion rate of 1,110 MBq/30 ml/30 min and dynamic SPECT was performed for 30 min at every 2 min interval with the gamma camera GCA 7200A/UI 2-head SPECT system (Toshiba) to make the time-activity curve of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). During the infusion, pain stimulus was given by clipping the tip of third finger for 3 sec repeatedly for 2 min. Subjects, healthy normal or with disease, were 18 cases with no healing, 14 with music and 32 with aroma. Pain alone or plus pop music induced rCBF increase in wide regions of the brain while slow-paced music or calm aroma (rose and lavender) suppressed the rCBF increase by pain in the lateral margin of frontal lobe. These changes were thought to be related to healing effects. (T.I.)

  3. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Pinelo, Manuel; Varming, Camilla; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2011-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane...... and deserve further consideration as alternative techniques for gentle aroma stripping in industrial fruit juice processing....

  4. Assessment of aroma active compounds in unconventional fruit types

    Krchňavá, Petra

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis deals with the determination of aroma compounds in selected drinks produced from chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa). The theoretical part is focused on the description of this plant, its chemical composition, properties, influence on the human body and possibility of utilization and processing. In the experimental part the aroma compounds in samples of sirup and liqueur from chokeberry were identified and quantified. . The aroma compounds were extracted by solid-phase micr...

  5. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, ‘Kyoho’ grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes. PMID:27487935

  6. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes.

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, 'Kyoho' grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes. PMID:27487935

  7. Characterization of key odorants in Chinese chixiang aroma-type liquor by gas chromatography-olfactometry, quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies.

    Fan, Haiyan; Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan

    2015-04-15

    Chixiang aroma-type liquor is extensively welcomed by consumers owing to its typical fatty aroma, particularly in southern China. To our knowledge, no comprehensive characterization of aroma and flavor from chixiang aroma-type liquor has been published. It is still a confused question which components are the most important in characterizing its unique aroma. A total of 56 odorants were identified in chixiang aroma-type liquor by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and in different quantitative measurements, 34 aroma compounds were further demonstrated as important odorants according to odor activity values (OAVs). Furthermore, this research suggested that the aroma of chixiang aroma-type finished liquor could be successfully reconstituted by mixing 34 aroma compounds in the concentrations measured. Omission experiments further confirmed (E)-2-nonenal as the key odorant and revealed the significance of (E)-2-octenal and 2-phenylethanol for the overall aroma of chixiang aroma-type liquor. 3-(Methylthio)-1-propanol (methionol), diethyl 1,7-heptanedioate (diethyl pimelate), diethyl 1,8-octanedioate (diethyl suberate), and diethyl 1,9-nonanedioate (diethyl azelate), identified as the characteristic aromas of chixiang aroma-type liquor in 1995, had no effects on aroma based on omission/addition experiments. PMID:25797496

  8. Aroma profile and volatiles odor activity along gold cultivar pineapple flesh.

    Montero-Calderón, Marta; Rojas-Graü, María Alejandra; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Physicochemical attributes, aroma profile, and odor contribution of pineapple flesh were studied for the top, middle, and bottom cross-sections cut along the central axis of Gold cultivar pineapple. Relationships between volatile and nonvolatile compounds were also studied. Aroma profile constituents were determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction at 30 °C, followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 20 volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Among them, esters were the major components which accounted for 90% of total extracted aroma. Methyl butanoate, methyl 2-methyl butanoate, and methyl hexanoate were the 3 most abundant components representing 74% of total volatiles in pineapple samples. Most odor active contributors were methyl and ethyl 2-methyl butanoate and 2,5-dimethyl 4-methoxy 3(2H)-furanone (mesifuran). Aroma profile components did not vary along the fruit, but volatile compounds content significantly varied (P pineapple trays, compromising consumer perception and acceptance of the product. Such finding highlighted the need to include volatiles content and SSC/TA ratio and their variability along the fruit as selection criteria for pineapples to be processed and quality assessment of the fresh-cut fruit. PMID:21535624

  9. Mechanism of Aroma Fixation and Aroma Fixer Preparation%定香机理及定香基的配制

    林翔云

    2011-01-01

    通过一系列实验确定:在一个香精体系中,高沸点物质可以令头香香料在一段时间内的挥发量减少,如果该物质本身没有香气,则没有留香或定香作用;有香气的高沸点物质则有一定的留香或定香作用;高沸点且香比强值大的香料留香或定香作用最强.列出了3个很有实际价值的香水用定香基为例说明.%A series of experiments to determine that in the perfume compound system, high boiling point substances allows top aroma components to reduce the amount of volatile in a period of time. Odorless substances couldn't make the action of aroma reservation or aroma fixation. Odor substances with high boiling paint can make the action of aroma reservation or aroma fixation. The components with higher boiling point and stronger aroma can make the action of aroma reservation or aroma fixation stronger. This paper sets out three aroma fixers with practical value as examples.

  10. Salt and aroma compound release in model cheeses in relation to their mobility

    Lauverjat, Clementine; Délérist, Isabelle; Tréléa, Cristian; Salles, Christian; Souchon, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Physicochemical properties (partition and diffusion coefficients) involved in the mobility and release of salt and aroma compounds in model cheeses were determined in this study. The values of NaCl water/product partition coefficients highlighted interactions between proteins and NaCl. However, these interactions were not modified by the product composition or structure. On the contrary, model cheese composition and structure influenced NaCl diffusion and both partition and diffusion for arom...

  11. Effect of gamma-radiation on major aroma compounds and vanillin glucoside of cured vanilla beans (Vanilla planifolia)

    Radiation processing of food materials by gamma-radiation is a well established method for microbial decontamination and insect disinfestation. Irradiation of spices at doses ranging from 10 to 30 kGy has been reported to result in complete elimination of microorganisms with negligible changes in the flavour quality. The effect of gamma-radiation on microflora and vanillin content of cured vanilla beans in the dose range of 5-50 kGy has been investigated, but its effect on other major aroma compounds and vanillin glucoside (vanillin aroma precursor) remaining after curing have not been studied so far. Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) is one such compound used as a flavouring agent and as a dietary component. It is the major component of natural vanilla, which is one of the most widely used and important flavouring materials throughout the world. Vanillin is an antioxidant capable of protecting membrane against lipid peroxidation and DNA against strand breaks induced by reactive oxygen species. The present work was aimed to study the effect of gamma-radiation processing on the major aroma compounds of cured vanilla beans and also to investigate possible enhancement in vanillin content by the radiolytic breakdown of vanillin glucoside present already. Cured vanilla beans were irradiated (5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 kGy) and the vanillin content of control and irradiated samples were analysed, respectively for a possible enhancement of vanillin content by radiolysis of vanillin glucoside. Radiolytic breakdown of glycosidic precursors of aroma constituents and consequent release of free aroma was shown to result in the enhancement of aroma quality of these products. Since a considerable amount of vanillin exists as its glycosidic precursor in cured vanilla pods, a possible enhancement in yield of vanillin by radiation processing is thus expected. Hence the highly stable oxygen-carbon linkage between vanillin and glucose limits the possible enhancement of aroma

  12. Aroma biogenesis and distribution between olive pulps and seeds with identification of aroma trends among cultivars.

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2013-11-01

    The two constitutive parts of four cultivars (Arbequina, Picual, Local and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in Spain were separately analysed in order to establish the role of pulp and seed in the biogenesis of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) aroma through the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway. C6 and C5 volatile compounds responsible of EVOO aroma were produced by endogenous enzymes in both parts of olive fruits and the differences can be attributed to different enzymes distribution in pulp and seed. According to results, C6 and C5 volatile compounds have mainly their biogenesis in pulp (80-90%) vs. seed (20-10%), independently of the cultivar considered. A linear discriminant analysis was used to establish discriminant aroma compounds between pulp and seed related to the maturity index. A decrease in trans-2-hexen-1-al and an increase in 1-hexanol with ripeness were observed independently of the cultivar considered. Finally, Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression analysis between pulp and seed aroma compounds allowed to establish those volatile compounds that better describe each cultivar. PMID:23768404

  13. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Pinelo, Manuel;

    2011-01-01

    degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevanceHigh temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption...

  14. Olive oil phenolic compounds affect the release of aroma compounds.

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; Villani, Veronica; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-08-15

    Twelve aroma compounds were monitored and quantified by dynamic headspace analysis after their addition in refined olive oil model systems with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) biophenols to simulate EVOO aroma. The influence of polyphenols on aroma release was studied under simulated mouth conditions by using human saliva, and SPME-GC/MS analysis. While few differences were observed in orthonasal assay (without saliva), interesting results were obtained for retronasal aroma. Biophenols caused generally the lowest headspace release of almost all volatile compounds. However, only ethyl esters and linalool concentrations were significantly lower in retronasal than orthonasal assay. Saliva also caused higher concentration of hexanal, probably due to hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) action on linoleyl hydroperoxides. Epicatechin was compared to EVOO phenolics and the behaviour was dramatically different, likely to be due to salivary protein-tannin binding interactions, which influenced aroma headspace release. These results were also confirmed using two extra virgin olive oils. PMID:25794752

  15. Foliar application of amino acids modulates aroma components of 'FUJI' apple (malus domestica L.)

    Volatile flavor compounds play a key role in determining the perception and acceptability as well as enhancing market competitiveness of apple (Malus domestica L.). In our study, we evaluated the effects of foliar-applied four different amino acids, i.e. leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), valine (Val) and alanine (Ala), on aroma components and two key enzymes activities involved in aroma metabolism of Fuji apple. The total amount of aromatic components under Ala treatment was significantly higher than those under other treatments. There was a considerable increase in total aroma content, including hexanal, 2-methyl-butanol, nonanal, (E)-2-hexenal, methyleugenol, ethyl acetate, butanoic acid-pentyl ester, butanoic acid-hexyl ester, butyric acid ethyl ester, acetic acid-2-methyl-butyl ester, treated with spraying amino acids compared with the control. More specifically, hexanal, 2-methyl-butanol, methyleugenol and acetic acid-2-methyl-butyl ester exhibited a greater substantial increase of their contents than those of in other ingredients. However, butanoic acid-2-methyl-2-methyl butyl ester maintained a highest level among all aroma components regardless of different amino acids application. Furthermore, the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) were much higher under Ala treatment than those under other treatments. We concluded that foliar-applied organic nitrogen (N), especially for Ala, can improve aroma metabolism and it could be used in production to enhance fruit quality on a commercial scale. (author)

  16. Stochastic modelling of Listeria monocytogenes single cell growth in cottage cheese with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from aroma producing cultures

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-01-01

    A stochastic model was developed for simultaneous growth of low numbers of Listeria monocytogenes and populations of lactic acid bacteria from the aroma producing cultures applied in cottage cheese. During more than two years, different batches of cottage cheese with aroma culture were analysed for...... pH, lactic acid concentration and initial concentration of lactic acid bacteria. These data and bootstrap sampling were used to represent product variability in the stochastic model. Lag time data were estimated from observed growth data (lactic acid bacteria) and from literature on L. monocytogenes....... 2014. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 188, 15-25]. Growth of L. monocytogenes single cells, using lag time distributions corresponding to three different...

  17. Effects of Botrytis cinerea and Erysiphe necator fungi on the aroma character of grape must: A comparative approach.

    Lopez Pinar, Angela; Rauhut, Doris; Ruehl, Ernst; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-09-15

    Botrytis cinerea and Erysiphe necator are among the most relevant fungi in viticulture. In order to deepen our knowledge about their potential impact on wine quality, their effects on the aroma character of the initial stage of wine production, i.e. the must were studied. The main aroma compounds were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and ranked according to their relative intensities by means of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Clear differences between healthy and infected samples were observed. Botrytis cinerea had a positive impact on fruity and floral notes while several earthy smelling compounds were developed as result of the infection. Unlike in previous studies, however, we did not observe any clear differences in the quantities of earthy-mushroom-like smelling substances as result of the infection process with Erysiphe necator. PMID:27080903

  18. The influence of different types of preparation (espresso and brew) on coffee aroma and main bioactive constituents.

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Cortese, Manuela; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular hot drinks in the world; it may be prepared by several methods, but the most common forms are boiled (brew) and pressurized (espresso). Analytical studies on the substances responsible for the pleasant aroma of roasted coffee have been carried out for more than 100 years. Brew coffee and espresso coffee (EC) have a different and peculiar aroma profile, demonstrating the importance of the brewing process on the final product sensorial quality. Concerning bioactive compounds, the extraction mechanism plays a crucial role. The differences in the composition of coffee brew in chlorogenic acids and caffeine content is the result of the different procedures of coffee preparation. The aim of the present review is to detail how the brewing process affects coffee aroma and composition. PMID:26171629

  19. A fermented meat model system for studies of microbial aroma formation

    Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Andersen, L.;

    2003-01-01

    and model, fast-acidified samples had a high content of ketones, sulphides and methyl-branched acids, whereas slowly acidified samples had the highest content of methyl-branched alcohols, aldehydes, their ethyl esters, phenylacetaldehyde and methional. Furthermore, model repeatability with respect to...... pH, microbial growth and volatile profiles was similar to sausage production. Based on these findings, the model system was considered valid for studies of aroma formation of meat cultures for fermented sausage....

  20. Mechanisms underlying the toxicity of lactone aroma compounds towards the producing yeast cells

    Aguedo, Mario; Beney, L.; Waché, Y.; Belin, J.-M.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To study the fundamental mechanisms of toxicity of the fruity aroma compound γ-decalactone, that lead to alterations in cell viability during its biotechnological production by yeast cells; Yarrowia lipolytica that is able to produce high amounts of this metabolite was used here as a model. Methods and Results: Lactone concentrations above 150 mg l-1 inhibited cell growth, depolarized the living cells and increased membrane fluidity. Infrared spectroscopic measurements revealed that the...

  1. Aromas of Salvia species enhance everyday prospective memory performance in healthy young adults

    2014-01-01

    Research has previously demonstrated that aromas of both Salvia officinalis and Salvia lavandulaefolia are capable of modulating aspects of retrospective memory, attention and mood. This study is the first to report the potential for these aromas to enhance everyday prospective memory performance in healthy young adults. In an independent groups design, three conditions, Salvia officinalis aroma, Saliva lavandulaefolia aroma and no aroma were employed with 45 healthy volunteers in each cond...

  2. Effect of added thiamine on the key odorant compounds and aroma of cooked ham.

    Thomas, Caroline; Mercier, Frédéric; Tournayre, Pascal; Martin, Jean-Luc; Berdagué, Jean-Louis

    2015-04-15

    This study shows that thiamine plays a major role in the formation of three key odorants of cooked ham: 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-methyl-3-methyldithiofuran, and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulphide. Analyses revealed that under identical cooking conditions, the productions of these three aroma compounds increase in a closely intercorrelated way when the dose of thiamine increases. Using a specific 2-methyl-3-furanthiol extraction-quantification method, it was possible to relate the amounts of thiamine added in model cooked hams to the amounts of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol produced in the cooking process. Sensory analyses highlighted the role of thiamine as a precursor of cooked ham aroma. PMID:25466091

  3. Characterization of the most aroma-active compounds in cherry tomato by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Selli, Serkan; Kelebek, Hasim; Ayseli, Mehmet Turan; Tokbas, Habip

    2014-12-15

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by liquid-liquid extraction was representative of tomato odour. A total of 49 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in fresh cherry tomato. Aldehydes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in cherry tomato, followed by alcohols. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of tomato sample. A total of 21 aroma-active compounds were detected in aromatic extract of fresh tomato, of which 18 were identified. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma-active compounds identified in the extract were (Z)-3-hexenal (FD=1024) and (E)-2-hexenal (FD=256), which were described as the strong green-grassy and green-leafy odour, respectively. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and fructose, respectively. PMID:25038709

  4. Discriminant Analysis of Aroma Types of Flue-cured Tobacco on Neutral Aroma Components%基于烤烟中性致香物质的烤烟香型判别分析

    詹军; 张晓龙; 周芳芳; 邓国宾; 资文华; 毛春堂; 包崇彦; 宫长荣

    2012-01-01

    In order to distinguish characteristics of aroma types of flue-cured tobacco and establish mathematical model for judgment of aroma types. Contents of neutral aroma components in flue-cured tobacco of different aroma types were analyszed which were based on 61 samples (C3F) from 11 main tobacco production provinces of China. Stepwise discriminant analysis was applied to different aroma types tobacco leaves using 24 neutral aroma components and discriminant function was expressed. The results showed that contents of neutral aroma components in middle aroma type were the highest [(467.562 ± 96. 188) μg/g], following as full aroma type [(417. 115 ± 113. 166) μg/g], and then clean aroma type [(377. 267 ± 56. 677) μg/g]. The contents of 13 components in middle aroma type were the highest, the 8 components in full aroma type and 2 components in clean aroma type. The results of discriminant analysis indicated that 10 neutral aroma components (β-damascenone, 6-methyl-5-heptene-2-dione, hexanal, 3-oxo-crionol, benzyl alcohol, pyrrole, phenylacetaldehyde, linalool, neophytadiene, megastigmatrienone) were used in the discriminant function and found discriminant model. Self-validation method and Cross-validation method were applied to back evaluation on original sample. The accuracy of back evaluation were 93. 44% and 88. 52% respectively. The other 22 samples were predicted using this modle, the accuracy of predicted samples about 3 kinds aroma types (full aroma type, middle aroma type, clean aroma type) were 88. 89%, 100%, 85. 71% respectively. In conclusion, the discrimination method had its own advantage and could be used to identify aroma type of flue-cured tobacco accurately and quickly.%以中国11个主要产烟省61个C3F烟叶为材料,测定不同香型烤烟中性致香物质含量,并以24种中性致香物质为指标,采用逐步判别分析法对不同香型烤烟样品进行判别分析,建立判别函数.结果表明,中间香型

  5. Volatile profile and sensory property of Gardenia jasminoides aroma extracts.

    Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Lourith, Nattaya

    2015-01-01

    The volatile profiles of aroma extracts prepared from the flower of Gardenia jasminoides by different methods were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The enfleurage extraction using spermaceti wax and palm oil afforded the best aroma extract with a preference that was significantly (p 0.05) better sensed than male volunteers, age was significant (p perfumery and the field of phytochemistry. PMID:27125012

  6. Characterization of the Key Odorants in Chinese Zhima Aroma-Type Baijiu by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry, Quantitative Measurements, Aroma Recombination, and Omission Studies.

    Zheng, Yang; Sun, Baoguo; Zhao, Mouming; Zheng, Fuping; Huang, Mingquan; Sun, Jinyuan; Sun, Xiaotao; Li, Hehe

    2016-07-01

    Zhima aroma-type Baijiu with typical sesame aroma is particularly popular in northern China. To our knowledge, it is still uncertain which components are important to make contributions to its unique aroma, although a few pieces of research have reported many volatile compounds in this Baijiu. The aroma-active compounds from the Baijiu were researched in this paper. A total of 56 odorants were identified in Chinese Zhima aroma-type Baijiu by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Their odor activity values (OAVs) were determined by different quantitative measurements, and then 26 aroma compounds were further confirmed as important odorants due to their OAVs ≥ 1, and these had higher values, such as ethyl hexanoate (OAV 2691), 3-methylbutanal (2403), ethyl pentanoate (1019), and so on. The overall aroma of Zhima aroma-type Baijiu could be simulated by mixing of the 26 key odorants in their measured concentrations. The similarity of the overall aroma profiles between the recombination model and the commercial sample was judged to be 2.7 out of 3.0 points. Omission experiments further corroborated the importance of methional and ethyl hexanoate for the overall aroma of Chinese Zhima aroma-type Baijiu. PMID:27263543

  7. Effect of lactobionic acid on the acidification, rheological properties and aroma release of dairy gels.

    Ribeiro, Jéssica C Bigaski; Granato, Daniel; Masson, Maria Lucia; Andriot, Isabelle; Mosca, Ana Carolina; Salles, Christian; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2016-09-15

    The food industry is investigating new technological applications of lactobionic acid (LBA). In the current work, the effect of lactobionic acid on the acidification of dairy gels (pH 5.5 and 6.2), rheological properties using a double compression test, sodium mobility using (23)Na NMR technique and aroma release using headspace GC-FID were studied. Our results showed that it is possible to use LBA as an alternative to glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) for the production of dairy gels with a controlled pH value. Small differences in the rheological properties and in the amount of aroma volatile organic compounds that were released in the vapour phase, but no significant difference in the sodium ion mobility were obtained. The gels produced with LBA were less firm and released less volatile aroma compounds than the gels produced with GDL. The gels at pH 6.2 were firmer than those at pH 5.5 and had a more organised structure around the sodium ions. PMID:27080885

  8. Aroma Potential in Early- and Late-Maturity Pinot noir Grapes Evaluated by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    Yuan, Fang; Qian, Michael C

    2016-01-20

    Aroma potentials in early and late maturity Pinot noir grapes were investigated in two consecutive vintages. The grape samples were hydrolyzed under acidic conditions, and the released odorants were studied by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Forty-nine main odor-active compounds were detected in the AEDA. The odorants released with high flavor dilution values were 1-hexanal, β-damascenone, guaiacol, and vanillin, together with C6-aldehydes and -alcohols, 4-vinylguaiacol, 4-vinylphenol, and 1-octen-3-one. The concentrations of aroma-active compounds were further quantitated. Compared with early harvest grapes, late harvest grapes released more β-damascenone, vanillin, 4-vinylguaiacol, and 4-vinylphenol in both years according to both AEDA and quantitation results, suggesting they were important aroma compounds that contribute to the characteristic of matured Pinot noir grapes. PMID:26698292

  9. Beyond the characterization of wine aroma compounds: looking for analytical approaches in trying to understand aroma perception during wine consumption

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Moreno Arribas, Mª Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, Mª Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    The volatile compounds present in wines are responsible for the quality of the wine aroma. The analysis of these compounds requires different analytical techniques depending on the type of compounds and their concentration. The importance at sensorial level of each compound should be evaluated by using olfactometric techniques and reconstitution and omission studies. In addition, wine aroma is influenced by other factors such as wine matrix, which could affect the compounds’ volatility, decre...

  10. Analysis of Volatile Aroma Compounds in Steamed and Roasted Whole Tartary Buckwheat Teas and Distribution of Major Chemical Components during the Production Process%蒸煮和焙炒整米苦荞茶香气成分分析及生产过程中主要化学成分的去向

    隋秀芳; 李祥; 秦礼康; 赵宇; 林敏

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of major chemical components during the production of steamed and roasted whole tartary buckwheat tea samples was tracked to explore the effects of steaming,roasting and reconstructed granulation on the aroma and nutritional components of tartary buckwheat tea.Meanwhile,both tartary buckwheat teas were comparatively analyzed for volatile aroma components by solid-phase microwaveextraction(SPME) coupled with GC-MS.The final products obtained following different procedures showed significant differences in chemical composition(P0.05).During the production of steamed tartary buckwheat tea,proteins were mainly distributed in the yellow powder at a level of 27.51%,the reducing sugar content of 0.69% in the raw material decreased to 0.28% in the fine product,and total flavonoids were mainly distributed in the polished powder and yellow powder at levels of 4.98% and 4.63%,respectively.As a result,the total flavonoid content of the final product was as low as 1.38% compared with only 1.20% for roasted tartary buckwheat grains.The total flavonoid content of tea-containing reconstructed granules prepared from buckwheat husk powder,rich in flavonoids(4.56%),was as high as 6.87%.Roasted whole tartary buckwheat tea as a mixture of roasted tartary buckwheat grains and tea-containing reconstructed granules had considerably better quality and flavor than its steamed counterpart.The major aroma compounds of steamed tartary buckwheat tea were alkanes and alkenes,while roasted tartary buckwheat tea contained aldehydes and alkanes as major aroma compounds and was also rich in phenols,alcohols,ethers,ketones and esters,which caused better flavor in roast tartary buckwheat tea and than steamed one.%为探索焙炒、蒸煮与重组造粒加工工艺对苦荞茶香气和营养成分的影响,跟踪检测3种工艺中各组分主要营养成分的流向分布,并采用固相微萃取结合气质联用技术对苦荞茶产品的挥发性香气成分进行对比分析。

  11. Analysis of neutral volatile aroma components in Tilsit cheese using a combination of dynamic headspace technique, capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry

    surface flora during ripening. Therefore the conclusion can be drawn that part of the components are formed by the starter cultures and are homogeneous spread in the cheese body at the beginning of the ripening. On the one hand the metabolism of the read smear bacteria and yeasts leads to a reduction of the components. Hereby the concentration gradient is compensated by diffusion of aroma components from the inside to the surface. On the other hand products of the metabolism of the surface flora diffuse into the cheese body. The quantity of the coefficient of diffusion varies timewise and spatially. The concentration profile is influenced not only by the diffusion but also by the shifting of the composition of the surface flora during the ripening period. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the aroma quality of Chinese traditional soy paste during storage based on principal component analysis.

    Peng, Xingyun; Li, Xin; Shi, Xiaodi; Guo, Shuntang

    2014-05-15

    Soy paste, a fermented soybean product, is widely used for flavouring in East and Southeast Asian countries. The characteristic aroma of soy paste is important throughout its shelf life. This study extracted volatile compounds via headspace solid-phase microextraction and conducted a quantitative analysis of 15 key volatile compounds using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrum analysis. Changes in aroma content during storage time were analyzed using an acceleration model (40 °C, 28 days). In the 28 days of storage, results showed that among key soy paste volatile compounds, alcohol and aldehyde contents decreased by 35% and 26%, respectively. By contrast, acid, ester, and heterocycle contents increased by 130%, 242%, and 15%, respectively. The overall odour type transformed from a floral to a roasting aroma. According to sample clustering in the principal component analysis, the storage life of soy paste could be divided into three periods. These three periods represent the floral, roasting, and pungent aroma types of soy paste. PMID:24423567

  13. The Changes in Color, Soluble Sugars, Organic Acids, Anthocyanins and Aroma Components in "Starkrimson" during the Ripening Period in China.

    Liu, Yulian; Chen, Nianlai; Ma, Zonghuan; Che, Fei; Mao, Juan; Chen, Baihong

    2016-01-01

    "Starkrimson" is a traditional apple cultivar that was developed a long time ago and was widely cultivated in the arid region of the northern Wei River of China. However, little information regarding the quality characteristics of "Starkrimson" fruit has been reported in this area. To elucidate these characteristics, the color, soluble sugars, organic acids, anthocyanins and aroma components were measured during the ripening period through the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results indicated that the changes in anthocyanin contents took place later than the changes in the Commission International Eclairage (CIE) parameters. Meanwhile, cyanidin 3-galactoside (cy3-gal), fructose, sucrose, glucose and malic acid were the primary organic compounds, and 1-butanol-2-methyl-acetate, 2-hexenal and 1-hexanol were the most abundant aroma components in the skin. Furthermore, rapidly changing soluble sugars and organic acid synchronization took place in the early ripening period, while rapidly changing aroma components occurred later, on the basis of fresh weight. This result suggested that the production of aroma components might be a useful index of apple maturity. PMID:27338331

  14. AROMA: Automatic Generation of Radio Maps for Localization Systems

    Eleryan, Ahmed; Youssef, Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    WLAN localization has become an active research field recently. Due to the wide WLAN deployment, WLAN localization provides ubiquitous coverage and adds to the value of the wireless network by providing the location of its users without using any additional hardware. However, WLAN localization systems usually require constructing a radio map, which is a major barrier of WLAN localization systems' deployment. The radio map stores information about the signal strength from different signal strength streams at selected locations in the site of interest. Typical construction of a radio map involves measurements and calibrations making it a tedious and time-consuming operation. In this paper, we present the AROMA system that automatically constructs accurate active and passive radio maps for both device-based and device-free WLAN localization systems. AROMA has three main goals: high accuracy, low computational requirements, and minimum user overhead. To achieve high accuracy, AROMA uses 3D ray tracing enhanced wi...

  15. Feasibility and application of a retronasal aroma-trapping device to study in vivo aroma release during the consumption of model wine-derived beverages.

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Moreno-Arribas, Maria Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, Maria Ángeles

    2014-07-01

    New types of wine-derived beverages are now in the market. However, little is known about the impact of ingredient formulation on aroma release during consumption, which is directly linked to consumer preferences and liking. In this study, the optimization and validation of a retronasal aroma-trapping device (RATD) for the in vivo monitoring of aroma release was carried out. This device was applied to assess the impact of two main ingredients (sugar and ethanol) in these types of beverages on in vivo aroma release. Two aroma-trapping materials (Lichrolut and Tenax) were firstly assayed. Tenax provided higher recovery and lower intra- and inter-trap variability. In in vivo conditions, RATD provided an adequate linear range (R (2) > 0.91) between 0 and 50 mg L(-1) of aroma compounds. Differences in the total aroma release were observed in equally trained panelists. It was proven that the addition of sugar (up to 150 mg kg(-1)) did not have effect on aroma release, while ethanol (up to 40 mg L(-1)) enhanced the aroma release during drinking. The RATD is a useful tool to collect real in vivo data to extract reliable conclusions about the effect of beverage components on aroma release during consumption. The concentration of ethanol should be taken into consideration for the formulation of wine-derived beverages. PMID:25473493

  16. A protocol of measurement of In Vivo Aroma release from beverages.

    Weel, K.G.C.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burger, J.J.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Smit, G.

    2003-01-01

    The quality of in vivo aroma release measurements of beverages can be improved when a strict protocol is used to control variation in aroma release due to human factors. A trained panel was able to significantly discriminate between aqueous aroma solutions with a concentration difference as low as 1

  17. Structural and physical effects of aroma compound binding to native starch granules

    Jørgensen, Anders Dysted; Jensen, Susanne L.; Ziegler, Gregory;

    2012-01-01

    , potato and pea starches used represent different typical structural and chemical starch characteristics. Retention of the different aroma compounds varied from a few to one hundred percent and starch was found to induce as well as reduce aroma evaporation depending on the aroma compound and the starch...

  18. 挥发性香气物质和乙烯生产在"湖景蜜露"桃果实发育过程中的变化%Changes in Aroma Volatile Compounds and Ethylene Production During "Hujingmilu" Peach (Prunus persica L.) Fruit Development

    张晓萌; 贾惠娟

    2005-01-01

    Changes in ethylene production rate, respiration rate, and aroma volatile composition was determined from the immature to mature stage in "Hujingmilu"peach (Prunus presica) fruit. Flesh firmness, fruit size,ground color of skin, and total soluble solids (TSS),titratable acidity (TA) in juice were analyzed, and ACC,ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activities were measured. With the increase of fruit maturity, fruit size, L* value, and TSS and major reducing sugar contents increased, whereas fruit firmness, skin hue angle (h°), and juice TA and organic acid contents decreased. In immature fruits, a C6-aldehydes (trans2-hexenal) and C6-alcohols (cis-3-hexenol) were the major components, corresponding to the low ethylene production and high respiration rates. With increasing of fruit maturity, the C6-C12 lactonic compounds, particularly γ- and δ-lactones became the dominant volatile constituents, which increased significantly at the climacteric stage. These facts suggest that ethylene production may be involved in the regulation of lactones production in maturing peach fruit. The activity of ACC synthase in the mesocarp declined during the climacteric rise of ethylene. ACC level and ACC oxidase activity in mesocarp were consistent with the onset of ethylene production in fruit.Major aroma volatiles are thought to form in conjunction with the initiation of climacteric rises in respiration and ethylene production. Detection of changes in aroma volatile compound synthesis rate in peach may be useful as index of maturity reflecting the current physiological stage of peach fruit development.%以"湖景蜜露"水蜜桃(Prunus persica L.)为试材,检测了果实从未成熟到成熟发育过程中乙烯生成、呼吸速率及挥发性香气性物质的变化;同时对果实大小、果皮色泽、果肉硬度、可溶性固形物、可滴定酸进行了测定;对与果实乙烯产生密切相关的1-氨基环丙烷-1-羧酸(ACC)含量、ACC合成酶活性、ACC氧化酶活

  19. Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil

    Haypek E.; Silva L.H.M; Batista E.; Marques D. S.; Meireles M.A.A.; Meirelles A.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice). The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the c...

  20. Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil

    Haypek E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice. The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the calculation of the activity coefficients.

  1. Sensory interactions between six common aroma vectors explain four main red wine aroma nuances.

    Ferreira, Vicente; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Campo, Eva; Herrero, Paula; de la Fuente, Arancha; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2016-05-15

    This work aims at assessing the aromatic sensory dimensions linked to 6 common wine aroma vectors (N, norisoprenoids; A, branched acids; F, enolones; E, branched ethyl esters; L, fusel alcohols, M, wood compounds) varying in their natural range of occurrence. Wine models were built by adding the vectors at two levels (fractional factorial design 2(VI)) to a de-aromatised aged red wine. Twenty other different models were evaluated by descriptive analysis. Red, black and dried fruits and woody notes were satisfactorily reproduced. Individual vectors explained just 15% of the sensory space, mostly dependent on perceptual interactions. N influences dried and black fruits and suppresses red fruits. A suppresses black fruits and enhances red and dried fruits. F exerts a major role on red fruits. E suppresses dried fruits and modulates black fruits. L is revealed as a strong suppressor of red fruits and particularly of woody notes. PMID:26775994

  2. Manipulation of flavour and aroma compound sequestration and release using a glycosyltransferase with specificity for terpene alcohols

    Yauk, Yar-Khing; Ged, Claire; Wang, Mindy Y.; Matich, Adam J; Tessarotto, Lydie; Cooney, Janine M.; Chervin, Christian; Atkinson, Ross G.

    2014-01-01

    Glycosides are an important potential source of aroma and flavour compounds for release as volatiles in flowers and fruit. The production of glycosides is catalysed by UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) that mediate the transfer of an activated nucleotide sugar to acceptor aglycones. A screen of UGTs expressed in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) identified the gene AdGT4 which was highly expressed in floral tissues and whose expression increased during fruit ripening. Recombinant AdGT4 enzyme gly...

  3. Home conservation strategies for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum): storage temperature vs. duration--is there a compromise for better aroma preservation?

    Renard, Catherine M G C; Ginies, Christian; Gouble, Barbara; Bureau, Sylvie; Causse, Mathilde

    2013-08-15

    Expression of dissatisfaction with tomato aroma prompted us to lead this study on the impact of domestic storage conditions on volatile compounds. Two storage modalities (20 and 4°C) and two cultivars (Levovil and LCx) were used. Volatile compounds were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection after accelerated solvent extraction. Physical characteristics, lipoxygenase activity, hydroperoxide lyase activity; linoleic acid and linolenic acid were monitored. Storing tomatoes at 4°C induced a drastic loss in volatiles, whatever their biosynthetic origin. After 30 days at 4°C, the concentration of volatiles had decreased by 66%. Reconditioning for 24 h at 20°C was able to recover some aroma production after up to 6 days storage at 4°C. Volatile degradation products arising from carotenoids and amino acids increased when tomatoes were kept at 20°C, while lipid degradation products did not vary. Storing tomatoes at fridge temperature, even for short durations, was detrimental for their aroma. This should be taken into account to formulate practical advice for consumers. PMID:23561178

  4. Análisis sensorial: los aromas terciarios del vino.

    Vilanova de la Torre, María del Mar

    2007-01-01

    Los aromas terciarios de un vino son aquellos que se desarrollan durante los procesos de crianza en la madera de barricas de roble y de maduración en la propia botella o en grandes depósitos de acero inoxidable, donde se terminan de pulir los vinos.

  5. Volatile Aroma Compounds in Various Brewed Green Teas

    Youngmo Yoon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies and semi-quantifies aroma volatiles in brewed green tea samples. The objectives of this study were to identify using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS paired with a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME the common volatile compounds that may be responsible for aroma/flavor of the brewed liquor of a range of green tea samples from various countries as consumed and to determine if green teas from the same region have similarities in volatile composition when green tea samples are prepared for consumption. Twenty-four green tea samples from eight different countries were brewed as recommended for consumer brewing. The aroma volatiles were extracted by HS-SPME, separated on a gas chromatograph and identified using a mass spectrometer. Thirty-eight compounds were identified and the concentrations were semi-quantified. The concentrations were lower than those reported by other researchers, probably because this research examined headspace volatiles from brewed tea rather than solvent extraction of leaves. No relationship to country of origin was found, which indicates that other factors have a greater influence than country of origin on aroma.

  6. Psychophysical evaluation of interactive effects between sweeteners and aroma compounds

    Nahon, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of intense sweeteners in a light soft drink influences the preferences for, and the flavour profiles of these drinks to various extents, depending on the aroma and sweeteners present. In this study equisweet mixtures of sweeteners were composed at 10% Sucrose Equivalent Value. The sucro

  7. Aroma Stability of Lemon-Flavored Hard Iced Tea Assessed by Chirality and Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    Yuan, Fang; He, Fei; Qian, Yanping; Zheng, Jia; Qian, Michael C

    2016-07-20

    The aroma of fresh and aged lemon-flavored hard tea was investigated by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), quantitative comparison, and two-dimensional chirality analysis. Aroma extract dilution analysis of fresh hard tea samples showed 3-methylbutanal, isoamyl alcohol, β-damascenone, β-ionone, 2-phenylethanol, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, and vanillin could be the most important aroma contributors to the hard tea due to their high FD values. The analysis of the aged hard tea samples did not reveal new compound formation during storage; however, compared with fresh samples, the flavor dilution value changed substantially in the aged samples. Both AEDA and quantitative analysis demonstrated that β-damascenone increased substantially in aged samples, whereas terpene aldehydes decreased substantially after storage. In addition, the FD value of linalool decreased dramatically in aged samples. Two-dimensional GC-MS chirality analysis revealed the FD value decrease of linalool in aged samples was largely due to the transformation of (R)-linalool to (S)-linalool, which has a higher sensory threshold. PMID:27319225

  8. Effect of reuterin-producing Lactobacillus reuteri coupled with glycerol on the volatile fraction, odour and aroma of semi-hard ewe milk cheese.

    Gómez-Torres, Natalia; Ávila, Marta; Delgado, David; Garde, Sonia

    2016-09-01

    The effect of the biopreservation system formed by Lactobacillus reuteri INIA P572, a reuterin-producing strain, and glycerol (required for reuterin production), on the volatile fraction, aroma and odour of industrial sized semi-hard ewe milk cheese (Castellano type) was investigated over a 3-month ripening period. The volatile compounds were extracted and analyzed by SPME-GC-MS and cheese odour and aroma profiles were studied by descriptive sensory analysis. Control cheese was made only with a mesophilic starter and experimental cheeses with L. reuteri were made with and without glycerol. The addition of L. reuteri INIA P572 to milk enhanced the formation of six volatile compounds. Despite the changes in the volatile compounds profile, the use of L. reuteri INIA P572 did not noticeably affect the sensory characteristics of cheese. On the other hand, the addition of L. reuteri INIA P572 coupled with 30mM glycerol enhanced the formation of twelve volatile compounds, but decreased the formation of five ones. The use of the biopreservation system did not affect overall odour and aroma quality of cheese although it resulted in a significant decrease of the odour intensity scores. In addition, this cheese received significant higher scores for "cheesy" aroma and significant lower scores for the aroma attributes "milky", "caramel" and "yogurt-like". The first two axes of a principal component analysis (PCA) performed for selected volatile compounds and sensory characteristics, accounting for 75% of the variability between cheeses, separated cheeses made with L. reuteri INIA P572 and glycerol from the rest of cheeses, and also differentiated control cheese from cheeses made with L. reuteri INIA P572 from day 60 onward. Our results showed that the reuterin-producing L. reuteri INIA P572 strain, when coupled with glycerol, may be a suitable biopreservation system to use in cheese without affecting odour and aroma quality. PMID:27289193

  9. Improving the Performance of an Electronic Nose by Wine Aroma Training to Distinguish between Drip Coffee and Canned Coffee

    Kouki Fujioka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee aroma, with more than 600 components, is considered as one of the most complex food aromas. Although electronic noses have been successfully used for objective analysis and differentiation of total coffee aromas, it is difficult to use them to describe the specific features of coffee aroma (i.e., the type of smell. This is because data obtained by electronic noses are generally based on electrical resistance/current and samples are distinguished by principal component analysis. In this paper, we present an electronic nose that is capable of learning the wine related aromas using the aroma kit “Le Nez du Vin,” and the potential to describe coffee aroma in a similar manner comparable to how wine experts describe wine aroma. The results of our investigation showed that the aromas of three drip coffees were more similar to those of pine and honey in the aroma kit than to the aromas of three canned coffees. Conversely, the aromas of canned coffees were more similar to the kit coffee aroma. In addition, the aromatic patterns of coffees were different from those of green tea and red wine. Although further study is required to fit the data to human olfaction, the presented method and the use of vocabularies in aroma kits promise to enhance objective discrimination and description of aromas by electronic noses.

  10. Characterization of potent odorants in male giant water bug (Lethocerus indicus Lep. and Serv.), an important edible insect of Southeast Asia.

    Kiatbenjakul, Patthamawadi; Intarapichet, Kanok-Orn; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-02-01

    Potent odorants in frozen fresh (FFB) and salted boiled (SBB) male giant water bugs (Lethocerus indicus), or 'Maengdana' in Thai, were characterized by application of direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Twenty and 27 potent odorants were detected in FFB and SBB, respectively. Most odorants were lipid-derived compounds, including the two most abundant volatile components (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenyl butanoate, which contributed banana-like odours. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, responsible for popcorn-like odours, were detected in SBB only. An aroma reconstitution model of SBB was constructed in an oil-in-water emulsion matrix using 12 selected potent odorants based on the results of AEDA, accurate compound quantification and the calculated odour-activity values (OAV). Omission studies were carried out to verify the significance of esters, particularly (E)-2-hexenyl acetate was determined to be an important character-impact odorant in male giant water bug aroma. PMID:25172758

  11. Volatile Compounds in Honey: A Review on Their Involvement in Aroma, Botanical Origin Determination and Potential Biomedical Activities

    Christy E. Manyi-Loh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs in honey are obtained from diverse biosynthetic pathways and extracted by using various methods associated with varying degrees of selectivity and effectiveness. These compounds are grouped into chemical categories such as aldehyde, ketone, acid, alcohol, hydrocarbon, norisoprenoids, terpenes and benzene compounds and their derivatives, furan and pyran derivatives. They represent a fingerprint of a specific honey and therefore could be used to differentiate between monofloral honeys from different floral sources, thus providing valuable information concerning the honey’s botanical and geographical origin. However, only plant derived compounds and their metabolites (terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene compounds and their derivatives must be employed to discriminate among floral origins of honey. Notwithstanding, many authors have reported different floral markers for honey of the same floral origin, consequently sensory analysis, in conjunction with analysis of VOCs could help to clear this ambiguity. Furthermore, VOCs influence honey’s aroma described as sweet, citrus, floral, almond, rancid, etc. Clearly, the contribution of a volatile compound to honey aroma is determined by its odor activity value. Elucidation of the aroma compounds along with floral origins of a particular honey can help to standardize its quality and avoid fraudulent labeling of the product. Although only present in low concentrations, VOCS could contribute to biomedical activities of honey, especially the antioxidant effect due to their natural radical scavenging potential.

  12. Analysis of accelerants and fire debris using aroma detection technology

    Barshick, S.A.

    1997-01-17

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the utility of electronic aroma detection technologies for the detection and identification of accelerant residues in suspected arson debris. Through the analysis of known accelerant residues, a trained neural network was developed for classifying suspected arson samples. Three unknown fire debris samples were classified using this neural network. The item corresponding to diesel fuel was correctly identified every time. For the other two items, wide variations in sample concentration and excessive water content, producing high sample humidities, were shown to influence the sensor response. Sorbent sampling prior to aroma detection was demonstrated to reduce these problems and to allow proper neural network classification of the remaining items corresponding to kerosene and gasoline.

  13. Taste-Aroma-Matrix Interactions Determine Flavour Perception

    Hollowood, Tracey Ann

    2002-01-01

    A newly recruited sensory panel was trained in magnitude estimation and time intensity sensory techniques. Sensory analysis was combined with instrumental analysis using MS Nose to investigate the relationship between stimulus and perception using simple model food systems. Volatile release data was collected after swallowing aqueous solutions containing a cocktail of aroma compounds. The compounds varied in their persistence during subsequent exhalations dependent on the degree of assoc...

  14. Psychophysical evaluation of interactive effects between sweeteners and aroma compounds

    Nahon, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of intense sweeteners in a light soft drink influences the preferences for, and the flavour profiles of these drinks to various extents, depending on the aroma and sweeteners present. In this study equisweet mixtures of sweeteners were composed at 10% Sucrose Equivalent Value. The sucrose/maltitol and sucrose/aspartame mixtures were additive, whereas equisweet binary sucrose/Na-cyclamate mixtures and ternary sucrose/aspartame/Na-cyclamate mixtures revealed synergistic effects.The...

  15. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts

    C. M. Mattana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE and ethanolic extract (EE of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000 μg/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658 μg/mL for EE and 1020 μg/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1–20 mg/mL. The EE at 20 mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5 mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings.

  16. On the effects of higher alcohols on red wine aroma.

    de-la-Fuente-Blanco, Arancha; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-11-01

    This work aims to assess the aromatic sensory contribution of the four most relevant wine higher alcohols (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, methionol and β-phenylethanol) on red wine aroma. The four alcohols were added at two levels of concentration, within the natural range of occurrence, to eight different wine models (WM), close reconstitutions of red wines differing in levels of fruity (F), woody (W), animal (A) or humidity (H) notes. Samples were submitted to discriminant and descriptive sensory analysis. Results showed that the contribution of methionol and β-phenylethanol to wine aroma was negligible and confirmed the sensory importance of the pair isobutanol-isoamyl alcohol. Sensory effects were only evident in WM containing intense aromas, demonstrating a strong dependence on the aromatic context. Higher alcohols significantly suppress strawberry/lactic/red fruity, coconut/wood/vanilla and humidity/TCA notes, but not the leather/animal/ink note. The spirit/alcoholic/solvent character generated by higher alcohols has been shown to be wine dependent. PMID:27211627

  17. Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications

    Barshick, S.-A.; Griest, W.H.; Vass, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic `fingerprint` pattern representative of the vapor- phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The results to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

  18. Multiple Regression Analysis of Aroma Components and Sensory Evaluation of Miso

    Sugawara, Etsuko; SAIGA, Suguru; Kobayashi, Akio

    1994-01-01

    Among several sensory characteristics to evaluate the quality of miso (fermented bean paste), aroma is the most difficult one. If results of chemical analysis of miso aroma could be transformed into numerical terms, the evaluation of miso may become easier. Therefore we investigated relationship between aroma components and sensory scores of rice-miso by multiple regression analysis. Thirty-four rice-miso exhibited at the National Miso Competition were used as the samples. Each peak area of t...

  19. Chromatography-Olfactometry Study of the Aroma of Fino Sherry Wines

    Zea, L.; Moyano, L.; Ruiz, M. J.; Medina, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aroma of Fino sherry wines produced by industrial biological aging for 0, 1.5, 2.5, 4.5, and 6 years in the Montilla-Moriles region (southern Spain) was studied by gas chromatography-olfactometry. The aroma sensations detected by 3 trained sniffers were classified according to their odor descriptors into 8 odorant series (fruity, empyreumatic, chemical, fatty, balsamic, vegetable, floral, and spicy), describing the aroma profile of the studied wines. The results showed 47 detected odors i...

  20. Characterization of the Volatile Substances and Aroma Components from Traditional Soypaste

    Yan Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the flavor substances of soypaste were extracted by a simultaneous distillation method and identified by GC-MS. The characteristic aroma components of soypaste were determined by the GC-O technique and the FD value of the characteristic aroma components was determined by AEDA method. It could be inferred that the aroma of the soypaste should be attributed to the presence of heterocyclic compounds and organic acids, with the heterocyclic compounds playing a prominent role.

  1. Biyoteknolojik Yollarla Aroma Maddelerinin Üretimi

    Yılmaztekin, Murat; Cabaroğlu, Turgut; ERTEN, Hüseyin

    2008-01-01

    Flavour compounds represent 25 % of the total additives market on the world and have an annual value of about 7 billion US dollars. For a long time, plants were the sole source of flavour compounds. However, they are often present at low concentrations and thus their isolation is difficult and expensive. Even though, production of synthetic flavours is cheap, they do not prefered because of harmful effects to the health and increasing demand to natural products by consumers. Therefore, in rec...

  2. The Changes in Color, Soluble Sugars, Organic Acids, Anthocyanins and Aroma Components in “Starkrimson” during the Ripening Period in China

    Yulian Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available “Starkrimson” is a traditional apple cultivar that was developed a long time ago and was widely cultivated in the arid region of the northern Wei River of China. However, little information regarding the quality characteristics of “Starkrimson” fruit has been reported in this area. To elucidate these characteristics, the color, soluble sugars, organic acids, anthocyanins and aroma components were measured during the ripening period through the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results indicated that the changes in anthocyanin contents took place later than the changes in the Commission International Eclairage (CIE parameters. Meanwhile, cyanidin 3-galactoside (cy3-gal, fructose, sucrose, glucose and malic acid were the primary organic compounds, and 1-butanol-2-methyl-acetate, 2-hexenal and 1-hexanol were the most abundant aroma components in the skin. Furthermore, rapidly changing soluble sugars and organic acid synchronization took place in the early ripening period, while rapidly changing aroma components occurred later, on the basis of fresh weight. This result suggested that the production of aroma components might be a useful index of apple maturity.

  3. Influence of eggs on the aroma composition of a sponge cake and on the aroma release in model studies on flavored sponge cakes.

    Pozo-Bayón, Maria Angeles; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Pernin, Karine; Cayot, Nathalie

    2007-02-21

    The use of solvent-assisted flavor evaporation extraction (SAFE) and purge and trap in Tenax allowed the identification of more than 100 volatile compounds in a sponge cake (SC-e). Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) of the SAFE extracts of crumb and crust were achieved in order to determine the most potent odorants of SC-e. The change in the traditional dough formulation of SC-e in which eggs were substituted by baking powder (SC-b) as the leavening agent produced important changes in some key aroma compounds. The release curves of some aroma compounds-some of them generated during baking and others added in the dough-were followed by cumulative headspace analysis. In the flavored SC-b, the aroma release curves showed a plateau after 15 min of purge, while the release increased proportionally with the purge time in the flavored SC-e. In general, except for some of the aroma compounds with the highest log P values, the rate of release of most of the added and generated aroma compounds was significantly influenced by the changes in the cake formulation. The higher rates of release found for the aroma compounds in SC-b could contribute to explain its rapid exhaustion of aroma compounds in the purge and trap experiments and might lead to poorer sensorial characteristics of this cake during storage. PMID:17243698

  4. Influence of new generation fungicides on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth, grape must fermentation and aroma biosynthesis.

    Noguerol-Pato, R; Torrado-Agrasar, A; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-03-01

    The influence of ten new generation fungicides (ametoctradin, benthiavalicarb-isopropyl, boscalid, cyazofamid, dimethomorph, fenhexamid, kresoxim-methyl, mepanipyrim, metrafenone, and pyraclostrobin) on the fermentative activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was initially evaluated in pasteurised red must. The presence of ametoctradin, dimethomorph and mepanipyrim seemed to affect sugars-to-ethanol yield in the stationary phase. The same fermentation experiments were carried out for these three fungicides in ecological red must from Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo. When ecological must was unfiltered, the fermentative activity of yeasts was unaffected by the presence of these selected fungicides. However, when ecological must was filtered beforehand, a slight decrease of biomass and ethanol production (in terms of biomass-to-ethanol yield and sugars-to-ethanol yield, respectively), as well as a decrease in fruity aroma, were registered with respect to the control wine. PMID:24176337

  5. Evaluation of new aroma substances for feline minitablet formulation

    Jaana Hautala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the global interest in companion animal pharmaceuticals, feline peroral medication still lacks tailor-made, palatable and voluntarily accepted pharmaceuticals with suitable size and attractive taste. As a consequence, treating cats with canine and even human pharmaceuticals has weakened patient compliance and treatment commitment, and has even left many pet cats untreated. In future, the companion animal pharmaceutical business will therefore particularly concentrate on cats and the rapid and economic development of palatable feline medication. Following this goal, the overall aim of this study was to facilitate voluntary drug administration to felines. Specifically we aimed to develop sophisticated and tailor-made feline pharmaceuticals, with the focus on flavours in minitablets. Since excipients should be easily obtained and suitable for formulation, we conducted rapid preformulation compatibility and stability screening tests of synthetic flavours with commonly used tableting excipients. On the basis of the feline carnivorous diet, L-methionine, L-leucine, L-proline and thiamine hydrochloride were presented as new aroma substances for the improvement of feline medication palatability. These flavours and a model substance for a bitter taste, denatonium benzoate, were systematically evaluated for their physicochemical properties, stability and physical compatibility. This was done with substances alone and in binary combinations of flavours and excipients. Stability and compatibility were examined employing DSC and XRPD. The results showed that L-proline and denatonium benzoate anhydrate were hygroscopic. Thiamine hydrochloride was incompatible with talc and sodium stearyl fumarate. The known incompatibility between the amines contained in aromas, and α-lactose monohydrate was used in assessing method sensitivity. Overall, the study provided new information on the compatibility of novel aromas with the tableting excipients. The study

  6. Differential effects of exposure to ambient vanilla and citris aromas on mood, arousal and food choice

    Wijk, de R.A.; Zijlstra, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla) could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost physiological sensors and semi

  7. Understanding aroma release from model cheeses by a statistical multiblock approach on oral processing.

    Feron, Gilles; Ayed, Charfedinne; Qannari, El Mostafa; Courcoux, Philippe; Laboure, Hélène; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food oral processing events involved in aroma release during cheese consumption. In vivo aroma release was monitored on forty eight subjects who were asked to eat four different model cheeses varying in fat content and firmness and flavoured with ethyl propanoate and nonan-2-one. A multiblock partial least square regression was performed to explain aroma release from the different physiological data sets (masticatory behaviour, bolus rheology, saliva composition and flux, mouth coating and bolus moistening). This statistical approach was relevant to point out that aroma release was mostly explained by masticatory behaviour whatever the cheese and the aroma, with a specific influence of mean amplitude on aroma release after swallowing. Aroma release from the firmer cheeses was explained mainly by bolus rheology. The persistence of hydrophobic compounds in the breath was mainly explained by bolus spreadability, in close relation with bolus moistening. Resting saliva poorly contributed to the analysis whereas the composition of stimulated saliva was negatively correlated with aroma release and mostly for soft cheeses, when significant. PMID:24691625

  8. Understanding aroma release from model cheeses by a statistical multiblock approach on oral processing.

    Gilles Feron

    Full Text Available For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food oral processing events involved in aroma release during cheese consumption. In vivo aroma release was monitored on forty eight subjects who were asked to eat four different model cheeses varying in fat content and firmness and flavoured with ethyl propanoate and nonan-2-one. A multiblock partial least square regression was performed to explain aroma release from the different physiological data sets (masticatory behaviour, bolus rheology, saliva composition and flux, mouth coating and bolus moistening. This statistical approach was relevant to point out that aroma release was mostly explained by masticatory behaviour whatever the cheese and the aroma, with a specific influence of mean amplitude on aroma release after swallowing. Aroma release from the firmer cheeses was explained mainly by bolus rheology. The persistence of hydrophobic compounds in the breath was mainly explained by bolus spreadability, in close relation with bolus moistening. Resting saliva poorly contributed to the analysis whereas the composition of stimulated saliva was negatively correlated with aroma release and mostly for soft cheeses, when significant.

  9. Interaction of volatiles, sugars and acids on perception of tomato aroma and flavor descriptors

    To better understand the effect of sugars and acid levels on perception of aroma volatiles, intensity of tomato characteristic earthy/medicinal/musty, green/grassy/viny and fruity/floral aroma and flavor descriptors were evaluated using coarsely choped partially deodorized tomato puree spiked with 1...

  10. Analysis of aroma compounds of Roselle by Dynamic Headspace Sampling using different preparation methods

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; Varming, Camilla; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2015-01-01

    The influence of different methods of sample preparation on the aroma profiles of dried Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) was studied. Least amounts of aroma compounds were recovered by analysis of whole dry calyxes (WD) followed by ground dry (GD), blended together with water (BTW), and ground and t...

  11. Marketing sensorial: os efeitos do aroma no ponto de venda

    Gomes, Filipa de Sousa

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing O presente estudo teve como principais objectivos avaliar se a introdução de um aroma ambiente, percebido como agradável, exerce uma influência positiva nas vendas de uma loja e no tempo de permanência dos clientes nessa mesma loja. Para tal, foi realizado um estudo causal de experimentação com base no desenho experimental verdadeiro pré-teste/pós-teste com grupo de controlo. Em adição ao estudo experimental foi realizado um estudo por questionário de forma a avaliar ...

  12. Aroma components from dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1994-01-01

    chromatography/mass spectrometry, the effluent evaluated by sniffing and the sausages assessed by a trained panel. The study showed that sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus contained several fragrant esters that were not found in control sausages without microbial growth. Control sausages had an...... unpleasant, rancid odour compared to sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus, indicating that the esterase activity of Staphylococcus xylosus or other microorganisms is very important in order to obtain the proper fermented sausage aroma.Although sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus contained the highest...

  13. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    Intan Kusumaningrum*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

  14. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    Intan Kusumaningrum*; C. Hanny Wijaya 2); Feri Kusnandar3); Misnawi; Ariza Budi Tunjung Sari

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME), followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O) with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF) method. A total of 28 ar...

  15. Partial purification and characterisation of the peptide precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma components.

    Voigt, Jürgen; Janek, Katharina; Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Niewienda, Agathe; Wöstemeyer, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Essential precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma notes are formed during fermentation of the cocoa beans by acid-induced proteolysis. It has been shown that, in addition to free amino acids, hydrophilic peptides derived from the vicilin-class(7S) globular storage protein are required for the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma notes during the roasting process. To identify those peptides responsible for the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma components, we have developed a procedure for the fractionation of the aroma precursor extract from well-fermented cocoa beans by ligand-exchange and subsequent Sephadex-LH20 chromatography. The cocoa-specific aroma precursor fractions were characterised by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and the determination of their amino acid sequences by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). PMID:26304401

  16. A question of scent: lavender aroma promotes interpersonal trust

    Roberta eSellaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A previous study has shown that the degree of trust into others might be biased by inducing either a more inclusive or exclusive cognitive-control mode. Here, we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by environmental factors, such as odors, that are likely to impact cognitive-control states. Arousing olfactory fragrances (e.g., peppermint are supposed to induce a more exclusive, and calming olfactory fragrances (e.g., lavender a more inclusive state. Participants performed the Trust Game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor transfers to another participant (the trustee, while being exposed to either peppermint or lavender aroma. All participants played the role of trustor. As expected, participants transferred significantly more money to the alleged trustee in the lavender as compared to the peppermint and no aroma conditions. This observation might have various serious implications for a broad range of situations in which interpersonal trust is an essential element, such as cooperation (e.g., mixed-motives situations, bargaining and negotiation, consumer behavior, and group performance.

  17. Aroma Volatile Compounds from Two Fresh Pineapple Varieties in China

    Chang-Bin Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds from two pineapples varieties (Tainong No.4 and No.6 were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. In the Tainong No. 4 and No. 6 pineapples, a total of 11 and 28 volatile compounds were identified according to their retention time on capillary columns and their mass spectra, and quantified with total concentrations of 1080.44 µg·kg−1 and 380.66 µg·kg−1 in the Tainong No.4 and No. 6 pineapples, respectively. The odor active values (OAVs of volatile compounds from pineapples were also calculated. According to the OAVs, four compounds were defined as the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 4 pineapple, including furaneol, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid methyl ester, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester and δ-octalactone. The OAVs of five compounds including ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, methyl-2-methylbutyrate, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl hexanoate and decanal were considered to be the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 6 pineapple.

  18. Aroma Classification Using One-vs-One and One-vs-Rest Methods

    Benyamin Kusumoputro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational Intelligence used in pattern classification problem can be divided into two different parts, one based on Neural Network and the other based on Statistical Learning. The Statistical Learning discovered by Vapnik on 70-est decade. For the pattern classification, Vapnik developed hyperplane optimal separation, which is known as Support Vector Machines Method (SVM. In the beginning, SVM was designed only to solve binary classification problem, where data existing are classified into two classes. To classify data whose consist of more than two classes, the SVM method can not directly be used. There are several methods can be used to solve SVM multiclasses classification problem, they are One-vs-One Method and One-vs-Rest Method. Both of this methods are the extension of SVM binary classification, they will be discussed in this article so that we can see their performance in aroma classification process. Data of aroma used in this experiment is consisted of three classes of aroma, each of them has six classes. The division of this class is based on alcohol concentration mixed into each of those aromas. For example, for aroma A, there are six kinds of aroma A with different alcohol concentration: 0%, 15%, 25%, 30%, 45% and 75%. The performance of these methods is measured based on their ability to recognize and classify aroma, precisely and match with the right class or variety of data existed.

  19. Stochastic modelling of Listeria monocytogenes single cell growth in cottage cheese with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from aroma producing cultures.

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-07-01

    A stochastic model was developed for simultaneous growth of low numbers of Listeria monocytogenes and populations of lactic acid bacteria from the aroma producing cultures applied in cottage cheese. During more than two years, different batches of cottage cheese with aroma culture were analysed for pH, lactic acid concentration and initial concentration of lactic acid bacteria. These data and bootstrap sampling were used to represent product variability in the stochastic model. Lag time data were estimated from observed growth data (lactic acid bacteria) and from literature on L. monocytogenes single cells. These lag time data were expressed as relative lag times and included in growth models. A stochastic model was developed from an existing deterministic growth model including the effect of five environmental factors and inter-bacterial interaction [Østergaard, N.B, Eklöw, A and Dalgaard, P. 2014. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 188, 15-25]. Growth of L. monocytogenes single cells, using lag time distributions corresponding to three different stress levels, was simulated. The simulated growth was subsequently compared to growth of low concentrations (0.4-1.0 CFU/g) of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese, exposed to similar stresses, and in general a good agreement was observed. In addition, growth simulations were performed using population relative lag time distributions for L. monocytogenes as reported in literature. Comparably good predictions were obtained as for the simulations performed using lag time data for individual cells of L. monocytogenes. Therefore, when lag time data for individual cells are not available, it was suggested that relative lag time distributions for L. monocytogenes can be used as a qualified default assumption when simulating growth of low concentrations of L. monocytogenes. PMID:25847186

  20. Separación de aromas en etapas del procesado de zumos de frutas y bebidas

    Diban-Ibrahim Gómez, Nazely

    2008-01-01

    RESUMEN: La presente tesis estudia el desarrollo de tecnologías de separación y recuperación de aromas. Se busca obtener dos clases distintas de productos, concentrados aromáticos y bebidas parcialmente desalcoholizadas. En ambos productos se requiere una alta calidad aromática. Distintos casos de estudio se han seleccionado: i) La separación concentración del 2,4-decadienoato de etilo, aroma impacto de la pera, y ii) la separación-concentración del trans-2-hexen-1-ol, aroma impacto de ...

  1. Alkol Fermantasyonu Sırasında Oluşan Aroma Maddeleri

    ERTEN, Hüseyin; CANBAŞ, Ahmet

    2003-01-01

    Aroma maddeleri alkollü içkilerin kimyasal ve duyusal özellikleri üzerinde etkili olurlar. Aroma maddelerinin önemli bir kısmı alkol fermentasyonu sırasında maya tarafından oluşturulur. Bu maddelerden başhcaları yüksek alkoller, esterler, organik asitler ve karbonil bileşikleridir. Bu makalede, alkol fermentasyonu sırasında maya tarafından oluşturulan aroma maddelerinin üretim mekanizmaları ele alınmıştır.  

  2. Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate

    Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae;

    2014-01-01

    aroma and sensory profile, but whilst the application of starter cultures did affect the volatile aroma profile, differences were too small to significantly change consumer perception of the chocolates as compared to a spontaneously fermented control. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, and compared to commercially...

  3. Processing and products of Japanese quince

    Hellin, P.; Jordan, M.J.; Vila, Roser; Gustafsson, M.; Göransson, E.; Åkesson, Bengt; Gröön, I.; Laencina, J.; Ros, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, applied research on the usefulness of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica) fruits in processing and for development of products is reported. Juice was extracted by crushing and centrifugation or by pressing, with and without prior treatment with pectolytic enzymes. Aroma was extracted from fresh fruits by sugar and was also enriched by pervaporation from juice. Several products were developed based on fruit juice, purée and aroma extracts, including consumer products such as ...

  4. Influence of Starter Cultures, Fermentation Techniques, and Acetic Acid on the Volatile Aroma and Sensory Profile of Cocoa Liquor and Chocolate

    Crafack, Michael

    the principal raw material for chocolate production, good quality cocoa beans are in high demand on the World market as a prerequisite for the production of high quality chocolates and other confectionary products. To produce good quality cocoa suitable for chocolate production, it is essential that the beans......-independent molecular techniques, the growth and survival of the two yeast inoculation cultures was verified at strain level, whilst the bacterial inoculum was identified at species level. Aroma profiling was conducted using dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for identification and relative...

  5. Aroma components from dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1994-01-01

    Sausages with and without Staphylococcus xylosus were manufactured with four replicates. Antibiotics and a fungicide to inhibit growth of naturally occuring microorganisms were added to the control sausages. The volatile compounds from the sausages were collected and identified by gas...... chromatography/mass spectrometry, the effluent evaluated by sniffing and the sausages assessed by a trained panel. The study showed that sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus contained several fragrant esters that were not found in control sausages without microbial growth. Control sausages had an...... unpleasant, rancid odour compared to sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus, indicating that the esterase activity of Staphylococcus xylosus or other microorganisms is very important in order to obtain the proper fermented sausage aroma.Although sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus contained the highest...

  6. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and aroma quality of anthograin liqueur.

    Li, Wende; Beta, Trust

    2011-08-01

    Moderate consumption of wine, beer, whisky or liqueur is known to be beneficial for improving health because of the radical scavenging action of antioxidants present in them. Thus, antioxidant and aroma properties of anthograin liqueur made from purple wheat grain were evaluated for the added-value processing purpose of that grain. Anthograin liqueur showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content (TPC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) in comparison with three control samples Canadian iceberg vodka (CIV), Hiram walker special old rye whisky (HWSORW) and Wiser's De Luxe Canadian whisky (WDLCW). Only anthograin liqueur contained anthocyanins and its total anthocyanin content (TAC) was 81mg/l. In lipid-soluble phase, TPC and ORAC were 241.1 and 998.6mg/l for anthograin liqueur, 40.0 and 93.6mg/ld for WDLCW, 23.1 and 63.6mg/l for HWSORW, and 1.1 and 12.4mg/l for CIV, respectively. In water-soluble phase, TPC and ORAC were 685.5 and 1467.7mg/l for anthograin liqueur, 29.0 and 96.0mg/l for WDLCW, 36.4 and 99.2mg/l for HWSORW, and 2.0 and 42.8mg/l for CIV, respectively. Eight types of phenolic acids in anthograin liqueur, four types of phenolic acids in WDLCW and three types of phenolic acids in HWSORW were found and no phenolic acid was detectable in CIV. Total phenolic acids in anthograin liqueur, WDLCW and HWSORW were 28.8, 10.3 and 5.7mg/l, respectively. Similarity in aroma quality was found between anthograin liqueur and CIV by using the electronic nose. Purple wheat grain may have potential as a novel material for liqueur brewing. PMID:25214085

  7. Aroma Stripping under various Forms of Membrane Distillation Processes: Experiments and modeling

    Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    as volatility, activity coefficient and vapor pressure, it is important to know how these aroma compounds will eventually pass through the membrane. Experiments have been made on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up which can be operated in......Concentration of fruit juices by membrane distillation is an interesting process as it can be done at low temperature giving a gentle concentration process with little deterioration of the juices. Since the juices contains many different aroma compounds with a wide range of chemical properties such...... various types of MD configurations: Vacuum Membrane Distillation , Sweeping Gas Membrane Distillation , Direct Contact Membrane Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation. The influence of feed temperature and feed flow rate on the permeate flux and concentration factor for different types of aroma...

  8. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of aroma compound absorption in plastic packaging materials

    Stenström, Kristina; Erlandsson, Bengt; Hellborg, Ragnar; Wiebert, Anders; Skog, Göran; Nielsen, Tim

    1994-05-01

    Absorption of aroma compounds in plastic packaging materials may affect the taste of the packaged food and it may also change the quality of the packaging material. A method to determine the aroma compound absorption in polymers by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is being developed at the Lund Pelletron AMS facility. The high sensitivity of the AMS method makes it possible to study these phenomena under realistic conditions. As a first test low density polyethylene exposed to 14C-doped ethyl acetate is examined. After converting the polymer samples with the absorbed aroma compounds to graphite, the {14C }/{13C } ratio of the samples is measured by the AMS system and the degree of aroma compound absorption is established. The results are compared with those obtained by supercritical fluid extraction coupled to gas chromatography (SFE-GC).

  9. Pre-fermentation fining effects on the aroma chemistry of Marlborough Sauvignon blanc press fractions.

    Parish, Katie J; Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Bouda, Flo; Klaere, Steffen; Fedrizzi, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    In the wine industry, fining agents are commonly used with many choices now commercially available. Here the influence of pre-fermentation fining on wine aroma chemistry has been explored. Free run and press fraction Sauvignon blanc juices from two vineyards were fined using gelatin, activated carbon, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) and a combination agent which included bentonite, PVPP and isinglass. Over thirty aroma compounds were quantified in the experimental wines. Results showed that activated carbon fining led to a significant (p<0.05) concentration decrease of hexan-1-ol and linalool in the experimental wines when compared to a control, consistent across all vineyard and fraction combinations. Other aroma compounds were also influenced by fining agent, even if vineyards and press fractions played a crucial role. This study confirmed that fining agents used pre-fermentation can influence wine aroma profiles and therefore needs specific tailoring addressing style and origin of grape. PMID:27132857

  10. The influence of pruning and harvest timing on hop aroma, cone appearance, and yield.

    Matsui, Hiroo; Inui, Takako; Oka, Kaneo; Fukui, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    Humulus lupulus (hop) cone is a key ingredient of beer, which determines its taste and aroma. Thus, it is necessary to control its cultivation conditions to acquire suitable quality. Here, cultivation conditions, such as pruning, blooming, and harvest timings, were modified for the Saaz hop variety in the Saaz region of Czech Republic. We investigated the correlation between the abovementioned cultivation factors and hop aroma characteristics, chemical components, appearance, yield, and beer quality in four locations and in three years. Harvest timing had a significant impact on the amount of essential oils, especially monoterpenes. Among them, linalool, geraniol and myrcene, which contribute beer hoppy aroma, increased with delay in harvest timing. These impacts caused by harvest timing were confirmed in all 4 locations and in all 3years. Our findings suggest that harvest timing influences the intensity and quality of beer hoppy aroma. PMID:26920261

  11. New Methods Of Plant Selection For Food Aroma Recovery Aided By Oxidation Processes

    Bezysov Anatoliy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to the selection of plants to restore the lost aroma based on the oxidation processes. The predisposition of raw material components to lipid oxidation is the basis of selection criteria. It was determined that the content of unsaturated fatty acids in the lipid extract of watermelon, pumpkin, cucumbers is 30-40%, the ratio of linoleic and linolenic acids in fruit is different. The formation of diene conjugates and hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde after various processing treatment methods is shown. The efficiency of aroma restoration depends on the number of formed 9-, 13- hydroperoxides that serve as a substrate for aroma-forming enzymes. The antioxidant capacity and the oxidation-reduction potential of fresh fruits and fruits after cooking have been analyzed. These characteristics determine the fruit ability to repeated formation of aromatic components. It has been ascertained that gourds have sufficient potential to restore aroma by exogenous lipoxygenases.

  12. Saliva from Obese Individuals Suppresses the Release of Aroma Compounds from Wine

    Paola Piombino; Alessandro Genovese; Silvia Esposito; Luigi Moio; Pier Paolo Cutolo; Angela Chambery; Valeria Severino; Elisabetta Moneta; Smith, Daniel P; Owens, Sarah M; Gilbert, Jack A.; Danilo Ercolini

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that a lower extent of the retronasal aroma release correspond to a higher amount of ad libitum food intake. This has been regarded as one of the bases of behavioral choices towards food consumption in obese people. In this pilot study we investigated the hypothesis that saliva from obese individuals could be responsible for an alteration of the retro-nasal aroma release. We tested this hypothesis in vitro, by comparing the release of volatiles from a liqu...

  13. Understanding Aroma Release from Model Cheeses by a Statistical Multiblock Approach on Oral Processing

    Gilles Feron; Charfedinne Ayed; El Mostafa Qannari; Philippe Courcoux; Hélène Laboure; Elisabeth Guichard

    2014-01-01

    For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food oral processing events involved in aroma release during cheese consumption. In vivo aroma release was monitored on forty eight subjects who were asked to eat four dif...

  14. Umami compounds enhance the intensity of retronasal sensation of aromas from model chicken soups.

    Nishimura, Toshihide; Goto, Shingo; Miura, Kyo; Takakura, Yukiko; Egusa, Ai S; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko

    2016-04-01

    We examined the influence of taste compounds on retronasal aroma sensation using a model chicken soup. The aroma intensity of a reconstituted flavour solution from which glutamic acid (Glu), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), or phosphate was omitted was significantly lower (pumami solution with added MSG and IMP was significantly higher than that with only MSG when the MSG concentration was 0.05%, 0.075%, or 0.1%. However, it plateaued when MSG concentration was beyond 0.3%. PMID:26593530

  15. Molecular and biochemical analysis of aroma in CSR10 x Taraori basmati derived Recombinant Inbred Lines

    Pummy Kumari, Uma Ahuja , Sunita Jain and R.K. Jain

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aroma or fragrance of Basmati rice is associated with the presence and content of chemical compound, 2-acetyl-1-pyrrolineand the trait is monogenic recessive. Several PCR-based co-dominant marker based on RG28 locus were developed, which can differentiate between fragrant and non-fragrant rice cultivars. For molecular and biochemical analysis of aroma, a mapping population comprising 208 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a diverse cross between CSR10 and Taraori Basmati through SSD method was used. RILs are among the best mapping populations, which provide a novel material for linkage mapping of genes/QTLs marker for various traits. Biochemical analysis of aroma was performed with the 1.7% KOH solution and molecular analysis of aroma was carried out with microsatellite markers present on chromosome 8 (BAD2, BADEX7-5, SCUSSR1 to determine the extent of association between trait, marker and chromosome 8. Among these markers, BAD2 amplified aroma specific alleles having 256 bp in 72 lines, BADEX7-5 with 95 bp in 74 lines and SCUSSR1 with 129 bp in 79 lines. Mentel test of significance detected by biochemical analysis of RILs (with 1.7 % KOH and molecular marker study revealed high degree (>90 % of association of aroma with the above mentioned markers, respectively. Some of the F10 lines amplified the heterozygous alleles for two sets of specific markers (BAD2 and SCUSSR-1 but did not show the presence of aroma as analyzed by chemical test. Aromatic and non-aromatic lines were almost common in three markers indicating association of markers with the trait and chromosome 8. The results revealed that these markers could be used for marker assisted selection and RIL population for mapping of aroma QTLs/genes.

  16. Intra-oral adsorption and release of aroma compounds following in-mouth wine exposure.

    Esteban-Fernández, Adelaida; Rocha-Alcubilla, Nuria; Muñoz-González, Carolina; Moreno-Arribas, María Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, María Ángeles

    2016-08-15

    Wine "after-odour" defined as the long lasting aroma perception that remains after wine swallowing is an outstanding characteristic in terms of wine quality but a relatively unstudied phenomenon. Among the different parameters that might affect wine after-odour, the adsorption of odorants by the oral mucosa could be important but has been little explored. In this work, the impact of the chemical characteristics of aroma compounds on intra-oral adsorption was assessed by an in vivo approach that determined the amounts of odorants remaining in expectorated wine samples. In addition, the subsequent aroma release after in-mouth wine exposure was studied by means of intra-oral SPME/GC-MS using three different panellists. Oral adsorption of the aroma compounds added to the wines ranged from 6% to 43%, depending on their physicochemical characteristics. A progressive intra-oral aroma decrease at different decay rates depending on compound type and panellist was also found. The strength of the aroma-oral mucosa interactions seems to explain these results more than the amount of compound adsorbed by the oral mucosa. PMID:27006241

  17. Analysis of Odorants in Marking Fluid of Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica Using Simultaneous Sensory and Chemical Analysis with Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Multidimensional Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry

    Simone B. Soso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scent-marking is the most effective method of communication in the presence or absence of a signaler. These complex mixtures result in a multifaceted interaction triggered by the sense of smell. The objective was to identify volatile organic compound (VOC composition and odors emitted by total marking fluid (MF associated with Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica. Siberian tiger, an endangered species, was chosen because its MF had never been analyzed. Solid phase microextraction (SPME for headspace volatile collection combined with multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry for simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses were used. Thirty-two VOCs emitted from MF were identified. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, the sole previously identified compound responsible for the “characteristic” odor of P. tigris MF, was identified along with two additional compounds confirmed with standards (urea, furfural and four tentatively identified compounds (3-methylbutanamine, (R-3-methylcyclopentanone, propanedioic acid, and 3-hydroxybutanal as being responsible for the characteristic aroma of Siberian tiger MF. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses improved characterization of scent-markings and identified compounds not previously reported in MF of other tiger species. This research will assist animal ecologists, behaviorists, and zookeepers in understanding how scents from specific MF compounds impact tiger and wildlife communication and improve management practices related to animal behavior. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses is applicable to unlocking scent-marking information for other species.

  18. Analysis of Odorants in Marking Fluid of Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) Using Simultaneous Sensory and Chemical Analysis with Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Multidimensional Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry.

    Soso, Simone B; Koziel, Jacek A

    2016-01-01

    Scent-marking is the most effective method of communication in the presence or absence of a signaler. These complex mixtures result in a multifaceted interaction triggered by the sense of smell. The objective was to identify volatile organic compound (VOC) composition and odors emitted by total marking fluid (MF) associated with Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica). Siberian tiger, an endangered species, was chosen because its MF had never been analyzed. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) for headspace volatile collection combined with multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry for simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses were used. Thirty-two VOCs emitted from MF were identified. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, the sole previously identified compound responsible for the "characteristic" odor of P. tigris MF, was identified along with two additional compounds confirmed with standards (urea, furfural) and four tentatively identified compounds (3-methylbutanamine, (R)-3-methylcyclopentanone, propanedioic acid, and 3-hydroxybutanal) as being responsible for the characteristic aroma of Siberian tiger MF. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses improved characterization of scent-markings and identified compounds not previously reported in MF of other tiger species. This research will assist animal ecologists, behaviorists, and zookeepers in understanding how scents from specific MF compounds impact tiger and wildlife communication and improve management practices related to animal behavior. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses is applicable to unlocking scent-marking information for other species. PMID:27347921

  19. Identification and quantification of aroma compounds of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum gaertn.) and some of its milling fractions

    KREFT, SAMO; Prosen, Helena; JANEŠ, DAMJAN

    2015-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) seeds have a strong aroma that characteristically differs from the aroma of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum). Its phytochemical background has only been recently investigated.The aim of this study was to identify and quantify individual compounds responsible for tartary buckwheat aroma. Volatiles from different samples (whole seed, flour, and husks) were extracted with simultaneous extraction and distillation by Likens-Nickerson apparatus and ana...

  20. Effects of ripening degree and sample preparation on peach aroma profile characterization by headspace solid-phase microextraction

    BACVONKRALJ, Mojca; JUG, Tjasa; KOMEL, Erika; Fajt, Nikita

    2014-01-01

    Peaches are consumed worldwide and have great market demand. Compared to apricots, the volatiles defining the typical peach aroma are still poorly analytically characterized. The aim of our study was to determine the impact of the stage of ripening, sample storage conditions, and type of fiber coating and extraction glassware on peach aroma compounds. The peach aroma components were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and with the application of a specific fiber (DVB/...

  1. 基于烤烟中上部烟叶致香物质比例的香型判别分析%Judgment of Aroma Types of Middle and Upper Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves Based on Proportions of Aroma Components

    詹军; 周芳芳; 包崇彦; 毛春堂; 邓国宾; 王伟; 杨俊; 张晓龙

    2013-01-01

    [目的]为了区分烤烟中上部叶的不同香型风格特征,并为其判断提供数学模型.[方法]以中国11个主要产烟省的63个C3F和65个B2F烟叶为材料,并以67种致香物质含量占致香物质总量的比例为指标,采用逐步判别分析的方法对不同香型烤烟样品进行判别分析,并建立判别函数.[结果]结果表明,清香型和浓香型烤烟中大部分致香物质的比例明显高于中间香型.清香型、中间香型、浓香型烤烟中分别有51、43、40种致香物质的比例表现为上部叶高于中部叶.且在不同部位烟叶中,主导某种香型的致香物质种类不同.在分别以中部叶和上部叶致香物质比例为判别指标构建判别函数时,各有18种和11种致香物质进入判别函数,采用两种验证法(自身验证法、交互验证法)对原样品进行回判,其回判正确率分别为100%、98.6%(中部叶)和96.37%、94.4%(上部叶);采用该模型对其余的样品分别进行预测,其整体准确率为100%(中部叶)和91.7%(上部叶).[结论]采用致香物质比例作为判别指标建立的数学模型对中上部烟叶的香型判断效果较好,能够实现对烤烟香型的客观、准确和快速鉴别分析.%[Objective] This study aimed to establish mathematical models for judging the aroma types of flue-cured tobacco leaves from the upper and middle parts of plants.[Method] A total of 128 samples (63 C3F and 65 B2F) from 11 main tobacco production provinces of China were selected as materials.Stepwise discriminant analysis was applied to samples with different aroma types and discriminant function was expressed with the proportions of 67 aroma components in total aroma constituents as the index.[Result] The ratio of most aroma components in clear and full aroma tobacco leaves was higher than that in middle aroma leaves.The ratios of 51,43 and 40 aroma components of clear,middle and full aroma tobaccos were higher in upper leaves than that

  2. The aroma of the probiotic yogurts with and without supplements

    Mirjana Hruškar

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish the changes in aromacompounds of fermented milks with probiotics during storage as a function of time and temperature. The aroma compounds concentration in probiotic yogurt samples, during storage at + 4 and +20°C were studied. Acetaldehyde, diacetyl, ethanol and organic acids (lactate, acetate, citrate content were determined during 20 days, every fifth day from the beginning of storage. Acetaldehyde, ethanol, lactic, citric and acetic acid concentration were determined using an enzymatic method, while diacetyl concentration was determined using colorimetric method. The results showed that the acetaldehyde decreased during storage. The decrease was higher at elevated temperature. On the other hand, diacetyl, ethanol and acetic acid increased during storage at both temperatures. The concentration of lactic acid increased during storage at both temperature and at the end of storage it was doubled. The amount of citric acid increased in the same manner. The increase of all organic acids during storage was higher at elevated temperature.

  3. Insights into the Key Aroma Compounds in Mango (Mangifera indica L. 'Haden') Fruits by Stable Isotope Dilution Quantitation and Aroma Simulation Experiments.

    Munafo, John P; Didzbalis, John; Schnell, Raymond J; Steinhaus, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-four aroma-active compounds, previously identified with high flavor dilution factors by application of an aroma extract dilution analysis, were quantified in tree-ripened fruits of mango (Mangifera indica L. 'Haden'). From the results, the odor activity value (OAV) was calculated for each compound as the ratio of its concentration in the mangoes to its odor threshold in water. OAVs > 1 were obtained for 24 compounds, among which ethyl 2-methylbutanoate (fruity; OAV 2100), (3E,5Z)-undeca-1,3,5-triene (pineapple-like; OAV 1900), ethyl 3-methylbutanoate (fruity; OAV 1600), and ethyl butanoate (fruity; OAV 980) were the most potent, followed by (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienal (cucumber-like), ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity), (E)-β-damascenone (cooked apple-like), ethyl hexanoate (fruity), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel-like), 3-methylbut-2-ene-1-thiol (sulfurous), γ-decalactone (peach-like), β-myrcene (terpeny), (3Z)-hex-3-enal (green), 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (tropical fruit-like), and ethyl octanoate (fruity). Aroma simulation and omission experiments revealed that these 15 compounds, when combined in a model mixture in their natural concentrations, were able to mimic the aroma of the fruits. PMID:27167034

  4. Recovery of aromatic aglycones from grape pomace winemaking by-products by using liquid-liquid and pressurized-liquid extraction

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J.; Moreno-Arribas, M. Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, Mª Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The potential of winemaking grape pomace by-products as a source of glycosidic aroma precursors that under enzymatic hydrolysis might release aroma compounds has been evaluated. Two different extraction methodologies, liquid-liquid and pressurized liquid extraction (LLE and PLE) were employed. Solid phase extraction (SPE)-GC-MS analysis of the hydrolyzed LLE glycosidic extract revealed 22 aroma compounds belonging to different chemical families (terpenes, C13 norisoprenoids, vanillines, etc.)...

  5. Ferulic acid transformation into the main vanilla aroma compounds by Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116.

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza; Agrasar, Ana María Torrado; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-02-01

    The wild strain Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 was explored in ferulic acid-based media to produce naturally the aroma components of the cured vanilla pod, namely vanillin,vanillic acid, and vanillyl alcohol. Other phenolic compounds(4-vinyl guaiacol, guaiacol, and protocatechuic acid) were also evaluated. The influence of medium composition,fermentation technology (batch or fed-batch), supplementation with vanillic acid, and inoculum concentration on ferulic acid biotransformation were evaluated. The results postulate the initial concentration of cell mass as the variable with the strongest impact on ferulic acid metabolization under the studied conditions. The highest amounts of vanillin and vanillic acid were achieved at intermediate values of cell mass.Vanillyl alcohol and protocatechuic acid were more closely linked to high cell mass concentrations. Conversely, 4-vinyl guaiacol reached its highest amount at the lowest amount of cell mass. Guaiacol was not detected in any case. Therefore,the initial cell concentration must be considered a critical parameter when using Amycolaptosis sp. ATCC 39116 for the production of vanillin and related compounds. PMID:26476645

  6. Effect of yeast assimilable nitrogen on the synthesis of phenolic aroma compounds by Hanseniaspora vineae strains.

    Martin, Valentina; Boido, Eduardo; Giorello, Facundo; Mas, Albert; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    In several grape varieties, the dominating aryl alkyl alcohols found are the volatile group of phenylpropanoid-related compounds, such as glycosylated benzyl and 2-phenylethyl alcohol, which contribute to wine with floral and fruity aromas after being hydrolysed during fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is largely recognized as the main agent in grape must fermentation, but yeast strains belonging to other genera, including Hanseniaspora, are known to predominate during the first stages of alcoholic fermentation. Although non-Saccharomyces yeast strains have a well-recognized genetic diversity, understanding of their impact on wine flavour richness is still emerging. In this study, 11 Hansenisapora vineae strains were used to ferment a chemically defined simil-grape fermentation medium, resembling the nutrient composition of grape juice but devoid of grape-derived secondary metabolites. GC-MS analysis was performed to determine volatile compounds in the produced wines. Our results showed that benzyl alcohol, benzyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate are significantly synthesized by H. vineae strains. Levels of these compounds found in fermentations with 11 H. vineae different strains were one or two orders of magnitude higher than those measured in fermentations with a known S. cerevisiae wine strain. The implications for winemaking in response to the negative correlation of benzyl alcohol, benzyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate production with yeast assimilable nitrogen concentrations are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26945700

  7. Sulfur volatiles of microbial origin are key contributors to human-sensed truffle aroma.

    Splivallo, Richard; Ebeler, Susan E

    2015-03-01

    Truffles are symbiotic fungi in high demand for the aroma of their fruiting bodies which are colonized by a diverse microbial flora. Specific sulfur containing volatiles (thiophene derivatives) characteristic of the white truffle Tuber borchii were recently shown to be derived from the bacterial community inhabiting truffle fruiting bodies. Our aim here was to investigate whether thiophene derivatives contributed to the human-sensed aroma of T. borchii. Furthermore, we questioned whether the concentration of thiophene volatiles was affected by freezing or whether it differed in truffles from distinct geographical origins. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) analysis revealed that thiophene derivatives were major contributors to the aroma of T. borchii. Of four thiophene derivatives detected in this study, 3-methyl-4,5-dihydrothiophene was the most important one in terms of its contribution to the overall aroma. The relative concentration of thiophene derivatives was unaffected by freezing; however, it differed in samples collected in distinct geographical locations (Italy versus New Zealand). The causes of this variability might be differences in storage conditions and/or in bacterial community composition of the fruiting bodies; however, further work is needed to confirm these hypotheses. Overall, our results demonstrate that thiophene derivatives are major contributors to the human-sensed aroma of T. borchii. PMID:25573471

  8. Recovery of volatile aroma compounds from black currant juice by vacuum membrane distillation

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Warming, C.; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2004-01-01

    esters. The recovered levels of the highly volatile aroma compounds ranged from 68 to 83 vol.% with a feed volume reduction of 5 vol.% (10 degreesC, 400 l/h). The theoretically predicted aroma recovery as a function of the feed volume reduction was in accordance with the experimentally obtained values......This study evaluated the recovery of seven characteristic black currant aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) carried out at low temperatures (10-45 degreesC) and at varying feed flow rates (100-500 l/h) in a lab scale membrane distillation set tip. VMD at feed flow from 100 to 500...... l/h at 30 degreesC gave concentration factors, calculated for each aroma compound as C-permeate/C-feed: from similar to4 to 15. The concentration factors increased with decreased juice temperature during VMD; at 10 degreesC concentration factors of 21-31 were obtained for the highly volatile aroma...

  9. Aroma composition changes in early season grapefruit juice produced from thermal concentration.

    Lin, Jianming; Rouseff, Russell L; Barros, Sandy; Naim, Michael

    2002-02-13

    Differences in aroma components and total volatiles between a single unpasteurized Marsh grapefruit juice and its 65 Brix concentrate reconstituted to 10 Brix were examined using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-FID. Total volatiles (FID) in the reconstituted concentrate were reduced to less than 5% of initial values, but 57% of total aroma (GC-O) remained. Forty-one aroma-active compounds were observed in unpasteurized single strength juice, whereas 27 components were found in the unflavored reconstituted concentrate. Aroma-active compounds were classified into grapefruit/sulfury, sweet/fruity, fresh/citrusy, green/fatty/metallic, and cooked/meaty groups. Five of six components in the sweet/fruity and 14 of 18 green/fatty/metallic components survived thermal concentration. However, only 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone in the grapefruit/sulfury group, and linalool and nootkatone from the fresh/citrusy group, were found in the reconstituted concentrate. Methional was the only aroma compound in the cooked/meaty category found in both juice types. beta-Damascenone and 1-p-menthen-8-thiol were found only in the reconstituted concentrate. 4-Mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanol was found for the first time in grapefruit juice. PMID:11829649

  10. A further tool to monitor the coffee roasting process: aroma composition and chemical indices.

    Ruosi, Manuela R; Cordero, Chiara; Cagliero, Cecilia; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Bicchi, Carlo; Sgorbini, Barbara; Liberto, Erica

    2012-11-14

    Coffee quality is strictly related to its flavor and aroma developed during the roasting process, that, in their turn, depend on variety and origin, harvest and postharvest practices, and the time, temperature, and degree of roasting. This study investigates the possibility of combining chemical (aroma components) and physical (color) parameters through chemometric approaches to monitor the roasting process, degree of roasting, and aroma formation by analyzing a suitable number of coffee samples from different varieties and blends. In particular, a correlation between the aroma composition of roasted coffee obtained by HS-SPME-GC-MS and degree of roasting, defined by the color, has been researched. The results showed that aroma components are linearly correlated to coffee color with a correlation factor of 0.9387. The study continued looking for chemical indices: 11 indices were found to be linearly correlated to the color resulting from the roasting process, the most effective of them being the 5-methylfurfural/2-acetylfuran ratio (index). PMID:23083340

  11. Effects of sugar concentration processes in grapes and wine aging on aroma compounds of sweet wines—a review.

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Dessert sweet wines from Europe and North America are described in this review from two points of view: both their aroma profile and also their sensorial description. There are growing literature data about the chemical composition and sensory properties of these wines. Wines were grouped according to the production method (concentration of sugars in grapes) and to the aging process of wine (oxidative, biological, or a combination of both and aging in the bottle). It was found that wines natively sweets and wines fortified with liquors differ in their volatile compounds. Sensory properties of these wines include those of dried fruit (raisins), red berries, honey, chocolate and vanilla, which is contributing to their growing sales. However, there is still a need for scientific research on the understanding of the mechanisms for wine flavor enhancement. PMID:24915355

  12. Aroma analysis and quality control of food using highly sensitive analytical methods

    This thesis deals with the development of quality control methods for food based on headspace measurements by Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and with aroma analysis of food using PTR-MS and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O). An objective method was developed for the determination of a herb extract's quality; this quality was checked by a sensory analysis until now. The concentrations of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of 81 different batches were measured by PTR-MS. Based on the sensory judgment of the customer, characteristic differences in the emissions of 'good' and 'bad' quality samples were identified and a method for the quality control of this herb extract was developed. This novel method enables the producing company to check and ensure that they are only selling high-quality products and therefore avoid complaints of the customer. Furthermore this method can be used for controlling, optimizing and automating the production process. VOCs emitted by meat were investigated using PTR-MS to develop a rapid, non-destructive and quantitative technique for determination of the microbial contamination of meat. Meat samples (beef, pork and poultry) that were wrapped into different kinds of packages (air and vacuum) were stored in at 4oC for up to 13 days. The emitted VOCs were measured as a function of storage time and identified partly. The concentration of many of the measured VOCs, e.g. sulfur compounds like methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide, largely increased over the storage time. There were big differences in the emissions of normal air- and vacuum-packed meat. VOCs typically emitted by air-packaged meat were methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide, while ethanol and methanol were found in vacuum-packaged meat. A comparison of the PTR-MS results with those obtained by a bacteriological examination performed at the same time showed strong correlations (up to 99 %) between the

  13. Green tea aroma fraction reduces β-amyloid peptide-induced toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans transfected with human β-amyloid minigene.

    Takahashi, Atsushi; Watanabe, Tatsuro; Fujita, Takashi; Hasegawa, Toshio; Saito, Michio; Suganuma, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Green tea is a popular world-wide beverage with health benefits that include preventive effects on cancer as well as cardiovascular, liver and Alzheimer's diseases (AD). This study will examine the preventive effects on AD of a unique aroma of Japanese green tea. First, a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) CL4176 expressing human β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) was used as a model of AD. A hexane extract of processed green tea was further fractionated into volatile and non-volatile fractions, named roasty aroma and green tea aroma fractions depending on their aroma, by microscale distillation. Both hexane extract and green tea aroma fraction were found to inhibit Aβ-induced paralysis, while only green tea aroma fraction extended lifespan in CL4176. We also found that green tea aroma fraction has antioxidant activity. This paper indicates that the green tea aroma fraction is an additional component for prevention of AD. PMID:25229860

  14. Assessment of changes in the aroma and sensory profile of dawadawa due to modification in fermentation conditions

    Dawadawa is the most popular traditional condiment in West Africa and is produced by the fermentation of African locust bean seeds. Though the alkaline fermentation results in the production of a tasty condiment, it has a strong ammoniacal odour which some consumers find unattractive and offensive. This work was carried out to develop procedures for reducing the pungent odour of dawadawa in order to increase its popularity and market value especially amongst non-traditional users. Various treatments were applied to the fermenting locust bean seeds 15 hours into the fermentation which lasted for a total of 96 hours. Some treatments were also tested on the beans after fermentation. Treatments which were applied during fementation were fementation under conditions of limited oxygen, low temperature fermentation, irradiation by gamma radiation and steaming. Post-fermentation treatments were partial frying and roasting after fermentation. Samples were taken during fermentation and analyzed for Bacillus count on Nutrient Agar, pH, percentage titratable acidity, moisture content by the oven dry method, crude protein content by the kjeldhal method and texture by the texture analyzer. The final product was analyzed for aroma profile by GC-MS analysis using the Dynamic Headspace Sampling (DHS) method and also by descriptive sensory analysis by a semi-trained panel. Application of all the treatments applied during fermentation resulted in a ten to a hundredfold lower Bacillus counts compared to the control sample at various stages of fermentation. The reduction in the Bacillus activities resulted in a lower rise in pH giving final pH values of 6.8 to 7.53 compared to 8.37 in the control. The rise in pH was due to the proteolytic activity of the Bacillus species which break down the proteins into peptides and amino acids and subsequently utilize the amino acids to produce ammonia leading to the rise in pH. All the samples recorded a simultaneous increase in titratable acidity

  15. New device to simulate swallowing and in vivo aroma release in the throat from liquid and semiliquid food systems.

    Weel, K.G.C.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burger, J.J.; Verschueren, M.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Smit, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a novel device to simulate in vivo aroma release from liquids. This artificial throat simulates the act of swallowing followed by exhalation and shows aroma release curves that are similar in shape to in vivo release profiles. Liquids are poured down a tube, and a thin liquid fi

  16. Aroma-Active Compounds in Jinhua Ham Produced With Different Fermentation Periods

    Xiao-Sheng Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aroma-active compounds in Jinhua ham processed and stored for 9, 12, 15 and 18 months were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling (DHS and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS. In GC-O-MS, volatile compounds were identified based on their mass spectrum, linear retention index (LRI, odor properties, or reference compound comparisons. The results showed that a total number of 81 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-O-MS. Among them, acids (such as acetic acid, butanoic acid and 3-methylbutanoic acid, saturated aldehydes (such as hexanal, heptanal, octanal and 3-methylbutanal, benzene derivatives (such as benzeneacetic acid, ester and lactone (such as γ-nonalactone and γ-decalactone were identified as critical compounds in Jinhua ham aroma. The results also indicated that the type and content of the odorants increased significantly with the duration of the fermentation period.

  17. Chemical and sensory comparison of fresh and dried lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit aroma.

    Forero, Diana Paola; Orrego, Carlos Eduardo; Peterson, Devin Grant; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-02-15

    The odour-active volatile compounds of lulo fruit (Solanum quitoense Lam.) were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). GC-O and GCMS analyses as well as quantitation by internal standard method showed that (Z)-3-hexenal, ethyl butanoate, 3-sulphanylhexyl acetate, and ethyl hexanoate were key aroma compounds in this fruit. Other odorants with relevance because their contribution (high OAVs) to the overall aroma were 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, methyl benzoate, (E)-2-hexenal, and hexanal. Lulo fruit pulp in presence of maltodextrin DE-20 was dried by using four different types of drying methods: hot air-drying (HD), spray drying (SD), lyophilisation (LD), and ultrasonic convective hot air-drying (HUD). LD sample exhibited the highest sensory rank (lulo-like) in comparison with fresh fruit pulp. Hot-air drying processes (HD and HUD) changed adversely the aroma of lulo fruit pulp. PMID:25236202

  18. Floral aroma improvement of Muscat spirits by packed column distillation with variable internal reflux.

    Matias-Guiu, Pau; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Orriols, Ignacio; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López, Francisco

    2016-12-15

    The organoleptic quality of wine distillates depends on raw materials and the distillation process. Previous work has shown that rectification columns in batch distillation with fixed reflux rate are useful to obtain distillates or distillate fractions with enhanced organoleptic characteristics. This study explores variable reflux rate operating strategies to increase the levels of terpenic compounds in specific distillate fractions to emphasize its floral aroma. Based on chemical and sensory analyses, two distillate heart sub-fractions obtained with the best operating strategy found, were compared with a distillate obtained in a traditional alembic. Results have shown that a drastic reduction of the reflux rate at an early stage of the heart cut produced a distillate heart sub-fraction with a higher concentration of terpenic compounds and lower levels of negative aroma compounds. Therefore, this sub-fraction presented a much more noticeable floral aroma than the distillate obtained with a traditional alembic. PMID:27451153

  19. Changes of Aroma Components in Hongdeng Sweet Cherry During Fruit Development

    2007-01-01

    To study the changes of aroma components in sweet cherry during fruit development, the aroma components in sweet cherry fruit from the green stage, the color stage, the commercial stage, and the ripe stage were collected using head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and were analyzed using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrophotometer (GCMS). A total of 37 compounds were identified from the sample extracts. Aldehydes, alcohols, and esters were the major constituents. The aroma components behaved differently during the fruit developmental period. C6 aldehydes and aromatic aldehydes were the main aldehydes in the sweet cherry fruit. The contents of C6 aldehydes increased quickly to 84.16% in the color stage, then decreased as ripening proceeded, and then, the contents decreased to 59.20 and 55.58% at the commercial stage and the ripe stage, respectively. The aromatic aldehydes (benzaldehyde) increased as ripening proceeded, and the maximum was found at the ripe stage. Alcohols of sweet cherry fruit included C6 alcohols and aromatic alcohols. The content of (E)-2-hexen-1-ol increased as ripening proceeded. The maximum was found at the commercial stage; alcohol was only found at the ripe stage. Ester components included ethyl acetate, butanoic acid ethyl ester,hexanoic acid ethyl ester, which increased as the fruit ripened. Hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol,ethyl acetate, and hexanoic acid ethyl ester were the characteristic aroma components of sweet cherry fruit. These aroma components started to form drastically at the color stage, and the main aroma was formed at the commercial stage, which then turned bad at the ripe stage because of the presence of alcohol. So the optimal harvest time of sweet cherry was at the commercial stage.

  20. EEG asymmetry responses to lavender and rosemary aromas in adults and infants.

    Sanders, Chris; Diego, Miguel; Fernandez, Mercedes; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Roca, Amparo

    2002-11-01

    Frontal EEG asymmetry shifting from baseline was examined in adults and infants exposed to lavender and rosemary by reanalyzing previously published data, using techniques different from those utilized in the original two studies. Results from Study 1 on 39 adults revealed significant EEG shifting in the lavender group, with greater relative left frontal EEG activation (associated with greater approach behavior and less depressed affect). The participants in the two aroma groups were further grouped by those with greater baseline, relative to left frontal EEG activation, versus those with a greater baseline, relative to right frontal activation. Collapsing across aroma groups, those with greater baseline, relative to right frontal activation, shifted left during the aroma. Those with greater baseline relative to left frontal activation did not change. In the rosemary group, those with greater baseline relative to right frontal EEG activation shifted left during the aroma, while those with greater baselines relative to left frontal EEG activation shifted right. In the lavender group, those with greater baselines relative to right frontal baseline EEG activation shifted left, but those with greater baselines relative to left baseline did not shift. Study 2 on 27 full-term newborns revealed no significant shifts in asymmetry in either aroma group. However, when the aroma groups were collapsed, the right frontal EEG group exhibited significant shifting relative to left frontal EEG activation. This finding was similar to the adult findings, suggesting that either lavender or rosemary may induce left frontal EEG shifting in adults and infants who show greater baselines relative to right frontal EEG activation. PMID:12625191

  1. Selection of aroma compounds for the differentiation of wines obtained by fermenting musts with starter cultures of commercial yeast strains.

    Vararu, Florin; Moreno-García, Jaime; Zamfir, Cătălin-Ioan; Cotea, Valeriu V; Moreno, Juan

    2016-04-15

    Nine wines obtained by fermenting Aligoté musts with individual starter cultures of eight Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains and with the indigenous microbiota were compared in terms of their composition in minor volatile aroma compounds. An easy handle methodology Stir-Bar-Sorptive-Adsorption, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry based, permits the identification of 49 aroma compounds. The rearrangement of these aroma compounds in six chemical families permits the establishment of a finger printing for each wine. Eighteen aroma compounds that exhibit a high differentiation power (p⩽0.05) were selected for chemometric analysis. The Principal Component Analysis carried out with these aroma compounds reveal that the first two principal components explain 53.8% and 17.2% of the total variance, respectively, allowing the establishment of nine different groups, in accordance with the wine types obtained. These results reveal analytical differences among the wines that are not recognized by sensorial analysis. PMID:26616963

  2. Influence of mastication and saliva on aroma release in a model mouth system

    Ruth, van S.M.; Roozen, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of mastication, saliva composition and saliva volume on aroma release from rehydrated diced bell peppers and French beans was studied in a model mouth system. Released volatile compounds were analysed by gas chromatography combined with sniffing port and flame ionisation detection. Com

  3. Study of combined effect of proteins and bentonite fining on the wine aroma loss.

    Vincenzi, Simone; Panighel, Annarita; Gazzola, Diana; Flamini, Riccardo; Curioni, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The wine aroma loss as a consequence of treatments with bentonite is due to the occurrence of multiple interaction mechanisms. In addition to a direct effect of bentonite, the removal of aroma compounds bound to protein components adsorbed by the clay has been hypothesized but never demonstrated. We studied the effect of bentonite addition on total wine aroma compounds (extracted from Moscato wine) in a model solution in the absence and presence of total and purified (thaumatin-like proteins and chitinase) wine proteins. The results showed that in general bentonite alone has a low effect on the loss of terpenes but removed ethyl esters and fatty acids. The presence of wine proteins in the solution treated with bentonite tended to increase the loss of esters with the longest carbon chains (from ethyl octanoate to ethyl decanoate), and this was significant when the purified proteins were used. The results here reported suggest that hydrophobicity can be one of the driving forces involved in the interaction of aromas with both bentonite and proteins. PMID:25665100

  4. Ability of human oral microbiota to produce wine odorant aglycones from odourless grape glycosidic aroma precursors.

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Cueva, Carolina; Ángeles Pozo-Bayón, M; Victoria Moreno-Arribas, M

    2015-11-15

    Grape aroma precursors are odourless glycosides that represent a natural reservoir of potential active odorant molecules in wines. Since the first step of wine consumption starts in the oral cavity, the processing of these compounds in the mouth could be an important factor in influencing aroma perception. Therefore, the objective of this work has been to evaluate the ability of human oral microbiota to produce wine odorant aglycones from odourless grape glycosidic aroma precursors previously isolated from white grapes. To do so, two methodological approaches involving the use of typical oral bacteria or the whole oral microbiota isolated from human saliva were followed. Odorant aglycones released in the culture mediums were isolated and analysed by HS-SPME-GC/MS. Results showed the ability of oral bacteria to hydrolyse grape aroma precursors, releasing different types of odorant molecules (terpenes, benzenic compounds and lipid derivatives). The hydrolytic activity seemed to be bacteria-dependent and was subject to large inter-individual variability. PMID:25977005

  5. Comparative analysis of aroma compounds and sensorial features of strawberry and lemon guavas (Psidium cattleianum Sabine).

    Egea, Mariana Buranelo; Pereira-Netto, Adaucto Bellarmino; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Lopez, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    The aroma of strawberry and lemon guava fruits (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) was studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and quantitative analysis. Volatiles released from the pulps were collected in a trapping system consisting of LiChrolut EN resins and eluted with dichloromethane/methanol. In total, 23 odour zones were detected by GC-O, of which 16 were found in the extract from the strawberry guava pulp and 17 in the extract from the lemon guava pulp. Among the compounds identified, only 10 were common to both strawberry and lemon guavas. The descriptive sensorial analysis differentiated between the aroma profiles of the strawberry guava pulp with the descriptor "tomato" and the lemon guava pulp with the descriptor "tropical fruit". The typical aroma of the guava fruits was dominated by the presence of numerous aldehydes and ketones among which (Z)-3-hexenal was the most intense odorant, while 1,8-cineole and linalool were also revealed as important aroma constituents. PMID:24996334

  6. Characterization of aroma volatiles in select tangerine hybrids by gas chromatography-olfactometry

    Aroma volatiles in orange juice have been well studied1 but little information is available on those found in fresh tangerine. Five of 25 tangerine hybrids studied in the 2007-2008 season were analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) using the time intensity (Osme) method. The choice of sa...

  7. Identification of sulphur volatiles and GC-olfactometry aroma profiling in two fresh tomato cultivars.

    Du, Xiaofen; Song, Mei; Baldwin, Elizabeth; Rouseff, Russell

    2015-03-15

    Ten sulphur volatiles were observed in two Florida tomato cultivars ('Tasti-Lee' and 'FL 47') harvested at three maturity stages (breaker, turning, and pink) using gas chromatography with a pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD). Eight PFPD peaks were identified using retention values from authentic sulphur standards and GC-MS characteristic masses. Seven were quantified using an internal standard combined with external calibration curves. Dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide 2-propylthiazole and 2-s-butylthiazole were newly identified in fresh tomatoes. Principal component analysis of sulphur volatiles indicated that there were appreciable maturity stage differences clustered in separate quadrants. GC-olfactometry (GC-O) identified 50 aroma-active compounds in 'Tasti-Lee', with 10 reported as odorants in fresh tomatoes for the first time. Four sulphur volatiles exhibited aroma activity, including two of the newly-reported fresh tomato sulphur volatiles, 2-s-butylthiazole and dimethyl sulphide. GC-O aroma profiling indicated that the most intense aroma category was earthy-musty, followed by fruity-floral, green-grassy, sweet-candy and sweaty-stale-sulphurous. PMID:25308674

  8. Aroma characterization of tangerine hybrids by gas-chromatography-olfactometry and sensory evaluation

    Although a total of 150 volatiles were detected by GC-MS, only 49 aroma active peaks were found in a consensus by the three panelists. Aldehydes were the most important group with odor activity, as well as monoterpenes, esters, alcohols and ketones. 1,8-Cineole, ·-myrcene, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, hexa...

  9. Chromatography-Olfactometry Study of the Aroma of Fino Sherry Wines

    M. Medina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aroma of Fino sherry wines produced by industrial biological aging for 0, 1.5, 2.5, 4.5, and 6 years in the Montilla-Moriles region (southern Spain was studied by gas chromatography-olfactometry. The aroma sensations detected by 3 trained sniffers were classified according to their odor descriptors into 8 odorant series (fruity, empyreumatic, chemical, fatty, balsamic, vegetable, floral, and spicy, describing the aroma profile of the studied wines. The results showed 47 detected odors in the unaged wines, 50 in the 1.5-years-old wines and 59, 61 and 69 in the wines aged 2.5, 4.5, and 6 years, respectively. According to the frequency of the perceived aromas, the fruity and empyreumatic series were the most characteristic odorant series. By exception of chemical, floral and balsamic series without changes during aging of the wines, the remainder series increased their participation during the aging, mainly the fruity, empyreumatic, and fatty series.

  10. Edible coatings influence fruit ripening, quality, and aroma biosynthesis in mango fruit.

    Dang, Khuyen T H; Singh, Zora; Swinny, Ewald E

    2008-02-27

    The effects of different edible coatings on mango fruit ripening and ripe fruit quality parameters including color, firmness, soluble solids concentrations, total acidity, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, fatty acids, and aroma volatiles were investigated. Hard mature green mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Kensigton Pride) fruits were coated with aqueous mango carnauba (1:1 v/v), Semperfresh (0.6%), Aloe vera gel (1:1, v/v), or A. vera gel (100%). Untreated fruit served as the control. Following the coating, fruits were allowed to dry at room temperature and packed in soft-board trays to ripen at 21+/-1 degrees C and 55.2+/-11.1% relative humidity until the eating soft stage. Mango carnauba was effective in retarding fruit ripening, retaining fruit firmness, and improving fruit quality attributes including levels of fatty acids and aroma volatiles. Semperfresh and A. vera gel (1:1 or 100%) slightly delayed fruit ripening but reduced fruit aroma volatile development. A. vera gel coating did not exceed the commercial mango carnauba and Semperfresh in retarding fruit ripening and improving aroma volatile biosynthesis. PMID:18247535

  11. Combinatory Effects of Texture and Aroma Modification on Taste Perception of Model Gels

    Knoop, J.E.; Sala, G.; Smit, G.; Stieger, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effects of texture modification and aroma-induced sweetness enhancement were systematically investigated in apple-flavored semi-solid Na-caseinate gels. Gels containing apple juice as a basic flavor were developed differing in stiffness, brittleness and serum release (texture modi

  12. Influence of maturity and ripening on aroma volatiles and flavor in avocado

    Changes in aroma volatiles were determined using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography in ripe avocados (Persea americana Mill.) throughout an eight-month maturation period and related to the sensory properties of the fruit. As maturation progressed sensory panelists found the li...

  13. Efecto del deshuesado de la aceituna sobre el aroma del aceite de oliva virgen

    Sanz, C.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive fruit stoning gives rise to an important modification in olive oil aroma. The level of this modification is a function of the cultivar. An increment in the content of six-carbon compounds (C6 was observed in olive oils obtained from the cultivars Verdial and Manzanilla, but not in the cultivar Picual. In the three cultivars under study, contents of five-carbon compounds (C5 and esters decreased as a consequence of fruit stoning. The modification of olive oil aroma composition in the cultivar Verdial caused by olive fruit stoning was observed to be due both to tissue wounding and to the absence of the olive seed during the crushing-malaxation process to obtain olive oil aroma. Both factors contribute independently to the content modification of C6, C5 compounds and esters in the olive oil aroma from stoned fruits.El deshuesado de la aceituna da lugar a una importante modificación del aroma del aceite de oliva virgen. La intensidad de esta modificación es característica de cada variedad. En los aceites obtenidos de aceitunas Verdial y Manzanilla se produce un incremento en el contenido de los compuestos de seis átomos de carbono (C6 que no se detecta en la variedad Picual. En las tres variedades estudiadas se observa un descenso del contenido de compuestos de cinco átomos de carbono (C5 así como del contenido en ésteres. En la variedad Verdial se ha comprobado que la modificación del aroma como consecuencia del deshuesado del fruto se debe tanto al daño tisular generado durante este proceso como a la ausencia de la semilla durante la molturación de la aceituna. Ambos factores contribuyen de forma independiente a la modificación del contenido de compuestos C6, C5 y ésteres en el aroma del aceite de oliva virgen procedente de aceituna deshuesada.

  14. Screening of the key volatile organic compounds of Tuber melanosporum fermentation by aroma sensory evaluation combination with principle component analysis.

    Liu, Rui-Sang; Jin, Guang-Huai; Xiao, Deng-Rong; Li, Hong-Mei; Bai, Feng-Wu; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Aroma results from the interplay of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the attributes of microbial-producing aromas are significantly affected by fermentation conditions. Among the VOCs, only a few of them contribute to aroma. Thus, screening and identification of the key VOCs is critical for microbial-producing aroma. The traditional method is based on gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), which is time-consuming and laborious. Considering the Tuber melanosporum fermentation system as an example, a new method to screen and identify the key VOCs by combining the aroma evaluation method with principle component analysis (PCA) was developed in this work. First, an aroma sensory evaluation method was developed to screen 34 potential favorite aroma samples from 504 fermentation samples. Second, PCA was employed to screen nine common key VOCs from these 34 samples. Third, seven key VOCs were identified by the traditional method. Finally, all of the seven key VOCs identified by the traditional method were also identified, along with four others, by the new strategy. These results indicate the reliability of the new method and demonstrate it to be a viable alternative to the traditional method. PMID:26655663

  15. Sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition.

    Arsa, Supeeraya; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2015-08-01

    The sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition were investigated. Rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) was hydrolyzed by alcalase. Sucrose, glucose or fructose was added to the liquid rice bran protein hydrolysate (LRBPH) and subsequently spray dried. The sensory aroma intensities of the hydrolysates were evaluated. Results showed that after spray drying, the rice bran protein concentrate powder (RBPC-P) had higher sweet and cocoa-like aroma intensities than RBPC (p ≤ 0.05) and hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder (HRBPP) had higher milk powder-like aroma intensities than LRBPH (p ≤ 0.05). The sweet, cocoa-like and milk powder-like aroma intensities in hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with fructose addition (HRBPP-F) were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than those of hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with sucrose or glucose addition (HRBPP-S or HRBPP-G). HRBPP-F had the highest overall aroma liking score. These results also indicate that spray drying and sugar addition could improve the sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed RBPC. PMID:26243954

  16. Perceptual characterization and analysis of aroma mixtures using gas chromatography recomposition-olfactometry.

    Arielle J Johnson

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a new instrumental technique, Gas Chromatography Recomposition-Olfactometry (GC-R, that adapts the reconstitution technique used in flavor chemistry studies by extracting volatiles from a sample by headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME, separating the extract on a capillary GC column, and recombining individual compounds selectively as they elute off of the column into a mixture for sensory analysis (Figure 1. Using the chromatogram of a mixture as a map, the GC-R instrument allows the operator to "cut apart" and recombine the components of the mixture at will, selecting compounds, peaks, or sections based on retention time to include or exclude in a reconstitution for sensory analysis. Selective recombination is accomplished with the installation of a Deans Switch directly in-line with the column, which directs compounds either to waste or to a cryotrap at the operator's discretion. This enables the creation of, for example, aroma reconstitutions incorporating all of the volatiles in a sample, including instrumentally undetectable compounds as well those present at concentrations below sensory thresholds, thus correcting for the "reconstitution discrepancy" sometimes noted in flavor chemistry studies. Using only flowering lavender (Lavandula angustifola 'Hidcote Blue' as a source for volatiles, we used the instrument to build mixtures of subsets of lavender volatiles in-instrument and characterized their aroma qualities with a sensory panel. We showed evidence of additive, masking, and synergistic effects in these mixtures and of "lavender' aroma character as an emergent property of specific mixtures. This was accomplished without the need for chemical standards, reductive aroma models, or calculation of Odor Activity Values, and is broadly applicable to any aroma or flavor.

  17. Influence of olive oil phenolic compounds on headspace aroma release by interaction with whey proteins.

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; De Luca, Lucia; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-04-22

    The release of volatile compounds in an oil-in-water model system obtained from olive oil-whey protein (WP) pairing was investigated by considering the effect of phenolic compounds. Human saliva was used to simulate mouth conditions by retronasal aroma simulator (RAS) analysis. Twelve aroma compounds were quantified in the dynamic headspace by SPME-GC/MS. The results showed significant influences of saliva on the aroma release of virgin olive oil (VOO) volatiles also in the presence of WP. The interaction between WP and saliva leads to lower headspace release of ethyl esters and hexanal. Salivary components caused lower decrease of the release of acetates and alcohols. A lower release of volatile compounds was found in the RAS essay in comparison to that in orthonasal simulation of only refined olive oil (without addition of saliva or WP), with the exception of hexanal and 1-penten-3-one, where a significantly higher release was found. Our results suggest that the extent of retronasal odor (green, pungent) of these two volatile compounds is higher than orthonasal odor. An extra VOO was used to verify the release in model systems, indicating that WP affected aroma release more than model systems, while saliva seems to exert an opposite trend. A significant increase in aroma release was found when phenolic compounds were added to the system, probably due to the contrasting effects of binding of volatile compounds caused by WP, for the polyphenol-protein interaction phenomenon. Our study could be applied to the formulation of new functional foods to enhance flavor release and modulate the presence and concentrations of phenolics and whey proteins in food emulsions/dispersions. PMID:25832115

  18. AromaDeg, a novel database for phylogenomics of aerobic bacterial degradation of aromatics

    Duarte, Márcia; Jauregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Junca, Howard; Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding prokaryotic transformation of recalcitrant pollutants and the in-situ metabolic nets require the integration of massive amounts of biological data. Decades of biochemical studies together with novel next-generation sequencing data have exponentially increased information on aerobic aromatic degradation pathways. However, the majority of protein sequences in public databases have not been experimentally characterized and homology-based methods are still the most routinely used approach to assign protein function, allowing the propagation of misannotations. AromaDeg is a web-based resource targeting aerobic degradation of aromatics that comprises recently updated (September 2013) and manually curated databases constructed based on a phylogenomic approach. Grounded in phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences of key catabolic protein families and of proteins of documented function, AromaDeg allows query and data mining of novel genomic, metagenomic or metatranscriptomic data sets. Essentially, each query sequence that match a given protein family of AromaDeg is associated to a specific cluster of a given phylogenetic tree and further function annotation and/or substrate specificity may be inferred from the neighboring cluster members with experimentally validated function. This allows a detailed characterization of individual protein superfamilies as well as high-throughput functional classifications. Thus, AromaDeg addresses the deficiencies of homology-based protein function prediction, combining phylogenetic tree construction and integration of experimental data to obtain more accurate annotations of new biological data related to aerobic aromatic biodegradation pathways. We pursue in future the expansion of AromaDeg to other enzyme families involved in aromatic degradation and its regular update. Database URL: http://aromadeg.siona.helmholtz-hzi.de PMID:25468931

  19. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Two Commercial Rums by Means of the Sensomics Approach.

    Franitza, Laura; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-01-27

    Two rums differing in their overall aroma profile and price level (rum A, high price; rum B, low price) were analyzed by means of the Sensomics approach. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on a distillate of volatiles prepared from rum A revealed 40 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 8 to 2048. The identification experiments indicated cis-whiskey lactone, vanillin, decanoic acid, and 2- and 3-methylbutanol with the highest FD factors. The AEDA of a distillate prepared from rum B showed only 26 aroma-active compounds in the same FD factor range. Among them, in particular, ethyl butanoate, 1,1-diethoxyethane, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, and decanoic acid appeared with the highest FD factors. Thirty-seven compounds having at least an FD factor ≥32 in one of the two rums were quantitated using stable isotope dilution assays or enzyme kits (2 compounds). The calculation of odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to respective odor threshold) indicated ethanol, vanillin, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, and (E)-β-damascenone with the highest OAVs in rum A, whereas ethanol, 2,3-butanedione, 3-methylbutanal, and ethyl butanoate revealed the highest OAVs in rum B. Most compounds were present in similar concentrations in both rums, but significant differences were determined for vanillin, cis-whiskey lactone, and 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (all higher in rum A) and 3-methylbutanal, 2,3-butanedione, and ethyl butanoate (all higher in rum B). Finally, the aromas of both rums were successfully simulated by a recombinate using reference odorants in the same concentrations as they naturally occurred in the spirits. PMID:26715051

  20. Analysis of the cooked aroma and odorants that contribute to umami aftertaste of soy miso (Japanese soybean paste).

    Inoue, Yutaka; Kato, Sachie; Saikusa, Miyu; Suzuki, Chihiro; Otsubo, Yuriko; Tanaka, Yutaro; Watanabe, Hirohito; Hayase, Fumitaka

    2016-12-15

    Soy miso, the traditional Japanese fermented soybean paste prepared using soybean koji, is used for imparting umami aftertaste to cooked dishes. The objective of this study was to identify the key odorants of cooked soy miso and their influence on umami aftertaste perception. Volatile compounds of soy miso and two rice misos were prepared using simultaneous distillation-extraction, and the key odorants were identified by using the gas chromatography-olfactometry/aroma extract dilution assay approach, and soy miso was compared with rice misos. Forty-one aroma-active compounds were detected in cooked soy miso, and malty, green, roasty and sulfury aromas were identified as the characteristic aromas. Finally, sensory evaluation was conducted to assess the contribution to the umami aftertaste of six key compounds with the highest flavour dilution factor. Results revealed that dimethyl trisulfide, which was newly identified in cooked miso, contributes to the umami aftertaste and palatability of cooked soy miso. PMID:27451212

  1. Expression of a Heterologous Glutamate Dehydrogenase Gene in Lactococcus lactis Highly Improves the Conversion of Amino Acids to Aroma Compounds

    Rijnen, Liesbeth; Courtin, Pascal; Gripon, Jean-Claude; Yvon, Mireille

    2000-01-01

    The first step of amino acid degradation in lactococci is a transamination, which requires an α-keto acid as the amino group acceptor. We have previously shown that the level of available α-keto acid in semihard cheese is the first limiting factor for conversion of amino acids to aroma compounds, since aroma formation is greatly enhanced by adding α-ketoglutarate to cheese curd. In this study we introduced a heterologous catabolic glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) gene into Lactococcus lactis so ...

  2. Influence of thermal treatment of wood on the aroma of a sugar cane spirit (cachaça model-solution

    Marta Helena Fillet Spoto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aging process of alcoholic beverages is generally conducted in wood barrels made with species from Quercus sp. Due to the high cost and the lack of viability of commercial production of these trees in Brazil, there is demand for new alternatives to using other native species and the incorporation of new technologies that enable greater competitiveness of sugar cane spirit aged in Brazilian wood. The drying of wood, the thermal treatment applied to it, and manufacturing techniques are important tools in defining the sensory quality of alcoholic beverages after being placed in contact with the barrels. In the thermal treatment, several compounds are changed by the application of heat to the wood and various studies show the compounds are modified, different aromas are developed, there is change in color, and beverages achieve even more pleasant taste, when compared to non-treated woods. This study evaluated the existence of significant differences between hydro-alcoholic solutions of sugar cane spirits elaborated from different species of thermo-treated and non-treated wood in terms of aroma. An acceptance test was applied to evaluate the solutions preferred by tasters under specific test conditions.

  3. Comparison between aroma compounds in wines from four Vitis vinifera grape varieties grown in different shoot positions

    Guo Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aroma characteristics of wines from four Vitis vinifera grape varieties (‘Cabernet sauvignon’, ‘Merlot’, ‘Chardonnay’, and ‘Italian Riesling’ grown in three shoot positions were evaluated by HS-SPME-GC/MS. In this study, the numerous significant differences found in most of the aromatic compounds influence of different shoot positions on the quality of wine. The results showed that the middle shoot position increased significantly the aroma concentration in the majority of wines investigated. The volatile components showing the greatest differences in the wines of different cultivars were aldehydes and terpenes. 8 and 11 compounds were found and quantified (OAVs>1 in the two red wines and white wines at concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds, respectively; and therefore they significantly contributed to the wine aromas. According to their OAVs, fruity, floral, cheese and fatty aroma strongly influenced the characteristics of the four monovarietal wines, while the two white wines showed the green and fresh aroma characteristics. These results are related to the different microclimate of the canopies of the different shoot positions and varieties. They suggest that proper elevating the fruiting zones could improve the accumulation of aroma compounds in wines from the different varieties. On the other hand, grapevines trained to systems with uniform fruiting zones could improve the quality of wine.

  4. Characterization of the interaction between two food aroma components, alpha-pinene and ethyl butyrate, and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) packaging films as a function of environmental humidity.

    López-Carballo, Gracia; Cava, David; Lagarón, Jose M; Catalá, Ramón; Gavara, Rafael

    2005-09-01

    The ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOHs) are well-known high oxygen barrier materials that are being used successfully in the design of packaging structures for oxygen-sensitive food or pharmaceutical products. Recently, there has been increasing interest in using EVOH materials to provide a high barrier to organic compounds as a means to reduce food aroma scalping. However, the barrier function of this family of materials diminishes significantly in humid environments, and it is supposed that so does the organic vapor barrier. In this work, a new sorption-based method to characterize the interaction between food aroma and polymer films for packaging as a function of relative humidity is presented and is used to determine the barrier to ethyl butyrate and alpha-pinene of EVOH at 23 degrees C. The results show that although EVOH is an excellent barrier to food aroma when dry, a property that even improves at low relative humidity (RH), the solubility and diffusivity of the compounds tested increase dramatically with humidity at medium to high water activities. However, even in the worst case (100% RH), EVOH outperforms low-density polyethylene (LDPE) as a barrier to organic vapors at least 500,000-fold. PMID:16131132

  5. 花生粕蛋白酶解液Maillard 反应合成肉类香味料的研究%Synthesis Study of Meat Flavor Aroma of Detoxified Peanut Dreqs Hydrolysate of Poyal Jelly

    刘通讯; 吴肖; 林勉

    2001-01-01

    研究花生粕蛋白水解液结合其它前体物质通过Maillard反应合成肉类香味料。结果表明,脱毒后的花生粕蛋白深度酶解液中,添加适量维生素、半胱氨酸、葡萄糖等物质,在pH5~5.5,115℃,60min可造成理想肉类香味料,其稀释倍数高达500倍。%This article studied the synthesis of meat flavor aroma of detoxified peanut dregs hydrolysate together with other precursors through Maillard reaction, and the results showed that the detoxified hydrolysate could synthesize ideal meat flavor aroma in pH5 ~ 5.5, 115℃, 60minutes in the presence ofvitamine B 1, L - cystein, glucose and so on. In the optimum conditions, the meat flavor aroma product could be diluted as much as 500 times.

  6. Distinctive exotic flavor and aroma compounds of some exotic tropical fruits and berries: a review.

    Lasekan, Ola; Abbas, Kassim A

    2012-01-01

    The characteristic flavor of exotic tropical fruits is one of their most attractive attributes to consumers. In this article, the enormous diversity of exotic fruit flavors is reviewed. Classifying some of the exotic fruits into two classes on the basis of whether esters or terpenes predominate in the aroma was also attempted. Indeed, as far as exotic tropical fruits are concerned, the majority of fruits have terpenes predominating in their aroma profile. Some of the fruits in this group are the Amazonian fruits such as pitanga, umbu-caja, camu-camu, garcinia, and bacuri. The ester group is made up of rambutan, durians, star fruit, snake fruit, acerola, tamarind, sapodilla, genipap, soursop, cashew, melon, jackfruit, and cupuacu respectively. Also, the role of sulphur-volatiles in some of the exotic fruits is detailed. PMID:22591343

  7. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Acacia aroma against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus

    C.M. Mattana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined using agar diffusion and bioautographic methods. Among all assayed organic extracts only ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented highest activities against all tested Staphylococcus strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 2.5 to 10 mg/ml and from 2.5 to 5 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extracts show little antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus strains. The bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against S. aureus in correspondence with flavonoids and saponins. A. aroma would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for skin infections.

  8. Evolution of aroma and phenolic compounds during ripening of 'superior seedless' grapes.

    Hellín, Pilar; Manso, Angela; Flores, Pilar; Fenoll, José

    2010-05-26

    The evolution of aroma and phenolic compounds was studied during ripening of Vitis vinifera cv. 'Superior Seedless' grapes in two consecutive years. The major free detected compounds were citral, geraniol, and benzyl alcohol whereas geraniol, citral, nerol, citronellol, dienediol I, linalol oxide I, linalol oxide II, benzyl alcohol, and 2-phenylethanol were identified in the glycosidically bound fraction. Concentrations of the main free terpene alcohols responsible for 'Superior Seedless' aroma decreased during grape development, and bound compounds became predominant at grape maturity. Calculation of odor activity values showed that geraniol was the most active odorant followed to a lesser extent by citral and nerol. With regard to phenolic compound evolution, flavan-3-ols and flavonols were maximal at veraison and decreased throughout the ripening, stilbenes content decreased from the first stage, and total phenolics increased to show a maximum in the ripe grapes. At ripening, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and catechin were the main compounds detected in 'Superior Seedless'. PMID:20438135

  9. Saliva from obese individuals suppresses the release of aroma compounds from wine.

    Paola Piombino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that a lower extent of the retronasal aroma release correspond to a higher amount of ad libitum food intake. This has been regarded as one of the bases of behavioral choices towards food consumption in obese people. In this pilot study we investigated the hypothesis that saliva from obese individuals could be responsible for an alteration of the retro-nasal aroma release. We tested this hypothesis in vitro, by comparing the release of volatiles from a liquid food matrix (wine after its interaction with saliva from 28 obese (O and 28 normal-weight (N individuals. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region indicated that Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were more abundant in O, while Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria dominated in N. Streptococcaceae were significantly more abundant in the O subjects and constituted 34% and 19% on average of the saliva microbiota of O and N subjects, respectively. The Total Antioxidant Capacity was higher in O vs N saliva samples. A model mouth system was used to test whether the in-mouth wine aroma release differs after the interaction with O or N saliva. In O samples, a 18% to 60% significant decrease in the mean concentration of wine volatiles was detected as a result of interaction with saliva, compared with N. This suppression was linked to biochemical differences in O and N saliva composition, which include protein content. CONCLUSION: Microbiological and biochemical differences were found in O vs N saliva samples. An impaired retronasal aroma release from white wine was detected in vitro and linked to compositional differences between saliva from obese and normal-weight subjects. Additional in vivo investigations on diverse food matrices could contribute to understanding whether a lower olfactory stimulation due to saliva composition can be a co-factor in the development/maintenance of obesity.

  10. In vitro aroma release from model cheeses varying in composition using a chewing simulator

    Syarifuddin, Adiansyah, T. Thomas-Danguin, C.Septier, E. Semon and C. Salles

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, due to increased health consciousness, worldwide health authorities recommend a reduction of salt and fat in daily food consumption. Therefore, the formulation of low salt-fat foods that still match consumer acceptability has led to an increased demand for knowledge on the multifunctional role of fat and salt in food. Here we set out to examine whether variations in food matrix composition can explain the dynamic of aroma release during in vitro chewing. To do...

  11. Eco Extraction of essential oils and aromas for their use as antioxydants and antimicrobials

    Mnayer, Dima

    2014-01-01

    Plant essential oils and aromas are a real potential for the industry to substitute the synthetic compounds that might have harmful effects on the human health and the environment. In order to contribute to the green chemistry principles, this study focuses on the “eco-extraction” and valorization of natural plant extracts and the development of a new «green» technology for the extraction of aromatic compounds. The first part of this manuscript highlights the biological properties of the esse...

  12. The Role of the Microbiome of Truffles in Aroma Formation: a Meta-Analysis Approach

    Vahdatzadeh, Maryam; Deveau, Aurélie; Splivallo, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Truffles (Tuber spp.) are ascomycete subterraneous fungi that form ectomycorrhizas in a symbiotic relationship with plant roots. Their fruiting bodies are appreciated for their distinctive aroma, which might be partially derived from microbes. Indeed, truffle fruiting bodies are colonized by a diverse microbial community made up of bacteria, yeasts, guest filamentous fungi, and viruses. The aim of this minireview is two-fold. First, the current knowledge on the microbial community composition...

  13. Poikilodermatous changes on the forearms of a woman practicing aroma-therapy: extracervical poikiloderma of Civatte? *

    Katoulis, Alexandros; Makris, Michalis; Gregoriou, Stamatis; Rallis, Eustathios; Kanelleas, Antonis; Stavrianeas, Nicolaos; Rigopoulos, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 48-year-old, Caucasian female who presented with slowly progressing asymptomatic poikilodermatous changes of the extensor aspects of the forearms. She also had typical Poikiloderma of Civatte on the V of the neck and erythemato-telangiectatic rosacea of the central face. The patient had been practicing aroma-therapy for many years. Histologic examination revealed findings consistent with PC. Patch-testing revealed positive reactions to Fragrance mix and Nickel sulphate...

  14. Monoterpene synthase from Dracocephalum kotschyi and SPME-GC-MS analysis of its aroma profile

    S. Saeidnia; Sepehrizadeh, Z; A.R Gohari; G Amin; A. Manayi; A Hadjiakhoondi

    2014-01-01

    Dracocephalum kotschyi (Lamiaceae), as one of the remarkable aromatic plants, widely grows and also is cultivated in various temperate regions of Iran. There are diverse reports about the composition of the oil of this plant representing limonene derivatives as its major compounds. There is no report on cloning of mono- or sesquiterpene synthases from this plant. In the present study, the aroma profile of D. kotschyi has been extracted and analyzed via Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction te...

  15. 广东仁化白毛红茶香气组成的比较研究%Research and comparison of the aroma components in Guangdong renhua Baimao black tea

    王秋霜; 陈栋; 许勇泉; 尹军峰

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of studying the volatile aroma component in black tea processed with Guangdong native tea variety-Renhua Baimao tea as material and determining the main aroma components,the headspace solid-phase micro-extraction method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to determine the aroma compounds of 3 black tea products and their contribution to the total aroma. The results showed that more than 50 aroma compounds were identified including alcohol, ester,aldehyde, ketones,terpene, hydrocarbon and etc,among which the alcohol was the most important compound,ester and aldehyde were next to it. Predominant components in Renhua Baimao tea variety- black tea were linalool, methl salcylate, nonanal, Neroli and linalool oxide,representing 27.78% ,9.85% ,7.99% ,7.42% and 6.84% of the total aroma respectively. Baimao black tea contained more flower fruit-like(eg, linalool,nonanal, Neroli and etc). than Sri Lanka Wuwa black tea(CK3) and less than Yinghong 9(CK1). However,the fragrant oil compounds in Baimao black tea were less than CK3 and higher than CK1. It might be the reason that in sensory Baimao black tea had fresh and thick sweet aroma liked CK1 as well as persistent fine sharp aroma liked CK3.%为了探明以广东地方特色茶树品种-“仁化白毛茶”为原料加工而成的红茶之主要香气物质并确定其呈香特征.本研究采用顶空固相微萃取方法结合气质联用技术研究鉴定了3个红茶产品的香气物质种类及其对总体香气的贡献。结果表明,研究鉴定出50多种香气化合物,主要包含醇类、酯类、醛类、酮类、烯类和烷烃类等,其中醇类是最主要的物质,其次是酯类和醛类。仁化白毛茶树品种红茶的“主导香气成分”是芳樟醇、水杨酸甲酯、壬醛、橙花醇、氧化芳樟醇.平均含量分别占总香气的27.78%、9.85%、7.99%、7.42%和6.84%。仁化白毛红茶的

  16. Profiling Taste and Aroma Compound Metabolism during Apricot Fruit Development and Ripening

    Xi, Wanpeng; Zheng, Huiwen; Zhang, Qiuyun; Li, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Sugars, organic acids and volatiles of apricot were determined by HPLC and GC-MS during fruit development and ripening, and the key taste and aroma components were identified by integrating flavor compound contents with consumers’ evaluation. Sucrose and glucose were the major sugars in apricot fruit. The contents of all sugars increased rapidly, and the accumulation pattern of sugars converted from glucose-predominated to sucrose-predominated during fruit development and ripening. Sucrose synthase (SS), sorbitol oxidase (SO) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) are under tight developmental control and they might play important roles in sugar accumulation. Almost all organic acids identified increased during early development and then decrease rapidly. During early development, fruit mainly accumulated quinate and malate, with the increase of citrate after maturation, and quinate, malate and citrate were the predominant organic acids at the ripening stage. The odor activity values (OAV) of aroma volatiles showed that 18 aroma compounds were the characteristic components of apricot fruit. Aldehydes and terpenes decreased significantly during the whole development period, whereas lactones and apocarotenoids significantly increased with fruit ripening. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) results revealed that β-ionone, γ-decalactone, sucrose and citrate are the key characteristic flavor factors contributing to consumer acceptance. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD) may be involved in β-ionone formation in apricot fruit. PMID:27347931

  17. Characterization of typical potent odorants in cola-flavored carbonated beverages by aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-01-28

    The aroma-active compounds in typical cola-flavored carbonated beverages were characterized using gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The potent odorants in the top three U.S. brands of regular colas were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Among the numerous odorants identified, eugenol (spicy, clovelike, sweet) and coumarin (sweet, herbaceous) were predominant in all colas. Other predominant odorants in at least one brand included guaiacol (smoky) and linalool (floral, sweet), while 1,8-cineole (minty, eucalyptus-like) was a moderately potent odorant in all colas. Determination of the enantiomeric compositions indicated that (R)-(-)-linalool (34.5%) was a more potent odorant than the (S)-(+)-enantiomer (65.6%) due to its much lower odor detection threshold. In addition, lemon-lime and cooling attributes determined by sensory descriptive analysis had the highest odor intensities among the eight sensory descriptors. The aroma profiles of the three colas were in good agreement with the potent odorants identified by AEDA. PMID:25528884

  18. Fractionation and identification of minor and aroma-active constituents in Kangra orthodox black tea.

    Joshi, Robin; Gulati, Ashu

    2015-01-15

    The aroma constituents of Kangra orthodox black tea were isolated by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), supercritical fluid extraction and beverage method. The aroma-active compounds were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry. Geraniol, linalool, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, (E)-2-hexenal, phytol, β-ionone, hotrienol, methylpyrazine and methyl salicylate were major volatile constituents in all the extracts. Minor volatile compounds in all the extracts were 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, ethylpyrazine, 2-6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, acetylfuran, hexanoic acid, dihydroactinidiolide and (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal. The concentrated SDE extract was fractionated into acidic, basic, water-soluble and neutral fractions. The neutral fraction was further chromatographed on a packed silica gel column eluted with pentane and diethyl ether to separate minor compounds. The aroma-active compounds identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry were 2-amylfuran, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 1-pentanol, epoxylinalool, (Z)-jasmone, 2-acetylpyrrole, farnesyl acetone, geranyl acetone, cadinol, cubenol and dihydroactinidiolide. AEDA studies showed 2-hexenal, 3-hexenol, ethylpyrazine, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, linalool, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, geraniol, phenylethanol, β-ionone, hotrienol and dihydroactinidiolide to be odour active components. PMID:25148991

  19. Identification and characterization of the aroma-impact components of Thai fish sauce.

    Lapsongphon, Nawaporn; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-03-18

    Comprehensive analysis of the potent odorants in Thai premium fish sauce samples was accomplished by use of complementary volatile isolation methods combined with gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-mass spectrometry. Odorants of intermediate and low volatility were determined by direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (DSE-SAFE) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Meanwhile, static headspace dilution analysis (SHDA) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (H-SPME) were used to determine the highly volatile odorants. Results of AEDA indicated the importance (log3FD factor≥6) of five acidic odorants (butanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone, and 2-phenylacetic acid) and four neutral/basic odorants (3-methylbutanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, phenylacetaldehyde, and o-aminoacetophone). Results of SHDA indicated the predominant (log3FD factors≥5) headspace odorants were methanethiol, 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, dimethyl trisulfide, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and butanoic acid. Concentrations for 21 odorants were determined by stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA), and their odor-activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Among these, methanethiol, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, dimethyl trisulfide, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and butanoic acid had the highest OAVs (>500). Results of aroma recombination and omission studies revealed the importance of acids, aldehydes, and sulfur-containing compounds to the overall aroma of the Thai fish sauce. PMID:25730550

  20. Prerrafaelismo y quietismo estético en Aromas de leyenda

    Sánchez Moreiras, Miriam

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In my Aromas de leyenda study, book of poems wroten by the Spanish Modernist author Valle- Inclán, I have attempted to show how this work is in debt to Pre-Raphaelite aesthetics and, also, to esoteric and mystic doctrines, strongly present in the last years of XIX century and relaborated by Valle in his book La lámpara maravillosa. At the same time, I have identified, although lightly, the figure oí ambivalence, which is, like the scholarship Peter Zima has showed, the main Modernism aesthetic innovation and which makes in clear the links between this Valle's work and the art of his time.Con el análisis de Aromas de leyenda de Valle Inclán he pretendido demostrar la deuda que esta obra tiene tanto con el código estético prerrafaelita como con las doctrinas esotéricas y místicas, de gran vigencia a finales del siglo XIX y reelaboradas por Valle en su libro de 1916 La lámpara maravillosa. Igualmente he identificado, aunque de modo muy leve, la presencia en Aromas de la figura de la ambivalencia, que es, como demuestra el estudioso Peter Zima, la principal innovación estética del Modernismo y que pone en evidencia la filiación de esta obra de Valle con el arte de su tiempo.

  1. The Role of the Microbiome of Truffles in Aroma Formation: a Meta-Analysis Approach.

    Vahdatzadeh, Maryam; Deveau, Aurélie; Splivallo, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Truffles (Tuber spp.) are ascomycete subterraneous fungi that form ectomycorrhizas in a symbiotic relationship with plant roots. Their fruiting bodies are appreciated for their distinctive aroma, which might be partially derived from microbes. Indeed, truffle fruiting bodies are colonized by a diverse microbial community made up of bacteria, yeasts, guest filamentous fungi, and viruses. The aim of this minireview is two-fold. First, the current knowledge on the microbial community composition of truffles has been synthesized to highlight similarities and differences among four truffle (Tuber) species (T. magnatum, T. melanosporum, T. aestivum, and T. borchii) at various stages of their life cycle. Second, the potential role of the microbiome in truffle aroma formation has been addressed for the same four species. Our results suggest that on one hand, odorants, which are common to many truffle species, might be of mixed truffle and microbial origin, while on the other hand, less common odorants might be derived from microbes only. They also highlight that bacteria, the dominant group in the microbiome of the truffle, might also be the most important contributors to truffle aroma not only in T. borchii, as already demonstrated, but also in T. magnatum, T. aestivum, and T. melanosporum. PMID:26187969

  2. Determination of volatile aroma compounds in beef using differences in steak thickness and cook surface temperature.

    Kerth, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Top loin steaks with a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) grade of Select were cut 1.3cm, 2.5cm, or 3.8cm thick and cooked on a skillet at 177°C, 204°C, or 232°C. Aroma compounds described as fatty, tallow, and oily are highly related to the identity of beef flavor. These compounds are produced in the highest quantity when steaks are cooked either at low temperatures (177°C) or for short periods of time. Whereas, aroma compounds described as roasted, nutty, or fruity are developed from browning the surface of the steak as a result of cooking at high skillet surface temperatures (232°C) or for long periods of time, as would be seen cooking thick steaks (3.8cm). This study shows that the amount of specific aroma compounds can be predicted (r(2) values up to 0.62) from measured cooking times and temperatures. It may be possible to develop beef steak flavor by recommending steak thickness and cooking temperatures. PMID:26937587

  3. Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    Wen, Ya-Qin; He, Fei; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Li, Chun-You; Reeves, Malcolm J; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of both free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in three sweet cherry cultivars ('Hongdeng', 'Hongyan' and 'Rainier'), with 97 compounds being identified in the three cultivars. The major free volatile compounds found were hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. The major bound volatile compounds found were benzyl alcohol, geraniol, 2-phenylethanol. Also 4-vinylphenol was found in cherry fruit for the first time, and has a relatively high concentration of the glycosidically-bound form in 'Rainier'. Odour activity values (OAVs) were determined for both free and bound volatiles, with 18 compounds having an OAV above 1. The highest OAVs for three cultivars were (E)-β-ionone, hexanal, decanal and (E)-2-hexenal with the highest being over 800 for (E)-β-ionone in 'Honyang'. From these results, it was concluded that the aroma compounds present were similar in all three cultivars, but there was significant variation found in their levels and hence contribution to the aroma of these cultivars. PMID:24444903

  4. The Role of the Microbiome of Truffles in Aroma Formation: a Meta-Analysis Approach

    Vahdatzadeh, Maryam; Deveau, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    Truffles (Tuber spp.) are ascomycete subterraneous fungi that form ectomycorrhizas in a symbiotic relationship with plant roots. Their fruiting bodies are appreciated for their distinctive aroma, which might be partially derived from microbes. Indeed, truffle fruiting bodies are colonized by a diverse microbial community made up of bacteria, yeasts, guest filamentous fungi, and viruses. The aim of this minireview is two-fold. First, the current knowledge on the microbial community composition of truffles has been synthesized to highlight similarities and differences among four truffle (Tuber) species (T. magnatum, T. melanosporum, T. aestivum, and T. borchii) at various stages of their life cycle. Second, the potential role of the microbiome in truffle aroma formation has been addressed for the same four species. Our results suggest that on one hand, odorants, which are common to many truffle species, might be of mixed truffle and microbial origin, while on the other hand, less common odorants might be derived from microbes only. They also highlight that bacteria, the dominant group in the microbiome of the truffle, might also be the most important contributors to truffle aroma not only in T. borchii, as already demonstrated, but also in T. magnatum, T. aestivum, and T. melanosporum. PMID:26187969

  5. Mating system and population structure of Acacia aroma and A. macracantha (Fabaceae).

    Casiva, Paola Vanesa; Vilardi, Juan César; Cialdella, Ana María; Saidman, Beatriz O

    2004-01-01

    Acacia aroma and A. macracantha are closely related species that inhabit northern and central Argentina. The reproductive barriers between them seem to be weak. They exhibit low genetic differentiation, high levels of interspecific gene flow, and extensive areas of sympatry. Isoenzymatic approaches were used to evaluate the population structure and mating system parameters in natural Argentine populations of A. aroma and A. macracantha and to provide new tools for the analysis of relationships between these two species. All studied populations had high levels of genetic variability and no significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg expectations, but the two species did not differ from each other. Most variability occured within populations. Mating system analysis showed high levels of outcrossing, no biparental inbreeding, and a high probability that individuals within progeny arrays are full rather than half sibs. In all A. aroma and A. macracantha populations, polymorphic loci had the same allelic variants, and no geographic or genetic isolation between species was found. The results favor the hypothesis that these two entities represent a single polymorphic species rather than two distinct species. PMID:21653363

  6. Canonical Correlation between the Leaf Quality Indicators of "Moderate Aroma" Flue-cured Tobacco

    Lin; MENG; Yuangang; DAI; Chengdong; WANG; Shusheng; WANG; Wenjing; SONG; Yuanhua; WU; Yimin; XU

    2015-01-01

    In order to find out the correlation between tobacco quality evaluation indicators in China’s traditional " moderate aroma" tobaccoproducing areas and simplify the tobacco quality evaluation indicators,we evaluate the appearance quality and smoking quality of 143 flue-cured tobacco leaf samples in China’s " moderate aroma" tobacco-producing areas,test the physical traits and chemical component,and analyze the canonical correlation between four quality evaluation indicators. The results show that there is significant or extremely significant canonical correlation between four evaluation indicators( tobacco smoking quality,chemical component,appearance quality and physical trait quality); the cumulative variance contribution rate of evaluation indicators is in the order of chemical component( 69. 17%) > appearance quality( 68. 76%) > physical traits( 64. 13%); appearance quality is most closely related to physical traits( 93. 84%). The individual indicators for tobacco quality evaluation make different contribution to the correlation between quality evaluation indicators. The chemical component evaluation indicators mainly include total sugar and ratio of total sugar to betaine; sensory taste indicators mainly include aroma volume,smoke concentration,irritation and softness degree; physical trait evaluation indicators mainly include leaf weight,leaf length and leaf density; appearance quality indicators mainly include leaf organizational structure,color,maturity and identity. Studies have shown that in the large-scale ecoregion,using canonical correlation analysis to simplify tobacco quality evaluation indicators is feasible.

  7. Profiling Taste and Aroma Compound Metabolism during Apricot Fruit Development and Ripening.

    Xi, Wanpeng; Zheng, Huiwen; Zhang, Qiuyun; Li, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Sugars, organic acids and volatiles of apricot were determined by HPLC and GC-MS during fruit development and ripening, and the key taste and aroma components were identified by integrating flavor compound contents with consumers' evaluation. Sucrose and glucose were the major sugars in apricot fruit. The contents of all sugars increased rapidly, and the accumulation pattern of sugars converted from glucose-predominated to sucrose-predominated during fruit development and ripening. Sucrose synthase (SS), sorbitol oxidase (SO) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) are under tight developmental control and they might play important roles in sugar accumulation. Almost all organic acids identified increased during early development and then decrease rapidly. During early development, fruit mainly accumulated quinate and malate, with the increase of citrate after maturation, and quinate, malate and citrate were the predominant organic acids at the ripening stage. The odor activity values (OAV) of aroma volatiles showed that 18 aroma compounds were the characteristic components of apricot fruit. Aldehydes and terpenes decreased significantly during the whole development period, whereas lactones and apocarotenoids significantly increased with fruit ripening. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) results revealed that β-ionone, γ-decalactone, sucrose and citrate are the key characteristic flavor factors contributing to consumer acceptance. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD) may be involved in β-ionone formation in apricot fruit. PMID:27347931

  8. Potential of Glycosidase from Non-Saccharomyces Isolates for Enhancement of Wine Aroma.

    Hu, Kai; Qin, Yi; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Zhu, Xiao-Lin; Peng, Chuan-Tao; Ullah, Niamat

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to rapidly screen indigenous yeasts with high levels of β-glucosidase activity and assess the potential of glycosidase extracts for aroma enhancement in winemaking. A semiquantitative colorimetric assay was applied using 96-well plates to screen yeasts from 3 different regions of China. Isolates with high β-glucosidase activity were confirmed by the commonly used pNP assay. Among 493 non-Saccharomyces isolates belonging to 8 generas, 3 isolates were selected for their high levels of β-glucosidase activity and were identified as Hanseniaspora uvarum, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa by sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain. β-Glucosidase in the glycosidase extract from H. uvarum strain showed the highest activity in winemaking conditions among the selected isolates. For aroma enhancement in winemaking, the glycosidase extract from H. uvarum strain exhibited catalytic specificity for aromatic glycosides of C13 -norisoprenoids and some terpenes, enhancing fresh floral, sweet, berry, and nutty aroma characteristics in wine. PMID:26954887

  9. Agri土壤调理剂用量对烟叶香气质量的影响%Effects of Application Rate of Agri Soil Conditioner on Aroma Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves

    薛超群; 王建伟; 奚家勤; 杨立均

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out to study the effects of different Agri soil conditioner application rates (0,3.75,7.50,11.25,15.00 kg/ha) on aroma components,sensory quality and economic characteristics of flue-cured tobacco leaves. The results showed that increasing soil conditioner application rates, the contents of Maillard reaction products,carotenoid catabolites,aromatic amino acid catabolites and total aroma components, aroma quality and yield of leaf increased, output value, average price and proportion of high grade leaf raised at first and then reduced. At the conditioner application rate of 11.25 kg/ha, the contents of Maillard reaction products,carotenoid catabolites, aromatic amino acid catabolites, and total aroma components,aroma quality and yield of leaf were higher,and output value,average price and high grade leaf proportion were the highest.%通过田间试验研究了Agri土壤调理剂不同用量(0,3.75,7.50,11.25,15.00 kg/hm2)对烟叶香味物质、感官质量和经济性状的影响.结果表明:随土壤调理剂用量的增加,烟叶美拉德反应产物、类胡萝卜素降解产物、芳香族氨基酸降解产物、总香味物质含量和香气质量提高,烟叶产量增加,烟叶产值、均价和上等烟比例先提高再降低.土壤调理剂用量11.25 kg/hm2时烟叶美拉德反应产物、类胡萝卜素降解产物、芳香族氨基酸降解产物、总香味物质含量、香气质量得分和产量较高,产值、均价和上等烟比例最高.

  10. Key changes in wine aroma active compounds during bottle storage of Spanish red wines under different oxygen levels.

    Ferreira, Vicente; Bueno, Mónica; Franco-Luesma, Ernesto; Culleré, Laura; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2014-10-15

    Samples from 16 Spanish red wines have been stored for 6 months at 25 °C under different levels of oxygen (0-56 mg/L). Amino acids, metals, and phenolic compounds were analyzed and related to the production or depletion of key oxidation- and reduction-related aroma compounds. Oxidation brings about sensory-relevant increases in Strecker aldehydes, 1-octen-3-one, and vanillin. Formation of Strecker aldehydes correlates to the wine content on the corresponding amino acid precursor, Zn, and caffeic acid ethyl ester and negatively to some flavonols and anthocyanin derivatives. Formation of most carbonyls correlates to wine-combined SO2, suggesting that part of the increments are the result of the release of aldehydes forming bisulfite combinations once SO2 is oxidized. Methanethiol (MeSH) and dimethylsulfide (DMS), but not H2S levels, increase during storage. MeSH increments correlate to methionine levels and proanthocyanidins and negatively to resveratrol and aluminum. H2S, MeSH, and DMS levels all decreased with oxidation, and for the latter two, there are important effects of Mn and pH, respectively. PMID:25284059

  11. Aroma Profile of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Wine Fermented by Single and Co-culture Starters of Autochthonous Saccharomyces and Non-saccharomyces Yeasts

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Di Gianvito, Paola; Pizzoni, Daniel; Arfelli, Giuseppe; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Montepulciano d'Abruzzo is a native grape variety of Vitis vinifera L., grown in central Italy and used for production of high quality red wines. Limited studies have been carried out to improve its enological characteristics through the use of indigenous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main objective of the present work was to test two indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae (SRS1, RT73), a strain of Starmerella bacillaris (STS12), one of Hanseniaspora uvarum (STS45) and a co-culture of S. cerevisiae (SRS1) and S. bacillaris (STS12), in an experimental cellar to evaluate their role in the sensory characteristic of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine. A S. cerevisiae commercial strain was used. Fermentations were conducted under routine Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine production, in which the main variables were the yeast strains used for fermentation. Basic winemaking parameters, some key chemical analysis and aroma compounds were considered. S. cerevisiae strain dynamics during fermentation were determined by molecular methods. The musts inoculated with the co-culture were characterized by a faster fermentation start and a higher content of glycerol after 3 days of fermentation, as well as the musts added with strains S. bacillaris (STS12) and H. uvarum (STS45). At the end of fermentation the parameters studied were quite similar in all the wines. Total biogenic amines (BA) content of all the wines was low. Ethanolamine was the predominant BA, with a concentration ranging from 21 to 24 mg/l. Wines were characterized by esters and alcohols. In particular, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methylbut-1-yl methanoate, and ethyl ethanoate were the major aroma volatile compounds in all wines. Statistical analysis highlighted the different role played by aroma compounds in the differentiation of wines, even if it was impossible to select a single class of compounds as the most important for a specific yeast. The present study represents a further step toward the use of tailored

  12. Aroma profile of Montepulciano d’Abruzzo wine fermented by single and co-culture starters of autochthonous Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts

    Rosanna eTofalo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Montepulciano d’Abruzzo is a native grape variety of Vitis vinifera L., grown in central Italy and used for production of high quality red wines. Limited studies have been carried out to improve its enological characteristics through the use of indigenous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main objective of the present work was to test two indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae (SRS1, RT73, a strain of Starm. bacillaris (STS12, one of H. uvarum (STS45 and a co-culture of S. cerevisiae (SRS1 and Starm. bacillaris (STS12, in an experimental cellar to evaluate their role in the sensory characteristic of Montepulciano d’Abruzzo wine. A S. cerevisiae commercial strain was used. Fermentations were conducted under routine Montepulciano d’Abruzzo wine production, in which the main variables were the yeast strains used for fermentation. Basic winemaking parameters, some key chemical analysis and aroma compounds were considered. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain dynamics during fermentation were determined by molecular methods. The musts inoculated with the co-culture were characterized by a faster fermentation start and a higher content of glycerol after three days of fermentation, as well as the musts added with strains Starm. bacillaris (STS12 and H. uvarum (STS45. At the end of fermentation the parameters studied were quite similar in all the wines. Total biogenic amines (BA content of all the wines was low. Ethanolamine was the predominant BA, with a concentration ranging from 21 to 24 mg/l. Wines were characterized by esters and alcohols. In particular, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methylbut-1-yl methanoate and ethyl ethanoate were the major aroma volatile compounds in all wines. Statistical analysis highlighted the different role played by aroma compounds in the differentiation of wines, even if it was impossible to select a single class as the most important for a specific yeast. The present study represents a further step towards the use of tailored

  13. Gas-liquid transfer of aroma compounds during winemaking fermentations

    Mouret, Jean-Roch; Morakul, Sumallika; Nicolle, Pamela; Athes, Violaine; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    We precisely monitored the production kinetics of 16 volatile carbon compounds corresponding to the predominant higher alcohols and esters produced during the alcoholic fermentation of wine using an online GC system. We studied the gas-liquid partitioning of isobutanol, isoamyl acetate and ethyl hexanoate and showed that CO2 stripping had no impact on the partition coefficient (k(i)). We formulated a predictive model for k(i) changes during the fermentation and calculated the gas-liquid balan...

  14. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in a commercial Amontillado sherry wine by means of the sensomics approach.

    Marcq, Pauline; Schieberle, Peter

    2015-05-20

    An aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) carried out on the volatile fraction isolated by extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) distillation from a commercial Amontillado sherry wine revealed 37 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors in the range of 16-4096. Among them, 2-phenylethanol (flowery, honey-like) and ethyl methylpropanoate (fruity) showed the highest FD factors, followed by ethyl (2S,3S)-2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoate (fruity) reported for the first time in sherry wine. A total of 36 aroma-active compounds located by AEDA were then quantitated by a stable isotope dilution assay, and their odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated. The highest OAV was displayed by 1,1-diethoxyethane (2475; fruity), followed by 2- and 3-methylbutanals (574; malty) and methylpropanal (369; malty). Aroma reconstitution experiments and a comparative aroma profile analysis revealed that the entire orthonasal aroma profile of the Amontillado sherry wine could be closely mimicked. PMID:25921555

  15. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) using aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Tairu, A O; Hofmann, T; Schieberle, P

    1999-08-01

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract of the dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica obtained by extraction with diethyl ether followed by sublimation in vacuo revealed 28 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 4-8192, all of which could be identified. The highest FD factor was found for linalol (floral), followed by (E)-beta-ocimene (flowery), alpha-farnesene (sweet, flowery), beta-pinene (terpeny), alpha-pinene (pine needle-like), myrtenol (flowery), and beta-phellandrene (terpeny). Vanillin (vanilla-like) and 3-ethylphenol (smoky, phenolic) showing somewhat lower FD factors (FD = 128) were detected for the first time as constituents of the dried fruit. PMID:10552646

  16. Modelling of the gas-liquid partitioning of aroma compounds during wine alcoholic fermentation and prediction of aroma losses

    Morakul, Sumallika; Mouret, Jean-Roch; Pamela, Nicole; Trelea, Cristian; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Athes, Violaine

    2011-01-01

    A model was elaborated to quantify the gas-liquid partitioning of four of the most important volatile compounds produced during winemaking fermentations, namely isobutanol, ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate and ethyl hexanoate. Analyses of constant rate fermentations demonstrated that the partitioning was not influenced by the CO(2) production rate and was a function of only the must composition and the temperature. The parameters of the model were identified in fermentations run at different te...

  17. Effect of cooking on aroma profile of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and correlation with sensory quality.

    Mishra, Prashant K; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S

    2017-01-15

    Volatile aroma compounds of three varieties of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) namely Kashmiri red, Sharmili and Chitra were extracted in raw state using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and cooked state using simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). During cooking a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the content of several aldehydes, alcohols and terpene hydrocarbons while an increase in content of various sulfurous compounds, terpene alcohols, ketones and pyrazines was noted. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of 'kidney bean', 'earthy' and 'smoky' odour was observed in Kashmiri red while Sharmili variety was characterised by 'sulfurous' odour. Correlation of volatile profile data with descriptive sensory analysis and odour activity values clearly established the role of compounds, such as methanethiol, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methional and dimethyl trisulfide, in contributing to 'cooked kidney bean' aroma, while dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone and ethyl methyl sulfone were responsible for 'sulfurous' aroma. PMID:27542492

  18. Influence of the composition and the structure of different media on the release of aroma compounds

    Seuvre, Anne-Marie; Marian De Los Angeles Espinosa Diaz,; Cayot, Philippe; Voilley, Andrée

    2004-01-01

    International audience The release of 2-nonanone and hexenol (hex-4-en-3-ol) was studied in model media with different structures and compositions: water, a gel of $\\beta$-lactoglobulin, gelified or non-gelified emulsions (5.0% Miglyol, 6.9% $\\beta$-lactoglobulin; the gelation was realized by heating) and milk. The aroma compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography. A strong influence of the nature of the volatile compound on its behavior towards the food matrix was observed: in the case ...

  19. Aroma profile of Macedonian and Hungarian wines assessed by GC-MS

    Ivanova, Violeta; Kilár, Ferenc; Bíró, Ildiko; Bufa, Anita; Kostadinovik, Sanja; Felinger, Attila; Vojnoski, Borimir; Stafilov, Trajče; Mukaetov, Duško; Stefova, Marina

    2009-01-01

    The aroma compounds of five Macedonian wines (vintage 2008): Vranec, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Temjanika and Chardonnay and three Hungarian wines (vintage 2007): Portugiser, Cuve (Portugiser and Kékfrankos) and Tokaji have been studied. In order to identify and quantify the content of free volatile compounds, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique was used. Liquid-liquid extraction of a 50 mL volume of wine was performed with 25 mL of dichloromethane and the extract (1 μL) w...

  20. Diseño de un dispositivo difusor de aromas para espacios comerciales cerrados

    Mejía Franco, Santiago; Lema Suárez, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    El proyecto presenta el desarrollo de diseño de un producto flexible a mercados emergentes, con el fin de brindar a las empresas un medio innovador para entrar en la mente de los consumidores y quedar plasmado dentro de estas, de manera positiva y permanente -- Este proyecto está establecido por el desarrollo y el diseño de un difusor de aromas, para ambientar espacios comerciales cerrados, con el cual se pretende conquistar nichos de mercado con muy poca oferta, así como crear una herramient...

  1. Study on Healing Environment Using Green, Blue and Red LED and Aroma

    Miyaho, Noriharu; Konno, Noriko; Shimada, Takamasa

    In this paper we evaluated the effects of 1/f fluctuation of Green LED light emitted from the specific object by using psychological and physiological experimental tests of spectral electroencephalogram (EEG) topography. In addition, we also verified that the combination of appropriate aroma, blue LED light irradiation and music such as “Mozart: Serenade in Eine Kleine Nacht Musik” has improved mental healing conditions. We confirmed the possibility that the effect of “Healing” would be improved by the above mentioned environments.

  2. Glucosylation of aroma chemicals and hydroxy fatty acids.

    Huang, Fong-Chin; Hinkelmann, Jens; Schwab, Wilfried

    2015-12-20

    To explore the utility of glycosyltransferases as novel biocatalysts, we isolated the glycosyltransferase genes CaUGT2 and SbUGTA1 from Catharanthus roseus and Starmerella bombicola, respectively and heterologously expressed them in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant proteins were assayed with a variety of small molecule substrates. Carvacrol and its phenol isomer thymol are efficiently glucosylated by CaUGT2. The Vmax/Km ratios show that CaUGT2 exhibits the highest specificity towards carvacrol, followed by thymol, geraniol, eugenol, vanillin, menthol, and tyrosol. In contrast, SbUGTA1 accepts ω-hydroxy fatty acids and 1-alkanols as substrates. The Vmax/Km ratios indicate that SbUGTA1 exhibits the highest specificity towards 16-hydroxy palmitic acid, followed by octanol, decanol, and hexadecanol. In biotransformation experiments 23, 88 and 99% of octanol, 16-hydroxy palmitic acid, and decanol, respectively is converted into the corresponding β-glucosides by E. coli cells expressing SbUGTA1 whereas those cells expressing CaUGT2 glucosylate 18, 61, 77 and 97% of applied eugenol, thymol, vanillin, and carvacrol, respectively. To optimize the biotransformation rate, the effects of the concentration of IPTG, glucose, and substrate on the production of glucosides were tested. Taken together, this procedure is a simple operation, environmentally friendly, and is useful for the preparation of glycosides as additives for food and cosmetics. PMID:26481830

  3. Functional characterization of three Coffea arabica L. monoterpene synthases: insights into the enzymatic machinery of coffee aroma.

    Del Terra, Lorenzo; Lonzarich, Valentina; Asquini, Elisa; Navarini, Luciano; Graziosi, Giorgio; Suggi Liverani, Furio; Pallavicini, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    The chemical composition of the coffee beverage is extremely complex, being made up of hundreds of volatile and non-volatile compounds, many of which are generated in the thermal reactions that occur during the roasting process. However, in the raw coffee bean there are also compounds that survive roasting and are therefore extracted into the beverage. Monoterpenes are an example of this category, as their presence has been reported in the coffee flower, fruit, seed, roasted bean and in the beverage aroma. The present work describes the isolation, heterologous expression and functional characterization of three Coffea arabica cDNAs coding for monoterpene synthases. RNA was purified from C. arabica (cv. Catuai Red) flowers, seeds and fruits at 4 successive ripening stages. Degenerate primers were designed on the most conserved regions of the monoterpene synthase gene family, and then used to isolate monoterpene synthase-like sequences from the cDNA libraries. After 5'- and 3'-RACE, the complete transcripts of 4 putative C. arabica monoterpene synthases (CofarTPS) were obtained. Gene expression in different tissues and developmental stages was analysed. After heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, enzyme activity and substrate specificity were evaluated in vitro by incubation of the recombinant proteins with geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP), geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) and farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), precursors respectively of mono-, di- and sesquiterpenes. The reaction products were characterized by HS-SPME GC-MS. CofarTPS1 was classified as a limonene synthase gene, while CofarTPS2 and 3 showed lower activity with the production of linalool and β-myrcene. PMID:23398891

  4. Reproductive endocrine patterns and volatile urinary compounds of Arctictis binturong: discovering why bearcats smell like popcorn

    Greene, Lydia K.; Wallen, Timothy W.; Moresco, Anneke; Goodwin, Thomas E.; Drea, Christine M.

    2016-06-01

    Members of the order Carnivora rely on urinary scent signaling, particularly for communicating about reproductive parameters. Here, we describe reproductive endocrine patterns in relation to urinary olfactory cues in a vulnerable and relatively unknown viverrid—the binturong ( Arctictis binturong). Female binturongs are larger than and dominate males, and both sexes engage in glandular and urinary scent marking. Using a large ( n = 33), captive population, we collected serum samples to measure circulating sex steroids via enzyme immunoassay and urine samples to assay volatile chemicals via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Male binturongs had expectedly greater androgen concentrations than did females but, more unusually, had equal estrogen concentrations, which may be linked to male deference. Males also expressed a significantly richer array of volatile chemical compounds than did females. A subset of these volatile chemicals resisted decay at ambient temperatures, potentially indicating their importance as long-lasting semiochemicals. Among these compounds was 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP), which is typically produced at high temperatures by the Maillard reaction and is likely to be responsible for the binturong's characteristic popcorn aroma. 2-AP, the only compound expressed by all of the subjects, was found in greater abundance in males than females and was significantly and positively related to circulating androstenedione concentrations in both sexes. This unusual compound may have a more significant role in mammalian semiochemistry than previously appreciated. Based on these novel data, we suggest that hormonal action and potentially complex chemical reactions mediate communication of the binturong's signature scent and convey information about sex and reproductive state.

  5. Identification of aroma-active volatiles in banana Terra spirit using multidimensional gas chromatography with simultaneous mass spectrometry and olfactometry detection.

    Capobiango, Michely; Mastello, Raíssa Bittar; Chin, Sung-Tong; Oliveira, Evelyn de Souza; Cardeal, Zenilda de Lourdes; Marriott, Philip John

    2015-04-01

    Fruit spirits have been produced and consumed throughout the world for centuries. However, the aroma composition of banana spirits is still poorly characterised. We have investigated the aroma-impact compounds of the banana Terra spirit for the first time, using multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC and GC × GC) in a multi-hyphenated system - i.e., coupled to flame ionisation detection (FID), mass spectrometry (MS), and olfactometry (O). Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used to isolate the headspace aroma compounds of the banana spirit. The detection frequency (DF) technique was applied and aroma regions, detected in the first column separation at >60% Nasal Impact Frequency (NIF), were screened as target potent odour regions in the sample. Using a polar/non-polar phase column set, the potent odour regions were further subjected to MDGC separation with simultaneous O and MS detection for correlation of the aroma perception with MS data for individual resolved aroma-impact compounds. GC-O analysis enabled 18 aroma-impact regions to be located as providing volatiles of interest for further study; for example, those comprising perceptions of flower, whisky, green, amongst others. Compounds were tentatively identified through MS data matching and retention indices in both first and second dimensions. The principal volatile compounds identified in this work, which are responsible for the characteristic aroma of the banana spirit, are 3-methylbutan-1-ol, 3-methylbutan-1-ol acetate, 2-phenylethyl acetate and phenylethyl alcohol. This is the first such study to reveal the major aroma compounds that contribute to banana spirit aroma. PMID:25728661

  6. Effects of bagging on “Hanfu" apple aroma compounds%套袋对“寒富”苹果果实香气成分的影响

    李慧峰; 王海波; 李林光; 吕德国; 杨建明

    2011-01-01

    credible research on the effects of fruit bagging materials on fruit taste. Fruit aroma, a critical fruit taste indicator that determines fruit flavor, was investigated in this study in relation to fruit bag materials. The study used static headspace and meteorological chromatogra-phy-mass spectromctry technology to analyze the effects of bags of different materials (e.g., plastic film bag, double-layer paper bag, and reflective film bag) on aromatic compounds of "Hanfu" apple fruits, Although the effects of different bag materials on fruit aromatic compounds were different, bagging generally reduced the total content of aromatic compounds in "Hanfu" apple fruits. The total content of aromas in plastic film bagged fruits was slightly lower than that in non-bagged (CK) fruits (0.792 μg-g-l). The total contents of aromas in fruits with double-layer paper and reflective film bags were 40.03% and 20.33% lower than that of CK, respectively. While bagging increased the total content of esters, it decreased the total content of alcohols and aldehydes. The aroma compounds of "Hanfu" apple characteristically contained 2-methylethylbutyrate, ethyl butyrate, 2-methylethylhexylbutyrate, ethyl hexa-noate and hexaldehyde; all of which were ester aromas. The characteristic aroma compound of apple fruits with plastic film and dou-ble-layer paper bags was 2-meihylethylbutyrate. While ehylbutyrate and 2-methylethylbutyrate were the characteristic aroma compounds of apple fruits with reflective film bags, 2-methylethylbutyrate and hcxaldehyde were the characteristic aroma compounds of CK fruits. Fruit bagging limited production of important aroma compound (E)-2-hexenal, causing lower aroma quality of apple fruit under bagging than under CK conditions. The study of aromatic compounds laid the basis for research-driven selection and innovation of fruit bagging materials in fruit production.

  7. Is there a second fragrance gene in rice?

    Fitzgerald, M.A.; Hamilton, N.R.S.; Calingacion, M.N.; Verhoeven, H.A.; Butardo, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    Aromatic rice is highly prized by most rice consumers, and many countries cultivate traditional and improved aromatic varieties. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) is the major aromatic compound in rice, and is believed to accumulate because of an eight-base-pair (8-bp) deletion in an allele at the fragranc

  8. Determination of sugars, organic acids, aroma components, and carotenoids in grapefruit pulps.

    Zheng, Huiwen; Zhang, Qiuyun; Quan, Junping; Zheng, Qiao; Xi, Wanpeng

    2016-08-15

    The composition and content of sugars, organic acids, volatiles and carotenoids, in the pulps of six grapefruit cultivars, were examined by HPLC and GC-MS. The results showed that sucrose was the dominant sugar in grapefruit, making up 40.08-59.68% of the total sugars, and the ratio of fructose to glucose was almost 1:1. Citric acid was the major organic acid and represented 39.10-63.55% of the total organic acids, followed by quininic acid. The ratios of individual sugars and organic acids play an important role in grapefruit taste determination. Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were the predominant volatiles in grapefruit, in particular d-limonene and caryophyllene. Caryophyllene, α-humulene, humulen-(v1), β-linalool and tert-butyl 2-methylpropanoate are the characteristic aroma compounds of grapefruit. Although β-carotene is the primary carotenoid in grapefruit, the pulp color is mainly determined by the ratios of zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene. Our results provide the first complete chemical characterization of the taste, aroma and color of grapefruit. PMID:27006221

  9. New Green Tea Cultivar 'Yumewakaba' which Quality is High on Aroma and Taste by Slight Half Fermentation of Leaves.

    Uchino, Hiroshi; Honda, Yusuke; Nakajima, Kenta; Sasaki, Koji; Kobayashi, Akira; Tanaka, Eri; Kume, Nobuo; Sakai, Takashi; Shimazaki, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Iwao; Okano, Nobuo; Kyougoku, Hideo; Funakoshi, Shouji; Kitada, Kaichi; Fuchinoue, Yasumoto; Tanaka, Mankichi

    New green tea cultivar‘Yumewakaba’has been bred at the Green Tea and Local Products Laboratory of Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center. The clone was crossed between‘Yabukita’and Saitama No.9’in 1968. Local adaptability, tolerance to bark split frost injury, and Blister blight were tested at 17 prefectural tea experiment stations from 1994 to 2002. It was registered as ‘Norin No.53’and named ‘Yumewakaba’in 20The characteristics of the cultivar are as follows The shape of the cultivar is erect type, and spread of tea bush is the same as‘Yabukita’.The size of mature leaves are smaller than those of ‘Yabukita’. Immature leaves are lustrougreen and soft. The rooting ability of nursery plants are high and taking roots after planting is good. The plucking time of the first crop of this cultivar in Saitama is 1 or 2 days later than that of ‘Yabukita’.‘Yumewakaba’is middle budding cultivar. The yield of 1st or 2nd crop is the same that of‘Yabukita. ‘Yumewakaba’is resistance to cold drought and bark split frost injury. Thlevel of resistance to freezing injur y is stronger than that of ‘Yabukita’ The damage Anthracnose is less than that of ‘Yabukita. The appearance is better than that of ‘Yabukita’, and the quality of liquor is the same as ‘Yabukita’. The quality of processed goods from slightly half fermented leaves of this cultivar is high on the aroma and the taste. ‘Yumewakaba’is suitable for northern tea producing areas, and cool semi-mountainousareas.

  10. Biotechnological applications of Yarrowia lipolytica : optimization of aroma and lipase production

    Gomes, Nelma; Gonçalves, Cristiana; Lopes, Marlene; J. A. Teixeira; Mota, M; Belo, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica is one of the more intensively studied "non-conventional" yeasts that is currently used as a model for many studies, including protein secretion, peroxisome biogenesis, dimorphism and etabolic pathways involved in hydrophobic substrates metabolism, among others. Due to the wide range of ubstrates that this yeast can use efficiently, such as alkanes, fatty acids, glycerol, and some sugars and to the high secretion capacity of metabolites and proteins, many industrial ...

  11. Highly efficient production of nootkatone, the grapefruit aroma from valencene, by biotransformation.

    Furusawa, Mai; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Noma, Yoshiaki; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2005-11-01

    Nootkatone, the most important and expensive aromatic of grapefruit, decreases the somatic fat ratio, and thus its demand is increasing in the cosmetic and fiber sectors. A sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, (+)-valencene, which is cheaply obtained from Valencia orange, was biotransformed by the green algae Chlorella species and fungi such as Mucor species, Botryosphaeria dothidea, and Botryodiplodia theobromae to afford nootkatone in high yield. PMID:16272746

  12. Characterizing endogenous and oxidative low molecular weight flavor/aroma compounds in fresh squeezed/blended pomegranate juice.

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum) juices. Although, arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing volatile and semi-volatile compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Only two reports w...

  13. Characterization of Fish Sauce Aroma Impact Compounds Using GC-MS, SPME-Osme-GCO, and Stevens' Power Law Exponents

    The objectives of this study were to characterize volatile compounds and to determine the characteristic aromas associated with impact compounds in 4 fish sauces using solid-phase micro-extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Osme, and gas chromatography olfactometry (SPME-Osme-GCO) couple...

  14. Volatile composition and aroma activity of guava puree before and after thermal and dense phase carbon dioxide treatments.

    Plaza, Maria Lourdes; Marshall, Maurice R; Rouseff, Russell Lee

    2015-02-01

    Volatiles from initially frozen, dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD)- and thermally treated guava purees were isolated by solid phase microextraction (SPME), chromatographically separated and identified using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC-olfactometry (GC-O), and GC-pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD, sulfur mode). Fifty-eight volatiles were identified using GC-MS consisting of: 6 aldehydes, 2 acids, 15 alcohols, 6 ketones, 21 esters, and 8 terpenes. Eleven volatiles were newly identified in guava puree. Hexanal was the most abundant volatile in all 3 types of guava puree. Ten sulfur compounds were identified using GC-PFPD of which 3 possessed aroma activity and 3 were not previously reported in guava puree. Both treatments profoundly reduced total sulfur peak areas and produced different peak patterns compared to control. Thermal treatment reduced total sulfur peak area 47.9% compared to a loss of 34.7% with DPCD treatment. Twenty-six volatiles possessed aroma activity. (Z)-3-Hexenyl hexanoate was the major contributor to the aroma of the freshly thawed and DPCD-treated guava puree. DPCD treatment reduced total MS ion chromatogram (MS TIC) peak area 35% but produced a GC-O aroma profile very similar to control. Whereas thermal treatment reduced total TIC peak area only 8.7% compared to control but produced a 35% loss in total GC-O peak intensities. PMID:25588413

  15. Selected Ion Flow Tube-Mass Spectrometry for Absolute Quantification of Aroma Compounds in the Headspace of Dry Fermented Sausages

    Olivares, A.; Dryahina, Kseniya; Navarro, J. L.; Flores, M.; Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 13 (2010), s. 5819-5829. ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : mass spectrometry * aroma compounds * dry fermented sausages Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.874, year: 2010

  16. Modulation of coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with Rhizopus oligosporus: I. Green coffee.

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2016-11-15

    Modulation of coffee aroma via the biotransformation/fermentation of different coffee matrices during post-harvest remains sparingly explored despite some studies showing their positive impacts on coffee aroma. Therefore, this is an unprecedented study aimed at modulating coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with a food-grade fungus Rhizopus oligosporus. The objective of part I of this two-part study was to characterize the volatile and non-volatile profiles of green coffee beans after fermentation. Proteolysis during fermentation resulted in 1.5-fold increase in the concentrations of proline and aspartic acid which exhibited high Maillard reactivity. Extensive degradation of ferulic and caffeic acids led to 2-fold increase in the total concentrations of volatile phenolic derivatives. 36% of the total volatiles detected in fermented green coffee beans were generated during fermentation. Hence, the work presented demonstrated that R. oligosporus fermentation of green coffee beans could induce modification of the aroma precursors of green coffees. PMID:27283713

  17. Detection of Volatile Aroma Compounds of Morchella by Headspace Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS

    Hatira TAŞKIN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   This study was conducted at the Horticulture Department of Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey, in 2010 to determine the volatile aroma compounds of Morchella mushroom. Fresh samples of Morchella esculenta (Sample 1 and Morchella elata (Sample 2 were collected from Çanakkale (Sample 1 and Mersin (Sample 2 provinces in Turkey in the spring of 2010. Volatile aroma compounds were analyzed by headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS. A total of 31 aroma compounds were identified in the 2 analyzed samples: 7 alcohols, 7 esters, 7 ketones, 3 acids, 2 aldehydes, 1 terpene, phenol, 1-propanamine, geranyl linalool, and quinoline. Seventeen aroma components were identified in Sample 1, and 18 compounds were found in Sample 2. Phenol was determined as the major aroma compound in both Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 50.888% and 58.293% content, respectively. Alcohols, especially 1-octen-3-ol, were detected as the second major aroma components in Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 15.500% and 5.660% content, respectively. Carbamic acid, methyl ester was found only in Sample 1, at 11.379% content. The aroma components detected in the two samples differed. 1-Octadecanol; cyclooctylalcohol; trans-2-undecen-1-ol; butanoic acid, butyl ester (CAS; carbamic acid, methyl ester; 2-ethylhexyl-2-ethylhexanoate; phthalic acid, decyl isobutyl ester; 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate; decanal; nonanal; 7,9-di-tert-butyl-1-oxaspiro(4.5deca-6,9-diene-2,8-dione; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione; 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl; and trans-alpha-bisabolene were detected only in Sample 1. Ethanol; silanediol, 2-methylaminoethanol; L-alanine, ethyl ester; carbonic acid, dodecyl isobutyl ester; acetic acid; butanoic acid; 2,3,4H-pyran-4-one; 5,9-undecadien-2-one; cyclooctene; 2-cyclopenten-1-one; 1-propanamine; geranyl linalool; and quinoline were determined only in Sample 2.

  18. GC-MS-olfactometric characterization of the most aroma-active components in a representative aromatic extract from Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    Amanpour, Asghar; Sonmezdag, A Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2015-09-01

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry. The saffron aromatic extracts were obtained by four different extraction techniques including solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid phase extraction (SPE), and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and compared to achieve a representative aromatic extract from saffron. According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was the most representative of saffron odour. A total of 28 aroma compounds were identified in saffron. Ketones were quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in saffron, followed by aldehydes and acids. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of saffron. A total of nine aroma-active compounds were detected in the aromatic extract. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma active compounds were safranal (FD = 512), 4-ketoisophorone (FD = 256) and dihydrooxophorone (FD = 128). PMID:25842335

  19. Identification, quantification and comparison between the chemical substances responsible for the irradiated pot still cachaca and commercial rum aromas

    The irradiation process has being presented as an alternative technique in food preservation. When applied on beverages, radiation is mainly used for malt decontamination or sterilization of musts and had been proposed also to accelerate aging. Some confusion over rum and cachaca identities has arisen due to the internationalization of cachaca. This research aims to identify, quantify and compare the effect of gamma radiation on the aroma of the Brazilian spirit with rum, irradiated and non irradiated, by instrumental and sensory analysis. Results showed that the content of volatile compounds presented strong correlation with the radiation dose (0,150 and 300 Gy) for all the samples. According to Triangle Test for aroma, all the judges could distinguish among non irradiated and irradiated samples (300 Gy), aged cachaca from rum and non aged cachaca from rum, but they could not distinguish aged cachaca from non aged cachaca. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results from the quantitative descriptive analysis showed that non irradiated non aged cachaca and rum were different in their alcohol, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except caramel and apple aroma attributes. Non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) were different in their apple, caramel, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except alcohol aroma attributes. According to the gas chromatography/olfactometry results, significant difference was found among non irradiated cachaca and rum; non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) when their aromas were compared. (author)

  20. IMPORTANCE OF AROMAS ON MOOD PROFILE AND HUMAN AURA (Qualitative Vibrations of Prana

    Srilakshmi R* and N ShakuntalaManay

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Traditional Concept of “Swastya” means to be stationed in one’s own self or well-being, which means to be beyond body / mind yogically. Sri Aurobindo (1970 stated that “Yoga means a methodized effort towards self-perfection by expression of the potentialities latent in the being” and “…a union of the human individual with the universal and transcendent Existence”. According to Sri Aurobindo (1972 “The Spirit has made itself Matter (body in order to place itself there as an instrument for the well-being and joy “Yogakshema”, of created beings for a self-offering of  physical universal utility of service. Interestingly, WHO has stipulated spiritual health for universal well-being. This opens avenues for experimental studies.  Benson (1976 stated that in the year 1968 opened medical laboratory for studies in transcendental meditation.   Chopra (1993 has spoken that there is enormous latent intelligence in the living organism. The “inexperience” of the organism has placed the mind – body relationship on scientific footing. This relationship opens both ways, on one hand it removes disease state and being at “ease” state. Thus enhancing psychoneurotic immunology where the subject herself / himself learns to manipulate the involved energy and to enhance the delightful state of well-being. Aromas have been an area that can open new areas for research on emotional and psychosomatic well-being.  “Pranayama” recognizes science of holding breath or vitality.  “Willfully” holding moods with awareness / consciousness is to experience spirits flow and its freedom in creating a new inner dimension of highest well-being.   To experience subtle and its power of mood is yogically raise mood profile to the dynamics of the spirit subjectively.  This was taken as an experimental study. The Subjects studying in MSc. in the Department of Food Service Management at Smt. V.H.D. Central Institute of Home Science

  1. Radiation dose and storage temperature and period effects on the flavor and aroma of orange juice

    Effects of storage temperature and period on orange juice concentrates were studied for samples irradiated with 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy doses from a gamma-ray source as well as for untreated samples. All samples were stored at 00 C, 50 C and 250 C for periods of 1,30, 60 and 90 days. Samples stored for more than one day underwent a diminution in storage attribute rating with corresponding increase in ratings for the bitterness, medicinal and cooked attributes. Storage at 00 C and 50 C seems to have smaller effects on the sweetness rating as well as on the oily, acid and medicinal flavor characteristics. Effect of radiation dose level on the flavor and aroma attributes depended on the storage temperature and time. In most cases, higher radiation levels are associated by lower orange attribute values and higher bitter medicinal and cooked ratings. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Quantification of megastigmatrienone, a potential contributor to tobacco aroma in spirits.

    Slaghenaufi, Davide; Perello, Marie-Claire; Marchand, Stéphanie; de Revel, Gilles

    2016-07-15

    A SPME-GC-MS method was adapted and validated in order to quantify 5 megastigmatrienones and related odorous compounds from oak wood: guaiacol, cis-whisky lactone, trans-whisky lactone, γ-nonalactone, eugenol, vanillin, and acetovanillone in a single run. The five megastigmatrienone isomers (tabanones) were quantified, for the first time, in Cognac, Armagnac and rum, as contributors to tobacco-like aromas. Spirits aged in oak barrels contain higher amounts, but megastigmatrienones are also present in freshly-distilled spirits. Statistical analysis revealed that freshly-distilled and barrel-aged spirits were differentiated by their megastigma-4,7E,9-trien-3-one levels. The Armagnac and Cognac samples were distinguished by their concentrations of the megastigma-4,6Z,8E-trien-3-one isomer. PMID:26948587

  3. Identification of Key Odorants in Withering-Flavored Green Tea by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    This research aims to identify key odorants in withering-flavored green tea. Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis using the volatile fraction of green tea and withering-flavored green tea revealed 25 and 35 odor-active peaks with the flavor dilution factors of≥4, respectively. 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, (E)-2-nonenal, linalool, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal and 3-methylnonane-2,4-dione were key odorants in green tea with the flavor dilution factor of≥16. As well as these 5 odorants, 1-octen-3-one, β-damascenone, geraniol, β-ionone, (Z)-methyljasmonate, indole and coumarine contributed to the withering flavor of green tea.

  4. Associations of Volatile Compounds with Sensory Aroma and Flavor: The Complex Nature of Flavor

    Edgar Chambers IV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to relate sensory analysis data to specific chemicals such as volatile compounds have been frequent. Often these associations are difficult to interpret or are weak in nature. Although some difficulties may relate to the methods used, the difficulties also result from the complex nature of flavor. For example, there are multiple volatiles responsible for a flavor sensation, combinations of volatiles yield different flavors than those expected from individual compounds, and the differences in perception of volatiles in different matrices. This review identifies some of the reasons sensory analysis and instrumental measurements result in poor associations and suggests issues that need to be addressed in future research for better understanding of the relationships of flavor/aroma phenomena and chemical composition.

  5. Ability of Thermophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria To Produce Aroma Compounds from Amino Acids

    Helinck, Sandra; Le Bars, Dominique; Moreau, Daniel; Yvon, Mireille

    2004-01-01

    Although a large number of key odorants of Swiss-type cheese result from amino acid catabolism, the amino acid catabolic pathways in the bacteria present in these cheeses are not well known. In this study, we compared the in vitro abilities of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Streptococcus thermophilus to produce aroma compounds from three amino acids, leucine, phenylalanine, and methionine, under mid-pH conditions of cheese ripening (pH 5.5), and we investigated the catabolic pathways used by these bacteria. In the three lactic acid bacterial species, amino acid catabolism was initiated by a transamination step, which requires the presence of an α-keto acid such as α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) as the amino group acceptor, and produced α-keto acids. Only S. thermophilus exhibited glutamate dehydrogenase activity, which produces α-KG from glutamate, and consequently only S. thermophilus was capable of catabolizing amino acids in the reaction medium without α-KG addition. In the presence of α-KG, lactobacilli produced much more varied aroma compounds such as acids, aldehydes, and alcohols than S. thermophilus, which mainly produced α-keto acids and a small amount of hydroxy acids and acids. L. helveticus mainly produced acids from phenylalanine and leucine, while L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis produced larger amounts of alcohols and/or aldehydes. Formation of aldehydes, alcohols, and acids from α-keto acids by L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis mainly results from the action of an α-keto acid decarboxylase, which produces aldehydes that are then oxidized or reduced to acids or alcohols. In contrast, the enzyme involved in the α-keto acid conversion to acids in L. helveticus and S. thermophilus is an α-keto acid dehydrogenase that produces acyl coenzymes A. PMID:15240255

  6. Analysis of volatile compounds responsible for kiwifruit aroma by desiccated headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Zhang, Chun-Yun; Zhang, Qiong; Zhong, Cai-Hong; Guo, Ming-Quan

    2016-04-01

    A new method for desiccated headspace (DHS) sampling of aqueous sample to GC-MS for the analysis of volatile compounds responsible for kiwifruit aroma in different kiwifruit cultivars has been developed based on the complete hydrate formation between the sample solvent (water) with anhydrous salt (calcium chloride) at an elevated temperature (above the boiling point of the aqueous sample) in a non-contact format, which overcame the water-effect challenge to directly introduce aqueous sample into GC-MS analysis. By means of DHS, the volatile compounds in three different kiwifruit cultivars were analyzed and compared under the optimized operating conditions, mainly time and temperature for headspace equilibration, column temperature program for GC-MS measurement. As a result, 20 peaks of volatile compounds responsible for kiwifruit aroma were detected and remarkable differences were found in the relative contents of three major volatile compounds among the three different kiwifruit cultivars, i.e., acetaldehyde, ethanol and furfural. The DHS sampling technique used in the present method can make the GC-MS analysis of volatile compounds in the aqueous sample within complex matrix possible without contaminating the GC-MS instrument. In terms of the analysis of volatile compounds in kiwifruit, the present method enabled a direct measurement on the filtrate of the aqueous kiwifruit pulp, without intermediate trap phase for the extraction of analytes, which will be more reliable and simpler as compared with any other headspace method in use. Thus, DHS coupled with GC-MS will be a new valuable tool available for the kiwifruit related research and organoleptic quality control. PMID:26922094

  7. Olfactory Impact of Higher Alcohols on Red Wine Fruity Ester Aroma Expression in Model Solution.

    Cameleyre, Margaux; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-11

    This study focused on the impact of five higher alcohols on the perception of fruity aroma in red wines. Various aromatic reconstitutions were prepared, consisting of 13 ethyl esters and acetates and 5 higher alcohols, all at the average concentrations found in red wine. These aromatic reconstitutions were prepared in several matrices. Sensory analysis revealed the interesting behavior of certain compounds among the five higher alcohols following their individual addition or omission. The "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool was evaluated in several matrices: dilute alcohol solution, dilute alcohol solution containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol individually, and dilute alcohol solution containing the mixture of five higher alcohols, blended together at various concentrations. The presence of 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol alone led to a significant decrease in the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity reconstitution, whereas the mixture of alcohols raised the olfactory threshold. Sensory profiles highlighted changes in the perception of fruity nuances in the presence of the mixture of higher alcohols, with specific perceptive interactions, including a relevant masking effect on fresh- and jammy-fruit notes of the fruity mixture in both dilute alcohol solution and dearomatized red wine matrices. When either 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol was added to the fruity reconstitution in dilute alcohol solution, an enhancement of butyric notes was reported with 3-methylbutan-1-ol and fresh- and jammy-fruit with butan-1-ol. This study, the first to focus on the impact of higher alcohols on fruity aromatic expression, revealed that these compounds participate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in masking fruity aroma perception in a model fruity wine mixture. PMID:26529563

  8. Characterization of the Aroma-Active, Phenolic, and Lipid Profiles of the Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Nut as Affected by the Single and Double Roasting Process.

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Kelebek, Hasim; Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luis Miguel; Fontecha, Javier; Selli, Serkan

    2015-09-01

    The pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nut is one of the most widely consumed edible nuts in the world. However, it is the roasting process that makes the pistachio commercially viable and valuable as it serves as the key step to improving the nut's hallmark sensory characteristics including flavor, color, and texture. Consequently, the present study explores the effects of the single-roasting and double-roasting process on the pistachio's chemical composition, specifically aroma-active compounds, polyphenols, and lipids. Results showed the total polyphenol content of increased with the roasting treatment; however, not all phenolic compounds demonstrated this behavior. With regard to the aroma and aroma-active compounds, the results indicated that roasting process results in the development of characteristics and pleasant aroma of pistachio samples due to the Maillard reaction. With regard to lipids, the pistachio roasting treatment reduced the concentration of CN38 diacylglycerides while increasing the amount of elaidic acid. PMID:26301818

  9. AROMA-AIRWICK: a CHLOE/CDC-3600 system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks

    Clark, R K

    1980-06-26

    The AROMA-AIRWICK System for CHLOE, an automatic film scanning equipment built at Argonne by Donald Hodges, and the CDC-3600 computer is a system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks. AROMA-AIRWICK has been an outgrowth of the generally recognized need for the automatic processing of high energy physics data and the fact that the Argonne National Laboratory has been a center of serious spark chamber development in recent years.

  10. AROMA-AIRWICK: a CHLOE/CDC-3600 system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks

    The AROMA-AIRWICK System for CHLOE, an automatic film scanning equipment built at Argonne by Donald Hodges, and the CDC-3600 computer is a system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks. AROMA-AIRWICK has been an outgrowth of the generally recognized need for the automatic processing of high energy physics data and the fact that the Argonne National Laboratory has been a center of serious spark chamber development in recent years

  11. Comparison of Aroma-Active Volatiles in Oolong Tea Infusions Using GC-Olfactometry, GC-FPD, and GC-MS.

    Zhu, JianCai; Chen, Feng; Wang, LingYing; Niu, YunWei; Yu, Dan; Shu, Chang; Chen, HeXing; Wang, HongLin; Xiao, ZuoBing

    2015-09-01

    The aroma profile of oolong tea infusions (Dongdingwulong, DDWL; Tieguanyin, TGY; Dahongpao, DHP) were investigated in this study. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) with the method of aroma intensity (AI) was employed to investigate the aroma-active compounds in tea infusions. The results presented forty-three, forty-five, and forty-eight aroma-active compounds in the TGY, DHP, and DDWL infusions, including six, seven, and five sulfur compounds, respectively. In addition, the concentration of volatile compounds in the tea infusions was further quantitated by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography (SPME)-GC-MS and SPME-GC-flame photometric detection (FPD). Totally, seventy-six and thirteen volatile and sulfur compounds were detected in three types of tea infusions, respectively. Quantitative results showed that forty-seven aroma compounds were at concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds. On the basis of the odor activity values (OAVs), 2-methylpropanal (OAV: 230-455), 3-methylbutanal (1-353), 2-methylbutanal (34-68), nerolidol (108-184), (E)-2-heptenal (148-294), hexanal (134-230), octanal (28-131), β-damascenone (29-59), indole (96-138), 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (34-67), (R)-(-)-linalool (63-87), and dimethyl sulfide (7-1320) presented relatively higher OAVs than those of other compounds, indicating the importance of these compounds in the overall aroma of tea infusions. PMID:26257073

  12. The effects of reactants ratios, reaction temperatures and times on Maillard reaction products of the L-ascorbic acid/L-glutamic acid system

    Yong-Yan ZHOU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The transformation law of the Maillard reaction products with three different reactants ratios - equimolar reactants, excess L-glutamic acid and excess L-ascorbic acid reaction respectively, five different temperatures, and different time conditions for the L-ascorbic acid / L-glutamic acid system were investigated. Results showed that, the increase of the reaction time and temperature led to the increase of the browning products, uncoloured intermediate products, as well as aroma compounds. Compared with the equimolar reaction system, the excess L-ascorbic acid reaction system produced more browning products and uncoloured intermediate products, while the aroma compounds production remained the same. In the excess L-glutamic acid system, the uncoloured intermediate products increased slightly, the browning products remained the same, while the aroma compounds increased.

  13. How do esters and dimethyl sulphide concentrations affect fruity aroma perception of red wine? Demonstration by dynamic sensory profile evaluation.

    Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Marchand, Stéphanie; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Our study focused on variations in wine aroma perception and molecular composition during tasting over a period of 30min. In parallel, dynamic analytical and sensory methods were applied to study changes in the wines' molecular and aromatic evolution. Dynamic sensory profile evaluations clearly confirmed the evolution of the wine's fruity notes during sensory analysis, highlighting significant differences for red-berry and fresh fruit as well as black berry and jammy fruit, after 5 and 15min, respectively. Dynamic analytical methods revealed a decrease in ester and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) concentrations in the first few minutes. Sensory profiles of aromatic reconstitutions demonstrated that the aromatic modulation of fruity notes observed during wine tasting was explained by changes in ester and DMS concentrations. These results revealed that variations in concentrations of DMS and esters during wine tasting had a qualitative impact, by modulating fruity aromas in red wine. PMID:26471544

  14. Sexual Differences in Chemical Composition and Aroma-active Compounds of Essential Oil from Flower Buds of Eurya japonica.

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Usami, Atsushi; Tanaka, Takio; Tsuji, Kaoru; Takehara, Manami; Hori, Yuki

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the composition of essential oil from buds of male and female Eurya japonica flowers and to determine the aroma-active compounds of this plant by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), sensory evaluation, and odor activity values (OAV). The oils contained eighty-five compounds. We identified for the first time forty-four compounds in E. japonica. Through sensory evaluation, nineteen aroma-active compounds were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Because the chemical composition can affect the interaction between plants and herbivorous insects, our results suggest that essential oils from male and female flower buds of E. japonica differently affect herbivores. Sexual differences in essential oils deserve further investigations in this plant-insect system. PMID:26972466

  15. Characterization of volatile compounds responsible for the aroma in naturally fermented sausages by gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    Olivares, Alicia; Navarro, José Luis; Flores, Mónica

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize naturally fermented dry sausages produced without the use of microbial starters and to determine which odour-active compounds are responsible for their aroma. The traditional manufacture was responsible for different chemical characteristics and consumer's acceptance. The volatile compounds detected in the headspace comprised a complex mixture of volatile compounds derived from bacterial metabolism (mainly esterase activity of Staphyloccoci), spices and lipid auto-oxidation. The odour-active volatile compounds were identified using gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry (GC-O) using the detection frequency method. The aroma profile was characterized by the presence of several compounds such as acetic acid, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, methional, 1-octen-3-ol, benzeneacetaldehyde and 4-methyl-phenol. However, naturally fermented sausages were also characterized by numerous esters, both ethyl and methyl esters, which impart a wide variety of fruity notes. PMID:24334376

  16. Sensory evaluation, physicochemical properties and aroma-active profiles in a diverse collection of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) cultivars.

    Cheng, Huan; Chen, Jianle; Chen, Shiguo; Xia, Qile; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to differentiate the flavor (taste and odor) profiles of 11 Chinese bayberry cultivars (Myrica rubra). The physicochemical analysis for taste indicated the bayberry cultivars were quite different in soluble sugars, organic acids, color, total phenolics and anthocyanin contents. Sucrose was the main soluble sugar in bayberry fruit. Principal component analysis (PCA) of physicochemical properties indicated bayberries could be divided into 5 groups, and the Bi qi cultivar contained the highest brix/acid ratio demonstrating the sweetest taste. PCA of aroma-active profile for odor (analyzed by SPME-GC-MS-O) indicated bayberries could be divided into 3 groups: α-pinene ("pine" odor) for group 1 (four cultivars), β-caryophyllene and isocaryophyllene ("woody" odor) for group 2 (six cultivars), and ethyl acetate ("overripe" odor) for group 3 (one cultivar). Our research on the physicochemical and active-aroma of 11 bayberry cultivars will help to select suitable cultivars to increase consumer satisfaction. PMID:27374545

  17. Direct green extraction of volatile aroma compounds using vegetable oils as solvents: Theoretical and experimental solubility study

    Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Ginies, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed at evaluation of the dissolving power of various vegetable oils in both theoretical and experimental way for the extraction of volatile aroma compounds (VACs) from basil. The solubility of six main VACs from basil in ten vegetable oils was firstly investigated through a theoretical modeling of their Hansen solubility parameters (HSP), followed by real experimental extractions using vegetable oils as solvents instead of petroleum-based solvents such as dichloromethane. ...

  18. Home conservation strategies for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum): Storage temperature vs. duration – Is there a compromise for better aroma preservation?

    Ginies, Christian; Gouble, Barbara; Bureau, Sylvie; Causse, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Expression of dissatisfaction with tomato aroma prompted us to lead this study on the impact of domestic storage conditions on volatile compounds. Two storage modalities (20 and 4° C) and two cultivars (Levovil and LCx) were used. Volatile compounds were analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry detection after accelerated solvent extraction. Physical characteristics, lipoxygenase activity, hydroperoxide lyase activity; linoleic acid and linolenic acid were monitored. Storing tomatoes ...

  19. Comparison of the efficacy of aroma-acupressure and aromatherapy for the treatment of dementia-associated agitation

    Yang, Man-Hua; Lin, Li-Chan; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Wang, Pei-Ning; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the most common symptoms observed in patients with dementia is agitation, and several non-pharmacological treatments have been used to control this symptom. However, because of limitations in research design, the benefit of non-pharmacological treatments has only been demonstrated in certain cases. The purpose of this study was to compare aroma-acupressure and aromatherapy with respect to their effects on agitation in patients with dementia. Methods In this experimental stud...

  20. The Efficacy of Molecular Markers Analysis with Integration of Sensory Methods in Detection of Aroma in Rice

    H. Y. Yeap; G. Faruq; Zakaria, H. P.; Harikrishna, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Allele Specific Amplification with four primers (External Antisense Primer, External Sense Primer, Internal Nonfragrant Sense Primer, and Internal Fragrant Antisense Primer) and sensory evaluation with leaves and grains were executed to identify aromatic rice genotypes and their F1 individuals derived from different crosses of 2 Malaysian varieties with 4 popular land races and 3 advance lines. Homozygous aromatic (fgr/fgr) F1 individuals demonstrated better aroma scores compared to both hete...

  1. Past and future of non-Saccharomyces yeasts: from spoilage microorganisms to biotechnological tools for improving wine aroma complexity

    Beatriz ePadilla; José Vicente Gil; Paloma eManzanares

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, considered in the past as undesired or spoilage yeasts, can enhance the analytical composition and aroma profile of the wine. The contribution of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, including the ability to secret enzymes and produce secondary metabolites, glycerol and ethanol, release of mannoproteins or contributions to color stability, is species- and strain-specific, pointing out the key importance of a clever strain selection. The use of m...

  2. Past and Future of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts: From Spoilage Microorganisms to Biotechnological Tools for Improving Wine Aroma Complexity

    Padilla, Beatriz; Gil, José V.; Manzanares, Paloma

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, considered in the past as undesired or spoilage yeasts, can enhance the analytical composition, and aroma profile of the wine. The contribution of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, including the ability to secret enzymes and produce secondary metabolites, glycerol and ethanol, release of mannoproteins or contributions to color stability, is species- and strain-specific, pointing out the key importance of a clever strain selection. The use of ...

  3. Saccharomyces Dışındaki Mayaların Şarap Aromasına Etkileri

    Bağder, Simel; Özçelik, Filiz

    2009-01-01

    Although S. cerevisiae is major wine yeast responsible for wine fermentation, the yeasts other than genus of Saccharomyces, which are called non-Saccharomyces, contribute to wine aroma producing secondary metabolites such as glycerol, higher alcohols and esters. Contrary to S. cerevisiae, the non-Saccharomyces yeasts are able to produce and release several enzymes such as esterases, glycosidases, lipases, β-glycosidases, proteases to the medium where they can interact with grape precursor co...

  4. Extraction and GC determination of volatile aroma compounds from extracts of three plant species of the Apiaceae family

    Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.; Copolovici, L.; MǎruÅ£oiu, C.

    2013-11-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and celery (Apium graveolens), three aromatic plants belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) botanical family, were selected as sources of essential or volatile oils. Essential oils are composed of a large diversity of volatile aroma compounds. Plant-derived essential oils and extracts have long been used as natural agents in food preservation, pharmaceuticals and medicinal therapies. In the present study, the plant extracts from leaves of parsley, dill and celery, were obtained by maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. All extractions were performed at 30°C, using different solvents (ethanol, diethyl ether, n-hexane) and solvent mixtures (1:1, v/v). The most effective solvent system for the extraction of volatile aroma compounds was diethyl ether - n-hexane (1:1, v/v). Extraction efficiency and determination of aroma volatiles were performed by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The major volatile compounds present in plant extracts were myristicin, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, apiol, dill ether and allyl phenoxyacetate.

  5. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality

    Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles.

  6. A model explaining and predicting lamb flavour from the aroma-active chemical compounds released upon grilling light lamb loins.

    Bueno, Mónica; Campo, M Mar; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the work is to understand the role of the different aroma compounds in the perception of the local "lamb flavour" concept. For this, a set of 70 loins (Longissimus dorsi) from approximately seventy day-old Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were grilled and the aroma-active chemicals released during the grilling process were trapped and analyzed. Carbonyl compounds were derivatizated and determined by GC-NCI-MS, whereas other aromatic compounds were directly analyzed by GC-GC-MS. Odour activity values (OAVs) were calculated using their odour threshold values in air. Lamb flavour could be satisfactory explained by a partial least-squares model (74% explained variance in cross-validation) built by the OAVs of 32 aroma-active chemical compounds. The model demonstrates that the lamb flavour concept is the result of a complex balance. Its intensity critically and positively depends to the levels of volatile fatty acids and several dimethylpyrazines while is negatively influenced by the different alkenals and alkadienals. (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and (E)-2-nonenal showed top OAVs. PMID:25089786

  7. Modulation of coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with Rhizopus oligosporus: II. Effects of different roast levels.

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2016-11-15

    This study aims to evaluate how changes of the volatile and non-volatile profiles of green coffees induced by Rhizopus oligosporus fermentation of green coffee beans (Part I) translated to changes in the volatile and aroma profiles of light, medium and dark roasted coffees and non-volatile profile of roasted coffee where fermentation effects were most distinctive (light roast). R. oligosporus fermentation resulted in 1.7-, 1.5- and 1.3-fold increases in pyrazine, 2-methylpyrazine and 2-ethylpyrazine levels in coffees of all roast degrees, respectively. This corresponded with the greater extent of amino acids degradation in light roasted fermented coffee. Ethyl palmitate was detected exclusively in medium and dark roasted fermented coffees. The sweet attribute of light and dark roasted coffees were increased following fermentation along with other aroma profile changes that were roast degree specific. This work aims to develop a direct but novel methodology for coffee aroma modulation through green coffee beans fermentation. PMID:27283714

  8. Real-Time Emulation of Heterogeneous Wireless Networks with End-to-Edge Quality of Service Guarantees: The AROMA Testbed

    Anna Umbert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents and describes the real-time testbed for all-IP Beyond 3G (B3G heterogeneous wireless networks that has been developed in the framework of the European IST AROMA project. The main objective of the AROMA testbed is to provide a highly accurate and realistic framework where the performance of algorithms, policies, protocols, services, and applications for a complete heterogeneous wireless network can be fully assessed and evaluated before bringing them to a real system. The complexity of the interaction between all-IP B3G systems and user applications, while dealing with the Quality of Service (QoS concept, motivates the development of this kind of emulation platform where different solutions can be tested in realistic conditions that could not be achieved by means of simple offline simulations. This work provides an in-depth description of the AROMA testbed, emphasizing many interesting implementation details and lessons learned during the development of the tool that may result helpful to other researchers and system engineers in the development of similar emulation platforms. Several case studies are also presented in order to illustrate the full potential and capabilities of the presented emulation platform.

  9. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese.

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

    2014-10-01

    Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acid and the interaction between these environmental factors. Growth models were developed by combining new and existing cardinal parameter values. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameters (μref at 25°C) were fitted to a total of 52 growth rates from cottage cheese to improve model performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese. The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias- and accuracy factors and with the concept of acceptable simulation zone. Evaluation of predicted growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing resulted in bias-factors (Bf) of 1.07-1.10 with corresponding accuracy factor (Af) values of 1.11 to 1.22. Lactic acid bacteria from added starter culture were on average predicted to grow 16% faster than observed (Bf of 1.16 and Af of 1.32) and growth of the diacetyl producing aroma culture was on average predicted 9% slower than observed (Bf of 0.91 and Af of 1.17). The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new models to successfully predict maximum population density of L. monocytogenes when growing together with lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. 11 of 13 simulations of L

  10. Altered Levels of Aroma and Volatiles by Metabolic Engineering of Shikimate Pathway Genes in Tomato Fruits

    Vered Tzin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum fruit is an excellent source of antioxidants, dietary fibers, minerals and vitamins and therefore has been referred to as a “functional food”. Ripe tomato fruits produce a large number of specialized metabolites including volatile organic compounds. These volatiles serve as key components of the tomato fruit flavor, participate in plant pathogen and herbivore defense, and are used to attract seed dispersers. A major class of specialized metabolites is derived from the shikimate pathway followed by aromatic amino acid biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. We attempted to modify tomato fruit flavor by overexpressing key regulatory genes in the shikimate pathway. Bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive variants of 3-Deoxy-D-Arabino-Heptulosonate 7-Phosphate Synthase (DAHPS; AroG209-9 and bi-functional Chorismate Mutase/Prephenate Dehydratase (CM/PDT; PheA12 were expressed under the control of a fruit-specific promoter. We crossed these transgenes to generate tomato plants expressing both the AroG209 and PheA12 genes. Overexpression of the AroG209-9 gene had a dramatic effect on the overall metabolic profile of the fruit, including enhanced levels of multiple volatile and non-volatile metabolites. In contrast, the PheA12 overexpression line exhibited minor metabolic effects compared to the wild type fruit. Co-expression of both the AroG209-9 and PheA12 genes in tomato resulted overall in a similar metabolic effect to that of expressing only the AroG209-9 gene. However, the aroma ranking attributes of the tomato fruits from PheA12//AroG209-9 were unique and different from those of the lines expressing a single gene, suggesting a contribution of the PheA12 gene to the overall metabolic profile. We suggest that expression of bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive enzymes of the shikimate pathway in tomato fruits provides a useful metabolic engineering tool for the modification of

  11. Strawberry-flavored yogurts and whey beverages: What is the sensory profile of the ideal product?

    Janiaski, D R; Pimentel, T C; Cruz, A G; Prudencio, S H

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the sensory profile and Brazilian consumers' liking of strawberry-flavored yogurts and whey beverages (fermented or nonfermented) with different fat contents that were sweetened with sugar or nonsugar sweeteners. We also determined the influence of sensory attributes on consumer preferences and the profile of the ideal product. Nonfermented whey beverages (NFWB) and "light" yogurt were less liked. The NFWB were less acidic, less viscous, and with lower smoothness of mouthcoating, sweeter and with a more intense artificial strawberry aroma (ASA) than the fermented products. Low-fat yogurts were more liked, more viscous, and had higher smoothness of mouthcoating than nonfat yogurts. Fermented-whey beverages were as liked as yogurts. Viscosity and smoothness of mouthcoating positively influenced consumer liking. The ideal product had higher levels of brightness, artificial strawberry taste, artificial strawberry aroma, and sweet taste; intermediate smoothness of mouthcoating, color, and viscosity; and low particles, acid taste, and aroma. PMID:27157581

  12. Radiation dose and storage temperature and period effects on the flavor and aroma of orange juice

    Spoto, M.H.F.; Domarco, R.E.; Walder, J.M.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Scarminio, I.S. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Bruns, R.E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1995-12-31

    Effects of storage temperature and period on orange juice concentrates were studied for samples irradiated with 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy doses from a gamma-ray source as well as for untreated samples. All samples were stored at 0{sup 0} C, 5{sup 0} C and 25{sup 0} C for periods of 1,30, 60 and 90 days. Samples stored for more than one day underwent a diminution in storage attribute rating with corresponding increase in ratings for the bitterness, medicinal and cooked attributes. Storage at 0{sup 0} C and 5{sup 0} C seems to have smaller effects on the sweetness rating as well as on the oily, acid and medicinal flavor characteristics. Effect of radiation dose level on the flavor and aroma attributes depended on the storage temperature and time. In most cases, higher radiation levels are associated by lower orange attribute values and higher bitter medicinal and cooked ratings. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs.

  13. Aroma ageing trends in GC/MS profiles of liqueur wines.

    Pereira, Ana C; Reis, Marco S; Saraiva, Pedro M; Marques, José C

    2010-02-01

    Madeira wine has been studied with the main goal of acquiring a better understanding about the evolution of its properties over time. For that purpose, flexible and reliable data analysis tools were employed to characterize wines at different ageing stages, using flavour chromatography measurements. In this paper we present the results from such a study, where the main differences in the aroma profiles and their development in different types of aged Madeira wines are analyzed and evaluated according to their discriminating power. An exploratory multivariate data analysis was conducted using two different tools, namely biplots and contributions plots obtained through principal component analysis (PCA). In order to take advantage of the maximum amount of information provided by the chromatography data sets, a new approach that incorporates samples variability in the analysis of the statistical significance of contributions estimates, was developed and tested. In this way, it was possible to analyze which volatile compounds have statistically significant and/or similar contributions regarding the observed separation of wine samples from different groups. Furthermore, since several chemical compounds are expected to change together as a result of the ageing-related chemical reactions, they were clustered according to a similarity criterion relative to their importance in the trends observed in the scores space. Results obtained provide a sound basis for the differentiation and characterization of the ageing process followed by Madeira wines. PMID:20103109

  14. Monoterpene synthase from Dracocephalum kotschyi and SPME-GC-MS analysis of its aroma profile

    S. Saeidnia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum kotschyi (Lamiaceae, as one of the remarkable aromatic plants, widely grows and also is cultivated in various temperate regions of Iran. There are diverse reports about the composition of the oil of this plant representing limonene derivatives as its major compounds. There is no report on cloning of mono- or sesquiterpene synthases from this plant. In the present study, the aroma profile of D. kotschyi has been extracted and analyzed via Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction technique coupled with Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy. In order to determine the sequence of the active terpene synthase in this plant, first mRNA was prepared and cloning was performed by 3’ and 5’-RACEs-PCR method, then cDNA was sequenced and finally aligned with other recognized terpene synthases. The results showed that the plant leaves mainly comprised geranial (37.2%, limonene-10-al (28.5%, limonene (20.1% and 1,1-dimethoxy decane (14.5%. Sequencing the cDNA cloned from this plant revealed the presence of a monoterpene synthase absolutely similar to limonene synthase, responsible in formation of limonene, terpinolene, camphene and some other cyclic monoterpenes in its young leaves.

  15. The Effects of Aroma Foot Massage on Blood Pressure and Anxiety in Japanese Community-Dwelling Men and Women: A Crossover Randomized Controlled Trial

    Tomooka, Kiyohide; Ohira, Tetsuya; Ogino, Keiki; Tanigawa, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aroma foot massage on blood pressure, anxiety, and health-related quality of life (QOL) in Japanese community-dwelling men and women using a crossover randomized controlled trial. Methods Fifty-seven eligible participants (5 men and 52 women) aged 27 to 72 were randomly divided into 2 intervention groups (group A: n = 29; group B: n = 28) to participate in aroma foot massages 12 times during the 4-week intervention period. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively), heart rate, state anxiety, and health-related QOL were measured at the baseline, 4-week follow-up, and 8-week follow-up. The effects of the aroma foot massage intervention on these factors and the proportion of participants with anxiety were analyzed using a linear mixed-effect model for a crossover design adjusted for participant and period effects. Furthermore, the relationship between the changes in SBP and state anxiety among participants with relieved anxiety was assessed using a linear regression model. Results Aroma foot massage significantly decreased the mean SBP (p = 0.02), DBP (p = 0.006), and state anxiety (p = 0.003) as well as the proportion of participants with anxiety (p = 0.003). Although it was not statistically significant (p = 0.088), aroma foot massage also increased the score of mental health-related QOL. The change in SBP had a significant and positive correlation with the change in state anxiety (p = 0.01) among participants with relieved anxiety. Conclusion The self-administered aroma foot massage intervention significantly decreased the mean SBP and DBP as well as the state anxiety score, and tended to increase the mental health-related QOL scores. The results suggest that aroma foot massage may be an easy and effective way to improve mental health and blood pressure. Trial Registration University Hospital Medical Information Network 000014260 PMID:27010201

  16. The Effects of Aroma Foot Massage on Blood Pressure and Anxiety in Japanese Community-Dwelling Men and Women: A Crossover Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Eri Eguchi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aroma foot massage on blood pressure, anxiety, and health-related quality of life (QOL in Japanese community-dwelling men and women using a crossover randomized controlled trial.Fifty-seven eligible participants (5 men and 52 women aged 27 to 72 were randomly divided into 2 intervention groups (group A: n = 29; group B: n = 28 to participate in aroma foot massages 12 times during the 4-week intervention period. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively, heart rate, state anxiety, and health-related QOL were measured at the baseline, 4-week follow-up, and 8-week follow-up. The effects of the aroma foot massage intervention on these factors and the proportion of participants with anxiety were analyzed using a linear mixed-effect model for a crossover design adjusted for participant and period effects. Furthermore, the relationship between the changes in SBP and state anxiety among participants with relieved anxiety was assessed using a linear regression model.Aroma foot massage significantly decreased the mean SBP (p = 0.02, DBP (p = 0.006, and state anxiety (p = 0.003 as well as the proportion of participants with anxiety (p = 0.003. Although it was not statistically significant (p = 0.088, aroma foot massage also increased the score of mental health-related QOL. The change in SBP had a significant and positive correlation with the change in state anxiety (p = 0.01 among participants with relieved anxiety.The self-administered aroma foot massage intervention significantly decreased the mean SBP and DBP as well as the state anxiety score, and tended to increase the mental health-related QOL scores. The results suggest that aroma foot massage may be an easy and effective way to improve mental health and blood pressure.University Hospital Medical Information Network 000014260.

  17. Responsible Effects for Sensory Character of Meat Products

    BAŽANTOVÁ, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The thesis is literature review on the subject - Responsible Effects for Sensory Character of Meat Products. The introductory part deals with the human sense. Visual sense, smell and taste are of great importance in the sensory evaluation of foods. For meat and meat products to evaluate the sensory characteristic - color, aroma, flavor, consistence, succulence, texture, general appearance and appearance on cut. Various meat products differ in the way of production. According to current legisl...

  18. Determination of the effects of different washing processes on aroma characteristics in silver carp mince by MMSE-GC-MS, e-nose and sensory evaluation.

    Zhou, Xuxia; Chong, Yunqing; Ding, Yuting; Gu, Saiqi; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-15

    The present study investigated the volatile compounds of silver carp mince and the effects of washing processes on the integral aroma characteristics and aroma-active compounds (AACs) of the mince. 57 volatile compounds were identified by monolithic material sorptive extraction (MMSE) and GC-MS analysis, and 13 volatile compounds with odor activity values greater than 1 (OAVs > 1) were further selected as AACs contributing primarily to the integral aroma profile of silver carp. Washing methods affected the overall aroma profiles of fish samples by washing away or facilitating the release of AACs but to different extents. Compared with water washing, washing with saline and weak alkaline solution removed more AACs. Washing with water three times (T2) exhibited a relatively stronger removal effect on most AACs compared to washing with water twice (T1). Washing with a high concentration of saline (T4) produced a strong removal effect on AACs. The results of sensory evaluation and electronic nose (e-nose) detection for distinguishing the aroma characteristics of different samples demonstrated good agreement with those obtained by OAV analysis. PMID:27080898

  19. Effects of Aroma Massage on Home Blood Pressure, Ambulatory Blood Pressure, and Sleep Quality in Middle-Aged Women with Hypertension

    Myeong-Sook Ju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of aroma massage applied to middle-aged women with hypertension. The research study had a nonequivalent control group, nonsynchronized design to investigate the effect on home blood pressure (BP, ambulatory BP, and sleep. The hypertensive patients were allocated into the aroma massage group (n=28, the placebo group (n=28, and the no-treatment control group (n=27. To evaluate the effects of aroma massage, the experimental group received a massage with essential oils prescribed by an aromatherapist once a week and body cream once a day. The placebo group received a massage using artificial fragrance oil once a week and body cream once a day. BP, pulse rate, sleep conditions, and 24-hour ambulatory BP were monitored before and after the experiment. There was a significant difference in home systolic blood pressure (SBP (F=6.71, P=0.002 between groups after intervention. There was also a significant difference in SBP (F=13.34, P=0.001 and diastolic blood pressure (DBP (F=8.46, P=0.005 in the laboratory between aroma massage and placebo groups. In sleep quality, there was a significant difference between groups (F=6.75, P=0.002. In conclusion, aroma massage may help improve patient quality of life and maintain health as a nursing intervention in daily life.

  20. A Study on Enhancing Aroma of Famous Green Tea%名优茶增香工艺研究

    倪德江; 陈玉琼; 周继荣; 袁芳亭

    2001-01-01

    The effect of improving was studied on rotary continuous fixation machine model 30. Results showed that the machine could be used to improve aroma of FGT,and the qulity of FGT wa s affected by temperature and time during improving aroma.Contents of polyphenol and chlorophyll, soluble sugar decreased and amino acid increased with the rise of t emperature and time in the process of improving aroma at the temperature of belo w 130℃. The flavor got buint and the color yellowish during the process at the t emperature of above 130℃. The aroma constituents were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The results revealed that contents of most aroma constituents, such as dihydroac tinidiolide, geraniol, linalool etc., increased markedly during improving aroma. It suggested that dried tea should be passed through the machine at 120℃ or 110℃ for 10~30 s in order to obtain the quality of chestnut flavor.%以卷曲形名优茶为试材,研究了30型滚筒连续杀青机用于名优绿茶增香的效果。结果表明,30型滚筒连续杀青机可用于名优绿茶增香;增香的温度和时间对名优绿茶的品质有较大影响。在温度低于130℃范围,随着增香温度的升高,茶多酚、叶绿素、可溶性糖含量呈下降趋势,氨基酸呈增加趋势;随着时间的增加,茶多酚、叶绿素、氨基酸含量下降,可溶性糖含量增加;在温度超过130℃时,茶叶色泽易黄变,香味易焦变。香气分析结果表明,在增香过程中,二氢海葵内酯、香叶醇、芳樟醇等具有良好香型的香气成分含量明显上升。结合内质分析和感官审评结果,采用30型滚筒连续杀青机增香的最佳温度和时间是12 0℃ 10~30 s,其次是110℃ 10~30 s,所制茶叶栗香高长。

  1. Retención de aroma durante el secado de extracto de café en un sistema cerrado

    J.F. Vílchez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el secado de alimentos líquidos, componentes volátiles presentes en baja concentración que contribuyen al aroma y sabor del producto final son removidos junto con el agua. En consecuencia la calidad del producto final es considerablemente afectada por la cantidad de substancias volátiles que son retenidas durante el proceso de secado. En el extracto de café, por ejemplo, existen cientos de tales compuestos, la mayoría de ellos altamente volátiles por lo que se pierden cuando el extracto es transformado en polvo seco. Independientemente del método utilizado, parece ser imposible evitar completamente la perdida de compuestos volátiles durante el secado. Un método potencial para mejorar la retención del aroma durante el secado es utilizar un sistema que trabaje a ciclo cerrado. Con el propósito de estudiar este proceso una planta piloto que consiste de un secador por aspersión, un secador de lecho fluidizado vibratorio, un sistema de recuperación de vapores e intercambiadores de calor para recalentar el aire reciclado ha sido diseñada y esta en la fase final de instalación en la Facultad de Ingeniería Química de la Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, en Managua, para hacer un estudio del método potencial de recuperación de aroma del extracto de café. Este estudio tendrá como resultado no solo un café soluble de mejor calidad sino que además un método capaz de mejorar el procesamiento de muchos otros alimentos líquidos.

  2. Inline roasting hyphenated with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as an innovative approach for assessment of cocoa fermentation quality and aroma formation potential.

    Van Durme, Jim; Ingels, Isabel; De Winne, Ann

    2016-08-15

    Today, the cocoa industry is in great need of faster and robust analytical techniques to objectively assess incoming cocoa quality. In this work, inline roasting hyphenated with a cooled injection system coupled to a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (ILR-CIS-GC-MS) has been explored for the first time to assess fermentation quality and/or overall aroma formation potential of cocoa. This innovative approach resulted in the in-situ formation of relevant cocoa aroma compounds. After comparison with data obtained by headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME-GC-MS) on conventional roasted cocoa beans, ILR-CIS-GC-MS data on unroasted cocoa beans showed similar formation trends of important cocoa aroma markers as a function of fermentation quality. The latter approach only requires small aliquots of unroasted cocoa beans, can be automatated, requires no sample preparation, needs relatively short analytical times (<1h) and is highly reproducible. PMID:27006215

  3. Regression Analysis of Nutrient Elements between Soil and Tobacco Leaves and Their Influences on Aroma Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Xueqin XU; Xiaolan LI; Zhiyan CHEN; Defen ZENG; Aifei XU

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the relationship between nutrient elements K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe in tobacco-planting soils and tobacco leaves from six main tobacco-producing areas, and to investigate the influences of these elements on chemical composition and aroma components in tobacco leaves. Results showed that there were certain relationship between contents of nutrient elements in tobac-co-planting soils and contents of corresponding elements in tobacco leaves; various elements exhibited different influences on the aroma quality of flue-cured tobacco. Based on the actual situation of nutrient contents in soils from different tobacco-producing areas, contents of various elements in tobacco leaves should be regulat-ed by soil fertilization and foliar spraying, thereby improving the aroma quality of flue-cured tobacco.

  4. Metabolic Engineering of the Phenylpropanoid and Its Primary, Precursor Pathway to Enhance the Flavor of Fruits and the Aroma of Flowers

    Hadas Peled-Zehavi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce a diverse repertoire of specialized metabolites that have multiple roles throughout their life cycle. Some of these metabolites are essential components of the aroma and flavor of flowers and fruits. Unfortunately, attempts to increase the yield and prolong the shelf life of crops have generally been associated with reduced levels of volatile specialized metabolites and hence with decreased aroma and flavor. Thus, there is a need for the development of new varieties that will retain their desired traits while gaining enhanced scent and flavor. Metabolic engineering holds great promise as a tool for improving the profile of emitted volatiles of domesticated crops. This mini review discusses recent attempts to utilize metabolic engineering of the phenylpropanoid and its primary precursor pathway to enhance the aroma and flavor of flowers and fruits.

  5. Modelling stochastic variability and uncertainty in aroma active compounds of PEF-treated peach nectar as a function of physical and sensory properties, and treatment time.

    Evrendilek, Gulsun Akdemir; Avsar, Yahya Kemal; Evrendilek, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) processing on 28 aroma active compounds, and four physical and eight sensory properties of peach nectar were explored using the best-fit multiple linear regression (MLR) models and Monte Carlo simulations as a function of the treatment times of 0, 66, 131, and 210 μs. The PEF treatment time of 131 μs on average led consistently to the least loss of most compounds. Significantly enhanced or no significant changes in the sensory properties were found as a function of the PEF treatment times. The most influential sensory predictor of the 28 MLR models was flavour, while the aroma compound most influential on the sensory properties of aftertaste, flavour, sweetness, and overall acceptance was octadecanoic acid. Monte Carlo simulations were used for the probabilistic assessments of stochastic variability and uncertainty associated with aroma active compounds of PEF-treated peach nectar. PMID:26213021

  6. 生香酵母对特香型白酒风味风格的影响研究%Effects of Aroma-producing Yeast on the Style and the Flavor of Site Liquor

    余伟民; 徐小明; 林培; 吴生文

    2012-01-01

    生香酵母具有较强的氧化特性和产酯能力,特香型白酒生产中,在入池发酵的酒醅中添加生香酵母,考察其对发酵所产基酒中醇、醛、酸、酯等风味成分及其风格的影响。结果表明,总酯、四大乙酯和丙酸乙酯均有较大的增幅,各主要酯比例变化不大;总酸最大提高12.20%,乙酸、丙酸和丁酸均有较大提高;能适当增加醇类的含量;醛类变化规律不明显。经品评,添加生香酵母可使酒体醇厚、诸香协调,不会改变特香型白酒的风味风格。%Aroma-producing yeast has strong oxidation properties and ester-producing capabilities. In the production of Site liquor, aroma-producing yeast was added in fermented grains for pit entry and its effects on flavoring substances such as alcohols, aldehydes, acids and esters in base liquor and its effects on the style of Site liquor were investigated. The results showed that the content of total esters, four main kinds of ethyl esters, and ethyl propionate increased greatly, there was little change in the proportion of major esters, total acids content increased by 12.20 % to the maximum, the content of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid also increased greatly, alcohols content increased a little and the change of aldehydes was not evident. Through sensory evaluation, the base liquor produced by addition of aroma-producing yeast was more harmonious, and the flavor and the style of Site liquor would not change.

  7. Aromas florales y su interacción con los insectos polinizadores Floral scents and their interaction with insect pollinators

    Julieta Grajales-Conesa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas emplean diversas señales visuales y olfativas con la finalidad de atraer a los polinizadores que en su mayoría son insectos. Algunas plantas han desarrollado mecanismos, basándose en mensajes olfativos que los hacen únicos para sus polinizadores específicos. Estos mecanismos, así como las variaciones intra- e interespecíficas en el perfil de los aromas florales han evolucionado para determinadas especies. Los aromas florales son un conjunto de compuestos volátiles orgánicos y para su estudio hay varios métodos que requieren de técnicas que cada vez son más eficientes. El uso de estos aromas podría ser una opción en determinados sistemas de polinización, utilizándolos como atrayente de polinizadores o de depredadores y/o herbívoro para incrementar la producción y disminuir los daños por plagas. En este trabajo se revisan las distintas interacciones de los insectos y los aromas florales, los sistemas específicos planta-polinizador, los métodos de análisis, así como algunos patrones o tendencias de estas interacciones y su aplicación e importancia.Plants use visual and olfactory cues to attract pollinators and to allow them to detect the presence of flowers, which most of them are insects. Some plants have evolved with their pollinators, based on the olfactory messages, which make them unique for their specific pollinators. These mechanisms have evolved in certain plants in relation to their pollinators, and there are also inter and intra-specific variation in fragrance cues which show specific chemical profile for each plant species, so insects attracted are specific to them. Most of the floral scents are organic compounds identified with techniques and methodologies which become more specific and efficient along the time. The application of floral scent could be used as a tool in pollination and pest management. In these studies, insect interaction with floral scent is reviewed and specificity of plant

  8. Aroma Quality of Fruits of Wild and Cultivated Strawberry (FRAGARIA SPP.) in Relation to the Flavour-Related Gene Expression

    Bianchi Giulia; Lovazzano Andrea; Lanubile Alessandra; Marocco Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Expression profiles of flavour-related genes and the aroma quality of fruit headspace were investigated in the four strawberry genotypes ‘Reine des Vallées’ (Fragaria vesca), ‘Profumata di Tortona’ (F mos-chata), ‘Onda’ and VR 177 selection (F” x ananassa). Differences in the expression level of genes coding of strawberry alcohol acyltransferase (SAAT), F. x ananassa nerolidol synthase 1 (FaNESl) and F vesca monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases (FvPINS and PINS1, respectively) were detecte...

  9. Characterization of aroma-active compounds in dry flower of Malva sylvestris L. by GC-MS-O analysis and OAV calculations.

    Usami, Atsushi; Kashima, Yusei; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the aroma-active compounds in the dried flower of Malva sylvestris L. were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA). A light yellow oil with a sweet odor was obtained with a percentage yield of 0.039% (w/w), and 143 volatile compounds (89.86%) were identified by GC-MS. The main compounds were hexadecanoic acid (10.1%), pentacosane (4.8%) and 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (4.1%). The essential oil consisted mainly of hydrocarbons (25.40%) followed by, alcohols (18.78%), acids (16.66%), ethers (5.01%) ketones (7.28%), esters(12.43%), aldehydes (2.30%) and others (2.00%). Of these compounds, 20 were determined by GC-O and AEDA, to be odor-active (FD (flavor dilution) factor ≥ 1). β-Damascenone (FD = 9, sweet), phenylacetaldehyde (FD = 8, floral, honey-like) and (E)-β-ocimene (FD = 8, spicy) were the most intense aroma-active compounds in M. sylvestris. In order to determine the relative contribution of each of the compounds to the aroma of M. sylvestris, odor activity values (OAVs) were used. β-Damascenone had the highest odor activity values (OAV) (50,700), followed by (E)-β-ionone (15,444) and decanal (3,510). In particular, β-damascenone had a high FD factors, and therefore, this compound was considered to be the main aroma-active components of the essential oil. On the basis of AEDA, OAVs, and sensory evaluation results, β-damascenone is estimated to be the main aroma-active compound of the essential oil. PMID:23985485

  10. Flavor and stability of milk proteins.

    Smith, T J; Campbell, R E; Jo, Y; Drake, M A

    2016-06-01

    A greater understanding of the nature and source of dried milk protein ingredient flavor(s) is required to characterize flavor stability and identify the sources of flavors. The objective of this study was to characterize the flavor and flavor chemistry of milk protein concentrates (MPC 70, 80, 85), isolates (MPI), acid and rennet caseins, and micellar casein concentrate (MCC) and to determine the effect of storage on flavor and functionality of milk protein concentrates using instrumental and sensory techniques. Spray-dried milk protein ingredients (MPC, MPI, caseins, MCC) were collected in duplicate from 5 commercial suppliers or manufactured at North Carolina State University. Powders were rehydrated and evaluated in duplicate by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Compounds were identified by comparison of retention indices, odor properties, and mass spectra against reference standards. A subset of samples was selected for further analysis using direct solvent extraction with solvent-assisted flavor extraction, and aroma extract dilution analysis. External standard curves were created to quantify select volatile compounds. Pilot plant manufactured MPC were stored at 3, 25, and 40°C (44% relative humidity). Solubility, furosine, sensory properties, and volatile compound analyses were performed at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 mo. Milk proteins and caseins were diverse in flavor and exhibited sweet aromatic and cooked/milky flavors as well as cardboard, brothy, tortilla, soapy, and fatty flavors. Key aroma active compounds in milk proteins and caseins were 2-aminoacetophenone, nonanal, 1-octen-3-one, dimethyl trisulfide, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, heptanal, methional, 1-hexen-3-one, hexanal, dimethyl disulfide, butanoic acid, and acetic acid. Stored milk proteins developed animal and burnt sugar flavors over time. Solubility of

  11. Characterization of Aroma Active Compounds in Fruit Juice and Peel Oil of Jinchen Sweet Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by GC-MS and GC-O

    Si Yi Pan; Xiao Lin Yao; Gang Fan; Yun Zhang; Yan Zhang; Bi Jun Xie; Yu Qiao

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC-O) were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve comp...

  12. Classification of E-Nose Aroma Data of Four Fruit Types by ABC-Based Neural Network

    M. Fatih Adak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose technology is used in many areas, and frequently in the beverage industry for classification and quality-control purposes. In this study, four different aroma data (strawberry, lemon, cherry, and melon were obtained using a MOSES II electronic nose for the purpose of fruit classification. To improve the performance of the classification, the training phase of the neural network with two hidden layers was optimized using artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC, which is known to be successful in exploration. Test data were given to two different neural networks, each of which were trained separately with backpropagation (BP and ABC, and average test performances were measured as 60% for the artificial neural network trained with BP and 76.39% for the artificial neural network trained with ABC. Training and test phases were repeated 30 times to obtain these average performance measurements. This level of performance shows that the artificial neural network trained with ABC is successful in classifying aroma data.

  13. Identification of Piperitone as an Aroma Compound Contributing to the Positive Mint Nuances Perceived in Aged Red Bordeaux Wines.

    Picard, Magali; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; de Revel, Gilles; Marchand, Stéphanie

    2016-01-20

    Although a sensory definition of the aging bouquet of red Bordeaux wines was recently established, its chemical transcription has only partially been elucidated. A multiple-step approach, combining sensory evaluations of red Bordeaux wines and aromatic reconstitutions of wine extract fractions, was used to identify the molecular markers involved. One wine with a high aging-bouquet score and a mint nuance has received particular attention. Various reconstitution and omission tests highlighted the contribution of two specific fractions to the intensity of the perception of mint aroma. Gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry and mass spectrometry was applied to the targeted fractions to identify molecular marker(s) responsible for the mint nuance in fine red Bordeaux wines. A similar analytical process was applied to selected fractions of essential oils presenting mint odors to characterize them and interpret the mass spectrometry data. This approach resulted in the detection of piperitone, a monoterpene ketone that, to the best of our knowledge, was reported for the first time as a contributor to the positive mint aroma of aged red Bordeaux wines. PMID:26735409

  14. Analysis of aroma compounds and nutrient contents of mabolo (Diospyros blancoi A. DC., an ethnobotanical fruit of Austronesian Taiwan

    Sheng-Feng Hung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diospyros blancoi A. DC. is an evergreen tree species of high-quality wood. Mabolo, the fruit of this plant, is popular among the natives in Taiwan, but its potential in economic use has not been fully explored. Mabolo has a rich aroma. Of the 39 different volatile compounds isolated, its intact fruit and peel were found to both contain 24 compounds, whereas the pulp contained 28 compounds. The most important aroma compounds were esters and α-farnesene. Our data show that mabolo is rich in dietary fiber (3.2%, and the contents of other nutrients such as malic acid, vitamin B2, vitamin B3, folic acid, pantothenic acid, and choline chloride were 227.1 mg/100 g, 0.075 mg/100 g, 0.157 mg/100 g, 0.623 mg/100 g, 0.19 mg/100 g, and 62.52 mg/100 g, respectively. Moreover, it is rich in calcium and zinc; the contents of which were found to be 42.8 mg/100 g and 3.6 mg/100 g, respectively. Our results show that D. blancoi has the potential to be bred for a novel fruit.

  15. Past and Future of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts: From Spoilage Microorganisms to Biotechnological Tools for Improving Wine Aroma Complexity.

    Padilla, Beatriz; Gil, José V; Manzanares, Paloma

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, considered in the past as undesired or spoilage yeasts, can enhance the analytical composition, and aroma profile of the wine. The contribution of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, including the ability to secret enzymes and produce secondary metabolites, glycerol and ethanol, release of mannoproteins or contributions to color stability, is species- and strain-specific, pointing out the key importance of a clever strain selection. The use of mixed starters of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts with strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an alternative to both spontaneous and inoculated wine fermentations, taking advantage of the potential positive role that non-Saccharomyces wine yeast species play in the organoleptic characteristics of wine. In this context mixed starters can meet the growing demand for new and improved wine yeast strains adapted to different types and styles of wine. With the aim of presenting old and new evidences on the potential of non-Saccharomyces yeasts to address this market trend, we mainly review the studies focused on non-Saccharomyces strain selection and design of mixed starters directed to improve primary and secondary aroma of wines. The ability of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts to produce enzymes and metabolites of oenological relevance is also discussed. PMID:27065975

  16. Classification of E-Nose Aroma Data of Four Fruit Types by ABC-Based Neural Network

    Adak, M. Fatih; Yumusak, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    Electronic nose technology is used in many areas, and frequently in the beverage industry for classification and quality-control purposes. In this study, four different aroma data (strawberry, lemon, cherry, and melon) were obtained using a MOSES II electronic nose for the purpose of fruit classification. To improve the performance of the classification, the training phase of the neural network with two hidden layers was optimized using artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC), which is known to be successful in exploration. Test data were given to two different neural networks, each of which were trained separately with backpropagation (BP) and ABC, and average test performances were measured as 60% for the artificial neural network trained with BP and 76.39% for the artificial neural network trained with ABC. Training and test phases were repeated 30 times to obtain these average performance measurements. This level of performance shows that the artificial neural network trained with ABC is successful in classifying aroma data. PMID:26927124

  17. Past and Future of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts: From Spoilage Microorganisms to Biotechnological Tools for Improving Wine Aroma Complexity

    Padilla, Beatriz; Gil, José V.; Manzanares, Paloma

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, considered in the past as undesired or spoilage yeasts, can enhance the analytical composition, and aroma profile of the wine. The contribution of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, including the ability to secret enzymes and produce secondary metabolites, glycerol and ethanol, release of mannoproteins or contributions to color stability, is species- and strain-specific, pointing out the key importance of a clever strain selection. The use of mixed starters of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts with strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an alternative to both spontaneous and inoculated wine fermentations, taking advantage of the potential positive role that non-Saccharomyces wine yeast species play in the organoleptic characteristics of wine. In this context mixed starters can meet the growing demand for new and improved wine yeast strains adapted to different types and styles of wine. With the aim of presenting old and new evidences on the potential of non-Saccharomyces yeasts to address this market trend, we mainly review the studies focused on non-Saccharomyces strain selection and design of mixed starters directed to improve primary and secondary aroma of wines. The ability of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts to produce enzymes and metabolites of oenological relevance is also discussed. PMID:27065975

  18. A methodological approach to screen diverse cheese-related bacteria for their ability to produce aroma compounds.

    Pogačić, Tomislav; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Leclerc, Aurélie; Hervé, Christophe; Chuat, Victoria; Yee, Alyson L; Valence, Florence; Thierry, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Microorganisms play an important role in the development of cheese flavor. The aim of this study was to develop an approach to facilitate screening of various cheese-related bacteria for their ability to produce aroma compounds. We combined i) curd-based slurry medium incubated under conditions mimicking cheese manufacturing and ripening, ii) powerful method of extraction of volatiles, headspace trap, coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-trap-GC-MS), and iii) metabolomics-based method of data processing using the XCMS package of R software and multivariate analysis. This approach was applied to eleven species: five lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc lactis, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus helveticus), four actinobacteria (Brachybacterium articum, Brachybacterium tyrofermentans, Brevibacterium aurantiacum, and Microbacterium gubbeenense), Propionibacterium freudenreichii, and Hafnia alvei. All the strains grew, with maximal populations ranging from 7.4 to 9.2 log (CFU/mL). In total, 52 volatile aroma compounds were identified, of which 49 varied significantly in abundance between bacteria. Principal component analysis of volatile profiles differentiated species by their ability to produce ethyl esters (associated with Brachybacteria), sulfur compounds and branched-chain alcohols (H. alvei), branched-chain acids (H. alvei, P. freudenreichii and L. paracasei), diacetyl and related carbonyl compounds (M. gubbeenense and L. paracasei), among others. PMID:25475278

  19. Classification of E-Nose Aroma Data of Four Fruit Types by ABC-Based Neural Network.

    Adak, M Fatih; Yumusak, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    Electronic nose technology is used in many areas, and frequently in the beverage industry for classification and quality-control purposes. In this study, four different aroma data (strawberry, lemon, cherry, and melon) were obtained using a MOSES II electronic nose for the purpose of fruit classification. To improve the performance of the classification, the training phase of the neural network with two hidden layers was optimized using artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC), which is known to be successful in exploration. Test data were given to two different neural networks, each of which were trained separately with backpropagation (BP) and ABC, and average test performances were measured as 60% for the artificial neural network trained with BP and 76.39% for the artificial neural network trained with ABC. Training and test phases were repeated 30 times to obtain these average performance measurements. This level of performance shows that the artificial neural network trained with ABC is successful in classifying aroma data. PMID:26927124

  20. Past and future of non-Saccharomyces yeasts: from spoilage microorganisms to biotechnological tools for improving wine aroma complexity

    Beatriz ePadilla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, considered in the past as undesired or spoilage yeasts, can enhance the analytical composition and aroma profile of the wine. The contribution of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, including the ability to secret enzymes and produce secondary metabolites, glycerol and ethanol, release of mannoproteins or contributions to color stability, is species- and strain-specific, pointing out the key importance of a clever strain selection. The use of mixed starters of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts with strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an alternative to both spontaneous and inoculated wine fermentations, taking advantage of the potential positive role that non-Saccharomyces wine yeast species play in the organoleptic characteristics of wine. In this context mixed starters can meet the growing demand for new and improved wine yeast strains adapted to different types and styles of wine. With the aim of presenting old and new evidences on the potential of non-Saccharomyces yeasts to address this market trend, we mainly review the studies focused on non-Saccharomyces strain selection and design of mixed starters directed to improve primary and secondary aroma of wines. The ability of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts to produce enzymes and metabolites of oenological relevance is also discussed.

  1. 豫中浓香型烤烟香气质量与中性致香成分关系分析%Analysis of Relationships between Neutral Aroma Constituents and Aroma Concentration and Quality in Flavor Enriched Flue-cured Tobacco in Central Henan Province

    李俊丽; 叶协锋; 赵莉; 张腾; 李佳颖; 王伟宁; 于建军

    2012-01-01

    To determine material basis for the impact of aroma concentration and quality of flue-cured tobacco, using partial correlation analysis, path analysis, and stepwise regression analysis, the authors carried out quantitative relations analysis between neutral aroma constituents and concentration and quality of aroma in flue-cured tobacco. The results showed that regression model of quality of aroma and concentration of aroma of great significance were established, and both of these were significant at 1% level. 16 kinds of representative neutral aroma constituents in flue—cured tobacco had different direct influence on quality and concentration of aroma. Megastigmatrienone-3 had the greatest direct positive influence on concentration of aroma, megastigmatrienone-2 had the greatest direct negative influence on quality of aroma. Megastigmatrienone-2 had the greatest direct positive influence on concentration of aroma, (3 —damascenone had the greatest direct positive negative influence on concentration of aroma. Megastig— matrienone—1, phenylethanol, furfural and neophytadiene had direct influence on quality of aroma. Pseuaoinonone, benzaldehyde, 2-acetyl pyrrole and solanone had direct negative influence on concentration of aroma.%为确定影响香气质、香气量的中性致香成分的物质基础,采用偏相关分析、通径分析和逐步回归的分析方法,研究了烤烟香气质、香气量与中性致香成分的关系.结果表明,建立的香气质、香气量2个回归方程经显著性测验均达到极显著水平.烟叶中的18种中性致香成分对香气量、香气质直接影响各不相同.香气质受巨豆三烯酮3直接正面影响最大,而受巨豆三烯酮2直接负面影响最大;香气量受巨豆三烯酮2直接正面影响最大,而受巨豆三烯酮3直接负面影响最大.对香气质、香气量起直接正面影响作用的有巨豆三烯酮1、苯乙醇、糠醛以及新植二烯,对香气质、香气

  2. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  3. Characterization of the major odor-active compounds in Thai durian ( Durio zibethinus L. 'Monthong') by aroma extract dilution analysis and headspace gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    Li, Jia-Xiao; Schieberle, Peter; Steinhaus, Martin

    2012-11-14

    An aroma extract dilution analysis applied on the volatile fraction isolated from Thai durian by solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation resulted in 44 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 1-16384, 41 of which could be identified and 24 that had not been reported in durian before. High FD factors were found for ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate (fruity; FD 16384), ethyl cinnamate (honey; FD 4096), and 1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethanethiol (roasted onion; FD 1024), followed by 1-(ethyldisulfanyl)-1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethane (sulfury, onion), 2(5)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5(2)-methylfuran-3(2H)-one (caramel), 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one (soup seasoning), ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity), ethyl butanoate (fruity), 3-methylbut-2-ene-1-thiol (skunky), ethane-1,1-dithiol (sulfury, durian), 1-(methylsulfanyl)ethanethiol (roasted onion), 1-(ethylsulfanyl)propane-1-thiol (roasted onion), and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one (caramel). Among the highly volatile compounds screened by static headspace gas chromatography-olfactometry, hydrogen sulfide (rotten egg), acetaldehyde (fresh, fruity), methanethiol (rotten, cabbage), ethanethiol (rotten, onion), and propane-1-thiol (rotten, durian) were found as additional potent odor-active compounds. Fourteen of the 41 characterized durian odorants showed an alkane-1,1-dithiol, 1-(alkylsulfanyl)alkane-1-thiol, or 1,1-bis(alkylsulfanyl)alkane structure derived from acetaldehyde, propanal, hydrogen sulfide, and alkane-1-thiols. Among these, 1-(propylsulfanyl)ethanethiol, 1-{[1-(methylsulfanyl)ethyl]sulfanyl}ethanethiol, and 1-{[1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethyl]sulfanyl}ethanethiol were reported for the first time in a natural product. PMID:23088286

  4. Isolation and Identification of Aroma Producing Staphylococci from Sichuan Sausage%四川香肠中产香葡萄球菌的分离与鉴定

    杨勇; 张雪梅; 程艳; 刘书亮; 李诚; 秦文; 蒲彪

    2011-01-01

    从四川自然发酵香肠中共分离得到242株微球菌和葡萄球菌,采用快速半定量平板方法从中筛选出了硝酸盐还原酶活性较大的株菌80株,并对这些菌株进行发酵基本实验和产香基本要求实验,筛选得到了2株过氧化氢酶阳性葡萄球菌S15和S25。通过GC-MS分析发现,在实验条件下只有S25具有代谢亮氨酸生成3-甲基丁醛的能力。生化鉴定以及菌株的16S rDNA测序结果表明,S25为腐生葡萄球菌。%A total of 242 strains of Micrococcaceae and Staphylococcus were isolated from Sichuan natural fermented sausages.80 strains which have high nitrate reduction properties were selected by a fast semi-quantitative plate assay method.Different experiments were carried out according to the common selection criteria of starter culture and aroma production.Two strains of Staphylococcus named S15 and S25 were obtained with the ability to produce catalase.GC-MS analysis showed that only S25 produced 3-methyl-butanal from leucine under the experimental conditions.S25 was identified as Staphylococcus saprophyticus by its biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequences.

  5. Cell-free supernatants obtained from fermentation of cheese whey hydrolyzates and phenylpyruvic acid by Lactobacillus plantarum as a source of antimicrobial compounds, bacteriocins, and natural aromas.

    Rodríguez-Pazo, Noelia; Vázquez-Araújo, Laura; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés-Diéguez, Sandra; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2013-10-01

    Cheese whey hydrolyzates supplemented with phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) and commercial nutrients can be efficiently metabolized by Lactobacillus plantarum CECT-221 to biosynthesize some compounds with attractive applications in the food market. The main metabolites of cell-free extracts were antimicrobial compounds such as phenyllactic acid (PLA) and lactic acid (LA). The production of PLA by L. plantarum CECT-221 was evaluated in the Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth supplemented with two biosynthetic precursors: phenylalanine or PPA. Using 30.5 mM PPA, the microorganism increased sevenfold the concentration of PLA producing 16.4 mM PLA in 46 h. A concentration of 40 mM PPA was a threshold to avoid substrate inhibition. The biosynthesis of whey hydrolyzates as a carbon source was enhanced by fed-batch fermentation of PPA; the average productivity of PLA increased up to 45.4 ± 3.02 mM after 120 h with a product yield of 0.244 mM mM(-1); meanwhile, LA reached 26.1 ± 1.3 g L(-1) with a product yield of 0.72 g g(-1). Cell-free fed-batch extracts charged in wells showed bacteriocin activity with halos of 7.49 ± 1.44 mm in plates inoculated with Carnobacterium piscicola and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (11.54 ± 1.14 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.17 ± 2.46 mm), Listeria monocytogenes (7.75 ± 1.31 mm), and Salmonella enterica (3.60 ± 1.52 mm). Additionally, the analysis of the volatile composition of the headspace of this cell-free extract revealed that L. plantarum is a potential producer for natural aromas, such as acetophenone, with high price in the market. This is the first report of PLA production from cheese whey and PPA. The extracts showed bacteriocin activity and potential to be applied as an antimicrobial in the elaboration of safer foods. PMID:23934083

  6. Identification of character-impact odorants in a cola-flavored carbonated beverage by quantitative analysis and omission studies of aroma reconstitution models.

    Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-01-28

    Thirty aroma-active components of a cola-flavored carbonated beverage were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. The OAV results revealed that 1,8-cineole, (R)-(-)-linalool, and octanal made the greatest contribution to the overall aroma of the cola. A cola aroma reconstitution model was constructed by adding 20 high-purity standards to an aqueous sucrose-phosphoric acid solution. The results of headspace solid-phase microextraction and sensory analyses were used to adjust the model to better match authentic cola. The rebalanced model was used as a complete model for the omission study. Sensory results indicated that omission of a group consisting of methyleugenol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and (Z)- and (E)-isoeugenols differed from the complete model, while omission of the individual components of this group did not differ from the complete model. These results indicate that a balance of numerous odorants is responsible for the characteristic aroma of cola-flavored carbonated beverages. PMID:25529113

  7. Characterization of aroma-active and phenolic profiles of wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum) by GC-MS-Olfactometry and LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    The present study was designed to characterize the volatile, aroma-active and phenolic compounds of wild thyme. Volatile components of T. serpyllum were extracted by use of the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The extraction method gave highly representative aromatic extract of the studied sample based on the sensory analysis. A total of 24 compounds were identified and quantified in Thymus serpyllum. Terpenes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in the sample. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the first time for the determination of aroma-active compounds of Thymus serpyllum. In total, 12 aroma-active compounds were detected in the aromatic extract by GC-MS-Olfactometry and terpenes were the most abundant compounds. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. 18 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the T. serpyllum. Luteolin 7-O-glucoside, luteolin and rosmarinic acid were the most abundant phenolics in this herb. PMID:27413222

  8. The impact of kitchen and food service preparation practices on the volatile aroma profile in ripe tomatoes: Effects of refrigeration and blanching

    Both refrigeration and blanching of red stage tomatoes are common practices in Japan home kitchens and in food service operations. However, little is reported on the impact of such practices on aroma profiles in tomato fruits. In this study, ‘FL 47’ tomatoes at red stage were dipped in 50 °C hot wat...

  9. Changes in physico-chemical and volatile aroma compound composition of Gewürztraminer wine as a result of late and ice harvest.

    Lukić, Igor; Radeka, Sanja; Grozaj, Nikola; Staver, Mario; Peršurić, Đordano

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the changes in physico-chemical and aroma composition after late and ice harvest, Gewürztraminer wines were subjected to standard, enzymatic and GC/MS analysis. Late harvest (LHGW) and ice wines (IHGW) contained more sugars, extract and volatile acidity than standard wines (SGW). IHGW had elevated glycerol and gluconic acid amounts. LHGW was richer in monoterpenol oxides, β-damascenone, 1-octen-3-ol, acetates, ethyl cinnamate and 4-vinylguaiacol than SGW. IHGW contained even higher amounts, with increased citronellol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, dicarboxylic acids esters, benzenoids, furans and acetals, and reduced fermentation aroma compounds. Based on odour activity values, the strongest odorants in SGW were fruity esters. In LHGW the impact of esters increased, while in IHGW cis-rose oxide, β-damascenone and 1,1-diethoxyethane emerged as the most potent. Fruity and sweet were the dominant aroma compound series in SGW and LHGW, but in IHGW declined, while terpenic, floral, chemical, pungent and ripe fruit aroma compound series increased. PMID:26593588

  10. Inhibition of Brevibacterium linens by Probiotics from Dairy Products

    Knox, Alison M.; Viljoen, Bennie C.; Lourens-Hattingh, Analie

    2005-01-01

    Brevibacterium linens is an important species in dairy products rendering a specific taste and aroma to numerous smear ripened and blue veined cheeses due to proteolysis. However, the presence of the species in South African blue veined cheeses is undesirable and consumers demand the product void of the species. Accordingly, numerous methods including microbial inhibition using fungi and bacterial probiotic cultures with possible inhibitory effects were applied in an attempt to inhibit the sp...

  11. Influencia de la matriz vínica y de parámetros oro-fisiológicos en la liberación del aroma del vino: impacto en el aroma retronasal

    Muñoz-González, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    El aroma es uno de los principales atributos de calidad de los vinos y está entre los más decisivos a la hora de explicar las preferencias de los consumidores. Por ello, en los últimos años, la mayor parte de los estudios científicos sobre este tema se han dirigido a la identificación y caracterización de los compuestos integrantes de la fracción volátil del vino. Estos compuestos debido a su baja presión de vapor se liberan fácilmente de la matriz vínica y son transportados durante la respir...

  12. [Characterization of aroma active compounds in blood orange juice by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry].

    Qiao, Yu; Xie, Bijun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yun; Pan, Siyi

    2008-07-01

    Volatile compounds of fresh blood orange juice were analyzed by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and the aroma active compounds were identified by olfactometry. The volatile compounds were extracted by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using a divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber for 40 min at 40 degrees C. The analysis was carried out using an HP 6890N GC equipped with an HP-5 column (30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 microm ) directly connected to an HP 5975 series mass selective detector and a sniffing port (ODP2, Gerstel) using helium as carrier gas. Compound identifications were made by the comparison of the mass spectra, retention times, retention indices (I(R)) and odor of the volatile components in the extracts with those of the corresponding reference standards. Forty-six compounds were identified by GC-MS and I(R). The major components of the juice were limonene (86.36%), linalool (3.69%), beta-myrcene (1.79%), octanal (1.32%) and valencene (1.27%). GC-MS-olfactometry analysis was performed to determine 34 compounds with aroma activity, of which 23 compounds were identified. The major contributors to orange juice aroma activity are ethyl butanoate, octanal, gamma-terpinene, 4-acetyl-1-methyleyclohexene, decanal, (-)-carvone, geranyl acetate, valencene. These compounds of strong aroma intensity represent 7.22% of the total volatile compounds. Other four unknown compounds (I(R), <800; I(R) = 1020, 1143, 1169, separately) are also the major contributors to the overall aroma. PMID:18959252

  13. Characterization of the Key Aroma Volatile Compounds in Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) Using Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O) and Odor Activity Value (OAV).

    Zhu, JianCai; Chen, Feng; Wang, LingYing; Niu, YunWei; Chen, HeXing; Wang, HongLin; Xiao, ZuoBing

    2016-06-22

    The volatile compounds of cranberries obtained from four cultivars (Early Black, Y1; Howes, Y2; Searles, Y3; and McFarlin, Y4) were analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and GC-flame photometric detection (FPD). The result presented that a total of thirty-three, thirty-four, thirty-four, and thirty-six odor-active compounds were identified by GC-O in the Y1, Y2, Y3, and Y4, respectively. In addition, twenty-two, twenty-two, thirty, and twenty-seven quantified compounds were demonstrated as important odorants according to odor activity values (OAVs > 1). Among these compounds, hexanal (OAV: 27-60), pentanal (OAV: 31-51), (E)-2-heptenal (OAV: 17-66), (E)-2-hexenal (OAV: 18-63), (E)-2-octenal (OAV: 10-28), (E)-2-nonenal (OAV: 8-77), ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (OAV: 10-33), β-ionone (OAV: 8-73), 2-methylbutyric acid (OAV: 18-37), and octanal (OAV: 4-24) contributed greatly to the aroma of cranberry. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to process the mean data accumulated from sensory evaluation by the panelists, odor-active aroma compounds (OAVs > 1), and samples. Sample Y3 was highly correlated with the sensory descriptors "floral" and "fruity". Sample Y4 was greatly related to the sensory descriptors "mellow" and "green and grass". Finally, an aroma reconstitution (Model A) was prepared by mixing the odor-active aroma compounds (OAVs > 1) based on their measured concentrations in the Y1 sample, indicating that the aroma profile of the reconstitution was pretty similar to that of the original sample. PMID:27265519

  14. Effects of 1-MCP treatment on aroma components of ‘Nanguo' pear during shelf life after cold storage%1-MCP处理对‘南果梨’冷藏后货架期果实香气的影响

    纪淑娟; 卜庆状; 李江阔; 张平

    2012-01-01

    【目的】为探索1-MCP处理对冷藏后常温条件下‘南果梨’香气变化的影响,【方法l在最佳食用期对不同处理果实的香气进行GC—MS分析。【结果】结果表明,1-MCP处理对‘南果梨’香气成分的种类数量有一定的影响,处理果实中检测到的香气成分较CK果实减少了5种,而且受到抑制的香气成分均为酯类物质:1-MCP处理果实香气物质的总生成量明显减少,仅为CK果实的42.05%;CK果实检出的香气物质中.酯类物质相对含量为68.11%.萜类为16.15%,醛类为9.01%,醇类为0.92%,1-MCP处理果实酯类物质的相对含量降低了4.39%,萜类降低了7.99%,醛类升高了4.34%,醇类升高了0.05%。【结论】1-MCP处理抑制了‘南果梨’冷藏后货架期果实香气的生成,致使果实香气变淡。%[Objective] The effects of 1-MCP treatment on aroma components of ‘Nanguo' pear during shelf life after cold storage for 70 days were studied. [Method] The changes of flesh firmness were determined, and the fruits tasted best on the 5th and 20th day of ripening period after cold storage for CK and 1-MCP treatment respectively. [Result] The results of aroma analysis showed that 1-MCP treatment had effect on the type of aroma components, compared with CK, 5 kinds of aroma compounds were not detected, and all of them were esters. The total quantity of aroma compounds in pear treated with 1 -MCP was only 42.05% of CK. In untreated pear fruit, the relative quantity of esters, terpenes, aldehydes and alcohols was 68.11%, 16.15%, 9.01% and 0.92%, respectively. But in treated fruit, the relative quantity of esters and terpenes decreased by 4.39% and 7.99%, respectively, whereas the relative quantity of aldehydes and alcohol increased by 4.34% and 0.05%, respectively. [Conclusion] The results suggested that the treatment of 1-MCP inhibited the production of aroma compounds in ‘Nanguo' pear

  15. Identification and quantitation of glycosidically bound aroma compounds in three tobacco types by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Cai, Kai; Xiang, Zhangmin; Pan, Wenjie; Zhao, Huina; Ren, Zhu; Lei, Bo; Geng, Zhaoliang

    2013-10-11

    Glycosidically bound aroma compounds in three different types of tobacco were investigated. After isolation of extracts obtained by Amberlite XAD-2 adsorption and ethyl acetate elution, glycosides were analyzed after enzymatic hydrolysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or directly after trifluoroacetylated (TFA) derivatization by GC-MS in electron ionization (EI) and negative chemical ionization (NCI) mode. In total 21 bound aglycones were identified by β-glucosidase hydrolysis. These aglycones mainly consisted of C13-norisoprenoids, aromatic components and sesquiterpenoids. Additionally, with the aid of enzymatic hydrolysis, 15 β-d-glucopyranosides and 1 β-d-rutinoside were tentatively identified by TFA derivatization. TFA method was validated by repeatability and successfully employed to analyze different types of tobacco. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out on identified glycoside variables to visualize the difference between the tobacco types and the relationship between the glycoside variables and the tobacco types was established. PMID:24011421

  16. Use of a flor velum yeast for modulating colour, ethanol and major aroma compound contents in red wine.

    Moreno, Juan; Moreno-García, Jaime; López-Muñoz, Beatriz; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; García-Martínez, Teresa

    2016-12-15

    The most important and negative effect of the global warming for winemakers in warm and sunny regions is the observed lag between industrial and phenolic grape ripeness, so only it is possible to obtain an acceptable colour when the ethanol content of wine is high. By contrast, the actual market trends are to low ethanol content wines. Flor yeast growing a short time under velum conditions, decreases the ethanol and volatile acidity contents, has a favorable effect on the colour and astringency and significantly changes the wine content in 1-propanol, isobutanol, acetaldehyde, 1,1-diethoxiethane and ethyl lactate. The Principal Component Analysis of six enological parameters or five aroma compounds allows to classify the wines subjected to different velum formation conditions. The obtained results in two tasting sessions suggest that the flor yeast helps to modulate the ethanol, astringency and colour and supports a new biotechnological perspective for red winemakers. PMID:27451159

  17. Research status of peanut aroma compounds%花生香味成分的研究现状

    史文青; 薛雅琳; 何东平

    2011-01-01

    综述了花生经过烘烤、微波、研磨花生酱以及压榨花生油等不同方式的处理后挥发性气味成分研究的进展,通过气相—质谱联用仪分析其组成,借鉴电子鼻法分析测定出上述花生制品中香气的主要成分是吡嗪类物质,为进一步建立判定方法奠定基础。%The research progress on peanut volatile aroma component after various processing, including baking , heating by microwave, grinding peanut butter and squeezing peanut oil, was summarized. The components were analyzed by GC - MS and electronic nose. The main components were the pyrazine category compounds. It was helpful for the further setting determination.

  18. Effects of new Torulaspora delbrueckii killer yeasts on the must fermentation kinetics and aroma compounds of white table wine

    Rocío eVelázquez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Torulaspora delbrueckii is becoming widely recommended for improving some specific characteristics of wines. However, its impact on wine quality is still far from satisfactory at the winery level, mostly because it is easily replaced by S. cerevisiae-like yeasts during must fermentation. New T. delbrueckii killer strains were here isolated and selected for winemaking. They killed S. cerevisiae yeasts and were able to dominate and complete the fermentation of sterile grape must. Sequential yeast inoculation of non-sterile white must with T. delbrueckii followed by S. cerevisiae did not ensure T. delbrueckii dominance or wine quality improvement. Only a single initial must inoculation at high cell concentrations allowed the T. delbrueckii killer strains to dominate and complete the must fermentation to reach above 11% ethanol, but not the non-killer strains. None of the wines underwent malolactic fermentation as long as the must had low turbidity and pH. Although no statistically significant differences were found in the wine quality score, the S. cerevisiae-dominated wines were preferred over the T. delbrueckii-dominated ones because the former had high-intensity fresh fruit aromas while the latter had lower intensity, but nevertheless nice and unusual dried fruit/pastry aromas. Except for ethyl propanoate and 3-ethoxy-1-propanol, which were more abundant in the T. delbrueckii–dominated wines, most of the compounds with fresh fruit odour descriptors, including those with the greatest odour activity values (isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate, were more abundant in the S. cerevisiae–dominated wines. The low relative concentrations of these fruity compounds made it possible to detect in the T. delbrueckii–dominated wines the low-relative-concentration compounds with dried fruit and pastry odours. An example was γ-ethoxy-butyrolactone which was significantly more abundant in these wines than in those dominated by S

  19. / production

    François Arleo; Pol-Bernard Gossiaux; Thierry Gousset; Jörg Aichelin

    2003-04-01

    For more than 25 years /Ψ production has helped to sharpen our understanding of QCD. In proton induced reaction some observations are rather well understood while others are still unclear. The current status of the theory of /Ψ production will be sketched, paying special attention to the issues of formation time and /Ψ re-interaction in a nuclear medium.

  20. Mead production: effect of nitrogen supplementation on growth, fermentation profile and aroma formation by yeasts in mead fermentation

    Pereira, A.P.; Ferreira, A. Mendes; Oliveira, J. M.; Estevinho, L .M.; Faia, Arlete Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Mead is an alcoholic beverage, produced since ancient times, resulting from an alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey by yeasts. When it is produced in a traditional manner, mead producers can encounter several problems related to a lack of es-sential nutrients, such as available nitrogen. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen addition to honey-must on the fermentation performance of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts, QA23 and ICV D47, as well as on the me...

  1. Stabilization of enzymes activities of lipoxygenase pathway by irradiation to improve the production of olive oil aroma

    The main purpose of this work was to improve the synthesis of volatile compounds leading to green note in olives and olive tree leaves by improving enzymes activities of lipoxygenase pathway. Lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxyde lyase (HPL) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities were tested in olives and olive tree leaves during maturation. The gamma irradiation effects on these samples were studied. LOX, HPL and ADH showed maximum activities at black stage for olives and in December for olive leaves. Those activities, from olives and Chemlali olive leaves, were improved after irradiation with 0,5KGy. For the case of Chetoui olive leaves, the irradiation treatment was unfavorable because it causes a loss in enzymes activities. (Author)

  2. 中国名优红茶香气成分的比较研究%Study on the Aroma Components in Chinese Famous Black Tea

    王秋霜; 陈栋; 许勇泉; 尹军峰

    2013-01-01

    为了研究中国名优红茶挥发性香气物质并确定主要呈香特征,采用顶空固相微萃取方法(HS-SPME)提取红茶样品中的挥发性物质,用气相色谱/质谱联用技术(GC-MS)结合挥发性物质的保留指数(RI)鉴定红茶样品中香气物质种类及其对总体香气的贡献.结果表明,鉴定出约60种香气化合物,主要包含醇类、酯类、醛类、酮类和烯类、烷烃类等,其中醇类是国内名优红茶香气中最主要的物质,其次是酯类和醛类.香气化合物中芳樟醇、橙花醇、水杨酸甲酯、氧化芳樟醇是最主要的呈香物质,平均含量分别占总香气的39.48%、17.5%、8.21%、4.74%.所体现的花香、甜香、果香是中国红茶的香气特征.%With the aim to study the volatile aroma component of native black tea and determine the main aroma characters, the headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) method was adopted to extract the volatiles and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) coupled with retention index(RI) of the volatiles were used to determine the volatiles variety in black tea samples and their contribution to the total aroma. The result showed that more than fifty aroma compounds were determined including alcohol, ester, aldehyde, azulene ketones and terpenes, hydrocarbon and etc., among which the alcohol was the most important compounds and ester and aldehyde were next to it. Li nalool, ger-ariol, methl salcylate, linalool oxide were the most important compounds, representing 39.48%, 17.5%, 8.21% and 4.74% of the total aroma respectively. Flower-like, fruit-like, refreshing fragrance and sweet aroma were the main character of native black tea.

  3. Analysis of free and bound aroma compounds in grape berries using headspace solid-phase microextraction with GC-MS and a preliminary study of solid-phase extraction with LC-MS

    Prosen, H.; Janes, L.; Strlic, M.; D. Rusjan; Kocar, D.

    2007-01-01

    An extraction procedure for the aroma compounds from musts and wines has been developed, using solid-phase microextraction (DVB/CAR/PDMS fibre) from the headspace of heated samples (50 degrees C). Analysis was performed with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The method was applicable to the analysis of different aroma compounds ( aliphatic, aromatic aldehydes, terpenes) in a broad concentration range (1-5000 mu g L-1). A stir-bar sorptive extraction procedure was also tested, but was no...

  4. Biological production of hydroxylated aromatics: Optimization strategies for Pseudomonas putida S12

    A. Verhoef

    2010-01-01

    To replace environmentally unfriendly petrochemical production processes, the demand for bio-based production of organic chemicals is increasing. This thesis focuses on the biological production of hydroxylated aromatics from renewable substrates by engineered P. putida S12 including several cases of strain improvement. Chapter 2 describes the construction of a P. putida S12 strain that produces p-hydroxybenzoate via the aromatic amino acid tyrosine. Previous research on biosynthesis of aroma...

  5. At Fi EUROPE 2011:Rhodia Aroma Performance will exhibit new branding AND REPOSITIONING OF RHOVANIL'~ VANILLIN AND RHODIAROME" ethyl-vanillinrange HENCEFORTH DEDI- CATED TO THE FOOd INDUSTRY.%At Fi EUROPE 2011:Rhodia Aroma Performance will exhibit new branding AND REPOSITIONING OF RHOVANIL'~ VANILLIN AND RHODIAROME" ethyl-vanillinrange HENCEFORTH DEDI- CATED TO THE FOOd INDUSTRY.

    2011-01-01

    At the forthcoming Food Ingredients Europe (FIE) 2011 exhi- bition in Paris, Rhodia Aroma Performance (Hall 4 Booth K48) will showcase its complete industry-leading range of vanillin and ethyl- vanillin food-safe ingredients and reveal the new revamped branding

  6. Composición, procedimiento de obtención de un aroma a jamón curado y sus aplicaciones

    Flores Llovera, Mónica; Toldrá Vilardell, Fidel; Gianelli Barra, María Pía; Durá Cubells, María Asunción

    2007-01-01

    Composición, procedimiento de obtención de un aroma a jamón curado y sus aplicaciones. La invención consiste en una composición de volátiles, que permite reproducir el aroma a jamón curado que comprende una mezcla de proteínas sarcoplásmicas, aldehídos ramificados, compuestos azufrados, aldehídos lineales, 2-cetona y sales, en la combinación adecuada y en la proporción idónea. La composición permite la elaboración de alimentos con mayores propiedades organolépticas sin...

  7. Coffee aroma: Chemometric comparison of the chemical information provided by three different samplings combined with GC-MS to describe the sensory properties in cup.

    Bressanello, Davide; Liberto, Erica; Cordero, Chiara; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Pellegrino, Gloria; Ruosi, Manuela R; Bicchi, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    This study is part of a wider project aiming to correlate the chemical composition of the coffee volatile fraction to its sensory properties with the end-goal of developing an instrumental analysis approach complementary to human sensory profiling. The proposed investigation strategy compares the chemical information concerning coffee aroma and flavor obtained with HS-SPME of the ground coffee and in-solution SBSE/SPME sampling combined with GC-MS to evaluate their compatibility with the cupping evaluation for quality control purposes. Roasted coffee samples with specific sensory properties were analyzed. The chemical results obtained by the three samplings were compared through multivariate analysis, and related to the samples' sensory attributes. Despite the differences between the three sampling approaches, data processing showed that the three methods provide the same kind of chemical information useful for sample discrimination, and that they could be used interchangeably to sample the coffee aroma and flavor. PMID:27507469

  8. Development of a SPME-GC-MS method for the determination of volatile compounds in Shanxi aged vinegar and its analytical characterization by aroma wheel.

    Zhu, Hong; Zhu, Jie; Wang, Lili; Li, Zaigui

    2016-01-01

    A solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed to determine the volatile compounds in Shanxi aged vinegar. The optimal extraction conditions were: 50 °C for 20 min with a PDMS/DVB fiber. This analytical method was validated and showed satisfactory repeatability (0.5 %volatile compounds. According to the calculation of odor activity value, 19 volatile compounds were identified as aroma-active compounds. Among them, propanoic acid, acetic acid, trimethyl-oxazole, butanoic acid, acetoin, 3-methylbutanoic acid and furfural were the most powerful odorants. The aroma wheel of Shanxi aged vinegar showed that the classes of sensory descriptors are first fatty and roasty, next woody and nutty and minor fruity and floral. Principal component analysis enabled us to investigate dissimilarity/similarity of Shanxi aged vinegar sample of different raw material and ageing time. PMID:26787940

  9. Co-Treatment of EFF and 1-MCP for Enhancing the Shelf-Life and Aroma Volatile Compounds of Oriental Sweet Melons (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino)

    BAI Xiao-hang; TENG Lu-hua; LÜ De-qing; QI Hong-yan

    2014-01-01

    Compared to other melon types, oriental sweet melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino) is quite a different species with a shorter shelf-life due to its typical climacteric behavior and thin pericarp. The purpose of this experiment is to explore the effects of co-treatment of enhanced freshness formulation (EFF) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on physiological changes and the content of aroma volatile compounds introduced by them of two oriental sweet melon cultivars (Yumeiren and Tianbao) during storage. The melons were stored in incubators with temperature of 15°C and a relative humidity of 85%for 24 d during which fruit quality and related physiological index were measured. Compared to the control, both treatments delayed fruit weight loss rate and kept the fruit ifrmness, water content and soluble solids content. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities showed lfuctuations in treated melons, while lipoxygenase (LOX) activity (P<0.01) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content (P<0.05) decreased compared to control. During the early stage of storage, alcohols and aldehydes were the main volatile compounds, and esters gradually increased during storage. Of all the esters, acetic esters were the main components, followed by oxalic acid esters and other esters. The total content of aroma volatile compounds, esters, alcohols and aldehydes of co-treated melons were all higher than those of 1-MCP treated and control melons. In addition, the aroma volatile peak of co-treated melons occurred later than that of 1-MCP treated and control melons. In summary, co-treatment of EFF and 1-MCP was more beneifcial than 1-MCP treatment to delay ripening and senescence, maintain fruit quality, enhance shelf-life and improve levels of aroma volatile compounds.

  10. A hs–spme–gc–ms analysis of ir heated wood: impact of the water content on the depth profile of oak wood aromas extractability

    Duval, Charlie J.; Gourrat, Karine; Perre, Patrick; Prida, Andréi; Gougeon, Régis D.

    2013-01-01

    Controlled and reproducible IR heat treatments were applied to oak wood surfaces in order to establish a depth-profiled picture of the extractability of volatile compounds, with particular emphasis on the impact of the initial water content. Headspace–solid phase microextraction–gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HS–SPME–GC–MS) has been used to compare the concentrations of six aroma compounds (vanillin, furfural, eugenol; guaiacol and cis- and trans-whisky lactones) in hydroalc...

  11. Role of glycosidic aroma precursors on the odorant profiles of Grenache noir and Syrah wines from the Rhone valley. Part 2: characterisation of derived compounds

    Segurel, Marie; Baumes, Raymond; Langlois, Dominique; Riou, C; Razungles, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Grenache noir and Syrah are the predominant grape varieties in the French Rhone valley vineyard. This study aimed at identifying the odorants generated from glycoconjugates extracted from wines made with Grenache noir and Syrah.Methods and results: Synthetic model wines enriched with glycoconjugates. treated or not with enzymes. were stored at 45 degrees C for 3 weeks. or at 13 degrees C for 18 months. Aromas generated were extracted and analyzed by GC-Olfactometry (only samples from ac...

  12. Comparative analysis of fruit aroma patterns in the domesticated wild strawberries “Profumata di Tortona” (F. moschata) and “Regina delle Valli” (F. vesca)

    Negri, Alfredo S.; Allegra, Domenico; Simoni, Laura; Rusconi, Fabio; Tonelli, Chiara; Espen, Luca; Galbiati, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Strawberry is one of the most valued fruit worldwide. Modern cultivated varieties (Fragaria × ananassa) exhibit large fruits, with intense color and prolonged shell life. Yet, these valuable traits were attained at the cost of the intensity and the variety of the aroma of the berry, two characteristics highly appreciated by consumers. Wild species display smaller fruits and reduced yield compared with cultivated varieties but they accumulate broader and augmented blends of volatile compounds....

  13. Comparative analysis of fruit aroma patterns in the domesticated wild strawberries "Profumata di Tortona" (F. moschata) and "Regina delle Valli" (F. vesca).

    Negri, Alfredo S; Allegra, Domenico; Simoni, Laura; Rusconi, Fabio; Tonelli, Chiara; Espen, Luca; Galbiati, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Strawberry is one of the most valued fruit worldwide. Modern cultivated varieties (Fragaria × ananassa) exhibit large fruits, with intense color and prolonged shell life. Yet, these valuable traits were attained at the cost of the intensity and the variety of the aroma of the berry, two characteristics highly appreciated by consumers. Wild species display smaller fruits and reduced yield compared with cultivated varieties but they accumulate broader and augmented blends of volatile compounds. Because of the large diversity and strength of aromas occurring in natural and domesticated populations, plant breeders regard wild strawberries as important donors of novel scented molecules. Here we report a comprehensive metabolic map of the aroma of the wild strawberry Profumata di Tortona (PdT), an ancient clone of F. moschata, considered as one of the most fragrant strawberry types of all. Comparison with the more renowned woodland strawberry Regina delle Valli (RdV), an aromatic cultivar of F. vesca, revealed a significant enrichment in the total level of esters, alcohols and furanones and a reduction in the content of ketones in in the aroma of PdT berries. Among esters, particularly relevant was the enhanced accumulation of methyl anthranilate, responsible for the intensive sweetish impression of wild strawberries. Interestingly, increased ester accumulation in PdT fruits correlated with enhanced expression of the Strawberry Alcohol Acyltransferase (SAAT) gene, a key regulator of flavor biogenesis in ripening berries. We also detected a remarkable 900-fold increase in the level of mesifurane, the furanone conferring the typical caramel notes to most wild species. PMID:25717332

  14. A β-glucosidase from Oenococcus oeni ATCC BAA-1163 with potential for aroma release in wine: Cloning and expression in E. coli

    Michlmayr, Herbert; Schümann, Christina; Wurbs, Phillip; Barreira Braz da Silva, Nuno M.; Rogl, Veronika; Kulbe, Klaus D.; del Hierro, Andrés M

    2010-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are responsible for olfactory changes in wine during malolactic fermentation (MLF). A side characteristic of MLF is the release of grape derived aroma compounds from their glycosylated precursors by β-glycosidase activities of these bacteria. Apart from Oenococcus oeni, which is regarded as the most promising species for MLF, glycosidic activities have also been observed in wine related members of the genera Lactobacillus and Pediococcus. Nevertheless, information o...

  15. Comparative analysis of fruit aroma patterns in the domesticated wild strawberries Profumata di Tortona (F. moschata and Regina delle Valli (F. vesca.

    Alfredo Simone Negri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is one of the most valued fruit worldwide. Modern cultivated varieties (Fragaria × ananassa exhibit large fruits, with intense color and prolonged shell life. Yet, these valuable traits were attained at the cost of the intensity and the variety of the aroma of the berry, two characteristics highly appreciated by consumers. Wild species display smaller fruits and reduced yield compared with cultivated varieties but they accumulate broader and augmented blends of volatile compounds. Because of the large diversity and strength of aromas occurring in natural and domesticated populations, plant breeders regard wild strawberries as important donors of novel scented molecules. Here we report a comprehensive metabolic map of the aroma of the wild strawberry Profumata di Tortona (PdT, an ancient clone of F. moschata, considered as one of the most fragrant strawberry types of all. Comparison with the more renowned woodland strawberry Regina delle Valli (RdV, an aromatic cultivar of F. vesca, revealed a significant enrichment in the total level of esters, alcohols and furanones and a reduction in the content of ketones in in the aroma of PdT berries. Among esters, particularly relevant was the enhanced accumulation of methyl anthranilate, responsible for the intensive sweetish impression of wild strawberries. Interestingly, increased ester accumulation in PdT fruits correlated with enhanced expression of the Strawberry Alcohol Acyltransferase (SAAT gene, a key regulator of flavor biogenesis in ripening berries. We also detected a remarkable 900-fold increase in the level of mesifurane, the furanone conferring the typical caramel notes to most wild species.

  16. VPPD Lab - The Chemical Product Simulator

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Hussain, Rehan; Elbashir, Nimir;

    2015-01-01

    , detergent, etc.). It has interface to identify workflow/data-flow for the inter-related activities between knowledge-based system and model-based calculation procedures to systematically, efficiently and robustly solve various types of product design-analysis problems. The application of the software is......In this paper, the development of a systematic model-based framework for product design, implemented in the new product design software called VPPD-Lab is presented. This framework employs its in-house knowledge-based system to design and evaluate chemical products. The built-in libraries of...... product performance models and product-chemical property models are used to evaluate different classes of product. The product classes are single molecular structure chemicals (lipids, solvents, aroma, etc.), blended products (gasoline, jet-fuels, lubricants, etc.), and emulsified product (hand wash...

  17. Applied systems biology - vanillin production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Strucko, Tomas; Eriksen, Carsten; Nielsen, J.; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin is the most important aroma compound based on market value, and natural vanillin is extracted from the cured seed pods of the Vanilla orchid. Most of the world’s vanillin, however, is obtained by chemical synthesis from petrochemicals or wood pulp lignins. As an alternative, de novo biosynthesis of vanillin in baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was recently demonstrated by successfully introducing the metabolic pathway for vanillin production in yeast. Nevertheless, the amount of...

  18. Production of Sulfur Flavors by Ten Strains of Geotrichum candidum

    Berger, Celine; Khan, Jeffrey A.; Molimard, Pascal; Martin, Nathalie; Spinnler, Henry E.

    1999-01-01

    Ten strains of Geotrichum candidum were studied on a liquid cheese model medium for the production of sulfur compounds which contribute to the aroma of cheeses. The volatile components produced by each cultured strain were extracted by dynamic headspace extractions, separated and quantified by gas chromatography (GC), and identified by GC-mass spectrometry. It was shown that four strains of this microorganism produced significant quantities of S-methyl thioacetate, S-methyl thiopropionate, S-...

  19. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilisation on mead production

    Pereira, A.P.; Ferreira, A. Mendes; Oliveira, J. M.; Estevinho, L .M.; Faia, A. Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Mead is a traditional alcoholic beverage obtained by the fermentation of diluted honey performed by yeasts. In this work the potential of application of immobilised yeast cells on single-layer Ca-alginate or double-layer alginateechitosan for mead production was assessed for the first time. The meads produced either with entrapped or free cells were evaluated in terms of quality and aroma profile. The immobilisation procedure had no adverse effect on cell viability, since minor differen...

  20. Terpene production in the peel of sweet orange fruits

    Marco A. Takita; Irving J. Berger; Ana Carolina Basílio-Palmieri; Kleber M. Borges; Juliana M. de Souza; Maria L.N.P. Targon

    2007-01-01

    Terpenoids constitute the largest and most diverse class of natural products. They are important factors for aroma and flavor, and their synthesis is basically done from two compounds: isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Isopentenyl diphosphate is synthesized through two different pathways, one that occurs in the cytoplasm and one in the plastid. With the sequencing of ESTs from citrus, we were able to perform in silico analyses on the pathways that lead to the synthesis of...

  1. Oxidative stability of fermented meat products

    Zbigniew J. Dolatowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Meat and meat products, which form a major part of our diet, are very susceptible to quality changes resulting from oxidative processes. Quality of fermented food products depends on the course of various physicochemical and biochemical processes. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products may be the result of enzymatic changes occurring as a result of activity of enzymes originating in tissues and microorganisms, as well as lipid peroxidation by free radicals. Primary and secondary products of lipid oxidation are extremely reactive and react with other components of meat, changing their physical and chemical properties. Oxidised proteins take on a yellowish, red through brown hue. Products of lipid and protein degradation create a specifi c fl avour and aroma ; furthermore, toxic substances (such as biogenic amines or new substances are formed as a result of interactions between meat components, e.g. protein-lipid or protein-protein combinations, as well as transverse bonds in protein structures. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products is a particularly diffi cult process. On the one hand it is essential, since the enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid oxidation creates fl avour and aroma compounds characteristic for ripening products; on the other hand excessive amounts or transformations of those compounds may cause the fermented meat product to become a risk to health.

  2. Identification of Aroma-active Compounds in Essential Oil from Uncaria Hook by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry.

    Iwasa, Megumi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Maki, Yusuke; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Usami, Atsushi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil extracted from Uncaria Hook ("Chotoko" in Japanese), the branch with curved hook of the herbal medicine Uncaria rhynchophylla has been investigated by GC and GC-MS analyses. Eighty-four compounds, representing 90.8% of the total content was identified in oil obtained from Uncaria Hook. The main components i were (E)-cinnamaldehyde (13.4%), α-copaene (8.0%), methyl eugenol (6.8%), δ-cadinene (5.3%), and curcumene (3.6%). The important key aroma-active compounds in the oil were detected by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), using the flavor dilution (FD) factor to express the odor potency of each compounds. Furthermore, the odor activity value (OAV) has been used as a measure of the relative contribution of each compound to the aroma of the Uncaria Hook oil. The GC-O and AEDA results showed that α-copaene (FD = 4, OAV = 4376), (E)-linalool oxide (FD = 64, OAV = 9.1), and methyl eugenol (FD = 64, OAV = 29) contributed to the woody and spicy odor of Uncaria Hook oil, whereas furfural (FD = 8, OAV = 4808) contributed to its sweet odor. These results warrant further investigations of the application of essential oil from Uncaria Hook in the phytochemical and medicinal fields. PMID:26179003

  3. 橄榄浸泡酒中香气成分的GC-MS分析%Study on aroma components in Canarium Album steeping wine by GC-MS

    郑炯; 陈娟; 朱琳

    2011-01-01

    Aroma components in Canarium album steeping wine were extracted by the liquid-liquid extraction and HS-SPME two kinds of methods. They were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and a total of 46 kinds of aroma components were identified, including alcohols, esters, ketohes, aldehydes and acids. The major aroma components in the Canarium album steeping wine were isoamyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, 2-butanol,benzene ethanol, 2- hydroxy-ethyl propionate, ethyl hexanoate, acetic acid isoamyl acetate, caprylic acid ethylester,ethyl butyrate and so on.%利用液液萃取法和顶空固相微萃取法两种方法对橄榄浸泡酒中的香气成分进行萃取,然后用气相色谱-质谱法进行检测分析,共鉴定出46种香气成分,包括醇类、酯类、酮类、醛类和酸类.橄榄浸泡酒的主要香气成分是异戊醇、异丙醇、2-丁醇、苯乙醇、2-羟基-丙酸乙酯、己酸乙酯、乙酸异戊酯、辛酸乙酯、丁酸乙酯等.

  4. Characterization of Aroma Active Compounds in Fruit Juice and Peel Oil of Jinchen Sweet Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck by GC-MS and GC-O

    Si Yi Pan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC-O were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve components were the odorants perceived in both samples. The aromatic compositions of fruit juice were more complex than that of peel oil. Ethyl butanoate, β-myrcene, octanal, linalool, α-pinene, and decanal were found to be responsible for the aromatic notes in fruit juice and peel oil. Nineteen components have been perceived only in the juice and ten compounds were described as aromatic components of only the peel oil by the panelists. These differences lead to the different overall aroma between fruit juice and peel oil.

  5. Alteration of perceived fragrance of essential oils in relation to type of work: a simple screening test for efficacy of aroma.

    Sugawara, Y; Hino, Y; Kawasaki, M; Hara, C; Tamura, K; Sugimoto, N; Yamanishi, Y; Miyauchi, M; Masujima, T; Aoki, T

    1999-08-01

    The perceptional change of fragrance of essential oils is described in relation to type of work, i.e. mental work, physical work and hearing environmental (natural) sounds. The essential oils examined in this study were ylang ylang, orange, geranium, cypress, bergamot, spearmint and juniper. In evaluating change in perception of a given aroma, a sensory test was employed in which the perception of fragrance was assessed by 13 contrasting pairs of adjectives. Scores were recorded after inhaling a fragrance before and after each type of work, and the statistical significance of the change of score for 13 impression descriptors was examined by Student's t-test for each type of work. It was confirmed that inhalation of essential oil caused a different subjective perception of fragrance depending on the type of work. For example, inhalation of cypress after physical work produced a much more favorable impression than before work, in contrast to orange, which produced an unfavorable impression after physical work when compared with that before work. For mental work, inhalation of juniper seemed to create a favorable impression after work, whereas geranium and orange both produced an unfavorable impression then. From these studies, together with those conducted previously with lavender, rosemary, linalool, peppermint, marjoram, cardamom, sandalwood, basil and lime, we thus concluded that the sensory test described here might serve not only as a screening test for efficacy of aroma but also as a categorized table for aroma samples which can act as a reference to each other. PMID:10480677

  6. Effect of Inhalation of Aroma of Geranium Essence on Anxiety and Physiological Parameters during First Stage of Labor in Nulliparous Women: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Fahimeh Rashidi Fakari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anxiety increases significantly during labor, especially among nulliparous women. Such anxiety may affect the progress of labor and physiological parameters. The use of essential oils of aromatic plants, or aromatherapy, is a non-invasive procedure that can decrease childbirth anxiety. This study examined the effect of inhalation of the aroma of geranium essential oil on the level of anxiety and physiological parameters of nulliparous women in the first stage of labor. Methods: In study, was carried out on 100 nulliparous women admitted to Bent al-Hoda Hospital in the city of Bojnord in North Khorasan province of Iran during 2012-2013. The women were randomly assigned to two groups of equal size, one experimental group (geranium essential oil and one control (placebo group. Anxiety levels were measured using Spielberger’s questionnaire before and after intervention. Physiological parameters (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, pulse rate were also measured before and after intervention in both groups. Data analysis was conducted using the x2 test, paired t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Wilcox on test on SPSS 11.5. Results: The mean anxiety score decreased significantly after inhalation of the aroma of geranium essential oil. There was also a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure.Conclusion: Aroma of essential oil of geraniums can effectively reduce anxiety during labor and can be recommended as a non-invasive anti-anxiety aid during childbirth.

  7. Identification, quantification and comparison between the chemical substances responsible for the irradiated pot still cachaca and commercial rum aromas; Identificacao, quantificacao e comparacao das substancias quimicas responsaveis pelos aromas da cachaca de alambique e do rum comercial tratados pelo processo de irradiacao

    Souza, Maria Djiliah Camargo Alvarenga de

    2006-07-01

    The irradiation process has being presented as an alternative technique in food preservation. When applied on beverages, radiation is mainly used for malt decontamination or sterilization of musts and had been proposed also to accelerate aging. Some confusion over rum and cachaca identities has arisen due to the internationalization of cachaca. This research aims to identify, quantify and compare the effect of gamma radiation on the aroma of the Brazilian spirit with rum, irradiated and non irradiated, by instrumental and sensory analysis. Results showed that the content of volatile compounds presented strong correlation with the radiation dose (0,150 and 300 Gy) for all the samples. According to Triangle Test for aroma, all the judges could distinguish among non irradiated and irradiated samples (300 Gy), aged cachaca from rum and non aged cachaca from rum, but they could not distinguish aged cachaca from non aged cachaca. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results from the quantitative descriptive analysis showed that non irradiated non aged cachaca and rum were different in their alcohol, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except caramel and apple aroma attributes. Non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) were different in their apple, caramel, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except alcohol aroma attributes. According to the gas chromatography/olfactometry results, significant difference was found among non irradiated cachaca and rum; non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) when their aromas were compared. (author)

  8. 基于电子鼻技术检测不同焙烤程度咖啡的特征性香气%Characteristic aroma detection of coffee at different roasting degree based on electronic nose

    何余勤; 胡荣锁; 张海德; 娜娜; 蔡涛; 彭健; 许英豪

    2015-01-01

    为研究咖啡香气与焙烤条件的联系,进一步提供合理的加工条件生产特定香气的咖啡,减少咖啡多样化的生产成本。以海南阿拉比卡咖啡豆为试材,利用固相微萃取的气质联用(solid phase microextraction-gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric,SPME-GC-MS)结合电子鼻对不同焙烤温度处理6 min的咖啡挥发性化合物和特征性香气进行检测。结果表明:咖啡中总共检测出43种化合物,咖啡在30(室温)、80、100℃时挥发性组分主要为醇类、醚类与胺类以致香气不足,随着温度继续升高,逐渐热解生成芳香化合物,咖啡在120℃时开始出现糠醛、吡嗪与吡咯等,呋喃、醛类、吡嗪和吡咯的含量均在140℃时达到峰值,吡唑和咪唑只在160℃时产生且质量分数为2%~3%;电子鼻传感器T30/1、70/2、PA/2、P30/2与LY2/AA能有效地分析咖啡香气变化,主成分分析(principal component analysis,PCA)与判别因子分析(discriminant factorial analysis,DFA)有效地区分了不同焙烤程度的咖啡香气,层序聚类分析(hierarchical cluster analysis, HCA)成功将咖啡分为未焙烤、浅度焙烤、中度焙烤和深度焙烤四类。结果表明,随着焙烤温度的上升,咖啡中芳香醛、酚类、呋喃、吡嗪、吡咯和咪唑等挥发性化合物不断增加,进而改变咖啡的特征性香气,SPME-GC-MS结合电子鼻技术能实现咖啡挥发性组分、香气表型和焙烤程度三者之间有机地结合,以用于对咖啡焙烤程度的区别,该研究结果为生产某些特定香气咖啡的工艺提供科学依据和技术支持。%The aim of the study is to investigate the relationships between coffee aroma and banking conditions so as to provide theory reference for accurately selecting reasonable processing conditions for special fragrance of coffee and reducing the production cost of coffee diversification. The Hainan

  9. Volatile Aroma Components in Beef Flavoring%牛肉风味料的香气成分

    吴昊; 许时婴

    2001-01-01

    Extractions of the aroma components in beef flavoring were conducted by two methods, that is, adsorption-desorption by using Tenax-Gc absorbent and SDE.Components of the extracts were isolated and identified by GC-MS, and 104 compounds were acquired,of which the characteristic flavor of beef flavoring was mainly contributed from the heterocyclic and containing N or S compounds. The adsorption-desorption method was superior to the SDE method in the extraction of volatile compounds, while the latter was more effective on the components with middle or high boiling points.%采用Tenax-Gc(Diphenyl-Phenylene Oxide)吸附剂吸附-解吸法和同时蒸馏萃取法(SDE)两种方法提取牛肉风味料中的挥发性香气成分,并利用GC-MS(色质联用)进行了成分的分离与鉴定.结果表明,鉴定得出的化合物共104种,杂环化合物和含硫、氮化合物构成了牛肉风味的主体.比较两种提取方法得知:吸附-解吸法有利于提取易挥发性化合物,而SDE法对提取中、高沸点化合物更有效.

  10. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils

    Stephanie de Rapper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (ΣFIC was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1 : 1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%, additive (48.9%, non-interactive (23.7%, and antagonistic (0.7% interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1 : 1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender.

  11. [Year Discrimination of Mild Aroma Chinese Liquors Using Three-Dimensional Fluorescence Spectroscopy Combined with Parallel Factor and Neural Network].

    Zhu, Zhuo-wei; Que, Li-zhi; Chen, Guo-qing; Xu, Rui-yu; Zhu, Tuo

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis and neural network was applied to the year discrimination of mild aroma Chinese liquors. The excitation-emission fluorescence matrices (EEMs) of 120 samples with various years were measured by FLS920 fluorescence spectrometer. The trilinear decomposition of the data array was performed and the loading scores of and the excitation-emission profiles of four components were also obtained. The scores were employed as the inputs of the BP neural networks and the PARAFAC-BP identification model was constructed. 10 samples were collected from 10, 20 and 30 years of liquors respectively, and 30 samples were selected as the test sets. The remaining 90 samples were used as the training sets to build the training model. The year prediction of unknown samples was also carried out, and the prediction accuracy was 90%, 100% and 100%, respectively. Meanwhile, the discrimination analysis method and the multi-way partial least squares discriminant analysis were compared, namely PARAFAC-BP and NPLS-DA. The results indicated that parallel factor combined with the neural network (PARAFAC-BP) has higher prediction accuracy. The proposed method can effectively extract the spectral characteristics, and also reduce the dimension of the input variables of neural network. A good year discrimination result was finally achieved. PMID:26669170

  12. Aromatized to find mates: α-pinene aroma boosts the mating success of adult olive fruit flies.

    Christos D Gerofotis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Contrary to other Tephritidae, female but also male olive flies, Bactrocera oleae release pheromones during their sexual communication. Alpha-pinene, a common plant volatile found in high amounts in unripe olive fruit and leaves has been detected as one of the major components of the female pheromone. However, possible effects of α-pinene and that of other host volatiles on the mating behavior of the olive fly have not been investigated. METHODOLOGY: Using wild olive flies, reared on olive fruit for 3 generations in the laboratory, we explored whether exposure of male and female olive flies to α-pinene affects their sexual performance. RESULTS: Exposure of sexually mature adult olive flies to the aroma of α-pinene significantly increases the mating performance over non-exposed individuals. Interestingly, exposure to α-pinene boosts the mating success of both males and female olive flies. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of such an effect on the olive fly, and the first time that a single plant volatile has been reported to induce such a phenomenon on both sexes of a single species. We discuss the possible associated mechanism and provide some practical implications.

  13. Aromatic compound in different peach cultivars and effect of preservatives on the final aroma of cooked fruits

    Bavcon-Kralj Mojca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we were used four yellow-fleshed peach cultivars ‟Royal Glory‟, „Redhaven", 'Maria Marta' and 'Norman', during two-year period. The characterization of aromatic constituents of investigated cultivars was done using headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME. The intention was to make implicit discrimination between cultivars by analysis of components present in all cultivars during two-year period. Also, the impact of added preservatives (Na-benzoate and citric acid on the final aroma of cooked peaches was studied. The cultivars' differences and the impact of preservatives (Na-benzoate and citric acid were statistically evaluated. Multiple discriminant analysis of peaches‟ aromatic profile was used to segregate investigated peach cultivars. Although they were very similar, the cultivars were segregated by two discriminant function, function 1 (which accounted for 56.9% of this peach model and function 2 (31.7%. The use of preservatives had also an important impact on the aromatic profile of cooked peaches. The statistical analysis indicated that from 57 identified volatiles, 40 volatiles showed statistically significant difference regarding the way of preservation. The main negative impact had Na-benzoate compared to control or samples preserved with citric acid.

  14. The potential of e-nose aroma profiling for identifying the geographical origin of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) roots.

    Russo, Mariateresa; Serra, Demetrio; Suraci, Francesca; Di Sanzo, Rosa; Fuda, Salvatore; Postorino, Santo

    2014-12-15

    Licorice roots cultivated commercially in distinct geographical areas such as China, Iran, Italy (Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily) and Turkey were classified using an artificial olfactive system (e-nose) based on metal oxide semiconductor sensors (MOS). The resultant instrumental data were processed using a multivariate statistical analysis method in order to classify the raw samples according to its origin. The e-nose odourprintings were obtained by a canonical discriminant analysis carried out with the aim of relating the specific data-sets corresponding to whole licorice roots aroma with the e-nose reference dataset. E-nose results were compared to those obtained by SPME/GC-MS. The HS-SPME/GC/MS analysis was used as a control system to check for the actual existence of differences in the chemical composition of sample headspace. These results imply the possibility to use an electronic nose as a tool for a quick, effective and non-destructive authentication of licorice roots. PMID:25038700

  15. Effect of screwcap and cork closures on SO2 levels and aromas in a Sauvignon Blanc wine.

    Brajkovich, Michael; Tibbits, Nigel; Peron, Guilaine; Lund, Cynthia M; Dykes, Stuart I; Kilmartin, Paul A; Nicolau, Laura

    2005-12-28

    The development of a Sauvignon Blanc wine sealed under screwcap and cork was undertaken using different fill heights and initial levels of free SO2 (20, 25, and 30 mg/L) over 2 years. More SO2 was lost for wines under cork over the first 3 months, corresponding to a higher level of dissolved oxygen at bottling. From this time wines under cork and screwcap lost SO2 at a similar rate and retained dissolved CO2 equally well, indicating that both types of closure presented a similar effective barrier to gas movement. After 2 years in the bottle, the different treatments retained similar levels of the volatile thiols 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA) and 3-mercaptohexanol (3MH) responsible for fruity aromas, with initial SO2 levels having no effect, but the thiol concentrations were 18-23% lower under cork, which may be due to absorption of volatiles into the cork. Levels of polyphenols such as caftaric acid and the absorbance at 420 nm were the same for wines under cork and screwcap, whereas some indication was given that more oxidation occurred with a lower level of initial free SO2. Although the different treatments were not readily distinguished by a sensory panel, the data for individual wines showed a positive correlation between passion fruit descriptors and levels of 3MHA and 3MH. PMID:16366687

  16. Management of postharvest grape withering to optimise the aroma of the final wine: A case study on Amarone.

    Bellincontro, A; Matarese, F; D'Onofrio, C; Accordini, D; Tosi, E; Mencarelli, F

    2016-12-15

    Amarone wine is different from regular dry wine due to the postharvest withering of Corvina, Corvinone and Rondinella grapes. Grapes were withered in a commercial facility with variability in terms of temperature and relative humidity (R.H.). Sugar content reached 230-240gL(-1) and 280gL(-1) at 20% and 30% mass loss, respectively. Most of VOCs (volatile organic compounds) decreased during withering but few VOCs increased during withering and we considered as markers; in Corvinone they were methylhexanoate, dimethylsuccinate, nerol, nonanoic acid, and benzyl alcohol; in Corvina, benzyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol, 1-hexanol, p-cymen-8-ol, 2,3 pinanediol, 3-oxo-ionol and 3-methyl-1-pentanol, coumaran and damascenone; in Rondinella, hexanol, nonanoic acid, methyl vanillate, damascenone, 3-oxo-ionol, eugenol, p-cymen-8-ol, 2,3 pinanediol, coumaran and raspberry keton. Olfactive descriptors of the wines and the potential aroma of the combination of Corvina wine with the wines of the other two varieties at different percentages of mass loss are reported. PMID:27451194

  17. Research advance in aroma components of white tea%中国白茶的香气成分研究进展

    郭丽; 郭雅玲; 廖泽明; 林智

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:White tea is mainly produced in Fujian province and is the special tea in China. Because there is no panning and rolling during the processing, its shape is totally natural and pekoe flavor is high. The elegant aroma of white tea is endowed by numerous volatile substances, and has the fatal research significance to create new white tea. This paper compared the effect of the simultaneous distillation extraction method and the head space-solid phase micro-extraction on the content of aroma components in white tea, expounded the research status of identification of its aroma active components, explored the change rule of aroma components and the variation trend of the enzyme activity, such as glycosidase, lipoxygenase and polyphenol oxidase in the processing, and then investigated the feasibility of constructing different fragrance quality evaluation models for white tea by using the aroma active ingredients. To sum up, the research process of aroma chemical for white tea needs to be accelerated, especially the research of aroma active ingredients identification and metabolism analysis, for the development of new scent white tea, so it is helpful to enrich the theory of tea flavor chemistry research and improve the status of white tea in the agricultural economy.%白茶主产于福建,为我国特有的茶类。因其不炒不揉,外形浑然天成,毫香显露。而且赋予这种高雅香气的挥发性物质有很多种,对于创制白茶新产品具有重要的研究意义。本文比较了同时蒸馏萃取法与顶空-固相微萃取法对白茶香气成分含量的影响,阐述了白茶香气活性成分鉴定的研究现状,探讨了白茶香气成分在加工中的变化规律,以及相关酶类如糖苷酶、脂氧合酶和多酚氧化酶等活性的变化趋势,分析了利用香气活性成分构建不同香型白茶的香气质量评价模型的可行性。综上所述,白茶香气化学的研究进程亟需加快,尤其是

  18. Investigation and Comparison of the Aroma Components in Guangdong Black Tea%广东红茶香气成分的比较研究

    王秋霜; 陈栋; 许勇泉; 尹军峰

    2012-01-01

    为了研究广东地方红茶香气物质并确定主要呈香特征,本研究采用顶空固相微萃取方法结合气质联用技术准确地鉴定了红茶样品中香气物质种类及其对总体香气的贡献.结果表明,研究鉴定了50多种香气化合物,主要包含醇类、酯类、醛类、酮类和烯类、烷烃类等,其中醇类是最主要的物质,其次是酯类和醛类.所体现的花香、甜香、果香是广东红茶的香气特征.香气化合物中芳樟醇、橙花醇、水杨酸甲酯、氧化芳樟醇、壬醛是五种最主要的呈香物质,平均含量分别占总香气的37.55%、11.90%、8.89%、5.4%和5.21%.英德系列红茶中醇类物质最多;白毛系列红茶中醛类、酮类物质最多;烯类物质以单丛和福建系列红茶含量较高.%For the purpose of studying the volatile aroma components in Guangdong black tea and determine the main aroma components, the headspace solid-phase micro-extraction method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to determine the aroma compounds in black tea samples and their contribution to the total aroma. Results showed that more than 50 aroma compounds were identified including alcohol, ester, aldehyde, ketone, terpene, hydrocarbon etc., among which the alcohol was the most important compounds and ester and aldehyde were next to flower-like, fruit-like, refreshing and sweet aroma were the main character of Guangdong black tea. Linalool, gerariol, methyl salicylate, linalool oxide and nonanal were the five most important compounds, representing 37.55%, 11.90%, 8.89%, 5.4% and 5.21% of the total aroma respectively. The alcohol was the most important compounds in Yingde tea population, the contents of aldehyde and ketone were more in Baimao tea population. Dancong and Fujian tea plant contained more terpene compounds.

  19. Use of non-conventional yeast improves the wine aroma profile of Ribolla Gialla.

    Dashko, Sofia; Zhou, Nerve; Tinta, Tinkara; Sivilotti, Paolo; Lemut, Melita Sternad; Trost, Kajetan; Gamero, Amparo; Boekhout, Teun; Butinar, Lorena; Vrhovsek, Urska; Piskur, Jure

    2015-07-01

    Consumer wine preferences are changing rapidly towards exotic flavours and tastes. In this work, we tested five non-conventional yeast strains for their potential to improve Ribolla Gialla wine quality. These strains were previously selected from numerous yeasts interesting as food production candidates. Sequential fermentation of Ribolla Gialla grape juice with the addition of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae T73 Lalvin industrial strain was performed. Zygosaccharomyces kombuchaensis CBS8849 and Kazachstania gamospora CBS10400 demonstrated positive organoleptic properties and suitable fermentation dynamics, rapid sugar consumption and industrial strain compatibility. At the same time, Torulaspora microellipsoides CBS6641, Dekkera bruxellensis CBS2796 and Dekkera anomala CBS77 were unsuitable for wine production because of poor fermentation dynamics, inefficient sugar consumption and ethanol production levels and major organoleptic defects. Thus, we selected strains of K. gamospora and Z. kombuchaensis that significantly improved the usually plain taste of Ribolla wine by providing additional aromatic complexity in a controlled and reproducible manner. PMID:25903098

  20. PERFECTION OF TECHNOLOGY OF BAKERY PRODUCTS ON A BASIS TRITICALE TORMENTS WITH USE OF AROMATIC ADDITIVES

    Asmaeva, Z.; Dyachenko, Т.; Skakunov, А.; Varelas, A

    2009-01-01

    Possibility of use of products СО2-extraction of seeds of aromatic plants is investigated at preparation of bakery products from triticale torments. Positive influence СО2-shrots and СО2-extracts seeds of parsley, fennel, a celery and a coriander on baking properties triticale torments is shown, structure properties of the dough and quality of finished goods, thus bread gets pleasant taste and the aroma inherent in the certain aromatic additive.

  1. Starter cultures used in probiotic dairy product preparation and popular probiotic dairy drinks

    Oktay Yerlikaya

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products that contain probiotic bacteria are those that are produced with various fermentation methods, especially lactic acid fermentation, by using starter cultures and those that have various textures and aromas. Fermented dairy products are popular due to their differences in taste and their favourable physiological effects. Today, fermented dairy beverages in general are produced locally by using traditional methods. Recently, due to the increased demand for natural nutrients and p...

  2. Use of stable isotopes for testing aromas: vanillin as an example

    The determination of the origin, natural or synthetic, of vanillin is obtained by mass spectrometry of carbon 13. The depletion in 13C of the natural product is due to the photosynthesis mechanism (crassulacean acid metabolism). Deuterium is also a possible isotopic tracer and NMR an alternative analysis method but requires a more important sample

  3. Correlation Analysis of Aroma Characters and Volatiles in Chardonnay Dry White Wines from Five Districts in China%中国霞多丽干白葡萄酒香气特征与成分关联分析

    陶永胜; 彭传涛

    2012-01-01

    以我国主要葡萄酒产区的霞多丽(Chardonnay)干白葡萄酒为研究对象,对不同产区和年份的葡萄酒样品进行香气质量分析,建立了霞多丽香气特征与香气成分之间的数学联系.葡萄酒香气感官量化分析由30名经过葡萄酒标准香气物质培训的品尝员进行,量化数据综合了香气特征使用频率和强度分值.葡萄酒香气成分采用固相微萃取技术偶联GC - MS检测分析.对香气特征量化数据的主成分分析和相关分析结果表明,我国主要产区霞多丽干白葡萄酒有6个典型香气特征:柑橘、菠萝、紫罗兰、石灰水、青苹果和柠檬.香气成分的气味活性值(OAV)分析表明,供试酒样中检测出的64种香气成分有25种具有气味活性,高含量化合物中酯类香气贡献率明显高于高级醇和有机酸,微量成分中萜烯醇和去甲类异戊二烯化合物香气贡献率高.通过用香气成分建立我国霞多丽干白6个典型香气特征的回归模型,预测香气特征的强度,判别葡萄酒的香气质量和产区.结果显示,6个模型中5个方差分析达到极显著水平,t检验显示它们的常数项和化合物系数极显著,实测值与预测值相关系数R2在0.979 ~0.999之间.%Chardonnay dry white wines from main wine producing districts in China were collected to analyze aroma quality and reveal the mathematic relations between aroma characters and volatiles. Sensory analysis was made by 30 panelists who were trained by using " Le Nez du Vin" wine aroma kit. The sensory data were composed of intensity and by using frequency of characters. SPME - GC - MS was used to identify and quantify aroma compounds in wine. PCA and correlation analysis of sensory data showed six typical aroma characters of the Chinese Chardonnay dry white wines: citric, pineapple, violet, lime, green apple and lemon. Odor active value ( OAV) analysis indicated that 25 ones of 64 aroma compounds quantified in sample wines were

  4. Characterisation of aroma volatiles of indigenous alcoholic beverages: burukutu and pito.

    Onyenekwe, Paul C; Erhabor, Graham Osas; Akande, Sarah A

    2016-01-01

    Pito and burukutu are indigenous alcoholic beverages in Nigeria, and are fermentation products of Sorghum bicolor and Sorghum vulgare. The production is similar to that of beer, which involves steeping, malting, mashing and fermenting. A total of 30 volatile organic compounds were identified by gas chromatography. These compounds can be broadly grouped into alkanols, phenols, acids, esters, ketones and aldehydes. Although few acids are present, they are dominant (30.887% and 27.669%) and followed by esters (26.467% and 27.442%) in pito and burukutu, respectively. Alkanols constitute the next dominant group after acids and esters; however, ethanol was not identified as a constituent. The health and social implication of the constituents are explained. PMID:25894868

  5. In vitro salt release from model cheeses varying in texture and aroma

    Syarifuddin, Adiansyah, T. Thomas-Danguin, C.Septier, E. Semon and C. Salles

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Health authorities recommend a reduction in salt (NaCl) and fat contents in food. Reducing such components without affecting food acceptability is a major challenge because of their multi functional properties. A strategy to compensate for salt reduction sensorially is to improve in-mouth salt release. We performed a study to evaluate salt release in cheese-like products in conditions that mimic food oral processing. Model cheeses were prepared according to a full-factorial desig...

  6. Approaches of aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA) for headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-olfactometry (HS-SPME-GC-O): Altering sample amount, diluting the sample or adjusting split ratio?

    Feng, Yunzi; Cai, Yu; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Cui, Chun; Su, Guowan; Lin, Lianzhu; Zhao, Mouming

    2015-11-15

    Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) is widely used for the screening of aroma-active compounds in gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). In this study, three aroma dilution methods, (I) using different test sample volumes, (II) diluting samples, and (III) adjusting the GC injector split ratio, were compared for the analysis of volatiles by using HS-SPME-AEDA. Results showed that adjusting the GC injector split ratio (III) was the most desirable approach, based on the linearity relationships between Ln (normalised peak area) and Ln (normalised flavour dilution factors). Thereafter this dilution method was applied in the analysis of aroma-active compounds in Japanese soy sauce and 36 key odorants were found in this study. The most intense aroma-active components in Japanese soy sauce were: ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, ethyl 4-methylpentanoate, 3-(methylthio)propanal, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-methoxyphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 2-phenylethanol, and 4-hydroxy-5-ethyl-2-methyl-3(2H)-furanone. PMID:25976996

  7. Impact of inoculum size on mead aroma compounds formation by wine strains of S. cerevisiae

    Pereira, A.P.; Ferreira, A. Mendes; Oliveira, J. M.; Estevinho, L .M.; Faia, A. Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Mead is a traditional drink, containing 8-18% (v/v) of ethanol, which results from the alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey performed by yeasts. It has been reported that mead fermentation is a time-consuming process, and an important objective of mead makers is to reduce the fermentation time without decreasing the quality of the end product. A significant time can be saved in the fermentation process by increasing the pitching rate, i.e., the amount of suspended yeast cells added to a ba...

  8. Relevance of nitrate and nitrite in dry-cured ham and their effects on aroma development

    Flores, Mónica

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Potassium and sodium salts of nitrite (E 249 and E 250 and nitrate (E 251 and E 252 are authorised for use under certain levels in several foodstuffs such as non-heat-treated, cured and dried meat products, other cured meat products, canned meat products and bacon. The key point in the use of nitrate and nitrite as preservatives is to find a balance between ensuring the microbiological safety of the ham and keeping as low as possible the level of nitrosamines in the final product. Nitrites and nitrates are authorised as additives for dry-cured ham in the Directive 2006/52/EC of 5 July 2006 that modifies previous Council Directive 95/2/EC on food additives other than colours and sweeteners. The effect of nitrate and its reduction to nitrite in controlling the lipid oxidation process during the ham ripening is very important for the development of the characteristic cured flavour. The main benefits and drawbacks of the use of nitrites and nitrates in dry-cured ham and how these levels may affect its flavour are discussed in this manuscript.Las sales sódica y potásica del nitrito (E249 y E250 y del nitrato (E251 y E252 están autorizados para su uso en los productos cárnicos, secos, curados y no tratados por el calor, otros productos cárnicos curados, productos cárnicos enlatados y bacon. El punto esencial en el uso de nitrato y nitrito como conservantes consiste en encontrar un balance entre el aseguramiento de la seguridad microbiológica del jamón y mantener el nivel de nitrosaminas tan bajo como sea posible. Los nitratos y nitritos están autorizados como aditivos en el jamón curado según la Directiva Europea 2006/52/EC de 5 de Julio de 2006 que modificaba la previa Directiva Europea 95/2/EC de aditivos alimentarios distintos a los colorantes y edulcorantes. El efecto del nitrato y su reducción a nitrito para controlar la oxidación de los lípidos durante la maduración del jamón es muy importante para el desarrollo del caracter

  9. Aroma Quality of Fruits of Wild and Cultivated Strawberry (FRAGARIA SPP. in Relation to the Flavour-Related Gene Expression

    Bianchi Giulia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Expression profiles of flavour-related genes and the aroma quality of fruit headspace were investigated in the four strawberry genotypes ‘Reine des Vallées’ (Fragaria vesca, ‘Profumata di Tortona’ (F mos-chata, ‘Onda’ and VR 177 selection (F” x ananassa. Differences in the expression level of genes coding of strawberry alcohol acyltransferase (SAAT, F. x ananassa nerolidol synthase 1 (FaNESl and F vesca monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases (FvPINS and PINS1, respectively were detected among these genotypes. In fruits of F. x ananassa the terpenoid profile was dominated by nerolidol, whereas wild spe–cies produced mainly monoterpenes. It was correlated with the higher induction of FaNES1 in cultivated and PINS gene in the wild Fragaria species. The flavour biogenesis in ripening fruits was determined by the expression of SAAT gene, especially visible for ‘Profumata di Tortona’ and ‘Onda’ strawberries. The fruit solid-phase microextraction (SPME headspace was analysed using the Gas Chromatography-Olfac–tometry (GC-O, that allows for the chromatographic separation of volatiles together with their olfactomet-ric evaluation. ‘Reine des Vallées’ fruits have a peculiar profile characterized by high concentrations of limonene, linalool and mesifurane that resulted in “spiced”, “citrus, floral” and “sweet, baked” descriptors. The character impact compound in ‘Profumata di Tortona’ fruits was ethyl butanoate, responsible for “sweet” and “fruity, strawberry” descriptors. However, it was detected in lower amount in comparison to the data obtained for F. x ananassa strawberries. The sesquiterpene nerolidol was identified in both culti–vated strawberry genotypes.

  10. Inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene-induced tumorigenesis by myristicin, a volatile aroma constituent of parsley leaf oil.

    Zheng, G Q; Kenney, P M; Zhang, J; Lam, L K

    1992-10-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) assay-guided fractionation of parsley leaf oil from the edible plant Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. (Umbelliferae) led to the isolation of myristicin. Myristicin showed high activity as an inducer of the detoxifying enzyme GST in the liver and small intestinal mucosa of female A/J mice. Reduction of myristicin yielded dihydromyristicin that retained the GST-inducing activity. Myristicin and dihydromyristicin were tested for their capacity to inhibit benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-induced tumor formation in female A/J mice. A 65% inhibition of the tumor multiplicity in the lung was observed as the result of treatment of myristicin. Dihydromyristicin produced small or insignificant reduction of lung tumor formation. In the forestomach, myristicin showed a 31% inhibition of tumor formation; while dihydromyristicin exhibited a 27% inhibition. Comparison of the structures and activities indicated that the saturation of the isolated double bond in myristicin resulted in a significant decrease in the inhibitory activity against B[a]P-induced tumorigenesis. The present results showed that myristicin, an active inducer of GST activity, is an effective inhibitor of B[a]P-induced tumorigenesis in mice. Stimulation of GST activity by myristicin could be a major mechanism for its inhibition of B[a]P or other carcinogens that may be detoxified in the same manner. As a culinary herb parsley is regularly consumed by humans. Parsley leaf oil is also used extensively for garnishing and seasoning. The results of this study indicate that as a major volatile aroma constituent of parsley myristicin may be an effective cancer chemopreventive agent. PMID:1423855

  11. Studies on the Simultaneous Formation of Aroma-Active and Toxicologically Relevant Vinyl Aromatics from Free Phenolic Acids during Wheat Beer Brewing.

    Langos, Daniel; Granvogl, Michael

    2016-03-23

    During the brewing process of wheat beer, the desired aroma-active vinyl aromatics 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol as well as the undesired and toxicologically relevant styrene are formed from their respective precursors, free ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and cinnamic acid, deriving from the malts. Analysis of eight commercial wheat beers revealed high concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol always in parallel with high concentrations of styrene or low concentrations of the odorants in parallel with low styrene concentrations, suggesting a similar pathway. To better understand the formation of these vinyl aromatics, each process step of wheat beer brewing and the use of different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated. During wort boiling, only a moderate decarboxylation of free phenolic acids and formation of desired and undesired vinyl aromatics were monitored due to the thermal treatment. In contrast, this reaction mainly occurred enzymatically catalyzed during fermentation with S. cerevisiae strain W68 with normal Pof(+) activity (phenolic off-flavor) resulting in a wheat beer eliciting the typical aroma requested by consumers due to high concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (1790 μg/L) and 4-vinylphenol (937 μg/L). Unfortunately, also a high concentration of undesired styrene (28.3 μg/L) was observed. Using a special S. cerevisiae strain without Pof(+) activity resulted in a significant styrene reduction (aroma. PMID:26800353

  12. Presence of monoterpene synthase in four Labiatae species and Solid-Phase Microextraction- Gas chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis of their aroma profiles

    Soodabeh Saeidnia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The family Lamiaceae (Labiatae has included some medicinal plants. some monoterpene synthases, including linalool and limonene synthases, have been cloned and functionally characterized from several plants of Labiatae family. Materials and Methods: In this study, presence of linalool and limonene synthases, in four species of Labiatae family including Nepeta cataria, Lavandula angustifolia, Hyssopus officinalis and Salvia sclarea has been determined by molecular biological techniques together with the Head space SPME - GC-MS analysis of the aroma profile of these species. Results: Indicated that none of the plant species produced distinguishable bands with primer pairs related to d-limonene synthase. Distinguishable bands around 1800 bp in cDNA samples of L. angustifolia, H. officinalis and S. sclarea were observed regarding to the presence of linalool synthase. Head space SPME-GC-MS analysis of the aroma profiles of the above-mentioned plants showed that linalool (31.0%, linalyl acetate (18.2%, were found as the major compounds of L. angustifolia, while geraniol (5.5%, nerol (34.0% and α- citral (52.0% were identified as the main compounds of the N. cataria. The major components of H. officinalis and S. sclarea oils were determined as cis-pinocamphone (57.3%, and linalool (19.0%, linalyl acetate (51.5%, respectively. Conclusion: H. officinalis was rich of cyclic monoterpenes, L. angustifolia, N. cataria and S. sclarea showed considerable amount of linear monoterpenes. The aroma profile of the above-mentioned plants contained low concentration of sesquiterpenes except N. cataria, which indicated no sesquiterpene. The profiles of the main components of these plants are in agreement with molecular assays.

  13. Production and Preservation of Passion Fruit Juice

    U. G. AKPAN; A. S. KOVO

    2005-01-01

    Production and preservation of Passion Fruit Juice was examined to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the juice using chemical preservatives. The preservation of the juice was carried out using sugar, benzoic acid, citric and a combination of citric and benzoic acid under room temperature.The result revealed that the juice maintained its color, aroma and tastes for at least one month when 30% benzoic acid was used as preservative. This happens to be the best among all. The ...

  14. Studies on Chimonanthus praecox aroma enhanced by β-glucosidase%β-葡萄糖苷酶酶解腊梅花增香效果的研究

    李明; 曹光群; 杨成; 孙培冬; 蒋邦文

    2012-01-01

    研究β-葡萄糖苷酶对腊梅花的增香效果.用β-葡萄糖苷酶酶解腊梅鲜花,利用顶空 — 固相微萃取 — 气相色谱—质谱联用技术分别分析酶解前后腊梅花的挥发性成分.结果表明:经与酶解前的46种香气成分对比发现,酶解后,腊梅的香气成分增至64种,主要香气成分的质量分数均明显增长,其中β-榄香烯、4-异亚丙基-1-乙烯基-o-孟8-烯、α荜澄茄油烯和α-可巴烯分别增长了107.7,50.3,46.5,30.0倍.β-葡萄糖苷酶可水解腊梅鲜花香气的前体物质,释放出鲜花中潜在的香气成分,起到自然增香的作用.%To study The effect of β-glucostdase on enhancing the aroma of Chimonunthus praecox. Chimonanthus praeco.r was hydrolyzed by p-glucosidase, then the volatiles hefore and after enzyme hydrolysis were extracted by headspace solid-phase rnicroextraetion and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass ispectrometry. Result; After en zyme hydrolysis, the number of aroma components increased to 64 when comparing with that of 16 before p-glucosidase hydrolysis, and the mass fraction of main aroma components notablely increased, especially β-eIeinene, 4-isopropyhdene-l-vinyl- o-Menth-8-cne, α-cube-bene and α-copaene. the increasing times of which reached 107. 7, 50.3, 46.5 and 30. 0 respectively. Conclusion: β-glucosidase could release the potential aromatic compounds of Chimonanthus praeco.r after hydrolyzmg the flavor precursors, and thus enhance the quality of aroma.

  15. Ekşi Hamur ve Laktik Starter Kullanımının Ekmekte Aroma Oluşumu Üzerine Etkileri

    Göçmen, Duygu

    2001-01-01

    Ekşi hamur ve laktik starter kullanımının ekmek özellikleri üzerine bir çok olumlu etkisi bulunmaktadır. Bunlar; daha güçlü bir aroma oluşumu sağlamak, ekmek içi yapısını iyileştirmek, hacmi artırmak, raf ömrünü uzatmak ve üretim güvencesi sağlamaktır. Bu derlemede, aro­ma oluşumuna etkiler üzerinde durulacaktır.

  16. Componentes volátiles libres y glicosídicamente enlazados del aroma de la piña (ananas comosus l.) variedad perolera

    Sinuco, Diana C.; Alicia L. Morales; Duque, Carmenza

    2008-01-01

    Los componentes volátiles del aroma de la piña perolera fueron obtenidos mediante extracción L-L y analizados por CGAR, CGAR-EM (IE, IQP) y CGAR-O. En esta forma se identificaron 67 compuestos, siendo 2-metilbutanoato de metilo, hexanoatode metilo, 4- acetoxi-hexanoato de metilo, 5-acetoxi-hexanoato de metilo y 3-metiltiopropanoato de metilo los componentesmayoritarios. Mediante el análisis por CGAR-O no se detectaron compuestos impacto.La fracción glicosídica se obtuvo por adsorción sobre Am...

  17. Rhizospheric Microflora Escalating Aroma Constituents and Yield Attributes in Ocimum tenuiflorum (L. cv. CIM-Ayu

    Shilpi Khare Saikia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of rhizospheric microbial flora for crop yield enhancement is well established. Rhizospheric microbes influence the plant physiology by imparting several beneficial effects, namely, Nitrogen fixation, increased nutrient uptake, and secondary metabolites production on their host plants. The present study investigates the response of Bacillus megaterium ATCC No. 13525, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC No. 14581, and Trichoderma viride MTCC No. 167 in alone and combined treatments for their effect on growth and yield parameters in a commercially important Ocimum tenuiflorum L. cv. CIM-Ayu. The plant is therapeutically important for its essential oil constituents, namely, eugenol, β-caryophyllene, and various monoterpenes. The combination treatments, T7 (B. megaterium + P. fluorescens and T8 (B. megaterium + P. fluorescens + T. viride, showed maximum enhancement (27.27% of percentage essential oil as compared to untreated control. Nutrient uptake especially N2 content was significantly increased (43% with the treatment T8 (B. megaterium + P. fluorescens + T. viride. Amongst major essential oil constituents, eugenol content was maximally increased by 58.5% as compared to 42.9% (control indicating a cumulative role of microbial inoculants for crop yield boost-up.

  18. EFECTO DE LA REDUCCIÓN DEL CONTENIDO DE NaCl Y/O GRASA EN LA CALIDAD DE EMBUTIDOS CURADO-MADURADOS Y ESTUDIO DE NUEVAS ESTRATEGIAS PARA LA POTENCIACIÓN DEL AROMA.

    CORRAL SILVESTRE, SARA

    2015-01-01

    El proceso de fabricación de embutidos curado-madurados es crucial para el desarrollo de unas características sensoriales óptimas siendo el aroma y sabor uno de los parámetros de calidad más importantes para los consumidores. Por ello, es de interés conocer los compuestos de gran potencia aromática que determinan la aceptación de dicho producto para así, diseñar nuevas estrategias tecnológicas que potencien el aroma de los embutidos curado-madurados. En vista de ello, la presen...

  19. Highly selective generation of vanillin by anodic degradation of lignin: a combined approach of electrochemistry and product isolation by adsorption

    Dominik Schmitt; Carolin Regenbrecht; Marius Hartmer; Florian Stecker; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative degradation of lignin into a variety of valuable products has been under investigation since the first half of the last century. Especially, the chance to claim this cheap, abundant and renewable source for the production of the important aroma chemical vanillin (1) was one of the major driving forces of lignin research. So far most of the developed methods fail in technical application since no viable concept for work-up is included. This work represents a combined approach of ...

  20. Australian wine consumers’ acceptance of and attitudes toward the use of additives in wine and food production

    Bastian,Susan; Saltman,Yaelle; Johnson, Trent; Wilkinson, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Yaelle Saltman, Trent E Johnson, Kerry L Wilkinson, Susan EP Bastian Department of Wine and Food, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Adelaide, SA, Australia. Abstract: Additives are routinely used in food and wine production to enhance product quality and/or prevent spoilage. Compared with other industries, the wine industry is only permitted to use a limited number of additives. Whereas flavor additives are often used to intensify the aroma and f...

  1. Australian wine consumers’ acceptance of and attitudes toward the use of additives in wine and food production

    Saltman Y; Johnson TE; Wilkinson KL; Bastian SEP

    2015-01-01

    Yaelle Saltman, Trent E Johnson, Kerry L Wilkinson, Susan EP Bastian Department of Wine and Food, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Adelaide, SA, Australia. Abstract: Additives are routinely used in food and wine production to enhance product quality and/or prevent spoilage. Compared with other industries, the wine industry is only permitted to use a limited number of additives. Whereas flavor additives are often used to intensify the aroma and f...

  2. The effects of reactants ratios, reaction temperatures and times on Maillard reaction products of the L-ascorbic acid/L-glutamic acid system

    Yong-Yan ZHOU; Li, Ya; Ai-Nong YU

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The transformation law of the Maillard reaction products with three different reactants ratios - equimolar reactants, excess L-glutamic acid and excess L-ascorbic acid reaction respectively, five different temperatures, and different time conditions for the L-ascorbic acid / L-glutamic acid system were investigated. Results showed that, the increase of the reaction time and temperature led to the increase of the browning products, uncoloured intermediate products, as well as aroma co...

  3. Lilium floral fragrance: A biochemical and genetic resource for aroma and flavor.

    Johnson, Timothy S; Schwieterman, Michael L; Kim, Joo Young; Cho, Keun H; Clark, David G; Colquhoun, Thomas A

    2016-02-01

    Hybrid Lilium (common name lily) cultivars are among the top produced domestic fresh cut flowers and potted plants in the US today. Many hybrid Lilium cultivars produce large and showy flowers that emit copious amounts of volatile molecules, which can negatively affect a consumer's appreciation or limit use of the plant product. There are few publications focused on the biochemistry, genetics, and/or molecular regulation of floral volatile biosynthesis for Lilium cultivars. In an initial pursuit to provide breeders with molecular markers for floral volatile biosynthesis, a total of five commercially available oriental and oriental-trumpet hybrid Lilium cultivars were selected for analytical characterization of floral volatile emission. In total, 66 volatile molecules were qualified and quantitated among all cultivars. Chemical classes of identified volatiles include monoterpene hydrocarbons, monoterpene alcohols and aldehydes, phenylpropanoids, benzenoids, fatty-acid-derived, nitrogen-containing, and amino-acid-derived compounds. In general, the floral volatile profiles of the three oriental-trumpet hybrids were dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons, monoterpene alcohols and aldehydes, while the two oriental hybrids were dominated by monoterpene alcohols and aldehydes and phenylpropanoids, respectively. Tepal tissues (two petal whirls) emitted the vast majority of total volatile molecules compared to the reproductive organs of the flowers. Tepal volatile profiles were cultivar specific with a high degree of distinction, which indicates the five cultivars chosen will provide an excellent differential genetic environment for gene discovery through comparative transcriptomics in the future. Cloning and assaying transcript accumulation from four floral volatile biosynthetic candidates provided few immediate or obvious trends with floral volatile emission. PMID:26654856

  4. Authenticity of raspberry flavor in food products using SPME-chiral-GC-MS.

    Hansen, Anne-Mette S; Frandsen, Henrik L; Fromberg, Arvid

    2016-05-01

    A fast and simple method for authenticating raspberry flavors from food products was developed. The two enantiomers of the compound (E)-α-ionone from raspberry flavor were separated on a chiral gas chromatographic column. Based on the ratio of these two enantiomers, the naturalness of a raspberry flavor can be evaluated due to the fact that a natural flavor will consist almost exclusively of the R enantiomer, while a chemical synthesis of the same compound will result in a racemic mixture. Twenty-seven food products containing raspberry flavors where investigated using SPME-chiral-GC-MS. We found raspberry jam, dried raspberries, and sodas declared to contain natural aroma all contained almost only R-(E)-α-ionone supporting the content of natural raspberry aroma. Six out of eight sweets tested did not indicate a content of natural aroma on the labeling which was in agreement with the almost equal distribution of the R and S isomer. Two products were labeled to contain natural raspberry flavors but were found to contain almost equal amounts of both enantiomers indicating a presence of synthetic raspberry flavors only. Additionally, two products that were labeled to contain both raspberry juice and flavor showed equal amounts of both enantiomers, indicating the presence of synthetic flavor. PMID:27247764

  5. Improvement of soluble coffee aroma using an integrated process of supercritical CO2 extraction with selective removal of the pungent volatiles by adsorption on activates carbon

    S. Lucas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a two-step integrated process consisting of CO2 supercritical extraction of volatile coffee compounds (the most valuable from roasted and milled coffee, and a subsequent step of selective removal of pungent volatiles by adsorption on activated carbon is presented. Some experiments were carried out with key compounds from roasted coffee aroma in order to study the adsorption step: ethyl acetate as a desirable compound and furfural as a pungent component. Operational parameters such as adsorption pressure and temperature and CO2 flowrate were optimized. Experiments were conducted at adsorption pressures of 12-17 MPa, adsorption temperatures of 35-50ºC and a solvent flow rate of 3-5 kg/h. In all cases, the solute concentration and the activated particle size were kept constant. Results show that low pressures (12 MPa, low temperatures (35ºC and low CO2 flowrates (3 kg/h are suitable for removing the undesirable pungent and smell components (e.g. furfural and retaining the desirable aroma compounds (e.g. ethyl acetate. The later operation with real roasted coffee has corroborated the previous results obtained with the key compounds.

  6. Comparison of Essential Oils Obtained from Different Extraction Techniques as an Aid in Identifying Aroma Significant Compounds of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans).

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, S Prasad

    2015-08-01

    Distribution of volatile constituents in the essential oil of nutmeg obtained by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), high vacuum distillation (HVD) and super critical fluid extraction (SFE) was compared with reduced pressure distillation (RPD) and head space (HS) analysis. HS and RPD volatiles were characterized by a high content of sabinene, followed by α-pinene and β-pinene. Interestingly, unlike the SDE, HVD and SFE oils, distillates from HS and RPD were marked by the absence of phenolic ethers namely myristicin, elemicin and safrole. The HS and RPD volatiles possessed a pleasant nutmeg aroma indicating a significant role of terpenic constituents in contributing to the top aroma note. GC-olfactometry (GC-O) of the oils aided in establishing the role of sabinene, α-pinene and β-pinene in contributing to the distinctive note of the spice. A high odor activity value (OAV) of sabinene and α-pinene established the role of these two constituents in imparting the characteristic nutmeg odor. PMID:26434138

  7. Low intramuscular fat (but high in PUFA) content in cooked cured pork ham decreased Maillard reaction volatiles and pleasing aroma attributes.

    Benet, Iu; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Ibañez, Carles; Solà, Josep; Arnau, Jacint; Roura, Eugeni

    2016-04-01

    The influence of intramuscular fat content (high - HI versus low - LI) and fatty acid composition on pork cooked cured ham flavour was analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry using nasal impact frequency (GC-O/NIF) and quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Potential relationships were studied by principal component analysis (PCA). Sixteen and fourteen odourants were identified by GC-O/NIF in LI and HI cooked hams, respectively. The two ham types differed in lipid oxidation odourants: polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) derivatives hexanal, 1-octen-3-one and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were higher in LI ham; while monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivative decanal was higher in HI. HI samples resulted in higher values for odour-active aroma compounds from Maillard reaction, which are related to roast flavour and a higher overall flavour liking. In summary, our results suggest that Maillard derived odour-active aroma compounds were partially inhibited in LI samples (high in PUFA), resulting in lower positive sensory ratings. PMID:26593467

  8. The cleavage specificity of the aspartic protease of cocoa beans involved in the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma precursors.

    Janek, Katharina; Niewienda, Agathe; Wöstemeyer, Johannes; Voigt, Jürgen

    2016-11-15

    Particular peptides generated from the vicilin-class(7S) globulin of the cocoa beans by acid-induced proteolysis during cocoa fermentation are essential precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma notes. As revealed by in vitro studies, the formation of the cocoa-specific aroma precursors depends on the particular cleavage specificity of the cocoa aspartic protease, which cannot be substituted by pepsin. Therefore, we have investigated the effects of aspartic protease inhibitors on both enzymes and comparatively studied their cleavage specificities using different protein substrates and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analyses of the generated oligopeptides. Three classes of cleavage sites have been identified and characterized: (I) sequences exclusively cleaved by the cocoa enzyme, (II) sequences cleaved by both pepsin and the cocoa enzyme, and (III) those cleaved exclusively by pepsin. In contrast to most aspartic proteases from other origins, basic amino acid residues, particularly lysine, were found to be abundant in the specific cleavage sites of the cocoa enzyme. PMID:27283639

  9. Characteristic Chemical Components and Aroma-active Compounds of the Essential Oils from Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus Used in Japanese Traditional Food.

    Nakaya, Satoshi; Usami, Atsushi; Yorimoto, Tomohito; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus is an aquatic macrophyte; it is known as a wild edible plant in Japan for a long time. In this study, the essential oils from the fresh and dried aerial parts of R. nipponicus var. submersus were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, important aroma-active compounds were also detected in the oil using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Thus, 98 compounds (accounting for 93.86%) of the oil were identified. The major compounds in fresh plant oil were phytol (41.94%), heptadecane (5.92%), and geranyl propionate (5.76%), while those of. Dried plant oil were β-ionone (23.54%), 2-hexenal (8.75%), and dihydrobovolide (4.81%). The fresh and dried oils had the green-floral and citrus-floral odor, respectively. The GC-O and AEDA results show that phenylacetaldehyde (green, floral odor, FD-factor = 8) and β-ionone (violet-floral odor, FD-factor = 8) were the most characteristic odor compounds of the fresh oils. β-Cyclocitral (citrus odor, FD-factor = 64) and β-ionone (violet-floral odor, FD-factor = 64) were the most characteristic odor compounds of the dried oil. These compounds are thought to contribute to the flavor of R. nipponicus var. submersus. PMID:25891110

  10. Identification of odorants in frankincense (Boswellia sacra Flueck.) by aroma extract dilution analysis and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry.

    Niebler, Johannes; Buettner, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Frankincense has been known, traded and used throughout the ages for its exceptional aroma properties, and is still commonly used in both secular and religious settings to convey a pleasant odor. Surprisingly, the odoriferous principle(s) underlying its unique odor profile have never been published. In this study, resin samples of Boswellia sacra Flueck. from both Somalia and Oman were investigated by aroma extract dilution analysis. In a comprehensive, odor-activity guided approach both chemo-analytical and human-sensory parameters were used to identify odor active constituents of the volatile fraction of B. sacra. Among the key odorants found were α-pinene, β-myrcene, linalool, p-cresol and two unidentified sesquiterpenoids. Overall, a total of 23 odorants were detected and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry and heart-cut two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry. The majority of the identified odorant compounds were oxygenated monoterpenes, along with some relevant mono- and sesquiterpenes and only one diterpenoid substance. Several of these compounds were reported here for the first time as odorous constituents in B. sacra. Identifying bioactive compounds might support a better understanding with regard to the potential benefits of frankincense, for example in aromatherapy or ecclesial settings. PMID:25468535

  11. Analysis of Aroma Constituents of High-fragrant Green Tea%高香绿茶的香气成分分析

    吴春兰; 陈江明; 黄亚辉

    2012-01-01

    High-fragrant green tea is a new kind of green tea added with withering and fermentation. It was found that the biochemical component contents and aroma of high-fragrant green tea were higher than that of common green tea. Flavor, esters and phenols of high-fragrant green tea were 10.8% and 3.44% higher respectively than those of ordinary green tea. Those aroma components accounted for the characteristics of high-fragrant green tea flavor.%经过晒青、摊放、摇青的高香绿茶样,生化成分含量均高于普通绿茶对照样;在香气分析中,高香绿茶的香气种类比普通绿茶多,酯类和酚类物质分别比普通茶样的高10.8%和3.44%,这些香气成分的形成构成了高香绿茶的香型特征.

  12. Persistence of aroma volatiles in the oral and nasal cavities: real-time monitoring of decay rate in air exhaled through the nose and mouth.

    Sánchez-López, José Antonio; Ziere, Aldo; Martins, Sara I F S; Zimmermann, Ralf; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of aroma compounds in breath after swallowing is an important attribute of the overall aroma experience during eating and drinking. It is mainly related to the coating of the oral tract with food residues and the interaction between volatile compounds and airway mucosa. We have studied the persistence of eight compounds (2,5-dimethylpyrazine, guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, phenylethylalcohol, ethylbutanoate, ethyloctanoate, isoamylacetate and 2-heptanone) both in-nose and in-mouth after administration of volatiles in gas phase (vapor) to five different panelists. By using volatiles in the gas phase, only the interaction with the mucosa is highlighted and the formation of a liquid coating in the oral and tracheal airway is avoided. The physicochemical properties of the compounds, mainly polarity and vapor pressure, determine the interactions of the volatiles with the airway mucosa. The use of different breathing protocols allowed the study of the differences between nasal and oral mucosa in volatile retention, with higher persistence of volatiles obtained in-mouth. Initial concentration also affected persistence, but only for compounds with high volatility and at low concentration. PMID:27380868

  13. Impact of product information on consumers´choice for dog food

    Huang, Yuanxin

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a unique insight into the key role of the impact of product information factors and the their interaction. Through a factorial design the impact of dog food aroma (natu- ral/artificial) in combination with claim (health/taste) on dog food experience was explored in Experiment 1. Another experiment examined the impacts of factors combinations (dog’s response /claim) on consumers’ choice. Using rating data on dependent variables, a Mixed-effects model was performed. The resu...

  14. Food Processing and Maillard Reaction Products: Effect on Human Health and Nutrition

    Nahid Tamanna; Niaz Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Maillard reaction produces flavour and aroma during cooking process; and it is used almost everywhere from the baking industry to our day to day life to make food tasty. It is often called nonenzymatic browning reaction since it takes place in the absence of enzyme. When foods are being processed or cooked at high temperature, chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars leads to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). Depending on the way the food is being processed,...

  15. Banana as adjunct in beer production : applicability and performance of fermentative parameters

    Carvalho, Giovani B. M.; Silva, Daniel Pereira da; Bento, Camila V.; Vicente, A.A.; J. A. Teixeira; Felipe, Maria das Graças A.; Silva, João B. Almeida e

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, the raw materials for beer production are barley, hops, water, and yeast, but most brewers use also different adjuncts. During the alcoholic fermentation, the contribution of aroma compounds from other ingredients to the final beer flavor depends on the wort composition, on the yeast strain, and mainly on the process conditions. In this context, banana can also be a raw material favorable to alcoholic fermentation being rich in carbohydrates and minerals and providing low acidi...

  16. Production, chemical characterization, and sensory profile of a novel spirit elaborated from spent coffee ground

    Sampaio, Armando; Dragone, Giuliano; Vilanova, Mar; Oliveira, J. M.; J. A. Teixeira; Mussatto, Solange I.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a process for the production of a spirit from spent coffee ground (SCG), the chemical composition, and sensory profile of this distillate. The process consisted in three steps starting with the extraction of aroma compounds by hydrothermal treatment of SCG, followed by the fermentation of this extract supplemented with sucrose to ethanol, and the fermented broth distillation. Seventeen volatile compounds were identified in the distillate (including alcohols, esters, aldeh...

  17. 模糊综合评价法在肉味香基感官评价中的应用%Application of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation to sensory quality analysis of meat favour aroma

    王越鹏; 李平; 汪建明; 胡峰; 耿媛

    2012-01-01

    A fuzzy integrity evaluation model was applied to assess meat favour aroma producted by Maillard reaction from amino acids and reducing sugars(glucose and xylose) with soy-protein hydrolysates produced by oneself.The result indicated that L-Cysteine,the ratio of glucose and xylose,and soy-protein hydrolysates were the key factors during Maillard reaction.Orthogonal array design was used to set optimal processing.The optimal processing parameters were L-Cysteine 2.5%,the ratio of glucose and xylose 1∶3,and soy-protein hydrolysates 30%,and the score was 4.965.%以自制水解液、氨基酸和还原糖为原料,经美拉德反应得到具有肉味特征的香基料,以模糊数学综合评价作为评判标准。单因素实验结果表明,半胱氨酸添加量、葡萄糖和木糖比例及大豆蛋白液的添加量是影响产物特征的关键因素,采用正交实验L9(33)确定最佳配比为,半胱氨酸添加量为2.5%,葡萄糖和木糖比为1:3,大豆蛋白液添加量为30%,得到产物的感官评分为4.965。

  18. Comparison of the Volatile Compounds among Different Production Regions of Green Tea using Simultaneous Distillation Extraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry

    J.S. Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chinese green teas are mainly made of the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis and mainly distributed in provinces of Zhejiang, Anhui, Henan and Jiangsu, etc. Because of having same tea varieties and processing technology, different origins of green teas are very similar in appearance. Whereas different production areas and climatic conditions between them may have cause different quality characters, such as aroma and taste. So it is very necessary to study the different regions of green teas and explore environment and geographical factors to volatile components influence. In this study, the aroma components of four typical green teas: Xihulongjing, Xinyangmaojian, Lu’anguapian and Biluochun, from Zhejiang, Henan, Anhui and Jiangsu in China, were extracted by Simultaneous Distillation Extraction (SDE and identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS, then compared the similarities and differences between them on the aroma components was made. The result showed that 61 aroma constituents were indentified in four green teas, mainly including alcohols, hydrocarbons and ketones compounds. Through contrast and comparison of results, we find that these different origins of green teas have some differences, but also share some similarities based on the volatile components. The difference of place of origin and elevation will grow different tea plants and will have different volatile components due to the environment.

  19. Preparación de una esencia de lulo (solanum vestissimun d. a partir del estudio de la contribución de los componentes volátiles al aroma de la fruta

    J. Silva

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Los constituyentes volátiles del aroma del lulo (Solanum vestissimum D. fueron extraídos y caracterizados química y olfatométricamente, encontrándose que el aroma de esta fruta no es debida a unos pocos componentes sino a una mezcla compleja de 32 compuestos volátiles mayoritarios, de los cuales el butanoato de metilo, (E-2-butenoato de metilo, butanoato de etilo, (Z-3-hexenol, hexanoato de metilo, hexanoato de etilo, acetato de (Z-3-hexenilo, limoneno, 7- terpineneno, benzoato de metilo, lonalol y o-terpineol parecen contribuir de manera más efectiva a este exótico y delicioso aroma. Debido a que no se encontró un solo compuesto(s responsable de aroma típico de esta fruta, se utilizó el extracto completo de volátiles para preparar una buena esencia de lulo (utilizando como mejor matriz propilénglicol en solución acuosa al 10% y extracto de volátiles al 2%, la cual fue luego incorporada como aromatizante y saborizante en un helado de crema. El producto así preparado tuvo una gran aceptación por quienes lo consumieron

  20. 红烧牛肉罐头香味活性化合物的分析%Analysis of Aroma-Active Compounds in Canned Stewed Beef

    许倩倩; 林美丽; 刘雪妮; 宋焕禄; 陈斌; 屈维丽

    2012-01-01

    The aroma-active compounds of canned stewed beef braised in brown sauce were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by dynamic headspace sampling, thermal desorption injection and GC-O/GC-MS. A total of 73 volatile compounds were identified. Among them were 23 aroma-active compounds, mainly consisting of 4 ketones, 3 aldehydes, 2 alcohols, 2 esters, 2 furans, 2 pyrazine, 2 thiazole, 2 terpenes, 1 alkene, and 1 pyridine. The important aroma-active compounds were 2-butanone (fruity), 2-pentanone (fruity and sweet), camphene (woody and minty), ethyl butyrate (sweet and fruity), pyridine(soul and fishy), 2,5-dimethyl-pyrazine(nut and roast), benzaldehyde (sweet and fruity), and 2-acetylthiazole (nut and roast peanut).%采用动态顶空的方法对红烧牛肉罐头中挥发性化合物进行提取,热脱附系统进样,利用气相-嗅闻-质谱联用的方法对其中的香味活性化合物进行定性定量分析,共鉴定出73中挥发性化合物,其中23种香味活性化合物,这些化合物种类主要有酮类4种,醛类3种,醇类2种,酯类2种,呋喃类2种,吡嗪类2种,噻唑类2种,萜类2种,烯类1种,吡啶1种。红烧牛肉罐头中重要的香味活性化合物有2-丁酮(水果味)、2-戊酮(甜味、果香味)、莰烯(木香味、薄荷味)、丁酸乙酯(香甜味、水果味)、吡啶(酸味、鱼香味)、2,5-二甲基-吡嗪(烧烤味、坚果味)、苯甲醛(甜味、果香味)、2-乙酰噻唑(坚果味、烤花生味)。

  1. Use of simulated annealing in standardization and optimization of the acerola wine production

    Sheyla dos Santos Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, seven wine samples were prepared varying the amount of pulp of acerola fruits and the sugar content using the simulated annealing technique to obtain the optimal sensory qualities and cost for the wine produced. S. cerevisiae yeast was used in the fermentation process and the sensory attributes were evaluated using a hedonic scale. Acerola wines were classified as sweet, with 11°GL of alcohol concentration and with aroma, taste, and color characteristics of the acerola fruit. The simulated annealing experiments showed that the best conditions were found at mass ratio between 1/7.5-1/6 and total soluble solids between 28.6-29.0 °Brix, from which the sensory acceptance scores of 6.9, 6.8, and 8.8 were obtained for color, aroma, and flavor, respectively, with a production cost 43-45% lower than the cost of traditional wines commercialized in Brazil.

  2. Produção de compostos de aroma através da biotransformação do Limoneno por fermentação em estado sólido utilizando resíduo natural de laranja como substrato

    Bier, Mário César Jucoski

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Aromas e fragrâncias incorporadas em alimentos, perfumes e cosméticos possuem alto valor comercial, possibilitando um grande potencial econômico para obtenção de uma ampla variedade de biomoléculas de interesse nestas áreas. A produção industrial de aromas corresponde a 25% do mercado mundial de aditivos alimentares. Entre os métodos para produção de aromas, a biotransformação de terpenos representa uma alternativa muito atrativa. Esta é uma via biotecnológica que apresenta vários ben...

  3. Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis beverages

    Carla Carolina Batista Machado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma while roasted mate was defined as having a smooth, slightly burnt aroma. The relationship between the tentatively identified compounds and flavor must be determined by olfatometric analysis.

  4. Volatile Profile of Cashew Apple Juice Fibers from Different Production Steps

    Ana Carolina de Oliveira Nobre

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the volatile profile of cashew apple fibers to verify which compounds are still present after successive washings and thus might be responsible for the undesirable remaining cashew-like aroma present in this co-product, which is used to formulate food products like vegetarian burgers and cereal bars. Fibers were obtained from cashew apple juice processing and washed five times in an expeller press. Compounds were analyzed by the headspace solid-phase micro extraction technique (HS-SPME and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, using a DB-5 column. Sensory analysis was also performed to compare the intensity of the cashew-like aroma of the fibers with the original juice. Altogether, 80 compounds were detected, being esters and terpenes the major chemical classes. Among the identified substances, 14 were classified as odoriferous in the literature, constituting the matrix used in the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Odoriferous esters were substantially reduced, but many compounds were extracted by the strength used in the expeller press and remained until the last wash. Among them are the odoriferous compounds ethyl octanoate, γ-dodecalactone, (E-2-decenal, copaene, and caryophyllene that may contribute for the mild but still perceptible cashew apple aroma in the fibers that have been pressed and washed five times. Development of a deodorization process should include reduction of pressing force and stop at the second wash, to save water and energy, thus reducing operational costs and contributing to process sustainability.

  5. Relação do aroma e da espuma dos vinhos espumantes com o potencial enológico das uvas e dos vinhos

    Coelho, Elisabete Verde Martins

    2010-01-01

    Os espumantes produzidos segundo o método Champanhês são obtidos após uma segunda fermentação em garrafa. Quando o vinho é vertido no copo, o CO2 produzido é libertado, sendo a espuma formada o resultado da sua interacção com os constituintes do vinho. A quantidade e a estabilidade da espuma do vinho espumante estão relacionadas com a sua composição química. Para além da espuma, o aroma é também um parâmetro importante de qualidade na apreciação geral de um vinho espumante. ...

  6. Characterisation of the aroma profiles of different honeys and corresponding flowers using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry.

    Seisonen, Sirli; Kivima, Evelin; Vene, Kristel

    2015-02-15

    The aroma profiles of thirteen different honey samples from four botanical origins: heather (Calluna vulgaris), raspberry (Rubus idaeus), rape (Brassica napus), alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus) and the blossoms of the four corresponding flowers were investigated to find odour-active compounds exclusively representing specific honeys based on odour-active compounds from the blossoms. Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas-chromatography-olfactometry were used to determine and identify the odour-active compounds. Data was analysed using agglomerative hierarchical clustering and correspondence analysis. Honeys from the same botanical origin clustered together; however, none of the identified compounds were exclusive to a particular honey/blossom combination. Heather honey had the flavour profile most different to the others. Isophorone and 2-methylbutyric acid were found only in heather honeys. Heather honey was characterised by having more "sweet" and "candy-like" notes, raspberry honeys had more "green" notes, while alder buckthorn had more "honey" and "floral" notes. PMID:25236195

  7. Preparation of an Aroma Fraction from Dried Bonito by Steam Distillation and Its Effect on Modification of Salty and Umami Taste Qualities.

    Ogasawara, Yasushi; Mochimaru, Shinsuke; Ueda, Reiko; Ban, Masayasu; Kabuto, Shizuya; Abe, Keiko

    2016-02-01

    To study the effects of dried bonito aroma on taste perception, dried bonito aroma fraction (DBAF) as a steam distillate in liquid was added to the salt solutions containing 5 different salt concentrations (0.68% to 1.5% [w/v]) before sensory evaluations. Perception of the taste qualities of salt solutions with added DBAF varied depending on the salt concentration. At low salt concentrations (0.68% to 0.83%), after-taste intensity of saltiness and overall taste intensity were significantly enhanced by the addition of DBAF. This suggests that DBAF can be applied to a low-salt seasoning at these salt concentrations. Umami taste intensity was significantly enhanced by the addition of DBAF at all salt concentrations (0.68% to 1.5%). The addition of heat-treated DBAF, which no longer had the dried bonito odor, exerted no significant influences on any taste descriptors. As the result of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, sulfur-containing compounds, pyrazines, alcohols, and phenols were contained in DBAF and not detected in heat-treated DBAF. Because these compounds contributed to the dried bonito odor, the taste modifications were thought to be induced by these compounds. The effects of the DBAF on Japanese noodle soup (mentsuyu) were also examined. The saltiness intensity of 1.2% salt concentration of mentsuyu containing both DBAF and DBS (dried bonito stock) as a hot water extract of dried bonito was not significantly differ from that of 1.5% salt concentration of mentsuyu not containing any of them. It will thus be possible to develop a reduced salt seasoning by combining DBAF and DBS. PMID:26719948

  8. Development of Lubeg (Syzygiumlineatum (Roxb. Merr.& Perry Processed Products

    Ronald O. Ocampo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lubeg(Syzygiumlineatum(Roxb. Merr.& Perry is a lesser known fruit in the province of Apayao, Philippines. It is a highly perishable fruit and belongs to family Myrtaceae. The primary object of this study is to develop processed products from lubeg fruits. The experimental method of research was conducted. From the result of the study, the following are concluded: Lubeg wine is preferred over other locally produced wine namely bignay and duhat. However, no significant differences were observed in their taste, appearance and aroma. On the other hand, strawberry jam is preferred over lubegandbignay jam. No significant differences were observed in their taste, appearance and aroma. Lubeg fruit preserves, Jam and jelly can be best used as fillers to baked products when mixed with pineapple jam; lubeg juice can be improved when mixed with lemongrass in 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 ratio. In the light of the findings and conclusion, the following are forwarded as recommendations: mass production of lubeg products should be done; promotion of the developed technology through trainings and attendance to trade fairs should be done; and similar research should be conducted using other flavors fruits or herbs to improve the quality of lubeg products.

  9. 中华绒螯蟹不同部位中活性香气物质的研究%Study on Aroma-active Compounds Profile from Different Edible Parts of Chinese mitten handed crab

    顾赛麒; 王锡昌; 陶宁萍; 张晶晶; 吴娜

    2013-01-01

    HS-SPME-GC-MS (headspace solid phase micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry) technology was applied in this study to identify the aroma compounds from abdomen,claw,leg meat and spawn of male Eriocheir sinensis cultured in Chongming region.A total of 58 volatiles,which can be divided into 8 classes,were identified in four edible parts and further quantitated based on internal standard analysis.Odor activity values (OAVs) of all 58 aroma compounds were calculated due to their thresholds.Fifteen key aroma-active compounds,such as decanal,were selected from all compounds and their OAVs were analyzed by both Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA) methods.PCA result showed that the aroma-quality of spawn sample was better than others.8 aroma-active compounds including pentanal were determined as the characteristic compounds that contributed a lot to "better aroma-quality",among which 2,4-heptadienal played the most important role.CA result showed that the aroma profile of spawn could be classified as one cluster,so did the 8 aroma-active compounds including pentanal.The consistent results of PCA and CA analysis manifested that these two methods would support each other and be applied to establish a model for evaluating aroma-quality of Eriocheir sinensis in the future.%运用顶空固相微萃取-气-质联用技术(HS-SPME-GC-MS),对采自崇明的二级雄性中华绒螯蟹体肉、钳肉、足内和性腺中的香气成分进行了鉴定并以内标法对其定量.大闸蟹四可食部位中共检测到8大类58种香气物质,根据阈值进一步求得每种香气物质的活性值(OAV值).以OAV值为依据,从58种化合物中筛选得到了癸醛等15种最为关键的活性香气物质,并运用主成分分析法(PCA)和聚类分析法(CA)对其活性值进行了分析.由PCA分析得到:性腺样品香气品质较佳,戊醛等8种为表征“高品质风味”的特征性香气物质(其中2,4-庚二烯醛

  10. Judgment of Aroma Types of Middle and Upper Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves Based on Stepwise Discriminant Analysis%基于逐步判别分析的烤烟中上部烟叶香型判断

    詹军; 周芳芳; 董石飞; 饶智; 朱海滨; 资文华; 蒋美红; 罗华元

    2014-01-01

    [目的]通过揭示不同香型和不同部位烤烟的香气风格特征及其形成原因,建立起中上部烟叶香型风格定量判断的数学模型。[方法]以中国11个主要产烟省的13个地区的63个C3F和65个B2F烟叶作为校正样品,并以67种致香物质为指标,采用逐步判别分析的方法对不同香型烤烟样品进行判别分析,并建立判别函数,并分别利用21个 C3F烟叶和19份B2F烟叶对该模型进行验证。[结果]中上部烟叶的大部分致香物质含量占致香物质总量的比例变异系数小于相对应的致香物质绝对含量,且在中上部烟叶中比例超过1%的物质只有苯甲醇、茄酮、β-大马酮、新植二烯、金合欢基丙酮 A、十六酸、寸拜醇、亚麻酸甲酯、西柏三烯二醇,且在不同部位烟叶中,主导某种香型的致香物质种类不同;在分别以中部叶和上部叶致香物质含量和比例为判断指标构建判别函数时,各引入了11种、18种、7种、11种致香物质指标,并以构建的模型对新样本进行预测,其整体准确率分别为:91.7%、100%、91.7%、91.7%。可见,影响中部烟叶香气风格特征的致香物质指标明显多于上部叶,但在中部叶中采用致香物质比例作为判别指标能明显提高其判别准确率。[结论]该研究为特色优质烟叶的开发与生产布局提供理论依据。%The aim of this study was to establish mathematical models for judging the aroma types of middle and upper flue-cured tobacco leaves according to the contents and proportions of aroma compositions. [Method] The aroma types of tobacco leaves were judged based on stepwise discriminant analysis, using 63 C3F and 65 B2F tobacco leaf samples from 13 tobacco producing regions in 11 provinces of China (Huili in Sichuan, Baokang in Hubei, Wulong in Chongqing, Lu-oyang in Henan, Zhucheng in Shandong, Wuyi Mountain in Fujian, Malong in Yun-nan, Chuxiong in Yunnan, Bijie in Guizhou

  11. Production and Preservation of Passion Fruit Juice

    U. G. AKPAN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Production and preservation of Passion Fruit Juice was examined to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the juice using chemical preservatives. The preservation of the juice was carried out using sugar, benzoic acid, citric and a combination of citric and benzoic acid under room temperature.The result revealed that the juice maintained its color, aroma and tastes for at least one month when 30% benzoic acid was used as preservative. This happens to be the best among all. The juice under other preservation like 4% sugar went bad after three days, while that of 4% citric acid maintained its qualities for one week and some days, but thereafter the aroma started to fade. The combination of 3% benzoic acid and 4% citric acid maintained the qualities of the juice fairly between two to three weeks. The alcoholic content was also estimated and it was discovered that the juice containing citric acid and sugar has the highest percentage of alcohol. The preservation used also altered the pH so that it is impossible for pathogens to exist at such a low pH environment.

  12. 近红外光谱技术识别烤烟香气风格的研究%A study of recognition of tobacco aroma style using near infrared spectroscopy

    张秋菊; 田旷达; 李祖红; 吕亚琼; 熊艳梅; 闵顺耕

    2014-01-01

    A method combined with near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) was applied to study identiifcation technology of tobacco aroma styles. The NIR spectrum of the tobacco powder were preprocessed by a wavelength selection technique and several pretreatment methods including smoothing, multiplicative scatter correction and standard normal variate transformation. The LS-SVM identiifcation models for three kinds of tobacco aroma styles were built, after optimizing parameters by k-fold cross validation and multilayer grid search. The values of accuracy rate of burnt aroma, spice aroma and sweetness aroma model were 94.7%, 88.9% and 94.8%, respectively. And the area under AOC curve were 0.99, 0.99 and 1.00, respectively. The overall results show that NIR spectroscopy combined with LS-SVM can be efifciently utilized for rapid and accurate identiifcation of tobacco aroma styles.%目的:研究烤烟香气风格中焦香、辛香、甜香等香韵的识别技术。方法:采用近红外光谱技术结合最小二乘支持向量机(L S-S V M)模式识别方法。烟叶粉末的近红外漫反射光谱经过波长范围选择和多种预处理优化后输入模型,使用k折交互验证和多层网格法优化LS-SVM模型参数,建立三种香韵识别模型。结果:焦香、甜香、辛香的识别准确率CR分别为94.7%、88.9%、94.8%,ROC曲线下面积AUC分别为0.99、0.99、1.00。结论:说明使用近红外光谱技术结合LS-SVM方法可有效识别烤烟香气风格。

  13. High-cell-density fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the optimisation of mead production.

    Pereira, A P; Mendes-Ferreira, A; Oliveira, J M; Estevinho, L M; Mendes-Faia, A

    2013-02-01

    Mead is a traditional drink that contains 8%-18% (v/v) of ethanol, resulting from the alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey by yeasts. Mead fermentation is a time-consuming process and the quality of the final product is highly variable. Therefore, the present investigation had two main objectives: first, to determine the adequate inoculum size of two commercial wine-making strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the optimisation of mead fermentation; and second, to determine if an increase in yeast pitching rates in batch fermentations altered the resulting aroma profiles. Minor differences were detected in the growth kinetics between the two strains at the lowest pitching rate. With increasing pitching rates net growth of the strain ICV D47 progressively decreased, whereas for the QA23 the increasing inoculum size had no influence on its net growth. The time required to reach the same stage of fermentation ranged from 24 to 96 h depending on the inoculum size. The final aroma composition was dependent on the yeast strain and inoculum size. Fourteen of the twenty-seven volatile compounds quantified could contribute to mead aroma and flavour because their concentrations rose above their respective thresholds. The formation of these compounds was particularly pronounced at low pitching rates, except in mead fermented by strain ICV D47, at 10(6) CFUs/mL. The esters isoamyl acetate, ethyl octanoate and ethyl hexanoate were the major powerful odourants found in the meads. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that yeast strain and inoculum size can favourably impact mead's flavour and aroma profiles. PMID:23122509

  14. Some non-thermal microbial inactivation methods in dairy products

    During the production of dairy products, some thermal processes such as pasteurization and sterilization are used commonly to inactive microorganisms. But as a result of thermal processes, loss of nutrient and aroma, non-enzymatic browning and organoleptic differentiation especially in dairy products are seen. Because of this, alternative methods are needed to provide microbial inactivation and as major problems are caused by high temperatures, non-thermal processes are focused on. For this purpose, some methods such as high pressure (HP), pulsed light (PL), ultraviolet radiation (UV), supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) or pulsed electric field (PEF) are used in food. These methods products are processed in ambient temperature and so not only mentioned losses are minimized but also freshness and naturality of products can be preserved. In this work, we will try to be given information about methods of non-thermal microbial inactivation of dairy products. (author)

  15. A comparative study on aromatic profiles of strawberry vinegars obtained using different conditions in the production process.

    Ubeda, Cristina; Callejón, Raquel M; Troncoso, Ana M; Moreno-Rojas, Jose M; Peña, Francisco; Morales, M Lourdes

    2016-02-01

    Impact odorants in strawberry vinegars produced in different containers (glass, oak and cherry barrels) were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry using modified frequency (MF) technique, and dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aromatic profile of vinegar from strawberry cooked must was also studied. All strawberry vinegars retained certain impact odorants from strawberries: 3-nonen-2-one, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, guaiacol, nerolidol, pantolactone+furaneol, eugenol, γ-dodecalactone and phenylacetic acid. Isovaleric acid, pantolactone+furaneol, p-vinylguaiacol, phenylacetic acid and vanillin were the most important aroma-active compounds in all vinegars. The strawberry cooked must vinegar accounted for the highest number of impact odorants. Wood barrels provided more aroma complexity than glass containers. Impact odorants with grassy characteristics were predominant in vinegar from glass containers, and those with sweet and fruity characteristics in vinegars from wood barrels. Principal component analysis indicated that the production process led to differences in the impact odorants. PMID:26304447

  16. Relevancia de nitrato y nitrito en el jamón curado y sus efectos en el desarrollo del aroma

    Flores, Mónica; Toldrá, Fidel; Aristoy, M-Concepción

    2009-01-01

    Potassium and sodium salts of nitrite (E 249 and E 250) and nitrate (E 251 and E 252) are authorised for use under certain levels in several foodstuffs such as non-heat-treated, cured and dried meat products, other cured meat products, canned meat products and bacon. The key point in the use of nitrate and nitrite as preservatives is to find a balance between ensuring the microbiological safety of the ham and keeping as low as possible the level of nitrosamines in the final product. Nitrites ...

  17. Utilization of Lactobacillus fermentum andSaccharomyces cerevisiae as starter cultures in the production of ‘dolo'

    Glover, R.L.K.; Sawadogo-Lingani, H.; Diawara, B.;

    2009-01-01

    conditions, and in the field (pilot plant). pH, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. produced from starter combinations of...... Burkina Faso. Methodology and results: Two strains each of Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae from previous studies (Sawadogo- Lingani et al., 2007; Glover et al., 2005) were used as starter cultures in producing dolo both under laboratory conditions, and in the field (pilot plant). p......H, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. Dolo produced from starter combinations of one strain of L. fermentum and both S...

  18. Gyromitra Mantarının Uçucu Aroma Bileşenlerinin Tepe Boşluğu Gaz Kromotografisi Kütle Spektroskopisi (HS-GC/MS) Tekniği ile Belirlenmesi

    Hatıra Taşkın; Gökhan Baktemur; Ebru Kafkas; Saadet Büyükalaca

    2013-01-01

    Gyromitra mantarı ülkemizde ve birçok ülkede yenilebilir olarak değerlendirilmekle beraber zehirli mantarlar arasında yer almaktadır. Bu çalışma, 2011 yılında Türkiye’den toplanan Gyromitra mantarının uçucu aroma bileşenlerinin belirlenmesi amacıyla Çukurova Üniversitesi Bahçe Bitkileri Bölümü’nde yapılmıştır. Çalışmanın materyalini Adana ilinden toplanmış olan Gyromitra mantarları oluşturmuştur. Uçucu aroma bileşenleri, Tepe Boşluğu Gaz Kromotografisi Kütle Spektroskopisi (Headspace Gas Krom...

  19. 香稻不育系GHS香味遗传及其杂交育种研究%Inheritance of Aroma of Good-quality Indica Type Rice PTGMS Line GHS and Its Application in Hybrid Rice Breeding

    郭国强; 尹建英; 郭武强; 曾良贵; 黄益国; 高静; 阳小虎; 郭名奇

    2015-01-01

    The inheritance of aroma of GHS was studied by crossing GHS with non-aromatic lines 9311, Xianhui 207, Yuefengzhan, Taihuangzhan, Yuexiangzhan and aromatic lines Yuxiangyouzhan, Xiangwanxian 17, Tianlongxiang 103, Xinwanxiang and Chuangxiang 5. For the grains of F1 generation, the performance of aroma was tested by chewing method, while for the plants of generations of F1, F2 and BC1 F1, the performance of aroma was tested by KOH solution method. The results showed that the non-aroma of restorer line is a dominant trait, but the aroma of GHS line is a recessive trait; the aroma genes of GHS, Yuexiangzhan and Xiangwanxian 17 were non-al elic; the aroma genes of GHS, Yuxiangyouzhan, Tianlongxiang 103, Xin-wanxiang and Chuangxiang 5 may have the same al elic loci. Among the combinations of GHS and non-aromatic restorer lines, the non-aromatic to aromatic ratios of the F2 plants and the BC1 F1 plants were 3∶1 and 1∶1, respectively, and the inheritance of aroma of GHS was control ed by a pair of recessive nuclear genes. In hybrid rice breeding, using GHS, Qiongxiang S has been bred out, and a series of aro-matic hybrid rice combinations have also been selected. Among the hybrid combi-nations, Qiongxiangliangyou 1, Qiongxiangliangyou 2 and other high-yielding and high-quality combinations have been approved by provincial government, and they have good application prospects.%以香稻不育系 GHS与无香味恢复系和香稻品种杂交,采用咀嚼法测定杂交组合F1米粒和 KOH溶液法测定杂交组合 F1、F2、BC1 F1植株的香味遗传特点。结果表明,恢复系无香味为显性性状,GHS的香味为隐性性状;GHS的香味基因与粤香占、湘晚籼17号的香味基因不等位;GHS的香味基因与玉香油占、天龙香103、新万香、创香5号香味基因可能存有等位位点。与无香味恢复系杂交组合F2植株群体无香味与有香味之比符合3∶1的分离比,BC1 F1植株群体符合1∶1的

  20. 基于烟草香味成分和GA-BP网络的烟草品质评价方法%Quality Evaluation of Tobacco Leaves Based on Their Aroma Components and GA-BP Neural Networks

    卢红兵; 孔波; 钟科军

    2011-01-01

    为通过烟草香味成分评价其内在品质,采用水蒸气蒸馏法-气质联用法分析了38种烟叶样品的香味成分,评吸了其单料卷烟.并以30个烟叶样品作训练样本,8个样品作预测样本,采用遗传算法GA-BP神经网络法建立了烟草香味成分分析数据与其评吸得分的预测模型.结果表明:烟草样品中共鉴定出76种香味成分;通过GA法选择出28种与烟叶评吸总分显著相关的成分,由这些成分建立的GA-BP神经网络模型,其训练样本拟合误差<2%,预测误差<5%.%In order to evaluate the smoking quality of tobacco leaves by their aroma components, the aroma components in 38 tobacco leaf samples were determined by steam distillation and GC/MS, and the sensory quality of cigarettes made of each tested tobacco was evaluated by panel test.A predicting model was developed by the data of aroma components and sensory scores of tobacco samples with genetic algorithm (GA)-BP neural networks using 30 samples as a training set, and the other 8 samples served as a predicting set.The results showed that 76 aroma components were identified in the samples, of which 28 components significantly correlated with sensory score were selected by GA, the fitting errors of the established model were less than 2% and its prediction errors were within 5%.

  1. 蜂蜜化粉汁、蜂蜜酒和蜂蜜化粉酒的香气成分比较%Comparing the Aroma Components of Honey Pollen Juice, Honey Wine and Honey Pollen Wine

    杨文超; 陈湖南; 吴珍红; 缪晓青

    2012-01-01

    The aroma components of honey pollen juice, honey wine and honey pollen wine were compared using the GC-MS technology. The aroma components of honey pollen juice was 91 species, 87 kinds of honey wine and honey pollen wine 105, which relative contents were 86.45%, 82.80% and 86.59%. These volatile components mainly in- cluded alcohols, esters, alkanes, alkenes, acids, aldehydes, ketones, ethers and amines. The alcohols and alkanes were the main in the honey pollen juice but alcohol and ester were the main in the wine. Honey pollen wine and honey pollen juice had 27 kinds of common aroma substances. And honey pollen wine and honey wine had 38 kinds common aroma substances.%采用GC-HS技术对蜂蜜花粉汁、未加花粉的蜂蜜酒和蜂蜜花粉酒进行了香气成分分析。蜂蜜花粉汁鉴定出91种,蜂蜜酒87种,蜂蜜花粉酒105种香气成分,相对含量分别是86.45%、82.80%和86.59%。这些挥发性成分主要包括醇类、酯类、烷类、烯类、酸类、醛类、酮类、醚类和胺类等。在蜂蜜花粉汁中,醇类和烷类化合物居多;在发酵酒里,醇类和酯类化合物较多。蜂蜜花粉酒与蜂蜜花粉汁有27种共同香气物质,蜂蜜花粉酒与蜂蜜酒有38种共同香气物质。

  2. Comparison of the Volatile Compounds among Different Production Regions of Green Tea using Simultaneous Distillation Extraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry

    Zhou, J.S.; S.D. Lv; Lian, M.; Wang, C.; Meng, Q. X.

    2015-01-01

    Chinese green teas are mainly made of the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis and mainly distributed in provinces of Zhejiang, Anhui, Henan and Jiangsu, etc. Because of having same tea varieties and processing technology, different origins of green teas are very similar in appearance. Whereas different production areas and climatic conditions between them may have cause different quality characters, such as aroma and taste. So it is very necessary to study the different regions of green tea...

  3. Comprehensive Study of Volatile Compounds in Two Australian Rosé Wines: Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA) of Extracts Prepared Using Solvent-Assisted Flavor Evaporation (SAFE) or Headspace Solid-Phase Extraction (HS-SPE).

    Wang, Jiaming; Gambetta, Joanna M; Jeffery, David W

    2016-05-18

    Two rosé wines, representing a tropical and a fruity/floral style, were chosen from a previous study for further exploration by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and quantitative analysis. Volatiles were extracted using either liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) or a recently developed dynamic headspace (HS) sampling method utilizing solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. AEDA was conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O) and a total of 51 aroma compounds with a flavor dilution (FD) factor ≥3 were detected. Quantitative analysis of 92 volatiles was undertaken in both wines for calculation of odor activity values. The fruity and floral wine style was mostly driven by 2-phenylethanol, β-damascenone, and a range of esters, whereas 3-SHA and several volatile acids were seen as essential for the tropical style. When extraction methods were compared, HS-SPE was as efficient as SAFE for extracting most esters and higher alcohols, which were associated with fruity and floral characters, but it was difficult to capture volatiles with greater polarity or higher boiling point that may still be important to perceived wine aroma. PMID:27141971

  4. Research on aroma losing during fruit juice evaporating in heat tube evaporator %热管蒸发器浓缩果汁芳香成分变化规律研究

    宋继田; 张韩霏; 王慎钰; 刘建波; 赵征

    2012-01-01

    以桃汁为试验介质,对其蒸发过程中芳香成分的变化规律进行研究,分析热力浓缩过程中芳香成分变化的主要影响因素.通过建立恒客热过程中桃汁芳香成分的动力学模型,得出桃汁中芳香物变化的准数关联式,该经验关联式可为热管式蒸发器的开发设计以及果汁热力浓缩参数优化提供参考依据.%Peach juice was taken as experimental material, built up a dynamics model of peach juice aroma during the constant volume heat process and studied the loss of aroma during evaporating, analyzed the main factors that affect the loss of aroma in evaporating process. Obtained the experimental relating formula and provided some help on designing new evaporator and optimizing fruit concentrating techniques.

  5. Analysis of Key Aroma-Active Components of Propolis and Poplar Tree Gum%蜂胶及杨树胶关键气味活性成分研究

    延莎; 张红城; 董捷

    2012-01-01

    The volatile composition of propolis and poplar tree gum was analyzed by headspace solid phase micro-extraction followed by GC-MS coupled to olfactometry. A total of 48 aroma-active compounds were identified, including esters, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones and acids. In propolis, there were many compounds responsible for the floral and fruity aroma and providing it with delicate and mellow aroma characteristics.%采用固相微萃取的方法提取蜂胶及杨树胶中的挥发性成分,以气相.质谱.嗅闻仪联用对蜂胶中的挥发性成分进行分离鉴定。结果测得48种气味活性成分,包括酯、醛、醇、酮和酸。蜂胶中体现花香、果香的成分较多,从而赋予其更为清香、柔和的总体气味特征。

  6. Effects of Yeast on the Quality of Banana Distillation Wine and Aroma Component%酵母对香蕉蒸馏酒品质影响及香气成分研究

    柳素洁; 杜金华; 任玲玲; 郭春宝

    2012-01-01

    采用5种酿酒酵母:W15、EC1118、S7、L45、71B进行香蕉浆发酵与蒸馏得到香蕉蒸馏酒。通过对比果酒的酒精度、糖、酸以及蒸馏酒的部分理化指标包括总酸、总酯、香气成分,结合感官评价,筛选出最佳的香蕉蒸馏酒生产用酵母为EC1118,其发酵的原酒酒精度可达15.16°,蒸馏后清亮透明,果香、醇香协调,香蕉香浓郁优雅,入口柔顺绵软,酒体醇厚。具有乙酸乙酯为主体的清雅、谐调的香气和辛酸乙酯的典型香蕉味。%Banana brandy was generated by the distillation and fermentation of banana pulp. Five yeast strains 0grl5, EC1118, S7, IAS, 71B) were used in the experiment to screen the best one for banana brandy production through contrast experiments and results evaluation. Actually, the optimal yeast to produce banana brandy is EC 1118 through the comparing with the alcoholic strength, sugar and acid of the banana wine as well as the typical properties including total acids, total esters and aromatic components of brandy besides the sensory evaluation. The alcohol content of base wine fermented by such strain could reach up to 15.16° . After distillation, the brandy body is limpid and transparent, wine smell is pure and mild, entrance foam, also with the coordination of fruity and bouquet. Moreover, the brandy has harmonious aroma and the specific flavor of banana.

  7. Analysis of Wood Aroma Characteristic Compounds in Pu-erh Tea by HS-SPME-GC-MS%HS-SPME-GC-MS分析普洱茶中木香类特征香气成分

    黄世永; 杜丽平; 李建勋; 肖冬光; 李长文; 徐永全

    2015-01-01

    利用响应面法对 HS-SPME萃取普洱茶木香化合物的条件进行优化。在单因素实验基础上,采用Central-Composite试验设计,以装茶量、萃取时间和萃取温度为影响因素,以木香化合物总峰面积为响应值建立二次回归方程。通过对各因素的显著性和交互作用进行分析后,结合实际情况得到木香化合物最佳萃取条件为:装茶量为3.5g,萃取时间为56min,萃取温度为61℃。此条件下,SPME萃取的木香化合物经GC-MS测得总峰面积为159284923,与预测值一致,说明模型准确性较高,随后对5种普洱茶茶样的木香化合物进行了萃取分析。%The response surface method was used to optimize headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) conditio in extracting woody aroma compounds of pu-erh tea. Based on single factor experiment,taking amount of pu-erh tea, extraction time and extraction temperature as the influence factor,a quadratic regressive equation based on response value of total peak area of woody aroma compounds from pu-erh teawas established. Subsequently,response surface methodology based on Central-Composite experimental design was employed to evaluate the significance and interactive effects of those three variables. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions of woody aroma compounds were as follows: the amount of pu-erh tea 3.5 g,extraction time 56min and extraction temperature 61℃. Under the optimal conditions,thetotal peak area of woody aroma compounds was up to 159284923,which was in agreement with the calculated value and indicated that the model accuracy is high. Then,the woody aroma compounds from5 pu-erh tea samples were extracted and detected.

  8. 香薰中药消毒液对病房常见菌的抑制作用研究%Research of inhibition effect by aroma Chinese herb disinfectant for common bacteria in ward

    梁玉玲; 戴卫波; 陆丹倩

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察香薰中药消毒液对病房常见菌的抑制作用。方法用K-B纸片扩散法观察香薰中药消毒液对金黄色葡萄球菌、铜绿假单胞菌、大肠杆菌、肺炎链球菌及肺炎克雷伯菌等病房常见菌的抑制作用。观察香薰中药消毒液对病房消毒后1h和通风后1h的消毒效果。结果香薰中药消毒液对金黄色葡萄球菌、铜绿假单胞菌、大肠杆菌、肺炎克雷伯菌有较好的抑制作用,尤其对金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌最为敏感。用于病房消毒,在消毒1h后及通风1h后仍保持较好的消毒效果,杀菌率均达75%以上,并且消毒效果与0.5%过氧乙酸相当。结论香薰中药消毒液对病房常见菌有较好的抑制作用,并且气味芳香,值得推广。%Objective To observe inhibition effect by aroma Chinese herb disinfectant for common bacteria in ward. Methods K-B disk diffusion method was applied to observe inhibition effect by aroma Chinese herb disinfectant for common bacteria in ward, such as staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, escherichia coli, streptococcus pneumonia, and klebsiella pneumonia. Disinfection effects of aroma Chinese herb disinfectant in 1 h after ward disinfection and ventilation were observed. Results Aroma Chinese herb disinfectant provided good inhibition effects for staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, escherichia coli, and klebsiella pneumonia, and it is especially sensitive to staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli. It also can maintain good disinfection effect in 1 h after ward disinfection and ventilation, with sterilizing rates all above 75%. Its disinfection effect is similar to that of 0.5%peroxyacetic acid. Conclusion Aroma Chinese herb disinfectant can provide good inhibition effect for common bacteria in ward, with fragrant smell. It is worth promoting.

  9. Determination and Mechanism of Common and Typical Characteristics Flavor of Chinese Light Aroma Style Liquors%清香类型原酒共性与个性成分分析及形成机理研究

    徐岩; 范文来; 吴群

    2012-01-01

    With the technology of flavor chemistry and biochemistry, we have analyzed the trace compounds, key aroma compounds, important flavor compounds and their compatibility proportions of the representative and important Chinese light aroma style liquor, including Fen-liquor, Baofeng-liquor, Hengshui Lapbaigan-liquor, Niulanshan Erguotou- liquor, Jin-liquor. We presented the common and typical characteristics of Chinese light aroma style liquor, and firstly revealed the significance of terpenes on flavor of light aroma style liquor. Although ethyl acetate and ethyl lactate was important trace compounds, terpenes such as ~-DMST made great contribution to flavor characteristic of Chinese light aroma style liquor. In addition, we have also presented the important microorganisms which producing key flavor compounds and the metabolic mechanism of the microorganisms, and finally implemented the new application of the Flavor-oriented Technology in Chinese liquor.%采用风味化学和生物技术的理论和技术,通过对我国白酒最主要的清香典型代表以及重要的清香类型的白酒(汾酒、宝丰酒、衡水老白干酒、牛栏山二锅头酒和劲酒的)原酒等微量成分、重要和特征香气成分及其相互间的配伍比例关系的比较分析,诠释了构成我国清香类型白酒原酒的共同特征、典型特征的的物质基础;首次发现并提出萜烯类物质对清香类型白酒风味贡献的重要性,指出从微量组分的含量上看乙酸乙酯与乳酸乙酯是清香型白酒的重要微量成分,但是,β-DMST等萜烯类化合物在构成清香型白酒的风味特征上具有重要的风味贡献度。同时,还阐述了重要特征风味化合物产生的功能微生物、代谢途径机制和发酵调节控制等理论;以及形成了风味导向的最新生产应用技术。

  10. Real Time Detection of Aroma Compounds in Meat and Meat Products by SIFT-MS and Comparison to Conventional Techniques (SPME-GC-MS)

    Flores, M.; Olivares, A.; Dryahina, Kseniya; Španěl, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2013), s. 622-630. ISSN 1573-4110 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/09/P172; GA ČR GA203/09/0256 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : volatile compounds * flovar * meat Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.194, year: 2013

  11. Effect of fixation process on aroma of Songyang Fragrant Tea%不同杀青工艺对松阳香茶品质的影响

    何迅民; 叶火香; 何科伟

    2011-01-01

    本文针对松阳香茶存在的色泽不绿,香气不高等品质问题,采用不同杀青温度和不同的投叶量处理,研究其对松阳香茶品质的影响。结果表明:其他工艺相同的基础上,采用80型滚筒杀青机杀青,下锅温度以250℃,投叶量在100kg/h时,炒制的香茶品质最佳。%Fixation was carried out at different temperatures and tea leaf flow rates per hour using fixation drum (model 80) , aiming at improving green tea colour and aroma. The results shows that the optimum fixation conditions were at 250℃ and leaf flow rate 100 kg/h.

  12. Characterization of β-glucosidase immobilized on chitosan-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTS) and their application on tea extracts for aroma enhancement.

    Çelik, Akile; Dinçer, Ayşe; Aydemir, Tülin

    2016-08-01

    β-Glucosidase was covalently immobilized on chitosan-MWCNTs carrier and its aroma enhancement effect in different tea samples was investigated. Chitosan-MWCNTs carrier was prepared by mixing chitosan with MWCNTs (5:1w/w) and characterization of prepared composite carrier was done by FTIR, TGA and SEM analysis. β-Glucosidase was covalently immobilized on the composite carrier after glutaraldeyde activation. After optimization of the immobilization conditions, immobilization yield was achieved as 95.22%. Optimum pH was found as pH 6.0 and pH 5.0 for free and immobilized enzyme, respectively. Optimum temperature of the enzyme was shifted from 35°C to 45°C after immobilization. The Km and Vmax values for immobilized β-glucosidase calculated as 5.55mM and 7.14U/mg protein respectively. Immobilized β-glucosidase showed better pH and storage stability than free enzyme. After storage at +4°C for 50days, the immobilized enzyme retained its 68.4% of the initial activity. The calculated half-life (t1/2) of immobilized enzyme was 115.8min. After 10 cycles of reuse, immobilized β-glucosidase showed 72.83% of its initial activity. PMID:27154518

  13. Understanding the Constitutive and Induced Biosynthesis of Mono- and Sesquiterpenes in Grapes (Vitis vinifera): A Key to Unlocking the Biochemical Secrets of Unique Grape Aroma Profiles.

    Schwab, Wilfried; Wüst, Matthias

    2015-12-16

    The present review integrates current knowledge on mono- and sesquiterpenes in grapes with a special focus on biochemical and physiological aspects. Recent research has impressively shown the prominence of terpenoid metabolism in grapevine (Vitis sp). The 69 putatively functional mono- and sesquiterpene synthases that were identified by the analysis of the updated 12-fold sequencing and assembly of the grapevine genome deliver the scaffolds for structural diversity and display a surprising expansion of the terpene synthase (TPS) gene family in grapevine when compared to other plants like Arabidopsis thaliana (32 TPS). While monoterpenes occur as highly functionalized compounds and are stored as their corresponding glycoconjugates in berry tissues, sesquiterpenes are mainly present as unsaturated hydrocarbons and accumulate in the epicuticular wax layer of intact berries. Interestingly, both groups of terpenes appear to be involved as volatile organic compounds in plant defense and their biosynthesis is enhanced via the jasmonic acid signaling pathway. These novel aspects will help to understand how environmental cues affect the genes and enzymes of various metabolic pathways of relevant wine aroma compounds with numerous links to enology and wine flavor chemistry. PMID:26592256

  14. Characterisation of aroma-active and off-odour compounds in German rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Part I: Case of aquaculture water from earthen-ponds farming.

    Mahmoud, Mohamed Ahmed Abbas; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Comprehensive analyses were accomplished to explore the odorous molecules responsible for off-odour development in earthen-ponds rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture farming in Germany. In this part of the study, water odorants were extracted using solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE); then, extracts were analysed by one- and two- dimensional high resolution gas chromatography coupled with olfactometry and mass spectrometry using two columns with different polarity (DB-FFAP and DB-5). Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the solvent extract samples revealed 54 odorants, and 47 of them were identified. In this study, a series of compounds is described for the first time in German earthen-ponds rainbow trout aquaculture water including, amongst others, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol), vanillin, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-ethyloctanoic acid, 3-methylindole (skatole), 5α-androst-16-en-3-one (androstenone), and 2-(2-butoxyethoxy) ethanol. Moreover, the sensory experiment indicated that (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, and 1-octen-3-one are the main contributors to the metallic, cucumber, and mushroom notes of the samples. PMID:27211690

  15. Insight into the time-resolved extraction of aroma compounds during espresso coffee preparation: online monitoring by PTR-ToF-MS.

    Sánchez-López, José A; Zimmermann, Ralf; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2014-12-01

    Using proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS), we investigated the extraction dynamic of 95 ion traces in real time (time resolution = 1 s) during espresso coffee preparation. Fifty-two of these ions were tentatively identified. This was achieved by online sampling of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in close vicinity to the coffee flow, at the exit of the extraction hose of the espresso machine (single serve capsules). Ten replicates of six different single serve coffee types were extracted to a final weight between 20-120 g, according to the recommended cup size of the respective coffee capsule (Ristretto, Espresso, and Lungo), and analyzed. The results revealed considerable differences in the extraction kinetics between compounds, which led to a fast evolution of the volatile profiles in the extract flow and consequently to an evolution of the final aroma balance in the cup. Besides exploring the time-resolved extraction dynamics of VOCs, the dynamic data also allowed the coffees types (capsules) to be distinguished from one another. Both hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed full separation between the coffees types. The methodology developed provides a fast and simple means of studying the extraction dynamics of VOCs and differentiating between different coffee types. PMID:25372898

  16. Characterization of Muscat wines aroma evolution using comprehensive gas chromatography followed by a post-analytic approach to 2D contour plots comparison.

    Bordiga, Matteo; Rinaldi, Maurizio; Locatelli, Monica; Piana, Gianluca; Travaglia, Fabiano; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Arlorio, Marco

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the application of a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method on the analysis of Muscat-based wines volatiles by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The aroma patterns were established for different samples of Asti Spumante and Moscato d'Asti wines, stored in bottles for 6 months at different temperatures. Wines stored at 5 °C for 6 months did not show significant changes in flavor; otherwise, the samples stored at 15 and 25 °C, showed a significant decrease in linalool, β-damascenone, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate levels. In these last samples, α-terpineol, hotrienol, nerol oxide, furanic linalool oxides A/B and rose oxide concentrations significantly increased. A mathematical approach was developed and applied to raw data exported after the chromatographic course, in order (i) to normalise different 2D chromatograms, permitting their direct comparison and (ii) to automatically identify and calculate from pixel-to-pixel re-designed 2D chromatograms any differences among key volatile compounds. PMID:23578615

  17. Effect of Initial Oxygen Concentration on Diacetyl and Acetoin Production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis

    Bassit, Naïma; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Picque, Daniel; Corrieu, Georges

    1993-01-01

    The production of aroma compounds (acetoin and diacetyl) in fresh unripened cheese by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis CNRZ 483 was studied at 30°C at different initial oxygen concentrations (0, 21, 50, and 100% of the medium saturation by oxygen). Regardless of the initial O2 concentration, maximal production of these compounds was reached only after all the citrate was consumed. Diacetyl and acetoin production was 0.01 and 2.4 mM, respectively, at 0% oxygen. Maximum ace...

  18. Effects of Different Scion-Rootstock Combinations on Contents of Aroma Components in Flue-cured Tobacco%不同接穗与砧木组合对烤烟香气物质含量的影响

    梅芳; 杨铁钊; 刘剑君; 张小全; 丁燕芳; 张广普

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different scion-rootstock combinations on the contents of aroma components in flue-cured tobacco leaves by taking tobacco varieties NC297 and Changbohuang as scions and varieties ZY90 and Jinxing 6007 as rootstocks. The aroma component contents in ungrafted and grafted seedlings were compared. The results showed that: 1) The aroma component contents in grafted NC297 exhibited dominance over their parents, and those in grafted Changbohuang were between those in their parents. 2) Comparing with scion seedlings, the aroma component contents in leaves of grafted tobacco increased; in grafted NC297 seedlings, the combination with ZY90, and in grafted Changbohuang seedlings, the combination with Jinxing 6007 increased higher. 3) Scions significantly affected the aroma component contents in leaves of grafted tobacco; for the same rootstock grafted with different scions, the order of aroma component contents in leaves was consistent with that in scion tobaccos. Therefore, choosing appropriate scion was the key factor for increasing the aroma component contents in flue-cured tobacco leaves, and the selected combinations in this experiment were NC297-ZY90 and Changbohuang-Jinxing 6007.%为明确不同接穗与砧木组合对烤烟香气物质含量的影响,采用NC297和长脖黄为接穗,中烟90(ZY90)和金星6007(6007)为砧木,研究了烤烟自根苗和嫁接苗培育的烤后烟叶香气物质成分含量的差异.结果表明:NC297嫁接烤烟的香气物质含量有超亲优势,长脖黄嫁接烤烟的香气物质含量位于砧木自根苗和接穗自根苗之间;与接穗自根苗相比,不同砧木嫁接后烤烟烟叶香气物质含量增加,在NC297嫁接苗中以ZY90作砧木培育的烤烟烟叶香气物质含量增加的较多,在长脖黄嫁接苗中以6007作砧木增加的较多;接穗对嫁接烤烟的香气物质含量的影响较大,同一砧木不同接穗的烤烟香气物

  19. Modeling of Aroma Quality Evaluation of Flue-cured Tobacco Based on Principal Component Analysis%基于主成分分析法的烤烟香气品质评价模型构建

    赵华武; 贺帆; 李祖良; 张欣华; 刘建; 赵高坤; 黄维; 宫长荣

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取与气相色谱质谱联用法分别测定20种烤烟样品中的69种香气成分,并以69种香气成分的含量为变量,利用主成分分析法建立烤烟香气品质评价模型,并应用该模型对20种样品的烤烟香气品质进行评价.结果表明,S10烤烟的香气品质最好,其后依次为S9、s4、S20、S16、S17、S18、S19、S1、S15、S2、S5、S3、S14、S6、S8、S12、S7、S13、S1l;通过感官评价法进一步对该模型评价结果进行检验,模型评价结果和感官质量评价结果具有很好的一致性.提出的烤烟香气品质评价模型不受主观因素的影响,能够做到标准化评价,且评判结果具有一定的客观性和可行性,能够真实区分烤烟香气品质的优劣.%This paper aimed to find a more objective method to evaluate flue-cured tobacco aroma quality than the traditional sensory evaluation method. The total of 69 aroma compounds in 20 different kinds of flue-cured tobacco was identified and determined by the Headspace Solid Phase Microextrac-tion-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Then a model was established based on principal component analysis method for assessing and ranking the aroma quality of flue-cured tobacco with the 69 kinds of aroma components as variables. S10 was selected from 20 flue-cured tobacco samples for having best aroma by the model, followed by S9, S4, S20, S16, S17, S18, S19, S1, S15, S2, S5, S3, S14, S6, S8, S12, S7, S13 and Sll. The evaluation result of this model was tested further by sensory evaluation method, and the test result indicated that the model evaluation result was consistent with conventional sensory evaluation. The flue-cured tobacco aroma quality evaluation model proposed in this paper was not affected by subjective factors, and its standardization evaluation result had the objectivity and feasibility to some extent. Furthermore, it can definitely distinguish the quality of flue-cured tobacco aroma.

  20. 在Maillard反应的鸡肉味香精中二(2-甲基-3-呋喃基)二硫醚的鉴别%Bis (2-methyl-3-furyl)dissulfide:A Meaty Character Impact Aroma compound Identified from Chicken Meaty Flavors in Maillard Reaction

    郭新颜; 孙宝国; 宋焕禄

    2001-01-01

    二(2-甲基-3-呋喃基)二硫醚是典型的肉香化合物,在肉香味形成中起到举足轻重的作用。其FEMA号为3259。国标号为:GB2760-1996。本文利用GC-MS联用技术对通过Maillard反应制备的鸡肉味香精中的香味化合物作定性分析,检测出此化合物的存在。%The meaty aroma compound bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulfide was identified in Maillard reaction systems.The reaction was performed at 122℃ to 20min by heating xylose,glutamic acid,arginine,glycine,alanine and chicken meat which was hydrolyzed by enzymes.The production is distilled under atmosphere pressure. Bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulfide is identifided mainly by GC-MS.