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1

RNAi-directed downregulation of OsBADH2 results in aroma (2-acetyl-1-pyrroline) production in rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromatic rice is popular worldwide because of its characteristic fragrance. Genetic studies and physical fine mapping reveal that a candidate gene (fgr/OsBADH2) homologous to betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase is responsible for aroma metabolism in fragrant rice varieties, but the direct evidence demonstrating the functions of OsBADH2 is lacking. To elucidate the physiological roles of OsBADH2, sequencing approach and RNA interference (RNAi) technique were employed to analyze allelic variation and functions of OsBADH2 gene in aroma production. Semi-quantitative, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), as well as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were conducted to determine the expression levels of OsBADH2 and the fragrant compound in wild type and transgenic OsBADH2-RNAi repression lines, respectively. Results The results showed that multiple mutations identical to fgr allele occur in the 13 fragrant rice accessions across China; OsBADH2 is expressed constitutively, with less expression abundance in mature roots; the disrupted OsBADH2 by RNA interference leads to significantly increased 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline production. Conclusion We have found that the altered expression levels of OsBADH2 gene influence aroma accumulation, and the prevalent aromatic allele probably has a single evolutionary origin.

Niu Xiangli; Tang Wei; Huang Weizao; Ren Guangjun; Wang Qilin; Luo Di; Xiao Yingyong; Yang Shimei; Wang Feng; Lu Bao-Rong; Gao Fangyuan; Lu Tiegang; Liu Yongsheng

2008-01-01

2

2-acetyl-1-pyrroline - key aroma compound in Mediterranean dried sausages  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In a study characterising sausage types from various parts of Europe, ten Mediterranean and Northern European fermented, dried sausages were compared using static headspace gas chromatography-olfactometry and a sniffing panel of five members. The greatest difference between the Northern and Southern types were attributed to a burned coffee odour from smoke in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The two compounds were 2-furfurylthiol and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. An analysis of five dried, moulded sausages showed that the surface edge of the sausages contained higher amounts of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline than the core, indicating that the mould growing on the surface of Mediterranean products produces 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline.

Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

2000-01-01

3

Identification and quantitation of the rice aroma compound, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, in bread flowers (Vallaris glabra Ktze).  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma impact compound, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), has been identified for the first time in headspace of fresh bread flowers (Vallaris glabra Ktze) in which volatile components were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) at room temperature prior to analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 50 volatiles were detected. Among these, 23 volatiles were identified, predominantly in a group of terpenes. More volatiles were found in the extract of fresh bread flowers obtained by continuous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDS). Of the 40 volatiles identified, the additional components were mainly straight-chain saturated hydrocarbons. 2AP was found in the extracts obtained by both SPME (0.37%) and SDS (2.71% relative proportion). Quantitative analyses of 2AP in bread flowers and other plant materials were performed by solvent extraction employing acidic solutions and capillary GC with flame ionization detection. The highest concentration of 2AP was found in dried flowers of V. glabra at 26.1 mg/kg. By comparison with other plant sources, fresh leaves of Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb contain 2AP at 10.3 mg/kg and Thai fragrant rice, Khao Dawk Mali 105, at 3.0 mg/kg. PMID:12517110

Wongpornchai, Sugunya; Sriseadka, Tinakorn; Choonvisase, Suppachai

2003-01-15

4

Identification and quantitation of the rice aroma compound, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, in bread flowers (Vallaris glabra Ktze).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aroma impact compound, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), has been identified for the first time in headspace of fresh bread flowers (Vallaris glabra Ktze) in which volatile components were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) at room temperature prior to analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 50 volatiles were detected. Among these, 23 volatiles were identified, predominantly in a group of terpenes. More volatiles were found in the extract of fresh bread flowers obtained by continuous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDS). Of the 40 volatiles identified, the additional components were mainly straight-chain saturated hydrocarbons. 2AP was found in the extracts obtained by both SPME (0.37%) and SDS (2.71% relative proportion). Quantitative analyses of 2AP in bread flowers and other plant materials were performed by solvent extraction employing acidic solutions and capillary GC with flame ionization detection. The highest concentration of 2AP was found in dried flowers of V. glabra at 26.1 mg/kg. By comparison with other plant sources, fresh leaves of Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb contain 2AP at 10.3 mg/kg and Thai fragrant rice, Khao Dawk Mali 105, at 3.0 mg/kg.

Wongpornchai S; Sriseadka T; Choonvisase S

2003-01-01

5

Optimization of HS-SPME conditions for quantification of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and study of other volatiles in Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

HS-SPME coupled with GC-FID was applied for the quantification of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) in Pandanus amaryllifolius, the best available natural source of (2AP). Conditions for qualitative and quantitative analysis of aroma volatiles with special reference to 2AP from P. amaryllifolius have been optimized using HS-SPME/GC-FID. About 10mg powdered leaf material at 80°C temperature for 35min was found to be the most effective combination for maximum release of 2AP. Volatile analyses led to the identification of 31 compounds, of which 21 are reported for the first time in P. amaryllifolius. 2AP contents and other volatiles were found to vary in small and large growth forms.

Wakte KantilalV; Thengane RatnakarJ; Jawali Narendra; Nadaf AltafhusainB

2010-07-01

6

Deficiency in the amino aldehyde dehydrogenase encoded by GmAMADH2, the homologue of rice Os2AP, enhances 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthesis in soybeans (Glycine max L.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), the volatile compound that provides the 'popcorn-like' aroma in a large variety of cereal and food products, is widely found in nature. Deficiency in amino aldehyde dehydrogenase (AMADH) was previously shown to be the likely cause of 2AP biosynthesis in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, the validity of this mechanism was investigated in soybeans (Glycine max L.). An assay of AMADH activity in soybeans revealed that the aromatic soybean, which contains 2AP, also lacked AMADH enzyme activity. Two genes, GmAMADH1 and GmAMADH2, which are homologous to the rice Os2AP gene that encodes AMADH, were characterized. The transcription level of GmAMADH2 was lower in aromatic varieties than in nonaromatic varieties, whereas the expression of GmAMADH1 did not differ. A double nucleotide (TT) deletion was found in exon 10 of GmAMADH2 in all aromatic varieties. This variation caused a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon. Suppression of GmAMADH2 by introduction of a GmAMADH2-RNAi construct into the calli of the two nonaromatic wild-type varieties inhibited the synthesis of AMADH and induced the biosynthesis of 2AP. These results suggest that deficiency in the GmAMADH2 product, AMADH, plays a similar role in soybean as in rice, which is to promote 2AP biosynthesis. This phenomenon might be a conserved mechanism among plant species.

Arikit S; Yoshihashi T; Wanchana S; Uyen TT; Huong NT; Wongpornchai S; Vanavichit A

2011-01-01

7

In vitro culture of Pandanus amaryllifolius and enhancement of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, the major flavouring compound of aromatic rice, by precursor feeding of L-proline.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Shoots, plantlets and semi-differentiated callus (SDC) cultures of Pandanus amaryllifolius capable of producing high levels of basmati rice flavour were established in vitro using Murashige and Skoog nutrient medium. A total of 10% of the initial explants responded to produce shoot cultures in the presence of benzylamino purine (BAP) (0.5 mg L(-1)) and glutamine (100 mg L(-1)). Leaf explants and basal portions of shoots produced SDC whereas elongated in vitro shoots could be continuously multiplied, using BAP (1.5 mg L(-1)) and kinetin (Kn) (1.0 mg L(-1)), and rooted in half-strength medium for ex vitro cultivation leading to a process of micropropagation. Steam-distillation extraction (SDE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of various cultured organs and spent liquid medium used for SDC revealed the presence of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) to various extents. This 2-AP compound has been identified as the major flavouring compound of scented basmati and other scented rice varieties. 2-AP was found to be highest, on a fresh weight basis, in SDC (19.7 mg kg(-1)) on the 40th day, whereas in vitro roots, shoots and field leaves (of one-year-old plant) had lower levels of 15, 6.8 and 14 mg kg(-1), respectively. Further enhancement of 2-AP in SDC using precursor was possible by feeding into medium 1 mmol L(-1) of L-proline where a highest level of 21.67 ppm of 2-AP accumulated on the seventh day whereas a higher level of 2 mmol L(-1) of L-proline suppressed 2-AP levels. The present report is the first on the tissue culture studies of P. amaryllifolius where continuous production of plantlets as well as synthesis of high levels of 2-AP has been documented.

Thimmaraju R; Bhagyalakshmi N; Narayan MS; Venkatachalam L; Ravishankar GA

2005-12-01

8

Aroma components of American country ham.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma-active compounds of American country ham were investigated by using direct solvent extraction-solvent assisted flavor evaporation (DSE-SAFE), dynamic headspace dilution analysis (DHDA), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results indicated the involvement of numerous volatile constituents in the aroma of country ham. For DHDA, 38 compounds were identified as major odorants, among them, 1-octen-3-one, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 1-nonen-3-one, decanal, and (E)-2-nonenal were the most predominant, having FD-factors >or= 125 in all 3 hams examined, followed by 3-methylbutanal, 1-hexen-3-one, octanal, acetic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, and Furaneol. For the DSE-SAFE method, the neutral/basic fraction was dominated by 1-octen-3-one, methional, guaiacol, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-decenal, p-cresol as well as 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, phenylacetaldehyde, and gamma-nonalactone. The acidic fraction contained mainly short-chain volatile acids (3-methylbutanoic acid, butanoic acid, hexanoic acid, and acetic acid) and Maillard reaction products (for example, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone). The above compounds identified were derived from lipid oxidation, amino acid degradation, and Maillard/Strecker and associated reactions. Both methods revealed the same nature of the aroma components of American country ham. PMID:18211346

Song, H; Cadwallader, K R

2008-01-01

9

Quantitation of Key Peanut Aroma Compounds in Raw Peanuts and Pan-Roasted Peanut Meal. Aroma Reconstitution and Comparison with Commercial Peanut Products.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), 26 odor-active compounds, previously characterized by GC-olfactometry (GC-O), were quantitated in raw peanuts, and the concentrations of 38 odorants were determined in pan-roasted peanut meal. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds determined in vegetable oil, the odor activity values (OAVs) of the most important aroma compounds in raw as well as in pan-roasted peanut meal were calculated. 3-Isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine, acetic acid, and 3-(methylthio)propanal showed the highest OAVs in raw peanuts, whereas methanethiol, 2,3-pentanedione, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and 2- and 3-methylbutanal as well as the intensely popcorn-like smelling 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline revealed the highest OAV in the pan-roasted peanut meal. Aroma recombination studies confirmed the importance, in particular, of methanethiol and of lipid degradation products in the characteristic aroma of the freshly roasted peanut material. To evaluate additive effects on the overall aroma, the concentrations of eight pyrazines, previously not detected by GC-O among the odor-active volatiles, were additionally quantitated in the pan-roasted peanut meal. A sensory experiment in which the eight pyrazines were added to the recombinate clearly revealed that these volatiles did not show an impact on the overall aroma. Finally, selected odorants were quantitated in commercial peanut products to confirm their important role in peanut aroma.

Chetschik I; Granvogl M; Schieberle P

2010-09-01

10

Quantification of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in rice by stable isotope dilution assay through headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new and convenient synthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), a potent flavor compound in rice, and its ring-deuterated analog, 2-acetyl-1-d2-pyrroline (2AP-d2), was reported. A stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA), involving headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-positive chemical ionization-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-PCI-IT-MS-MS), was developed for 2AP quantification. A divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber was used for HS-SPME procedure and parameters affecting analytes recovery, such as extraction time and temperature, pH and salt, were studied. The repeatability of the method (n = 10) expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was 11.6%. A good linearity was observed from 5.9 to 779 ng of 2AP (r2 = 0.9989). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for 2AP were 0.1 and 0.4 ng g-1 of rice, respectively. The recovery of spiked 2AP from rice matrix was almost complete. The developed method was applied to the quantification of 2AP in aerial parts and grains of scented and non-scented rice cultivars.

2010-08-24

11

Effect of cold storage and packaging material on the major aroma components of sweet cream butter.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The major aroma compounds of commercial sweet cream AA butter quarters were analyzed by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS combined with dynamic headspace analysis (DHA) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE). In addition, the effect of long-term storage (0, 6, and 12 months) and type of wrapping material (wax parchment paper vs foil) on the aroma components and sensory properties of these butters kept under refrigerated (4 degrees C) and frozen (-20 degrees C) storage was evaluated. The most intense compounds in the aroma of pasteurized AA butter were butanoic acid, delta-octalactone, delta-decalactone, 1-octen-3-one, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, and diacetyl. The intensities of lipid oxidation volatiles and methyl ketones increased as a function of storage time. Refrigerated storage caused greater flavor deterioration compared with frozen storage. The intensity and relative abundance of styrene increased as a function of time of storage at refrigeration temperature. Butter kept frozen for 12 months exhibited lower styrene levels and a flavor profile more similar to that of fresh butter compared to butter refrigerated for 12 months. Foil wrapping material performed better than wax parchment paper in preventing styrene migration into butter and in minimizing the formation of lipid oxidation and hydroxyl acid products that contribute to the loss of fresh butter flavor.

Lozano PR; Miracle ER; Krause AJ; Drake M; Cadwallader KR

2007-09-01

12

Effect of cold storage and packaging material on the major aroma components of sweet cream butter.  

Science.gov (United States)

The major aroma compounds of commercial sweet cream AA butter quarters were analyzed by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS combined with dynamic headspace analysis (DHA) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE). In addition, the effect of long-term storage (0, 6, and 12 months) and type of wrapping material (wax parchment paper vs foil) on the aroma components and sensory properties of these butters kept under refrigerated (4 degrees C) and frozen (-20 degrees C) storage was evaluated. The most intense compounds in the aroma of pasteurized AA butter were butanoic acid, delta-octalactone, delta-decalactone, 1-octen-3-one, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, and diacetyl. The intensities of lipid oxidation volatiles and methyl ketones increased as a function of storage time. Refrigerated storage caused greater flavor deterioration compared with frozen storage. The intensity and relative abundance of styrene increased as a function of time of storage at refrigeration temperature. Butter kept frozen for 12 months exhibited lower styrene levels and a flavor profile more similar to that of fresh butter compared to butter refrigerated for 12 months. Foil wrapping material performed better than wax parchment paper in preventing styrene migration into butter and in minimizing the formation of lipid oxidation and hydroxyl acid products that contribute to the loss of fresh butter flavor. PMID:17705437

Lozano, Patricio R; Miracle, Evan R; Krause, Andrea J; Drake, Maryanne; Cadwallader, Keith R

2007-08-17

13

Aroma production by tissue cultures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although plant tissue cultures have been in use for the past hundred years, adapting them for the production of aroma compounds started only in the 1970s. The use of tissue cultures in aroma production has its advantages, because plant cells, unlike whole plants, are not limited to geographic locations or the seasons. Cell mass can be doubled relatively rapidly and can be induced for the production of compounds in a coordinated manner. Compounds can be isolated from cells or the medium with relative ease. Therefore, it would seem to be ideal to use plant cell cultures for the production of aroma compounds. Cell cultures, however, also have some problems. The production of aroma compounds or their precursors is in relatively low amounts, and thus this production method is expensive. Additional expenses are the cost of the medium and the purification of the compounds for food use. Also, cell cultures can only be used effectively in systems for which the biochemical pathway of the aroma compounds is known. In this paper the results of experiments for the use of tissue cultures in the production of vanilla, raspberry, strawberry garlic, and onion aromas is discussed.

Hrazdina G

2006-02-01

14

Identification of Aroma Active Compounds of Cereal Coffee Brew and Its Roasted Ingredients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one. PMID:23414530

Majcher, Ma?gorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jele?, Henryk H

2013-02-27

15

Identification of Aroma Active Compounds of Cereal Coffee Brew and Its Roasted Ingredients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one.

Majcher MA; Klensporf-Pawlik D; Dziadas M; Jele? HH

2013-02-01

16

Aroma-active components of nonfat dry milk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile components of low-, medium-, and high-heat-treated nonfat dry milks (NDM) revealed aroma-active compounds in the log(3) flavor dilution (log(3) FD) factor range of 1 to 6. The following compounds contributed the highest log(3) FD factors to overall NDM flavor: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone [(Furaneol), burnt sugar-like]; butanoic acid (rancid); 3-(methylthio)propanal [(methional), boiled potato-like]; o-aminoacetophenone (grape-like); delta-decalactone (sweet); (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic); pentanoic acid (sweaty); 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone [(sotolon), curry]; 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde [(vanillin), vanilla]; 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline (popcorn-like); hexanoic acid (vinegar-like); phenylacetic acid (rose-like); octanoic acid (waxy); nonanal (fatty); and 1-octen-3-one (mushroom-like). The odor intensities of Furaneol, butanoic acid, methional, o-aminoacetophenone, sotolon, vanillin, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and phenylacetic acid were higher in high-heat-treated samples than others. However, the odor intensities of lactones, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline were not affected by heat treatment. Sensory evaluation results also revealed that heat-generated flavors have a major impact on the flavor profile of NDM.

Karagül-Yüceer Y; Drake MA; Cadwallader KR

2001-06-01

17

Aroma-active components of nonfat dry milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile components of low-, medium-, and high-heat-treated nonfat dry milks (NDM) revealed aroma-active compounds in the log(3) flavor dilution (log(3) FD) factor range of 1 to 6. The following compounds contributed the highest log(3) FD factors to overall NDM flavor: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone [(Furaneol), burnt sugar-like]; butanoic acid (rancid); 3-(methylthio)propanal [(methional), boiled potato-like]; o-aminoacetophenone (grape-like); delta-decalactone (sweet); (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic); pentanoic acid (sweaty); 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone [(sotolon), curry]; 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde [(vanillin), vanilla]; 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline (popcorn-like); hexanoic acid (vinegar-like); phenylacetic acid (rose-like); octanoic acid (waxy); nonanal (fatty); and 1-octen-3-one (mushroom-like). The odor intensities of Furaneol, butanoic acid, methional, o-aminoacetophenone, sotolon, vanillin, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and phenylacetic acid were higher in high-heat-treated samples than others. However, the odor intensities of lactones, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline were not affected by heat treatment. Sensory evaluation results also revealed that heat-generated flavors have a major impact on the flavor profile of NDM. PMID:11409991

Karagül-Yüceer, Y; Drake, M A; Cadwallader, K R

2001-06-01

18

Key aroma compounds in roasted in-shell peanuts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An investigation by using an aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the aroma concentrates made from freshly roasted in-shell peanuts and stored peanuts revealed a total of 43 key aroma compounds, including 8 newly identified compounds in peanuts. Among them, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, exhibiting an earthy note, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, exhibiting a caramel-like note, were detected with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 4096 in the fresh peanuts, followed by 3,5-dimethyl-2-ethylpyrazine, exhibiting a nutty note, as having the next highest FD factor of 1024. A quantitative analysis of the key aroma compounds having high FD factors in the fresh peanuts and stored peanuts revealed that 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, and 3,5-dimethyl-2-vinylpyrazine significantly decreased during storage, while methyl 2-methyl-3-furyl disulfide, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol significantly increased. The sensory experiments revealed that the fresh peanuts presented strong roasty/meaty, popcorn-like, and nutty notes, as well as moderate spicy/burnt and caramel-like notes, whereas the stored peanuts presented significantly weak roasty/meaty and popcorn-like notes and a significantly strong spicy/burnt note. Based on the comparative AEDAs, the quantitative analysis, and the sensory analysis, it was concluded that the freshly roasted peanut aroma comprised the significant contributions of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol exhibiting a roasty/meaty note, and of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline exhibiting a popcorn-like note, and the lesser contribution of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol exhibiting a spicy/burnt note. In particular, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, which was only detected in the freshly roasted peanut aroma concentrate, might be an essential component describing the freshness of the roasted peanut aroma by its diffusive roasty/meaty note.

Kaneko S; Sakai R; Kumazawa K; Usuki M; Nishimura O

2013-01-01

19

Inhibition of key aroma compound generated during ultrahigh-temperature processing of bovine milk via epicatechin addition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of epicatechin (EC) to inhibit the thermal development of aroma compounds (i.e., Maillard reaction products) formed during ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) processing of bovine milk was evaluated. Volatile extracts were prepared for two UHT-processed milk samples made from (1) raw milk and (2) raw milk containing 0.1% EC by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and subsequently analyzed by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Sensory evaluation was also conducted by a trained panel on the intensity of cooked flavor and bitterness in four UHT-processed milk samples (0.00, 0.01, 0.10, and 0.20% EC added prior to processing), as well as a commercial pasteurized milk sample for comparison. AEDA indicated that addition of EC to raw fluid milk prior to UHT processing reduced the overall thermal formation of key aroma-active compounds in comparison to the traditional UHT milk sample. The largest changes in FD values were reported for methional, furfural, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline (Maillard-type aroma compounds) with 32-, 8-, 8-, 4-, and 4-fold reductions in formation, respectively. Sensory evaluation also revealed that all EC-containing UHT milk samples had statistically (P < 0.05) lower cooked flavor intensity in comparison to the control, whereas the 0.2% EC sample was statistically similar to a pasteurized milk sample. Furthermore, addition of EC at or below 0.1% in UHT fluid milk did not significantly increase the bitterness intensity. PMID:15656679

Colahan-Sederstrom, Paula M; Peterson, Devin G

2005-01-26

20

Influence of endogenous ferulic acid in whole wheat flour on bread crust aroma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of wheat flour type (refined (RWF)/whole (WWF)) on bread crust aroma was investigated. Differences were characterized by aroma extract dilution analysis and quantified utilizing stable isotope surrogate standards. For RWF breads, five aroma compounds were higher in concentration, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-phenylethanol, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, and 2,4-dihyroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, by 4.0-, 3.0-, 2.1-, 1.7-, and 1.5-fold, respectively, whereas three compounds were lower, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, and (E)-2-nonenal by 6.1-, 2.1-, and 1.8-fold, respectively. A trained sensory panel reported the perceived aroma intensity of characteristic fresh refined bread crust aroma was significantly higher in RWF compared to WWF crust samples. Addition of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-phenylethanol, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, and 2,4-dihyroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone to the WWF crust (at concentrations equivalent to those in the RWF crust) increased the intensity of the fresh refined bread crust aroma attribute; no significant difference was reported when compared to RWF crust. The liberation of ferulic acid from WWF during baking was related to the observed reduction in these five aroma compounds and provides novel insight into the mechanisms of flavor development in WWF bread.

Moskowitz MR; Bin Q; Elias RJ; Peterson DG

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
21

Determination of compounds responsible for tempeh aroma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tempeh is a fermented food, popular mainly in south-east Asia, but also among vegetarians worldwide. It is produced by fermenting soybean or other beans with Rhizopus strains and usually eaten deep-fried, steamed or roasted. The flavour of tempeh depends upon the fermentation time, beans used and the (eventual) frying process. Our goal was to identify compounds responsible for the unique aroma of fermented and fried soy tempeh. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) with the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) approach, was used to determine key odorants after 1 and 5 days of fermentation and subsequent frying. Comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToF-MS) was used for their quantitation using stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) or standard addition (SA) methods. Odour activity values (OAV) were calculated for 19 out of 21 key odorants. Tempeh was fermented for 5 days and fried, and the main aroma compounds were found to be the following: 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, (FD=1024, OAV 1380), 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (FD=512, OAV 338), dimethyl trisulfide, (FD=512, OAV 900), methional (FD=512, OAV 930), 2-methylpropanal (FD=512, OAV 311) and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (FD=512, OAV 455). The frying process induced the increase or appearance of the main key odorants in tempeh.

Jele? H; Majcher M; Ginja A; Kuligowski M

2013-11-01

22

Characterization of the aroma signature of styrian pumpkin seed oil ( Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca) by molecular sensory science.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a distillate prepared from an authentic Styrian pumpkin seed oil followed by identification experiments led to the characterization of 47 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192 among which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Among the set of key odorants, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline and another 20 odorants were identified for the first time as constituents of pumpkin seed oil. To evaluate the aroma contribution in more detail, 31 aroma compounds showing the highest FD factors were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds determined in sunflower oil, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated, and 26 aroma compounds were found to have an OAV above 1. Among them, methanethiol (sulfury), 2-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanal (malty), and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (roasted potato) reached the highest OAVs. Sensory evaluation of an aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 31 key odorants in the concentrations as determined in the oil revealed that the aroma of Styrian pumpkin seed oil could be closely mimicked. Quantitation of 11 key odorants in three commercial pumpkin seed oil revealed clear differences in the concentrations of distinct odorants, which were correlated with the overall aroma profile of the oils.

Poehlmann S; Schieberle P

2013-03-01

23

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline from Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A comparative evaluation of the extraction of 2-acetyl pyrroline (2-AP) from Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. using either solvent extraction (3:1 chloroform:methanol), Likens-Nickerson apparatus or supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide extraction was carried out. SFE at 450 bar pressure for 3 h at 60 degrees C, at a constant flow rate of 0.1 l min(-1) of CO2, could extract 2-AP from P. amaryllifolius Roxb. in yields greater than those obtained by solvent extraction or Likens-Nickerson extraction. This extract could find novel applications in food flavouring.

Bhattacharjee P; Kshirsagar A; Singhal RS

2005-06-01

24

Decoding the key aroma compounds of a Hungarian-type salami by molecular sensory science approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract/distillate prepared from a Hungarian-type salami and subsequent identification experiments led to the identification of 51 of 55 odor-active compounds detected in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 16-4096. Nineteen of these compounds are reported for the first time as aroma components of dry-fermented sausages, among them 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon), trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl) disulfide. The highest FD factors were found for 2-methoxyphenol (smoky, sweet), 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)phenol (clove-like), 2-methoxy-4-(E)-(1-propenyl)phenol (clove-like), and acetic acid (pungent, sour). Forty-five aroma compounds were subsequently quantified using stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated on the basis of odor thresholds in oil. The highest OAVs were calculated for acetic acid, acetaldehyde, 3-(methylthio)propanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-methoxyphenol, and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. A model mixture containing 33 odorants in the same concentrations as they occurred in the sausage was prepared in a matrix consisting of 44% sunflower oil and 56% aqueous phosphate buffer. A comparison of the overall aroma of this model mixture with the original showed a very high similarity, suggesting that the key aroma compounds were successfully identified. PMID:19358532

Söllner, Kerstin; Schieberle, Peter

2009-04-09

25

Decoding the key aroma compounds of a Hungarian-type salami by molecular sensory science approaches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract/distillate prepared from a Hungarian-type salami and subsequent identification experiments led to the identification of 51 of 55 odor-active compounds detected in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 16-4096. Nineteen of these compounds are reported for the first time as aroma components of dry-fermented sausages, among them 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon), trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl) disulfide. The highest FD factors were found for 2-methoxyphenol (smoky, sweet), 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)phenol (clove-like), 2-methoxy-4-(E)-(1-propenyl)phenol (clove-like), and acetic acid (pungent, sour). Forty-five aroma compounds were subsequently quantified using stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated on the basis of odor thresholds in oil. The highest OAVs were calculated for acetic acid, acetaldehyde, 3-(methylthio)propanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-methoxyphenol, and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. A model mixture containing 33 odorants in the same concentrations as they occurred in the sausage was prepared in a matrix consisting of 44% sunflower oil and 56% aqueous phosphate buffer. A comparison of the overall aroma of this model mixture with the original showed a very high similarity, suggesting that the key aroma compounds were successfully identified.

Söllner K; Schieberle P

2009-05-01

26

Carotenoid breakdown products the-norisoprenoids-in wine aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years there has been much interest in the role that products of carotenoid breakdown--the norisoprenoids--may play in wine aroma. The basis for this interest is that norisoprenoids have very low olfactory perception thresholds and so have a high sensorial impact on wine aroma. The norisoprenoids can be formed by direct degradation of carotenoids such beta-carotene and neoxanthin or they can be stored as glycoconjugates, which can then release their volatile aglycone during fermentation via enzymatic and acid hydrolysis processes. The norisoprenoids identified in wine with important sensory properties are: TCH (2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexanone), beta-damascenone, beta-ionone, vitispirane, actinidiol, TDN (1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene), riesling acetal and TPB (4-(2,3,6-trimethylphenyl)buta-1,3-diene). The grape carotenoid profile, fermentation process and wine storage conditions, are determinant factors for the aroma of wine. The mechanisms involved in overall aroma development from grapes through fermentation to wine are yet to be defined. Progress in this area will be reviewed. PMID:19320050

Mendes-Pinto, Maria Manuela

2009-03-15

27

Characterization of the aroma signature of styrian pumpkin seed oil ( Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca) by molecular sensory science.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a distillate prepared from an authentic Styrian pumpkin seed oil followed by identification experiments led to the characterization of 47 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192 among which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Among the set of key odorants, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline and another 20 odorants were identified for the first time as constituents of pumpkin seed oil. To evaluate the aroma contribution in more detail, 31 aroma compounds showing the highest FD factors were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds determined in sunflower oil, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated, and 26 aroma compounds were found to have an OAV above 1. Among them, methanethiol (sulfury), 2-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanal (malty), and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (roasted potato) reached the highest OAVs. Sensory evaluation of an aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 31 key odorants in the concentrations as determined in the oil revealed that the aroma of Styrian pumpkin seed oil could be closely mimicked. Quantitation of 11 key odorants in three commercial pumpkin seed oil revealed clear differences in the concentrations of distinct odorants, which were correlated with the overall aroma profile of the oils. PMID:23461409

Poehlmann, Susan; Schieberle, Peter

2013-03-14

28

Aroma retention in modern bread production.  

Science.gov (United States)

In highly industrialized countries bread consumption rate decreases in favour of flavour-intensive foods like meat, sweets, cocoa products or alcoholic beverages. This trend which is unfavourable from the nutritional point of view may be forced by flavour losses in modern bread technology itself. Sensory profile studies indicate 4 points which may change the traditional bread flavour, i.e. reduction of flour extraction rate, changes within bread formula, shortening of the dough procedures or of baking time. Possible ways for improving bread flavour in modern technology are discussed. The use of precursor systems as well as of biotechnical procedures deliver chances for future bread production with improved flavour quality. PMID:6888528

Rothe, M; Ruttloff, H

1983-01-01

29

Aroma retention in modern bread production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In highly industrialized countries bread consumption rate decreases in favour of flavour-intensive foods like meat, sweets, cocoa products or alcoholic beverages. This trend which is unfavourable from the nutritional point of view may be forced by flavour losses in modern bread technology itself. Sensory profile studies indicate 4 points which may change the traditional bread flavour, i.e. reduction of flour extraction rate, changes within bread formula, shortening of the dough procedures or of baking time. Possible ways for improving bread flavour in modern technology are discussed. The use of precursor systems as well as of biotechnical procedures deliver chances for future bread production with improved flavour quality.

Rothe M; Ruttloff H

1983-01-01

30

FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intensity was detected a few hours before or after the maximum respirometric activity. Sixteen compounds were separated by gas cromatography of the components present in the headspace and fifteen of them were identified as acid (1), alcohols (6), aldehyde (1), ketones (2) and esters (5).Este estudo explorou a versatilidade de Ceratocystis fimbriata de crescer e produzir aromas naturais sobre substratos de resíduos agro-industriais. Bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã, amaranto e soja em diferentes proporções compuseram os sete meios utilizados, mostrando ser substratos adequados para o crescimento e produção de aroma por este fungo em fermentação no estado sólido. Todos os meios contendo bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã e soja em sua composição proporcionaram um forte aroma frutal, enquanto, o meio de amaranto produziu um agradável aroma de abacaxi. A produção de aroma foi dependente do crescimento, visto que a máxima intensidade do aroma foi detectado poucas horas antes ou depois da atividade respiratória máxima. Foram detectados dezesseis compostos pela cromatografia de gás no headspace das culturas, e quinze deles foram identificados: 1 ácido, 6 alcoois, 1 aldeído, 2 cetonas e 5 ésteres.

Adriana Bramorski; Carlos R. Soccol; Pierre Christen; Sergio Revah

1998-01-01

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Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB) would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried out at room temperature until the media reached pH value of 5. Samples were evaluated for sensory characteristics using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). In all media the target pH was reached after 68-71 hours of fermentation, depending on citrate level. Fermentation and the production of aroma compounds were more intensive in media that contained whey proteins compared to media with only casein. Increased citrate level had a positive influence on the aroma production. Citrate increased the initial pH of the media and acted as a buffer during fermentation, which lead to longer fermentation and prolonged production of aroma compounds. At pH around 5, the desired cultured aroma was the most intensive, whereas sour taste was less dominant. The substrate with 0.25% citrate and 0.1% whey proteins, at pH 5, was rated as best regarding its sensory characteristics.

Nevenka Mazi?; Rajka Božani?

2008-01-01

32

FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intensity was detected a few hours before or after the maximum respirometric activity. Sixteen compounds were separated by gas cromatography of the components present in the headspace and fifteen of them were identified as acid (1), alcohols (6), aldehyde (1), ketones (2) and esters (5).

Bramorski Adriana; Soccol Carlos R.; Christen Pierre; Revah Sergio

1998-01-01

33

Production of aromas and fragrances through microbial oxidation of monoterpenes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aromas and fragrances can be obtained through the microbial oxidation of monoterpenes. Many microorganisms can be used to carry out extremely specific conversions using substrates of low commercial value. However, for many species, these substrates are highly toxic, consequently inhibiting their metabolism. In this work, the conversion ability of Aspergillus niger IOC-3913 for terpenic compounds was examined. This species was preselected because of its high resistance to toxic monoterpenic substrates. Though it has been grown in media containing R-limonene (one of the cheapest monoterpenic hydrocarbons, which is widely available on the market), the species has not shown the ability to metabolize it, since biotransformation products were not detected in high resolution gas chromatography analyses. For this reason, other monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and camphor) were used as substrates. These compounds were shown to be metabolized by the selected strain, producing oxidized compounds. Four reaction systems were used: a) biotransformation in a liquid medium with cells in growth b) with pre-grown cultures c) with cells immobilized in a synthetic polymer network and d) in a solid medium to which the substrate was added via the gas phase. The main biotransformation products were found in all the reaction systems, although the adoption of previously cultivated cells seemed to favor biotransformation. Cell immobilization seemed to be a feasible strategy for alleviating the toxic effect of the substrate. Through mass spectrometry it was possible to identify verbenone and alpha-terpineol as the biotransformation products of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, respectively. The structures of the other oxidation products are described.

H. F. Rozenbaum; M. L. Patitucci; O. A. C. Antunes; N. Pereira Jr

2006-01-01

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Media components and amino acid supplements influencing the production of fruity aroma by Geotrichum candidum Influência da composição do meio de cultivo e da suplementação com aminoácidos na produção de aroma frutal por Geotrichum candidum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability of Geotrichum candidum to produce fruity aroma in food grade sucrose, molasses, corn steep liquor and peptone based culture media was tested by sensory evaluation and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A strong and sweet fruity aroma was produced from molasses, with peptone or corn steep liquor stimulating aroma production. Molasses with peptone supplemented with leucine, valine, or alanine yielded better fruity aroma production and the presence of many esters was consistent with the fruity aroma production.Geotrichum candidum foi cultivado em diversos meios de cultura contendo sacarose ou melaço e milhocina ou peptona e a produção de aroma frutal foi verificada através de avaliação sensorial e cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas. Os meios contendo melaço, peptona e leucina, valina ou alanina apresentaram os melhores resultados e a presença de diversos ésteres foi consistente com a formação de aroma frutal.

T. Pinotti; P.M.B. Carvalho; K.M.G. Garcia; T.R. Silva; Allen Norton Hagler; S.G.F. Leite

2006-01-01

35

Media components and amino acid supplements influencing the production of fruity aroma by Geotrichum candidum/ Influência da composição do meio de cultivo e da suplementação com aminoácidos na produção de aroma frutal por Geotrichum candidum  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Geotrichum candidum foi cultivado em diversos meios de cultura contendo sacarose ou melaço e milhocina ou peptona e a produção de aroma frutal foi verificada através de avaliação sensorial e cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas. Os meios contendo melaço, peptona e leucina, valina ou alanina apresentaram os melhores resultados e a presença de diversos ésteres foi consistente com a formação de aroma frutal. Abstract in english The ability of Geotrichum candidum to produce fruity aroma in food grade sucrose, molasses, corn steep liquor and peptone based culture media was tested by sensory evaluation and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A strong and sweet fruity aroma was produced from molasses, with peptone or corn steep liquor stimulating aroma production. Molasses with peptone supplemented with leucine, valine, or alanine yielded better fruity aroma production and the presence of many esters was consistent with the fruity aroma production.

Pinotti, T.; Carvalho, P.M.B.; Garcia, K.M.G.; Silva, T.R.; Hagler, Allen Norton; Leite, S.G.F.

2006-12-01

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Fruity aromas production in solid state fermentation by the fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata International training course on solid state fermentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Solid state fermentation (SSF) has been studied for enzymes, antibiotics, alcohol production or for protein enrichment, but few papers report the production of aromas by such a process. In this work, the study of the production of fruity aromas in SSF by the fungus #Ceratocystis fimbriata$ is presen...

Christen, Pierre; Revah, S.

37

Irradiation and fumigation effects on flavor, aroma and composition of grapefruit products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effects were evaluated on grapefruit treated to meet quarantine restrictions against Caribbean fruit fly infestation. Differences were found in flavor of fresh sections, fresh juice, and aroma of peel oil when obtained from fruit irradiated with x-rays, as compared with products from nonirradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in all pasteurized juices from fruit irradiated at 50-60 krad. Vitamin C levels were significantly lower in juice from most irradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in fresh and pasteurized juice from fruit treated with methyl bromide, and in pasteurized juice from fruit treated with ethylene dibromide. Aroma differences were found in peel oil from fruit treated with phosphine.

Moshonas, M.G.; Shaw, P.E.

1982-05-01

38

Irradiation and fumigation effects on flavor, aroma and composition of grapefruit products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects were evaluated on grapefruit treated to meet quarantine restrictions against Caribbean fruit fly infestation. Differences were found in flavor of fresh sections, fresh juice, and aroma of peel oil when obtained from fruit irradiated with x-rays, as compared with products from nonirradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in all pasteurized juices from fruit irradiated at 5-60 krad. Vitamin C levels were significantly lower in juice from most irradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in fresh and pasteurized juice from fruit treated with methyl bromide, and in pasteurized juice from fruit treated with ethylene dibromide. Aroma differences were found in peel oil from fruit treated with phosphine. (author).

1982-01-01

39

Production of aroma compounds by cryotolerant Saccharomyces species and hybrids at low and moderate fermentation temperatures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: Among the most important factors influencing wine quality are yeast strains and fermentation temperature. Fermentation at low temperature is presently used in winemaking to improve both aroma formation and retention. In this study, we have analysed the oenological characteristics of Tempranillo wines produced at 12 and 28°C by different Saccharomyces species and hybrids. METHODS AND RESULTS: Low temperature had a strong influence on yeasts fermentation kinetics, increasing fermentation times to more than 2 weeks. In some strains, glycerol production seemed to be positively influenced by low fermentation temperature. Analysis of the aroma composition of wines produced by different Saccharomyces species and hybrids revealed large differences depending on fermentation temperature. CONCLUSIONS: Higher alcohols production seemed to be dependent on the strain. Production of acetate esters seemed to be favoured at 28°C, whereas production of ethyl esters was apparently preferred at low fermentation temperatures. The best aroma producers at 28°C were Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, whereas Saccharomyces uvarum and some hybrids excelled at 12°C. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Our results suggest that fermentation temperature and yeast species are of crucial importance for production of metabolites influencing wine aroma.

Gamero A; Tronchoni J; Querol A; Belloch C

2013-05-01

40

Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus fruits possess unique aromas rarely found in other fruit species. While fruit flavor is composed of complex combinations of soluble and volatile compounds, several low-abundance sesquiterpenes, such as valencene, nootkatone, alpha-sinensal, and beta-sinensal, stand out in citrus as important flavor and aroma compounds. The profile of terpenoid volatiles in various citrus species and their importance as aroma compounds have been studied in detail, but much is still lacking in our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of their production. Here, we report on the isolation, functional expression, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a sesquiterpene synthase-encoding gene, involved in citrus aroma formation. The recombinant enzyme encoded by Cstps1 was shown to convert farnesyl diphosphate to a single sesquiterpene product identified as valencene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phylogenetic analysis of plant terpene synthase genes localized Cstps1 to the group of angiosperm sesquiterpene synthases. Within this group, Cstps1 belongs to a subgroup of citrus sesquiterpene synthases. Cstps1 was found to be developmentally regulated: transcript was found to accumulate only towards fruit maturation, corresponding well with the timing of valencene accumulation in fruit. Although citrus fruits are non-climacteric, valencene accumulation and Cstps1 expression were found to be responsive to ethylene, providing further evidence for the role of ethylene in the final stages of citrus fruit ripening. Isolation of the gene encoding valencene synthase provides a tool for an in-depth study of the regulation of aroma compound biosynthesis in citrus and for metabolic engineering for fruit flavor characteristics. PMID:14617067

Sharon-Asa, Liat; Shalit, Moshe; Frydman, Ahuva; Bar, Einat; Holland, Doron; Or, Etti; Lavi, Uri; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Eyal, Yoram

2003-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Citrus fruits possess unique aromas rarely found in other fruit species. While fruit flavor is composed of complex combinations of soluble and volatile compounds, several low-abundance sesquiterpenes, such as valencene, nootkatone, alpha-sinensal, and beta-sinensal, stand out in citrus as important flavor and aroma compounds. The profile of terpenoid volatiles in various citrus species and their importance as aroma compounds have been studied in detail, but much is still lacking in our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of their production. Here, we report on the isolation, functional expression, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a sesquiterpene synthase-encoding gene, involved in citrus aroma formation. The recombinant enzyme encoded by Cstps1 was shown to convert farnesyl diphosphate to a single sesquiterpene product identified as valencene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phylogenetic analysis of plant terpene synthase genes localized Cstps1 to the group of angiosperm sesquiterpene synthases. Within this group, Cstps1 belongs to a subgroup of citrus sesquiterpene synthases. Cstps1 was found to be developmentally regulated: transcript was found to accumulate only towards fruit maturation, corresponding well with the timing of valencene accumulation in fruit. Although citrus fruits are non-climacteric, valencene accumulation and Cstps1 expression were found to be responsive to ethylene, providing further evidence for the role of ethylene in the final stages of citrus fruit ripening. Isolation of the gene encoding valencene synthase provides a tool for an in-depth study of the regulation of aroma compound biosynthesis in citrus and for metabolic engineering for fruit flavor characteristics.

Sharon-Asa L; Shalit M; Frydman A; Bar E; Holland D; Or E; Lavi U; Lewinsohn E; Eyal Y

2003-12-01

42

QTL mapping of the production of wine aroma compounds by yeast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Wine aroma results from the combination of numerous volatile compounds, some produced by yeast and others produced in the grapes and further metabolized by yeast. However, little is known about the consequences of the genetic variation of yeast on the production of these volatile metabolites, or on the metabolic pathways involved in the metabolism of grape compounds. As a tool to decipher how wine aroma develops, we analyzed, under two experimental conditions, the production of 44 compounds by a population of 30 segregants from a cross between a laboratory strain and an industrial strain genotyped at high density. Results We detected eight genomic regions explaining the diversity concerning 15 compounds, some produced de novo by yeast, such as nerolidol, ethyl esters and phenyl ethanol, and others derived from grape compounds such as citronellol, and cis-rose oxide. In three of these eight regions, we identified genes involved in the phenotype. Hemizygote comparison allowed the attribution of differences in the production of nerolidol and 2-phenyl ethanol to the PDR8 and ABZ1 genes, respectively. Deletion of a PLB2 gene confirmed its involvement in the production of ethyl esters. A comparison of allelic variants of PDR8 and ABZ1 in a set of available sequences revealed that both genes present a higher than expected number of non-synonymous mutations indicating possible balancing selection. Conclusions This study illustrates the value of QTL analysis for the analysis of metabolic traits, and in particular the production of wine aromas. It also identifies the particular role of the PDR8 gene in the production of farnesyldiphosphate derivatives, of ABZ1 in the production of numerous compounds and of PLB2 in ethyl ester synthesis. This work also provides a basis for elucidating the metabolism of various grape compounds, such as citronellol and cis-rose oxide.

Steyer Damien; Ambroset Chloe; Brion Christian; Claudel Patricia; Delobel Pierre; Sanchez Isabelle; Erny Claude; Blondin Bruno; Karst Francis; Legras Jean-Luc

2012-01-01

43

QTL mapping of the production of wine aroma compounds by yeast.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Wine aroma results from the combination of numerous volatile compounds, some produced by yeast and others produced in the grapes and further metabolized by yeast. However, little is known about the consequences of the genetic variation of yeast on the production of these volatile metabolites, or on the metabolic pathways involved in the metabolism of grape compounds. As a tool to decipher how wine aroma develops, we analyzed, under two experimental conditions, the production of 44 compounds by a population of 30 segregants from a cross between a laboratory strain and an industrial strain genotyped at high density. RESULTS: We detected eight genomic regions explaining the diversity concerning 15 compounds, some produced de novo by yeast, such as nerolidol, ethyl esters and phenyl ethanol, and others derived from grape compounds such as citronellol, and cis-rose oxide. In three of these eight regions, we identified genes involved in the phenotype. Hemizygote comparison allowed the attribution of differences in the production of nerolidol and 2-phenyl ethanol to the PDR8 and ABZ1 genes, respectively. Deletion of a PLB2 gene confirmed its involvement in the production of ethyl esters. A comparison of allelic variants of PDR8 and ABZ1 in a set of available sequences revealed that both genes present a higher than expected number of non-synonymous mutations indicating possible balancing selection. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates the value of QTL analysis for the analysis of metabolic traits, and in particular the production of wine aromas. It also identifies the particular role of the PDR8 gene in the production of farnesyldiphosphate derivatives, of ABZ1 in the production of numerous compounds and of PLB2 in ethyl ester synthesis. This work also provides a basis for elucidating the metabolism of various grape compounds, such as citronellol and cis-rose oxide.

Steyer D; Ambroset C; Brion C; Claudel P; Delobel P; Sanchez I; Erny C; Blondin B; Karst F; Legras JL

2012-01-01

44

METHOD FOR PRODUCTION OF WAFFLES WITH COFFEE AROMA (VERSIONS)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to technology for production of flour confectionery products. The proposed methods include the following operations. The recipe components are prepared according to traditional technology. Prepared girasol is cut, dried in microwave field at preset process parameters till residual humidity about 20% and additionally dried by convective method till residual humidity content about 5%. Slightly dried girasol is cryomilled in liquid nitrogen to produce flour. Prime grade wheat flour is mixed with girasol flour at a ratio of 5:1 - 13:1. Dough is prepared according to traditional technology as follows. One mixes yolks, salt, soda, vegetable oil, phospholipids and 10% of the recipe quantity of water. One stirs the mixture and adds the remaining water quantity to it and half of the recipe quantity of flour. One stirs the mixture, adds the remaining portion of flour to it and kneads into homogeneous mass. The sheets are formed from the produced mass and baked according to a traditional technology. Prepared cocoa husks is extracted by liquid nitrogen with corresponding miscella separation. Prepared scorzonera or oyster plant or dandelion roots are cut, dried in microwave field at preset process parameters till residual humidity about 20%. Slightly dried scorzonera or oyster plant or dandelion roots is/are roasted according to the traditional technology and impregnated with separated miscella with simultaneous increase of pressure. One performs depressurisation to atmospheric pressure with simultaneous freezing of scorzonera or dandelion roots or oyster plant with subsequent cryo-milling in the medium of released nitrogen to produce flour. Flour produced of scorzonera or of oyster plant or of dandelion roots is mixed with culinary fat, sugar powder and waffle crumb to produce a filler. The produced filler is spread on waffle sheets which are cut, pre-packed or packed to produce the target finished product. ^ EFFECT: inventions allow to produce waffles which have coffee taste and flavour. ^ 3 cl

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

45

METHOD FOR PRODUCTION OF WAFFLES WITH COFFEE AROMA (VERSIONS)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to technology for production of flour confectionery products. The methods provide for preparation of recipe components, cutting of girasol-sunflower, its drying in the microwave field at specified parameters of the process, frying and cryo-grinding in liquid nitrogen to produce flour, making dough from high-grade wheat flour and flour from girasol-sunflower produced according to above-specified technology, yolks, salt, soda, vegetable oil, phospholipids and water, its shaping in the form of sheets and baking, extraction of limequat peel with liquid nitrogen with separation of according miscella, cutting of scorzonera or oyster plant or dandelion roots, its drying in the microwave field at specified parameters of the process, frying, impregnation with separated miscella with simultaneous increase of pressure, pressure reduction down to atmospheric one with simultaneous freezing of raw material and its cryo-grinding in the medium of released nitrogen to produce flour, its mixing with culinary fat, dry milk, sugar powder and waffle crumb to produce filling and shaping waffles from sheets and filling. ^ EFFECT: waffles have improved texture, coffee taste and flavour with no coffee added to the formula. ^ 3 cl

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

46

METHOD FOR PRODUCTION OF WAFFLES WITH COFFEE AROMA (VERSIONS)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: methods include preparation of recipe components according with traditional technology. Prepared yacon is cut, dried in microwave field at preset process parameters till residual humidity about 20%. Slightly dried yacon is fried according to a traditional technology and cryomilled in liquid nitrogen to produce flour. One mixes prime grade wheat flour with yacon flour at a weight ratio of 5:1 - 13:1. Dough is prepared from prime grade flour, yacon flour as follows. One sequentially mixes yolks, salt, soda, vegetable oil, phospholipids and 10% of the recipe quantity of water. One stirs the mixture and adds the remaining water quantity to it and half of the recipe quantity of flour. One stirs the mixture, adds the remaining portion of flour to it and kneads into homogeneous mass to produce dough. The produced dough is formed in the shape of sheets and baked according to a traditional technology. Prepared cocoa husks are extracted by liquid nitrogen with corresponding miscella separation. Prepared scorzonera or oyster plant or dandelion roots are cut, dried in microwave field at preset process parameters till residual humidity about 20%. Slightly dried and prepared scorzonera or oyster plant or dandelion roots is/are roasted according to the traditional technology and impregnated with separated corresponding miscella with simultaneous increase of pressure. Pressure is reduced down to atmospheric value with simultaneous freezing of raw material and its subsequent cryo-grinding in medium of released nitrogen to produce flour. One mixes the following ingredients (taken in recipe quantities) into homogeneous consistency to produce a filler: culinary fat, powdered milk, sugar powder, flour produced of scorzonera or oyster plant or dandelion roots and waffle crumb. The filler is spread on waffle sheets which are cut, pre-packed or packed to produce the target finished product. ^ EFFECT: inventions allow to produce waffles which have coffee taste and flavour.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

47

Solid state fermentation of food waste mixtures for single cell protein, aroma volatiles and fat production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth of selected microorganisms of industrial interest (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus and kefir) by solid state fermentation (SSF) of various food industry waste mixtures was studied. The fermented products were analysed for protein, and nutrient minerals content, as well as for aroma volatile compounds by GC/MS. The substrate fermented by K. marxianus contained the highest sum of fat and protein concentration (59.2% w/w dm) and therefore it could be considered for utilisation of its fat content and for livestock feed enrichment. Regarding volatiles, the formation of high amounts of ?-pinene was observed only in the SSF product of kefir at a yield estimated to be 4kg/tn of SSF product. A preliminary design of a biorefinery-type process flow sheet and its economic analysis, indicated potential production of products (enriched livestock feed, fat and ?-pinene) of significant added value. PMID:24128535

Aggelopoulos, Theodoros; Katsieris, Konstantinos; Bekatorou, Argyro; Pandey, Ashok; Banat, Ibrahim M; Koutinas, Athanasios A

2013-07-29

48

Solid state fermentation of food waste mixtures for single cell protein, aroma volatiles and fat production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Growth of selected microorganisms of industrial interest (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus and kefir) by solid state fermentation (SSF) of various food industry waste mixtures was studied. The fermented products were analysed for protein, and nutrient minerals content, as well as for aroma volatile compounds by GC/MS. The substrate fermented by K. marxianus contained the highest sum of fat and protein concentration (59.2% w/w dm) and therefore it could be considered for utilisation of its fat content and for livestock feed enrichment. Regarding volatiles, the formation of high amounts of ?-pinene was observed only in the SSF product of kefir at a yield estimated to be 4kg/tn of SSF product. A preliminary design of a biorefinery-type process flow sheet and its economic analysis, indicated potential production of products (enriched livestock feed, fat and ?-pinene) of significant added value.

Aggelopoulos T; Katsieris K; Bekatorou A; Pandey A; Banat IM; Koutinas AA

2014-02-01

49

Isolation and Identification of Aspergillus oryzae and the Production of Soy Sauce with New Aroma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soy sauce is a dark brown salty liquid with a peculiar and a meaty taste. It is the chief savory-seasoning agent used in Oriental cookery, but it is becoming increasingly popular in many other regions of the world. The purpose of this study was to isolate Aspergillus oryzae strain from contaminated rice, soybean and wheat for using in soy sauce production with new aroma of thyme and dill. Samples of rice, soybeans and wheat assumed to be contaminated with Aspergillus oryzae were used in the isolation. Pure cultures obtained by culturing and subculturing on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) were maintained on PDA slant. All isolates were inoculated on Aspergillus flavus and Parasiticus agar (AFPA) medium to differentiate them from Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus based on reverse color. These isolates and the reference strain were inoculated on Czapack Yeast Extract Agar (CYA) and the macroscopic characteristics amongst these strains were compared. Slide cultures for these strains were prepared and their microscopic characteristics were compared. The preparation of the soy sauce was carried out by two stages. The first stage was Koji, which was prepared by mixing the isolates and the reference strain separately with steamed soybeans and the crushed millet was incubated for three days. The second stage involved the preparation of brine which consists of a koji and salt solution. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS program. The results of analysis of soy sauce encouraged the use of the isolates, especially the rice isolate in soy sauce production and the addition of dill or thyme gave a specific aroma to the final product.

Tarek Elbashiti; Amal Fayyad; Abboud Elkichaoui

2010-01-01

50

Coffee residues as substrates for aroma production by Ceratocystis fimbriata in solid state fermentation Produção de aromas por Ceratocystis fimbriata em fermentação no estado sólido utilizando resíduos da agroindústria do café como substratos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability of two different strains of Ceratocystis fimbriata for fruity aroma production by solid state fermentation (SSF) was tested on coffee pulp and coffee husk complemented with glucose as substrates. Experiments were carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks and the experimental conditions were: 70% of initial moisture, 20% of glucose addition and pH 6.0. Aeration was made by passive diffusion through the gauze covering the flasks. Headspace analysis of the culture by gas chromatography (GC) showed that 12 compounds were produced with coffee husk. Maximum total volatiles (TV) concentration was reached after 72 h of culture with coffee husk as substrate (28 µmol.L-1.g-1). Ethyl acetate, ethanol and acetaldehyde were the major compounds produced, representing 84.7%, 7.6% and 2.0% of TV, respectively. A pre-treatment with heat (100ºC/ 40 min) of substrates did not improve TV production. Respirometry analysis was used to determine the growth of the culture by measuring carbon dioxide produced. Results showed that the CO2 production follows the aroma production. This result shows the great potential for the use coffee pulp and coffee husk as substrates to microbial aroma production by solid state fermentation.Neste trabalho duas diferentes cepas de Ceratocystis fimbriata foram testadas para a produção de aromas frutais em fermentação no estado sólido (FES) utilizando como substratos casca e polpa de café, suplementados com glicose. Os experimentos foram realizados em frascos Erlenmeyer de 250 mL. As condições experimentais foram: umidade inicial de 70%, adição de 20% de glicose e pH 6,0. Os frascos foram cobertos com gaze e a aeração ocorreu por difusão passiva. A análise do "headspace"da cultura foi feita por cromatografia gasosa e 12 compostos foram detectados utilizando a casca de café. A análise respirométrica foi realizada para o acompanhamento do crescimento do microrganismo pela determinação do dióxido de carbono produzido. A produção de ésteres caracterizou o aroma frutal da cultura. A concentração máxima de voláteis totais foi alcançada após 72 h de cultivo em casca de café (28 µmol.L-1.g-1). Os principais compostos produzidos foram acetato de etila, etanol e acetaldeído, representando 84,7%, 7,6% and 2,0% dos voláteis totais, respectivamente.

Adriane Bianchi Pedroni Medeiros; Pierre Christen; Sevastianos Roussos; Juliana Carine Gern; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

2003-01-01

51

Coffee residues as substrates for aroma production by Ceratocystis fimbriata in solid state fermentation/ Produção de aromas por Ceratocystis fimbriata em fermentação no estado sólido utilizando resíduos da agroindústria do café como substratos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho duas diferentes cepas de Ceratocystis fimbriata foram testadas para a produção de aromas frutais em fermentação no estado sólido (FES) utilizando como substratos casca e polpa de café, suplementados com glicose. Os experimentos foram realizados em frascos Erlenmeyer de 250 mL. As condições experimentais foram: umidade inicial de 70%, adição de 20% de glicose e pH 6,0. Os frascos foram cobertos com gaze e a aeração ocorreu por difusão passiva. A (more) análise do "headspace"da cultura foi feita por cromatografia gasosa e 12 compostos foram detectados utilizando a casca de café. A análise respirométrica foi realizada para o acompanhamento do crescimento do microrganismo pela determinação do dióxido de carbono produzido. A produção de ésteres caracterizou o aroma frutal da cultura. A concentração máxima de voláteis totais foi alcançada após 72 h de cultivo em casca de café (28 µmol.L-1.g-1). Os principais compostos produzidos foram acetato de etila, etanol e acetaldeído, representando 84,7%, 7,6% and 2,0% dos voláteis totais, respectivamente. Abstract in english The ability of two different strains of Ceratocystis fimbriata for fruity aroma production by solid state fermentation (SSF) was tested on coffee pulp and coffee husk complemented with glucose as substrates. Experiments were carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks and the experimental conditions were: 70% of initial moisture, 20% of glucose addition and pH 6.0. Aeration was made by passive diffusion through the gauze covering the flasks. Headspace analysis of the culture (more) by gas chromatography (GC) showed that 12 compounds were produced with coffee husk. Maximum total volatiles (TV) concentration was reached after 72 h of culture with coffee husk as substrate (28 µmol.L-1.g-1). Ethyl acetate, ethanol and acetaldehyde were the major compounds produced, representing 84.7%, 7.6% and 2.0% of TV, respectively. A pre-treatment with heat (100ºC/ 40 min) of substrates did not improve TV production. Respirometry analysis was used to determine the growth of the culture by measuring carbon dioxide produced. Results showed that the CO2 production follows the aroma production. This result shows the great potential for the use coffee pulp and coffee husk as substrates to microbial aroma production by solid state fermentation.

Medeiros, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni; Christen, Pierre; Roussos, Sevastianos; Gern, Juliana Carine; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

2003-07-01

52

Growth and aroma production by Staphylococcus xylosus, S- carnosus and S-equoum - a comparative study in model systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A laboratory medium inoculated with 20 different Staphylococcus strains was prepared in accordance with a full Factorial experimental design investigating the effect of temperature. pH, NaCl and glucose on growth. The 32 strains most suited to growth in a fermented meat environment were inoculated in sausage minces together with Pediococcus pentosaceus, incubated at 25 C for I week and the produced aroma compounds collected. The data were analysed by multiple linear regression and partial least squares regression analysis. The results showed that increasing pH and temperature from 4.6 to 6.0 and 10 to 26 C. respectively, increased growth of all strains with strong synergy between temperature and pH. Increasing salt concentration from 5% to 15% w/v decreased growth of most strains, but the effect of pH and temperature was much stronger than the effect of salt. Strains of S. carnosus were more salt tolerant than strains of S. equorum and S, xylosus, especially at high pH and temperature. Addition of glucose up to 0.5% w/v had no significant influence on growth of any of the strains. With regard to aroma production, species characteristics were detected. S. carnosus and S. xylosus were quite different regarding the overall aroma profiles, whereas the profiles of S. equorum lied somewhere in-between. Contrary to S. carnosus, S. xylosus and S. equorum did not produce 2-methyl-1-butanol. On the other hand, in particular, S. xylosus produced more 3-methyl-1-butanol. Except for one of the strains of S. equorum, S. xylosus and S. equorum formed more diacetyl, 2-butanone and acetoin and also more of the methyl-branched ketones arising from degradation of leucine, isoleucine and valine. S. carnosus produced more methyl-branched aldehydes, acids and corresponding esters from leucine, isoleucine and valine-compounds that have been correlated with fermented sausage maturity in former studies. S. equorum produced the least of the methyl-branched aldehydes.

SØndergaard, A.K.; Stahnke, Louise Heller

2002-01-01

53

Fresh tea leaf powder and processed product, extract, oil and aroma obtained from fresh tea leaf powder  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is intended to disclose a fresh tea leaf powder which is obtainable by collecting a fresh leaf and/or a stem of tea plant (scientific name Camellia sinensis), followed by freeze-drying and subsequent milling the same; a processed and treated tea leaf, a treated vegetable, a treated fruit or a treated flower obtained by treating a tea leave, a vegetable, a fruit or a flower with the above-described fresh tea leaf powder; a tea extract, a vegetable extract, a fruit extract (fruit juice) or a flower extract (oil) prepared from the above-described processed and treated tea leaf, treated vegetable, treated fruit or treated flower; and tea aroma, vegetable aroma, fruit aroma or flower aroma obtained from the above-described tea extract, vegetable extract, fruit extract or flower extract by the process of collecting aroma compounds.

HIRAMOTO TADAHIRO; SAIKI KENJI; MASUMURA SATOSHI

54

Steam generator with aroma unit  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The vapor generator has a vapor raising unit (10) and a vapor connection (35) provided at an aroma unit (12), through which the aromatized vapor is expended. An aroma container (32) for receiving the aroma is arranged in an aroma receptacle (13) of the aroma unit. The aroma unit has an aroma unit case (40), in which the aroma receptacle is arranged. An independent claim is also included for a vapor raising unit with a level sensor.

ZIERLER WOLFGANG; PONGRATZ MARIO; SOXBERGER JOSEF; GSCHWANDTNER FRANZ

55

Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. cultivated as a spice in coastal regions of India  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pandanus amaryllifolius, an herb, is cultivated in home gardens in coastal regions of India. The leaves are added to ordinary rice while cooking to impart basmati rice aroma. The plant bears the same aroma principle 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) that has been reported in Basmati and other scented rice. Quantitatively the 2AP contents are highest in this plant among the plant kingdom. Therefore, it has good scope for commercial cultivation.

Wakte KantilalV; Nadaf AltafhusainB; Thengane RatnakarJ; Jawali Narendra

2009-08-01

56

METHOD FOR PRODUCTION OF WAFFLES WITH COFFEE AROMA AND TASTE (VERSIONS)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to technology for production of flour confectionery products. Methods of production include preparation of the recipe components, chicory cutting, drying in microwave field at preset process parameters. Then it is additionally dried by convective method and ground in liquid nitrogen. Then one performs production of dough from prime wheat flour, flour produced from chicory using described technology, yolks, salt, soda, vegetable oil, phospholipids and water taken as per specified ratio, its moulding in the form of sheets and baking. One performs extraction of limequat peel with corresponding miscella separation, cutting of scorzonera or dandelion roots or oyster plant, its drying in the microwave field at specified parameters of the process. Then it is fried, impregnated by separated miscella performed with simultaneous pressure boost and depressurisation till atmosphere pressure with simultaneous freezing of raw material and its cryomilling in medium of released nitrogen to produce flour. Its mixing with culinary fat, dry milk, sugar powder and waffle crumb to make filling, and making waffles of sheets and filling. ^ EFFECT: waffles have improved texture, coffee taste and flavour with no coffee added to the formula. ^ 3 cl, 1 ex

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

57

METHOD FOR PRODUCTION OF WAFFLES WITH COFFEE AROMA AND TASTE (VERSIONS)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to technology for production of flour confectionery products. The methods envisage preparation of formula components, cutting of oyster plant, its drying in microwave field at specified parameters of process, frying and cryo-grinding in liquid nitrogen to produce flour. Dough is made from high-grade wheat flour, oyster plant flour produced according to specified technology, yolks, salt, soda, vegetable oil, phospholipids and water. Dough is shaped in the form of sheets and baked. Grapefruit peel is extracted by liquid nitrogen to separate according miscella. Then one undertakes cutting of girasol or girasol-sunflower or yacon or chicory or scorzonera or oyster plant or dandelion roots, their drying in microwave field at specified parameters of the process and frying. It is impregnated by the separated miscella with the simultaneous pressure boost and following reduction of pressure down to the atmospheric one along with simultaneous freezing of raw material. It is cryo-ground in medium of released nitrogen to produce flour. The flour is mixed with culinary fat, dry milk, sugar powder and waffle crumb to make filling. Waffles are shaped from sheets and filling. ^ EFFECT: waffles have improved texture, coffee taste and flavour with no coffee added to the formula. ^ 7 cl

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH; POKUDINA GALINA PETROVNA; GLUKHOVA ALEKSANDRA GAVRILOVNA

58

Metabolic engineering of aroma components in fruits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plants have the ability to produce a diversity of volatile metabolites, which attract pollinators and seed dispersers and strengthen plant defense responses. Selection by plant breeders of traits such as rapid growth and yield leads, in many cases, to the loss of flavor and aroma quality in crops. How the aroma can be improved without affecting other fruit attributes is a major unsolved issue. Significant advances in metabolic engineering directed at improving the set of volatiles that the fruits emit has been aided by the characterization of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of flavor and aroma compounds in some fruits. However, before this technology can be successfully applied to modulate the production of volatiles in different crops, further basic research is needed on the mechanisms that lead to the production of these compounds in plants. Here we review the biosynthesis and function of volatile compounds in plants, and the attempts that have been made to manipulate fruit aroma biosynthesis by metabolic engineering. In addition, we discuss the possibilities that molecular breeding offers for aroma enhancement and the implications of the latest advances in biotechnological modification of fruit flavor and aroma.

Aragüez I; Valpuesta Fernández V

2013-09-01

59

Aroma fumigation mattress  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to an aroma fumigation mattress which belongs to the technical field of mattress manufacture. The utility model is mainly composed of a steel wire spring mattress (1) with outer coating face fabric (3), air ventilating holes (4) arranged on the side edges of the face fabric (3), aroma fumigation bags (5) arranged on the positions corresponding to th air ventilating holes (4) on the side edges of the steel wire spring mattress (1), a zipper (2) arranged on the periphery of the face fabric (3), etc. The aroma fumigation bags containing perfume are arranged in the mattress according to the theory of subjects, such as, sleep medical science, botany, industrial design science, etc., and thus, the utility model can improve sleep environment and prevent diseases by utilizing the unique pharmacology and the natural aroma characteristic. As a consequence, the utility model promotes effective and deep sleep, raises life quality and has the functions of purifying air and improving living room environment. Meanwhile, the outer coating face fabric is provided with the zipper, and thus, a user can replace the aroma fumigation bags arranged in the utility model so as to ensure the use effect of the aroma fumigation bags.

CHEN PINGHUA CHEN

60

Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew). Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discrimination of products; the concentration in the coffee brew was found to be the least discriminatory and concentration in the headspace above the roast and ground coffee was shown to be most discriminatory. Conclusions All approaches should be taken into consideration when classifying roast and ground coffee especially for alignment to sensory perception and consumer insight data as all offer markedly different discrimination abilities due to the variation in volatility, hydrophobicity, air-water partition coefficient and other physicochemical parameters of the key aroma compounds present.

Fisk Ian; Kettle Alec; Hofmeister Sonja; Virdie Amarjeet; Kenny Javier

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Aroma therapy for dementia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Complementary therapies have become more commonly used over the last decade and have been applied to a range of health problems, including dementia. Of these, aroma therapy is reported to be the most widely used in the British National Health Service (Lundie 1994) and might be of use for people with...

Thorgrimsen, L; Spector, A; Wiles, A; Orrell, M

62

PENGOLAHAN BERAS WANGI BUATAN METODE DAN RETENSI SENYAWA AROMA [Processing of Artificial Fragrant Rice The Method and Aroma Retention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Processing of artificial fragrant rice in which one or more aroma compounds were introduced into raw milled rice were studied. The end product, which is potentially marketable, showed no visible difference in appearance from the untreated rice, and the cooked product showed perceivable aroma to the consumers. The aromatisation process used liquid carbon dioxide as a vehicle to deliver the aroma. Five aroma compounds of eugenol, iso-eugenol, methyl eugenol, cinnamyl alcohol, and cinnamaldehyde were used as model compounds. The results showed that liquid carbon dioxide at a pressure of 8 MPa and an equilibration time of 5 minutes were found to be the optimum conditions for imparting the aroma compounds into the rice. The retention of the model aroma compounds in rice were in the range of 33% to 50%. The aroma carrier was found to be able to carry the model compounds into the core of rice. This was significant, as it potentially provided a longer period for the aroma compounds to remain in the rice.

Filli Pratama

2006-01-01

63

Method for manufacturing an aroma concentrate and aroma concentrate  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Producing flavor concentrate based on an aqueous flavor, comprises: (a) providing aqueous flavor comprising flavoring agent and/or fragrance that provide positive and negative sensory impression (b) providing at least one food grade solvent (c) adding this solvent to the solution of step (a) providing an adsorbent material in a suitable device (e) passing the solution of step (c) through a device having adsorbent material of step (d) (f) providing one or at least two food grade solvents and (g) desorbing the flavoring agent and/or fragrance from the adsorbent material of step (e). Producing flavor concentrate based on an aqueous flavor, in which at least one flavoring agent and/or fragrance that provide a positive sensory impression, is enriched by a factor of at least >= 1.5, compared to at least one flavoring agent and/or fragrance that provide a negative sensory impression, comprises either: (a) providing an aqueous flavor comprising (i) at least one flavoring agent and/or fragrance that provide a positive sensory impression, containing ethyl butyrate, ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, methyl capronate, linalool, alpha -ionone, beta -ionone, delta -decalactone, 2E-hexenol, 2E-hexenal, hexanal, beta -damascenone, octanal, nootkatone, p-menthenthiol-1,8-benzaldehyde, gamma -decalactone, linalool oxide, furfurylthiol-2,4-vinyl guaiacol, isomeric isopropyl methoxypyrazine, isomeric ethyl dimethyl pyrazine, indole, methyl jasmonate, jasmine lactone, dipropyl disulfide, dipropyl trisulfide, methyl propyl disulfide, L-menthol, menthone, L-carvone, isoamyl acetate, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2E,4Z-decadienal, 3,5-dimethyl trithiolane, citral, caryophyllene, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octen-3-one, hydroxybenzyl acetone, cis-3-hexenol, 3Z-hexenol, methyl butyrate, geraniol, ethyl-(2E,4Z)-decadienoate, 8-mercapto-p-menth-1-en-3-one, 2E,4Z,7Z-tridecatrienal, 2E,5Z-undecadienal, nonanal, 4-octanolide, 5-octanolide, phenylethanol, wine lactone or menthofurolactone, and (ii) at least one flavoring agent and/or fragrance that provide a negative sensory impression, containing 1-5C alcohols, preferably methanol, ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, butanol, 2-methylbutanol, 3-methylbutanol, diacetyl, acetaldehyde, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, phenol, acetoin, dimethyl sulfide, methyl mercaptan, lactic acid or acetic acid, (b) providing one or at least two food grade solvent, (c) adding the solvent of step (b) to the solution of step (a), where the resulting solvent proportion is adjusted such that the flavoring agent and/or fragrance of (i), respectively exhibits a partition coefficient (log Pow *>) value of >= 1.2, which is calculated as (log Pow *>= log Pow-x *>P'(x)/log Pow), where log Pow is the common logarithm of the partition coefficients of the flavoring agent and/or fragrance, between octanol to water, x is the resulting solvent proportion, based on the total volume proportion, which is normalized to 1, and P'(x) is the polarity-parameter for the corresponding solvent in the resulting solvent proportion x, (d) providing an adsorbent material in a suitable device, (e) passing the solution of step (c) through a device having adsorbent material of step (d) such that predominantly the flavoring agent and/or fragrance that provide positive sensory impression is adsorbed on the absorbent material, (f) providing one or at least two food grade solvent, and (g) desorbing the flavoring agent and/or fragrance from the adsorbent material of step (e) with the solvent of step (f), such that in the resulting flavor concentrate, the flavoring agent and/or fragrance of (i) is enriched by a factor of at least >= 1.5 compared to the flavoring agent and/or fragrance of (ii), in the aqueous flavor of step (a) or (a1) comprising (a) where the solvent portion is 0-less than 1 vol.%, based on the total volume of the aqueous solution, (d), (c1) passing the solution of step (a) through the device having adsorbent material of step (b) such that both the flavoring agent and/or fragrance (i) and the flavoring agent and/or fragrance (ii) are adsorbed at the absorbent ma

REIS INGO; ERFURT HARRY; OTT FRANK; KINDEL GUENTER; GABRIEL BERND

64

Food aroma affects bite size  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males), aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

de Wijk René A; Polet Ilse A; Boek Wilbert; Coenraad Saskia; Bult Johannes HF

2012-01-01

65

Grape contribution to wine aroma: production of hexyl acetate, octyl acetate, and benzyl acetate during yeast fermentation is dependent upon precursors in the must.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wine is a complex consumer product produced predominately by the action of yeast upon grape juice musts. Model must systems have proven ideal for studies of the effects of fermentation conditions on the production of certain wine volatiles. To identify grape-derived precursors to acetate esters, model fermentation systems were developed by spiking precursors into model must at different concentrations. Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatgraphy mass spectrometry analysis of the fermented wines showed that a variety of grape-derived aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes are precursors to acetate esters. The C6 compounds hexan-1-ol, hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, and (E)-2-hexenal are all precursors to hexyl acetate, and octanol and benzyl alcohol are precursors to octyl acetate and benzyl acetate, respectively. In these cases, the postfermentation concentration of an acetate ester increased proportionally with the prefermentation concentration of the respective precursor in the model must. Determining viticultural or winemaking methods to alter the prefermentation concentration of precursor compounds or change the precursor-to-acetate ester ratio will have implications upon the final flavor and aroma of wines.

Dennis EG; Keyzers RA; Kalua CM; Maffei SM; Nicholson EL; Boss PK

2012-03-01

66

Grape contribution to wine aroma: production of hexyl acetate, octyl acetate, and benzyl acetate during yeast fermentation is dependent upon precursors in the must.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wine is a complex consumer product produced predominately by the action of yeast upon grape juice musts. Model must systems have proven ideal for studies of the effects of fermentation conditions on the production of certain wine volatiles. To identify grape-derived precursors to acetate esters, model fermentation systems were developed by spiking precursors into model must at different concentrations. Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatgraphy mass spectrometry analysis of the fermented wines showed that a variety of grape-derived aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes are precursors to acetate esters. The C6 compounds hexan-1-ol, hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, and (E)-2-hexenal are all precursors to hexyl acetate, and octanol and benzyl alcohol are precursors to octyl acetate and benzyl acetate, respectively. In these cases, the postfermentation concentration of an acetate ester increased proportionally with the prefermentation concentration of the respective precursor in the model must. Determining viticultural or winemaking methods to alter the prefermentation concentration of precursor compounds or change the precursor-to-acetate ester ratio will have implications upon the final flavor and aroma of wines. PMID:22332880

Dennis, Eric G; Keyzers, Robert A; Kalua, Curtis M; Maffei, Suzanne M; Nicholson, Emily L; Boss, Paul K

2012-02-29

67

Sensory and instrumental evaluation of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) aroma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study investigates the composition of volatile constituents and sensory characteristics of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) grown in Lithuania. Hydrodistillation, simultaneous distillation-solvent extraction, static headspace, and solid phase microextraction methods were used for the isolation of aroma volatiles. Geranyl acetate, citronellyl acetate, citronellol, and geraniol were the major constituents in catnip. Differences in the quantitative compositions of volatile compounds isolated by the different techniques were considerable. A sensory panel performed sensory analysis of the ground herb, pure essential oil, and extract; aroma profiles of the products were expressed graphically, and some effects of odor qualities of individual compounds present in catnip on the overall aroma of this herb were observed.

Baranauskiene R; Venskutonis RP; Demyttenaere JC

2003-06-01

68

Aroma exposure time and aroma concentration in relation to satiation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study investigated the effect of aroma exposure time and aroma concentration on ad libitum intake and subjective satiation. In a within-subject study, thirty-eight unrestrained, healthy female participants (age: 18-39 years; BMI: 18·5-26·0 kg/m2) were asked to consume tomato soup during lunchtime, until they felt comfortably full. Every 30 s, the participants consumed 10 g of a bland soup base while tomato soup aroma was delivered separately through the nose via a retronasal tube that was attached to an olfactometer. This gave the impression of consuming real tomato soup. For each sip, the aroma varied in exposure time (3 and 18 s) and concentration (5 × ), resulting in four different test conditions. Ad libitum food intake and appetite profile parameters were measured. A 9 % lower food intake was observed when the participants were exposed to the condition with 18 s exposure time and a high concentration than when exposed to the other three conditions. These results indicate that changing the retronasal aroma release by aroma concentration and aroma exposure time affects food intake.

Ramaekers MG; Luning PA; Ruijschop RM; Lakemond CM; Bult JH; Gort G; van Boekel MA

2013-08-01

69

Composition of apricot aroma: correlations between sensory and instrumental data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Volatile compounds of six apricot cultivars were isolated by vacuum distillation and separated by gas-chromatography. Eleven aromatic compounds were selected by sniffing and quantified after addition of known amounts of pure compounds. Sensory analyses were performed to rate the typicality of apricot aroma in these cultivars. Since the chemical extracts were not assessed significantly different from the raw product, statistical analyses were performed to correlate the typical sensory notes with the instrumental data. A correspondence analysis showed that cultivars could be separated into three clusters, according to their typical aroma. Hexyl acetate, gamma-octalactone and gamma-decalactone were shown to be key compounds for the apricot flavor whereas benzaldehyde could have a negative impact on the aroma of the less aromatic cultivars but would favorably complete the typical aroma of "Rouge du Roussillon."

Guichard E; Schlich P; Issanchou S

1990-06-01

70

Contribution to the characterisation of honey-based Sardinian product abbamele: Volatile aroma composition, honey marker compounds and antioxidant activity  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sardinian abbamele is a typical product obtained from the honey recuperation from combs (traditional procedure) or by concentration of the honey diluted in water (industrial procedure). Seven abbamele samples were obtained to study the volatiles' composition, the presence of honey marker compounds and their relationship with the production procedures. The long thermal treatment applied in abbamele production caused very high (1007.0-4405.8mg/kg) HMF content (HPLC-DAD), while glucose and fructose amounts were quite similar to the honey ones (HPLC-RI). Total antioxidant activity (FRAP assay) of the samples ranged between 13.3 and 71.2mmol Fe²?/kg, while antiradical activity (DPPH assay) ranged between 3.8 and 23.3mmol TEAC/kg. Such high antioxidant values were linearly correlated with total phenol amount (1297.8-4469.5mg GAE/kg) determined by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Thermally derived furan derivatives and terpenes were abundant among the headspace volatiles (HS-SPME), particularly limonene (0.5-76.0%) that probably originated from citrus rinds' addition during abbamele production. GC and GC-MS analyses of USE isolates revealed HMF predominance as well as the honey marker compounds (if/when existing) such as methyl syringate (up to 49.2%), marker of Asphodelus microcarpus honey. High isophorone percentage (up to 30.9%) determined by HS-SPME followed by minor percentage of 4-ketoisophorone and norisoprenoids in one sample indicated Arbutus unedo L. honey use in the production. HPLC-DAD analysis confirmed the presence of specific honey markers: two samples showed high methyl syringate concentrations (150.4-120.1mg/kg) while homogentisic acid and other specific markers of A. unedo honey were found in one sample. The compared GC-MS and HPLC-DAD data proved to be useful to obtain information about the use of specific honey in the production and to verify citrus addition.

Jerkovi? I; Kasum A; Marijanovi? Z; Tuberoso CIG

2011-01-01

71

Acidification of grape marc for alcoholic beverage production: effects on indigenous microflora and aroma profile after distillation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Grappa is an Italian alcoholic beverage obtained from distillation of grape marc, the raw material derived from separation of must during the winemaking process. Marc is stored for a period lasting from few days to several weeks, when fermentation of residual sugars occurs mainly by yeast activity. Many distilleries have adopted different solutions to manage this critical phase in order to avoid spoilage microorganisms: marc acidification is the most widely diffused. In this work, Prosecco grape pomace was acidified with sulphuric acid (to pH 2.9) and stored, whereas non-acidified grape marc was used as control (pH 3.9). Samples for microbiological analysis were collected at the beginning of the storage period, after 15 and 43days. At the beginning of the ensilage (time T0) the indigenous microflora was represented both by yeasts and bacteria at a concentration of about 10(6)cfu/g. During the first 15days, when the fermentation generally takes place, yeast population grew considerably (up to 10(7)cfu/g) in acidified grape marc, where bacterial population was maintained at low levels. Moreover, yeast populations recovered at the three sampling times in both treated and untreated marc were genetically characterised. This analysis showed that the species succession lead to non-Saccharomyces species dominance (in particular Issatchenkia and Pichia genera) in both conditions although acidified marc showed a lower percentage of Saccharomyces at any sampling time analysed, this meaning that non-Saccharomyces species were favoured in this environment. Gas chromatographic analysis showed a remarkable change in the aromatic profile of distilled grape marcs at the end of the storage, thus evidencing that concentration of monitored volatile compounds usually produced by microflora was generally lowered by the acidification treatment. This work demonstrates for the first time the strong effect of a persistent acidification treatment both on the microbiota of grape pomace and on the aromatic profile of the distillate. Indeed, the lowering of the pH caused significant changes in yeast-bacteria populations ratio and in yeast species turnover. These microbiological changes determine an improvement of the aromatic profile of the distillate, due to the reduction of the main volatile products associated with potential off-flavours.

Bovo B; Nardi T; Fontana F; Carlot M; Giacomini A; Corich V

2012-01-01

72

Acidification of grape marc for alcoholic beverage production: effects on indigenous microflora and aroma profile after distillation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grappa is an Italian alcoholic beverage obtained from distillation of grape marc, the raw material derived from separation of must during the winemaking process. Marc is stored for a period lasting from few days to several weeks, when fermentation of residual sugars occurs mainly by yeast activity. Many distilleries have adopted different solutions to manage this critical phase in order to avoid spoilage microorganisms: marc acidification is the most widely diffused. In this work, Prosecco grape pomace was acidified with sulphuric acid (to pH 2.9) and stored, whereas non-acidified grape marc was used as control (pH 3.9). Samples for microbiological analysis were collected at the beginning of the storage period, after 15 and 43days. At the beginning of the ensilage (time T0) the indigenous microflora was represented both by yeasts and bacteria at a concentration of about 10(6)cfu/g. During the first 15days, when the fermentation generally takes place, yeast population grew considerably (up to 10(7)cfu/g) in acidified grape marc, where bacterial population was maintained at low levels. Moreover, yeast populations recovered at the three sampling times in both treated and untreated marc were genetically characterised. This analysis showed that the species succession lead to non-Saccharomyces species dominance (in particular Issatchenkia and Pichia genera) in both conditions although acidified marc showed a lower percentage of Saccharomyces at any sampling time analysed, this meaning that non-Saccharomyces species were favoured in this environment. Gas chromatographic analysis showed a remarkable change in the aromatic profile of distilled grape marcs at the end of the storage, thus evidencing that concentration of monitored volatile compounds usually produced by microflora was generally lowered by the acidification treatment. This work demonstrates for the first time the strong effect of a persistent acidification treatment both on the microbiota of grape pomace and on the aromatic profile of the distillate. Indeed, the lowering of the pH caused significant changes in yeast-bacteria populations ratio and in yeast species turnover. These microbiological changes determine an improvement of the aromatic profile of the distillate, due to the reduction of the main volatile products associated with potential off-flavours. PMID:22056624

Bovo, Barbara; Nardi, Tiziana; Fontana, Federico; Carlot, Milena; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana

2011-10-19

73

Biosynthesis of strawberry aroma compounds through amino acid metabolism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The fate of amino acids in relation to aroma biogenesis was studied in strawberries using the in vitro growth approach. This fruit presented differences in the level of metabolization for different amino acids. Incubations of strawberries with L-isoleucine gave rise to an increase of fourteen compounds in this fruit aroma, either not detected previously or constituents of strawberry aroma. However, L-valine incubations did not provide a significant change in this fruit aroma. Strawberry feeding with L-isoleucine resulted in a 7-fold increase in the sum of 2-methylbutanoate esters, and a double production of 2-methylbutyl esters compared to those of control fruits. Around 94% of the ester increase corresponded to 2-methylbutanoates, with ethyl 2-methylbutanoate being the most representative compound (92%). On the other hand, among the 2-methylbutyl esters, comprising around 6% of total aroma volatiles increase, 2-methylbutyl acetate was the major compound (95%) arising from L-isoleucine strawberry feeding. The role of enzymatic activities within the amino acid metabolic pathway in strawberry fruits is discussed.

Pérez AG; Olías R; Luaces P; Sanz C

2002-07-01

74

Sensory and instrumental evaluation of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigates the composition of volatile constituents and sensory characteristics of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) grown in Lithuania. Hydrodistillation, simultaneous distillation-solvent extraction, static headspace, and solid phase microextraction methods were used for the isolation of aroma volatiles. Geranyl acetate, citronellyl acetate, citronellol, and geraniol were the major constituents in catnip. Differences in the quantitative compositions of volatile compounds isolated by the different techniques were considerable. A sensory panel performed sensory analysis of the ground herb, pure essential oil, and extract; aroma profiles of the products were expressed graphically, and some effects of odor qualities of individual compounds present in catnip on the overall aroma of this herb were observed. PMID:12797753

Baranauskiene, Renata; Venskutonis, Rimantas P; Demyttenaere, Jan C R

2003-06-18

75

Determination of Favorite Wine from Comparison of Wine Aroma Attributes  

Science.gov (United States)

The decision to choose the appropriate product matching the preference of each individual is based on the psychological impression of the adjective and the alternatives. The preference for a product group and physical condition also affect decision-making. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of differences in the preference of wine and changes in hunger level on the psychological and neuro-physiological aspects of decision-making where the subjects were asked to choose their most favorite wine after sniffing the aroma of several wines. The psychological aspects of decision-making while sniffing five different kinds of wine were evaluated by the analytical hierarchal process (AHP) method, while the neuro-physiological aspects were evaluated by measuring the level of oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations (O2Hb) in the process of smelling the wine aromas within three minutes compared to when the non-odor and alcoholic solutions were presented. AHP analysis showed that the adjective “Favorite” was given the highest importance and a white wine with a sweet aroma was the most favored wine, regardless of the wine preference. The normalized mean O2Hb levels in each minute showed that, in the case of the wine lovers, the time course of the O2Hb level, decreased when they sensed the wine aroma compared to when they sensed non-odor solutions, and, in non-wine lovers, the O2Hb levels remained at higher values compared to the smell of the non-odor solution when they sensed the aroma of the alcoholic solution. The results indicate that there are differences with regard to decision-making between the psychological and physiological aspects when people are made to choose their most favorite wine by sniffing wine aromas.

Koike, Takayuki; Kamimura, Hironobu; Shimada, Kouji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kaneki, Noriaki

76

Effect of drying conditions on drying kinetics and quality of aromatic Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pandanus amaryllifolius is a plant with aromatic leaves, which impart the characteristic flavour of aromatic rice. The quality of aromatic Pandanus leaves dried at low temperature (35 °C) and low RH (27%) in a heat pump dryer was evaluated and compared with those obtained from hot air drying at 45 °C. Thin-layer drying kinetics has been studied for both the conditions. To determine the kinetic parameters, the drying data were fitted to various semi-theoretical models. The goodness of fit was determined using the coefficient of determination, reduced chi square, and root mean square error. Aroma, colour, and overall acceptability determination of fresh and dried leaves were made using sensory evaluation. Drying of leaves took place mainly under the falling-rate period. The Page equation was found to be best among the proposed models to describe the thin-layer drying of Pandanus leaves with higher coefficient of determination. The effective moisture diffusivity values were also determined. The effect of low RH was prominent during the initial drying when the product was moist. The effect of temperature was prominent in the later part of drying, which acted as a driving force for moisture diffusion and hence the total drying time was reduced. Retention of aromatic compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline content was more in low temperature dried samples with higher sensory scores. PMID:23572703

Rayaguru, Kalpana; Routray, Winny

2010-11-24

77

Effect of drying conditions on drying kinetics and quality of aromatic Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pandanus amaryllifolius is a plant with aromatic leaves, which impart the characteristic flavour of aromatic rice. The quality of aromatic Pandanus leaves dried at low temperature (35 °C) and low RH (27%) in a heat pump dryer was evaluated and compared with those obtained from hot air drying at 45 °C. Thin-layer drying kinetics has been studied for both the conditions. To determine the kinetic parameters, the drying data were fitted to various semi-theoretical models. The goodness of fit was determined using the coefficient of determination, reduced chi square, and root mean square error. Aroma, colour, and overall acceptability determination of fresh and dried leaves were made using sensory evaluation. Drying of leaves took place mainly under the falling-rate period. The Page equation was found to be best among the proposed models to describe the thin-layer drying of Pandanus leaves with higher coefficient of determination. The effective moisture diffusivity values were also determined. The effect of low RH was prominent during the initial drying when the product was moist. The effect of temperature was prominent in the later part of drying, which acted as a driving force for moisture diffusion and hence the total drying time was reduced. Retention of aromatic compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline content was more in low temperature dried samples with higher sensory scores.

Rayaguru K; Routray W

2010-12-01

78

Characterization of the aroma-active compounds in Daqu: a tradition Chinese liquor starter  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Daqu is a fermentation starter and substrate complex that is used to initiate the solid fermentations for the production of Chinese liquor. The aroma of Daqu is one of the most important factors that influence the flavor of Chinese liquor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potent aroma-active compounds in Daqu. Odorants of Daqu extracted by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) were investigated by gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC–O) system with two olfactometric methods: detection frequency (DF) method and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). A total of 43 compounds were identified in Daqu. Thirty-eight aroma-active components were further detected among which 33 were identified. Among these compounds, 4 odorants seem to contribute actively to the aroma of Daqu: hexanal (green grass), unknown (no.u2, nutty, roasted), phenylacetaldehyde (floral, rose) and 4-ethyl guaiacol (clove, spicy).

Zhang Chunlin; Ao Zonghua; Chui WeiQiang; Shen Caihong; Tao Wenyi; Zhang Suyi

2012-01-01

79

Aroma therapy and medfly SIT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A summary of the main findings of the research program on the biological competence of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (med fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and the development and implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest is presented. The potential application of aroma therapy to improve the mating success of sterile med fly males is studied. The report assumes a loosely chronological framework as it documents progression along two experimental scales: the number of males simultaneously exposed to ginger root oil, starting with small groups of 25 males and ending with rooms with nearly 200 million males; the experimental arena used to test the effects of aroma therapy, progressing from standard field-cages to large field enclosures to the open field. In addition, brief comments are offered regarding the potential negative effects of GRO exposure, the mechanisms underlying GRO-mediated improvement in male mating success, and the financial costs of GRO aroma therapy. (MAC)

Shelly, Todd E., E-mail: todd.e.shelly@aphis.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-APHIS), HI (United States). Animal and Plant Health Inspection

2006-07-01

80

Black truffle aroma  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. Process for manufacturing an aromatic product with the scent and taste of black truffle ("tuber melanosporum"), characterised in that it consists in linking the following two basic compounds : dimethylsulphide and methyl-2-butyraldehyde.

Delmas Michel; Gaset Antoine; Montant Charles; Pebeyre Pierre-Jean; Talou Thierry

 
 
 
 
81

Effect of oxidoreduction potential on aroma biosynthesis by lactic acid bacteria in nonfat yogurt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oxidoreduction potential (Eh) on the biosynthesis of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria in non-fat yogurt. The study was done with yogurts fermented by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The Eh was modified by the application of different gaseous conditions (air, nitrogen, and nitrogen/hydrogen). Acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulfide, diacetyl, and pentane-2,3-dione, as the major endogenous odorant compounds of yogurt, were chosen as tracers for the biosynthesis of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria. Oxidative conditions favored the production of acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulfide, and diketones (diacetyl and pentane-2,3-dione). The Eh of the medium influences aroma production in yogurt by modifying the metabolic pathways of Lb. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus. The use of Eh as a control parameter during yogurt production could permit the control of aroma formation.

Martin F; Cachon R; Pernin K; De Coninck J; Gervais P; Guichard E; Cayot N

2011-02-01

82

Generation of aroma compounds from Ditaxis heterantha by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ditaxis heterantha, a plant of the Euphorbiaceae family, is growing wild in the semiarid regions of Mexico. The seed endosperm contains yellow pigments (carotenoids). By high-pressure liquid chromatography the total pigment (TP) was separated into seven fractions: two of them, heterathin (F4) and ditaxin (F5), characterized as apocarotenoids, represent 80% of TP. Both molecules have double bonds, which seem to be the target for degradation and aroma formation. In this work, TP, F4, and F5 were supplied to nine cultures able to degrade lutein. From these strains, only one (identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was able to produce aromas from either TP or F4. Using TP as substrate, the produced aromas were 4-oxo-isophorone (1), isophorone (2), cinnamic aldehyde (6), 3-hydroxy-beta-cyclocitral (7), safranal (8), geranyl (9), 3-oxo-alpha-ionone (10), 3-oxo-alpha-ionol (11), 3-oxo-7,8-dihydro-alpha-ionone (12), and eugenol (13). Of these aromas, only seven were produced from F4: (1), (2), (7), (8), (10), (11), and (12). In both cases, safranal was the main degradation product (30%). The enzymatic activity responsible for this effect was found in the cytosolic fraction and detected only when S. cerevisiae was grown in the presence of TP or F4.

Del Toro-Sánchez L; Sánchez S; Ortiz MA; Villanueva S; Lugo-Cervantes E

2006-08-01

83

Generation of aroma compounds from Ditaxis heterantha by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ditaxis heterantha, a plant of the Euphorbiaceae family, is growing wild in the semiarid regions of Mexico. The seed endosperm contains yellow pigments (carotenoids). By high-pressure liquid chromatography the total pigment (TP) was separated into seven fractions: two of them, heterathin (F4) and ditaxin (F5), characterized as apocarotenoids, represent 80% of TP. Both molecules have double bonds, which seem to be the target for degradation and aroma formation. In this work, TP, F4, and F5 were supplied to nine cultures able to degrade lutein. From these strains, only one (identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was able to produce aromas from either TP or F4. Using TP as substrate, the produced aromas were 4-oxo-isophorone (1), isophorone (2), cinnamic aldehyde (6), 3-hydroxy-beta-cyclocitral (7), safranal (8), geranyl (9), 3-oxo-alpha-ionone (10), 3-oxo-alpha-ionol (11), 3-oxo-7,8-dihydro-alpha-ionone (12), and eugenol (13). Of these aromas, only seven were produced from F4: (1), (2), (7), (8), (10), (11), and (12). In both cases, safranal was the main degradation product (30%). The enzymatic activity responsible for this effect was found in the cytosolic fraction and detected only when S. cerevisiae was grown in the presence of TP or F4. PMID:16547703

Del Toro-Sánchez, L; Sánchez, S; Ortiz, M A; Villanueva, S; Lugo-Cervantes, E

2006-03-18

84

Taste and aroma of fresh and stored mandarins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the last decade there has been a continuous rise in consumption of fresh easy-to-peel mandarins. However, mandarins are much more perishable than other citrus fruit, mainly due to rapid deterioration in sensory acceptability after harvest. In the current review we discuss the biochemical components involved in forming the unique flavor of mandarins, and how postharvest storage operations influence taste and aroma and consequently consumer sensory acceptability. What we perceive as mandarin flavor is actually the combination of basic taste, aroma and mouth-feel. The taste of mandarins is principally governed by the levels of sugars and acids in the juice sacs and the relative ratios among them, whereas the aroma of mandarins is derived from a mixture of different aroma volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, terpenes/hydrocarbons and esters. During postharvest storage and marketing there is a gradual decrease in mandarin sensory acceptability, which has been attributed to decreases in acidity and typical mandarin flavor, paralleling an accumulation of off-flavor. Biochemical analysis of volatile and non-volatile constituents in mandarin juice demonstrated that these changes in sensory acceptability were concomitant with decreases in acidity and content of terpenes and aldehydes, which provide green, piney and citrus aroma on the one hand, and increases in ethanol fermentation metabolism products and esters on the other, which are likely to cause 'overripe' and off-flavors. Overall, we demonstrate the vast importance of the genetic background, maturity stage at harvest, commercial postharvest operation treatments, including curing, degreening and waxing, and storage duration on mandarin sensory quality.

Tietel Z; Plotto A; Fallik E; Lewinsohn E; Porat R

2011-01-01

85

A comparative analysis of the influence of human salivary enzymes on odorant concentration in three palm wines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines' odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA) and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs), respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD) factor range of 4-256, and all were subsequently identified. Of the 46 odorants, 41 were identified in the Elaeis guineensis wine, 36 in Raphia hookeri wine and 29 in Borassus flabellifer wine. Among the odorants, the highest FD-factors were obtained from acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Among the 13 potent odorants identified, five aroma compounds are reported here as important contributors to palm wine aroma, namely 3-isobutyl-2-methoxy-pyrazine, acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methylbutylacetate and ethyl hexanoate. Meanwhile, salivary enzymic degradation of odorants was more pronounced among the aldehydes, esters and thiols.

Lasekan O

2013-01-01

86

Gas chromatographic-olfactometric characterization of aroma compounds in two types of cashew apple nectar.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cashew apple nectar is a secondary product from the production of cashew nuts and possesses an exotic tropical aroma. Aroma volatiles in pasteurized and reconstituted (from concentrate) Brazilian cashew apple nectars were determined using GC-MS and split, time-intensity GC-olfactometry (GC-O)/GC-FID. Methional, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, (Z)-2-nonenal, (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, beta-damascenone, and delta-decalactone were identified for the first time in cashew apple products. These compounds plus butyric acid, ethyl 3-methylbutyrate, 2-methylbutyric acid, acetic acid, benzaldehyde, homofuraneol, (E)-2-nonenal, gamma-dodecalactone, and an unknown were the most intense aroma volatiles. Thirty-six aroma volatiles were detected in the reconstituted sample and 41 in the pasteurized sample. Thirty-four aroma active components were common to both samples. Ethyl 3-methylbutyrate and 2-methylbutyric acid were character impact compounds of cashew apple (warm, fruity, tropical, sweaty). Using GC-pFPD, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl) disulfide were identified for the first time in cashew apple. Both were aroma active (meaty).

Valim MF; Rouseff RL; Lin J

2003-02-01

87

Gas chromatographic-olfactometric characterization of aroma compounds in two types of cashew apple nectar.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cashew apple nectar is a secondary product from the production of cashew nuts and possesses an exotic tropical aroma. Aroma volatiles in pasteurized and reconstituted (from concentrate) Brazilian cashew apple nectars were determined using GC-MS and split, time-intensity GC-olfactometry (GC-O)/GC-FID. Methional, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, (Z)-2-nonenal, (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, beta-damascenone, and delta-decalactone were identified for the first time in cashew apple products. These compounds plus butyric acid, ethyl 3-methylbutyrate, 2-methylbutyric acid, acetic acid, benzaldehyde, homofuraneol, (E)-2-nonenal, gamma-dodecalactone, and an unknown were the most intense aroma volatiles. Thirty-six aroma volatiles were detected in the reconstituted sample and 41 in the pasteurized sample. Thirty-four aroma active components were common to both samples. Ethyl 3-methylbutyrate and 2-methylbutyric acid were character impact compounds of cashew apple (warm, fruity, tropical, sweaty). Using GC-pFPD, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl) disulfide were identified for the first time in cashew apple. Both were aroma active (meaty). PMID:12568564

Valim, M Filomena; Rouseff, Russell L; Lin, Jianming

2003-02-12

88

Evaluation of the aroma descriptors variability in Spanish grape cultivars by a quantitative descriptive analysis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aroma descriptors variability was evaluated by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) in Spanish cultivars. Abariño, Mencía and Godello cultivars were evaluated by three expert panels by using monovarietal wines. The frequency and intensity of aroma descriptors was evaluated and geometric mean (GM) was calculated. The largest differences between cultivars were shown by principal component analysis (PCA). Albariño cultivar was characterised by Ripe fruit, Apple and Fruit descriptors; Mencía cultivar was Balsamic and Red fruit, while Citric, Grass, Pineapple, Toasting, Tropical, Dry grass, Pear, Melon and Floral were the attributes of the Godello cultivar. According to GM obtained of aroma attributes from, a positive correlation was found between Albariño and Godello cultivars. The QDA and PCA have contributing to define the aroma of different Spanish grape cultivars (Albariño, Mencía and Godello) by analysis of the monovarietal wines. The results obtained suggest that QDA is a good tool to evaluate the sensory variability of a product, when the tasting panel is good trained.

Vilanova Mar; Masa Antón; Tardaguila Javier

2009-01-01

89

Changes in the aroma of a strawberry drink during storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The flavor of a commercially available strawberry drink was investigated with special regard to the changes of the sensory properties during the shelf life of the product. The experiments were performed using gas chromatographic methods after liquid-liquid extraction and after solid-phase microextraction of the headspace. A trained sensory test panel was used to substantiate the results from instrumental analyses. The relative concentrations of several compounds were followed over a storage period of six weeks at elevated temperature (37 degrees C), which corresponds to about 12 months storage at room temperature. Significant concentration changes of several flavor compounds were determined after a short storage time. These results correlate highly with changes in the aroma observed by the sensory test panel. Further on, changes in the sensorial relevance of aroma active compounds were monitored by comparative aroma extract dilution analysis of extracts of the fresh product and the product at the end of the declared shelf-life time. The results showed a significant decrease in flavor dilution factors of compounds with characteristic fruity attributes. PMID:11453758

Siegmund, B; Derler, K; Pfannhauser, W

2001-07-01

90

Changes in the aroma of a strawberry drink during storage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The flavor of a commercially available strawberry drink was investigated with special regard to the changes of the sensory properties during the shelf life of the product. The experiments were performed using gas chromatographic methods after liquid-liquid extraction and after solid-phase microextraction of the headspace. A trained sensory test panel was used to substantiate the results from instrumental analyses. The relative concentrations of several compounds were followed over a storage period of six weeks at elevated temperature (37 degrees C), which corresponds to about 12 months storage at room temperature. Significant concentration changes of several flavor compounds were determined after a short storage time. These results correlate highly with changes in the aroma observed by the sensory test panel. Further on, changes in the sensorial relevance of aroma active compounds were monitored by comparative aroma extract dilution analysis of extracts of the fresh product and the product at the end of the declared shelf-life time. The results showed a significant decrease in flavor dilution factors of compounds with characteristic fruity attributes.

Siegmund B; Derler K; Pfannhauser W

2001-07-01

91

Method for producing aroma type customized wine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a method for producing an aroma type customized wine comprising the following steps: choosing an organic south Sichuan sticky red sorghum as raw grain, fermenting the organic raw at solid state in a aged pit pool, sectional picking up wine according to the quality, storing the wine in a cave hangar ceramic cylinder, adding a flavoring liquor for storing more than ten years to the base wine and blending, guaranteeing high quality feature of the produced base wine. The control of the production process and the output of the base wine guarantees the precious rare property of the base wine. The choice of the raw grain, the pit pool, the brewing person, the brewing season, the different distillation fraction raw wine, the customized raw wine cave storage time and year flavoring liquor blending guarantees the personalized production. The invention firstly creates the production process of super high level customized wine in China, innovates luxury wine marketing novel mode, enable China wine deep connotation to convert to measurable top wine value rational scale and make Chine wine not only a consumption product, but also a culture sign and carrier, and better inherit centuries-old substance and culture connotation of Chine wine.

LIANG ZHANG; CAIHONG SHEN; XIUYI ZHANG; DEFU XU; QIANG WANG; BIN YI; ZONGHUA AO; LIANGYANG SHUI; JINSONG ZHAO

92

PENGEMBANGAN AROMA DAN CITA RASA BAKSO DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN FLAVOR [Development of Aroma and Taste of Meat Ball Using Flavor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bakso is one of the most popular meat product in Indonesia. This research studied of effect of addition of falvor to the quality of meat ball. The analysis included physical characteristics (specific gravity, hardness, shear, elasticity and color organoleptic test). The results showed that : according to consumer preference, the most like flavour that added in the meat ball were the flavour of beef Q. 1.%, beef Q 1.5%, Beef WIN 1.5% and beef Fat WIN 1.0%. the use of flavor did not cause differences in physical characteristics like specific gravity, hardness, shear, alasticity and color a-value. The use flavour in creased the price of bakso between Rp 4.5,- to Rp 18,-. According to comparison test, meat ball with beef Q 1.5% has the best score compared with Bakso Lapang Tembak (BLT) in aroma, and with Bakso Pedagang Keliling (BPK) has the best score in aroma, test and texture.

Joko Hermianto 1); Aulia 2)

2001-01-01

93

Impact of swallowing on the dynamics of aroma release and perception during the consumption of alcoholic beverages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The consumption protocol used during alcoholic beverage tasting may affect aroma perception. We used an integrated approach combining sensory analysis and physicochemistry to investigate the impact of swallowing on aroma release and perception. A panel of 10 persons evaluated the dynamics of aroma perception during the consumption of a commercial flavored vodka, using the method of temporal dominance of sensations. Two protocols (spitting out or swallowing of the product) were tested. Nosespace analysis was simultaneously carried out by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry to evaluate aroma release in the nasal cavity. Comparison of the results obtained with the 2 protocols highlighted significant differences in both the perception and the release of aroma: the swallowing of the product resulted in more complex perceptions but decreased the dominance rates of aromatic attributes. Ethanol perception also had an impact when the product was swallowed. Aroma release data partly accounted for the differences in perception, particularly as concerned ethanol release. The time at which dominance appears as well as the dominance duration of some attributes can be related to some temporal parameters of release data. But the lack of knowledge concerning the variety and complexity of mechanisms continues to limit our understanding of relationship between aroma release and perception.

Déléris I; Saint-Eve A; Guo Y; Lieben P; Cypriani ML; Jacquet N; Brunerie P; Souchon I

2011-10-01

94

Impact of swallowing on the dynamics of aroma release and perception during the consumption of alcoholic beverages.  

Science.gov (United States)

The consumption protocol used during alcoholic beverage tasting may affect aroma perception. We used an integrated approach combining sensory analysis and physicochemistry to investigate the impact of swallowing on aroma release and perception. A panel of 10 persons evaluated the dynamics of aroma perception during the consumption of a commercial flavored vodka, using the method of temporal dominance of sensations. Two protocols (spitting out or swallowing of the product) were tested. Nosespace analysis was simultaneously carried out by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry to evaluate aroma release in the nasal cavity. Comparison of the results obtained with the 2 protocols highlighted significant differences in both the perception and the release of aroma: the swallowing of the product resulted in more complex perceptions but decreased the dominance rates of aromatic attributes. Ethanol perception also had an impact when the product was swallowed. Aroma release data partly accounted for the differences in perception, particularly as concerned ethanol release. The time at which dominance appears as well as the dominance duration of some attributes can be related to some temporal parameters of release data. But the lack of knowledge concerning the variety and complexity of mechanisms continues to limit our understanding of relationship between aroma release and perception. PMID:21622600

Déléris, Isabelle; Saint-Eve, Anne; Guo, Yilin; Lieben, Pascale; Cypriani, Marie-Louise; Jacquet, Nathalie; Brunerie, Pascal; Souchon, Isabelle

2011-05-27

95

The difference in the aroma of flue-cured tobacco between Yunnan and Zimbabwe  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to realize the difference in the aroma of flue-cured tobacco between Yunnan and Zimbabwe, guide for the study and production of partial substitution for import flue-cured tobacco in Yunnan, and improve of tobacco quality, the test was in progress. The content of polyphenols, petrol ether extract, polytomie acid and higher fatty acid, and the volatile aroma of flue-cured tobacco in Yunnan partial substitution for import plant areas of China was determined by eolorimetry, classical soxhlet extraction, sulfate methylization, GC-MS combined with simultaneous distillation and solvent extraction, respectively. And these results were analyzed and compared with that of Zimbabwe systematically. Results showed that the content of petrol ether extract and degradation aromatic products from aromatic amino acid of the leaves at different stalk positions was more than that of Zimbabwe; but the content of polyphenols and higher fatty acid was lower than that of Zimbabwe. The content of eembranoid aroma in the upper leaves of Yunnan was more than that of Zimbabwe; but the content of polytomie acid, degradation aromatic products from earotenoids and Maillard reaction products was lower than that of Zimbabwe. The content of polytomie acid, degradation aromatic products from earotenoids and Maillard reaction products in the central and lower leaves of Yunnan was more than that of Zimbabwe; but the content of cembranoid aroma was lower than that of Zimbabwe. Devious difference of aroma of flue-cured tobacco between Yunnan and Zimbabwe exist in upper leaves, in particular the volatile aroma such as megastigmatrienone, 5,9,13-pentadecatrien-2-one, 6,10,14-trimethyl, 3-buten-1-one, 4-[2,6,6-trimethyl-1 or 2 -cyclohexen-1-yl], 3-furanmethanol, furfural, 2 4H-benzofuranone, and 5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,4,Tatrimethyl, the nonvolatile aroma such as citric and oleic acid. There was significant in the aroma of flue-cured tobacco between Yunnan and Zimbabwe, and the contene of aroma of upper leaves in Yunnna was less than that of Zimbabwe.

Shao Yan; Fang Dunhuang; Deng Jianhua; Song Chunman; Zhou Qingming

96

Bait for fishing aroma fish  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a bait for fishing an aroma fish, comprising sweet corn protein powder, strawberry protein powder, sweet potato protein powder, soybean protein powder, apple protein powder, red date powder, banana powder, watermelon seed powder, sesame powder, milk powder, vegetable protein powder, musk powder, sweet pea stalk powder, wallflower stalk powder, clamworm powder, fish-using drawing powder, a fish-using eating accelerant, a fish-using hungry accelerant, a fish-using food attractant, a fish-using hormone exhilarant and corn bulking powder. The preparation method comprises the following steps that: all the powder agents are taken to be combined together in proportion, the mixture is placed into a stirrer to be stirred for 100 minutes and is placed into a dryer after being taken out, the temperature of the dryer is controlled between 50 DEG C-60 DEG C, the baking time is 80 minutes, and the dryness of the dried material is controlled to be 75%-85% and the dried material is placed into the stirrer again to be stirred for 60 minutes after being taken out and cooled and is placed into a bulking machine to be bulked after being taken out, the temperature of the bulking machine is controlled between 60 DEG C-75 DEG C, the bulking time is controlled to be 60 minutes, the dryness of the bulked material is controlled to be 80%-90%, and the bulked material can be packaged after being taken out and cooled.

KEHUA YIN

97

Effect of the operating variables on the extraction and recovery of aroma compounds in an osmotic distillation process coupled to a vacuum membrane distillation system  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The coupled operation of osmotic distillation (OD) and vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) for concentration of fruit juices and simultaneous recovery of their aroma compounds was studied. The simulated aqueous fruit juices containing four common aroma compounds were concentrated using osmotic distillation where the feed solution was in contact with a brine solution of CaCl2, through a hydrophobic macroporous membrane contactor. Aroma compounds absorbed in the extraction brine were extracted using a membrane evaporator under vacuum and collected into a cold trap. This way, both concentration and aroma recovery of fruit juices were achieved simultaneously using two hollow fiber membrane modules. The transfer of the aroma compounds was evaluated by using different operating variables such as hydrodynamic conditions, brine concentration and vacuum pressure. The experiments show that the loss of aroma compounds during the concentration processes can be avoided by means of extraction of the aroma compounds from the brine separately, resulting in an average of 75% recovery in aroma compounds. In general, the process of aroma removal and recovery is faster than the concentration process of the fruit juices by osmotic distillation at a technical and commercial level (higher than 45°Brix). Thus, the simultaneous operation of these two membrane processes can be used to decrease the energy requirements for a given production capacity.

Hasano?lu A; Rebolledo F; Plaza A; Torres A; Romero J

2012-08-01

98

Extraction of natural aromas from truffles into edible oil or vinegar in high yield, involves using ultrasonic activation of fresh truffle fragments during extraction  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The extraction of natural aromas from truffles is carried using ultrasonic activation of fresh truffle fragments placed in edible oil or vinegar. An Independent claim is included for food products obtained by dilution of the obtained aroma extracts with oil at a dilution factor of 0-10 or with vinegar at a dilution factor of 0-20.

TALOU THIERRY; DOUMENC FAURE MAGALI; GASET ANTOINE

99

Evaluation of multiwavelength culture fluorescence for monitoring the aroma compound 4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF) production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorescence spectra of a 4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF) fermentation culture broth were combined with measurable process variables for off-line and on-line process monitoring. Culture broth fluorescence in UV and visible ranges was acquired by a fiber optic LCD array spectrometer. Process dynamics was followed on-line using a fiber optic probe attached to an external recirculation loop of the bioreactor. Partial least squares and stepwise regression methods were used to correlate measurable process parameters with the components of the fluorescence spectra. Both methods provided adequate approximation of yeast density, HEMF, glucose, and ethanol concentrations from fluorescence spectra. HEMF production was observed during the oxido-reductive growth phase when there was a lack of measurable oxygen in the culture broth and an excess of glucose. The addition of glucose resulted in the rapid production of HEMF and other metabolite intermediates such as ethanol, acetate, and glycerol. PMID:14763864

Hagedorn, A; Levadoux, W; Groleau, D; Tartakovsky, B

100

Evaluation of multiwavelength culture fluorescence for monitoring the aroma compound 4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF) production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fluorescence spectra of a 4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF) fermentation culture broth were combined with measurable process variables for off-line and on-line process monitoring. Culture broth fluorescence in UV and visible ranges was acquired by a fiber optic LCD array spectrometer. Process dynamics was followed on-line using a fiber optic probe attached to an external recirculation loop of the bioreactor. Partial least squares and stepwise regression methods were used to correlate measurable process parameters with the components of the fluorescence spectra. Both methods provided adequate approximation of yeast density, HEMF, glucose, and ethanol concentrations from fluorescence spectra. HEMF production was observed during the oxido-reductive growth phase when there was a lack of measurable oxygen in the culture broth and an excess of glucose. The addition of glucose resulted in the rapid production of HEMF and other metabolite intermediates such as ethanol, acetate, and glycerol.

Hagedorn A; Levadoux W; Groleau D; Tartakovsky B

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

INFANT FORMULA CONTAINING AN AROMA COMPOSITION FOR USE AS FRAGRANCE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a nutraceutical composition such as infant formula or infant food comprising a) a defined aroma composition b) a methodology for developing, maintaining certain aroma constituents in the infant formula and an aroma or fragrance composition to be used to increase the acceptance of a person or an object by the baby or new born.

BUETTNER ANDREA

102

Application of an Electronic Aroma Sensing System to Cork Stopper Quality Control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cork odors were characterized using an electronic aroma sensing system. The electronic system is a compact, benchtop instrument comprising a sensor array, signal processing hardware, a measurement algorithm, and a pattern classification system. The sensor array responds to the presence of aroma volatile compounds by changes in their electrical properties. Resistance changes are displayed as a histogram, which is a fingerprint of the aroma being analyzed. Five different cork odors were studied: NE, which is considered as standard cork odor; CO, exhibiting the pleasant boiled cork odor (it is also considered as a good odor); PO, corresponding to rotten odor; and B and BO, representing moldy and very intensely moldy odors, respectively. This electronic aroma sensing system could discriminate quickly and objectively between acceptable odor and the unacceptable taint. Characterization and selection of a subset of sensors were performed. A relation between sensors and specific odors was established. The system, once trained with representative acceptable and unacceptable samples, could be used as a simple quality control tool and incorporated into the normal quality control procedures for each batch of product, by providing real-time analysis of a sample overall aroma. PMID:10554210

Rocha; Delgadillo; Ferrer Correia AJ; Barros; Wells

1998-01-19

103

Comparative quantitative analysis of headspace volatiles and their association with BADH2 marker in non-basmati scented, basmati and non-scented rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars of India.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the first time, 91 Indian rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, belonging to non-basmati scented (77), basmati (9) and non-scented (5) categories, were quantitatively analysed for 23 headspace volatiles. In addition, the BADH2 marker related to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) synthesis is validated among the cultivars representing these categories. The non-basmati scented cultivars (15) excelled in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) content compared to basmati cultivars. The major aroma volatile (2AP) correlated positively with 1-tetradecene and indole, and negatively with benzyl alcohol. On the basis of nonanal, octanal, decanal and 1-octen-3-ol contents, basmati cultivars were different from non-scented cultivars. Benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, 2-amino acetophenone, indole, 1-hexanol and nonanoic acid exhibited significant variation among rice categories under study. This study reports 16 non-basmati scented cultivars with variations in the BADH2 locus rendering a marker based on 8bp deletion in BADH2 as unsuitable for MAS in rice cultivars under study. PMID:24001856

Mathure, Sarika V; Jawali, Narendra; Thengane, Ratnakar J; Nadaf, Altafhusian B

2013-07-24

104

Comparative quantitative analysis of headspace volatiles and their association with BADH2 marker in non-basmati scented, basmati and non-scented rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars of India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For the first time, 91 Indian rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, belonging to non-basmati scented (77), basmati (9) and non-scented (5) categories, were quantitatively analysed for 23 headspace volatiles. In addition, the BADH2 marker related to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) synthesis is validated among the cultivars representing these categories. The non-basmati scented cultivars (15) excelled in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) content compared to basmati cultivars. The major aroma volatile (2AP) correlated positively with 1-tetradecene and indole, and negatively with benzyl alcohol. On the basis of nonanal, octanal, decanal and 1-octen-3-ol contents, basmati cultivars were different from non-scented cultivars. Benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, 2-amino acetophenone, indole, 1-hexanol and nonanoic acid exhibited significant variation among rice categories under study. This study reports 16 non-basmati scented cultivars with variations in the BADH2 locus rendering a marker based on 8bp deletion in BADH2 as unsuitable for MAS in rice cultivars under study.

Mathure SV; Jawali N; Thengane RJ; Nadaf AB

2014-01-01

105

Characteristic Aroma Compounds from Different Pineapple Parts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Characteristic aroma volatile compounds from different parts of cayenne pineapple were analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main volatile compounds were esters, terpenes, ketones and aldehydes. The number and content of aro...

Chang-Bin Wei; Sheng-Hui Liu; Yu-Ge Liu; Ling-Ling Lv; Wen-Xiu Yang; Guang-Ming Sun

106

Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffe...

Fisk Ian; Kettle Alec; Hofmeister Sonja; Virdie Amarjeet; Kenny Javier

107

New trends in black truffle aroma analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The volatile compounds in the atmosphere of cold stored Black Perigord Truffles (Tuber Melanosporum) were adsorbed onto a Tenax trap by means of a vacuum pump. The efficiency of the sampling method was sensorially validated. The volatiles eluted from the trap by heat desorption were analysed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 26 compounds was identified . Their contribution to the final aroma impression was discussed.

Talou T; Delmas M; Gaset A

1989-01-01

108

An integrative "omics" approach identifies new candidate genes to impact aroma volatiles in peach fruit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Ever since the recent completion of the peach genome, the focus of genetic research in this area has turned to the identification of genes related to important traits, such as fruit aroma volatiles. Of the over 100 volatile compounds described in peach, lactones most likely have the strongest effect on fruit aroma, while esters, terpenoids, and aldehydes have minor, yet significant effects. The identification of key genes underlying the production of aroma compounds is of interest for any fruit-quality improvement strategy. RESULTS: Volatile (52 compounds) and gene expression (4348 genes) levels were profiled in peach fruit from a maturity time-course series belonging to two peach genotypes that showed considerable differences in maturation characteristics and postharvest ripening. This data set was analyzed by complementary correlation-based approaches to discover the genes related to the main aroma-contributing compounds: lactones, esters, and phenolic volatiles, among others. As a case study, one of the candidate genes was cloned and expressed in yeast to show specificity as an ?-6 Oleate desaturase, which may be involved in the production of a precursor of lactones/esters. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach revealed a set of genes (an alcohol acyl transferase, fatty acid desaturases, transcription factors, protein kinases, cytochromes, etc.) that are highly associated with peach fruit volatiles, and which could prove useful in breeding or for biotechnological purposes.

Sánchez G; Venegas-Calerón M; Salas JJ; Monforte A; Badenes ML; Granell A

2013-01-01

109

Novel key aroma components of galbanum oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Galbanum oil is composed of monoterpenes in large amounts and pyrazines in small amounts. Although the monoterpenes are the main components of galbanum oil, they hardly contribute to the distinct galbanum aroma. The scanty amounts of pyrazines, in contrast, contribute significantly to the aroma. Considering the complexity and potency of the odor, the essential oil was assumed to contain so far not identified compounds with high odor contribution. By the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O) analysis of galbanum oil, fruity-green-balsamic notes were detected at two different retention times. The mass spectra (MS) of the newly discovered notes were elucidated by conducting multidimensional (MD) GC-MS-O. By analyzing the MS data, six chemical structures were proposed: (6E/Z,8E)-undeca-6,8,10-trien-2-one, (6E/Z,8E)-undeca-6,8,10-trien-3-one, and (6E/Z,8E)-undeca-6,8,10-trien-4-one. The compounds were then synthesized in an attempt to match the MS, retention indices (RI), and odor qualities. The MD-GC-MS-O analyses of the candidate compounds led to the identification of the novel key aroma compounds (6Z,8E)-undeca-6,8,10-trien-3-one and (6Z,8E)-undeca-6,8,10-trien-4-one in galbanum oil. PMID:19173603

Miyazawa, Norio; Nakanishi, Akira; Tomita, Naomi; Ohkubo, Yasutaka; Maeda, Tomoko; Fujita, Akira

2009-02-25

110

Retenção de aroma na secagem em atmosferas normal e modificada: desenvolvimento do sistema de estudo Aroma retention in drying with normal and modified atmosphere: development of a study system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Na secagem de determinados alimentos, como frutas, juntamente com a água há também a evaporação de outras substâncias voláteis presentes em quantidades menores. Por isso, torna-se interessante considerar nos estudos de secagem a evaporação, além da água, desses outros componentes voláteis. A modificação da atmosfera tem sido utilizada em armazenamento, principalmente de vegetais, mas pode também ser estendida à secagem, pois pode influenciar a perda de voláteis responsáveis pelas características sensoriais do produto final. No presente trabalho, é apresentado um sistema de secagem previamente desenvolvido, no qual a atmosfera de secagem pode ser modificada pela adição de gases ou líquidos. Desenvolveu-se um sistema-modelo a partir da composição química básica do abacaxi e da adição de outros compostos, contendo um dos principais componentes do aroma desta fruta (hexanoato de etila). Além disso, também foi desenvolvida a metodologia analítica de determinação do aroma no sistema-modelo e no abacaxi, a partir dos estudos de extração de aromas e de análise cromatográfica gasosa. O aroma presente no sistema-modelo foi extraído em hexano e os componentes voláteis do aroma do abacaxi foram extraídos em éter etílicoIn the drying of some foods such as fruits, besides water there is also the evaporation of other volatile substances present in lesser amounts. Therefore, it is interesting to consider the evaporation of volatile components other than water in drying studies. The modification of atmosphere has been used for storage only, especially for vegetables, but it can be extended to drying since it can influence the loss of volatile components responsible for the sensorial characteristics of the final product. In the present study, a drying system previously developed, in which the drying atmosphere can be modified by the addition of gases or liquids, was presented. A model-system was developed from the basic chemical composition of pineapple and the addition of other compounds containing one of the main aroma components (ethyl hexanoate). An analytical methodology for determing the aroma components present in the model-system and in the pineapple was developed from the studies of aroma extraction and gas chromatography. The aroma present in the model-system was extracted with hexane, and the volatile aroma components of the pineapple were extracted with ethylic ether

Marcilio Machado Morais; Maria Aparecida Silva

2011-01-01

111

Adsorption of two coffee aromas from synthetic aqueous solution onto granular activated carbon derived from coconut husks  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Soluble coffee production requires several processes that cause the loss and degradation of aromas, which reduces the quality of the final product. However, such aromas can be recovered into aqueous solution during the production process. Aromas must be separated from water, and pleasant compounds, such as benzaldehyde, must be separated from unpleasant compounds, such as acetic acid. In this study, the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of benzaldehyde and acetic acid adsorption from synthetic single-solute aqueous systems onto commercial grade granular activated carbon derived from coconut husks were investigated. The contact time required to attain adsorption equilibrium of benzaldehyde was 6h, while that of acetic acid was 10h. Adsorption isotherm data revealed that the adsorption of benzaldehyde and acetic acid was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Moreover, the isosteric heat of adsorption indicated that the adsorbent surface was energetically heterogeneous. The adsorption equilibrium was fitted according to Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms.

Zuim DR; Carpiné D; Distler GAR; de Paula Scheer A; Igarashi-Mafra L; Mafra MR

2011-05-01

112

Application of an electronic aroma sensing system to cork stopper quality control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cork odors were characterized using an electronic aroma sensing system. The elec tronic system is a compact, benchtop instrument comprising a sensor array, signa l processing hardware, a measurement algorithm, and a pattern classification sys tem. The sensor array responds to the presence of aroma volatile compounds by ch anges in their electrical properties. Resistance changes are displayed as a hist ogram, which is a fingerprint of the aroma being analyzed. Five different cork o dors were studied: NE, which is considered as standard cork odor; CO, exhibiting the pleasant boiled cork odor (it is also considered as a good odor); PO, corre sponding to rotten odor; and B and BO, representing moldy and very intensely mol dy odors, respectively. This electronic aroma sensing system could discriminate quickly and objectively between acceptable odor and the unacceptable taint. Char acterization and selection of a subset of sensors were performed. A relation bet ween sensors and specific odors was established. The system, once trained with r epresentative acceptable and unacceptable samples, could be used as a simple qua lity control tool and incorporated into the normal quality control procedures fo r each batch of product, by providing real-time analysis of a sample overall aro ma.

Rocha S; Ferre Correia AJ; Barros A; Wells P

1998-01-01

113

Process for imparting a coumarin-like aroma and flavor to tobacco, foods and drinks  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A coumarin-like aroma and flavor is imparted to tobacco, foods and drinks by adding the 2- and/or 3-alkyl-substituted indanone compound, such as, 3,4-dimethyl-7-methoxyindan-1-one and 2,4-dimethyl-7-ethoxyindan-1-one. Such a aroma and flavor is further imparted by adding an aromatic composition comprizing said indanone compound, heliotropin and the alkyllactone, such as gamma -hexalactone and beta , delta -dimethyl- delta -valerolactone. The favourable examples of foods and drinks in this process are oil and fat product such as margarin and shortening; dairy product such as butter, cheese and yoghurt; meat product such as ham, sausage and bacon; confectionary such as cake and candy, fermentation product such as wine and brandy; drink such as cocoa, coffee, cocacola and soft drinks.

TAKAHARA HIROYASU; MORISHITA ISAO; SHIGA MIKIO; UCHIJIMA TOSHIKATSU

114

Hot and cold water infusion aroma profiles of Hibiscus sabdariffa: fresh compared with dried.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Calyxes from the Roselle plant (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) were used to prepare cold (22 °C for 4 h) and hot (98 °C for 16 min) infusions/teas from both fresh and dried forms. Aroma volatiles were extracted using static headspace SPME and analyzed using GC-MS and GC-O with 2 different columns (DB-5 and DB-Wax). Totals of 28, 25, 17, and 16 volatiles were identified using GC-MS in the dried hot extract (DHE), dried cold extract (DCE), fresh hot extract (FHE), and fresh cold extract (FCE) samples, respectively. In terms of total GC-MS peak areas DHE ? DCE > FHE ? FCE. Nonanal, decanal, octanal, and 1-octen-3-ol were among the major volatiles in all 4 beverage types. Thirteen volatiles were common to all 4 teas. Furfural and 5-methyl furfural were detected only in dried hibiscus beverages whereas linalool and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were detected only in beverages from fresh hibiscus. In terms of aroma active volatiles, 17, 16, 13, and 10 aroma active volatiles were detected for DHE, DCE, FHE, and FCE samples, respectively. The most intense aroma volatiles were 1-octen-3-one and nonanal with a group of 4 aldehydes and 3 ketones common to all samples. Dried samples contained dramatically higher levels of lipid oxidation products such as hexanal, nonanal, and decanal. In fresh hibiscus extracts, linalool (floral, citrus) and octanal (lemon, citrus) were among the highest intensity aroma compounds but linalool was not detected in any of the dried hibiscus extracts. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Hibiscus teas/infusions are one of the highest volume specialty botanical products in international commerce. The beverage is consumed for both sensory pleasure and health attributes and is prepared a number of ways throughout the world. Although color and taste attributes have been examined, little information is known about its aroma volatiles and no other study has compared extractions from both fresh and dried as well as extraction temperature differences. This is also, apparently, the first study to identify the aroma active volatiles in hibiscus beverages using GC-olfactometry. Manufacturers and consumers will now have a better understanding of why hibiscus teas prepared in different ways from either fresh or dried forms have a different flavor quality and intensity.

Ramírez-Rodrigues MM; Balaban MO; Marshall MR; Rouseff RL

2011-03-01

115

Aroma-impact compounds in dried spice as a quality index using solid phase microextraction with olfactometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A systematic experimental procedure is used to identify the aroma-impact compounds, leading to a shelf quality index based on head space solid-phase microextraction. Dried (ground) fennel seeds, having shelf life of 6 months (0.5Y) and 5 years (5Y), were used as a spice model for assessment of comparative aroma quality. Aroma-impact odorants were analysed by GC-olfactometry (GC-O) in parallel with comprehensive two-dimensional GC-flame ionisation detection (GC×GC-FID) using a polar/non-polar phase combination for the GC×GC column set. Tentative identification of aroma-impact odorants involved correlating data from the GC-O/FID system with GC×GC-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis by means of retention indices. Major compounds responsible for aroma perception were limonene, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, estragole and trans-anethole, and showed an average decrease of 30-50% NIF from 0.5Y to 5Y. Monoterpenes which represent 'freshness', e.g. ?-pinene and ?-myrcene, exhibited identifiable aroma-impact only for the 0.5Y product. Sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene oxides are suggested as an aging index, being present in increased amounts in 5Y. p-Anisaldehyde odour intensity for both samples remained the same (aroma perception sweet creamy, floral odour and Chinese seasoning powder).

Maikhunthod B; Marriott PJ

2013-12-01

116

Aroma-impact compounds in dried spice as a quality index using solid phase microextraction with olfactometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

A systematic experimental procedure is used to identify the aroma-impact compounds, leading to a shelf quality index based on head space solid-phase microextraction. Dried (ground) fennel seeds, having shelf life of 6 months (0.5Y) and 5 years (5Y), were used as a spice model for assessment of comparative aroma quality. Aroma-impact odorants were analysed by GC-olfactometry (GC-O) in parallel with comprehensive two-dimensional GC-flame ionisation detection (GC×GC-FID) using a polar/non-polar phase combination for the GC×GC column set. Tentative identification of aroma-impact odorants involved correlating data from the GC-O/FID system with GC×GC-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis by means of retention indices. Major compounds responsible for aroma perception were limonene, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, estragole and trans-anethole, and showed an average decrease of 30-50% NIF from 0.5Y to 5Y. Monoterpenes which represent 'freshness', e.g. ?-pinene and ?-myrcene, exhibited identifiable aroma-impact only for the 0.5Y product. Sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene oxides are suggested as an aging index, being present in increased amounts in 5Y. p-Anisaldehyde odour intensity for both samples remained the same (aroma perception sweet creamy, floral odour and Chinese seasoning powder). PMID:23993622

Maikhunthod, Bussayarat; Marriott, Philip J

2013-06-11

117

Aroma biogenesis and distribution between olive pulps and seeds with identification of aroma trends among cultivars.  

Science.gov (United States)

The two constitutive parts of four cultivars (Arbequina, Picual, Local and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in Spain were separately analysed in order to establish the role of pulp and seed in the biogenesis of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) aroma through the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway. C6 and C5 volatile compounds responsible of EVOO aroma were produced by endogenous enzymes in both parts of olive fruits and the differences can be attributed to different enzymes distribution in pulp and seed. According to results, C6 and C5 volatile compounds have mainly their biogenesis in pulp (80-90%) vs. seed (20-10%), independently of the cultivar considered. A linear discriminant analysis was used to establish discriminant aroma compounds between pulp and seed related to the maturity index. A decrease in trans-2-hexen-1-al and an increase in 1-hexanol with ripeness were observed independently of the cultivar considered. Finally, Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression analysis between pulp and seed aroma compounds allowed to establish those volatile compounds that better describe each cultivar. PMID:23768404

Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

2013-03-07

118

Aroma biogenesis and distribution between olive pulps and seeds with identification of aroma trends among cultivars.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The two constitutive parts of four cultivars (Arbequina, Picual, Local and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in Spain were separately analysed in order to establish the role of pulp and seed in the biogenesis of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) aroma through the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway. C6 and C5 volatile compounds responsible of EVOO aroma were produced by endogenous enzymes in both parts of olive fruits and the differences can be attributed to different enzymes distribution in pulp and seed. According to results, C6 and C5 volatile compounds have mainly their biogenesis in pulp (80-90%) vs. seed (20-10%), independently of the cultivar considered. A linear discriminant analysis was used to establish discriminant aroma compounds between pulp and seed related to the maturity index. A decrease in trans-2-hexen-1-al and an increase in 1-hexanol with ripeness were observed independently of the cultivar considered. Finally, Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression analysis between pulp and seed aroma compounds allowed to establish those volatile compounds that better describe each cultivar.

Reboredo-Rodríguez P; González-Barreiro C; Cancho-Grande B; Simal-Gándara J

2013-11-01

119

Identification of impact aroma compounds in Eugenia uniflora L. (Brazilian Pitanga) leaf essential oil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O óleo essencial das folhas de Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) foi obtido a partir do arraste a vapor em aparelhagem de Clevenger e analisado por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas. As folhas foram colhidas e imediatamente extraídas durante cinco dias consecutivos, às 9 e 14h, não sendo observada variação significativa no rendimento dos óleos extraídos no período. Furanodieno e seu produto de rearranjo, furanoelemeno (ou curzereno, num tota (more) l de 50,2%), beta-elemeno (5,9%) e alfa-cadinol (4,7%) foram os constituintes majoritários. Pela técnica de cromatografia gasosa-olfatometria (CG-O), associada à análise por diluição de aroma AEDA (Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis), foi possível identificar nove substâncias ativas no aroma do óleo de pitanga, sendo que três foram consideradas como de maior impacto: furanodieno (juntamente com furanoelemeno, FD 1024), beta-elemeno (FD 256) e (E,E)-germacrona (FD 256). A mistura destas três substâncias, coletadas a partir do CG-sniffing port, levou a uma essência de pitanga de aroma bastante semelhante à fruta, de acordo com a avaliação por análise olfativa comparativa. Abstract in english The leaf essential oil of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) was extracted by Clevenger apparatus and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The leaves were collected and immediately extracted for five consecutive days at 9:00 am and 2:00 pm. No variance in the oil yields were observed in the period. Furanodiene and its rearrangement product, furanoelemene (or curzerene, 50.2%), beta-elemene (5.9%) and alpha-cadinol (4.7%) were identified as the most abund (more) ant compounds. GC-Olfatometry (GC-O) associated to Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA) allowed the identification of nine active aroma compounds, where furanodiene (along with furanoelemene, FD 1024), beta-elemene (FD 256) and (E,E)-germacrone (FD 256) were characterized as the main impact aroma compounds in the odor of this essential oil. Those substances were collected through a sniffing port adapted on the GC allowing to obtain a typical essence of pitanga as indicated by comparative olfatometric analysis.

Melo, Rosineia M.; Corrêa, Vivian F. S.; Amorim, Ana Carolina L.; Miranda, Ana Luisa P.; Rezende, Claudia M.

2007-01-01

120

Effects of Film Mulching on Aroma Components of Pineapple Fruits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to test the effects of film mulching treatment on aroma components of pineapple fruits. In this present study, the pineapple fruits of treatment and control (open field) were harvested twice (in winter and summer, respectively) to detect the aroma components. The r...

Chuanhe Liu; Yan Liu; Ganjun Yi; Meijing Liao; Yanzhou Wu; Fengling Wei; Shunqiu Zhu

 
 
 
 
121

Aroma Characterization of Chinese Rice Wine by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry, Chemical Quantitative Analysis and Aroma Reconstitution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aroma profile of Chinese rice wine was investigated in this study. The volatile compounds in a traditional Chinese rice wine were extracted using Lichrolut EN and further separated by silica gel normal phase chromatography. Seventy-three aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-O and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition to acids, esters and alcohols, benzaldehyde, vanillin, geosmin, and ?-nonalactone were identified to be potentially important to Chinse rice wine. The concentration of these aroma-active compounds in the Chinese rice wine was further quantitated by combination of four different methods, including headsapce-gas chromatography, solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography (SPME)-GC-MS, solid-phase extraction-GC-MS, and SPME-GC-pulsed flame photometric detection (PFPD). Quantitative results showed that thirty-four aroma compounds were at concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds. Based on the odor activity values (OAVs), vanillin, dimethyl trisulfide, ?-phenylethyl alcohol, guaiacol, geosmin and benzaldehyde could be responsible for the unique aroma of Chinese rice wine. Aroma reconstitution model prepared by mixing 34 aroma compounds with OAVs > 1 in an odorless Chinese rice wine matrix showed a good similarity to the aroma of the original Chinese rice wine.

Chen S; Xu Y; Qian MC

2013-10-01

122

Kit for formulating and generating different aromas  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A kit for formulating and generating different mood modifying or therapeutic aromas, the kit including a battery of vials each containing a different essential fragrance oil, thereby making it possible for a user to compound a blend of oils producing an aroma having the desired effect. Also provided is a vessel formed of cermaic or other dielectric material and having a removable cover. The inner and outer surfaces of the vessel have a glaze thereon whose composition is such that when the vessel is placed in a microwave oven and subjected to microwave energy, this energy is absorbed only by the glaze, as a consequence of which the interior of the vessel is heated to an elevated temperature and acts to volatilize a charge of oil deposited in the vessel by the user, the constituents of the charge being derived from oils taken from selected vials as formulated by the user. The resultant aromatic vapor having the desired fragrance is released into the atmosphere when the heated vessel is withdrawn from the oven and its cover is taken off.

SPECTOR DONALD

123

FURANOID AND PYRANOID C14-C18- OXABICYCLOALKANONES AS ODORIFEROUS AND/OR AROMA SUBSTANCES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to compounds of the formula (I) and the formula (Ia) wherein R1, R2 and R3 mutually independently mean hydrogen or methyl, odoriferous and/or aroma substance compositions comprising one or more compounds according to the invention of the formula (I) and/or formula (Ia), perfumed products and aromatized products in each case comprising one or more compounds according to the invention of the formula (I) and/or formula (Ia), and to uses of one or more compounds according to the invention of the formula (I) and/or formula (Ia) as odoriferous and/or aroma substances and methods of producing compounds according to the invention of the formula (I) and formula (Ia).

HOELSCHER BERND

124

Similarities in the aroma chemistry of Gewürztraminer variety wines and lychee (Litchi chinesis sonn.) fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

GC/O analysis of canned lychees indicated that cis-rose oxide, linalool, ethyl isohexanoate, geraniol, furaneol, vanillin, (E)-2-nonenal, beta-damascenone, isovaleric acid, and (E)-furan linalool oxide were the most odor potent compounds detected in the fruit extracts. However, on the basis of calculated odor activity values (OAVs), cis-rose oxide, beta-damascenone, linalool, furaneol, ethyl isobutyrate, (E)-2-nonenal, ethyl isohexanoate, geraniol, and delta-decalactone were determined to be the main contributors of canned lychee aroma. When these results were compared with GC/O results of fresh lychees and Gewürztraminer wine, 12 common odor-active volatile compounds were found in all three products. These included cis-rose oxide, ethyl hexanoate/ethyl isohexanoate, beta-damascenone, linalool, ethyl isobutyrate, geraniol, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, 2-phenylethanol, furaneol, vanillin, citronellol, and phenethyl acetate. On the basis of OAVs, cis-rose oxide had the highest values among the common odorants in the three products, indicating its importance to the aroma of both lychee fruit and Gewürztraminer wines. Other compounds that had significant OAVs included beta-damascenone, linalool, furaneol, ethyl hexanoate, and geraniol. This indicated that while differences exist in the aroma profile of lychee and Gewürztraminer, the common odorants detected in both fruit and wine, particularly cis-rose oxide, were responsible for the lychee aroma in Gewürztraminer wine. When headspace SPME was used as a rapid analytical tool to detect the levels of selected aroma compounds deemed important to lychee aroma in Gewürztraminer-type wines, cis-rose oxide, linalool, and geraniol were found to be at relatively higher levels in Gewürztraminers. No cis-rose oxide was detected in the control wines (Chardonnay and Riesling), while lower levels were detected in the Gewürztraminer-hybrid wine Traminette. Gewürztraminers produced in the Alsace region showed differences in the levels of the 3 monoterpenes when compared to those from New York State, which could be attributed to differences in viticultural and enological practices between regions. PMID:10563950

Ong, P K; Acree, T E

1999-02-01

125

The dynamics of aroma compound transfer properties in cheeses during simulated eating conditions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In vivo aroma release during solid food consumption is a complex phenomenon that depends on food structure and composition, as well as on oral processing (combination of mastication and incorporation of saliva into the food product). The objective of this study was to understand and to predict the physico-chemical properties of aroma compounds through the dynamics of flavor release during in-mouth oral processing of food before bolus swallowing. Within this context, the evolution of two aroma compounds during bolus formation was explored by studying the two main properties that account for mass transfer: air/bolus partition and mass transfer coefficients. Four types of industrial cheese products (varying in fat and firmness) flavored with ethyl propanoate and 2-nonanone were chosen. Each matrix was mixed with various amounts of artificial saliva to mimic boluses at different stages of mastication. The air/bolus partition coefficient was determined by the static phase ratio variation method (PRV), while the mass transfer coefficient was obtained by non-linear regression from dynamic headspace experiments. Results showed that there is a dilution effect on the air/bolus partition coefficient and both a dilution and a product effect (firmness) on the mass transfer coefficient of ethyl propanoate in the bolus. These results were also validated with 2-nonanone for the low-fat cheeses.

Doyennette M; Déléris I; Saint-Eve A; Gasiglia A; Souchon I; Trelea IC

2011-12-01

126

Prediction of aged red wine aroma properties from aroma chemical composition. Partial least squares regression models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models able to predict some of the wine aroma nuances from its chemical composition have been developed. The aromatic sensory characteristics of 57 Spanish aged red wines were determined by 51 experts from the wine industry. The individual descriptions given by the experts were recorded, and the frequency with which a sensory term was used to define a given wine was taken as a measurement of its intensity. The aromatic chemical composition of the wines was determined by already published gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detector and GC-mass spectrometry methods. In the whole, 69 odorants were analyzed. Both matrixes, the sensory and chemical data, were simplified by grouping and rearranging correlated sensory terms or chemical compounds and by the exclusion of secondary aroma terms or of weak aroma chemicals. Finally, models were developed for 18 sensory terms and 27 chemicals or groups of chemicals. Satisfactory models, explaining more than 45% of the original variance, could be found for nine of the most important sensory terms (wood-vanillin-cinnamon, animal-leather-phenolic, toasted-coffee, old wood-reduction, vegetal-pepper, raisin-flowery, sweet-candy-cacao, fruity, and berry fruit). For this set of terms, the correlation coefficients between the measured and predicted Y (determined by cross-validation) ranged from 0.62 to 0.81. Models confirmed the existence of complex multivariate relationships between chemicals and odors. In general, pleasant descriptors were positively correlated to chemicals with pleasant aroma, such as vanillin, beta damascenone, or (E)-beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, and negatively correlated to compounds showing less favorable odor properties, such as 4-ethyl and vinyl phenols, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol, or phenylacetaldehyde. PMID:12696960

Aznar, Margarita; López, Ricardo; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

2003-04-23

127

Oxygen contribution to wine aroma evolution during bottle aging.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wine aroma undergoes major changes during bottle aging, which are deeply influenced by the degree of oxygen exposure in the bottle. This review discusses the involvement of oxygen in the main chemical transformations occurring in wine aroma composition during bottle aging, with particular emphasis on the formation of oxidative aroma compounds and formation/degradation of sulfur-containing volatile compounds. The implications for wine sensory properties are discussed, as well as some practical aspects of oxygen management during bottle aging, including the role of closure oxygen permeability.

Ugliano M

2013-07-01

128

Investigation into the aroma of rosemary using multi-channel silicone rubber traps, off-line olfactometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Multi-channel polydimethylsiloxane rubber traps were used to sample the headspace of rosemary samples (two essential oils from different sources, one oleoresin and one dried herb) followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography -time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS) or GC-MS analyses. The aroma of different headspace samples was characterized using a custom-built olfactory apparatus. The differences between the aroma profiles were evident from bubble (more) plots of the perceived aroma at different temperatures. The samples were heat-treated to simulate cooking of food products, and were then reassessed to determine any changes in the aroma profile. It was found that the intense menthol and cooling aromas subsided in all the samples with heating. GCxGC-TOFMS allowed for separation of the numerous components in the headspace samples. Many terpenes and aliphatics were thus tentatively identified and the relative peak areas were compared to better understand the mixture that contributes to the rosemary aroma.

van der Wat, Leandri; Dovey, Martin; Naudé, Yvette; Forbes, Patricia B.C.

2013-08-01

129

Aroma-active compounds of miniature beefsteakplant (Mosla dianthera Maxim).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Volatile flavor compounds of miniature beefsteakplant (Mosla dianthera Maxim.) from Vietnam were analyzed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). Sixty-two compounds were identified by GC-MS. Of these, (+/-)-carvone and (+/-)-limonene were the most abundant, followed by (Z)-limonene oxide, beta-caryophyllene, and alpha-humulene. Twenty aroma-active compounds were detected by aroma extract dilution analysis conducted on two GC columns of different polarities (DB-5MS and DB-Wax). The most intense aroma-active compounds were linalool (floral/sweet/lemon), (-)-carvone (spearminty), and 1-octen-3-one (mushroom/earthy). Other predominant aroma-active compounds included (Z)-3-hexenol (grassy/leafy/metallic), (Z)-limonene oxide (lemon/floral), myrcene (plastic/sweet), (+)-limonene (orange/lemon), alpha-thujene (soy sauce/grassy), and (Z)-dihydrocarvone (spearminty/pepperminty). On the basis of the aroma characteristics and intensity, it was concluded that (-)-carvone was responsible for the characteristic aroma of miniature beefsteakplant.

Kim TH; Thuy NT; Shin JH; Baek HH; Lee HJ

2000-07-01

130

Aroma barrier properties of sodium caseinate-based films.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mass transport of six different aroma compounds (ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, 2-hexanone, 1-hexanol, and cis-3-hexenol) through sodium caseinate-based films with different oleic acid (OA)/beeswax (BW) ratio has been studied. OA is less efficient than BW in reducing aroma permeability, which can be attributed to its greater polarity. Control film (without lipid) and films prepared with 0:100 OA/BW ratio show the lowest permeability. OA involves a decrease in aroma barrier properties of the sodium caseinate-based films due to its plasticization ability. Preferential sorption and diffusion occurs through OA instead of caseinate matrix and/or BW. The efficiency of sodium caseinate-based films to retain or limit aroma compound transfers depend on the affinity of the volatile compound to the films, which relates physicochemical interaction between volatile compound and film. Specific interactions (aroma compound-hydrocolloid and aroma compound-lipid) induce structural changes during mass transfer.

Fabra MJ; Hambleton A; Talens P; Debeaufort F; Chiralt A; Voilley A

2008-05-01

131

Identification of characteristic aroma components of Thai fried chili paste.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three forms of Thai fried chili pastes (CP) were prepared, consisting of an unheated CP (UH-CP), a CP heated at 100 degrees C for 25 min (H25-CP, typical product), and a CP excessively heated for 50 min (H50-CP). The potent odorants in the CPs were investigated by two gas chromatography-olfactometry methods: dynamic headspace dilution analysis (DHDA) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). DHDA revealed that the predominant odorants in heated CPs were mainly sulfur-containing compounds, followed by lipid-derived compounds, Strecker aldehydes, and Maillard reaction products. Dimethyl sulfide, allyl mercaptan, 2- (or 3-) methylbutanal, ally methyl sulfide, 2,3-butanedione, 3,3'-thiobis(1-propene), and methyl propyl disulfide were among the most potent headspace odorants detected by DHDA. By AEDA, 2-vinyl-4 H-1,3-dithiin and diallyl trisulfide had the highest FD factors in H25-CP. On the basis of their high FD factors by both GCO methods, the predominant odorants in H25-CP were 3-vinyl-4 H-1,2-dithiin, allyl methyl disulfide, and allyl methyl trisulfide. Furthermore, dimethyl trisulfide and diallyl disulfide had the highest odor activity values in H25-CP, suggesting that these were also potent odorants in CP. In addition, methional, 3-methylbutanoic acid, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2 H)-furanone, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2( 5H)-furanone (sotolon) were indicated as potent thermally derived odorants of H25-CP.

Rotsatchakul P; Chaiseri S; Cadwallader KR

2008-01-01

132

Aroma volatiles recovered in the water phase of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) juice during concentration  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is a considerable loss of volatile compounds during the thermal concentration of cashew apple juice, damaging product quality, and as yet there is little research on the subject. Thus the purpose of this research was to identify the aroma volatiles evaporated off from cashew apple juice and recovered in the water phase during concentration of this beverage in an industrial plant. Water phase volatiles were extracted using dichloromethane, concentrated under a nitrogen flow, separated by gas chromatography (GC) and identified by GC-mass spectrometry. In order to determine the contribution of each volatile to the cashew aroma, five trained judges evaluated the GC effluents using the Osme GC-olfactometry technique. RESULTS: 71 volatiles were identified; of these, 47 were odour active. Alcohols were preferentially recovered in the cashew water phase, notably heptanol, trans-3-hexen-1-ol and 3-methyl-1-butanol, representing 42% of the total chromatogram area and imparting green grass and fruity aroma notes to the water phase. Esters represented 21% of the total chromatogram area, especially ethyl 2-hydroxyhexanoate, ethyl trans-2-butenoate and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, and were responsible for the fruity/cashew-like aroma of the water phase. On the other hand, 3-methylbutanoic and 2-methylbutanoic acids were the volatiles that presented the greatest odour impact in the GC effluents of the water phase. CONCLUSION: Overall, the results of the present study strongly indicated that further concentration of the esters recovered in the water phase, either by partial distillation or by alternative technologies such as pervaporation, could generate a higher-quality natural cashew apple essence.

Sampaio KL; Garruti DS; Franco MRB; Janzantti NS; Da Silva MAA

2011-08-01

133

Aroma volatiles recovered in the water phase of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) juice during concentration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is a considerable loss of volatile compounds during the thermal concentration of cashew apple juice, damaging product quality, and as yet there is little research on the subject. Thus the purpose of this research was to identify the aroma volatiles evaporated off from cashew apple juice and recovered in the water phase during concentration of this beverage in an industrial plant. Water phase volatiles were extracted using dichloromethane, concentrated under a nitrogen flow, separated by gas chromatography (GC) and identified by GC-mass spectrometry. In order to determine the contribution of each volatile to the cashew aroma, five trained judges evaluated the GC effluents using the Osme GC-olfactometry technique. RESULTS: 71 volatiles were identified; of these, 47 were odour active. Alcohols were preferentially recovered in the cashew water phase, notably heptanol, trans-3-hexen-1-ol and 3-methyl-1-butanol, representing 42% of the total chromatogram area and imparting green grass and fruity aroma notes to the water phase. Esters represented 21% of the total chromatogram area, especially ethyl 2-hydroxyhexanoate, ethyl trans-2-butenoate and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, and were responsible for the fruity/cashew-like aroma of the water phase. On the other hand, 3-methylbutanoic and 2-methylbutanoic acids were the volatiles that presented the greatest odour impact in the GC effluents of the water phase. CONCLUSION: Overall, the results of the present study strongly indicated that further concentration of the esters recovered in the water phase, either by partial distillation or by alternative technologies such as pervaporation, could generate a higher-quality natural cashew apple essence.

Sampaio KL; Garruti DS; Franco MR; Janzantti NS; Da Silva MA

2011-08-01

134

Aroma profile and volatiles odor activity along gold cultivar pineapple flesh.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Physicochemical attributes, aroma profile, and odor contribution of pineapple flesh were studied for the top, middle, and bottom cross-sections cut along the central axis of Gold cultivar pineapple. Relationships between volatile and nonvolatile compounds were also studied. Aroma profile constituents were determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction at 30 °C, followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 20 volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Among them, esters were the major components which accounted for 90% of total extracted aroma. Methyl butanoate, methyl 2-methyl butanoate, and methyl hexanoate were the 3 most abundant components representing 74% of total volatiles in pineapple samples. Most odor active contributors were methyl and ethyl 2-methyl butanoate and 2,5-dimethyl 4-methoxy 3(2H)-furanone (mesifuran). Aroma profile components did not vary along the fruit, but volatile compounds content significantly varied (P < 0.05) along the fruit, from 7560 to 10910 ?g/kg, from the top to the bottom cross-sections of the fruit, respectively. In addition, most odor-active volatiles concentration increased from the top to the bottom 3rd of the fruit, concurrently with soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA) differences attributed to fruitlets distinct degree of ripening. Large changes in SSC/TA ratio and volatiles content throughout the fruit found through this study are likely to provoke important differences among individual fresh-cut pineapple trays, compromising consumer perception and acceptance of the product. Such finding highlighted the need to include volatiles content and SSC/TA ratio and their variability along the fruit as selection criteria for pineapples to be processed and quality assessment of the fresh-cut fruit.

Montero-Calderón M; Rojas-Graü MA; Martín-Belloso O

2010-11-01

135

Comparison of key aroma compounds in five different types of Japanese soy sauces by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An investigation by the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) technique of the aroma concentrate from five different types of Japanese soy sauces, categorized according to Japan Agricultural Standards as Koikuchi Shoyu (KS), Usukuchi Shoyu (US), Tamari Shoyu (TS), Sai-Shikomi Shoyu (SSS), and Shiro Shoyu (SS), revealed 25 key aroma compounds. Among them, 3-ethyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione and 2'-aminoacetophenone were identified in the soy sauces for the first time. Whereas 3-(methylthio)propanal (methional) and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon) were detected in all of the soy sauce aroma concentrates as having high flavor dilution (FD) factors, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol was detected as having a high FD factor in only four of the soy sauces (KS, US, TS, and SSS). Furthermore, 5(or 2)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HEMF) and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HDMF), which were thought to be the key odorants in KS, were detected in KS, US, TS, and SSS, but the FD factors widely varied among them. The sensory evaluations demonstrated that the aroma descriptions of a cooked potato-like note and a caramel-like/seasoning-like note were evaluated as high scores with no significant differences among the five soy sauces. On the other hand, a burnt/spicy note was evaluated as having high scores in KS, TS, and SSS, but it was evaluated as having a low score in SS. The comparative AEDA experiments and the auxiliary sensory experiments demonstrated that the five different types of Japanese soy sauces varied in their key aroma compounds and aroma characteristics, and the key aroma compounds in KS might not always be highly contributing in the other types of Japanese soy sauces.

Kaneko S; Kumazawa K; Nishimura O

2012-04-01

136

Study of the influence of yeast inoculum concentration (Yarrowia lipolytica and Kluyveromyces lactis) on blue cheese aroma development using microbiological models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yarrowia lipolytica and Kluyveromyces lactis occur as part of Stilton cheese microflora yet are not controlled during production. This study investigated the influence of their inoculum concentration on aroma production. Models of Y. lipolytica and K. lactis, with Penicillium roqueforti, were analysed using instrumental and sensory analysis. Different concentrations of Y. lipolytica produced important changes in the aroma profiles of microbiological models, analysed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME GC-MS). Sensory analysis with discrimination tests showed differences were detectable via human perception but did not concern the similarity to blue cheese odour. Increasing the inoculum concentration of K. lactis resulted in decreased variation between replicates. Partial least squares (PLS) regression on Flash profile data showed models inoculated with low concentrations of K. lactis exhibited blue cheese-related attributes, associated with increased ketone production. Results suggest that controlling the amount of Y. lipolytica and K. lactis during production offers potential to manipulate blue cheese aroma development. PMID:24128502

Price, Elliott J; Linforth, Robert S T; Dodd, Christine E R; Phillips, Carol A; Hewson, Louise; Hort, Joanne; Gkatzionis, Konstantinos

2013-08-29

137

Study of the influence of yeast inoculum concentration (Yarrowia lipolytica and Kluyveromyces lactis) on blue cheese aroma development using microbiological models.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Yarrowia lipolytica and Kluyveromyces lactis occur as part of Stilton cheese microflora yet are not controlled during production. This study investigated the influence of their inoculum concentration on aroma production. Models of Y. lipolytica and K. lactis, with Penicillium roqueforti, were analysed using instrumental and sensory analysis. Different concentrations of Y. lipolytica produced important changes in the aroma profiles of microbiological models, analysed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME GC-MS). Sensory analysis with discrimination tests showed differences were detectable via human perception but did not concern the similarity to blue cheese odour. Increasing the inoculum concentration of K. lactis resulted in decreased variation between replicates. Partial least squares (PLS) regression on Flash profile data showed models inoculated with low concentrations of K. lactis exhibited blue cheese-related attributes, associated with increased ketone production. Results suggest that controlling the amount of Y. lipolytica and K. lactis during production offers potential to manipulate blue cheese aroma development.

Price EJ; Linforth RS; Dodd CE; Phillips CA; Hewson L; Hort J; Gkatzionis K

2014-02-01

138

Influence of strawberry yogurt composition on aroma release.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary objective of this study was to determine how yogurt ingredients affect aroma release in the mouth during eating. A model strawberry flavor consisting of ethyl butanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, (Z)-hex-3-enol, 2-methylbutanoic acid, 5-hexylhydro-2(3H)-furanone, and 3-methyl-3-phenylglycidic acid ethyl ester was added to unflavored, unsweetened yogurt that had different added sweeteners and hydrocolloids. In all, 12 yogurt formulations were examined to determine the effects of gelatin, modified food starch, pectin, sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and aspartame on aroma release. Aroma release was monitored by breath-by-breath analysis (proton-transfer reaction-mass spectrometry) during eating of the test yogurts. Results showed aroma release of the ethyl butanoate, (Z)-hex-3-enol, and ethyl 3-methylbutanoate to be suppressed by sweeteners, with 55 DE high-fructose corn syrup having the greatest effect. Addition of thickening agents had no significant effect on the aroma release profiles of the compounds under study. PMID:15453698

Mei, Jennifer B; Reineccius, Gary A; Knighton, W Berk; Grimsrud, Eric P

2004-10-01

139

Influence of strawberry yogurt composition on aroma release.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The primary objective of this study was to determine how yogurt ingredients affect aroma release in the mouth during eating. A model strawberry flavor consisting of ethyl butanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, (Z)-hex-3-enol, 2-methylbutanoic acid, 5-hexylhydro-2(3H)-furanone, and 3-methyl-3-phenylglycidic acid ethyl ester was added to unflavored, unsweetened yogurt that had different added sweeteners and hydrocolloids. In all, 12 yogurt formulations were examined to determine the effects of gelatin, modified food starch, pectin, sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and aspartame on aroma release. Aroma release was monitored by breath-by-breath analysis (proton-transfer reaction-mass spectrometry) during eating of the test yogurts. Results showed aroma release of the ethyl butanoate, (Z)-hex-3-enol, and ethyl 3-methylbutanoate to be suppressed by sweeteners, with 55 DE high-fructose corn syrup having the greatest effect. Addition of thickening agents had no significant effect on the aroma release profiles of the compounds under study.

Mei JB; Reineccius GA; Knighton WB; Grimsrud EP

2004-10-01

140

Caracterización anatómica del leño y evolución del crecimiento en ejemplares de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina en la Región Chaqueña, Argentina Wood anatomical description and growth in individuals of Acacia aroma and Acacia furcatispina in Chaco region, Argentina  

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Full Text Available La madera de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina se emplea para usos de escaso valor como postes, mangos de herramientas o combustible. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estudiar los caracteres anatómicos del leño de ambas especies y analizar el crecimiento de ejemplares aislados con la finalidad de determinar su potencialidad para usos de mayor valor. Se determinó que la madera de estas especies es dura, pesada y de porosidad difusa con tendencia a semicircular. Acacia furcatispina posee un leño con mayor porcentaje de elementos lignificados, mejores cualidades estéticas y mejor estado fitosanitario que el de A. aroma. Los defectos más frecuentes en estas especies fueron la formación de leño decolorado y pudriciones en la zona del duramen por ataque de hongos, asociados a la presencia de cicatrices de fuego. El espesor promedio de los anillos de crecimiento fue 2,1 mm (DE = 0,47 mm) en A. aroma y 1,9 mm, (DE = 0,74 mm) en A. furcatispina. Las curvas de incremento medio anual e incremento corriente anual del diámetro en A. aroma se interceptan a los 24 años mientras que las de A. furcatispina lo hacen a la edad de 10 años. Los resultados indicaron que A. furcatispina es una especie interesante para manejar en plantaciones debido a las cualidades de su madera, aunque permitiría obtener escuadrías menores. Su madera podría destinarse a usos particulares como parquets, tallas artísticas, entre otros. Acacia aroma es una especie apropiada para manejar con el objetivo de producción de leña debido a la capacidad de producir fustes y ramas de mayor diámetro y a que su estado fitosanitario limita su empleo para otros usos de mayor valor.The wood of Acacia aroma and Acacia furcatispina is employed for uses of little value such us posts, tools and firewood. The objectives of this work were to study anatomical characters of wood and to analyze the growth of isolated individuals with the purpose of determining their potential for uses of greater value. We determined that these species have high density and heavy wood, with diffuse porosity and tendency to semicircular. The wood of Acacia furcatispina has greater percentage of ligneous elements, better aesthetics qualities and health state than A. aroma. The most frequent defects in these species are rots within heartwood due to fungi attack, and discolorated wood formation, both related to fire scars. The mean width of the growth rings was 2.1 mm (DE = 0.47 mm) in A. aroma and 1.9 mm (DE = 0.74 mm) in A. furcatispina. In A. aroma, the curve of mean annual increment (IMA) intercepted the curve of current annual increment (ICA) for diameter at an age of 24 years, while in A. furcatispina it happened at 10 years. The results show that A. furcatispina is an interesting species to manage in plantations due to its wood qualities, although it would only allow small sized timber. This wood could be allocated for others uses such us parquets and artistic sculpture. Acacia aroma is a species suitable to manage for firewood production due to its capacity to produce greater diameter boles and branches, and to frequent wood decay that reduces its use for others more valuables uses.

Sandra Bravo; Ana Giménez; Juana Moglia

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Identification and aroma impact of norisoprenoids in orange juice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four norisoprenoids, alpha-ionone, beta-ionone, beta-cyclocitral, and beta-damascenone, along with their putative carotenoid precursors, were identified in Valencia orange juice using time-intensity GC-O, GC-MS, and photodiode array HPLC. alpha-Ionone and beta-cyclocitral are reported in orange juice for the first time. GC-O aroma peaks were categorized into seven groups with similar sensory qualities: citrus/minty, metallic/mushroom/geranium, roasted/cooked/meaty/spice, fatty/soapy/green, sulfury/solventy/medicine, floral, and sweet fruity. The four norisoprenoids contributed approximately 8% of the total aroma intensity and 78% of the total floral aroma category. The putative carotenoid norisoprenoid precursors, alpha- and beta-carotene, alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin, and neoxanthin, were identified in the same orange juice using photodiode array HPLC retention times and spectral characteristics.

Mahattanatawee K; Rouseff R; Valim MF; Naim M

2005-01-01

142

Identification and aroma impact of norisoprenoids in orange juice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four norisoprenoids, alpha-ionone, beta-ionone, beta-cyclocitral, and beta-damascenone, along with their putative carotenoid precursors, were identified in Valencia orange juice using time-intensity GC-O, GC-MS, and photodiode array HPLC. alpha-Ionone and beta-cyclocitral are reported in orange juice for the first time. GC-O aroma peaks were categorized into seven groups with similar sensory qualities: citrus/minty, metallic/mushroom/geranium, roasted/cooked/meaty/spice, fatty/soapy/green, sulfury/solventy/medicine, floral, and sweet fruity. The four norisoprenoids contributed approximately 8% of the total aroma intensity and 78% of the total floral aroma category. The putative carotenoid norisoprenoid precursors, alpha- and beta-carotene, alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin, and neoxanthin, were identified in the same orange juice using photodiode array HPLC retention times and spectral characteristics. PMID:15656678

Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Rouseff, Russell; Valim, M Filomena; Naim, Michael

2005-01-26

143

Wine matrix compounds affect perception of wine aromas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wine is a complex alcoholic beverage. The wine matrix or the components that are present in the wine play an important role in the perceived aroma and flavor of the wine. The wine matrix is composed of two fractions, the nonvolatile fraction, which includes ethanol (in liquid phase), polyphenolic compounds, proteins, and carbohydrates, and the volatile fraction, which incorporates flavor and aroma compounds. Interactions among these compounds may arise through various mechanisms, thus affecting the sensory and chemical properties of the wine. The main focus of this review is to highlight recent research on wine component interactions and their effects on perceived aroma in the wine. An overview of the wine impact odorants and their determination using sensory and chemical methods is also provided in this paper.

Villamor RR; Ross CF

2013-01-01

144

Identification of characteristic aroma components of Thai fried chili paste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three forms of Thai fried chili pastes (CP) were prepared, consisting of an unheated CP (UH-CP), a CP heated at 100 degrees C for 25 min (H25-CP, typical product), and a CP excessively heated for 50 min (H50-CP). The potent odorants in the CPs were investigated by two gas chromatography-olfactometry methods: dynamic headspace dilution analysis (DHDA) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). DHDA revealed that the predominant odorants in heated CPs were mainly sulfur-containing compounds, followed by lipid-derived compounds, Strecker aldehydes, and Maillard reaction products. Dimethyl sulfide, allyl mercaptan, 2- (or 3-) methylbutanal, ally methyl sulfide, 2,3-butanedione, 3,3'-thiobis(1-propene), and methyl propyl disulfide were among the most potent headspace odorants detected by DHDA. By AEDA, 2-vinyl-4 H-1,3-dithiin and diallyl trisulfide had the highest FD factors in H25-CP. On the basis of their high FD factors by both GCO methods, the predominant odorants in H25-CP were 3-vinyl-4 H-1,2-dithiin, allyl methyl disulfide, and allyl methyl trisulfide. Furthermore, dimethyl trisulfide and diallyl disulfide had the highest odor activity values in H25-CP, suggesting that these were also potent odorants in CP. In addition, methional, 3-methylbutanoic acid, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2 H)-furanone, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2( 5H)-furanone (sotolon) were indicated as potent thermally derived odorants of H25-CP. PMID:18163558

Rotsatchakul, Premsiri; Chaiseri, Siree; Cadwallader, Keith R

2007-12-29

145

Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice). The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the calculation of the activity coefficients.

Haypek, E.; Silva, L.H.M; Batista, E.; Marques, D. S.; Meireles, M.A.A.; Meirelles, A.J.A.

2000-12-01

146

Effects of aroma components from oxidized olive oil on preference.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study explored the possibility that aroma components generated by the oxidation of olive oil may enhance the palatability of olive oil. Using a mouse behavioral model, we found that olive oil oxidized at room temperature for 3 weeks after opening the package, and heated olive oil were both significantly preferred over non-oxidized olive oil. Furthermore, this preference was enhanced with an additive of oxidized refined olive oil flavoring preparation at a certain concentration. These results suggest that the aroma of oxidized fat might be present in most fats, and might act as a signal that makes possible the detection of fats or fatty acid sources.

Nakano K; Kubo H; Matsumura S; Saito T; Fushiki T

2013-01-01

147

Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice). The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the calculation of the activity coefficients.

E. Haypek; L.H.M Silva; E. Batista; D. S. Marques; M.A.A. Meireles; A.J.A. Meirelles

2000-01-01

148

AROMA EXTRACT DILUTION ANALYSIS OF CV. MEEKER (RUBUS IDAEUS L.) RED RASPBERRIES FROM OREGON AND WASHINGTON  

Science.gov (United States)

The aromas of 'Meeker' red raspberry from Oregon and Washington were analyzed by aroma extract dilution analysis. Seventy-five aromas were identified (some tentatively) by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-retention index; 53 were common to both sources, and 26 have not been previously repor...

149

Chemical and Molecular Characterization of Fragrance in Black Glutinous Rice from Lao PDR  

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Full Text Available Fifty three accessions of lowland Black Glutinous Rice (BGR) and three white rice varieties from Lao PDR were evaluated for variations in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP), a main aroma compound present in fragrant rice and a 257 bp genomic fragment associated with a gene encoding 2-AP. The objective of this study was to characterize the variation in aromatic characters of Lao BGR by using chemical and molecular techniques. Thirty six out of the 56 accessions had aromatic properties, containing 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP). The concentrations of 2-AP in unpolished samples were about 50% higher than those of the polished samples. The concentrations of 2-AP in BGR accessions were lower than those of white aromatic rice varieties in which 2-AP was highest in Kai Noi Leuang (0.688 ppm). Seventeen accessions and two of white rice (Kai Noi Leuang and TDK5) had a common 355 bp allele corresponding to that found in Calrose, a non-fragrant variety. A 257 bp allele was found in the 36 varieties of BGR and a local aromatic white rice variety, Hom Nang Nouan, sharing a common allele as in the fragrant variety KDML 105. Surprisingly, Kai Noi Leuang, a popular Lao local aromatic rice variety with the highest 2-AP concentration did not possess a 257 bp fragment which has been identified previously as a fragrant allele. This is the first study of the chemical and molecular aromatic properties of lowland BGR varieties of the Lao PDR and the data obtained will be valuable in screening other germplasm and in planning a breeding program in the country geared towards fragrant rices with superior agronomic properties.

C. Bounphanousay; P. Jaisil; J. Sanitchon; M. Fitzgerald; N.R. Sackville Hamilton; J. Sanitchon

2008-01-01

150

Characterization of commercial inactive dry yeast preparations for enological use based on their ability to release soluble compounds and their behavior toward aroma compounds in model wines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The characterization of commercial enological inactive dry yeast (IDY) with different applications in wine production has been carried out. This study was based on the yeast's ability to release soluble compounds (high molecular weight nitrogen, free amino nitrogen, peptidic nitrogen, free amino acids, and polysaccharides) into model wines and on its behavior toward the volatility of seven wine aroma compounds. Important differences in soluble compounds released into the model wines supplemented with commercial IDY were found, with the free amino acids being among the most released. The volatility of most of the aroma compounds was affected by the addition of IDY preparations at a concentration usually employed during winemaking. The extent of this effect was dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the aroma compound and on the length of time the IDY preparations remained in contact with the model wines. Whereas shorter contact times (2, 4, and 6 days) mainly promoted a "salting-out" effect, longer exposure (9 and 13 days) provoked a retention effect, with the consequent reduction of aroma compounds in the headspace. The use of different commercial preparations also promoted different effects toward the aroma compounds that may be at least in part due to differences in their ability to release soluble compounds of yeast origin into the wines.

Pozo-Bayón MA; Andujar-Ortiz I; Alcaide-Hidalgo JM; Martín-Alvarez PJ; Moreno-Arribas MV

2009-11-01

151

Aroma quality assessment of Korean fermented red pepper paste (gochujang) by aroma extract dilution analysis and headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-olfactometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to assess aroma quality of gochujang using purge and trap, simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE), and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), followed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Nineteen and 28 aroma-active compounds were detected by aroma extract dilution analysis of purge and trap and SDE, respectively. Diallyl disulfide and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine played a significant role in the aroma quality of gochujang. Twelve aroma-active compounds were detected by HS-SPME-GC-O based on sample dilution analysis. Methional, diallyl disulfide, and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine were the most intense aroma-active compounds. 3-Isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine was identified for the first time in gochujang.

Kang KM; Baek HH

2014-02-01

152

Aroma quality assessment of Korean fermented red pepper paste (gochujang) by aroma extract dilution analysis and headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-olfactometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to assess aroma quality of gochujang using purge and trap, simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE), and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), followed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Nineteen and 28 aroma-active compounds were detected by aroma extract dilution analysis of purge and trap and SDE, respectively. Diallyl disulfide and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine played a significant role in the aroma quality of gochujang. Twelve aroma-active compounds were detected by HS-SPME-GC-O based on sample dilution analysis. Methional, diallyl disulfide, and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine were the most intense aroma-active compounds. 3-Isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine was identified for the first time in gochujang. PMID:24128505

Kang, Kyung-Mo; Baek, Hyung-Hee

2013-08-31

153

Effects of fermentation temperature on the formation of aroma components in awamori mash. Awamori moromi no koki ni oyobosu hakko ondo no eikyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All materials for awamori are malt and the fermentation temperature of awamori mash is controlled at 25-30 centigrade, but the concentration of iso-butyl alcohol of the obtained product is higher than that of shochu. In this report, aiming at improvement of aroma composition of awamori, a study was made on synthetic media containing, as a nitrogen source, ammonium sulfate, L-valine and L-leucine, etc., and generation of aroma when culture temperature of awamori mash was changed. As a result, such information was obtained that, when awamori yeast was fermented at a low temperature (15 centigrade), the concentration of iso-butyl alcohol decreased considerably, thereby by producing low temperature mash, the concentration of iso-butyl alcohol of awamori could be controlled and this could be useful for improving its aroma composition. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Nakata, H.; Tsuruta, J.; Nagano, U.; Hosono, Y.; Hosaka, M. (Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Brewing and Fermentation)

1990-07-25

154

Volatile Aroma Compounds in Various Brewed Green Teas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study identifies and semi-quantifies aroma volatiles in brewed green tea samples. The objectives of this study were to identify using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) paired with a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) the common volatile compounds that may be responsible for aroma/flavor of the brewed liquor of a range of green tea samples from various countries as consumed and to determine if green teas from the same region have similarities in volatile composition when green tea samples are prepared for consumption. Twenty-four green tea samples from eight different countries were brewed as recommended for consumer brewing. The aroma volatiles were extracted by HS-SPME, separated on a gas chromatograph and identified using a mass spectrometer. Thirty-eight compounds were identified and the concentrations were semi-quantified. The concentrations were lower than those reported by other researchers, probably because this research examined headspace volatiles from brewed tea rather than solvent extraction of leaves. No relationship to country of origin was found, which indicates that other factors have a greater influence than country of origin on aroma.

Jeehyun Lee; Delores H. Chambers; Edgar Chambers; Koushik Adhikari; Youngmo Yoon

2013-01-01

155

Volatile aroma compounds in various brewed green teas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study identifies and semi-quantifies aroma volatiles in brewed green tea samples. The objectives of this study were to identify using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) paired with a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) the common volatile compounds that may be responsible for aroma/flavor of the brewed liquor of a range of green tea samples from various countries as consumed and to determine if green teas from the same region have similarities in volatile composition when green tea samples are prepared for consumption. Twenty-four green tea samples from eight different countries were brewed as recommended for consumer brewing. The aroma volatiles were extracted by HS-SPME, separated on a gas chromatograph and identified using a mass spectrometer. Thirty-eight compounds were identified and the concentrations were semi-quantified. The concentrations were lower than those reported by other researchers, probably because this research examined headspace volatiles from brewed tea rather than solvent extraction of leaves. No relationship to country of origin was found, which indicates that other factors have a greater influence than country of origin on aroma.

Lee J; Chambers DH; Chambers E; Adhikari K; Yoon Y

2013-01-01

156

Volatile aroma compounds in various brewed green teas.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study identifies and semi-quantifies aroma volatiles in brewed green tea samples. The objectives of this study were to identify using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) paired with a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) the common volatile compounds that may be responsible for aroma/flavor of the brewed liquor of a range of green tea samples from various countries as consumed and to determine if green teas from the same region have similarities in volatile composition when green tea samples are prepared for consumption. Twenty-four green tea samples from eight different countries were brewed as recommended for consumer brewing. The aroma volatiles were extracted by HS-SPME, separated on a gas chromatograph and identified using a mass spectrometer. Thirty-eight compounds were identified and the concentrations were semi-quantified. The concentrations were lower than those reported by other researchers, probably because this research examined headspace volatiles from brewed tea rather than solvent extraction of leaves. No relationship to country of origin was found, which indicates that other factors have a greater influence than country of origin on aroma. PMID:23966086

Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores H; Chambers, Edgar; Adhikari, Koushik; Yoon, Youngmo

2013-08-20

157

Optimization extraction process of aroma components in tobacco.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper concerns the optimization of the simultaneous distillation extraction process of volatile aromatic components in flue-cured tobacco leaves by single-factor experiments and response surface methodology (RSM). The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the aroma components was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The single-factor experiments were adopted to investigate the effects of five independent variables (including material/liquid ratio, distillation time, dosage of NaCl, volume of CH(2)Cl(2) and water-bath temperature) on the extraction of aroma components in tobacco. Furthermore, RSM was employed to study the relationship among the five independent variables and their effects on the extraction of aroma components. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were as follows: 1:12 ratio of material to solvent, 3.20 h distillation time, 1:1 ratio of NaCl and tobacco, 2:1 ratio of CH2Cl2 and tobacco, 60°C water-bath temperature. Under the optimized conditions, the maximum extraction amount of aroma components reached 2.27 mg/g.

Luo H; Cheng H; Du W; Wang S; Wang C; Chang S; Dong S; Xu C; Zhang J

2013-03-01

158

Truffle volatiles: from chemical ecology to aroma biosynthesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Truffles (Tuber spp.) are symbiotic fungi that develop underground in association with plant roots. Food connoisseurs describe their scent as sensual, seductive and unique. These mysterious fungi, however, do not produce their aroma for the mere pleasure of humans. Truffle volatiles act as odorant cues for mammals and insects which are thus able to locate the precious fungi underground and spread their spores. They also freely diffuse in the soil and mediate interactions with microorganisms and plant roots, potentially regulating a complex molecular dialogue among soil fauna and flora. The aim of this review is to synthesize 30 yr of research on truffle volatiles, spanning fields of study from chemical ecology to aroma biosynthesis. Specific aspects of truffle volatile ecology and biology will be discussed, including which species have been studied so far and for what purpose, what ecological role has been demonstrated or speculated to exist for specific truffle volatiles, which volatiles are common or unique to certain species and what their biosynthetic route might be. Future challenges in truffle aroma research will also be addressed, focusing on how high-throughput post-genomic technologies may advance our understanding of truffle aroma biosynthesis and chemical ecology.

Splivallo R; Ottonello S; Mello A; Karlovsky P

2011-02-01

159

Which impact for beta-damascenone on red wines aroma?  

Science.gov (United States)

beta-Damascenone, a C-13 norisoprenoid compound, is usually presented as an impact odorant in red wines. Its direct contribution to their aroma was investigated. Both free beta-damascenone and beta-damascenone precursors were isolated from various French red wines and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, revealing concentrations in the vicinity of 1 and 2 microg/L for free compounds and both forms, respectively. Gas chromatography-olfactometry analyses were also performed on dilutions of both red wine extracts and pure beta-damascenone. The very low detection threshold in olfactometry for this compound explains why it is found at the highest dilution factor in aroma extract dilution analysis methods. Moreover, determination of beta-damascenone's odor thresholds confirmed the huge importance of the matrix: beta-Damascenone is characterized by a very low perception threshold in hydroalcoholic solution as compared to red wine, where it is over 1000-fold higher. In hydroalcoholic solution, beta-damascenone enhanced fruity notes of ethyl cinnamate and caproate and masked the herbaceous aroma of IBMP. Globally, these results suggested that beta-damascenone has more an indirect than a direct impact on red wine aroma. PMID:17447790

Pineau, Bénédicte; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Dubourdieu, Denis

2007-04-21

160

Which impact for beta-damascenone on red wines aroma?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

beta-Damascenone, a C-13 norisoprenoid compound, is usually presented as an impact odorant in red wines. Its direct contribution to their aroma was investigated. Both free beta-damascenone and beta-damascenone precursors were isolated from various French red wines and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, revealing concentrations in the vicinity of 1 and 2 microg/L for free compounds and both forms, respectively. Gas chromatography-olfactometry analyses were also performed on dilutions of both red wine extracts and pure beta-damascenone. The very low detection threshold in olfactometry for this compound explains why it is found at the highest dilution factor in aroma extract dilution analysis methods. Moreover, determination of beta-damascenone's odor thresholds confirmed the huge importance of the matrix: beta-Damascenone is characterized by a very low perception threshold in hydroalcoholic solution as compared to red wine, where it is over 1000-fold higher. In hydroalcoholic solution, beta-damascenone enhanced fruity notes of ethyl cinnamate and caproate and masked the herbaceous aroma of IBMP. Globally, these results suggested that beta-damascenone has more an indirect than a direct impact on red wine aroma.

Pineau B; Barbe JC; Van Leeuwen C; Dubourdieu D

2007-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT OAK CHIPS ON AROMA COMPOUNDS IN WINE  

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Full Text Available Oak wood has considerable influence on amount of aroma compounds in wine. During the time, when wine is in contact with oak wood, compounds typical for wood diffuse into wine and enrich its aromatic complexity. Concentration of diffused aroma compounds in wine depends on several factors as contact time, storage conditions, wine properties, geographical origin and toasting degree of oak wood. Because of very small quantities of volatile aroma compounds in wine, it is necessary to use sensitive method as gas chromatography with appropriate sample preparation, to concentrate and analyse the relevant volatiles. In our work, four different wines and eight chips samples with different geographic origin and degree of toasting were used. With GC-MS following substances were determined in wines after 30 days of maceration with oak chips: furfural, 5-methylfurfural, guaiacol, 4-ethylguaiacol, eugenol, isoeugenol, cis- and trans-whiskey lactones, 4-ethylphenol. Our results show, that the degree of toasting influences the concentration of furfural, guaiacol and cis- and trans- whiskeylactone. Higher toasting leads to an increase of furfural and guaiacol and a decrease of cis- and trans-whiskeylactone in wine. The highest increase of volatile aroma compounds was determined in wine samples with French oak chips with intense toasting. We did not find any specific, definite differences among chips with different geographic origin.

Jana Návojská; Walter Brandes; Stefan Nauer; Reinhard Eder; Helena Fran?áková

2012-01-01

162

Home conservation strategies for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum): storage temperature vs. duration--is there a compromise for better aroma preservation?  

Science.gov (United States)

Expression of dissatisfaction with tomato aroma prompted us to lead this study on the impact of domestic storage conditions on volatile compounds. Two storage modalities (20 and 4°C) and two cultivars (Levovil and LCx) were used. Volatile compounds were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection after accelerated solvent extraction. Physical characteristics, lipoxygenase activity, hydroperoxide lyase activity; linoleic acid and linolenic acid were monitored. Storing tomatoes at 4°C induced a drastic loss in volatiles, whatever their biosynthetic origin. After 30 days at 4°C, the concentration of volatiles had decreased by 66%. Reconditioning for 24 h at 20°C was able to recover some aroma production after up to 6 days storage at 4°C. Volatile degradation products arising from carotenoids and amino acids increased when tomatoes were kept at 20°C, while lipid degradation products did not vary. Storing tomatoes at fridge temperature, even for short durations, was detrimental for their aroma. This should be taken into account to formulate practical advice for consumers. PMID:23561178

Renard, Catherine M G C; Ginies, Christian; Gouble, Barbara; Bureau, Sylvie; Causse, Mathilde

2013-01-30

163

Influence of volatile thiols in the development of blackcurrant aroma in red wine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A strong blackcurrant aroma was recently perceived in some red wines originating from the same appellation. Varietal thiols such as 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (4MMP), 3-(mercapto)hexyl acetate (3MHA) and 3-mercapto-1-hexanol (3MH) are compounds potentially responsible for the development of this aroma. In order to demonstrate the correlation between thiols concentrations in red wines and blackcurrant aroma intensity, a multiple variable analysis was realised with thiols concentrations obtained by chemical analysis and blackcurrant aroma intensities obtained by descriptive sensory analysis. The 4MMP concentration was very well correlated to the blackcurrant aroma, and 3MHA and 3MH present at high concentrations act as enhancers of the perception of this aroma. This correlation was further supported after performing a sensory comparison by classification test. The different factors that could impact on the development of blackcurrant aroma in red wine were discussed.

Rigou P; Triay A; Razungles A

2014-01-01

164

Influence of volatile thiols in the development of blackcurrant aroma in red wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A strong blackcurrant aroma was recently perceived in some red wines originating from the same appellation. Varietal thiols such as 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (4MMP), 3-(mercapto)hexyl acetate (3MHA) and 3-mercapto-1-hexanol (3MH) are compounds potentially responsible for the development of this aroma. In order to demonstrate the correlation between thiols concentrations in red wines and blackcurrant aroma intensity, a multiple variable analysis was realised with thiols concentrations obtained by chemical analysis and blackcurrant aroma intensities obtained by descriptive sensory analysis. The 4MMP concentration was very well correlated to the blackcurrant aroma, and 3MHA and 3MH present at high concentrations act as enhancers of the perception of this aroma. This correlation was further supported after performing a sensory comparison by classification test. The different factors that could impact on the development of blackcurrant aroma in red wine were discussed. PMID:24001837

Rigou, Peggy; Triay, Aurélie; Razungles, Alain

2013-07-17

165

Aroma characteristics of Moutai-flavour liquor produced with Bacillus licheniformis by solid-state fermentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The potential of Bacillus licheniformis as a starter culture for aroma concentration improvement in the fermentation of Chinese Moutai-flavour liquor was elucidated. The volatile compounds produced by B. licheniformis were identified by GC-MS, in which C4 compounds, pyrazines, volatile acids, aromatic and phenolic compounds were the main ingredients. The strains B. licheniformis (MT-6 and MT-15) produced more volatile compound concentrations, mainly C4 compounds, than the type strain of B. licheniformis (ATCC 14580) at the fermentation temperature of 55°C. Meanwhile, more volatile compound concentrations were produced by B. licheniformis in solid-state fermentation than in submerged state fermentation. Thus, the strains MT-6 and MT-15 were used as the Bacillus starter culture for investigating Moutai-flavour liquor production. The distilled liquor inoculated with Bacillus starter culture was significantly different from the liquor without inoculum. This was particularly evident in the fore-run part of the distilled sample which was inoculated with Bacillus starter culture, where volatile compounds greatly increased compared to the control. Furthermore, the distilled liquor with Bacillus starter culture showed improved results in sensory appraisals. These results indicated that B. licheniformis was one of the main species influencing the aroma characteristics of Moutai-flavour liquor. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This is the first report of an investigation into the effect of Bacillus starter cultures on the flavour features of Moutai-flavour liquor, which verified that Bacillus licheniformis can enhance aroma concentration in Moutai-flavour liquor. Bacillus starter culture brought C4 compounds, pyrazines, volatile acids, aromatic and phenolic compounds to the liquor, which gave a better result in sensory appraisals.

Zhang R; Wu Q; Xu Y

2013-07-01

166

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in an american bourbon whisky by quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thirty-one of the 45 odor-active compounds previously identified by us in an American Bourbon whisky were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays. Also for this purpose, new synthetic pathways were developed for the synthesis of the deuterium-labeled whisky lactone as well as for gamma-nona- and gamma-decalactone. To obtain the odor activity values (OAVs), the concentrations measured were divided by the odor thresholds of the odorants determined in water/ethanol (6:4 by vol.). Twenty-six aroma compounds showed OAVs >1, among which ethanol, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutanal, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (E)-beta-damascenone, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl octanoate, 2-methylpropanal, (3S,4S)- cis-whiskylactone, (E, E)-2,4-decadienal, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, ethyl-3-methylbutanoate, and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate showed the highest values. The overall aroma of the Bourbon whisky could be mimicked by an aroma recombinate consisting of the 26 key odorants in their actual concentrations in whisky using water/ethanol (6:4 by vol.) as the matrix. Omission experiments corroborated the importance of, in particular, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (3S,4S)-cis-whiskylactone, ethanol, and the entire group of esters for the overall aroma of the Bourbon whisky.

Poisson L; Schieberle P

2008-07-01

167

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in an american bourbon whisky by quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-one of the 45 odor-active compounds previously identified by us in an American Bourbon whisky were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays. Also for this purpose, new synthetic pathways were developed for the synthesis of the deuterium-labeled whisky lactone as well as for gamma-nona- and gamma-decalactone. To obtain the odor activity values (OAVs), the concentrations measured were divided by the odor thresholds of the odorants determined in water/ethanol (6:4 by vol.). Twenty-six aroma compounds showed OAVs >1, among which ethanol, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutanal, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (E)-beta-damascenone, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl octanoate, 2-methylpropanal, (3S,4S)- cis-whiskylactone, (E, E)-2,4-decadienal, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, ethyl-3-methylbutanoate, and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate showed the highest values. The overall aroma of the Bourbon whisky could be mimicked by an aroma recombinate consisting of the 26 key odorants in their actual concentrations in whisky using water/ethanol (6:4 by vol.) as the matrix. Omission experiments corroborated the importance of, in particular, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (3S,4S)-cis-whiskylactone, ethanol, and the entire group of esters for the overall aroma of the Bourbon whisky. PMID:18582086

Poisson, Luigi; Schieberle, Peter

2008-06-27

168

Enhancing safety and aroma appealing of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables using the antimicrobial and aromatic power of essential oils.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microbial and aroma attributes are within the most decisive factors limiting safety and sensory appealing of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Alternatively, several plant essential oils (EOs) are constituted of several volatile active compounds and most of them present antimicrobial potential and had different aroma profile. Considering these premises, this hypothesis article states that safety and aroma appealing of fresh-cut produce could be improved with EO treatment. EOs could prevent fresh-cut fruit decay; however, their volatile constituents could be sorbed by the produce, and according to the aroma notes of the antimicrobial oil, sensorial appealing of odor, and flavor of the treated produce might be affected positively or negatively. Specifically, garlic oil is a natural antimicrobial constituted by sulfur compounds, which are responsible for its odor and antimicrobial properties. Besides, fresh-cut tomato is a highly perishable product that needs antimicrobial agents to preserve its quality and safety for a longer period of time. From the sensorial point of view, aroma combination of garlic and tomato is a common seasoning practice in Europe and America and well accepted by consumers. Once the right combination of flavors between the EOs and the fresh-cut produce has been selected, safety and quality of the treated fruit could be improved by adding antimicrobial protection and extra aroma. Therefore, other combinations between EOs and fresh-cut produce are discussed. This approximation could reinforce the trends of natural food preservation, accomplishing the demands of the increasing sector of consumers demanding tasty and convenient fresh-cut produce, containing only natural ingredients.

Ayala-Zavala JF; González-Aguilar GA; del-Toro-Sánchez L

2009-09-01

169

Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco in China: spatial distribution and association with climatic factors  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco (FCT) are classified into light, medium, and heavy in China. However, the spatial distribution of FCT aroma types and the relationships among aroma types, chemical parameters, and climatic variables were still unknown at national scale. In the current study, multi-year averaged chemical parameters (total sugars, reducing sugars, nicotine, total nitrogen, chloride, and K2O) of FCT samples with grade of C3F and climatic variables (mean, minimum and maximum temperatures, rainfall, relative humidity, and sunshine hours) during the growth periods were collected from main planting areas across China. Significant relationships were found between chemical parameters and climatic variables (p < 0.05). A spatial distribution map of FCT aroma types were produced using support vector machine algorithms and chemical parameters. Significant differences in chemical parameters and climatic variables were observed among the three aroma types based on one-way analysis of variance (p < 0.05). Areas with light aroma type had significantly lower values of mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures than regions with medium and heavy aroma types (p < 0.05). Areas with heavy aroma type had significantly lower values of rainfall and relative humidity and higher values of sunshine hours than regions with light and medium aroma types (p < 0.05). The output produced by classification and regression trees showed that sunshine hours, rainfall, and maximum temperature were the most important factors affecting FCT aroma types at national scale.

Yang, Chao; Wu, Wei; Wu, Shu-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Bin; Peng, Qing

2013-05-01

170

Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Bartlett Pear Brandies by Means of the Sensomics Concept.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aroma compounds in two commercial Bartlett pear brandies clearly differing in their overall aroma profiles were detected in the volatile fractions by the aroma extract dilution analysis. In brandy A eliciting the more intense pear-like, fruity aroma, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, (E)-ß-damascenone, 1,1-diethoxyethane, 2- and 3-methylbutanol, (S)-2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid, and 2-phenylethanol were found with the highest Flavor Dilution (FD) factors. In brandy B judged to have a weaker overall aroma, also (E)-ß-damascenone, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate and 2-phenylethanol revealed high FD factors, while many odorants showed lower FD factors. Fourty-four odor-active compounds were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays, and the OAVs (OAVs; ratio of concentrations to odor thresholds) confirmed (E)-ß-damascenone and ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate as important aroma compounds in brandy A, while the OAVs of most odorants were much lower in brandy B. By aroma recombination studies the aromas of both brandies could be matched using reference odorants in the same concentrations as they occurred in the spirits. In 15 commercial Bartlett pear brandies ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate and (E,E)-2,4-decadienoate eliciting a pear-like aroma showed a reasonable correlation of their concentrations with the overall aroma quality.

Willner B; Granvogl M; Schieberle P

2013-09-01

171

Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology: Sweeping gas versus vacuum membrane distillation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of temperature (10-45°C), feed flow rate (300-500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2-2m³/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up. The data were compared to recovery of the aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). The flux of SGMD increased with an increase in temperature, feed flow rate or sweeping gas flow rate. Increased temperature and feed flow rate also increased the concentration factors (C permeate/C feed) of the aroma compounds. At 45°C the most volatile and hydrophobic aroma compounds obtained the highest concentration factors: 12.1-9.3 (black currant juice) and 17.2-12.8 (model solution). With black currant juice a volume reduction of 13.7% (vol.%) at 45°C, 400L/h, resulted in an aroma recovery of 73-84vol.% for the most volatile compounds. Compared to VMD, the aroma recovery with SGMD was less influenced by the feed flow rate but more influenced by the temperature. Higher fluxes were achieved during concentration by VMD and this reduced the operation time, which in turn reduced the degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevance: High temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption. This study gives important clues about the fate of berry juice aroma compounds and polyphenols during concentration by MD, and identifies the main factors influencing the aroma recovery efficiency with MD. Both SGMD and VMD are promising techniques for gentle stripping of berry juice aroma compounds and deserve further consideration as alternative techniques for gentle aroma stripping in industrial fruit juice processing.

Bagger-Jørgensen R; Meyer AS; Pinelo M; Varming C; Jonsson G

2011-07-01

172

Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology : Sweeping gas versus vacuum membrane distillation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up. The data were compared to recovery of the aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). The flux of SGMD increased with an increase in temperature, feed flow rate or sweeping gas flow rate. Increased temperature and feed flow rate also increased the concentration factors (Cpermeate/Cfeed) of the aroma compounds. At 45°C the most volatile and hydrophobic aroma compounds obtained the highest concentration factors: 12.1–9.3 (black currant juice) and 17.2–12.8 (model solution). With black currant juice a volume reduction of 13.7% (vol.%) at 45°C, 400L/h, resulted in an aroma recovery of 73–84vol.% for the most volatile compounds. Compared to VMD, the aroma recovery with SGMD was less influenced by the feed flow rate but more influenced by the temperature. Higher fluxes were achieved during concentration by VMD and this reduced the operation time, which in turn reduced the degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevanceHigh temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption. This study gives important clues about the fate of berry juice aroma compounds and polyphenols during concentration by MD, and identifies the main factors influencing the aroma recovery efficiency with MD. Both SGMD and VMD are promising techniques for gentle stripping of berry juice aroma compounds and deserve further consideration as alternative techniques for gentle aroma stripping in industrial fruit juice processing.

Bagger-JØrgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.

2011-01-01

173

Influence of thermal treatment of wood on the aroma of a sugar cane spirit (cachaça) model-solution Influência do termotratamento da madeira no aroma de uma solução-modelo de cachaça  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aging process of alcoholic beverages is generally conducted in wood barrels made with species from Quercus sp. Due to the high cost and the lack of viability of commercial production of these trees in Brazil, there is demand for new alternatives to using other native species and the incorporation of new technologies that enable greater competitiveness of sugar cane spirit aged in Brazilian wood. The drying of wood, the thermal treatment applied to it, and manufacturing techniques are important tools in defining the sensory quality of alcoholic beverages after being placed in contact with the barrels. In the thermal treatment, several compounds are changed by the application of heat to the wood and various studies show the compounds are modified, different aromas are developed, there is change in color, and beverages achieve even more pleasant taste, when compared to non-treated woods. This study evaluated the existence of significant differences between hydro-alcoholic solutions of sugar cane spirits elaborated from different species of thermo-treated and non-treated wood in terms of aroma. An acceptance test was applied to evaluate the solutions preferred by tasters under specific test conditions.As bebidas alcoólicas são, geralmente, envelhecidas em tonéis de madeira fabricados a partir de espécies do gênero Quercus sp. Devido ao alto custo de aquisição e necessidade de importação, existe demanda por alternativas de uso de outras espécies nativas e da incorporação de novas tecnologias que aumentem a competitividade da cachaça brasileira. Sabe-se que, com a aplicação de termotratamento, vários compostos são alterados, desenvolvem-se aromas, altera-se a coloração e as bebidas adquirem gostos mais agradáveis. Este trabalho mostra a diferença significativa entre soluções-modelo hidroalcoólicas de cachaça, envelhecidas em diferentes espécies de madeira, em suas formas termotratadas e não termotratadas, avaliadas em relação a seu aroma. O teste de aceitação aplicado verificou as soluções preferidas pelos provadores, nas condições determinadas do teste.

Marta Helena Fillet Spoto; Marcelo Machado Leão; José Otávio Otávio Brito

2011-01-01

174

Influence of thermal treatment of wood on the aroma of a sugar cane spirit (cachaça) model-solution/ Influência do termotratamento da madeira no aroma de uma solução-modelo de cachaça  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As bebidas alcoólicas são, geralmente, envelhecidas em tonéis de madeira fabricados a partir de espécies do gênero Quercus sp. Devido ao alto custo de aquisição e necessidade de importação, existe demanda por alternativas de uso de outras espécies nativas e da incorporação de novas tecnologias que aumentem a competitividade da cachaça brasileira. Sabe-se que, com a aplicação de termotratamento, vários compostos são alterados, desenvolvem-se aromas, altera (more) -se a coloração e as bebidas adquirem gostos mais agradáveis. Este trabalho mostra a diferença significativa entre soluções-modelo hidroalcoólicas de cachaça, envelhecidas em diferentes espécies de madeira, em suas formas termotratadas e não termotratadas, avaliadas em relação a seu aroma. O teste de aceitação aplicado verificou as soluções preferidas pelos provadores, nas condições determinadas do teste. Abstract in english The aging process of alcoholic beverages is generally conducted in wood barrels made with species from Quercus sp. Due to the high cost and the lack of viability of commercial production of these trees in Brazil, there is demand for new alternatives to using other native species and the incorporation of new technologies that enable greater competitiveness of sugar cane spirit aged in Brazilian wood. The drying of wood, the thermal treatment applied to it, and manufacturin (more) g techniques are important tools in defining the sensory quality of alcoholic beverages after being placed in contact with the barrels. In the thermal treatment, several compounds are changed by the application of heat to the wood and various studies show the compounds are modified, different aromas are developed, there is change in color, and beverages achieve even more pleasant taste, when compared to non-treated woods. This study evaluated the existence of significant differences between hydro-alcoholic solutions of sugar cane spirits elaborated from different species of thermo-treated and non-treated wood in terms of aroma. An acceptance test was applied to evaluate the solutions preferred by tasters under specific test conditions.

Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; Leão, Marcelo Machado; Brito, José Otávio Otávio

2011-06-01

175

Influence of water quench cooling on degassing and aroma stability of roasted coffee.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coffee roasting experiments with air cooling versus water quench cooling were carried out on laboratory scale with a fluidized-bed hot air roasting system (200 g batch size) and on production scale with a rotating bowl roaster (320 kg batch size). Two series of coffees with different water contents resulted, which were stored at 25 degrees C under normal atmospheric conditions. Carbon dioxide desorption was followed and stability of selected aroma compounds was tested with headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and stable isotope labeled compounds as internal standards. Degassing is faster in water-quenched coffees with higher moisture content, but pore size distribution in the different coffee samples did not correlate with degassing behavior. Bean firmness, which increases with increasing moisture content, might have an influence on degassing. Air- and water-quenched coffees exhibit similar stability of most aroma compounds despite different degassing behavior. However, evolution of dimethyl trisulfide was different in coffees with increased water content. This suggests higher thiol oxidation rates, a factor that is cited to be related to a faster loss of freshness attributes. PMID:17616133

Baggenstoss, Juerg; Poisson, Luigi; Luethi, Regina; Perren, Rainer; Escher, Felix

2007-07-06

176

Influence of water quench cooling on degassing and aroma stability of roasted coffee.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Coffee roasting experiments with air cooling versus water quench cooling were carried out on laboratory scale with a fluidized-bed hot air roasting system (200 g batch size) and on production scale with a rotating bowl roaster (320 kg batch size). Two series of coffees with different water contents resulted, which were stored at 25 degrees C under normal atmospheric conditions. Carbon dioxide desorption was followed and stability of selected aroma compounds was tested with headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and stable isotope labeled compounds as internal standards. Degassing is faster in water-quenched coffees with higher moisture content, but pore size distribution in the different coffee samples did not correlate with degassing behavior. Bean firmness, which increases with increasing moisture content, might have an influence on degassing. Air- and water-quenched coffees exhibit similar stability of most aroma compounds despite different degassing behavior. However, evolution of dimethyl trisulfide was different in coffees with increased water content. This suggests higher thiol oxidation rates, a factor that is cited to be related to a faster loss of freshness attributes.

Baggenstoss J; Poisson L; Luethi R; Perren R; Escher F

2007-08-01

177

Aroma Chemistry of African Oryza glaberrima and Oryza sativa Rice and Their Interspecific Hybrids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: To increase rice production in Africa, considerable research has focused on creating interspecific hybrids between African (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) and Asian (O. sativa L.) in an attempt to obtain the positive attributes of each in new cultivars. Since flavor is a key criterion in consumer acceptance of rice, as an initial inquiry we characterized and compared the aroma chemistry of selected cultivars of African O. sativa ssp. japonica, O. sativa ssp. indica, O. glaberrima, and their interspecific hybrids grown in West Africa using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-olfactometry and descriptive sensory analysis. RESULTS: Of 41 volatiles identified across seven representative rice cultivars grown in West Africa, 3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, styrene, eucalyptol, linalool, myrtenal and L-?-terpineol had not been previously reported in rice. Thirty-three odor-active compounds were characterized. 4-Ethylphenol and (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal were unique to O. glaberrima and pyridine, eucalyptol and myrtenal were described only in an interspecific hybrid. Descriptive sensory analysis indicated 'cooked grain', 'barny', and 'earthy' attributes were statistically different among the cultivars. CONCLUSION: The aroma chemistry data suggest that it should be possible to separate African cultivars into distinct flavor types whereby facilitating selection of new cultivars with superior flavor in African rice breeding programs.

Cho S; Nuijten E; Shewfelt RL; Kays SJ

2013-07-01

178

Fast aroma profiling to detect invert sugar adulteration with zNose.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rapid aroma profiling of food products is a potential technique for at-line food quality evaluation. In this work the potential of zNose, a surface acoustic wave-based sensor, was tested for honey quality assessment. Buckwheat honey was purposely adulterated with different levels of beet and cane invert sugar, and its aroma profile was measured after different periods of headspace equilibration. PCA using the relative peak areas as well as the full zNose spectra resulted in a clear separation between honey, and beet and cane invert sugar adulterants in the mixtures. PLS models were developed for quantitative estimation of adulterants using the entire spectra as well as the relative peak areas. Better predictions were obtained with the PLS models based on spectra than with those based on relative peak areas. A correlation of validation of 0.98 was obtained between predicted and measured percentage of adulteration. This model was also successfully validated with an external set of honey mixtures, resulting in an average deviation of 3% adulteration between the predicted and reference values.

Veraverbeke EA; Irudayaraj J; Lammertyn J

2005-01-01

179

Verification of aroma profiles of Jiashi muskmelon juice characterized by odor activity value and gas chromatography-olfactometry/detection frequency analysis: aroma reconstitution experiments and omission tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

To verify the aroma profile of Jiashi muskmelon previously identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry/detection frequency analysis (GC-O/DFA) and odor activity value (OAV) calculation, the synthetic blends of odorants (aroma models) were prepared and then were compared with the original Jiashi muskmelon juice aroma using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and electronic nose analysis (ENA), respectively. QDA and ENA both indicated that the model solution derived from OAV calculation more closely resembled the original melon juice aroma than that based on DFA data. Omission tests corroborated the significant contribution of five unsaturated aldehydes and alcohols with nine carbon atoms as well as five branched esters, in particular, the "fruity"-smelling ethyl butanoate and the "cucumber-like" (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienal to Jiashi muskmelon overall aroma. PMID:22970770

Pang, Xueli; Chen, Dong; Hu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Jihong

2012-10-09

180

Analysis of accelerants and fire debris using aroma detection technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this work was to investigate the utility of electronic aroma detection technologies for the detection and identification of accelerant residues in suspected arson debris. Through the analysis of known accelerant residues, a trained neural network was developed for classifying suspected arson samples. Three unknown fire debris samples were classified using this neural network. The item corresponding to diesel fuel was correctly identified every time. For the other two items, wide variations in sample concentration and excessive water content, producing high sample humidities, were shown to influence the sensor response. Sorbent sampling prior to aroma detection was demonstrated to reduce these problems and to allow proper neural network classification of the remaining items corresponding to kerosene and gasoline.

Barshick, S.A.

1997-01-17

 
 
 
 
181

Volatile Compounds in Honey: A Review on Their Involvement in Aroma, Botanical Origin Determination and Potential Biomedical Activities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in honey are obtained from diverse biosynthetic pathways and extracted by using various methods associated with varying degrees of selectivity and effectiveness. These compounds are grouped into chemical categories such as aldehyde, ketone, acid, alcohol, hydrocarbon, norisoprenoids, terpenes and benzene compounds and their derivatives, furan and pyran derivatives. They represent a fingerprint of a specific honey and therefore could be used to differentiate between monofloral honeys from different floral sources, thus providing valuable information concerning the honey’s botanical and geographical origin. However, only plant derived compounds and their metabolites (terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene compounds and their derivatives) must be employed to discriminate among floral origins of honey. Notwithstanding, many authors have reported different floral markers for honey of the same floral origin, consequently sensory analysis, in conjunction with analysis of VOCs could help to clear this ambiguity. Furthermore, VOCs influence honey’s aroma described as sweet, citrus, floral, almond, rancid, etc. Clearly, the contribution of a volatile compound to honey aroma is determined by its odor activity value. Elucidation of the aroma compounds along with floral origins of a particular honey can help to standardize its quality and avoid fraudulent labeling of the product. Although only present in low concentrations, VOCS could contribute to biomedical activities of honey, especially the antioxidant effect due to their natural radical scavenging potential.

Christy E. Manyi-Loh; Roland N. Ndip; Anna M. Clarke

2011-01-01

182

The aroma volatiles from Cystoseira stricta var. amentacea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aroma volatiles from the brown alga Cystoseira stricta var. amentacea, which is characteristic of the Aegean coastal areas of the Mediterranean sea, were isolated by a headspace technique and analyzed b GC/MS. More than seventy constituents were identified by their M S spectra and retention indices. The major constituents were cubenol (30.82%), hexanol (12.15%) and octanol (9.10%).

Gally A; Yiannovits N; Poulos C

1993-02-01

183

Analysis of organic sulfur compounds in wine aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfur-containing compounds in wines have been extensively studied because of their effect on wine aroma. The aim of this paper was to give an overview on the analytical methods developed to determine them in wines with special emphasis on gas chromatographic methods, as well as the results obtained. In addition, the problems occurring in application of the common extraction procedures, such as liquid-liquid extraction, static and dynamic headspace and solid-phase microextraction, are presented and discussed. PMID:10905736

Mestres, M; Busto, O; Guasch, J

2000-06-01

184

Analysis of organic sulfur compounds in wine aroma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sulfur-containing compounds in wines have been extensively studied because of their effect on wine aroma. The aim of this paper was to give an overview on the analytical methods developed to determine them in wines with special emphasis on gas chromatographic methods, as well as the results obtained. In addition, the problems occurring in application of the common extraction procedures, such as liquid-liquid extraction, static and dynamic headspace and solid-phase microextraction, are presented and discussed.

Mestres M; Busto O; Guasch J

2000-06-01

185

Aroma and taste perceptions with Alzheimer disease and stroke.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chemosensory disorders of smell or taste in humans have been attributed to various physiological and environmental factors including aging and disease conditions. Aroma and taste greatly condition our food preference, selection and, consumption; the decreased appetite in patients with known neurodegenerative diseases may lead to dietary restrictions that could negatively impact nutritional and health status. The decline in olfactory and gustatory systems in patients with Alzheimer disease and various types of stroke are described.

Aliani M; Udenigwe CC; Girgih AT; Pownall TL; Bugera JL; Eskin MN

2013-01-01

186

Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic `fingerprint` pattern representative of the vapor- phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The results to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

Barshick, S.-A.; Griest, W.H.; Vass, A.A.

1996-12-31

187

Volatile compounds responsible for aroma of Jutrzenka liquer wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jutrzenka is a sweet liquer wine produced in Poland from the grape variety of the same name, developed in Poland to withstand the harsh climate of winery regions. Jutrzenka wine has a characteristic aroma with strong fruity and flowery notes, which make it unique among other liquer wines as demonstrated in sensory profile analysis. The work was aimed at characterization of volatile compounds in this wine, with the emphasis on characterization of compounds responsible for its unique aroma. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) was applied to identify the key odorants using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) approach. To facilitate free and bound terpenes and C(13)-norisoprenoids identification solid phase extraction (SPE) was used followed by GC/MS. Among identified key odorants ?-damascenone was the compound having the highest FD (4096), followed by isoamyl alcohol, 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (FD=2048), methional, linalool, ethyl decanoate (FD=1024) and ethyl hexanoate, furaneol (FD=512). Other significant compounds were ethyl 2-methyl propanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and phenyl ethyl alcohol. Determination of odor activity values (OAV) showed the highest values for ?-damascenone (566), 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (288) ethyl hexanoate (32) and linalool (7). Jutrzenka exhibited also a rich profile of free, and to lesser extent bound terpenes. PMID:21831389

Jele?, Henryk H; Majcher, Ma?gorzata; Dziadas, Mariusz; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, Renata; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; W?sowicz, Erwin

2011-07-20

188

Volatile compounds responsible for aroma of Jutrzenka liquer wine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Jutrzenka is a sweet liquer wine produced in Poland from the grape variety of the same name, developed in Poland to withstand the harsh climate of winery regions. Jutrzenka wine has a characteristic aroma with strong fruity and flowery notes, which make it unique among other liquer wines as demonstrated in sensory profile analysis. The work was aimed at characterization of volatile compounds in this wine, with the emphasis on characterization of compounds responsible for its unique aroma. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) was applied to identify the key odorants using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) approach. To facilitate free and bound terpenes and C(13)-norisoprenoids identification solid phase extraction (SPE) was used followed by GC/MS. Among identified key odorants ?-damascenone was the compound having the highest FD (4096), followed by isoamyl alcohol, 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (FD=2048), methional, linalool, ethyl decanoate (FD=1024) and ethyl hexanoate, furaneol (FD=512). Other significant compounds were ethyl 2-methyl propanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and phenyl ethyl alcohol. Determination of odor activity values (OAV) showed the highest values for ?-damascenone (566), 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (288) ethyl hexanoate (32) and linalool (7). Jutrzenka exhibited also a rich profile of free, and to lesser extent bound terpenes.

Jele? HH; Majcher M; Dziadas M; Zawirska-Wojtasiak R; Czaczyk K; W?sowicz E

2011-10-01

189

Aroma-active ester profile of ale beer produced under different fermentation and nutritional conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A broad range of aroma-active esters produced during fermentation are vital for the complex flavour of beer. This study assessed the influence of fermentation temperature, pH, and wort nutritional supplements on the production of yeast-derived ester compounds and the overall fermentation performance. The best fermentation performance was achieved when wort was supplemented with 0.75 g/l l-leucine resulting in highest reducing sugar and FAN (free amino nitrogen) utilization and ethanol production. At optimum fermentation pH of 5, 38.27% reducing sugars and 35.28% FAN was utilized resulting in 4.07% (v/v) ethanol. Wort supplemented with zinc sulphate (0.12 g/l) resulted in 5.01% ethanol (v/v) production and 54.32% reducing sugar utilization. Increase in fermentation temperature from 18°C to room temperature (±22.5°C) resulted in 17.03% increased ethanol production and 14.42% and 62.82% increase in total acetate ester concentration and total ethyl ester concentration, respectively. Supplementation of worth with 0.12 g/l ZnSO4 resulted in 2.46-fold increase in both isoamyl acetate and ethyl decanoate concentration, while a 7.05-fold and 1.96-fold increase in the concentration of isoamyl acetate and ethyl decanoate, respectively was obtained upon 0.75 g/l l-leucine supplementation. Wort supplemented with l-leucine (0.75 g/l) yielded the highest beer foam head stability with a rating of 2.67, while highest yeast viability was achieved when wort was supplemented with 0.12 g/l zinc sulphate. Results from this study suggest that supplementing wort with essential nutrients required for yeast growth and optimizing the fermentation conditions could be an effective way of improving fermentation performance and controlling aroma-active esters in beer.

Hiralal L; Olaniran AO; Pillay B

2013-07-01

190

METHOD FOR PRODUCTION OF WAFFLES WITH COFFEE AROMA (VERSIONS)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: methods envisage preparation of recipe components, cutting of yacon, its drying in the microwave field at specified parameters of the process, additional drying by convective method and cryo-grinding in liquid nitrogen to produce flour, making dough from high-grade wheat flour and flour from yacon produced according to above-specified technology, yolks, salt, soda, vegetable oil, phospholipids and water, its shaping in the form of sheets and baking, extraction of lime peel with separation of according miscella, cutting of scorzonera or oyster plant or dandelion roots, its drying in the microwave field at specified parameters of the process, frying, impregnation with separated miscella with simultaneous increase of pressure, pressure reduction down to atmospheric one with simultaneous freezing of raw material and its cryo-grinding in the medium of released nitrogen to produce flour, its mixing with culinary fat, dry milk, sugar powder and waffle crumb to produce filling and shaping waffles from sheets and filling. ^ EFFECT: produced waffles have improved texture, coffee taste and flavour with no coffee added to the formula. ^ 3 cl

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

191

Characterization of cachaça and rum aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cachaça, the most popular alcoholic beverage in Brazil, is a sugar cane spirit similar to rum. Its production is around 2 billion liters per year, of which damascenone along with ethyl butyrate, isobutyrate, and 2-methylbutyrate were at the same potency in both cachaça and rum, whereas the spicy-smelling eugenol, 4-ethylguaiacol, and 2,4-nonadienal were much more potent in cachaça. PMID:16417309

de Souza, Maria D C A; Vásquez, Pablo; Del Mastro, Nélida L; Acree, Terry E; Lavin, Edward H

2006-01-25

192

KOMPONEN VOTALIT DANKARAKTERISASI KOMPONEN KUNCI AROMA BUAH ANDALIMAN (Zanthoxylum acanthoodium DC.) [Colatile Aroma Constituents and Potent Odorant of Andaliman (Zanthoxylum acanthoodium DC.) Fruit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Andaliman, a wild spice well known in Northem Sumatera, has a fresh citrusy and warm sweet peppery odor. This research was conducted to analyse pontent odorant from andaliman maceration extract using GC-MS, GC/O and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) method. Monoterpenes were the main constituens among the 24 identified components by GC-MS. Results od AEDA revealed that citronellal and limonene had the greatest impact on the aroma of andaliman with flavour dilution factor 128 and 32. ?-myrcene, 2-?-ocimene, linalool, ?-citronellol, neral, geraniol, gerabial, geranyl acetate, an unkwown compound, and a sesquiterpene also contributed to andaliman fresh citrusy and warm sweet peppery aroma.

C. Hanny Wijaya 1); Irene Triyanti Hadiprodjo 2); Anton Apriyantono 1)

2001-01-01

193

Chemical and aroma determination of the pulp and seeds of murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L., Malpighiaceae) é uma pequena fruta tropical de intenso aroma frutal e semelhante a queijo rançoso. Aplicando a cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução-olfatometria acoplada a espectrometria de massas e usando técnica de diluição de aroma ("Aroma extract dilution analysis"), as substâncias de maior impacto no aroma do murici foram identificadas como sendo: butanoato de etila (frutal, doce), hexanoato de etila (frutal), 1-octeno-3- (more) ol (odor semelhante a cogumelo), ácido butírico (queijo rançoso), ácido hexanóico (pungente, queijo) e 2-feniletanol (floral). A polpa da fruta é principalmente composta por ésteres etílicos, metílicos e feniletílicos, juntamente com ácidos carboxílicos, terpenos, delta-lactonas e algumas substâncias sulfuradas. As sementes, que apresentaram um aroma semelhante ao de óleo rançoso, também lembrando queijo, tem como componentes majoritários os ácidos linoleico, oleico, esteárico e palmítico. Seu aroma foi associado aos ácidos butírico e hexanóico, ambos minoritários. Abstract in english Murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L., Malpighiaceae), a small, tropical fruit, very popular in Brazil, has a strong fruity, rancid cheese aroma. High resolution gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry and aroma extract dilution analysis identified the most potent substances in its aroma as ethyl butanoate (fruity, sweet), ethyl hexanoate (fruity), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom like), butyric acid (rancid, cheese), hexanoic acid (pungent, cheese) and phenylethyl alcohol (fl (more) oral). Its pulp is mainly composed of ethyl, methyl and phenylethyl esters and by carboxylic acids, terpenoids, delta-lactones and some sulfur compounds. Seed analysis also showed a buttery and oily cheese aroma and GC-MS revealed linoleic, oleic, stearic and palmitic acids as foremost components, while the aroma was associated to the butyric and hexanoic acids present in minor amounts.

Rezende, Claudia M.; Fraga, Sandra R. G.

2003-05-01

194

Expression of genes associated with aroma formation derived from the fatty acid pathway during peach fruit ripening.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Changes in characteristic aroma volatiles, levels of fatty acids as aroma precursors, and expression patterns of related genes, including lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), alcohol acyltransferase (AAT), and fatty acid desaturase (FAD), were studied in peach ( Prunus persica L. Batsch., cv. Yulu) fruit during postharvest ripening at 20 degrees C. Concentrations of n-hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenol, and (Z)-3-hexenol decreased, whereas the production of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, gamma-hexalactone, gamma-octalactone, gamma-decalactone, and delta-decalactone increased with fruit ripening. Lactones showed a clear pattern concomitant with the climacteric rise in ethylene production, with gamma-decalactone being the principal volatile compound at the late ripening stage. Of the LOX family genes, PpLOX2 and PpLOX3 had relatively high transcript levels initially followed by a decline with fruit ripening, while levels of PpLOX1 and PpLOX4 transcripts were upregulated by accumulated ethylene production. Expression of PpHPL1, PpADH1, PpADH2, and PpADH3 showed similar decreasing patterns during ripening. Expression levels of PpAAT1 showed a rapid increase during the first 2 days of postharvest ripening followed by a gradual decrease. Contents of polyunsaturated linoleic and linolenic acids increased, and saturated palmitic acid levels tended to decline as the fruit ripened. The increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids closely paralleled increasing expression of PpFAD1 and PpFAD2. The significance of gene expression changes in relation to aroma volatile production is discussed.

Zhang B; Shen JY; Wei WW; Xi WP; Xu CJ; Ferguson I; Chen K

2010-05-01

195

Expression of genes associated with aroma formation derived from the fatty acid pathway during peach fruit ripening.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in characteristic aroma volatiles, levels of fatty acids as aroma precursors, and expression patterns of related genes, including lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), alcohol acyltransferase (AAT), and fatty acid desaturase (FAD), were studied in peach ( Prunus persica L. Batsch., cv. Yulu) fruit during postharvest ripening at 20 degrees C. Concentrations of n-hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenol, and (Z)-3-hexenol decreased, whereas the production of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, gamma-hexalactone, gamma-octalactone, gamma-decalactone, and delta-decalactone increased with fruit ripening. Lactones showed a clear pattern concomitant with the climacteric rise in ethylene production, with gamma-decalactone being the principal volatile compound at the late ripening stage. Of the LOX family genes, PpLOX2 and PpLOX3 had relatively high transcript levels initially followed by a decline with fruit ripening, while levels of PpLOX1 and PpLOX4 transcripts were upregulated by accumulated ethylene production. Expression of PpHPL1, PpADH1, PpADH2, and PpADH3 showed similar decreasing patterns during ripening. Expression levels of PpAAT1 showed a rapid increase during the first 2 days of postharvest ripening followed by a gradual decrease. Contents of polyunsaturated linoleic and linolenic acids increased, and saturated palmitic acid levels tended to decline as the fruit ripened. The increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids closely paralleled increasing expression of PpFAD1 and PpFAD2. The significance of gene expression changes in relation to aroma volatile production is discussed. PMID:20415420

Zhang, Bo; Shen, Ji-Yuan; Wei, Wen-Wen; Xi, Wan-Peng; Xu, Chang-Jie; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kunsong

2010-05-26

196

Generation of aroma compounds in sourdough: effects of stress exposure and lactobacilli-yeasts interactions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of the interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae LBS and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis LSCE1 and of their responses to acid, oxidative or osmotic stress on alcohol and aroma production were assessed. The exposure of S. cerevisiae LBS and L. sanfranciscensis LSCE1 cells to oxidative, acid or osmotic sub-lethal stress gave rise to a common or specific responses. Gamma-decalactone, 2(5H)-furanones and aldehydes were overproduced by LAB following oxidative stress. The acid stress induced both in yeasts and LAB, as well as in their co-cultures, a relevant accumulation of isovaleric and acetic acids and higher alcohols. A cross-exposure of yeasts and LAB to their preconditioned media, generated in S. cerevisiae a release of esters including esters of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids coming from membrane phospholipids. These esters were excreted also by yeasts following a pressure stress.

Guerzoni ME; Vernocchi P; Ndagijimana M; Gianotti A; Lanciotti R

2007-04-01

197

Some novel meatlike aroma compounds from the reactions of alkanediones with hydrogen sulfide and furanthiols.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The products of reactions of hydrogen sulfide with 2,3-butanedione and with 2,3-pentanedione in dilute ethanolic solution were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-odor port analysis. Components were also collected from the GC column and analyzed by 1H NMR. Mercaptoketones were formed which readily oxidized to the corresponding disulfides with traces of mono- and trisulfides. When 2-methyl-3-furanthiol or 2-furylmethanethiol was added to the reaction mixtures, a series of disulfides containing alkanone, 2-methyl-3-furyl and 2-furanmethyl moieties were formed. Some of these compounds have been found recently in the volatiles of cooked meat and in meatlike model systems. GC-odor port evaluation of the components of the reaction systems showed that disulfides containing the 2-methyl-3-furyl group had meaty aromas, whereas those without this group were sulfurous or onion-like in character.

Mottram DS; Madruga MS

1995-01-01

198

Generation of aroma compounds in sourdough: effects of stress exposure and lactobacilli-yeasts interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of the interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae LBS and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis LSCE1 and of their responses to acid, oxidative or osmotic stress on alcohol and aroma production were assessed. The exposure of S. cerevisiae LBS and L. sanfranciscensis LSCE1 cells to oxidative, acid or osmotic sub-lethal stress gave rise to a common or specific responses. Gamma-decalactone, 2(5H)-furanones and aldehydes were overproduced by LAB following oxidative stress. The acid stress induced both in yeasts and LAB, as well as in their co-cultures, a relevant accumulation of isovaleric and acetic acids and higher alcohols. A cross-exposure of yeasts and LAB to their preconditioned media, generated in S. cerevisiae a release of esters including esters of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids coming from membrane phospholipids. These esters were excreted also by yeasts following a pressure stress. PMID:17008156

Guerzoni, M E; Vernocchi, P; Ndagijimana, M; Gianotti, A; Lanciotti, R

2007-04-01

199

Characterization of the Volatile Substances and Aroma Components from Traditional Soypaste  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, the flavor substances of soypaste were extracted by a simultaneous distillation method and identified by GC-MS. The characteristic aroma components of soypaste were determined by the GC-O technique and the FD value of the characteristic aroma components was determined by AEDA method. ...

Yan Zhang; Xin Li; Chih-Kang Lo; Shun-Tang Guo

200

Differential effects of exposure to ambient vanilla and citrus aromas on mood, arousal and food choice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla) could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost phys...

de Wijk René A; Zijlstra Suzet M

 
 
 
 
201

Differential effects of exposure to ambient vanilla and citrus aromas on mood, arousal and food choice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla) could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost physiological sensors and semi-real life settings. Tests included physiological (heart rate, physical activity and response times), psychological (emotions and mood) and behavioral (food choice) measures in a semi-real life environment for 22 participants. Results Exposure to ambient citrus aroma increased physical activity (P P P P P Conclusions The test battery used in this study demonstrated aroma-specific physiological, psychological and behavioral effects of aromas with similar appeal and intensities, and similar food-related origins. These effects could be measured in (semi-) real life environments for freely moving subjects using relatively inexpensive commercially available physiological sensors.

de Wijk René A; Zijlstra Suzet M

2012-01-01

202

A further tool to monitor the coffee roasting process: aroma composition and chemical indices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Coffee quality is strictly related to its flavor and aroma developed during the roasting process, that, in their turn, depend on variety and origin, harvest and postharvest practices, and the time, temperature, and degree of roasting. This study investigates the possibility of combining chemical (aroma components) and physical (color) parameters through chemometric approaches to monitor the roasting process, degree of roasting, and aroma formation by analyzing a suitable number of coffee samples from different varieties and blends. In particular, a correlation between the aroma composition of roasted coffee obtained by HS-SPME-GC-MS and degree of roasting, defined by the color, has been researched. The results showed that aroma components are linearly correlated to coffee color with a correlation factor of 0.9387. The study continued looking for chemical indices: 11 indices were found to be linearly correlated to the color resulting from the roasting process, the most effective of them being the 5-methylfurfural/2-acetylfuran ratio (index).

Ruosi MR; Cordero C; Cagliero C; Rubiolo P; Bicchi C; Sgorbini B; Liberto E

2012-11-01

203

Cashew gum microencapsulation protects the aroma of coffee extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microencapsulation of materials rich in volatile compounds by spray drying presents the challenge of removing water by vapourization without loss of odour and/or flavour components. Crioconcentrated coffee extracts rich in odour components were used as a substrate core to evaluate microencapsulation with cashew gum from Anacardium occidentale L. In Brazil, cashew gum is a low cost alternative to the traditional Arabic gum. A suspension containing coffee extract and the wall material was dissolved in water and then passed through a spray dryer. Core microcapsules were microwave-assisted extracted (MAE) and the aroma protection of the microcapsules produced was evaluated using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The external morphology and size distribution of the microcapsules were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light scattering techniques, respectively. When comparing Arabic and cashew gum microencapsulation of coffee extracts both wall materials were observed to have similar aroma protection, external morphology and size distribution. Sensory analysis was employed to examine flavour protection and consumer preference with microencapsulation. These biochemical, sensory and structural data suggest that low cost cashew gum is a well suited alternative for odour microencapsulation to the more costly Arabic gum currently used in Brazil. PMID:18188728

Rodrigues, R A F; Grosso, C R F

2008-02-01

204

Cashew gum microencapsulation protects the aroma of coffee extracts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microencapsulation of materials rich in volatile compounds by spray drying presents the challenge of removing water by vapourization without loss of odour and/or flavour components. Crioconcentrated coffee extracts rich in odour components were used as a substrate core to evaluate microencapsulation with cashew gum from Anacardium occidentale L. In Brazil, cashew gum is a low cost alternative to the traditional Arabic gum. A suspension containing coffee extract and the wall material was dissolved in water and then passed through a spray dryer. Core microcapsules were microwave-assisted extracted (MAE) and the aroma protection of the microcapsules produced was evaluated using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The external morphology and size distribution of the microcapsules were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light scattering techniques, respectively. When comparing Arabic and cashew gum microencapsulation of coffee extracts both wall materials were observed to have similar aroma protection, external morphology and size distribution. Sensory analysis was employed to examine flavour protection and consumer preference with microencapsulation. These biochemical, sensory and structural data suggest that low cost cashew gum is a well suited alternative for odour microencapsulation to the more costly Arabic gum currently used in Brazil.

Rodrigues RA; Grosso CR

2008-02-01

205

Aroma interactions with starch : Induction of carbohydrate acting enzymes from Aspergillus nidulans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Starches are used to enhance aroma perception in low-fat foods. Aroma compounds can bind physically to the starch in grooves on the surface or they can form complexes inside amylose helices. This study has been divided into two parts: one part regarding binding of aromas to starches and their aroma-release, and another part regarding stimulation of a fungal secretome using different carbohydrates. In the first part, nine aromas and one aroma-mixture were mixed with nine different starches, including genetically modified starches. The objective of this sub-project was to bind aromas to the starches to 15 weight-percent. Aroma binding was tested on both amorphous starches and on native starch granules. A series of aldehydes and alcohols were also tested for binding to the starches. The aromas with the highest volatility were positively retained by starch, whereas for aromas with a lower volatility the starch had a negative effect on retention. No trends were observed that could relate aroma binding or retentionto physical qualities of the starch such as amylose or phosphate content. Still, the physical state of the starch was shown to influence retention of some aromas, possibly by diffusion through the outer layers of the starch granule or binding to grooves on the surface. Chemical reactivity of some of the aromas also influenced the retention. Analysing a series of aldehydes and alcohols revealed an influence of the size of the molecules on retention. Hexanal showed a remarkable drop in retention for all starches, and pentanol showed a favoured retention by native starch granules. The aroma compounds bound to the starch proved very difficult to release as only a minute fraction of the aroma added could be released from the starch, even under conditions favouring aroma release, as monitored by GC-MS and solvent extractions. Addition of water to the extraction lowered the amount of aroma released, and addition of a starch-degrading enzyme, ?-amylase, did not significantly change the amount extracted. Studies by differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray scattering did not show complete complexation of aromas in the amylose helices, but instead changes were observed that could be evidence of partial complexation. This complexation is not exclusive to the amylose helices, but also appears to include interactions in the amylopectin double helices. In particular, one of the analysed aromas showed a very noticeable reduction in melting temperature, but showed only a minor reduction in melting enthalpy and no evidence of amylose complexation. Using an enzyme-discovery approach in the second sub-project, the industrially relevant fungus Aspergillus nidulans was stimulated with different carbohydrates. Stimulation with starch induced expression of starch-degrading enzymes, while stimulation with the hemicellulose xylan induced expression of xylanases. One particular hypothetical protein was ubiquitously expressed. This protein had no apparent homology with known proteins, but may iv be involved in attacking otherorganisms as a weak homology with other proteins involved in membrane attack was detected. Degradation of secreted proteins was observed in some cultures. Identification of a glycoside hydrolase family 61 using xylan as carbon-source was not successful despite previous evidence for the induction of this enzyme.

JØrgensen, Anders Dysted

2011-01-01

206

Genetic analysis and gene fine mapping of aroma in rice (Oryza sativa L. Cyperales, Poaceae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigated inheritance and carried out gene fine mapping of aroma in crosses between the aromatic elite hybrid rice Oryza sativa indica variety Chuanxiang-29B (Ch-29B) and the non-aromatic rice O. sativa indica variety R2 and O. sativa japonica Lemont (Le). The F1 grains and leaves were non-aromatic while the F2 non-aroma to aroma segregation pattern was 3:1. The F3 segregation ratio was consistent with the expected 1:2:1 for a single recessive aroma gene in Ch-29B. Linkage analysis between simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and the aroma locus for the aromatic F2 plants mapped the Ch-29B aroma gene to a chromosome 8 region flanked by SSR markers RM23120 at 0.52 cM and RM3459 at 1.23 cM, a replicate F2 population confirming these results. Three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones cover chromosome 8 markers RM23120 and RM3459. Our molecular mapping data from the two populations indicated that the aroma locus occurs in a 142.85 kb interval on BAC clones AP005301 or AP005537, implying that it might be the same gene reported by Bradbury et al (2005a; Plant Biotec J. 3:363-370). The flanking markers Aro7, RM23120 and RM3459 identified by us could greatly accelerate the efficiency and precision of aromatic rice breeding programs.

Shu Xia Sun; Fang Yuan Gao; Xian Jun Lu; Xian Jun Wu; Xu Dong Wang; Guang Jun Ren; Hong Luo

2008-01-01

207

Aroma Classification Using One-vs-One and One-vs-Rest Methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computational Intelligence used in pattern classification problem can be divided into two different parts, one based on Neural Network and the other based on Statistical Learning. The Statistical Learning discovered by Vapnik on 70-est decade. For the pattern classification, Vapnik developed hyperplane optimal separation, which is known as Support Vector Machines Method (SVM). In the beginning, SVM was designed only to solve binary classification problem, where data existing are classified into two classes. To classify data whose consist of more than two classes, the SVM method can not directly be used. There are several methods can be used to solve SVM multiclasses classification problem, they are One-vs-One Method and One-vs-Rest Method. Both of this methods are the extension of SVM binary classification, they will be discussed in this article so that we can see their performance in aroma classification process. Data of aroma used in this experiment is consisted of three classes of aroma, each of them has six classes. The division of this class is based on alcohol concentration mixed into each of those aromas. For example, for aroma A, there are six kinds of aroma A with different alcohol concentration: 0%, 15%, 25%, 30%, 45% and 75%. The performance of these methods is measured based on their ability to recognize and classify aroma, precisely and match with the right class or variety of data existed.

Zuherman Rustam; Belawati Widjaja; Benyamin Kusumoputro

2003-01-01

208

Genetic analysis and gene fine mapping of aroma in rice (Oryza sativa L. Cyperales, Poaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english We investigated inheritance and carried out gene fine mapping of aroma in crosses between the aromatic elite hybrid rice Oryza sativa indica variety Chuanxiang-29B (Ch-29B) and the non-aromatic rice O. sativa indica variety R2 and O. sativa japonica Lemont (Le). The F1 grains and leaves were non-aromatic while the F2 non-aroma to aroma segregation pattern was 3:1. The F3 segregation ratio was consistent with the expected 1:2:1 for a single recessive aroma gene in Ch-29B. (more) Linkage analysis between simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and the aroma locus for the aromatic F2 plants mapped the Ch-29B aroma gene to a chromosome 8 region flanked by SSR markers RM23120 at 0.52 cM and RM3459 at 1.23 cM, a replicate F2 population confirming these results. Three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones cover chromosome 8 markers RM23120 and RM3459. Our molecular mapping data from the two populations indicated that the aroma locus occurs in a 142.85 kb interval on BAC clones AP005301 or AP005537, implying that it might be the same gene reported by Bradbury et al (2005a; Plant Biotec J. 3:363-370). The flanking markers Aro7, RM23120 and RM3459 identified by us could greatly accelerate the efficiency and precision of aromatic rice breeding programs.

Sun, Shu Xia; Gao, Fang Yuan; Lu, Xian Jun; Wu, Xian Jun; Wang, Xu Dong; Ren, Guang Jun; Luo, Hong

2008-01-01

209

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in beef and pork vegetable gravies a la chef by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By application of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on an aroma distillate isolated from a freshly prepared, stewed beef/vegetable gravy, 52 odor-active compounds were detected in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 4-4096. On the basis of high FD factors in combination with the results of the identification experiments, 3-(methylthio)propanal (cooked potato), 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol (gravy-like), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (deep-fried, fatty), 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (lovage-like), vanillin (vanilla-like), (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal (deep-fried), and (E)-2-undecenal (metallic) are suggested as key contributors to the aroma of the gravy. To get an insight into the role of the vegetables as sources of gravy odorants, a beef gravy was prepared without vegetables. The AEDA results revealed that, in particular, onions and leek are important sources of gravy aroma compounds, adding particularly the very potent, gravy-like smelling 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol to the overall aroma profile. Further compounds that were clearly derived from the vegetables and, thus, are important modifiers of the overall aroma were 4-vinyl-2-methoxyphenol, (E)-beta-damascenone, beta-ionone, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, and 2-(sec-butyl)-3-methoxypyrazine. Interestingly, none of the key odorants detected in the gravy can be assumed to be formed from a reaction between beef and vegetable constituents. A comparison of the odorants in the beef/vegetable gravy with a gravy prepared according to the same procedure, but substituting beef by pork meat, indicated that most of the aroma compounds were identical-although different in FD factors-but the tallowy smelling 12-methyltridecanal was detected as key odorant only in the beef/vegetable gravy.

Christlbauer M; Schieberle P

2009-10-01

210

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in beef and pork vegetable gravies á la chef by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

By application of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on an aroma distillate isolated from a freshly prepared, stewed beef/vegetable gravy, 52 odor-active compounds were detected in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 4-4096. On the basis of high FD factors in combination with the results of the identification experiments, 3-(methylthio)propanal (cooked potato), 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol (gravy-like), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (deep-fried, fatty), 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (lovage-like), vanillin (vanilla-like), (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal (deep-fried), and (E)-2-undecenal (metallic) are suggested as key contributors to the aroma of the gravy. To get an insight into the role of the vegetables as sources of gravy odorants, a beef gravy was prepared without vegetables. The AEDA results revealed that, in particular, onions and leek are important sources of gravy aroma compounds, adding particularly the very potent, gravy-like smelling 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol to the overall aroma profile. Further compounds that were clearly derived from the vegetables and, thus, are important modifiers of the overall aroma were 4-vinyl-2-methoxyphenol, (E)-beta-damascenone, beta-ionone, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, and 2-(sec-butyl)-3-methoxypyrazine. Interestingly, none of the key odorants detected in the gravy can be assumed to be formed from a reaction between beef and vegetable constituents. A comparison of the odorants in the beef/vegetable gravy with a gravy prepared according to the same procedure, but substituting beef by pork meat, indicated that most of the aroma compounds were identical-although different in FD factors-but the tallowy smelling 12-methyltridecanal was detected as key odorant only in the beef/vegetable gravy. PMID:19807161

Christlbauer, Monika; Schieberle, Peter

2009-10-14

211

Infinite dilution activity coefficients of apple juice aroma compounds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An apparatus based on the inert gas stripping method was assembled for measuring infinite dilution activity coefficients, gamma(infinity), of 15 apple juice aroma compounds in aqueous solutions. Values were estimated using the UNIFAC model and compared with experimental results; differences ranged from -80 to 118% with an average of 48% for the absolute values of the differences. Values predicted with recent UNIFAC parameters were in better agreement with experimental results than those obtained using original parameters. The effect of temperature on gamma(infinity) and relative volatility of ethyl acetate and acetone was also studied. Measurements were conducted for esters in solutions containing different levels of ethanol. A decrease in gamma(infinity) with increasing ethanol concentrations was observed for esters in solutions containing ethanol, especially at mole fractions > 10(-2).

Sancho MF; Rao MA; Downing DL

1997-11-01

212

Antifungal activity of aroma chemicals against seed-borne fungi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In vitro inhibition of 16 aroma chemicals was studied against five seed-borne fungal pathogens in the concentration range of 100 to 8000 ppm: Drechslera sorokiniana (Sacc.) Subram. et Jain, Phomompsis sojae Leh., Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc., Colletotrichum graminicola (Ces.) Wilson and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was computed for each chemical against each fungus. All the chemicals had shown dose-dependent inhibitory effect of mycelial growth. Eugenol, methyl eugenol, citral, 2-phenethyl alcohol, 2-phenethyl acetate and 2-phenethyl propionate were found to be highly effective against all the test fungi with MIC values of 270 to 1704 ppm and potentially hold promise in plant disease management and plant quarantine.

Dev U; Devakumar C; Mohan J; Agarwal PC

2004-09-01

213

Alteração de sabor e aroma em tomates causada por impacto  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tomates (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), 'Solar Set' e 'Agriset-743', foram colhidos no estádio verde-maduro (100% da superfície com coloração verde) e tratados com 100 miL L-1 de etileno gasoso a 20°C. Quando atingiram o estádio verde-rosado (menos do que 10% da superfície do fruto possui coloração vermelha ou amarelo-esverdeada), os frutos foram divididos em dois lotes. Um lote sofreu quedas de 40 cm de altura sobre uma superfície plana, rígida e lisa. Os frutos deste lote foram armazenados com os frutos-controle (que não sofreram dano mecânico) a 20°C e 85-95% de umidade relativa. No estádio vermelho, os frutos inteiros foram homogeneizados e um teste de análise sensorial foi imediatamente conduzido. Os painelistas foram capazes de distinguir entre frutos com desordem fisiológica causada por impacto e frutos não-injuriados, indicando que esta injúria alterou de maneira significativa o sabor e o aroma dos tomates analisados.

Moretti Celso Luiz; Sargent Steven Alonzo

2000-01-01

214

Impact of Australian Dekkera bruxellensis strains grown under oxygen-limited conditions on model wine composition and aroma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spoilage of red wine by the yeast species Dekkera bruxellensis is a common problem for the global wine industry. When conditions are conducive for growth of these yeasts in wine, they efficiently convert non-volatile hydroxycinnamic acids into aroma-active ethylphenols, thereby reducing the quality of the wine. It has been demonstrated previously that dissolved oxygen is a key factor which stimulates D. bruxellensis growth in wine. We demonstrate that whereas the presence of oxygen accelerates the growth of this species, oxygen-limited conditions favour 4-ethylphenol production. Consequently, we evaluated wine spoilage potential of three D. bruxellensis strains (AWRI1499, AWRI1608 and AWRI1613) under oxygen-limited conditions. Each strain was cultured in a chemically-defined wine medium and the fermentation products were analysed using HPLC and HS-SPME-GC/MS. The strains displayed different growth characteristics but were equally capable of producing ethylphenols. On the other hand, significant differences were observed for 18 of the remaining 33 metabolites analysed and duo-trio sensory analysis indicated significant aroma differences between wines inoculated with AWRI1499 and AWRI1613. When these wines were spiked with low concentrations of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol, no sensorial differences could be perceived. Together these data suggest that the three predominant D. bruxellensis strains previously isolated during a large survey of Australian wineries do not differ substantively in their capacity to grow in, and spoil, a model wine medium.

Curtin CD; Langhans G; Henschke PA; Grbin PR

2013-12-01

215

Impact of Australian Dekkera bruxellensis strains grown under oxygen-limited conditions on model wine composition and aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spoilage of red wine by the yeast species Dekkera bruxellensis is a common problem for the global wine industry. When conditions are conducive for growth of these yeasts in wine, they efficiently convert non-volatile hydroxycinnamic acids into aroma-active ethylphenols, thereby reducing the quality of the wine. It has been demonstrated previously that dissolved oxygen is a key factor which stimulates D. bruxellensis growth in wine. We demonstrate that whereas the presence of oxygen accelerates the growth of this species, oxygen-limited conditions favour 4-ethylphenol production. Consequently, we evaluated wine spoilage potential of three D. bruxellensis strains (AWRI1499, AWRI1608 and AWRI1613) under oxygen-limited conditions. Each strain was cultured in a chemically-defined wine medium and the fermentation products were analysed using HPLC and HS-SPME-GC/MS. The strains displayed different growth characteristics but were equally capable of producing ethylphenols. On the other hand, significant differences were observed for 18 of the remaining 33 metabolites analysed and duo-trio sensory analysis indicated significant aroma differences between wines inoculated with AWRI1499 and AWRI1613. When these wines were spiked with low concentrations of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol, no sensorial differences could be perceived. Together these data suggest that the three predominant D. bruxellensis strains previously isolated during a large survey of Australian wineries do not differ substantively in their capacity to grow in, and spoil, a model wine medium. PMID:24010603

Curtin, Chris D; Langhans, Geoffrey; Henschke, Paul A; Grbin, Paul R

2013-06-22

216

Characterization and classification of the aroma of beer samples by means of an MS e-nose and chemometric tools.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An electronic nose based on coupling of headspace (HS) with a mass spectrometer (MS) has been used in this study to classify and characterize a series of beers according to their production site and chemical composition. With this objective, we analyzed 67 beers of the same brand and preparation process but produced in different factories. The samples were also subjected to sensory evaluation by a panel of experts. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used as the classification technique and stepwise LDA based on Wilk's lambda criterion was used to select the most discriminating variables. To interpret the aroma characteristics of the beers from the m/z ions obtained, score and loading bi-plots were obtained by applying canonical variables. Because the beers analyzed were marketed with the same name and brand, we expected to be working with the same product irrespective of its origin. However, results from both sensory evaluation and use of the e-nose revealed differences between factories. With the e-nose it was possible to relate these differences to the presence (and abundance) of characteristic ions of different compounds typically found in beer. These results demonstrate that the HS-MS e-nose is not only an aroma sensor capable to classify and/or differentiate samples but it can also provide information about the compounds responsible for this differentiation.

Vera L; Aceña L; Guasch J; Boqué R; Mestres M; Busto O

2011-02-01

217

Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and aroma quality of anthograin liqueur  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Moderate consumption of wine, beer, whisky or liqueur is known to be beneficial for improving health because of the radical scavenging action of antioxidants present in them. Thus, antioxidant and aroma properties of anthograin liqueur made from purple wheat grain were evaluated for the added-value processing purpose of that grain. Anthograin liqueur showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content (TPC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) in comparison with three control samples Canadian iceberg vodka (CIV), Hiram walker special old rye whisky (HWSORW) and Wiser's De Luxe Canadian whisky (WDLCW). Only anthograin liqueur contained anthocyanins and its total anthocyanin content (TAC) was 81mg/l. In lipid-soluble phase, TPC and ORAC were 241.1 and 998.6mg/l for anthograin liqueur, 40.0 and 93.6mg/ld for WDLCW, 23.1 and 63.6mg/l for HWSORW, and 1.1 and 12.4mg/l for CIV, respectively. In water-soluble phase, TPC and ORAC were 685.5 and 1467.7mg/l for anthograin liqueur, 29.0 and 96.0mg/l for WDLCW, 36.4 and 99.2mg/l for HWSORW, and 2.0 and 42.8mg/l for CIV, respectively. Eight types of phenolic acids in anthograin liqueur, four types of phenolic acids in WDLCW and three types of phenolic acids in HWSORW were found and no phenolic acid was detectable in CIV. Total phenolic acids in anthograin liqueur, WDLCW and HWSORW were 28.8, 10.3 and 5.7mg/l, respectively. Similarity in aroma quality was found between anthograin liqueur and CIV by using the electronic nose. Purple wheat grain may have potential as a novel material for liqueur brewing.

Li W; Beta T

2011-08-01

218

Aroma potential of Brancellao grapes from different cluster positions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study the presence of aroma compounds in grapes of Brancellao (Vitis vinifera L.) was investigated in order to obtain its aroma potential fingerprint. It is well known that differences exist in aromatic compounds amongst grapevine varieties at ripening stages. Within the framework of an increasingly competitive market, the chance of obtaining different wines from vines of the same variety grown at the same vineyard is becoming of increasing importance. This can be done through the managing of the vineyard, but also some wineries have assayed the separation of the tip and shoulder berries of the clusters of a specific variety with this objective. In this work it is evaluated that, in the final stages of maturation, differences exist in the probable alcoholic degree, total acidity of the must, as well as in the aromatic composition of skin and flesh of berries coming from the tips and shoulders of the clusters. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was used to determine the aromatic composition, in the skin and flesh of each sample, either tip or shoulder berries from the clusters. The obtained results showed that there was not variability for the probable alcoholic degree and total acidity between the shoulders and tips, whereas there was variability for their aromatic composition. For the berries from the tips of the clusters most of volatiles were found in the flesh (except aldehydes) and spicy and floral nuances (with the only exception of ?-ionone) were in higher proportions. For the berries from the shoulders of the clusters, most of volatiles were found in the skin (monoterpenes, norisoprenoids, aldehydes, and C6 alcohols), where the flesh was slightly richer in aromatic alcohols, volatile phenols and pantolactone; ?-ionone and herbaceous nuances were in higher proportions. These results are promising for those wineries that are considering the chance of separating berries from tips and shoulders of the clusters for the elaboration of different quality wines.

Noguerol-Pato R; González-Barreiro C; Cancho-Grande B; Santiago JL; Martínez MC; Simal-Gándara J

2012-05-01

219

Analytical and sensorial characterization of the aroma of wines produced with sour rotten grapes using GC-O and GC-MS: identification of key aroma compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work, the aroma profiles of wines elaborated from sound and sour rot-infected grapes as raw material have been studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with the aim of determining the odor volatiles most likely associated with this disease. The effect of sour rot was tested in monovarietal wines produced with the Portuguese red grape variety Trincadeira and in blends of Cabernet Sauvignon and sour rotten Trincadeira grapes. Wines produced from damaged berries exhibited clear honey-like notes not evoked by healthy samples. Ethyl phenylacetate (EPhA) and phenylacetic acid (PAA), both exhibiting sweet honey-like aromas, emerged as key aroma compounds of sour rotten wines. Their levels were 1 order of magnitude above those found in controls and reached 304 and 1668 ?g L(-1) of EPhA and PAA, respectively, well above the corresponding odor thresholds. Levels of ?-nonalactone also increased by a factor 3 in sour rot samples. Results also suggest that sour rot exerts a great effect on the secondary metabolism of yeast, decreasing the levels of volatiles related to fatty acids and amino acid synthesis. The highest levels of ?-decalactone of up to 405 ?g L(-1) were also found in all of the samples, suggesting that this could be a relevant aroma compound in Trincadeira wine aroma. PMID:21348497

Barata, André; Campo, Eva; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

2011-02-24

220

Analytical and sensorial characterization of the aroma of wines produced with sour rotten grapes using GC-O and GC-MS: identification of key aroma compounds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present work, the aroma profiles of wines elaborated from sound and sour rot-infected grapes as raw material have been studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with the aim of determining the odor volatiles most likely associated with this disease. The effect of sour rot was tested in monovarietal wines produced with the Portuguese red grape variety Trincadeira and in blends of Cabernet Sauvignon and sour rotten Trincadeira grapes. Wines produced from damaged berries exhibited clear honey-like notes not evoked by healthy samples. Ethyl phenylacetate (EPhA) and phenylacetic acid (PAA), both exhibiting sweet honey-like aromas, emerged as key aroma compounds of sour rotten wines. Their levels were 1 order of magnitude above those found in controls and reached 304 and 1668 ?g L(-1) of EPhA and PAA, respectively, well above the corresponding odor thresholds. Levels of ?-nonalactone also increased by a factor 3 in sour rot samples. Results also suggest that sour rot exerts a great effect on the secondary metabolism of yeast, decreasing the levels of volatiles related to fatty acids and amino acid synthesis. The highest levels of ?-decalactone of up to 405 ?g L(-1) were also found in all of the samples, suggesting that this could be a relevant aroma compound in Trincadeira wine aroma.

Barata A; Campo E; Malfeito-Ferreira M; Loureiro V; Cacho J; Ferreira V

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

Albarino wine aroma enhancement through the use of a recombinant polygalacturonase from Kluyveromyces marxianus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The possible biotechnological application of a recombinant endopolygalacturonase of Kluyveromyces marxianus (KMPG) for the aroma enhancement of Albariño wine was studied. The addition of this enzyme to the must gives rise to a significant increase of the total compounds responsible for the aroma as opposed to the effect when using a commercial pectic enzyme. This increase also results in a significant rise of the odoriferous aglycones which are direct determinants of the aroma. Wines made by using the KMPG enzyme are characterised by a greater richness and diversity with regard to the number of aromatic compounds present, clearly differing from those obtained with a commercial pectic preparation. Based on compounds with odour activity values (OAV)>1, the wines obtained with the enzyme KMPG are richer in citric, balsamic, spicy and above all floral (violet and rose) aromas than untreated wines or wines supplemented with a commercial enzyme.

Sieiro C; Villa TG; da Silva AF; García-Fraga B; Vilanova M

2014-02-01

222

Aroma behaviour during steam cooking within a potato starch-based model matrix.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To help understand the organoleptic qualities of steam cooked foods, the kinetics of aroma release during cooking in a potato starch based model matrix was studied. Behaviour of components having a major impact in potato flavour were studied using solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography (SPME-GC). Evolution of microstructure of potato starch model-matrix during steam cooking process was analyzed using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Both aroma compounds that are naturally present in starch matrix and those that were added were analyzed. Both the aroma compounds naturally presented and those added had different behaviour depending on their physico-chemical properties (hydrophobicity, saturation vapour pressure, molecular weight, etc.). The physical state of potato starch influences of the retention of aromatized matrix with Starch gelatinization appearing to be the major phenomenon influencing aroma release.

Descours E; Hambleton A; Kurek M; Debeaufort F; Voilley A; Seuvre AM

2013-06-01

223

Structural and physical effects of aroma compound binding to native starch granules  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The interaction and physical/structural effects of aroma compounds, at high concentrations on dry native starch granules were studied using eight selected model compounds: acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulphide, diacetyl, allyl isothiocyanate, ethyl butyrate, citral, octanol and butyric acid. The maize, potato and pea starches used represent different typical structural and chemical starch characteristics. Retention of the different aroma compounds varied from a few to one hundred percent and starch was found to induce as well as reduce aroma evaporation depending on the aroma compound and the starch type. As deduced from DSC, powder XRD and SEM analyses, citral, butyric acid and octanol exerted specific effects on the starch granules manifested in local melting of crystalline layers and partial disruption of the granular meso structure. The most prominent effect was obtained with citral that generated surface wrinkles on B? and C?type polymorphic granules and aggregation of A?type polymorphic granules, decreased the melting temperature and suppressed the crystallinity of the starch.

JØrgensen, Anders Dysted; Jensen, Susanne L.

2012-01-01

224

Identification of potent odorants formed during the preparation of extruded potato snacks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extrusion cooking processing followed by air-drying has been applied to obtain low-fat potato snacks. Optimal parameters were developed for a dough recipe. Dough contained apart from potato granules 7% of canola oil, 1% of salt, 1% of baking powder, 5% of maltodextrin, and 15% of wheat flour. After the extrusion process, snacks were dried at 85 degrees C for 15 min followed by 130 degrees C for 45 min. The potent odorants of extruded potato snacks were identified using aroma extract dilution analysis and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Among the characteristic compounds, methional with boiled potato flavor, benzenemethanethiol with pepper-seed flavor, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline with popcorn flavor, benzacetaldehyde with strong flowery flavor, butanal with rancid flavor, and 2-acetylpyrazine with roasty flavor were considered to be the main contributors to the aroma of extruded potato snacks. Several compounds were concluded to be developed during extrusion cooking, such as ethanol, 3-methylbutanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one with geranium flavor, and unknown ones with the flavor of boiled potato, cumin, candy, or parsley root. Compounds such as methanethiol, 2,3-pentanedione, limonene, 2-acetylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, 2-methyl-3,5-diethylpyrazine, 5-methyl-2,3-diethylpyrazine, and (E)-beta-damascenone were probably developed during air-drying of the potato extrudate. PMID:16076130

Majcher, Ma?gorzata A; Jele?, Henryk H

2005-08-10

225

Recovery of volatile aroma compounds from black currant juice by vacuum membrane distillation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study evaluated the recovery of seven characteristic black currant aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) carried out at low temperatures (10-45 degreesC) and at varying feed flow rates (100-500 l/h) in a lab scale membrane distillation set tip. VMD at feed flow from 100 to 500 l/h at 30 degreesC gave concentration factors, calculated for each aroma compound as C-permeate/C-feed: from similar to4 to 15. The concentration factors increased with decreased juice temperature during VMD; at 10 degreesC concentration factors of 21-31 were obtained for the highly volatile aroma esters. The recovered levels of the highly volatile aroma compounds ranged from 68 to 83 vol.% with a feed volume reduction of 5 vol.% (10 degreesC, 400 l/h). The theoretically predicted aroma recovery as a function of the feed volume reduction was in accordance with the experimentally obtained values. VMD thus turned out to be a promising technique for gentle stripping of black currant juice aroma compounds.

Bagger-JØrgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.

2004-01-01

226

Recovery of volatile aroma compounds from black currant juice by vacuum membrane distillation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study evaluated the recovery of seven characteristic black currant aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) carried out at low temperatures (10-45 °C) and at varying feed flow rates (100-500 l/h) in a lab scale membrane distillation set up. VMD at feed flow from 100 to 500 l/h at 30 °C gave concentration factors, calculated for each aroma compound as C(permeate)/C(feed), from ~4 to 15. The concentration factors increased with decreased juice temperature during VMD; at 10 °C concentration factors of 21-31 were obtained for the highly volatile aroma esters. The recovered levels of the highly volatile aroma compounds ranged from 68 to 83 vol.% with a feed volume reduction of 5 vol.% (10 °C, 400 l/h). The theoretically predicted aroma recovery as a function of the feed volume reduction was in accordance with the experimentally obtained values. VMD thus turned out to be a promising technique for gentle stripping of black currant juice aroma compounds.

Bagger-Jorgensen R; Meyer AS; Varming C; Jonsson G

2004-09-01

227

Sensory evaluation of mixtures of maltitol or aspartame, sucrose and an orange aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The suitability of Beidler's mixture equation for mixtures of sucrose and maltitol as well as for mixtures of sucrose and aspartame was examined in the presence of an orange aroma. The mean scores for the attribute sweet remained constant for each combination of sucrose and maltitol and for each combination of sucrose and aspartame. Therefore, Beidler's mixture equation can be used to choose combinations of sucrose and maltitol and of sucrose and aspartame giving the same sweetness. Quantitative descriptive analysis of different solutions indicated that the flavour profiles of sucrose and maltitol did not differ significantly at a constant concentration of orange aroma. However, flavour profiles of solutions with increasing aspartame concentrations (but constant aroma levels) showed significantly higher scores for the attributes sour, chemical and aftertaste. Addition of orange aroma provided the different solutions with a more distinct flavour. The mean scores for the attributes orange, sour, fruity and aftertaste increased significantly for most of the sucrose-maltitol mixtures. This effect of orange aroma was even more pronounced in solutions containing combinations of sucrose and aspartame. Further comments on the attribute aftertaste showed similar terms for the different solutions, the most often mentioned being orange, sour, fruity and chemical for solutions containing the orange aroma. The aftertaste of solutions containing relatively more aspartame was mainly described as sweet and chemical. PMID:9530970

Nahon, D F; Roozen, J P; de Graaf, C

1998-02-01

228

Comparative study on the proteolytic activities and storage globulins in seeds of Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd ex Spreng) Schum and Theobroma bicolor Humb Bonpl, in relation to their potential to generate chocolate-like aroma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The cocoa relatives T grandiflorum (cupuacu) and T bicolor (macambo) are promising crop plants for sustainable agroforestry in the Amazon region of South America. The market for cupuacu is expanding since the fruit flesh is utilised by the foodstuffs industry. Attempts to commercialise chocolate-like wares from the seeds have failed so far because of unreliable product quality. It is not known whether this is due to an insufficient aroma potential of cupuacu seeds. We therefore investigated the proteolytic enzymes and the seed storage globulins which are both decisive for the formation of aroma precursors in cocoa. We found that the activities of the aspartic endopeptidase and the carboxypeptidase in T bicolor and T grandiflorum differed slightly from those in cocoa. The specificity of the carboxypeptidase for hydrophobic amino acids was quite similar across the three species, while the optimal pH of the T grandiflorum enzyme was lower than that of the other species. The qualitative and quantitative differences between the globulins indicate a lower maximum yield of aroma precursors in T grandiflorum and a higher maximum yield of aroma precursors in T bicolor, compared to cocoa. We conclude that the quality of chocolate-like products made from the studied cocoa relatives can be improved by adapting fermentation procedures to particular biochemical features of these seeds.

Reisdorff C; Rohsius C; Souza AdasGCde; Gasparotto L; Lieberei R

2004-05-01

229

Impact of growing environment on chickasaw blackberry (Rubus L.) aroma evaluated by gas chromatography olfactometry dilution analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma extract of Chickasaw blackberry (Rubus L.) was separated with silica gel normal phase chromatography into six fractions. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) was performed on each fraction to identify aroma active compounds. Aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA) was employed to characterize the aroma profile of Chickasaw blackberries from two growing regions of the United States: Oregon and Arkansas. Comparative AEDA analysis showed that the berries grown in the two regions had similar aroma compositions; however, those odorants had various aroma impacts in each region. The compounds with high flavor dilution factors in Oregon's Chickasaw were ethyl butanoate, linalool, methional, trans,cis-2,6-nonadienal, cis-1,5-octadien-3-one, and 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone, whereas in the Chickasaw grown in Arkansas, they were ethyl butanoate, linalool, methional, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, beta-damascenone, and geraniol. PMID:15853402

Wang, Yuanyuan; Finn, Chad; Qian, Michael C

2005-05-01

230

PRODUCTION OF NATURAL TRUFFLE FLAVOURS FROM TRUFFLE MYCELIUM  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention describes a process for the production of natural truffle (Tuber ssp.) aromas using cultures of truffle mycelium and the use of at least one aroma precursor to induce the production by truffle mycelium of volatile compounds characteristic of the natural aroma of truffle fruiting bodies. This invention also includes truffle mycelium (Tuber ssp.) cultivated according to the process of the invention, aromatized products having the smell and the taste of natural truffle fruiting bodies and extracted from said truffle mycelium, as well as aromatized substrates containing the same aromatized products.

SPLIVALLO RICHARD; MAIER CHRISTOPHE

231

Virgin olive oil aroma: characterization of some Tunisian cultivars.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fruits from four Tunisian cultivars of Olea europaea L. grown in the North of Tunisia were handpicked at the same ripening degree and processed with a laboratory mill. The oils were submitted to dynamic headspace and their volatile composition was determined. The results showed that the most important contributors to olive oil aroma are C6 aldehydes, alcohols, and esters. These compounds are biogenerated from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway. Furthermore, they pointed out the predominance of the oxidation of linolenic (LnA) acid over linoleic (LA) acid one. In this predominant part of LOX, the branch A giving rise to trans-2-hexenal, trans-2-hexenol was more important than the branch B giving rise to cis-3-hexenol and cis-3-hexenyl acetate. This pointed out that the isomerization of cis-3-enals forms to trans-2-enal ones is the dominant process of the branch B. The accumulation of the different metabolites in the oils varied according to cultivar indicating a close dependence on the enzymatic store which is genetically determined.

Dhifi W; Angerosa F; Serraiocco A; Oumar I; Hamrouni I; Marzouk B

2005-12-01

232

Efecto del deshuesado de la aceituna sobre el aroma del aceite de oliva virgen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Olive fruit stoning gives rise to an important modification in olive oil aroma. The level of this modification is a function of the cultivar. An increment in the content of six-carbon compounds (C6) was observed in olive oils obtained from the cultivars Verdial and Manzanilla, but not in the cultivar Picual. In the three cultivars under study, contents of five-carbon compounds (C5) and esters decreased as a consequence of fruit stoning. The modification of olive oil aroma composition in the cultivar Verdial caused by olive fruit stoning was observed to be due both to tissue wounding and to the absence of the olive seed during the crushing-malaxation process to obtain olive oil aroma. Both factors contribute independently to the content modification of C6, C5 compounds and esters in the olive oil aroma from stoned fruits.El deshuesado de la aceituna da lugar a una importante modificación del aroma del aceite de oliva virgen. La intensidad de esta modificación es característica de cada variedad. En los aceites obtenidos de aceitunas Verdial y Manzanilla se produce un incremento en el contenido de los compuestos de seis átomos de carbono (C6) que no se detecta en la variedad Picual. En las tres variedades estudiadas se observa un descenso del contenido de compuestos de cinco átomos de carbono (C5) así como del contenido en ésteres. En la variedad Verdial se ha comprobado que la modificación del aroma como consecuencia del deshuesado del fruto se debe tanto al daño tisular generado durante este proceso como a la ausencia de la semilla durante la molturación de la aceituna. Ambos factores contribuyen de forma independiente a la modificación del contenido de compuestos C6, C5 y ésteres en el aroma del aceite de oliva virgen procedente de aceituna deshuesada.

Luaces, P.; Pérez, A. G.; Sanz, C.

2004-01-01

233

Sensorial analysis and electronic aroma detection to compare olive oils produced by different extraction methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A sensorial analysis and an aroma analysis by electronic sensory devices were used to compare olive oils produced according to two different extraction methods. The extraction methods compared were the press system and two phase decanter. Samples were taken from the harvests of 2002-2004 and the olives were all from the same variety. The variety used was the Portuguese Galega sp. Olives were picked and technologically handled under predetermined and supervised conditions. Olive oils produced were better classified when the sensory analysis by a panel was applied than when an electronic sensory analysis was performed, even after sensor optimization. This observation is in accordance with the fact that olive oil has a low volatility matrix and “flavor”, rather than aroma, can give a clearer characterization than electronic sensory analysis alone, where aroma is the main characteristic evaluated.El análisis sensorial y el análisis de aromas por medio de sistemas sensoriales electrónicos han sido utilizado para comparar aceites de oliva producidos a través de dos sistemas de extracción diferentes. Los métodos de extracción comparados han sido el sistema de prensas y el decantador de dos fases. Las muestras fueron producidas durante las cosechas del periodo 2002- 2004, y las aceitunas eran todas de la misma variedad portuguesa Gallega sp. Las aceitunas fueron seleccionadas y tratadas tecnológicamente bajo condiciones predeterminadas y supervisadas. Los aceites producidos resultaron mejor clasificados cuando fue aplicado el análisis sensorial por panel que cuando se utilizó el análisis con detección electrónica de aromas, incluso después de la optimización de los sensores. Esta observación está de acuerdo con el hecho de que los aceites son una matriz poco volátil y que es el “flavour”, más que el aroma, el que junto con el gusto puede proporcionar una caracterización mejor que la detección electrónica, en la que el aroma es la principal característica evaluada.

Vaz Freire, L. T.; Cabrita, M. J.; Gomes da Silva, M. D.R.; Costa Freitas, A. M.

2011-01-01

234

A fermented meat model system for studies of microbial aroma formation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A fermented meat model system was developed, by which microbial formation of volatiles could be examined The model was evaluated against dry, fermented sausages with respect to microbial growth, pH and volatile profiles. Fast and slowly acidified sausages and models were produced using the starter cultures Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus xylosus. Volatiles were collected and analysed by dynamic headspace sampling and GC MS. The analysis was primarily focused on volatiles arising from amino acid degradation and a total of 24 compounds, of which 19 were quantified, were used for multivariate data analysis. Growth of lactic acid bacteria was comparable for model and sausages, whereas survival of S. xylosus was better in the model. Multivariate analysis of volatiles showed that differences between fast and slowly acidified samples were identical for model and sausage. For both sausage and model, fast-acidified samples had a high content of ketones, sulphides and methyl-branched acids, whereas slowly acidified samples had the highest content of methyl-branched alcohols, aldehydes, their ethyl esters, phenylacetaldehyde and methional. Furthermore, model repeatability with respect to pH, microbial growth and volatile profiles was similar to sausage production. Based on these findings, the model system was considered valid for studies of aroma formation of meat cultures for fermented sausage.

Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller

2003-01-01

235

Mechanisms underlying the toxicity of lactone aroma compounds towards the producing yeast cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To study the fundamental mechanisms of toxicity of the fruity aroma compound gamma-decalactone, that lead to alterations in cell viability during its biotechnological production by yeast cells; Yarrowia lipolytica that is able to produce high amounts of this metabolite was used here as a model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lactone concentrations above 150 mg l-1 inhibited cell growth, depolarized the living cells and increased membrane fluidity. Infrared spectroscopic measurements revealed that the introduction of the lactone into model phospholipid bilayers, decreased the phase transition temperature. Moreover, the H+-ATPase activity in membrane preparations was strongly affected by the presence of the lactone. On the other hand, only a slight decrease in the intracellular pH occurred. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the toxic effects of gamma-decalactone on yeast may be initially linked to a strong interaction of the compound with cell membrane lipids and components. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: These findings may enable the elaboration of strategies to improve yeast cell viability during the process of lactones bioproduction.

Aguedo M; Beney L; Waché Y; Belin JM

2003-01-01

236

Salt reduction in slow fermented sausages affects the generation of aroma active compounds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Slow fermented sausages with different salt content were manufactured: control (2.7% NaCl, S), 16% salt reduced (2.26% NaCl, RS) and 16% replaced by KCl (2.26% NaCl and 0.43% KCl, RSK). The effect of salt reduction on microbiology and chemical parameters, sensory characteristics, texture and volatile compounds was studied. The aroma compounds were identified by GC-MS and olfactometry analyses. Small salt reduction (16%) (RS) affected sausage quality producing a reduction in the acceptance of aroma, taste, juiciness and overall quality. The substitution by KCl (RSK) produced the same acceptability by consumers as for high salt (S) treatment except for the aroma that was not improved by KCl addition. The aroma was affected due to the reduction in sulfur and acids and the increase of aldehyde compounds. Aroma compounds that characterized the high salt treatment (S) were dimethyl trisulfide, 3-methyl thiophene, 2,3-butanedione, 2-nonanone and acetic acid.

Corral S; Salvador A; Flores M

2013-03-01

237

Instrumental and sensory approaches for the characterization of compounds responsible for wine aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 800 aromatic compounds have been identified in wine, some of them at the ng/l level. Wine, therefore, constitutes a very complex matrix, from which it is difficult to isolate a specific aroma character. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) applied to wine extracts is used to characterize odor-active zones that are often treated in a hierarchical way by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA). The aromatic impact of the volatiles is evaluated, generally by determining perception thresholds. This methodology has provided convincing results concerning wine flavors, but it does have its limitations. For instance, data on beta-damascenone have demonstrated that these methods could reach their limits for this volatile, in particular, because of the non-quantitative representation of aroma extracts of wines, and because of the difficulty to accurately determine the perception threshold in wines for a compound already present. For beta-damascenone, we have shown that its very low detection threshold with GC-O, its wide range, and its dependence on the composition of the medium resulted in overestimating its direct impact on the aroma of wine. Another way to facilitate the characterization of aromatic compounds was, therefore, investigated. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) methods were developed for the analysis of wine extracts. From an aromatic extract, 25 fractions with various flavors were thus obtained, and reverse-phase methodology was used for the selection and characterization of red- and black-fruit aromas in red wines. PMID:18618403

Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Pineau, Bénédicte; Ferreira, Antonio Cesar Silva

2008-06-01

238

Aroma Stripping under various Forms of Membrane Distillation Processes: Experiments and modeling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Concentration of fruit juices by membrane distillation is an interesting process as it can be done at low temperature giving a gentle concentration process with little deterioration of the juices. Since the juices contains many different aroma compounds with a wide range of chemical properties such as volatility, activity coefficient and vapor pressure, it is important to know how these aroma compounds will eventually pass through the membrane. Experiments have been made on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up which can be operated in various types of MD configurations: Vacuum Membrane Distillation , Sweeping Gas Membrane Distillation , Direct Contact Membrane Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation. The influence of feed temperature and feed flow rate on the permeate flux and concentration factor for different types of aroma compounds have been measured for these MD configurations. A general transport model for the flux of water and aroma compounds have been derived and compared with the experimental data. A reasonable agreement between the modelling and the experiments could be obtained. From the modelling it was possible to explain the large different in permeate flux and concentration factor that was observed for the different MD configurations. This is highly related to the heat and mass transfer resistances in the membrane as well as in the boundary layers adjacent to the membrane surface and how the driving force develops along the length of the membrane.

Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

239

Adsorption of volatile aroma compound 2-phenylethanol from synthetic solution onto granular activated carbon in batch and continuous modes  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reports a study on the adsorption of the aroma component 2-phenylethanol from an aqueous solution onto granular activated carbon, derived from coconut husks, using batch and continuous (packed-bed column) systems. In the batch mode, the contact time required to attain the adsorption equilibrium was 90min. The adsorption isotherms were evaluated at 20.0°C, 30.0°C and 40.0°C. In the continuous mode, the effects of flow rate and bed length were studied. Experimental data showed that the breakthrough and exhaustion times decreased with higher flow rates and increased with higher packed beds. The adsorption in the fixed-bed column was more efficient under the following conditions: flow rate of 3.5mLmin?¹ and bed length of 11cm. Based on the data acquired, adsorption appears to represent a promising method for the recovery of 2-phenylethanol lost during the instant coffee production process.

Carpiné D; Dagostin JLA; da Silva VR; Igarashi-Mafra L; Mafra MR

2013-08-01

240

Instrumental and sensory characterization of heat-induced odorants in aseptically packaged soy milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predominant heat-induced odorants generated in soy milk by ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) processing were evaluated by sensory and instrumental techniques. Soy milks processed by UHT (143 degrees C/14 s, 143 degrees C/59 s, 154 degrees C/29 s) were compared to a control soy milk (90 degrees C/10 min) after 0, 1, and 7 days of storage (4.4 +/- 1 degrees C). Dynamic headspace dilution analysis (DHDA) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) in conjunction with GC-olfactometry (GCO)/aroma extract dilution techniques and GC-MS were used to identify and quantify major aroma-active compounds. Sensory results revealed that intensities of overall aroma and sulfur and sweet aromatic flavors were affected by the processing conditions. Odorants mainly responsible for the changes in sulfur perception were methional, methanethiol, and dimethyl sulfide. Increases in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-acetyl-thiazole, and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline intensities were associated with roasted aromas. A marginal increase in intensity of sweet aromatic flavor could be explained by increases in 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, beta-damascenone, and 2- and 3-methylbutanal. Predominant lipid-derived odorants, including (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-octenal, 1-octen-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, and (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, were affected by processing conditions. Intensities of overall aroma and sulfur notes in soy milk decreased during storage, whereas other sensory attributes did not change. Color changes, evaluated by using a Chroma-meter, indicated all UHT heating conditions used in this study generated a more yellow and saturated color in soy milk in comparison to the control soy milk. PMID:17373812

Lozano, Patricio R; Drake, Maryanne; Benitez, Daniel; Cadwallader, Keith R

2007-03-21

 
 
 
 
241

A novel extracellular ?-glucosidase from Trichosporon asahii: yield prediction, evaluation and application for aroma enhancement of Cabernet Sauvignon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The production and application of novel ?-glucosidase from Trichosporon asahii were studied. The ?-glucosidase yield was improved by response surface methodology, and the optimal media constituents were determined to be dextrin 4.67% (w/v), yeast extract 2.99% (w/v), MgSO(4) 0.01% (w/v), and K(2) HPO(4) 0.02% (w/v). As a result, ?-glucosidase production was enhanced from 123.72 to 215.66 U/L. The effects of different enological factors on the activity of ?-glucosidases from T. asahii were investigated in comparison to commercial enzymes. ?-Glucosidase from T. asahii was activated in the presence of sugars in the range from 10% to 40% (w/v), with the exception of glucose (slight inhibition), and retained higher relative activities than commercial enzymes under the same conditions. In addition, ethanol, in concentrations between 5% and 20% (v/v), also increased the ?-glucosidase activity. Although the ?-glucosidase activity decreased with decreasing pH, the residual activity of T. asahii was still above 50% at the average wine pH (pH 3.5). Due to these properties, extracellular ?-glucosidase from T. asahii exhibited a better ability than commercial enzymes in hydrolyzing aromatic precursors that remained in young finished wine. The excellent performs of this ?-glucosidase in wine aroma enhancement and sensory evaluation indicated that the ?-glucosidase has a potential application to individuate suitable preparations that can complement and optimize grape or wine quality during the winemaking process or in the final wine. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The present study demonstrated the usefulness of response surface methodology based on the central composite design for yield enhancement of ?-glucosidase from T. asahii. The investigation of the primary characteristics of the enzyme and its application in young red wine suggested that the ?-glucosidase from T. asahii can provide more impetus for aroma improvement in the future.

Wang Y; Xu Y; Li J

2012-08-01

242

Changes in volatile aroma compounds of pineapple (Ananas comosus) during freezing and thawing  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Changes in the volatile aroma compounds of pineapple (Ananas comosus) during freezing and thawing were compared against fresh samples to determine the effect of freezing on pineapple flavour. An HS?SPME–GC–MS analysis showed that the Smooth Cayenne pineapple variety had nineteen volatile compounds, in four classes of compounds including fourteen esters, two hydrocarbons, two sulphur?containing compounds and one lactone. The main characteristic volatile compounds of the fresh pineapple were methyl hexanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl 3?methylthiopropanoate and 1?(E,Z)?3,5?undecatriene. Freeze–thaw cycles were associated with the loss of some volatile aroma compounds, particularly the esters which were found to be the main characteristic of fresh pineapples. The freezing and thawing process was found to cause damage to the pineapple tissues due to ice recrystallisation and dehydration which lead to the reduction of volatile aroma compounds.

Kaewtathip T; Charoenrein S

2012-05-01

243

Recuperação e concentração de componentes do aroma de caju (Anacardium occidentale L.) por pervaporação/ Recovery of aroma compounds of cashew apple fruit (Anacardium occidentale L.) by pervaporation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A pervaporação é um processo de separação por membranas, no qual misturas líquidas são fracionadas devido à sua vaporização parcial através de uma membrana densa de permeabilidade seletiva. Este processo pode ser utilizado na recuperação e concentração de componentes de aromas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a pervaporação para obtenção de um extrato natural de aroma de caju, que poderá ser utilizado como aditivo na indústria de alimentos. Polp (more) a de caju foi a matéria-prima utilizada no trabalho. O processo de pervaporação foi conduzido a 25 e 35 °C em membranas de polidimetilsiloxano. Foram recolhidas amostras do suco de caju, no início e ao final do processo, e do permeado para a caracterização do perfil aromático através de CG-EM. O processo de pervaporação apresentou um alto fluxo de permeado para o suco de caju, 0,11 e 0,17 kg.hm-2 a 25 e 35 °C, respectivamente. Os cromatogramas revelaram um grande aumento no número de picos nas amostras de permeado em relação aos cromatogramas das amostras do suco de caju original, sendo que cerca de 50% dos componentes identificados no permeado apresentaram um acréscimo em suas áreas em relação aos do suco original, indicando a potencialidade deste processo para a concentração do aroma de caju. Abstract in english Pervaporation is a membrane separation process in which components from liquid mixtures are fractionated due to their partial vaporisation through a dense selective membrane. This process can be used to recover aroma compounds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the pervaporation to obtain a natural aroma extract from cashew apple fruit, which can be used as an additive in the food industry. Cashew pulp was used as raw material. Pervaporation was carried out at 25 (more) and 35 °C using polymethylsiloxane membranes. Samples of the cashew juice in the beginning and at the end of the pervaporation and from the permeate were picked to characterise the aromatic profile by GC-MS. The pervaporation of the cashew juice presented a high permeate flux, 0.11 kgh-1m-2 and 0.17 kg.hm-2, at 25 and 35 °C, respectively. The chromatograms showed an increase in the number of compounds in the permeate samples when compared to the chromatograms of the cashew juice. By comparing the peak areas, it could be observed that almost 50% of the identified components in the permeate samples presented an increase in the peak area, showing the potentiality of this process to the concentration of the aroma of cashew apple juice.

Assis, André von Randow de; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Matta, Virgínia Martins da; Cabral, Lourdes Maria Corrêa

2007-06-01

244

AROMA CONTENT OF FRESH BASIL (OCIMUM BASILICUM L.) LEAVES IS AFFECTED BY LIGHT REFLECTED FROM COLORED MULCHES  

Science.gov (United States)

Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an herb that is used to add a distinct aroma and flavor to food. Aroma compounds emitted from fully-expanded fresh leaves that were grown in drip-irrigated field plots covered with different colors of polyethylene mulch were compared. The colors were selected to ...

245

O aroma ambiental e sua relação com as avaliações e intenções do consumidor no varejo/ Ambient scent and its relationship with consumer evaluations and intentions in retail/ El aroma ambiental y su relación con las evaluaciones e intenciones del consumidor en el comercio minorista  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A atmosfera de uma loja é capaz de provocar emoções e comportamentos que estimulam a compra. Entre as suas dimensões, está o aroma ambiental, adicionado artificialmente ao ambiente. Este artigo investiga a relação entre a presença de aroma ambiental no varejo e as avaliações de loja, ambiente de loja e produtos, além das intenções comportamentais relativas ao retorno e ao tempo gasto na loja. A pesquisa teve uma etapa exploratória, exame de publicações em (more) fisiologia, psicologia e comportamento do consumidor, para construção do referencial teórico e formulação das hipóteses, e outra causal, quase experimento, para identificar as relações de causa e efeito na presença de aroma. O estudo foi conduzido em uma butique de frutos do mar, e os instrumentos de coleta de dados, escalas de diferencial semântico, basearam-se em pesquisas similares. As análises incluíram técnicas de estatística descritiva e teste de hipóteses. Os resultados revelaram que a presença de aroma ambiental não aumentou as avaliações nem a intenção de retorno, mas reteve o consumidor por mais tempo na loja. Abstract in spanish La atmósfera de un negocio es capaz de generar emociones y comportamientos que estimulan la compra. Entre sus dimensiones, está el aroma ambiental, adicionado de modo artificial al ambiente. Este artículo averigua la relación entre la presencia de aroma ambiental en el comercio minorista y las evaluaciones de negocio, ambiente de negocio y productos, además de las intenciones de comportamiento con respecto al retorno y al tiempo dedicado al negocio. La investigación (more) tuvo una etapa exploratoria, examen de publicaciones en fisiología, psicología y comportamiento del consumidor, para construcción del referencial teórico y formulación de las hipótesis, y otra causal, casi-experimento, para identificar las relaciones de causa y efecto en la presencia del aroma. El estudio fue conducido en una especie de boutique para frutos del mar y, los instrumentos de colecta de datos, escalas de diferencial semántico, basaranse en investigaciones similares. Los análisis han incluido técnicas de estadística descriptiva y teste de hipótesis. Los resultados han revelado que la presencia de aroma ambiental no aumentó las evaluaciones ni la intención del retorno, pero mantuvo el consumidor por más tiempo en el negocio. Abstract in english The atmosphere of a store can be used to produce specific emotions that enhance purchase probability, and the ambient scent, artificially added, is among its dimensions. This article investigates the relationship between the presence of an ambient scent in a retail store, and customers' evaluation of the store, its environment and products, as well as the behavioral intentions related to return and time spent in the store. The research design included an exploratory stage (more) , examination of publications in the fields of physiology, psychology and consumer behavior, to provide the conceptual background and to formulate research hypothesis; and a causal stage, quasi-experiment, to verify the effects of scent presence. Semantic differential scales were employed for data collection. Descriptive statistics and hypothesis test were performed for data analysis and the results revealed that the scent presence did not improve the evaluations or the intent to return but retained the consumer longer in the store.

Costa, André Luiz Carvalho Nunes da; Farias, Salomão Alencar de

2011-12-01

246

Global grape aroma potential and its individual analysis by SBSE–GC–MS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Among the aroma compounds present within grapes, a significant part is assumed to come from specific odourless precursors found mainly as glycosidic compounds which are known as bound fraction. In this paper, the individual composition of non-aromatic red grape bound fraction has been assayed for first time by SBSE–GC–MS and compared with the global total aroma potential measured spectrophotometrically at the wineries, in which the anthocyanins interferences have been removed. Glycosidic aroma compounds have been extracted by macerating grapes with different extractants (EtOHaq or SO2) at different times and subjected to acidic hydrolysis at 70 °C for 2 h. The best extraction condition, expressed as the higher aroma compounds concentration (terpenes + C13 norisoprenoids + 2-phenylethanol + C6 compounds), was the ethanolic aqueous extraction carried out for 2 h, reducing considerably the extraction times proposed in the literature. The method was successfully used to discriminate non-aromatic red grape varieties, (Petit-Verdot, Merlot and Monastrell) being limonene, linalool, 2-hexen-1-ol, TDN and 2-phenylethanol the aromas that contributed most to the differentiation. An aromatic white table grape such as Early sugar was also assayed to check its higher volatile composition in comparison with the other red varieties. The percentage of favourable aromas (terpenes + C13 norisoprensoids + bencene derivates) is always higher than the unfavourable ones (C6) for all tested varieties, especially Early Sugar. It has also been observe that the spectrophotometric measurements are overestimated when compared with SBSE–GC–MS, probably due to the free sugar content and other glycosidic compounds.

Pedroza MiguelA; Zalacain Amaya; Lara JoseFelix; Salinas MRosario

2010-05-01

247

Identification of aroma active compounds in orange essence oil using gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using GC-MS and GC-flame ionization detection (FID)/olfactometry, 95 volatile components were detected in orange essence oil, of which 55 were aroma active. In terms of FID peak area the most abundant compounds were: limonene, 94.5%; myrcene, 1%; valencene, 0.8%; linalool, 0.7%, and octanal, decanal, and ethyl butyrate, 0.3% each. One hundred percent of the aroma activity was generated by slightly more than 4% of the total volatiles. The most intense aromas were produced by octanal, wine lactone, linalool, decanal, beta-ionone, citronellal, and beta-sinensal. Potent aroma components reported for the first time in orange essence oil include: E-2-octenal, 1-octen-3-ol, Z-4-decenal, E,E-2,4-nonadienal, guaiacol, gamma-octalactone, and m-cresol. Over 20 compounds were identified for the first time in orange essence oil using MS, however, most did not exhibit aroma activity. PMID:12862384

Högnadóttir, Aslaug; Rouseff, Russell L

2003-05-23

248

Identification of aroma active compounds in orange essence oil using gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using GC-MS and GC-flame ionization detection (FID)/olfactometry, 95 volatile components were detected in orange essence oil, of which 55 were aroma active. In terms of FID peak area the most abundant compounds were: limonene, 94.5%; myrcene, 1%; valencene, 0.8%; linalool, 0.7%, and octanal, decanal, and ethyl butyrate, 0.3% each. One hundred percent of the aroma activity was generated by slightly more than 4% of the total volatiles. The most intense aromas were produced by octanal, wine lactone, linalool, decanal, beta-ionone, citronellal, and beta-sinensal. Potent aroma components reported for the first time in orange essence oil include: E-2-octenal, 1-octen-3-ol, Z-4-decenal, E,E-2,4-nonadienal, guaiacol, gamma-octalactone, and m-cresol. Over 20 compounds were identified for the first time in orange essence oil using MS, however, most did not exhibit aroma activity.

Högnadóttir A; Rouseff RL

2003-05-01

249

Sensory and chemical characterisation of the aroma of Prieto Picudo rose wines: The differential role of autochthonous yeast strains on aroma profiles  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study evaluates the specific impact of isolated yeast strains on the aromatic profile of fermented musts from Prieto Picudo, an autochthonous Castilla y León (Spain) red grape variety with an increasing demand in the local marketplace. For this purpose, the aroma profiles of wines elaborated from Prieto Picudo grapes have been studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC–O) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), with the aim of determining the potential of each strain to generate distinctive varietal and fermentation-derived aromatic compounds. The results have shown that the yeast strain exerts a critical influence on the levels of some fermentative (linear and branched ethyl esters, fatty acids, ethyl phenylacetate) and varietal compounds (4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone, 3-mercaptohexylacetate, ?-damascenone), thus inducing a deep influence on the final aroma of the wine. Combination of both sensory and chemical data arises as a major tool to monitor the different patterns of aroma release and formation from selected yeast strains during the winemaking process.

Álvarez-Pérez JM; Campo E; San-Juan F; Coque JJR; Ferreira V; Hernández-Orte P

2012-07-01

250

Identification of novel aroma-active thiols in pan-roasted white sesame seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Screening for aroma-active compounds in an aroma distillate obtained from freshly pan-roasted sesame seeds by aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 32 odorants in the FD factor range of 2-2048, 29 of which could be identified. The highest FD factors were found for the coffee-like smelling 2-furfurylthiol, the caramel-like smelling 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, the coffee-like smelling 2-thenylthiol (thiophen-2-yl-methylthiol), and the clove-like smelling 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol. In addition, 9 odor-active thiols with sulfurous, meaty, and/or catty, black-currant-like odors were identified for the first time in roasted sesame seeds. Among them, 2-methyl-1-propene-1-thiol, (Z)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (Z)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, and 4-mercapto-3-hexanone were previously unknown as food constituents. Their structures were confirmed by comparing their mass spectra and retention indices as well as their sensory properties with those of synthesized reference compounds. The relatively unstable 1-alkene-1-thiols represent a new class of food odorants and are suggested as the key contributors to the characteristic, but quickly vanishing, aroma of freshly ground roasted sesame seeds. PMID:20491509

Tamura, Hitoshi; Fujita, Akira; Steinhaus, Martin; Takahisa, Eisuke; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Schieberle, Peter

2010-06-23

251

Identification of aroma?active compounds in fresh and stored ‘Mor’ mandarins  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC?O) (sniffing) combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC?MS) analysis was applied to identify volatile aroma?active compounds in homogenised segments of fresh and stored ‘Mor’ mandarins. The GC?O nasal impact frequency method was used to identify Twenty?three aroma?active compounds, of which seventeen odorants were identified by GC?MS. The aroma of fresh ‘Mor’ mandarins derived from a mixture of eleven odorants that contribute ‘green’ [(E)?3?hexenol and hexanal], ‘fresh’ [(E)?carveol], ‘fruity’ (ethyl 2?methylbutanoate), ‘citrus’ (limonene), ‘floral’ (linalool), ‘musty’ (??myrecene and ??terpinene), ‘potato’ (??terpinene), ‘mushroom’ (unknown 2) and ‘cabbage’ (??cubebene) odours. During postharvest, storage losses were observed in ‘green’ [(E)?3?hexenol] and ‘fresh’ [(E)?carveol] odours, accompanied by increases in ‘fruity’ (ethyl propanoate) and several unpleasant aromas, such as ‘alcohol’ (ethanol), ‘musty’ [??pinene, (E)?2?nonenal and 1?terpinen?4?ol] and ‘fatty’ (octyl acetate and ??cadinene) odours, all of which possibly account for the observed decrease in sensory acceptability after harvest.

Tietel Z; Porat R; Weiss K; Ulrich D

2011-11-01

252

EFFECT OF STORAGE TEMPERATURES ON ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND AROMA COMPOUNDS IN STRAWBERRY FRUIT  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant capacity (measured as oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC), total anthocyanin, total phenolic, aroma compounds, and postharvest quality of strawberry fruit (Fragaria x ananassa cv. Chandler) kept at 0, 5 and 10C were investigated. Strawberry fruit stored at 10 or 5C showed highe...

253

NON-SMOKY GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASE1 Prevents the Release of Smoky Aroma from Tomato Fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phenylpropanoid volatiles are responsible for the key tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum) aroma attribute termed "smoky." Release of these volatiles from their glycosylated precursors, rather than their biosynthesis, is the major determinant of smoky aroma in cultivated tomato. Using a combinatorial omics approach, we identified the NON-SMOKY GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASE1 (NSGT1) gene. Expression of NSGT1 is induced during fruit ripening, and the encoded enzyme converts the cleavable diglycosides of the smoky-related phenylpropanoid volatiles into noncleavable triglycosides, thereby preventing their deglycosylation and release from tomato fruit upon tissue disruption. In an nsgt1/nsgt1 background, further glycosylation of phenylpropanoid volatile diglycosides does not occur, thereby enabling their cleavage and the release of corresponding volatiles. Using reverse genetics approaches, the NSGT1-mediated glycosylation was shown to be the molecular mechanism underlying the major quantitative trait locus for smoky aroma. Sensory trials with transgenic fruits, in which the inactive nsgt1 was complemented with the functional NSGT1, showed a significant and perceivable reduction in smoky aroma. NSGT1 may be used in a precision breeding strategy toward development of tomato fruits with distinct flavor phenotypes. PMID:23956261

Tikunov, Yury M; Molthoff, Jos; de Vos, Ric C H; Beekwilder, Jules; van Houwelingen, Adele; van der Hooft, Justin J J; Nijenhuis-de Vries, Mariska; Labrie, Caroline W; Verkerke, Wouter; van de Geest, Henri; Viquez Zamora, Marcela; Presa, Silvia; Rambla, Jose Luis; Granell, Antonio; Hall, Robert D; Bovy, Arnaud G

2013-08-16

254

Mapping brain activity induced by olfaction of virgin olive oil aroma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The difficulty of explaining sensory descriptors of virgin olive oil aroma by the analysis of volatile compounds is partially due to the subjective opinions of panelists and the lack of information of the neural mechanisms that ultimately produce a sensory perception. In this study the technique of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been applied to study brain activity during the smelling of virgin olive oil of different qualities. The volatile compounds of the samples were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography to explain the differences in the aromas presented to the subjects during the fMRI experiments. Comparing the pleasant and unpleasant aromas, the most evident differences in brain activity were found at the anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 32) and at the temporal lobe (Brodmann area 38). The activations were also observed when subjects smelled dilutions of heptanal and hexanoic acid, both compounds being responsible for off-flavors. Other areas were inherent to the olfaction task (e.g., Brodmann area 10) and to the intensity of the aroma (Brodmann area 6).

García-González DL; Vivancos J; Aparicio R

2011-09-01

255

Identification of novel aroma-active thiols in pan-roasted white sesame seeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Screening for aroma-active compounds in an aroma distillate obtained from freshly pan-roasted sesame seeds by aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 32 odorants in the FD factor range of 2-2048, 29 of which could be identified. The highest FD factors were found for the coffee-like smelling 2-furfurylthiol, the caramel-like smelling 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, the coffee-like smelling 2-thenylthiol (thiophen-2-yl-methylthiol), and the clove-like smelling 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol. In addition, 9 odor-active thiols with sulfurous, meaty, and/or catty, black-currant-like odors were identified for the first time in roasted sesame seeds. Among them, 2-methyl-1-propene-1-thiol, (Z)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (Z)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, and 4-mercapto-3-hexanone were previously unknown as food constituents. Their structures were confirmed by comparing their mass spectra and retention indices as well as their sensory properties with those of synthesized reference compounds. The relatively unstable 1-alkene-1-thiols represent a new class of food odorants and are suggested as the key contributors to the characteristic, but quickly vanishing, aroma of freshly ground roasted sesame seeds.

Tamura H; Fujita A; Steinhaus M; Takahisa E; Watanabe H; Schieberle P

2010-06-01

256

Characteristic aroma-active compounds of Korean perilla (Perilla frutescens Britton) leaf.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma-active compounds from Korean perilla (Perilla frutescens Britton) leaf were extracted by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), liquid-liquid continuous extraction (LLCE), and hydrodistillation (HD) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Thirty-three volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS. 1-(3-Furyl)-4-methyl-1-pentanone (perilla ketone) was found to be the most abundant volatile compound, followed in order by (Z)-3-hexenol and 1-octen-3-ol. Perilla ketone comprised 81% (93 ppm), 84% (120 ppm), and 95% (490 ppm) of the volatile compounds obtained from SAFE, LLCE, and HD, respectively. Thirteen aroma-active compounds were detected by GC-O. Perilla ketone, 1-(3-furyl)-4-methyl-3-penten-1-one (egoma ketone), and 1-(3-furyl)-4-methyl-2-penten-1-one (isoegoma ketone) were considered to be the characteristic aroma-active compounds of Korean perilla leaf. Perilla ketone, (Z)-3-hexenal (green), egoma ketone, and isoegoma ketone were the most intense aroma-active compounds in Korean perilla leaf. Other relatively intense odorants included (Z)-3-hexenol (green), (E)-2-hexenal (green), benzaldehyde (almond), 1-octen-3-one (metallic), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom), phenylacetaldehyde (honeysuckle), linalool (lemon), and beta-caryophyllene (woody). PMID:20000853

Seo, Won Ho; Baek, Hyung Hee

2009-12-23

257

Characteristic aroma-active compounds of Korean perilla (Perilla frutescens Britton) leaf.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aroma-active compounds from Korean perilla (Perilla frutescens Britton) leaf were extracted by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), liquid-liquid continuous extraction (LLCE), and hydrodistillation (HD) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Thirty-three volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS. 1-(3-Furyl)-4-methyl-1-pentanone (perilla ketone) was found to be the most abundant volatile compound, followed in order by (Z)-3-hexenol and 1-octen-3-ol. Perilla ketone comprised 81% (93 ppm), 84% (120 ppm), and 95% (490 ppm) of the volatile compounds obtained from SAFE, LLCE, and HD, respectively. Thirteen aroma-active compounds were detected by GC-O. Perilla ketone, 1-(3-furyl)-4-methyl-3-penten-1-one (egoma ketone), and 1-(3-furyl)-4-methyl-2-penten-1-one (isoegoma ketone) were considered to be the characteristic aroma-active compounds of Korean perilla leaf. Perilla ketone, (Z)-3-hexenal (green), egoma ketone, and isoegoma ketone were the most intense aroma-active compounds in Korean perilla leaf. Other relatively intense odorants included (Z)-3-hexenol (green), (E)-2-hexenal (green), benzaldehyde (almond), 1-octen-3-one (metallic), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom), phenylacetaldehyde (honeysuckle), linalool (lemon), and beta-caryophyllene (woody).

Seo WH; Baek HH

2009-12-01

258

DETERMINATION OF B-DAMASCENONE, A POTENT NORISOPRENOIDS AROMA COMPOUND, IN ORANGE JUICE  

Science.gov (United States)

ß-damascenone in orange juice was observed using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). It is a potent aroma compound with an odor threshold of 0.002 µg/L. A technique to quantify of ß-damascenone was developed by using standard addition headspace SPME with selected ion GC-MS. Three types of com...

259

Identification and quantification of impact aroma compounds in 4 nonfloral Vitis vinifera varieties grapes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma compounds in grapes of Cabernet gernischt, Cabernet sauvignon, Cabernet franc, and Merlot have been studied by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The GC-O study revealed the presence of 58 aroma compounds in which 53 odorants were identified. The most significant odor active volatiles in 4 grape berries were beta-damascenone, hexanal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, beta-ionone, and unknown (RI = 1612). The quantification of volatile aroma compounds in grapes was developed using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The influences of SPME fiber, extracting temperature, and time on the extraction of volatile compounds in grape were investigated. The aroma compounds in 4 grapes were quantified. According to the odor activity values (OAVs), (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (OAV from 334 to 777), beta-damascenone (OAV 245-790), beta-ionone (OAV 97-193), and acetic acid (OAV 7-165) had comparatively high OVA values. PMID:20492207

Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan; Jiang, Wenguang; Li, Jiming

260

Analysis of carotenoids in grapes to predict norisoprenoid varietal aroma of wines from Apulia.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine a correlation between carotenoid precursors in grapes and norisoprenoid varietal aroma of wine, carotenoids were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD-MS (ESI+) from four representative wine grape varieties of the Apulian region (Chardonnay, Merlot, Negroamaro, Primitivo) in two years of study (2006-2007), and C13-norisoprenoid aroma potential, DeltaC (microg/kg), was calculated from the difference of total carotenoid concentration between veraison and maturity. C13-norisoprenoids were analyzed by GC-MS in the obtained wines from 2006 and 2007 vintages. Higher DeltaC values, found in Chardonnay and Merlot grapes, corresponded to higher norisoprenoid contents in the respective wines, particularly characterized by highly flavorant compounds such as beta-damascenone and 3-oxo-alpha-ionol. A linear regression was determined that was significant at the 0.01% level (F=36.12, p=0.00096) with R=0.9261, between grape DeltaC values and total norisoprenoid contents in wine. These findings support the hypothesis that DeltaC could be a useful technological tool to predict norisoprenoid aroma of wine and, consequently, to identify grapes with higher aroma potential. PMID:20695424

Crupi, Pasquale; Coletta, Antonio; Antonacci, Donato

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
261

Identification and quantification of impact aroma compounds in 4 nonfloral Vitis vinifera varieties grapes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aroma compounds in grapes of Cabernet gernischt, Cabernet sauvignon, Cabernet franc, and Merlot have been studied by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The GC-O study revealed the presence of 58 aroma compounds in which 53 odorants were identified. The most significant odor active volatiles in 4 grape berries were beta-damascenone, hexanal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, beta-ionone, and unknown (RI = 1612). The quantification of volatile aroma compounds in grapes was developed using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The influences of SPME fiber, extracting temperature, and time on the extraction of volatile compounds in grape were investigated. The aroma compounds in 4 grapes were quantified. According to the odor activity values (OAVs), (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (OAV from 334 to 777), beta-damascenone (OAV 245-790), beta-ionone (OAV 97-193), and acetic acid (OAV 7-165) had comparatively high OVA values.

Fan W; Xu Y; Jiang W; Li J

2010-01-01

262

Characterisation of the key aroma compounds in a freshly reconstituted orange juice from concentrate  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Application of an aroma extract dilution analysis on the entire volatile fraction isolated from an orange juice freshly reconstituted from concentrate revealed 40 odour-active constituents in the flavour dilution (FD) factor range of 4-2,048. Among them, ethyl butanoate and linalool showed the highest FD factor of 2,048, followed by octanal with an FD factor of 512. Thirty-six of the 40 odour-active compounds detected could be identified, all of which have previously been reported as volatile constituents of various orange juices. Quantification of 17 key odorants by stable isotope dilution assays followed by a calculation of odour activity values (OAVs) on the basis of odour thresholds in water or citrate buffer (pH 3.8), respectively, revealed the following most important odorants in the overall aroma of the freshly reconstituted juice: (R/S)-linalool, (R)-limonene and (S)-ethyl 2-methylbutanoate with the highest OAVs (>1,000) followed by octanal, (R)-?-pinene, ethyl butanoate, myrcene, acetaldehyde, decanal and (E)-?-damascenone with OAVs > 100. A model mixture containing all 14 aroma compounds with OAVs > 1 in their actual concentrations in the juice showed a good similarity with the aroma of the original orange juice under investigation, thus corroborating that the key odorants of a freshly reconstituted orange juice were characterised for the first time.

Averbeck M; Schieberle PH

2009-08-01

263

Analysis of carotenoids in grapes to predict norisoprenoid varietal aroma of wines from Apulia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To determine a correlation between carotenoid precursors in grapes and norisoprenoid varietal aroma of wine, carotenoids were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD-MS (ESI+) from four representative wine grape varieties of the Apulian region (Chardonnay, Merlot, Negroamaro, Primitivo) in two years of study (2006-2007), and C13-norisoprenoid aroma potential, DeltaC (microg/kg), was calculated from the difference of total carotenoid concentration between veraison and maturity. C13-norisoprenoids were analyzed by GC-MS in the obtained wines from 2006 and 2007 vintages. Higher DeltaC values, found in Chardonnay and Merlot grapes, corresponded to higher norisoprenoid contents in the respective wines, particularly characterized by highly flavorant compounds such as beta-damascenone and 3-oxo-alpha-ionol. A linear regression was determined that was significant at the 0.01% level (F=36.12, p=0.00096) with R=0.9261, between grape DeltaC values and total norisoprenoid contents in wine. These findings support the hypothesis that DeltaC could be a useful technological tool to predict norisoprenoid aroma of wine and, consequently, to identify grapes with higher aroma potential.

Crupi P; Coletta A; Antonacci D

2010-09-01

264

Influence of maturity and ripening on aroma volatiles and flavor in avocado  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in aroma volatiles were determined using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography in ripe avocados (Persea americana Mill.) throughout an eight-month maturation period and related to the sensory properties of the fruit. As maturation progressed sensory panelists found the li...

265

Identification of the key aroma compounds in cocoa powder based on molecular sensory correlations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Isolation of the volatile fraction from cocoa powder (50 g; 20% fat content) by a careful extraction/distillation process followed by application of an aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 35 odor-active constituents in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-4096. Among them, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel-like), 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (sweaty, rancid), dimethyl trisulfide (cooked cabbage), 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (potato-chip-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Quantitation of 31 key odorants by means of stable isotope dilution assays, followed by a calculation of their odor activity values (OAVs) (ratio of concentration to odor threshold) revealed OAVs>100 for the five odorants acetic acid (sour), 3-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanoic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, and 2-methylbutanal (malty). In addition, another 19 aroma compounds showed OAVs>1. To establish their contribution to the overall aroma of the cocoa powder, these 24 compounds were added to a reconstructed cocoa matrix in exactly the same concentrations as they occurred in the cocoa powder. The matrix was prepared from deodorized cocoa powder, which was adjusted to 20% fat content using deodorized cocoa butter. The overall sensory evaluation of this aroma recombinate versus the cocoa powder clearly indicated that the 24 compounds represented the typical sweet, cocoa-like odor of the real sample.

Frauendorfer F; Schieberle P

2006-07-01

266

Identification of the key aroma compounds in cocoa powder based on molecular sensory correlations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Isolation of the volatile fraction from cocoa powder (50 g; 20% fat content) by a careful extraction/distillation process followed by application of an aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 35 odor-active constituents in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-4096. Among them, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel-like), 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (sweaty, rancid), dimethyl trisulfide (cooked cabbage), 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (potato-chip-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Quantitation of 31 key odorants by means of stable isotope dilution assays, followed by a calculation of their odor activity values (OAVs) (ratio of concentration to odor threshold) revealed OAVs>100 for the five odorants acetic acid (sour), 3-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanoic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, and 2-methylbutanal (malty). In addition, another 19 aroma compounds showed OAVs>1. To establish their contribution to the overall aroma of the cocoa powder, these 24 compounds were added to a reconstructed cocoa matrix in exactly the same concentrations as they occurred in the cocoa powder. The matrix was prepared from deodorized cocoa powder, which was adjusted to 20% fat content using deodorized cocoa butter. The overall sensory evaluation of this aroma recombinate versus the cocoa powder clearly indicated that the 24 compounds represented the typical sweet, cocoa-like odor of the real sample. PMID:16848541

Frauendorfer, Felix; Schieberle, Peter

2006-07-26

267

Changes in key aroma compounds of Criollo cocoa beans during roasting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of a comparative aroma extraction dilution analysis on unroasted and roasted Criollo cocoa beans revealed 42 aroma compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 1-4096 for the unroasted and 4-8192 for the roasted cocoa beans. While the same compounds were present in the unroasted and roasted cocoa beans, respectively, these clearly differed in their intensity. For example, 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (rancid) and acetic acid (sour) showed the highest FD factors in the unroasted beans, while 3-methylbutanal (malty), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel-like), and 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (sweaty) were detected with the highest FD factors in the roasted seeds. Quantitation of 30 odorants by means of stable isotope dilution assays followed by a calculation of odor activity values (ratio of the concentration/odor threshold) revealed concentrations above the odor threshold for 22 compounds in the unroasted and 27 compounds in the roasted cocoa beans, respectively. In particular, a strong increase in the concentrations of the Strecker aldehydes 3-methylbutanal and phenylacetaldehyde as well as 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone was measured, suggesting that these odorants should contribute most to the changes in the overall aroma after roasting. Various compounds contributing to the aroma of roasted cocoa beans, such as 3-methylbutanoic acid, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, and 2-phenylethanol, were already present in unroasted, fermented cocoa beans and were not increased during roasting. PMID:18925740

Frauendorfer, Felix; Schieberle, Peter

2008-10-17

268

Changes in key aroma compounds of Criollo cocoa beans during roasting.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Application of a comparative aroma extraction dilution analysis on unroasted and roasted Criollo cocoa beans revealed 42 aroma compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 1-4096 for the unroasted and 4-8192 for the roasted cocoa beans. While the same compounds were present in the unroasted and roasted cocoa beans, respectively, these clearly differed in their intensity. For example, 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (rancid) and acetic acid (sour) showed the highest FD factors in the unroasted beans, while 3-methylbutanal (malty), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel-like), and 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (sweaty) were detected with the highest FD factors in the roasted seeds. Quantitation of 30 odorants by means of stable isotope dilution assays followed by a calculation of odor activity values (ratio of the concentration/odor threshold) revealed concentrations above the odor threshold for 22 compounds in the unroasted and 27 compounds in the roasted cocoa beans, respectively. In particular, a strong increase in the concentrations of the Strecker aldehydes 3-methylbutanal and phenylacetaldehyde as well as 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone was measured, suggesting that these odorants should contribute most to the changes in the overall aroma after roasting. Various compounds contributing to the aroma of roasted cocoa beans, such as 3-methylbutanoic acid, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, and 2-phenylethanol, were already present in unroasted, fermented cocoa beans and were not increased during roasting.

Frauendorfer F; Schieberle P

2008-11-01

269

Characterization of the key odorants in raw Italian hazelnuts ( Corylus avellana L. var. Tonda Romana) and roasted hazelnut paste by means of molecular sensory science.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations of 19 odorants, recently characterized by GC-olfactometry and aroma extract dilution analysis as the most odor-active compounds in raw hazelnuts, were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Calculation of odor activity values (OAV) on the basis of odor thresholds in oil revealed high OAVs, in particular for linalool, 5-methyl-4-heptanone, 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, and 4-methylphenol. A model mixture in sunflower oil containing the 13 odorants showing OAVs above 1 in their natural concentrations resulted in a good similarity compared to the overall nut-like, fruity aroma of the raw hazelnuts. Quantitation of the 25 most odor-active compounds in roasted hazelnut paste by SIDA showed clear changes in the concentrations of most odorants, and formation of new odor-active compounds induced by the roasting process was observed. The highest OAVs were calculated for 3-methylbutanal (malty), 2,3-pentanedione (buttery), 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn), and (Z)-2-nonenal (fatty), followed by dimethyl trisulfide, 2-furfurylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone. The aroma of a model mixture containing the 19 odorants with OAVs above 1 in their actual concentrations in the roasted nut material was judged to elicit a very good similarity to the popcorn-like, coffee-like, and sweet-smoky aroma of the roasted hazelnut paste. New SIDAs were developed for the quantitation of 5-methyl-4-heptanone, 5-methyl-(E)-2-hepten-4-one, 2-thenylthiol, and 3,5,5-trimethyl-2(5H)-furanone. PMID:22515832

Burdack-Freitag, Andrea; Schieberle, Peter

2012-05-02

270

Characterization of the key odorants in raw Italian hazelnuts ( Corylus avellana L. var. Tonda Romana) and roasted hazelnut paste by means of molecular sensory science.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The concentrations of 19 odorants, recently characterized by GC-olfactometry and aroma extract dilution analysis as the most odor-active compounds in raw hazelnuts, were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Calculation of odor activity values (OAV) on the basis of odor thresholds in oil revealed high OAVs, in particular for linalool, 5-methyl-4-heptanone, 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, and 4-methylphenol. A model mixture in sunflower oil containing the 13 odorants showing OAVs above 1 in their natural concentrations resulted in a good similarity compared to the overall nut-like, fruity aroma of the raw hazelnuts. Quantitation of the 25 most odor-active compounds in roasted hazelnut paste by SIDA showed clear changes in the concentrations of most odorants, and formation of new odor-active compounds induced by the roasting process was observed. The highest OAVs were calculated for 3-methylbutanal (malty), 2,3-pentanedione (buttery), 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn), and (Z)-2-nonenal (fatty), followed by dimethyl trisulfide, 2-furfurylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone. The aroma of a model mixture containing the 19 odorants with OAVs above 1 in their actual concentrations in the roasted nut material was judged to elicit a very good similarity to the popcorn-like, coffee-like, and sweet-smoky aroma of the roasted hazelnut paste. New SIDAs were developed for the quantitation of 5-methyl-4-heptanone, 5-methyl-(E)-2-hepten-4-one, 2-thenylthiol, and 3,5,5-trimethyl-2(5H)-furanone.

Burdack-Freitag A; Schieberle P

2012-05-01

271

Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit  

Science.gov (United States)

The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty acids, carotenoids, amino acids, and terpenes. Although amino acids are known precursors of aroma compounds in the plant kingdom, the initial steps in the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles have received little attention. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino acids and ?-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds bearing the side chain of the exogenous amino or keto acid supplied. Moreover, L-[13C6]phenylalanine was also incorporated into aromatic volatile compounds. Amino acid transaminase activities extracted from the flesh of mature melon fruits converted L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-valine, L-methionine, or L-phenylalanine into their respective ?-keto acids, utilizing ?-ketoglutarate as the amine acceptor. Two novel genes were isolated and characterized (CmArAT1 and CmBCAT1) encoding 45.6?kDa and 42.7?kDa proteins, respectively, that displayed aromatic and branched-chain amino acid transaminase activities, respectively, when expressed in Escherichia coli. The expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 was low in vegetative tissues, but increased in flesh and rind tissues during fruit ripening. In addition, ripe fruits of climacteric aromatic cultivars generally showed high expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 in contrast to non-climacteric non-aromatic fruits. The results presented here indicate that in melon fruit tissues, the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles can initiate through a transamination mechanism, rather than decarboxylation or direct aldehyde synthesis, as has been demonstrated in other plants.

Gonda, Itay; Bar, Einat; Portnoy, Vitaly; Lev, Shery; Burger, Joseph; Schaffer, Arthur A.; Tadmor, Ya'akov; Gepstein, Shimon; Giovannoni, James J.; Katzir, Nurit; Lewinsohn, Efraim

2010-01-01

272

Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty acids, carotenoids, amino acids, and terpenes. Although amino acids are known precursors of aroma compounds in the plant kingdom, the initial steps in the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles have received little attention. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino acids and alpha-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds bearing the side chain of the exogenous amino or keto acid supplied. Moreover, L-[(13)C(6)]phenylalanine was also incorporated into aromatic volatile compounds. Amino acid transaminase activities extracted from the flesh of mature melon fruits converted L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-valine, L-methionine, or L-phenylalanine into their respective alpha-keto acids, utilizing alpha-ketoglutarate as the amine acceptor. Two novel genes were isolated and characterized (CmArAT1 and CmBCAT1) encoding 45.6 kDa and 42.7 kDa proteins, respectively, that displayed aromatic and branched-chain amino acid transaminase activities, respectively, when expressed in Escherichia coli. The expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 was low in vegetative tissues, but increased in flesh and rind tissues during fruit ripening. In addition, ripe fruits of climacteric aromatic cultivars generally showed high expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 in contrast to non-climacteric non-aromatic fruits. The results presented here indicate that in melon fruit tissues, the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles can initiate through a transamination mechanism, rather than decarboxylation or direct aldehyde synthesis, as has been demonstrated in other plants.

Gonda I; Bar E; Portnoy V; Lev S; Burger J; Schaffer AA; Tadmor Y; Gepstein S; Giovannoni JJ; Katzir N; Lewinsohn E

2010-02-01

273

Engineering volatile thiol release in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improved wine aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile thiols, such as 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP), 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH) and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA), are among the most potent aroma compounds found in wine and can have a significant effect on wine quality and consumer preferences. At optimal concentrations in wine, these compounds impart flavours of passionfruit, grapefruit, gooseberry, blackcurrant, lychee, guava and box hedge. The enzymatic release of aromatic thiols from grape-derived, non-volatile cysteinylated precursors (Cys-4MMP and Cys-3MH) and the further modification thereof (conversion of 3MH into 3MHA) during fermentation, enhance the varietal characters of wines such as Sauvignon Blanc. Wine yeast strains have limited and varying capacities to produce aroma-enhancing thiols from their non-volatile counterparts in grape juice. Even under optimal fermentation conditions, the most efficient thiol-releasing Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strain known realizes less than 5% of the thiol-related flavour potential of grape juice. The objective of this study was to develop a wine yeast able to unleash the untapped thiol aromas in grape juice during winemaking. To achieve this goal, the Escherichia coli tnaA gene, encoding a tryptophanase with strong cysteine-beta-lyase activity, was cloned and overexpressed in a commercial wine yeast strain under the control of the regulatory sequences of the yeast phosphoglycerate kinase I gene (PGK1). This modified strain expressing carbon-sulphur lyase activity released up to 25 times more 4MMP and 3MH in model ferments than the control host strain. Wines produced with the engineered strain displayed an intense passionfruit aroma. This yeast offers the potential to enhance the varietal aromas of wines to predetermined market specifications. PMID:17492802

Swiegers, Jan H; Capone, Dimitra L; Pardon, Kevin H; Elsey, Gordon M; Sefton, Mark A; Francis, I Leigh; Pretorius, Isak S

2007-07-01

274

Perceptual characterization and analysis of aroma mixtures using gas chromatography recomposition-olfactometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes the design of a new instrumental technique, Gas Chromatography Recomposition-Olfactometry (GC-R), that adapts the reconstitution technique used in flavor chemistry studies by extracting volatiles from a sample by headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME), separating the extract on a capillary GC column, and recombining individual compounds selectively as they elute off of the column into a mixture for sensory analysis (Figure 1). Using the chromatogram of a mixture as a map, the GC-R instrument allows the operator to "cut apart" and recombine the components of the mixture at will, selecting compounds, peaks, or sections based on retention time to include or exclude in a reconstitution for sensory analysis. Selective recombination is accomplished with the installation of a Deans Switch directly in-line with the column, which directs compounds either to waste or to a cryotrap at the operator's discretion. This enables the creation of, for example, aroma reconstitutions incorporating all of the volatiles in a sample, including instrumentally undetectable compounds as well those present at concentrations below sensory thresholds, thus correcting for the "reconstitution discrepancy" sometimes noted in flavor chemistry studies. Using only flowering lavender (Lavandula angustifola 'Hidcote Blue') as a source for volatiles, we used the instrument to build mixtures of subsets of lavender volatiles in-instrument and characterized their aroma qualities with a sensory panel. We showed evidence of additive, masking, and synergistic effects in these mixtures and of "lavender' aroma character as an emergent property of specific mixtures. This was accomplished without the need for chemical standards, reductive aroma models, or calculation of Odor Activity Values, and is broadly applicable to any aroma or flavor.

Johnson AJ; Hirson GD; Ebeler SE

2012-01-01

275

Aroma analysis and quality control of food using highly sensitive analytical methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This thesis deals with the development of quality control methods for food based on headspace measurements by Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and with aroma analysis of food using PTR-MS and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O). An objective method was developed for the determination of a herb extract's quality; this quality was checked by a sensory analysis until now. The concentrations of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of 81 different batches were measured by PTR-MS. Based on the sensory judgment of the customer, characteristic differences in the emissions of 'good' and 'bad' quality samples were identified and a method for the quality control of this herb extract was developed. This novel method enables the producing company to check and ensure that they are only selling high-quality products and therefore avoid complaints of the customer. Furthermore this method can be used for controlling, optimizing and automating the production process. VOCs emitted by meat were investigated using PTR-MS to develop a rapid, non-destructive and quantitative technique for determination of the microbial contamination of meat. Meat samples (beef, pork and poultry) that were wrapped into different kinds of packages (air and vacuum) were stored in at 4oC for up to 13 days. The emitted VOCs were measured as a function of storage time and identified partly. The concentration of many of the measured VOCs, e.g. sulfur compounds like methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide, largely increased over the storage time. There were big differences in the emissions of normal air- and vacuum-packed meat. VOCs typically emitted by air-packaged meat were methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide, while ethanol and methanol were found in vacuum-packaged meat. A comparison of the PTR-MS results with those obtained by a bacteriological examination performed at the same time showed strong correlations (up to 99 %) between the concentrations of some of the VOCs, e.g. dimethylsulfide, and the bacteriological contamination. The concentration of these VOCs increased linearly with the bacterial numbers. This study is a first step towards replacing the time-consuming conventional microbiological analysis via plate counting by fast headspace air measurements where the bacterial spoilage can be determined within minutes instead of days. PTR-MS and GC-O techniques were used to define volatiles and odor active compounds released in the mouth during eating of ripe and unripe banana. The air exhaled through the nose was directly introduced into a PTR-MS and the time-intensity profiles of a series of volatiles were monitored on-line. The breath-by-breath temporal release pattern revealed various dynamic elements that are characteristic of the eating situation. During the eating of unripe banana we observed a gradual increase in 2E-hexenal and hexanal with ongoing mastication, until swallowing. No particular high concentrations were observed in the exhaled air just after swallowing (swallow breath). During the eating of a ripe banana, we observed isopentyl acetate and isobutyl acetate, compounds characteristic of banana aroma. In contrast, volatiles characteristic of unripe banana were largely absent. No gradual increase was observed with mastication, as present during the eating of unripe banana. In contrast, very prominent swallow peaks were observed. For GC-O analysis the volatile compounds contributing to the banana aroma were prepared in an artificial mouth system using three different mastication rates. Large differences were found in the number of odor active compounds of ripe and unripe bananas as well as for the investigated three different mastication rates (0, 26 and 52 min-1). Hexanal was the only compound that was detected by all six assessors for ripe and unripe bananas for each mastication frequency. Eighteen (seven) significant odor active compounds were detected in the odor profile of ripe (unripe) bananas with a mastication rate of 52 min-1, whereas with a mastication rate of

2003-01-01

276

Dried-bonito aroma components enhance salivary hemodynamic responses to broth tastes detected by near-infrared spectroscopy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To elucidate the effects of aroma from dried bonito (katsuo-bushi) on broth tastes caused by the central integration of flavor, optical imaging of salivary hemodynamic responses was conducted using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). A reconstituted dried bonito flavored broth produced a significantly larger hemodynamic response than the odorless broth taste solutions for 5 of the 10 panelists, who felt that the combination of the aroma with the tastes was congruent. In the remaining 5 panelists who felt the combination incongruent, the flavored broth did not cause the enhancement of response. Moreover, when the odor-active smoky parts were removed from the flavoring, the reconstituted flavoring did not enhance the response in the former five panelists. These results indicate that NIRS offers a sensitive method to detect the effect of specific congruent aroma components from dried-bonito broth on the taste-related salivary hemodynamic responses, dependent on the perceptual experience of the combination of aromas and tastes.

Matsumoto T; Saito K; Nakamura A; Saito T; Nammoku T; Ishikawa M; Mori K

2012-01-01

277

Characterization of aroma compounds in apple cider using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and headspace solid-phase microextraction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aroma-active compounds in two apple ciders were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS) techniques. The volatile compounds were extracted using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). On the basis of odor intensity, the most important aroma compounds in the two apple cider samples were 2-phenylethanol, butanoic acid, octanoic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, 2-phenylethyl acetate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, 4-ethylguaiacol, eugenol, and 4-vinylphenol. Sulfur-containing compounds, terpene derivatives, and lactones were also detected in ciders. Although most of the aroma compounds were common in both ciders, the aroma intensities were different. Comparison of extraction techniques showed that the SAFE technique had a higher recovery for acids and hydroxy-containing compounds, whereas the HS-SPME technique had a higher recovery for esters and highly volatile compounds.

Xu Y; Fan W; Qian MC

2007-04-01

278

Characterization of aroma compounds in apple cider using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and headspace solid-phase microextraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma-active compounds in two apple ciders were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS) techniques. The volatile compounds were extracted using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). On the basis of odor intensity, the most important aroma compounds in the two apple cider samples were 2-phenylethanol, butanoic acid, octanoic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, 2-phenylethyl acetate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, 4-ethylguaiacol, eugenol, and 4-vinylphenol. Sulfur-containing compounds, terpene derivatives, and lactones were also detected in ciders. Although most of the aroma compounds were common in both ciders, the aroma intensities were different. Comparison of extraction techniques showed that the SAFE technique had a higher recovery for acids and hydroxy-containing compounds, whereas the HS-SPME technique had a higher recovery for esters and highly volatile compounds. PMID:17355142

Xu, Yan; Fan, Wenlai; Qian, Michael C

2007-03-14

279

Influence of Water Potential on gamma-Decalactone Production by the Yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of water potential on gamma-decalactone production by the yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor cultivated in a liquid medium was evaluated by gas-chromatographic analysis. Modifications in water potential led to a number of variations in the aroma production. Maximum extracellular production occurred at water activity (a(w)) with a value of 0.99. Further analyses revealed an important phenomenon of cellular accumulation of aroma for a(w) values between 0.97 and 0.99.

Gervais P; Battut G

1989-11-01

280

Influence of Water Potential on ?-Decalactone Production by the Yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of water potential on ?-decalactone production by the yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor cultivated in a liquid medium was evaluated by gas-chromatographic analysis. Modifications in water potential led to a number of variations in the aroma production. Maximum extracellular production occurred at water activity (aw) with a value of 0.99. Further analyses revealed an important phenomenon of cellular accumulation of aroma for aw values between 0.97 and 0.99.

Gervais, P.; Battut, G.

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in apricots (Prunus armeniaca) by application of the molecular sensory science concept.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An aroma extract dilution analysis applied on an aroma distillate prepared from fresh apricots revealed (R)-gamma-decalactone, (E)-beta-damascenone, delta-decalactone, and (R/S)-linalool with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors among the 26 odor-active compounds identified. On the basis of quantitative measurements performed by application of stable isotope dilution assays, followed by a calculation of odor activity values (OAVs), beta-ionone, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, gamma-decalactone, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, linalool, and acetaldehyde appeared with OAVs >100, whereas in particular certain lactones, often associated with an apricot aroma note, such as gamma-undecalactone, gamma-nonalactone, and delta-decalactone, showed very low OAVs (<5). An aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 18 most important odorants in concentrations as they occurred in the fresh fruits showed an overall aroma very similar to that of apricots. Omission experiments indicated that previously unknown constituents of apricots, such as (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal or (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, are key contributors to the apricot aroma.

Greger V; Schieberle P

2007-06-01

282

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in apricots (Prunus armeniaca) by application of the molecular sensory science concept.  

Science.gov (United States)

An aroma extract dilution analysis applied on an aroma distillate prepared from fresh apricots revealed (R)-gamma-decalactone, (E)-beta-damascenone, delta-decalactone, and (R/S)-linalool with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors among the 26 odor-active compounds identified. On the basis of quantitative measurements performed by application of stable isotope dilution assays, followed by a calculation of odor activity values (OAVs), beta-ionone, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, gamma-decalactone, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, linalool, and acetaldehyde appeared with OAVs >100, whereas in particular certain lactones, often associated with an apricot aroma note, such as gamma-undecalactone, gamma-nonalactone, and delta-decalactone, showed very low OAVs (<5). An aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 18 most important odorants in concentrations as they occurred in the fresh fruits showed an overall aroma very similar to that of apricots. Omission experiments indicated that previously unknown constituents of apricots, such as (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal or (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, are key contributors to the apricot aroma. PMID:17530862

Greger, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

2007-05-27

283

Retention of aroma compounds from Mentha piperita essential oil by cyclodextrins and crosslinked cyclodextrin polymers.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the controlled release of aroma compounds from cyclodextrins (CDs) and CD polymers was studied by multiple headspace extraction (MHE) experiments. Mentha piperita essential oil was obtained by Soxhlet extraction and identification of the major compounds was performed by GC-MS analysis. Menthol, menthone, pulegone and eucalyptol were identified as the major components. Retention of standard compounds in the presence of different CDs and CD polymers has been realised by static headspace gas chromatography (SH-GC) at 25 °C in the aqueous or gaseous phase. Stability constants for standard compounds and for compounds in essential oil have been also determined with monomeric CD derivatives. The obtained results indicated the formation of a 1:1 inclusion complex for all the studied compounds. Molecular modelling was used to investigate the complementarities between host and guest. This study showed that ?-CDs were the most versatile CDs and that ?-CD polymers could perform the controlled release of aroma compounds. PMID:23265490

Ciobanu, A; Mallard, I; Landy, D; Brabie, G; Nistor, D; Fourmentin, S

2012-11-10

284

Key aroma volatile compounds of gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims fo edulis) fruit  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By application of the aroma extract dilution analysis of gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims fo edulis), fruit pulp extract obtained by solvent-assisted flavour extraction, and also comparison of chromatographic, spectroscopic (mass spectrum), and odour properties with standards, ?-ionone, ?-nonalactone, ethyl butanoate, and ethyl cinnamate were identified as volatiles exhibiting the highest flavour dilution (FD) factor. Among the nineteen odour-active compounds of gulupa, only those showing the highest FD factors were quantified by stable isotope dilution assay. After calculation of odour activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odour threshold in water), ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, and ?-ionone were identified as key aroma compounds in gulupa, responsible for the fruity and floral odour notes.

Conde-Martínez N; Jiménez A; Steinhaus M; Schieberle P; Sinuco D; Osorio C

2013-06-01

285

Decrease of aged beer aroma by the reducing activity of brewing yeast.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The flavor profile of beer is subject to changes during storage. Since, possibly, yeast has an influence on flavor stability, the aim of this study was to examine if there is a direct impact of brewing yeast on aged aroma. This was achieved by refermentation of aged beers. It was shown that several aged aroma notes, such as cardboard, ribes, Maillard and Madeira, were removed almost entirely by brewing yeast, independently of the yeast or the beer type. This was explained by the reduction of aldehydes, mainly (E)-2-nonenal, Strecker aldehydes, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and diacetyl, to their corresponding alcohols. Furthermore, it became evident that the reducing capacity of brewing yeast is high, but that yeast strain and compound specific residual concentrations remained in the refermented beer independently of the initial concentration. Finally, it appeared that aldehydes were not only reduced but also formed during refermentation.

Saison D; De Schutter DP; Vanbeneden N; Daenen L; Delvaux F; Delvaux FR

2010-03-01

286

Retention of aroma compounds from Mentha piperita essential oil by cyclodextrins and crosslinked cyclodextrin polymers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, the controlled release of aroma compounds from cyclodextrins (CDs) and CD polymers was studied by multiple headspace extraction (MHE) experiments. Mentha piperita essential oil was obtained by Soxhlet extraction and identification of the major compounds was performed by GC-MS analysis. Menthol, menthone, pulegone and eucalyptol were identified as the major components. Retention of standard compounds in the presence of different CDs and CD polymers has been realised by static headspace gas chromatography (SH-GC) at 25 °C in the aqueous or gaseous phase. Stability constants for standard compounds and for compounds in essential oil have been also determined with monomeric CD derivatives. The obtained results indicated the formation of a 1:1 inclusion complex for all the studied compounds. Molecular modelling was used to investigate the complementarities between host and guest. This study showed that ?-CDs were the most versatile CDs and that ?-CD polymers could perform the controlled release of aroma compounds.

Ciobanu A; Mallard I; Landy D; Brabie G; Nistor D; Fourmentin S

2013-05-01

287

Antibacterial activity of extracts of Acacia aroma against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined using agar diffusion and bioautographic methods. Among all assayed organic extracts only ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented highest activities against all tested Staphylococcus strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 2.5 to 10 mg/ml and from 2.5 to 5 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extracts show little antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus strains. The bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against S. aureus in correspondence with flavonoids and saponins. A. aroma would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for skin infections.

C.M. Mattana; S.E. Satorres; A. Sosa; M. Fusco; L.E. Alcaráz

2010-01-01

288

Effect of Temperature, Water Activity and Storage Time on Color Strength, Aroma and Bitterness of Saffron  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Saffron is one of the most important crops in Iran and the quality of its dried stigma is highly depended on the processing and storage conditions. In this study, the effect of different storage conditions in terms of temperature (20, 30 and 40°C) and water activity (0.32, 0.52 and 0.75) during 12 weeks storage on color strength, aroma and bitterness of saffron were investigated. In order to study of moisture (water activity) different saturated solution of MgCl2, Mg(NO3)2, MgBr2 and NaCl in the various temperatures were used. Results showed the color strength decreased as temperature increased. Increasing of water activity resulted in deterioration of crocin and consequently decreasing of color. Furthermore, after 12 weeks of storage, the color strength had a noticeable decrease, the bitterness also decreased but the aroma increased.

M Bolandi; F SHahidi; N Sedaghat; R Farhosh; R GHasemzadeh

2009-01-01

289

Concentration changes of aroma components in plain and probiotic yoghurt during storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, two types of yoghurt, plain yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt purchased from Croatian and Slovenian market, were stored for up to 25 days at two different temperatures (+4 ºC, +20 ºC). Samples were analyzed every 5 days and changes in acetaldehyde, ethanol and diacetyl content were determined. At the same time sensory evaluation was carried out. The aim of this study to show changes in concentrations of some flavor compounds and sensory quality in both yoghurt types during storage as a function of storage time and temperature. The results indicate that the equal changes in aroma compounds in both yoghurt types were result of the same microorganisms present in both yoghurt types (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus which have the greatest influence on the aroma, while the addition of other microorganisms has mostly probiotic effect.

Mirjana Hruškar; Marina Krpan; Nada Vah?i?; Ivana Bucak

2005-01-01

290

Antibacterial activity of extracts of Acacia aroma against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined using agar diffusion and bioautographic methods. Among all assayed organic extracts only ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented highest activities against all tested Staphy (more) lococcus strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 2.5 to 10 mg/ml and from 2.5 to 5 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extracts show little antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus strains. The bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against S. aureus in correspondence with flavonoids and saponins. A. aroma would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for skin infections.

Mattana, C.M.; Satorres, S.E.; Sosa, A.; Fusco, M.; Alcaráz, L.E.

2010-10-01

291

Characterization of the Key Odorants in Pan-Fried White Mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus L.) by Means of Molecular Sensory Science: Comparison with the Raw Mushroom Tissue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction isolated from pan-fried white mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus L.) revealed 40 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192, among which the caramel-like smelling 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one showed the highest FD factor of 8192, followed by 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn-like) and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one (seasoning-like). A total of 36 compounds are reported for the first time in processed mushrooms, and 25 odorants showing the highest FD factors were then quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated as ratio of their concentrations to their odor thresholds. Among them, 3-methylbutanal (malty), 3-(methylthio)propanal (cooked potato), and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn-like) showed the highest OAVs (>100) in the pan-fried mushrooms, followed by 1-octen-3-one, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one, phenylacetaldehyde, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one with OAVs >10. An aqueous aroma recombinate containing 13 odorants (OAV > 1) in their actual concentrations in the fried mushrooms showed a good similarity to the original aroma profile. The quantitation of the key odorants in raw mushrooms, identified with high FD factors during the AEDA, revealed that numerous odorants were quantitatively changed by the frying process, but in particular the concentrations of 2-phenylacetaldehyde and 3-methylbutanal were higher by factors of ?40 and 6, respectively, compared to the amounts in the processed mushrooms. The data suggested an enzymatic formation of both Strecker aldehydes by the cut mushroom tissue. In total, 26 odorants were newly identified in raw mushrooms.

Grosshauser S; Schieberle P

2013-04-01

292

Characterization of the Key Odorants in Pan-Fried White Mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus L.) by Means of Molecular Sensory Science: Comparison with the Raw Mushroom Tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction isolated from pan-fried white mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus L.) revealed 40 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192, among which the caramel-like smelling 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one showed the highest FD factor of 8192, followed by 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn-like) and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one (seasoning-like). A total of 36 compounds are reported for the first time in processed mushrooms, and 25 odorants showing the highest FD factors were then quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated as ratio of their concentrations to their odor thresholds. Among them, 3-methylbutanal (malty), 3-(methylthio)propanal (cooked potato), and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn-like) showed the highest OAVs (>100) in the pan-fried mushrooms, followed by 1-octen-3-one, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one, phenylacetaldehyde, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one with OAVs >10. An aqueous aroma recombinate containing 13 odorants (OAV > 1) in their actual concentrations in the fried mushrooms showed a good similarity to the original aroma profile. The quantitation of the key odorants in raw mushrooms, identified with high FD factors during the AEDA, revealed that numerous odorants were quantitatively changed by the frying process, but in particular the concentrations of 2-phenylacetaldehyde and 3-methylbutanal were higher by factors of ?40 and 6, respectively, compared to the amounts in the processed mushrooms. The data suggested an enzymatic formation of both Strecker aldehydes by the cut mushroom tissue. In total, 26 odorants were newly identified in raw mushrooms. PMID:23581517

Grosshauser, Sonja; Schieberle, Peter

2013-04-12

293

Tomato fruits expressing a bacterial feedback-insensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase of the shikimate pathway possess enhanced levels of multiple specialized metabolites and upgraded aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit contains significant amounts of bioactive compounds, particularly multiple classes of specialized metabolites. Enhancing the synthesis and accumulation of these substances, specifically in fruits, are central for improving tomato fruit quality (e.g. flavour and aroma) and could aid in elucidate pathways of specialized metabolism. To promote the production of specialized metabolites in tomato fruit, this work expressed under a fruit ripening-specific promoter, E8, a bacterial AroG gene encoding a 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS), which is feedback-insensitive to phenylalanine inhibition. DAHPS, the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, links between the primary and specialized metabolism derived from aromatic amino acids. AroG expression influenced the levels of number of primary metabolites, such as shikimic acid and aromatic amino acids, as well as multiple volatile and non-volatile phenylpropanoids specialized metabolites and carotenoids. An organoleptic test, performed by trained panellists, suggested that the ripe AroG-expressing tomato fruits had a preferred floral aroma compare with fruits of the wild-type line. These results imply that fruit-specific manipulation of the conversion of primary to specialized metabolism is an attractive approach for improving fruit aroma and flavour qualities as well as discovering novel fruit-specialized metabolites. PMID:24006429

Tzin, Vered; Rogachev, Ilana; Meir, Sagit; Moyal Ben Zvi, Michal; Masci, Tania; Vainstein, Alexander; Aharoni, Asaph; Galili, Gad

2013-09-04

294

Characterization of the interaction between two food aroma components, alpha-pinene and ethyl butyrate, and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) packaging films as a function of environmental humidity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOHs) are well-known high oxygen barrier materials that are being used successfully in the design of packaging structures for oxygen-sensitive food or pharmaceutical products. Recently, there has been increasing interest in using EVOH materials to provide a high barrier to organic compounds as a means to reduce food aroma scalping. However, the barrier function of this family of materials diminishes significantly in humid environments, and it is supposed that so does the organic vapor barrier. In this work, a new sorption-based method to characterize the interaction between food aroma and polymer films for packaging as a function of relative humidity is presented and is used to determine the barrier to ethyl butyrate and alpha-pinene of EVOH at 23 degrees C. The results show that although EVOH is an excellent barrier to food aroma when dry, a property that even improves at low relative humidity (RH), the solubility and diffusivity of the compounds tested increase dramatically with humidity at medium to high water activities. However, even in the worst case (100% RH), EVOH outperforms low-density polyethylene (LDPE) as a barrier to organic vapors at least 500,000-fold.

López-Carballo G; Cava D; Lagarón JM; Catalá R; Gavara R

2005-09-01

295

Characterization of the interaction between two food aroma components, alpha-pinene and ethyl butyrate, and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) packaging films as a function of environmental humidity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOHs) are well-known high oxygen barrier materials that are being used successfully in the design of packaging structures for oxygen-sensitive food or pharmaceutical products. Recently, there has been increasing interest in using EVOH materials to provide a high barrier to organic compounds as a means to reduce food aroma scalping. However, the barrier function of this family of materials diminishes significantly in humid environments, and it is supposed that so does the organic vapor barrier. In this work, a new sorption-based method to characterize the interaction between food aroma and polymer films for packaging as a function of relative humidity is presented and is used to determine the barrier to ethyl butyrate and alpha-pinene of EVOH at 23 degrees C. The results show that although EVOH is an excellent barrier to food aroma when dry, a property that even improves at low relative humidity (RH), the solubility and diffusivity of the compounds tested increase dramatically with humidity at medium to high water activities. However, even in the worst case (100% RH), EVOH outperforms low-density polyethylene (LDPE) as a barrier to organic vapors at least 500,000-fold. PMID:16131132

López-Carballo, Gracia; Cava, David; Lagarón, Jose M; Catalá, Ramón; Gavara, Rafael

2005-09-01

296

Tomato fruits expressing a bacterial feedback-insensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase of the shikimate pathway possess enhanced levels of multiple specialized metabolites and upgraded aroma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit contains significant amounts of bioactive compounds, particularly multiple classes of specialized metabolites. Enhancing the synthesis and accumulation of these substances, specifically in fruits, are central for improving tomato fruit quality (e.g. flavour and aroma) and could aid in elucidate pathways of specialized metabolism. To promote the production of specialized metabolites in tomato fruit, this work expressed under a fruit ripening-specific promoter, E8, a bacterial AroG gene encoding a 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS), which is feedback-insensitive to phenylalanine inhibition. DAHPS, the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, links between the primary and specialized metabolism derived from aromatic amino acids. AroG expression influenced the levels of number of primary metabolites, such as shikimic acid and aromatic amino acids, as well as multiple volatile and non-volatile phenylpropanoids specialized metabolites and carotenoids. An organoleptic test, performed by trained panellists, suggested that the ripe AroG-expressing tomato fruits had a preferred floral aroma compare with fruits of the wild-type line. These results imply that fruit-specific manipulation of the conversion of primary to specialized metabolism is an attractive approach for improving fruit aroma and flavour qualities as well as discovering novel fruit-specialized metabolites.

Tzin V; Rogachev I; Meir S; Ben Zvi MM; Masci T; Vainstein A; Aharoni A; Galili G

2013-09-01

297

Identification of 3-hydroxy-beta-damascone and related carotenoid-derived aroma compounds as novel potent inducers of Nrf2-mediated phase 2 response with concomitant anti-inflammatory activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Structural comparison of apple constituents with known inducers of phase two cytoprotective enzymes led to the identification of 3-hydroxy-beta-damascone and related carotenoid derived aroma compounds as potent inducers of NAD(P)H:quinone reductase (QR) activity. Damascone-related compounds were found to be more potent inducers than ionone derivatives, with CD values (concentrations required to double the specific activity of QR in Hepa1c1c7 cell culture) in the range of 1.0-5.7 microM. QR induction by 3-hydroxy-beta-damascone was shown to be mediated via transcription factor Nrf2 signaling in transient transfection experiments. We further identified aroma compounds as potent inhibitors of LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in Raw 264.7 cell culture. Again, damascone derivatives were most potent with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of 1.8-7.9 microM. These results reveal previously unrecognized cancer chemopreventive potential of aroma compounds such as beta-damascenone, 3-hydroxy-beta-damascone, and related substances, which may contribute to the cancer protective efficacy of apple products and other dietary sources in animal models.

Gerhäuser C; Klimo K; Hümmer W; Hölzer J; Petermann A; Garreta-Rufas A; Böhmer FD; Schreier P

2009-10-01

298

Identification of 3-hydroxy-beta-damascone and related carotenoid-derived aroma compounds as novel potent inducers of Nrf2-mediated phase 2 response with concomitant anti-inflammatory activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural comparison of apple constituents with known inducers of phase two cytoprotective enzymes led to the identification of 3-hydroxy-beta-damascone and related carotenoid derived aroma compounds as potent inducers of NAD(P)H:quinone reductase (QR) activity. Damascone-related compounds were found to be more potent inducers than ionone derivatives, with CD values (concentrations required to double the specific activity of QR in Hepa1c1c7 cell culture) in the range of 1.0-5.7 microM. QR induction by 3-hydroxy-beta-damascone was shown to be mediated via transcription factor Nrf2 signaling in transient transfection experiments. We further identified aroma compounds as potent inhibitors of LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in Raw 264.7 cell culture. Again, damascone derivatives were most potent with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of 1.8-7.9 microM. These results reveal previously unrecognized cancer chemopreventive potential of aroma compounds such as beta-damascenone, 3-hydroxy-beta-damascone, and related substances, which may contribute to the cancer protective efficacy of apple products and other dietary sources in animal models. PMID:19753606

Gerhäuser, Clarissa; Klimo, Karin; Hümmer, Wolfgang; Hölzer, Jana; Petermann, Astrid; Garreta-Rufas, Antonio; Böhmer, Frank-D; Schreier, Peter

2009-10-01

299

Tomato fruits expressing a bacterial feedback-insensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase of the shikimate pathway possess enhanced levels of multiple specialized metabolites and upgraded aroma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit contains significant amounts of bioactive compounds, particularly multiple classes of specialized metabolites. Enhancing the synthesis and accumulation of these substances, specifically in fruits, are central for improving tomato fruit quality (e.g. flavour and aroma) and could aid in elucidate pathways of specialized metabolism. To promote the production of specialized metabolites in tomato fruit, this work expressed under a fruit ripening-specific promoter, E8, a bacterial AroG gene encoding a 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS), which is feedback-insensitive to phenylalanine inhibition. DAHPS, the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, links between the primary and specialized metabolism derived from aromatic amino acids. AroG expression influenced the levels of number of primary metabolites, such as shikimic acid and aromatic amino acids, as well as multiple volatile and non-volatile phenylpropanoids specialized metabolites and carotenoids. An organoleptic test, performed by trained panellists, suggested that the ripe AroG-expressing tomato fruits had a preferred floral aroma compare with fruits of the wild-type line. These results imply that fruit-specific manipulation of the conversion of primary to specialized metabolism is an attractive approach for improving fruit aroma and flavour qualities as well as discovering novel fruit-specialized metabolites.

Tzin V; Rogachev I; Meir S; Moyal Ben Zvi M; Masci T; Vainstein A; Aharoni A; Galili G

2013-11-01

300

Aroma Compounds in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Groats, Flour, Bran, and Husk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Buckwheat is a pseudocereal with a strong characteristic aroma. Compounds responsible for the aroma of buckwheat groats were recently identified, but the distribution of aromatic compounds between different fractions of the buckwheat kernel (flour, bran, and husk) is not yet known. In this study, the composition of aromatic compounds in buckwheat seed fractions was investigated and compared to the composition of aromatic compounds in groats produced from the same batch of buckwheat seeds. Volatiles from each sample were extracted with simultaneous distillation/extraction with a Likens-Nickerson apparatus. Extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with electron ionization. Apart from the aroma molecules present in all fractions, compounds that are present only in flour or bran, but not in groats, were also found. Furthermore, some compounds were identified only in buckwheat groats but not in buckwheat flour or bran [octanal, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal, (E)-2-decenal, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal], others were identified only in husks [(E)-2-hexenal, heptanal, (E,E)-2,4-hexadienal, phenylacetaldehyde, and alpha-bisabolol].

Janeš Damjan; Prosen Helena; Kreft Ivan; Kreft Samo

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
301

Aroma extraction dilution analysis of Sauternes wines. Key role of polyfunctional thiols.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present work was to investigate Sauternes wine aromas. In all wine extracts, polyfunctional thiols were revealed to have a huge impact. A very strong bacon-petroleum odor emerged at RI = 845 from a CP-Sil5-CB column. Two thiols proved to participate in this perception: 3-methyl-3-sulfanylbutanal and 2-methylfuran-3-thiol. A strong synergetic effect was evidenced between the two compounds. The former, never mentioned before in wines, and not found in the musts of this study, is most probably synthesized during fermentation. 3-Methylbut-2-ene-1-thiol, 3-sulfanylpropyl acetate, 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, and 3-sulfanylheptanal also contribute to the global aromas of Sauternes wines. Among other key odorants, the presence of a varietal aroma (alpha-terpineol), sotolon, fermentation alcohols (3-methylbutan-1-ol and 2-phenylethanol) and esters (ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl isovalerate), carbonyls (trans-non-2-enal and beta-damascenone), and wood flavors (guaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, and Furaneol) is worth stressing. PMID:16968087

Bailly, Sabine; Jerkovic, Vesna; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline; Collin, Sonia

2006-09-20

302

Aroma components of acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein made by partial hydrolysis of rice bran protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) was prepared from rice bran protein concentrate (RBPc) by partial hydrolysis with aqueous 0.5 N HCl at 95 degrees C for 12 or 36 h (H-RBPc-12 and H-RBPc-36, respectively). Aroma components of the RBPc and the HVPs were characterized by gas chromatography-olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, aroma extract dilution analysis, and calculation of odor activity values (OAVs). The predominant odorants in RBPc were 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, 2-aminoacetophenone, (E)-2-nonenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and beta-damascenone. Among these, the odor of 2-aminoacetophenone, present at 59 ng/g in RBPc, was reminiscent of the typical odor of RBPc. Most of the predominant odorants had higher log3FD factors in the H-RBPc-36 as compared to H-RBPc-12. Aroma impact compounds of H-RBPc-12 and H-RBPc-36 were 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)furanone (sotolon), vanillin, 3-methylbutanal, (E)-2-nonenal, 4-vinyl-2-methoxyphenol (p-vinylguaiacol), and beta-damascenone. Guaiacol had the highest OAV values of 2770 and 17650 in H-RBPc-12 and H-RBPc-36, respectively. PMID:17367160

Jarunrattanasri, Arporn; Theerakulkait, Chockchai; Cadwallader, Keith R

2007-03-17

303

The development of varietal aroma from non-floral grapes by yeasts of different genera  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A fraction of glycosidic precursors extracted from different non-floral grapes has been reconstituted with a synthetic must and the must has been fermented in duplicate by yeasts belonging to different genera previously selected by their high glycosidase activity (Saccharomyces cerivisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus; S. cerevisiae x S. bayanus, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Kloeckera apiculata, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Debaryomyces carsonii). Fermentation was allowed to take place for 3 weeks, but only was complete for Saccharomyces yeasts. The wines obtained were analyzed by sensory analysis and by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the sensory descriptors and the aroma composition. The results have shown that the yeast genus exerts a critical influence on the levels of most varietal aroma compounds, affecting to all families coming from precursors, including nor-isoprenoids, terpenols, benzenoids, volatile phenols, vanillins and lactones. Leaving aside ethylphenols and vinylphenols, most aroma compounds are produced at relatively low concentrations, but in numbers enough to likely cause a sensory effect.

Hernández-Orte P; Cersosimo M; Loscos N; Cacho J; Garcia-Moruno E; Ferreira V

2008-04-01

304

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry. The method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured girasol flour which is prepared by extraction of cocoa husks with liquid nitrogen (which mixture is produced in accordance with a specified technology), pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt and water, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. All the components for production of light and dark kinds dough are taken at a specified ratio. ^ EFFECT: invention allows to produce a new bakery product with coffee flavour and aroma tones with no coffee content in the formula and improve consistency of the end product.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

305

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry. The method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured dandelion roots flour which is prepared by extraction of cocoa husks with liquid nitrogen (which mixture is produced in accordance with a specified technology), pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt and water, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. All the components for production of light and dark kinds dough are taken at a specified ratio. ^ EFFECT: invention allows to produce a new bakery product with coffee flavour and aroma tones with no coffee content in the formula and improve consistency of the end product.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

306

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry. The method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured girasol-sunflower flour which is prepared by extraction of cocoa husks with liquid nitrogen (which mixture is produced in accordance with a specified technology), pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt and water, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. All the components for production of light and dark kinds dough are taken at a specified ratio. ^ EFFECT: invention allows to produce a new bakery product with coffee flavour tones and aroma with no coffee content in the formula and improve consistency of the end product.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

307

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry. The method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured girasol flour which is prepared by extraction of lemon peel (which mixture is produced in accordance with a specified technology), pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt and water, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. All the components for production of light and dark kinds dough are taken at a specified ratio. ^ EFFECT: invention allows to produce a new bakery product with coffee flavour and aroma tones with no coffee content in the formula and improve consistency of the end product.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

308

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry. The method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured dandelion roots flour which is prepared by extraction of pomelo rind (which mixture is produced in accordance with a specified technology), pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt and water, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. All the components for production of light and dark kinds dough are taken at a specified ratio. ^ EFFECT: invention allows to produce a new bakery product with coffee flavour and aroma tones with no coffee content in the formula and improve consistency of the end product.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

309

Quantitative model studies on the formation of aroma-active aldehydes and acids by strecker-type reactions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on the volatiles formed by reacting glucose and L-phenylalanine (30 min, 100 degrees C) revealed the Strecker aldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde (PA), and, in addition, phenylacetic acid (PAA) as the two key odorants among the volatiles formed. Quantitative measurements on alpha-dicarbonyl formation revealed that the 3-deoxyosone and glyoxal were formed as the first prominent sugar degradation products, whereas 2-oxopropanal became predominant after approximately 4 h at 100 degrees C. Among the four alpha-dicarbonyls analyzed, 2-oxopropanal proved to be the most effective in generating PA as well as PAA from phenylalanine, but the reaction parameters significantly influenced the ratio of both odorants; for example, at pH 3.0 the ratio of PA to PAA was 3:1, whereas at pH 9.0 the ratio was 1:5. Furthermore, in the presence of oxygen and copper ions the formation of the acid was further increased. 3-Deoxyosone and glucosone were found to be effective precursors of phenylacetaldehyde, but neither was very effective in acid generation. On the basis of the results, a new oxygen-dependent formation pathway of the Strecker reaction is proposed.

Hofmann T; Münch P; Schieberle P

2000-02-01

310

Quantitative model studies on the formation of aroma-active aldehydes and acids by strecker-type reactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on the volatiles formed by reacting glucose and L-phenylalanine (30 min, 100 degrees C) revealed the Strecker aldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde (PA), and, in addition, phenylacetic acid (PAA) as the two key odorants among the volatiles formed. Quantitative measurements on alpha-dicarbonyl formation revealed that the 3-deoxyosone and glyoxal were formed as the first prominent sugar degradation products, whereas 2-oxopropanal became predominant after approximately 4 h at 100 degrees C. Among the four alpha-dicarbonyls analyzed, 2-oxopropanal proved to be the most effective in generating PA as well as PAA from phenylalanine, but the reaction parameters significantly influenced the ratio of both odorants; for example, at pH 3.0 the ratio of PA to PAA was 3:1, whereas at pH 9.0 the ratio was 1:5. Furthermore, in the presence of oxygen and copper ions the formation of the acid was further increased. 3-Deoxyosone and glucosone were found to be effective precursors of phenylacetaldehyde, but neither was very effective in acid generation. On the basis of the results, a new oxygen-dependent formation pathway of the Strecker reaction is proposed. PMID:10691653

Hofmann, T; Münch, P; Schieberle, P

2000-02-01

311

De aromas e perfumes, o mercado da indústria do "cheiro"/ From aromas and perfumes, the market of the "smell" industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Several flavors and fragrances (F&F) companies hold the economic leadership in the market, although not always have also the leadership in patent applications. The ranking of technological production in the fragrance area still remains with industries while scientific knowledge is equally shared between industries and academia. Contextualizing Brazil in this scene, despite all scientific expertise gained over the years, brazilian technological park is still at the beginni (more) ng of the production of technologies applied directly to the F&F industries. The dependence on foreign technologies is remarkable as indicated by the great trade deficit in this sector.

Speziali, Marcelo Gomes

2012-01-01

312

De aromas e perfumes, o mercado da indústria do "cheiro" From aromas and perfumes, the market of the "smell" industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several flavors and fragrances (F&F) companies hold the economic leadership in the market, although not always have also the leadership in patent applications. The ranking of technological production in the fragrance area still remains with industries while scientific knowledge is equally shared between industries and academia. Contextualizing Brazil in this scene, despite all scientific expertise gained over the years, brazilian technological park is still at the beginning of the production of technologies applied directly to the F&F industries. The dependence on foreign technologies is remarkable as indicated by the great trade deficit in this sector.

Marcelo Gomes Speziali

2012-01-01

313

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) using aroma extract dilution analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract of the dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica obtained by extraction with diethyl ether followed by sublimation in vacuo revealed 28 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 4-8192, all of which could be identified. The highest FD factor was found for linalol (floral), followed by (E)-beta-ocimene (flowery), alpha-farnesene (sweet, flowery), beta-pinene (terpeny), alpha-pinene (pine needle-like), myrtenol (flowery), and beta-phellandrene (terpeny). Vanillin (vanilla-like) and 3-ethylphenol (smoky, phenolic) showing somewhat lower FD factors (FD = 128) were detected for the first time as constituents of the dried fruit.

Tairu AO; Hofmann T; Schieberle P

1999-08-01

314

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) using aroma extract dilution analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract of the dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica obtained by extraction with diethyl ether followed by sublimation in vacuo revealed 28 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 4-8192, all of which could be identified. The highest FD factor was found for linalol (floral), followed by (E)-beta-ocimene (flowery), alpha-farnesene (sweet, flowery), beta-pinene (terpeny), alpha-pinene (pine needle-like), myrtenol (flowery), and beta-phellandrene (terpeny). Vanillin (vanilla-like) and 3-ethylphenol (smoky, phenolic) showing somewhat lower FD factors (FD = 128) were detected for the first time as constituents of the dried fruit. PMID:10552646

Tairu, A O; Hofmann, T; Schieberle, P

1999-08-01

315

Total Aroma and other Quality Factors of Hugo Charentias Melons as Affected by Harvest Date and Refrigeration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to monitor the changes in the common quality parameters including aroma volatiles of Charentais melon (Cucumis melo L.) cv. Hugo fruit occurring after harvest and refrigeration in order to establish a proper harvest date. Fruit were harvested at three stages of development: early ripening, moderately ripe and ripe corresponding to 70, 75 and 80 Days after Sowing (DAS) the seeds, respectively. Testing was performed immediately after harvest and after 5, 10 or 15 days holding under refrigeration at 7°C. External and internal color, firmness, Soluble Solids Content (SSC), Titratable Acidity (TA), weight and aroma were investigated. Date of harvest markedly impacted most of the quality parameters, while holding under refrigeration affected firmness and aroma. Seventy DAS fruit were firmer than 80 DAS, but the later acquired higher SSC and aroma concentration and a larger size. Seventy five DAS fruit were intermediate between both. Holding under refrigeration increased or decreased total aroma volatiles concentration, increased weight loss, decreased firmness, slightly affected color change and had no effect on SSC and TA. It can be concluded, therefore, that harvesting Charentais melons cv. Hugo at 80 DAS might best meet consumer preferences for fruit quality with some doubt that the fruit will withstand the handling and shipping stresses. While harvesting at 70 DAS might very well withstand the shipping stress, the fruit quality may not be acceptable to the consumers. Harvesting at 75 DAS might, therefore, meet both requirements.

N. El-Assi; N. Alsmeirat

2010-01-01

316

Identification of Key Odorants in Withering-Flavored Green Tea by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This research aims to identify key odorants in withering-flavored green tea. Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis using the volatile fraction of green tea and withering-flavored green tea revealed 25 and 35 odor-active peaks with the flavor dilution factors of?4, respectively. 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, (E)-2-nonenal, linalool, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal and 3-methylnonane-2,4-dione were key odorants in green tea with the flavor dilution factor of?16. As well as these 5 odorants, 1-octen-3-one, ?-damascenone, geraniol, ?-ionone, (Z)-methyljasmonate, indole and coumarine contributed to the withering flavor of green tea.

Mizukami, Yuzo; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

317

Screening of Brazilian fruit aromas using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Manual headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for the qualitative analysis of the aromas of four native Brazilian fruits: cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Spreng.), cajá (Spondias lutea. L.), siriguela (Spondias purpurea, L.) and graviola (Anona reticulata, L). Industrialized pulps of these fruits were used as samples, and extractions with SPME fibers coated with polydimethylsiloxane, polyacrylate, Carbowax and Carboxen were carried out. The analytes identified included several alcohols, esters, carbonyl compounds and terpernoids. The highest amounts extracted, evaluated from the sum of peak areas, were achieved using the Carboxen fiber. PMID:10757290

Augusto, F; Valente, A L; dos Santos Tada, E; Rivellino, S R

2000-03-17

318

Screening of Brazilian fruit aromas using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Manual headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for the qualitative analysis of the aromas of four native Brazilian fruits: cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Spreng.), cajá (Spondias lutea. L.), siriguela (Spondias purpurea, L.) and graviola (Anona reticulata, L). Industrialized pulps of these fruits were used as samples, and extractions with SPME fibers coated with polydimethylsiloxane, polyacrylate, Carbowax and Carboxen were carried out. The analytes identified included several alcohols, esters, carbonyl compounds and terpernoids. The highest amounts extracted, evaluated from the sum of peak areas, were achieved using the Carboxen fiber.

Augusto F; Valente AL; dos Santos Tada E; Rivellino SR

2000-03-01

319

Sol-gel microencapsulation of odorants and flavors: opening the route to sustainable fragrances and aromas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The sol-gel approach to encapsulate fragrance and aroma chemicals in porous silica-based materials has the potential to afford odorant and flavoured materials with novel and unique beneficial properties. Amorphous sol-gel SiO2 is non-toxic and safe, whereas the sol-gel entrapment of delicate chemicals in its inner pores results in pronounced chemical and physical stabilization of the entrapped actives, thereby broadening the practical utilization of chemically unstable essential oils. Reviewing progress in the fabrication of diverse odorant and flavoured sol-gels, we show how different synthetic strategies afford advanced materials suitable for practical application with important health and environmental benefits.

Ciriminna R; Pagliaro M

2013-09-01

320

Aroma compounds recovery of tropical fruit juice by pervaporation: membrane material selection and process evaluation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present work, aroma recovery of tropical fruit juice by pervaporation process was investigated using model solutes and different kinds of composite membranes. As feed solution, binary and quaternary synthetic aqueous solutions were used, as well as the single strength and the clarified pineapple juices. Composite membranes (flat or hollow fiber), prepared in laboratory or commercial ones, were used for comparison. The water permeability and the overall mass transfer coefficient for each organic solute were determined. The experimental pervaporation results were used as input for a simulation of a permeation unit, allowing a preliminary comparison of the different membranes investigated. Experimental and simulation results indicated that EPDM membranes presented the best performance.

Pereira CC; Rufino JRM; Habert AC; Nobrega R; Cabral LMC; Borges CP

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Release and formation of varietal aroma compounds during alcoholic fermentation from nonfloral grape odorless flavor precursors fractions.  

Science.gov (United States)

An odorless flavor precursor fraction extracted from different nonfloral grape varietals has been added to a grape must and has been fermented by three different yeast strains. The wines obtained were analyzed by sensory descriptive analysis and by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to determine more than 90 aroma chemicals. The addition of the precursor fraction brought about a significant increase of the wine floral notes, irrespective of the yeast used. The levels of 51 wine aroma chemicals were found to depend on the precursor fraction addition and, in most cases, also on the yeast strain. Only beta-damascenone, beta-ionone, and vinylphenols were produced at concentrations well above threshold. However, the concerted addition of groups of compounds has shown that lactones, cinnamates, vanillins, and terpenes are together active contributors to the floral note. Different observations suggest that the formation of varietal aroma is an integral part of yeast metabolism and not a simple hydrolytical process. PMID:17616208

Loscos, Natalia; Hernandez-Orte, Purificacion; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

2007-07-07

322

Phytochemical, sensory attributes and aroma stability of dense phase carbon dioxide processed Hibiscus sabdariffa beverage during storage  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) processing (34.5MPa, 8% CO2, 6.5min, and 40°C) on phytochemical, sensory and aroma compounds of hibiscus beverage was compared to a conventional thermal process (HTST) (75°C for 15s) and a control (untreated beverage) during refrigerated storage (4°C). The overall likeability of the hibiscus beverage for all treatments was not affected by storage up to week 5. DPCD process retained more aroma volatiles as compared to HTST. Aroma profiles in the beverages were mainly composed of alcohols and aldehydes with 1-octen-3-ol, decanal, octanal, 1-hexanol, and nonanal as the compounds with the highest relative percentage peak areas. A loss of only 9% anthocyanins was observed for the DPCD processed hibiscus beverage. Phytochemical profiles in the hibiscus beverage included caffeoylquinic acids, anthocyanins, and flavonols. No major changes in total phenolics and antioxidant capacity occurred during the 14weeks of storage.

Ramírez-Rodrigues MM; Plaza ML; Azeredo A; Balaban MO; Marshall MR

2012-10-01

323

Characterization of aroma compounds in Chinese rice wine Qu by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and headspace solid-phase microextraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma of Chinese rice wine Qu is one of the most important factors that influences the flavor of Chinese rice wine. To better understand the aroma of Qu, aroma compounds in four wheat Qus and two xiao Qus were identified by chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) after solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE). A total of 39 aroma compounds were characterized by GC-O. On the basis of aroma intensity, 1-hexanal, ethyl hexanoate, 1-octen-3-ol, and phenylacetaldehyde were found to be the most important aroma compounds in all six Qus. In addition, 3-methylbutanol and 2-phenylethanol also played an important role in the aroma of two xiao Qus. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was used for quantifying aroma compounds identified in the Qus. The method enabled limits of detection and quantification of <40.8 and <136.0 microg/L, respectively. Linearity and recovery were satisfied in all cases. Quantitative analysis revealed that volatiles of six Qus had a wide range of concentration. Principal component analysis applied to the data differentiated the six Qus well. PMID:20088505

Mo, Xinliang; Xu, Yan; Fan, Wenlai

2010-02-24

324

Characterization of aroma compounds in Chinese rice wine Qu by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and headspace solid-phase microextraction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aroma of Chinese rice wine Qu is one of the most important factors that influences the flavor of Chinese rice wine. To better understand the aroma of Qu, aroma compounds in four wheat Qus and two xiao Qus were identified by chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) after solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE). A total of 39 aroma compounds were characterized by GC-O. On the basis of aroma intensity, 1-hexanal, ethyl hexanoate, 1-octen-3-ol, and phenylacetaldehyde were found to be the most important aroma compounds in all six Qus. In addition, 3-methylbutanol and 2-phenylethanol also played an important role in the aroma of two xiao Qus. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was used for quantifying aroma compounds identified in the Qus. The method enabled limits of detection and quantification of <40.8 and <136.0 microg/L, respectively. Linearity and recovery were satisfied in all cases. Quantitative analysis revealed that volatiles of six Qus had a wide range of concentration. Principal component analysis applied to the data differentiated the six Qus well.

Mo X; Xu Y; Fan W

2010-02-01

325

Effects of bite size and duration of oral processing on retro-nasal aroma release - features contributing to meal termination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The brain response to a retro-nasally sensed food odour signals the perception of food and it is suggested to be related to satiation. It is hypothesised that consuming food either in multiple small bite sizes or with a longer durations of oral processing may evoke substantial oral processing per gram consumed and an increase in transit time in the oral cavity. This is expected to result in a higher cumulative retro-nasal aroma stimulation, which in turn may lead to increased feelings of satiation and decreased food intake. Using real-time atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-MS, in vivo retro-nasal aroma release was assessed for twenty-one young, healthy and normal-weight subjects consuming dark chocolate-flavoured custard. Subjects were exposed to both free or fixed bite size (5 and 15 g) and durations of oral processing before swallowing (3 and 9 s) in a cross-over design. For a fixed amount of dark chocolate-flavoured custard, consumption in multiple small bite sizes resulted in a significantly higher cumulative extent of retro-nasal aroma release per gram consumed compared with a smaller amount of large bite sizes. In addition, a longer duration of oral processing tended to result in a higher cumulative extent of retro-nasal aroma release per gram consumed compared with a short duration of oral processing. An interaction effect of bite size and duration of oral processing was not observed. In conclusion, decreasing bite size or increasing duration of oral processing led to a higher cumulative retro-nasal aroma stimulation per gram consumed. Hence, adapting bite size or duration of oral processing indicates that meal termination can be accelerated by increasing the extent of retro-nasal aroma release and, subsequently, the satiation.

Ruijschop RM; Zijlstra N; Boelrijk AE; Dijkstra A; Burgering MJ; Graaf Cd; Westerterp-Plantenga MS

2011-01-01

326

Effects of bite size and duration of oral processing on retro-nasal aroma release - features contributing to meal termination.  

Science.gov (United States)

The brain response to a retro-nasally sensed food odour signals the perception of food and it is suggested to be related to satiation. It is hypothesised that consuming food either in multiple small bite sizes or with a longer durations of oral processing may evoke substantial oral processing per gram consumed and an increase in transit time in the oral cavity. This is expected to result in a higher cumulative retro-nasal aroma stimulation, which in turn may lead to increased feelings of satiation and decreased food intake. Using real-time atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-MS, in vivo retro-nasal aroma release was assessed for twenty-one young, healthy and normal-weight subjects consuming dark chocolate-flavoured custard. Subjects were exposed to both free or fixed bite size (5 and 15 g) and durations of oral processing before swallowing (3 and 9 s) in a cross-over design. For a fixed amount of dark chocolate-flavoured custard, consumption in multiple small bite sizes resulted in a significantly higher cumulative extent of retro-nasal aroma release per gram consumed compared with a smaller amount of large bite sizes. In addition, a longer duration of oral processing tended to result in a higher cumulative extent of retro-nasal aroma release per gram consumed compared with a short duration of oral processing. An interaction effect of bite size and duration of oral processing was not observed. In conclusion, decreasing bite size or increasing duration of oral processing led to a higher cumulative retro-nasal aroma stimulation per gram consumed. Hence, adapting bite size or duration of oral processing indicates that meal termination can be accelerated by increasing the extent of retro-nasal aroma release and, subsequently, the satiation. PMID:20836901

Ruijschop, Rianne M A J; Zijlstra, Nicolien; Boelrijk, Alexandra E M; Dijkstra, Annereinou; Burgering, Maurits J M; Graaf, Cees de; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

2010-09-14

327

Functional characterization of three Coffea arabica L. monoterpene synthases: insights into the enzymatic machinery of coffee aroma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The chemical composition of the coffee beverage is extremely complex, being made up of hundreds of volatile and non-volatile compounds, many of which are generated in the thermal reactions that occur during the roasting process. However, in the raw coffee bean there are also compounds that survive roasting and are therefore extracted into the beverage. Monoterpenes are an example of this category, as their presence has been reported in the coffee flower, fruit, seed, roasted bean and in the beverage aroma. The present work describes the isolation, heterologous expression and functional characterization of three Coffea arabica cDNAs coding for monoterpene synthases. RNA was purified from C. arabica (cv. Catuai Red) flowers, seeds and fruits at 4 successive ripening stages. Degenerate primers were designed on the most conserved regions of the monoterpene synthase gene family, and then used to isolate monoterpene synthase-like sequences from the cDNA libraries. After 5'- and 3'-RACE, the complete transcripts of 4 putative C. arabica monoterpene synthases (CofarTPS) were obtained. Gene expression in different tissues and developmental stages was analysed. After heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, enzyme activity and substrate specificity were evaluated in vitro by incubation of the recombinant proteins with geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP), geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) and farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), precursors respectively of mono-, di- and sesquiterpenes. The reaction products were characterized by HS-SPME GC-MS. CofarTPS1 was classified as a limonene synthase gene, while CofarTPS2 and 3 showed lower activity with the production of linalool and ?-myrcene.

Del Terra L; Lonzarich V; Asquini E; Navarini L; Graziosi G; Suggi Liverani F; Pallavicini A

2013-05-01

328

Aroma volatile compositions of high- and low-aromatic guava varieties.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The traditional guava variety cultivated in Israel, 'Ben Dov', emits a very strong odour, whereas some newly bred varieties have a mild odour. In this study the aroma profile composition of the high-aromatic 'Ben Dov' variety was compared with those of four new low-aromatic varieties. RESULTS: Overall, using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, a total of 30 aroma volatiles were detected in fresh ripe guava fruit: 15 of them were specifically detected only in the high-aromatic 'Ben Dov' variety, 13 were detected in both the high- and low-aromatic varieties and two were detected only in the new low-aromatic varieties. Interestingly, 11 out of the 15 volatiles specifically detected in 'Ben Dov' were esters that contribute sweet, tropical and fruity notes. In contrast, ten out of 13 detected terpenes and two detected aldehydes, contributing green, spicy, herbal and woody notes, were common to both the high- and low-aromatic varieties. CONCLUSION: Based on these findings, it is concluded that accumulation of esters is the main reason why the traditional 'Ben Dov' guava variety emits such a strong tropical fruity odour. In contrast, the newly bred low-aromatic guava varieties did not synthesise esters at all and thus lacked fruity aromatic notes. Overall, the results of this study point out the important role of esters in forming tropical fruity guava odours.

Porat R; Tietel Z; Zippori I; Dag A

2011-12-01

329

1-methylcyclopropene effects on temporal changes of aroma volatiles and phytochemicals of fresh-cut cantaloupe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Orange-fleshed cantaloupe melons have intense aroma and flavor but are very perishable during storage life. Fresh-cut processing enhances ethylene-mediated quality losses. Post-cutting 1-methylcyclopene (1-MCP) application to fresh-cut cantaloupe was evaluated for its effects on quality attributes, phytochemical content and aroma volatiles. RESULTS: Fresh-cut cantaloupe (Cucumis melo var. cantalupensis 'Fiesta') cubes treated with 1.0 µL L(-1) of 1-MCP for 24 h at 5 °C, packaged in vented plastic clamshells and stored under normal atmosphere at 5 °C for 9 days, preserved their soluble solids, total phenolics, total carotenoids and ?-carotene contents, but significant softening occurred. A significant increase of non-acetate esters and a decrease of aldehydes occurred during storage. Most quality attributes of fresh-cut cantaloupe were unaffected by the treatment with 1-MCP. 1-MCP-treated fresh-cut cantaloupe accumulated higher levels of propyl acetate, 2-methylbutyl acetate, methyl butanoate, methyl 2-methyl butanoate, methyl hexanoate, 2-methylbutyl alcohol and phenethyl alcohol, and lower levels of benzyl alcohol and heptanal than untreated controls. CONCLUSION: Post-cutting treatment with 1-MCP affected nine of the flavor-important volatiles, particularly those derived from the amino acids isoleucine and phenylalanine, but had no practical effect on phytochemicals or other quality attributes.

Amaro AL; Fundo JF; Oliveira A; Beaulieu JC; Fernández-Trujillo JP; Almeida DP

2013-03-01

330

Centrifugal partition chromatography applied to the isolation of oak wood aroma precursors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flavours extracted from oak wood during barrel ageing contribute to the organoleptic character of wines and spirits. The aim of this work was to identify the glycosidic precursors of the key volatile compounds responsible for oak wood aroma. Oak extract is a very complex matrix and, furthermore, precursors are present in very small quantities. Preparative centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) is a promising solution for purifying the oak extract. The solvent system was selected on the basis of the partition coefficient of glycosidase enzyme activity (Kca). Thanks to the efficacy of CPC separation, three glucoside gallates were subsequently isolated by HPLC chromatography. Vanillin-(6'-O-galloyl)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-(6'-O-galloyl)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, and (6R,9R)-3-oxo-?-ionol-9-O-(6'-O-galloyl)-?-glucopyranoside (macarangioside E) were isolated and identified. This was the first time that vanillin-(6'-O-galloyl)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside was identified and the first time that macarangioside E was isolated from oak wood. Heating macarangioside E resulted in the formation of megastigmatrienone, which has an aroma reminiscent of tobacco. PMID:23870953

Slaghenaufi, Davide; Marchand-Marion, Stéphanie; Richard, Tristan; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Bisson, Jonathan; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Merillon, Jean-Michel; de Revel, Gilles

2013-05-02

331

Aroma chemical composition of red wines from different price categories and its relationship to quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma chemical composition of three sets of Spanish red wines belonging to three different price categories was studied by using an array of gas chromatographic methods. Significant differences were found in the levels of 72 aroma compounds. Expensive wines are richest in wood-related compounds, ethyl phenols, cysteinil-derived mercaptans, volatile sulfur compounds, ethyl esters of branched acids, methional, and phenylacetaldehyde and are poorest in linear and branched fatty acids, fusel alcohols, terpenols, norisoprenoids, fusel alcohol acetates, and ethyl esters of the linear fatty acids; inexpensive wines show exactly the opposite profile, being richest in E-2-nonenal, E-2-hexenal, Z-3-hexenol, acetoin, and ethyl lactate. Satisfactory models relating quality to odorant composition could be built exclusively for expensive and medium-price wines but not for the lower-price sample set in which in-mouth attributes had to be included. The models for quality reveal a common structure, but they are characteristic of a given sample set. PMID:22480297

Juan, Felipe San; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

2012-05-14

332

Aroma chemical composition of red wines from different price categories and its relationship to quality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aroma chemical composition of three sets of Spanish red wines belonging to three different price categories was studied by using an array of gas chromatographic methods. Significant differences were found in the levels of 72 aroma compounds. Expensive wines are richest in wood-related compounds, ethyl phenols, cysteinil-derived mercaptans, volatile sulfur compounds, ethyl esters of branched acids, methional, and phenylacetaldehyde and are poorest in linear and branched fatty acids, fusel alcohols, terpenols, norisoprenoids, fusel alcohol acetates, and ethyl esters of the linear fatty acids; inexpensive wines show exactly the opposite profile, being richest in E-2-nonenal, E-2-hexenal, Z-3-hexenol, acetoin, and ethyl lactate. Satisfactory models relating quality to odorant composition could be built exclusively for expensive and medium-price wines but not for the lower-price sample set in which in-mouth attributes had to be included. The models for quality reveal a common structure, but they are characteristic of a given sample set.

Juan FS; Cacho J; Ferreira V; Escudero A

2012-05-01

333

Glycosidically bound aroma compounds and impact odorants of four strawberry varieties.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports the determination of glycosidically bound aroma compounds and the olfactometric analysis in four strawberry varieties (Fuentepina, Camarosa, Candonga and Sabrina). Different hydrolytic strategies were also studied. The results showed significant differences between acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. In general terms, the greater the duration of acid hydrolysis, the higher was the content of norisoprenoids, volatile phenols, benzenes, lactones, Furaneol, and mesifurane. A total of 51 aglycones were identified, 38 of them unreported in strawberry. Olfactometric analyses revealed that the odorants with higher modified frequencies were Furaneol, ?-decalactone, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, diacetyl, hexanoic acid, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one. This last compound, described as geranium/green/pepper/lettuce (linear retention index = 1378), was identified for the first time. Differences with regard to fruity, sweet, floral, and green aroma characters were observed among varieties. In Candonga and Fuentepina, the green character overpowered the sweet. In the other two strawberry varieties sweet attributes were stronger than the rest. PMID:22646744

Ubeda, Cristina; San-Juan, Felipe; Concejero, Belén; Callejón, Raquel M; Troncoso, Ana M; Morales, M Lourdes; Ferreira, Vicente; Hernández-Orte, Purificación

2012-06-11

334

Analysis of the volatile aroma constituents of parental and hybrid clones of pepino (Solanum muricatum).  

Science.gov (United States)

The volatile constituents of 10 clones (4 parents with different flavors and 6 hybrids from selected crossings among these parents) of pepino fruit (Solanum muricatum) were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Odor-contributing volatiles (OCVs) were detected by GC-olfactometry-MS analyses and included 24 esters (acetates, 3-methylbutanoates, and 3-methylbut-2-enoates), 7 aldehydes (especially hexenals and nonenals), 6 ketones, 9 alcohols, 3 lactones, 2 terpenes, beta-damascenone, and mesifurane. Among these compounds, 17, of which 5 had not been reported previously in pepino, were found to contribute significantly to pepino aroma. OCVs can be assigned to three groups according to their odor quality: fruity fresh (acetates and prenol), green vegetable (C6 and C9 aldehydes), and exotic (lactones, mesifuran, and beta-damascenone). Quantitative and qualitative differences between clones for these compounds are clearly related to differences in their overall flavor impression. The positive value found for the hybrid-midparent regression coefficient for volatile composition indicates that an important fraction of the variation observed is inheritable, which has important implications in breeding for improving aroma. Significant and positive correlations were found between OCVs having common precursors or related pathways. PMID:15373407

Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Prohens, Jaime; Nitz, Siegfried; Nuez, Fernando

2004-09-01

335

Lactic fermentation to improve the aroma of protein extracts of sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lupin protein extracts (LPE) are prone to the emission of a beany off-flavour during storage, which confines its application in foods. Fermentation of LPE using several lactic acid bacteria was conducted to reduce off-flavour formation in stored samples. The aroma profile of untreated LPE was compared to those of fermented protein extracts (LPEF). Hexanal and n-hexanol were used as indicator substances of progressing lipid oxidation. The most powerful odourants were evaluated by GC-olfactometry-flavour dilution analysis and identified according to their mass spectra, odour descriptions, and retention indices. Twenty two volatile substances with dilution factors equal to or higher than 100 were determined in both LPE and LPEF, amongst them n-pentanal, n-hexanal, 1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, 1-octen-3-one, 3-octen-2-one, 1-octen-3-ol, and ?-damascenone. The aroma profile was significantly modified by the fermentation process and the off-flavours were reduced and/or masked by newly formed compounds.

Schindler S; Wittig M; Zelena K; Krings U; Bez J; Eisner P; Berger RG

2011-09-01

336

Identification of volatile compounds responsible for prune aroma in prematurely aged red wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The premature aging of red Vitis vinifera L. wines is mainly associated with the formation of an intense off-flavor reminiscent of prunes. The compounds responsible for this deterioration in red wine flavor have not previously been identified. Sensory descriptive analysis associated with a gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) technique was first performed to find characteristic odoriferous zones of 15 aged red wines with or without a marked prune aroma. Afterward, high-pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and multidimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (MDGC-MS) were used to identify the odorants reminiscent of prunes in prematurely aged red wines and in the dried fruit. Three compounds were detected with a strong odor of prunes: gamma-nonalactone, beta-damascenone, and 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione. The perception threshold of the latter beta-diketone in a model hydroalcoholic solution is 16 ng/L. Identified for the first time in aged red wines, this very powerful volatile compound was also suggested to produce the characteristic prune aroma of prematurely aged red wines. The presence of 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione was also detected in prunes for the first time. PMID:18540625

Pons, Alexandre; Lavigne, Valérie; Eric, Frérot; Darriet, Philippe; Dubourdieu, Denis

2008-06-10

337

Characterization of aroma-active compounds, sensory properties, and proteolysis in Ezine cheese.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ezine cheese is a white pickled cheese ripened in tinplate containers for at least 8 mo. A mixture of milk from goat, sheep, and cow is used to make Ezine cheese. Ezine cheese has geographical indication status. The purposes of this study were to determine and compare the changes in basic composition, aroma, and sensory characteristics, and proteolytic activity of Ezine cheese stored in tinplate containers and plastic vacuum packages during storage. Aroma-active compounds were determined by thermal desorption gas chromatography olfactometry. To evaluate the proteolytic activity, casein and nitrogen fractions were determined. The results indicated that compounds identified at high intensities were dimethyl sulfide, ethyl butyrate, hexanal, ethyl pentanoate, (Z)-4-heptenal, 1-octen-3-one, acetic acid, butyric acid, and p-cresol. Characteristic descriptive terms were cooked, whey, creamy, animal-like, sour, and salty. The level of proteolysis increased in Ezine cheese during storage. Ezine cheese can be ripened in small-size packaging after 3 mo of storage. Approximately 6 mo is sufficient to produce the characteristic properties of Ezine cheese.

Yuceer YK; Tuncel B; Guneser O; Engin B; Isleten M; Yasar K; Mendes M

2009-09-01

338

Desalination of fish sauce by electrodialysis: effect on selected aroma compounds and amino acid compositions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Fish sauce is an ingredient that exhibits unique flavor and is widely used by people in Southeast Asia. Fish sauce, however, contains a significant amount of salt (sodium chloride). Recently, electrodialysis (ED) has been successfully applied to reduce salt in fish sauce; however, no information is available on the effect of ED on changes in compounds providing aroma and taste of ED-treated fish sauce. The selected aroma compounds, amino acids, and sensory quality of the ED-treated fish sauce with various salt concentrations were then analyzed. The amounts of trimethylamine, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, phenols, and all carboxylic acids except for hexanoic acid significantly decreased, whereas benzaldehyde increased significantly when the salt removal level was higher. The amounts of all amino acids decreased with the increased salt removal level. Significant difference in flavor and saltiness intensity among ED-treated fish sauce with various salt concentrations, as assessed by a discriminative test, were observed. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Information obtained in this work can serve as a guideline for optimization of a process to produce low-sodium fish sauce by ED. It also forms a basis for further in-depth sensory analysis of low-sodium fish sauce.

Chindapan N; Devahastin S; Chiewchan N; Sablani SS

2011-09-01

339

Stomatal distribution, stomatal density and daily leaf movement in Acacia aroma (Leguminosae) Distribución y densidad estomática y movimiento diario de la hoja en Acacia aroma (Leguminosae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acacia aroma Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. grows in the Chacoan and Yungas Biogeographic Provinces, Argentina. It has numerous medicinal applications, sweet and edible fruits, and it may be used as forage. The objective of the present contribution was to analyse the stomatal distribution and stomatal density on the secondary leaflet surfaces, in different parts of the leaf, and at different tree crown levels, establishing the leaf movement and environmental condition relationships. The work was performed with fresh material and herbarium specimens, using conventional anatomical techniques. Stomatal distribution on the secondary leaflet surfaces was established, and differences in stomatal density among basal, medium and apical leaflets were found. A decrease in stomatal density from the lower level to the upper level of the tree crown would be connected with that. The stomatal distribution and density appear related to the secondary leaflet shape and its position on the secondary rachis, interacting with the daily secondary leaflets and leaf movement, and the weather conditions. It is interesting that the medium value of stomata density were found in the middle part of the leaf and at the middle level of the tree crown. Original illustrations are given.Acacia aroma crece en las Provincias Biogeográficas Chaqueña y de las Yungas, Argentina. Este árbol posee numerosas aplicaciones en medicina popular, sus frutos son comestibles y puede ser usada como forraje. Los objetivos de la presente contribución fueron: establecer la distribución y densidad de los estomas en el folíolo secundario, en distintos folíolos secundarios de la misma hoja y en los folíolos secundarios de las hojas de la parte basal, media y superior de la copa del árbol, estableciendo relaciones con el movimiento diario de las hojas y condiciones ambientales. Para el estudio se utilizó material fresco y ejemplares de herbario empleando técnicas de anatomía convencionales. Se estableció la distribución de los estomas sobre las superficies adaxial y abaxial del folíolo secundario. Se encontraron diferencias en la densidad de estomas entre los folíolos secundarios de la parte basal, media y apical de la hoja que están relacionadas a la posición de éstas en la copa del árbol. Dentro de la copa del árbol se encontró que la densidad de estomas decrece desde la parte basal hasta la parte superior. La distribución y densidad estomática estarían relacionadas a la forma del folíolo secundario y posición de éstos sobre el raquis, al movimiento diario de los folíolos secundarios y de la hoja interactuando con los factores ambientales. Cabe destacar que el valor medio de densidad de estomas se halló en la parte media de la hoja y en la parte media de la copa del árbol. El trabajo se acompaña con ilustraciones originales.

Marcelo P. Hernández; Ana M. ArambarriI

2010-01-01

340

NON-SMOKY GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASE1 Prevents the Release of Smoky Aroma from Tomato Fruit[W][OPEN  

Science.gov (United States)

Phenylpropanoid volatiles are responsible for the key tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum) aroma attribute termed “smoky.” Release of these volatiles from their glycosylated precursors, rather than their biosynthesis, is the major determinant of smoky aroma in cultivated tomato. Using a combinatorial omics approach, we identified the NON-SMOKY GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASE1 (NSGT1) gene. Expression of NSGT1 is induced during fruit ripening, and the encoded enzyme converts the cleavable diglycosides of the smoky-related phenylpropanoid volatiles into noncleavable triglycosides, thereby preventing their deglycosylation and release from tomato fruit upon tissue disruption. In an nsgt1/nsgt1 background, further glycosylation of phenylpropanoid volatile diglycosides does not occur, thereby enabling their cleavage and the release of corresponding volatiles. Using reverse genetics approaches, the NSGT1-mediated glycosylation was shown to be the molecular mechanism underlying the major quantitative trait locus for smoky aroma. Sensory trials with transgenic fruits, in which the inactive nsgt1 was complemented with the functional NSGT1, showed a significant and perceivable reduction in smoky aroma. NSGT1 may be used in a precision breeding strategy toward development of tomato fruits with distinct flavor phenotypes.

Tikunov, Yury M.; Molthoff, Jos; de Vos, Ric C.H.; Beekwilder, Jules; van Houwelingen, Adele; van der Hooft, Justin J.J.; Nijenhuis-de Vries, Mariska; Labrie, Caroline W.; Verkerke, Wouter; van de Geest, Henri; Viquez Zamora, Marcela; Presa, Silvia; Rambla, Jose Luis; Granell, Antonio; Hall, Robert D.; Bovy, Arnaud G.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Chemical characterization of commercial Sherry vinegar aroma by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-olfactometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sensorial representativeness of the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) aroma extract from commercial Sherry vinegars has been determined by direct gas chromatography-olfactometry (D-GCO). Extracts obtained under optimal conditions were used to characterize the aroma of these vinegars by means of GCO and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Among the 37 different odorants determined, 13 of them were identified for the first time in Sherry vinegars: 2 pyrazines (3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine), 2 sulfur compounds (methanethiol, dimethyl trisulfide), 1 unsaturated ketone (1-octen-3-one), 1 norisoprenoid (?-damascenone), 1 ester (ethyl trans-cinnamate) and 6 aldehydes (2- and 3-methylbutanal, octanal, nonanal, (E)-2-nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal). The determination of the odor thresholds in a hydroacetic solution together with the quantitative analysis-which was also performed using the simple and fast SPME technique-allowed obtaining the odor activity values (OAV) of the aromatic compounds found. Thus, a first pattern of their sensory importance on commercial Sherry vinegar aroma was provided. PMID:21410171

Aceña, Laura; Vera, Luciano; Guasch, Josep; Busto, Olga; Mestres, Montserrat

2011-03-16

342

Characterization of (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-nonatrienal as a character impact aroma compound of oat flakes.  

Science.gov (United States)

To identify the compounds evoking the characteristic cereal-like, sweet aroma of oat flakes, an aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was applied to a distillate prepared by solvent extraction/vacuum distillation from commercial oat flakes. Among the nine aroma-active compounds detected by gas chromatography-olfactometry and AEDA in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 4-1024, eight odorants, for example, (E)-beta-damascenone, (Z)-3-hexenal, and butanoic acid, showed only low FD factors. However, one odorant eliciting the typical cereal, sweet aroma of the flakes was detected with the highest FD factor of 1024. By mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance measurements followed by a synthesis, (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-nonatrienal, exhibiting an intense oat flake-like odor at the extremely low odor threshold of 0.0002 ng/L in air, was identified as the key odorant of the flakes. By means of a newly developed stable isotope dilution analysis using synthesized, carbon-13-labeled nonatrienal as the internal standard, a concentration of 13 mug of (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-nonatrienal per kilogram of the flakes was measured. Model studies suggested linolenic acid as the precursor of nonatrienal in oats. PMID:16248574

Schuh, Christian; Schieberle, Peter

2005-11-01

343

Chemical characterization of commercial Sherry vinegar aroma by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-olfactometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The sensorial representativeness of the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) aroma extract from commercial Sherry vinegars has been determined by direct gas chromatography-olfactometry (D-GCO). Extracts obtained under optimal conditions were used to characterize the aroma of these vinegars by means of GCO and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Among the 37 different odorants determined, 13 of them were identified for the first time in Sherry vinegars: 2 pyrazines (3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine), 2 sulfur compounds (methanethiol, dimethyl trisulfide), 1 unsaturated ketone (1-octen-3-one), 1 norisoprenoid (?-damascenone), 1 ester (ethyl trans-cinnamate) and 6 aldehydes (2- and 3-methylbutanal, octanal, nonanal, (E)-2-nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal). The determination of the odor thresholds in a hydroacetic solution together with the quantitative analysis-which was also performed using the simple and fast SPME technique-allowed obtaining the odor activity values (OAV) of the aromatic compounds found. Thus, a first pattern of their sensory importance on commercial Sherry vinegar aroma was provided.

Aceña L; Vera L; Guasch J; Busto O; Mestres M

2011-04-01

344

Impact of cover crops in vineyard on the aroma compounds of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared the influence of different cover crops with clean tillage on wine aroma compounds of 5-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines. White clover, alfalfa, and tall fescue were used in the vineyard and compared with clean tillage. Aroma compounds of wine were analysed by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Forty-seven volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Wines made from grapes grown with various cover crops had higher levels of aroma compounds. Ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, phenylethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, linalool, citronellol, ?-damascenone, ?-ionone, and 5-amyl-dihydro-2(3H)-furan were the impact odorants of sample wines. Wines from cover crop also had higher contents of these impact odorants than the control. For different cover crops, alfalfa sward yielded the highest levels, followed by the tall fescue treatment. According to the data analysis of aroma compounds and sensory assess, permanent cover crop may have the potential to improve wine quality. PMID:23140695

Xi, Zhu-Mei; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Li; Li, Hua

2011-01-13

345

The composition of volatile aroma components, flavanones, and polymethoxylated flavones in Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) peels of different cultivation lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus peels are important sources of various pleasant aroma compounds and valuable bioactive substances. To investigate differences in the composition and content of Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) peels from different cultivation lines, the composition of volatile aroma components, flavanones, and polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) in four Shiikuwasha cultivation lines was examined. The composition of volatile aroma components in cold-pressed extracts of Shiikuwasha peels was analyzed using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry. The extracts contained mainly monoterpene hydrocarbons (93.40-97.25%), including limonene (46.52-68.26%) and ?-terpinene (21.48-30.52%). Differences in the composition of volatile aroma compounds in the Shiikuwasha cultivation lines were revealed using principal component analysis. Additionally, the composition of flavanones and PMFs was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography methods. Neohesperidin (96.58%) was the predominant flavanone in 'Izumi kugani' peel, while the other peels had high hesperidin contents (89.26-98.66%). Moreover, the PMFs of Shiikuwasha peels were composed of nobiletin (56.74-64.77%) and tangeretin (23.17-34.70%). PMID:22804782

Asikin, Yonathan; Taira, Ikuko; Inafuku-Teramoto, Sayuri; Sumi, Hidekazu; Ohta, Hideaki; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

2012-07-31

346

The composition of volatile aroma components, flavanones, and polymethoxylated flavones in Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) peels of different cultivation lines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Citrus peels are important sources of various pleasant aroma compounds and valuable bioactive substances. To investigate differences in the composition and content of Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) peels from different cultivation lines, the composition of volatile aroma components, flavanones, and polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) in four Shiikuwasha cultivation lines was examined. The composition of volatile aroma components in cold-pressed extracts of Shiikuwasha peels was analyzed using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry. The extracts contained mainly monoterpene hydrocarbons (93.40-97.25%), including limonene (46.52-68.26%) and ?-terpinene (21.48-30.52%). Differences in the composition of volatile aroma compounds in the Shiikuwasha cultivation lines were revealed using principal component analysis. Additionally, the composition of flavanones and PMFs was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography methods. Neohesperidin (96.58%) was the predominant flavanone in 'Izumi kugani' peel, while the other peels had high hesperidin contents (89.26-98.66%). Moreover, the PMFs of Shiikuwasha peels were composed of nobiletin (56.74-64.77%) and tangeretin (23.17-34.70%).

Asikin Y; Taira I; Inafuku-Teramoto S; Sumi H; Ohta H; Takara K; Wada K

2012-08-01

347

Impact of cover crops in vineyard on the aroma compounds of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study compared the influence of different cover crops with clean tillage on wine aroma compounds of 5-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines. White clover, alfalfa, and tall fescue were used in the vineyard and compared with clean tillage. Aroma compounds of wine were analysed by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Forty-seven volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Wines made from grapes grown with various cover crops had higher levels of aroma compounds. Ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, phenylethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, linalool, citronellol, ?-damascenone, ?-ionone, and 5-amyl-dihydro-2(3H)-furan were the impact odorants of sample wines. Wines from cover crop also had higher contents of these impact odorants than the control. For different cover crops, alfalfa sward yielded the highest levels, followed by the tall fescue treatment. According to the data analysis of aroma compounds and sensory assess, permanent cover crop may have the potential to improve wine quality.

Xi Zm; Tao Ys; Zhang L; Li H

2011-07-01

348

Impact of cover crops in vineyard on the aroma compounds of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study compared the influence of different cover crops with clean tillage on wine aroma compounds of 5-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines. White clover, alfalfa, and tall fescue were used in the vineyard and compared with clean tillage. Aroma compounds of wine were analysed by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Forty-seven volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Wines made from grapes grown with various cover crops had higher levels of aroma compounds. Ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, phenylethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, linalool, citronellol, ?-damascenone, ?-ionone, and 5-amyl-dihydro-2(3H)-furan were the impact odorants of sample wines. Wines from cover crop also had higher contents of these impact odorants than the control. For different cover crops, alfalfa sward yielded the highest levels, followed by the tall fescue treatment. According to the data analysis of aroma compounds and sensory assess, permanent cover crop may have the potential to improve wine quality.

Xi ZM; Tao YS; Zhang L; Li H

2011-07-01

349

METHOD FOR PRODUCTION OF WAFFLES WITH COFFEE AROMA AND TASTE (VERSIONS)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: methods envisage kneading dough containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and chicory flour, salt, soda, yolks, a vegetable oil, phospholipids and water one performs dough formation in the shape of sheets and baking. One prepares a filler mixing fat, powdered milk, sugar powder, waffle crumb and flour. Waffles are shaped from sheets and filling. Chicory flour is prepared by way of cutting of chicory, its drying in microwave field at preset process parameters, frying and cryomilling in liquid nitrogen while flour for the filler is prepared by way of cocoa beans husks extraction with separation of corresponding miscella one cuts scorzonera or oyster plant or dandelion roots, dries it/them in microwave field at preset process parameters, fries, impregnates with separated miscella with simultaneous pressure boost, reduces pressure down to atmospheric one with simultaneous freezing of raw material and its cryomilling in the medium of released nitrogen to produce flour. ^ EFFECT: produced waffles have improved texture, coffee taste and flavour with no coffee added to the formula. ^ 3 cl

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

350

METHOD FOR PRODUCTION OF WAFFLES WITH COFFEE AROMA AND TASTE (VERSIONS)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: methods envisage preparation of formula components, cutting of dandelion roots, their drying in microwave field at specified parameters of process, frying and cryo-grinding in liquid nitrogen to produce flour. Dough is made from high-grade wheat flour, dandelion roots flour produced according to specified technology, yolks, salt, soda, vegetable oil, phospholipids and water. Dough is shaped in the form of sheets and baked. Lemon peel is extracted by liquid nitrogen to separate according miscella. Then one undertakes cutting of girasol or girasol-sunflower or yacon or chicory or scorzonera or oyster plant or dandelion roots, their drying in microwave field at specified parameters of the process and frying. It is impregnated by the separated miscella with the simultaneous pressure boost and following reduction of pressure down to the atmospheric one along with simultaneous freezing of raw material. It is cryo-ground in medium of released nitrogen to produce flour. The flour is mixed with culinary fat, dry milk, sugar powder and waffle crumb to make filling. Waffles are shaped from sheets and filling. ^ EFFECT: produced waffles have improved texture, coffee taste and flavour with no coffee added to the formula. ^ 7 cl

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

351

METHOD FOR PRODUCTION OF WAFFLES WITH COFFEE AROMA AND TASTE (VERSIONS)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: methods envisage kneading dough containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and scorzonera flour, salt, soda, yolks, a vegetable oil, phospholipids and water one performs dough formation in the shape of sheets and baking. One prepares a filler mixing fat, powdered milk, sugar powder and flour. Waffles are shaped from sheets and filling. Scorzonera flour is prepared by way of cutting of scorzonera, its drying in microwave field at preset process parameters, additional drying by convective method and cryomilling in liquid nitrogen while flour for the filler is prepared by way of tangerine peel extraction with separation of corresponding miscella one cuts girasol or girasol-sunflower or yacon or chicory or scorzonera or dandelion roots or oyster plant, dries it/them in microwave field at preset process parameters, fries, impregnates with separated miscella with simultaneous pressure boost, reduces pressure down to atmospheric one with simultaneous freezing of raw material and its cryomilling in the medium of released nitrogen to produce flour. ^ EFFECT: produced waffles have improved texture, coffee taste and flavour with no coffee added to the formula. ^ 7 cl

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

352

METHOD FOR PRODUCTION OF WAFFLES WITH COFFEE AROMA AND TASTE (VERSIONS)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: methods envisage preparation of formula components, cutting of oyster plant, its drying in microwave field at specified parameters of process, frying and cryo-grinding in liquid nitrogen to produce flour. Dough is made from high-grade wheat flour, oyster plant flour produced according to specified technology, yolks, salt, soda, vegetable oil, phospholipids and water. Dough is shaped in the form of sheets and baked. Orange peel is extracted by liquid nitrogen to separate according miscella. Then one undertakes cutting of girasol or girasol-sunflower or yacon or chicory or scorzonera or oyster plant or dandelion roots, their drying in microwave field at specified parameters of the process and frying. It is impregnated by the separated miscella with the simultaneous pressure boost and following reduction of pressure down to the atmospheric one along with simultaneous freezing of raw material. It is cryo-ground in medium of released nitrogen to produce flour. The flour is mixed with culinary fat, dry milk, sugar powder and waffle crumb to make filling. Waffles are shaped from sheets and filling. ^ EFFECT: produced waffles have improved texture, coffee taste and flavour with no coffee added to the formula. ^ 7 cl

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

353

METHOD FOR PRODUCTION OF WAFFLES WITH COFFEE AROMA AND TASTE (VERSIONS)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: methods envisage kneading dough containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and girasol flour, salt, soda, yolks, a vegetable oil and water one performs dough formation in the shape of sheets and baking. One prepares a filler mixing fat, powdered milk, sugar powder and flour. Waffles are shaped from sheets and filling. Girasol flour is prepared by way of cutting of girasol, its drying in microwave field at preset process parameters, additional drying by convective method and cryomilling in liquid nitrogen while flour for the filler is prepared by way of lime peel extraction with separation of corresponding miscella one cuts scorzonera or oyster plant or dandelion roots, dries it/them in microwave field at preset process parameters, fries, impregnates with separated miscella with simultaneous pressure boost, reduces pressure down to atmospheric one with simultaneous freezing of raw material and its cryomilling in the medium of released nitrogen to produce flour. ^ EFFECT: produced waffles have improved texture, coffee taste and flavour with no coffee added to the formula. ^ 3 cl

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

354

METHOD FOR PRODUCTION OF WAFFLES WITH COFFEE AROMA AND TASTE (VERSIONS)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: methods envisage kneading dough containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and yacon flour, salt, soda, yolks, a vegetable oil and water one performs dough formation in the shape of sheets and baking. One prepares a filler mixing fat, powdered milk, sugar powder and flour. Waffles are shaped from sheets and filling. Yacon flour is prepared by way of cutting of yacon, its drying in microwave field at preset process parameters, additional drying by convective method and cryomilling in liquid nitrogen while flour for the filler is prepared by way of cumquat peel extraction with separation of corresponding miscella one cuts scorzonera or oyster plant or dandelion roots, dries it/them in microwave field at preset process parameters, fries, impregnates with separated miscella with simultaneous pressure boost, reduces pressure down to atmospheric one with simultaneous freezing of raw material and its cryomilling in the medium of released nitrogen to produce flour. ^ EFFECT: produced waffles have improved texture, coffee taste and flavour with no coffee added to the formula. ^ 3 cl

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

355

METHOD FOR PRODUCTION OF WAFFLES WITH COFFEE AROMA AND TASTE (VERSIONS)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: methods envisage kneading dough containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and scorzonera flour, salt, soda, yolks, a vegetable oil and water one performs dough formation in the shape of sheets and baking. One prepares a filler mixing fat, powdered milk, sugar powder and flour. Waffles are shaped from sheets and filling. Scorzonera flour is prepared by way of cutting of scorzonera, its drying in microwave field at preset process parameters, additional drying by convective method and cryomilling in liquid nitrogen while flour for the filler is prepared by way of orange peel extraction with separation of corresponding miscella one cuts girasol or girasol-sunflower or yacon or chicory or scorzonera or dandelion roots or oyster plant, dries it/them in microwave field at preset process parameters, fries, impregnates with separated miscella with simultaneous pressure boost, reduces pressure down to atmospheric one with simultaneous freezing of raw material and its cryomilling in the medium of released nitrogen to produce flour. ^ EFFECT: produced waffles have improved texture, coffee taste and flavour with no coffee added to the formula. ^ 7 cl

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

356

Highly efficient production of nootkatone, the grapefruit aroma from valencene, by biotransformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nootkatone, the most important and expensive aromatic of grapefruit, decreases the somatic fat ratio, and thus its demand is increasing in the cosmetic and fiber sectors. A sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, (+)-valencene, which is cheaply obtained from Valencia orange, was biotransformed by the green algae Chlorella species and fungi such as Mucor species, Botryosphaeria dothidea, and Botryodiplodia theobromae to afford nootkatone in high yield. PMID:16272746

Furusawa, Mai; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Noma, Yoshiaki; Asakawa, Yoshinori

2005-11-01

357

Highly efficient production of nootkatone, the grapefruit aroma from valencene, by biotransformation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nootkatone, the most important and expensive aromatic of grapefruit, decreases the somatic fat ratio, and thus its demand is increasing in the cosmetic and fiber sectors. A sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, (+)-valencene, which is cheaply obtained from Valencia orange, was biotransformed by the green algae Chlorella species and fungi such as Mucor species, Botryosphaeria dothidea, and Botryodiplodia theobromae to afford nootkatone in high yield.

Furusawa M; Hashimoto T; Noma Y; Asakawa Y

2005-11-01

358

Aroma extract dilution analysis of cv. Meeker (Rubus idaeus L.) red raspberries from Oregon and Washington.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aromas of cultivar Meeker red raspberry from Oregon and Washington were analyzed by aroma extract dilution analysis. Seventy-five aromas were identified [some tentatively (superscript T)] by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-retention index; 53 were common to both, and 22 have not been previously reported in red raspberry. Twenty-one compounds had an equivalent odor impact in both: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-(2H)-furanone, hexanal, 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one, (E)-beta-3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatrieneT, 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptaneT, 1-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1,3-cyclohexadien-1-yl)-2-buten-1-one, ethanoic acid, (Z)-3-hexenalT, 3-methylmercaptopropionaldehyde, (Z)-3-hexenol, 2,6-dimethyl-2,7-octadien-6-ol, butanoic acid, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, (E)-2-hexenal, hexyl formateT, 2,3-butanedione, heptanalT, thiacyclopentadieneT, cyclohexane carbaldehydeT, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-olT, and 4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone. Oregon Meeker had 14 odorants with higher flavor dilution (FD) factors than Washington Meeker: 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-oneT, 1-octanol, 5-isopropyl-2-methylcyclohexa-1,3-dieneT, 7-methyl-3-methylene-1,6-octadieneT, ethyl hexanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetateT, ethyl propanoate, 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanoneT, 2-methylbutanoic acid, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl cyclohexane carboxylateT, 2-methylthiacyclopentadieneT, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetateT, and 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-olT. Washington Meeker had 16 odorants with higher FD factors than Oregon Meeker: 5-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-(5H)-furanoneT, dimethyl sulfideT, 2-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-(2H)-furanoneT, 1-hexanolT, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-yl acetateT, methyl hexanoate, phenyl ethanoic acidT, neo-allo-3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatrieneT, 2-nonanoneT, 2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enyl)propan-2-olT, phenylmethanolT, 5-octanolideT, 2-phenylethanol, 1-isopropyl-4-methylenebicyclo[3.1.0]hexaneT, and 2-undecanone. PMID:15291490

Klesk, Keith; Qian, Michael; Martin, Robert R

2004-08-11

359

Production d'arômes de type lactone par des levures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production of aroma lactones by yeasts. Lactones are widely distributed in foods and beverages as aroma compounds. Their extraction from natural products is very expensive. Most of them can also be obtained in a chemical way, which is not well perceived by consumers. As an alternative, biotechnology proposes to use whole cells or enzymes to produce lactones by biotransformation or bioconversion of fatty acids. Different studies and patents have been conducted on that matter. In most cases, yeasts are the biological agent used. The main concerned lactones are ?- and ?-decalactones, ?-octalactone and ?-dodecalactone. This article describes lactones and their production by yeasts; particular attention will be devoted to the ?-decalactone.

Alchihab, M.; Destain, J.; Aguedo, M.; Thonart, P.

2010-01-01

360

Identification, quantification and comparison between the chemical substances responsible for the irradiated pot still cachaca and commercial rum aromas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The irradiation process has being presented as an alternative technique in food preservation. When applied on beverages, radiation is mainly used for malt decontamination or sterilization of musts and had been proposed also to accelerate aging. Some confusion over rum and cachaca identities has arisen due to the internationalization of cachaca. This research aims to identify, quantify and compare the effect of gamma radiation on the aroma of the Brazilian spirit with rum, irradiated and non irradiated, by instrumental and sensory analysis. Results showed that the content of volatile compounds presented strong correlation with the radiation dose (0,150 and 300 Gy) for all the samples. According to Triangle Test for aroma, all the judges could distinguish among non irradiated and irradiated samples (300 Gy), aged cachaca from rum and non aged cachaca from rum, but they could not distinguish aged cachaca from non aged cachaca. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results from the quantitative descriptive analysis showed that non irradiated non aged cachaca and rum were different in their alcohol, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except caramel and apple aroma attributes. Non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) were different in their apple, caramel, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except alcohol aroma attributes. According to the gas chromatography/olfactometry results, significant difference was found among non irradiated cachaca and rum; non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) when their aromas were compared. (author)

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Sensory characteristics of European, dried, fermented sausages and the correlation to volatile profile  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the European FAIR-project: Control of Bioflavour and Safety in Northern and Mediterranean Fermented Meat Products (FAIR-CT97-3227) four different sausage types were manufactured in five replicates and characterised by sensory and analytical means. The objective of the present study was to characterise the flavour pattern of the FAIR sausages with regards to sensory perceived compounds and volatile/sensory profiles. According to gas chromatography-olfactometry the greatest differences between the Northern and Mediterranean sausages were attributed to coffee/roasted, phenolic and vinegar odours in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The compounds were 2-furfurylthiol, guaiacol, acetic acid and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. Sausages added garlic contained two specific odours with salami/onion-like notes. The odours were attributed to allylmercaptane and methylthiirane. Correlation of sensory and volatile profile showed that garlic flavour correlated with sulphur compounds from garlic, smoked flavour with most of the cyclic compounds (furanes, phenols etc.), acid flavour with the acids (acetic, butanoic and hexanoic acid), spice and piquante flavour with the terpenes, rancid flavour with hexanal, octanal, nonanal and decanal and maturity with ethyl esters and methyl-ketones.

Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller; Sunesen, Lars Oddershede

1999-01-01

362

Identification of saffron aroma compound ?-isophorone (3,5,5-trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-one) in some V. vinifera grape varieties.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Carotenoid-derived aroma compounds play an important role in the composition of aroma and grapes, and consequently of wine. The volatile composition of forty-five grape varieties harvested in 2011 and 2012 was investigated by solid phase extraction of samples and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. In grape extracts of cultivars Barbera, Refosco dal Peducolo Rosso, Ribolla gialla and Rossese, the C9-norisoprenoid compound ?-isophorone (3,5,5-trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-one) was found and quantified. This carotenoid-derived compound is characterised by a saffron aroma and is here reported in grape for the first time.

Panighel A; Maoz I; De Rosso M; De Marchi F; Dalla Vedova A; Gardiman M; Bavaresco L; Flamini R

2014-02-01

363

Strategies for the preparation and concentration of mushroom aromatic products.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fungal aroma comprises at least seven chemical groups of volatile organic compounds, which are plain hydrocarbons, heterocycles, alcohols, phenols, acids and derivatives, carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones), and sulfur containing molecules. This aromatic blend provides the excellent sensory properties to produce and several strategies have been employed to create aromatic products having the aroma and taste of mushrooms and truffles. Nowadays, there are several procedures to obtain aroma concentrates. Among them, the simulation of mushroom aroma by the combination of the main substances responsible for the flavour could be an efficient strategy. Nevertheless, natural procedures are gaining more importance since the concentrate is not a synthetic product and the processes commonly involve the use of mushroom waste. In this field, the maceration with precursor molecules, such as linoleic acid, or different types of enzymes is commonly used in food industry. This article provides a wide view of the most common strategies to produce fungal aroma taking into account the main advantages and disadvantages they present. The article presents some promising patents on strategies for the preparation and concentration of mushroom aromatic products.

Villares A; Guillamon E; Mateo-Vivaracho L; D'Arrigo M; Garcia-Lafuente A

2012-08-01

364

Using pervaporation data in the calculation of vapour permeation hollow-fibre modules for aroma recovery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Taking into account the close similarity between pervaporation and vapour permeation techniques, a method for employing pervaporation flux data in the modelling of vapour permeation modules is proposed. It is based on the use of fugacity gradients across the membrane, instead of concentration ones, as the driving force for mass transfer. This procedure is interesting, for instance, in the case of aroma recovery systems, for which there is much more experimental data on pe (more) rvaporation available in the literature than on vapour permeation. In order to illustrate the application of this method, pervaporation experiments for an isotropic PDMS membrane were conducted with aqueous solutions of ethyl acetate (113-2474 mg/L), and the results obtained were used to enable simulation of different vapour permeation hollow-fibre modules for recovering ethyl acetate from diluted air streams.

Ribeiro Jr., C. P.; Borges, C. P.

2004-12-01

365

Influence of some prefermentative treatments on aroma composition and sensory evaluation of white Godello wines  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of the static settling time and the addition of ammonium salts on basic parameters, aroma composition and tasting of white Godello wines have been studied. The statistical analysis showed a significant influence of those treatments on several analytical parameters. The static settling time proved to be very influential on total acidity, free sulphur dioxide, esters, terpenols and fatty acids, while the addition of ammonium salts showed a significant effect on higher alcohols and ethyl lactate. According to the odour active value (OAV), 14 out of 47 studied volatile components had OAV >1 in all the analysed wines, while six volatile components showed OAV >1 only for some of them. Ethyl octanoate, isoamyl acetate and ethyl hexanoate showed the highest OAV values. During the tasting session, the two studied factors became relevant, being better valued the wine made with must containing higher limpidity and with the addition of diammonium hydrogen phosphate.

Losada MM; Andrés J; Cacho J; Revilla E; López JF

2011-04-01

366

Transfer of aroma compounds in water-lipid systems: binding tendency of beta-lactoglobulin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interactions of volatile aroma compounds with protein in aqueous solutions, especially whey proteins, have received significant attention in recent years. This work attempts to improve our understanding of the mass transfer in multiphasic systems, such as emulsions at the lipid-water interface, and to reveal the role of beta-lactoglobulin in the release rate of solutes. For this purpose the rotating diffusion cell has been used. From a practical point of view it enables evaluation of the transfer through the aqueous phase, through the oil and the interfacial transfer. The effect of beta-lactoglobulin, medium pH, and solute concentration has been investigated. Benzaldehyde and 2-nonanone have been studied, and miglyol has been chosen as an oil phase. It has been demonstrated that mass transfer has a rate-limiting step, which depends on physicochemical parameters such as hydrophobicity of the volatile, diffusion and partition coefficients, and rheological properties of the aqueous phase. PMID:10563882

Rogacheva, S; Espinosa-Diaz, M A; Voilley, A

1999-01-01

367

Radiation dose and storage temperature and period effects on the flavor and aroma of orange juice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of storage temperature and period on orange juice concentrates were studied for samples irradiated with 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy doses from a gamma-ray source as well as for untreated samples. All samples were stored at 00 C, 50 C and 250 C for periods of 1,30, 60 and 90 days. Samples stored for more than one day underwent a diminution in storage attribute rating with corresponding increase in ratings for the bitterness, medicinal and cooked attributes. Storage at 00 C and 50 C seems to have smaller effects on the sweetness rating as well as on the oily, acid and medicinal flavor characteristics. Effect of radiation dose level on the flavor and aroma attributes depended on the storage temperature and time. In most cases, higher radiation levels are associated by lower orange attribute values and higher bitter medicinal and cooked ratings. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs.

1995-01-01

368

Aroma characterisation and UV elicitation of purple basil from different plant tissue cultures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exposure to stressful environmental conditions can induce severe metabolic variations in basil (Ocimum basilicum) aroma. The aromatic profiles of Dark Opal and Red Rubim varieties (in vivo plants, in vitro shoots, callus, and suspension cultures) were investigated for the first time. The established calli represented the most interesting miniaturised aromatic plant systems, as they were able to emit many typical basil volatiles with very low amounts of phenylpropanoids (1-2%). The hydrocarbon monoterpenes and oxygenated volatiles emitted from calli of both varieties were greatly and conversely affected by UV-C and UV-B, in comparison with the non-irradiated samples. As calli of both varieties still maintained very low levels of phenylpropanoids even after UV elicitation, they might be regarded not only as efficient in vitro plant models to study volatile compounds under UV stress conditions, but also as safe aromatic biomass in comparison with in vivo basil plants.

Bertoli A; Lucchesini M; Mensuali-Sodi A; Leonardi M; Doveri S; Magnabosco A; Pistelli L

2013-11-01

369

IMPORTANCE OF AROMAS ON MOOD PROFILE AND HUMAN AURA (Qualitative Vibrations of Prana)  

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Full Text Available The Indian Traditional Concept of “Swastya” means to be stationed in one’s own self or well-being, which means to be beyond body / mind yogically. Sri Aurobindo (1970) stated that “Yoga means a methodized effort towards self-perfection by expression of the potentialities latent in the being” and…. “a union of the human individual with the universal and transcendent Existence”. According to Sri Aurobindo (1972) “The Spirit has made itself Matter (body) in order to place itself there as an instrument for the well-being and joy “Yogakshema”, of created beings for a self-offering of  physical universal utility of service. Interestingly, WHO has stipulated spiritual health for universal well-being. This opens avenues for experimental studies.  Benson (1976) stated that in the year 1968 opened medical laboratory for studies in transcendental meditation.   Chopra (1993) has spoken that there is enormous latent intelligence in the living organism. The “inexperience” of the organism has placed the mind – body relationship on scientific footing. This relationship opens both ways, on one hand it removes disease state and being at “ease” state. Thus enhancing psychoneurotic immunology where the subject herself / himself learns to manipulate the involved energy and to enhance the delightful state of well-being. Aromas have been an area that can open new areas for research on emotional and psychosomatic well-being.  “Pranayama” recognizes science of holding breath or vitality.  “Willfully” holding moods with awareness / consciousness is to experience spirits flow and its freedom in creating a new inner dimension of highest well-being.   To experience subtle and its power of mood is yogically raise mood profile to the dynamics of the spirit subjectively.  This was taken as an experimental study. The Subjects studying in MSc. in the Department of Food Service Management at Smt. V.H.D. Central Institute of Home Science, Bangalore, India took part in the study. A pre-test was conducted to check the Aura status of all the twenty subjects. Based on pre-test health status a purposive sample was worked out. Those subjects whose health aura was in good condition were selected as Control Group, (n=10) and others whose health aura was affected were chosen as Experimental Group (n=10) and the Experimental Group were subjected to intervention programme along with Aroma Treatment. Based on the investigator’s observations, an experiment was designed to study the influence of Aroma on the subject’s physiological and psychological moods and feelings, effect on Chakras and their Human Aura. Statistical test ?2 (Chi-square) was used to test the significance between Experimental and Control Groups for comparison. The aroma Nectar of Divine Joy has yielded significant results both in objective and subjective test obtained by the Experimental group. The result showed that the intervention programme helped in retaining higher emotions. This study points out that the auric field one carries depends upon one’s own thought forms that one generates through emotions and feelings.  To bathe inner organs with the highest mood profile is to experience the highest vitality in body and mind as one vibrates and radiates the well-being around them in homonymous state.  This growth is a teleotic journey in emotions and feelings towards the Divine state.

Srilakshmi R* and N ShakuntalaManay

2013-01-01

370

Using pervaporation data in the calculation of vapour permeation hollow-fibre modules for aroma recovery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taking into account the close similarity between pervaporation and vapour permeation techniques, a method for employing pervaporation flux data in the modelling of vapour permeation modules is proposed. It is