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RNAi-directed downregulation of OsBADH2 results in aroma (2-acetyl-1-pyrroline production in rice (Oryza sativa L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromatic rice is popular worldwide because of its characteristic fragrance. Genetic studies and physical fine mapping reveal that a candidate gene (fgr/OsBADH2 homologous to betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase is responsible for aroma metabolism in fragrant rice varieties, but the direct evidence demonstrating the functions of OsBADH2 is lacking. To elucidate the physiological roles of OsBADH2, sequencing approach and RNA interference (RNAi technique were employed to analyze allelic variation and functions of OsBADH2 gene in aroma production. Semi-quantitative, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, as well as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS were conducted to determine the expression levels of OsBADH2 and the fragrant compound in wild type and transgenic OsBADH2-RNAi repression lines, respectively. Results The results showed that multiple mutations identical to fgr allele occur in the 13 fragrant rice accessions across China; OsBADH2 is expressed constitutively, with less expression abundance in mature roots; the disrupted OsBADH2 by RNA interference leads to significantly increased 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline production. Conclusion We have found that the altered expression levels of OsBADH2 gene influence aroma accumulation, and the prevalent aromatic allele probably has a single evolutionary origin.

Xiao Yingyong

2008-10-01

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2-acetyl-1-pyrroline - key aroma compound in Mediterranean dried sausages  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In a study characterising sausage types from various parts of Europe, ten Mediterranean and Northern European fermented, dried sausages were compared using static headspace gas chromatography-olfactometry and a sniffing panel of five members. The greatest difference between the Northern and Southern types were attributed to a burned coffee odour from smoke in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The two compounds were 2-furfurylthiol and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. An analysis of five dried, moulded sausages showed that the surface edge of the sausages contained higher amounts of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline than the core, indicating that the mould growing on the surface of Mediterranean products produces 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline.

Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

2000-01-01

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Quantification of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in rice by stable isotope dilution assay through headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new and convenient synthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), a potent flavor compound in rice, and its ring-deuterated analog, 2-acetyl-1-d{sub 2}-pyrroline (2AP-d{sub 2}), was reported. A stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA), involving headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-positive chemical ionization-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-PCI-IT-MS-MS), was developed for 2AP quantification. A divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber was used for HS-SPME procedure and parameters affecting analytes recovery, such as extraction time and temperature, pH and salt, were studied. The repeatability of the method (n = 10) expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was 11.6%. A good linearity was observed from 5.9 to 779 ng of 2AP (r{sup 2} = 0.9989). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for 2AP were 0.1 and 0.4 ng g{sup -1} of rice, respectively. The recovery of spiked 2AP from rice matrix was almost complete. The developed method was applied to the quantification of 2AP in aerial parts and grains of scented and non-scented rice cultivars.

Maraval, Isabelle [UMR Qualisud, CIRAD, 73 Rue J. F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); UMR Qualisud, Universite Montpellier 2, place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Sen, Kemal [Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cukurova, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Agrebi, Abdelhamid; Menut, Chantal; Morere, Alain [UMR 5247, Institut des Biomolecules Max Mousseron (IBMM), CNRS, Universites Montpellier 2 et 1, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Montpellier, 8 Rue de l' Ecole Normale, 34296 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Boulanger, Renaud [UMR Qualisud, CIRAD, 73 Rue J. F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Gay, Frederic [CIRAD, DORAS Centre, Research and Development Building, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Mestres, Christian [UMR Qualisud, CIRAD, 73 Rue J. F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Gunata, Ziya, E-mail: zgunata@univ-montp2.fr [UMR Qualisud, Universite Montpellier 2, place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

2010-08-24

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Quantification of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in rice by stable isotope dilution assay through headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new and convenient synthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), a potent flavor compound in rice, and its ring-deuterated analog, 2-acetyl-1-d2-pyrroline (2AP-d2), was reported. A stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA), involving headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-positive chemical ionization-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-PCI-IT-MS-MS), was developed for 2AP quantification. A divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber was used for HS-SPME procedure and parameters affecting analytes recovery, such as extraction time and temperature, pH and salt, were studied. The repeatability of the method (n = 10) expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was 11.6%. A good linearity was observed from 5.9 to 779 ng of 2AP (r2 = 0.9989). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for 2AP were 0.1 and 0.4 ng g-1 of rice, respectively. The recovery of spiked 2AP from rice matrix was almost complete. The developed method was applied to the quantification of 2AP in aerial parts and grains of scented and non-scented rice cultivars.

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New short and general synthesis of three key Maillard flavour compounds: 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline, 6-acetyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine and 5-acetyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-1,4-thiazine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new general synthetic route towards three key Maillard flavour compounds, namely 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 6-acetyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine and 5-acetyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-1,4-thiazine, was developed. The key step in the process is the methylenation reaction of azaheterocyclic carboxylic esters by means of dimethyltitanocene, giving rise to intermediate vinyl ethers which can be considered as excellent and stable precursors for the title compounds, as a simple acidic treatment of these precursors suffices to release the characteristic Maillard flavours. PMID:25172717

Deblander, Jurgen; Van Aeken, Sam; Adams, An; De Kimpe, Norbert; Abbaspour Tehrani, Kourosch

2015-02-01

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Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one. PMID:23414530

Majcher, Ma?gorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jele?, Henryk H

2013-03-20

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Key aroma compounds in roasted in-shell peanuts.  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation by using an aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the aroma concentrates made from freshly roasted in-shell peanuts and stored peanuts revealed a total of 43 key aroma compounds, including 8 newly identified compounds in peanuts. Among them, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, exhibiting an earthy note, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, exhibiting a caramel-like note, were detected with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 4096 in the fresh peanuts, followed by 3,5-dimethyl-2-ethylpyrazine, exhibiting a nutty note, as having the next highest FD factor of 1024. A quantitative analysis of the key aroma compounds having high FD factors in the fresh peanuts and stored peanuts revealed that 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, and 3,5-dimethyl-2-vinylpyrazine significantly decreased during storage, while methyl 2-methyl-3-furyl disulfide, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol significantly increased. The sensory experiments revealed that the fresh peanuts presented strong roasty/meaty, popcorn-like, and nutty notes, as well as moderate spicy/burnt and caramel-like notes, whereas the stored peanuts presented significantly weak roasty/meaty and popcorn-like notes and a significantly strong spicy/burnt note. Based on the comparative AEDAs, the quantitative analysis, and the sensory analysis, it was concluded that the freshly roasted peanut aroma comprised the significant contributions of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol exhibiting a roasty/meaty note, and of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline exhibiting a popcorn-like note, and the lesser contribution of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol exhibiting a spicy/burnt note. In particular, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, which was only detected in the freshly roasted peanut aroma concentrate, might be an essential component describing the freshness of the roasted peanut aroma by its diffusive roasty/meaty note. PMID:23832337

Kaneko, Shu; Sakai, Ririka; Kumazawa, Kenji; Usuki, Manabu; Nishimura, Osamu

2013-01-01

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Comparison of aroma active and sulfur volatiles in three fragrant rice cultivars using GC-olfactometry and GC-PFPD.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma volatiles from three cooked fragrant rice types (Jasmine, Basmati and Jasmati) were characterised and identified using SPME GC-O, GC-PFPD and confirmed using GC-MS. A total of 26, 23, and 22 aroma active volatiles were observed in Jasmine, Basmati and Jasmati cooked rice samples. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline was aroma active in all three rice types, but the sulphur-based, cooked rice character impact volatile, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline was aroma active only in Jasmine rice. Five additional sulphur volatiles were found to have aroma activity: dimethyl sulphide, 3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, dimethyl trisulphide, and methional. Other newly-reported aroma active rice volatiles were geranyl acetate, ?-damascone, ?-damascenone, and ?-ionone, contributing nutty, sweet floral attributes to the aroma of cooked aromatic rice. The first two principal components from the principal component analysis of sulphur volatiles explained 60% of the variance. PC1 separated Basmati from the other two cultivars and PC2 completely separated Jasmine from Jasmati cultivars. PMID:24518308

Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Rouseff, Russell L

2014-07-01

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Optimising aroma quality in curry sauce products using in vivo aroma release measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reducing fat content in foods to meet consumers' preferences and to address the obesity issue is a key task for food manufacturers but simply reducing fat content affects aroma quality adversely. Measuring the aroma release from regular and low-fat samples during eating to rebalance the aroma release has proved successful in model systems. Here, the reformulation of the spice content in a low fat curry sauce is described. Volatile markers of the key spices (coriander, cumin and turmeric) were selected and used to measure aroma release in regular (10 g oil/100 g) and low (2.5 or 5 g oil/100 g) fat sauces. Regression models were used to adjust the ingredient formulation so that the aroma release profiles in vivo were the same for the regular and reduced oil curry sauces and sensory analysis showed no significant difference between these samples. Despite the complexity of spice aromas, rebalancing was successful. PMID:24679775

Hatakeyama, Jun; Davidson, James M; Kant, Avinash; Koizumi, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Fumiyo; Taylor, Andrew J

2014-08-15

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Characterization of the aroma signature of styrian pumpkin seed oil ( Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca) by molecular sensory science.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a distillate prepared from an authentic Styrian pumpkin seed oil followed by identification experiments led to the characterization of 47 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192 among which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Among the set of key odorants, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline and another 20 odorants were identified for the first time as constituents of pumpkin seed oil. To evaluate the aroma contribution in more detail, 31 aroma compounds showing the highest FD factors were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds determined in sunflower oil, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated, and 26 aroma compounds were found to have an OAV above 1. Among them, methanethiol (sulfury), 2-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanal (malty), and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (roasted potato) reached the highest OAVs. Sensory evaluation of an aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 31 key odorants in the concentrations as determined in the oil revealed that the aroma of Styrian pumpkin seed oil could be closely mimicked. Quantitation of 11 key odorants in three commercial pumpkin seed oil revealed clear differences in the concentrations of distinct odorants, which were correlated with the overall aroma profile of the oils. PMID:23461409

Poehlmann, Susan; Schieberle, Peter

2013-03-27

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Evaluation of process parameters governing the aroma generation in three hazelnut cultivars (Corylus avellana L.) by correlating quantitative key odorant profiling with sensory evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of the world hazelnut crop is roasted, thus developing a unique aroma that depends on the cultivar used and on the roasting conditions applied. Although several studies have investigated the volatile fraction of different cultivars and have correlated the data with overall sensory profiles, studies establishing a correlation between key odorants among the bulk of odorless volatiles and the respective aroma profiles are not yet available. On the basis of recently published stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF-MS), differences in concentrations of key odorants in different hazelnut cultivars roasted under defined conditions were monitored and compared with sensory data obtained by projective mapping, aroma profile analysis, and triangle tests. The results showed that the aroma-active compounds 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, 5-methyl-(E)-2-hepten-4-one, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, 3,5-dimethyl-2-ethylpyrazine, and 2-furfurylthiol are appropriate marker odorants to differentiate the various nut aromas. In particular, the appreciated roasty, nutty aroma of optimally roasted hazelnuts was developed if both 5-methyl-(E)-2-hepten-4-one and 3-methyl-4-heptanone were >450 ?g/kg, whereas the sum of the two 2-acyl-1-pyrrolines and two pyrazines should not exceed 400 ?g/kg to avoid an over-roasted smell. Such a desired aroma can be obtained for each cultivar, but obviously specific roasting times, temperatures, and roasting techniques had to be applied. PMID:23663154

Kiefl, Johannes; Schieberle, Peter

2013-06-01

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The use of enzymes and microorganisms for the production of aroma compounds from lipids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lipids are an important source of aroma compounds. In foods, lipids are degraded or modified by enzymatic activities that are originally present in the raw materials or that develop later due to the growth of microorganisms. Mimicking these natural pathways, some processes have been developed to produce aroma compounds in bioreactors. In this review we describe the production of aroma compounds from different families: lactones, green notes and ionones. We focus on points that ...

Aguedo, Mario; Ly, M. H.; Belo, I.; Teixeira, J. A.; Belin, J. -m; Wache?, Y.

2004-01-01

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FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo explorou a versatilidade de Ceratocystis fimbriata de crescer e produzir aromas naturais sobre substratos de resíduos agro-industriais. Bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã, amaranto e soja em diferentes proporções compuseram os sete meios utilizados, mostrando ser substratos adequados par [...] a o crescimento e produção de aroma por este fungo em fermentação no estado sólido. Todos os meios contendo bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã e soja em sua composição proporcionaram um forte aroma frutal, enquanto, o meio de amaranto produziu um agradável aroma de abacaxi. A produção de aroma foi dependente do crescimento, visto que a máxima intensidade do aroma foi detectado poucas horas antes ou depois da atividade respiratória máxima. Foram detectados dezesseis compostos pela cromatografia de gás no headspace das culturas, e quinze deles foram identificados: 1 ácido, 6 alcoois, 1 aldeído, 2 cetonas e 5 ésteres. Abstract in english Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth [...] medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intensity was detected a few hours before or after the maximum respirometric activity. Sixteen compounds were separated by gas cromatography of the components present in the headspace and fifteen of them were identified as acid (1), alcohols (6), aldehyde (1), ketones (2) and esters (5).

Adriana, Bramorski; Carlos R., Soccol; Pierre, Christen; Sergio, Revah.

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FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo explorou a versatilidade de Ceratocystis fimbriata de crescer e produzir aromas naturais sobre substratos de resíduos agro-industriais. Bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã, amaranto e soja em diferentes proporções compuseram os sete meios utilizados, mostrando ser substratos adequados par [...] a o crescimento e produção de aroma por este fungo em fermentação no estado sólido. Todos os meios contendo bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã e soja em sua composição proporcionaram um forte aroma frutal, enquanto, o meio de amaranto produziu um agradável aroma de abacaxi. A produção de aroma foi dependente do crescimento, visto que a máxima intensidade do aroma foi detectado poucas horas antes ou depois da atividade respiratória máxima. Foram detectados dezesseis compostos pela cromatografia de gás no headspace das culturas, e quinze deles foram identificados: 1 ácido, 6 alcoois, 1 aldeído, 2 cetonas e 5 ésteres. Abstract in english Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth [...] medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intensity was detected a few hours before or after the maximum respirometric activity. Sixteen compounds were separated by gas cromatography of the components present in the headspace and fifteen of them were identified as acid (1), alcohols (6), aldehyde (1), ketones (2) and esters (5).

Adriana, Bramorski; Carlos R., Soccol; Pierre, Christen; Sergio, Revah.

1998-09-01

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FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intensity was detected a few hours before or after the maximum respirometric activity. Sixteen compounds were separated by gas cromatography of the components present in the headspace and fifteen of them were identified as acid (1, alcohols (6, aldehyde (1, ketones (2 and esters (5.

Bramorski Adriana

1998-01-01

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Characterization of odor-active compounds in sweet-type Chinese rice wine by aroma extract dilution analysis with special emphasis on sotolon.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma characteristics of sweet-type Chinese rice wine were studied by sensory analysis, aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and quantitative analysis. Sensory evaluation demonstrated that a caramel-like note was the most distinctive characteristic for sweet-type Chinese rice wine. AEDA was carried out on the extract of a typical sweet-type Chinese rice wine sample. Thirty-nine odor-active regions were detected in the sample with a flavor dilution (FD) factor ?8, and 37 of these were further identified. Among them, sotolon and 2- and 3-methylbutanol showed the highest FD factor of 1024, followed by 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (tentatively identified), dimethyl trisulfide, 2-phenylethanol, and vanillin with a FD factor of 512. Sotolon was identified as a key aroma compound in Chinese rice wine for the first time. AEDA results indicated that sotolon (caramel-like/seasoning-like) was the potentially key contributor to the caramel-like descriptor of sweet-type Chinese rice wine. The concentration of sotolon in Chinese rice wine was further quantitated by Lichrolut-EN solid-phase extraction coupled with microvial insert large volume injection method. The content of sotolon ranged from 35.93 to 526.17 ?g/L, which was above its odor threshold (9 ?g/L) for all Chinese rice wine samples. The highest concentration of sotolon was found in the sweet-type Chinese rice wine, which highlighted the important aroma role of sotolon for this particular type of Chinese rice wine. PMID:24028662

Chen, Shuang; Wang, Dong; Xu, Yan

2013-10-01

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Large-scale selection and breeding to generate industrial yeasts with superior aroma production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations and relative ratios of various aroma compounds produced by fermenting yeast cells are essential for the sensory quality of many fermented foods, including beer, bread, wine, and sake. Since the production of these aroma-active compounds varies highly among different yeast strains, careful selection of variants with optimal aromatic profiles is of crucial importance for a high-quality end product. This study evaluates the production of different aroma-active compounds in 301 different Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces paradoxus, and Saccharomyces pastorianus yeast strains. Our results show that the production of key aroma compounds like isoamyl acetate and ethyl acetate varies by an order of magnitude between natural yeasts, with the concentrations of some compounds showing significant positive correlation, whereas others vary independently. Targeted hybridization of some of the best aroma-producing strains yielded 46 intraspecific hybrids, of which some show a distinct heterosis (hybrid vigor) effect and produce up to 45% more isoamyl acetate than the best parental strains while retaining their overall fermentation performance. Together, our results demonstrate the potential of large-scale outbreeding to obtain superior industrial yeasts that are directly applicable for commercial use. PMID:25192996

Steensels, Jan; Meersman, Esther; Snoek, Tim; Saels, Veerle; Verstrepen, Kevin J

2014-11-15

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Media components and amino acid supplements influencing the production of fruity aroma by Geotrichum candidum / Influência da composição do meio de cultivo e da suplementação com aminoácidos na produção de aroma frutal por Geotrichum candidum  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Geotrichum candidum foi cultivado em diversos meios de cultura contendo sacarose ou melaço e milhocina ou peptona e a produção de aroma frutal foi verificada através de avaliação sensorial e cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas. Os meios contendo melaço, peptona e leucina, valina [...] ou alanina apresentaram os melhores resultados e a presença de diversos ésteres foi consistente com a formação de aroma frutal. Abstract in english The ability of Geotrichum candidum to produce fruity aroma in food grade sucrose, molasses, corn steep liquor and peptone based culture media was tested by sensory evaluation and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A strong and sweet fruity aroma was produced from molasses, with pepton [...] e or corn steep liquor stimulating aroma production. Molasses with peptone supplemented with leucine, valine, or alanine yielded better fruity aroma production and the presence of many esters was consistent with the fruity aroma production.

T., Pinotti; P.M.B., Carvalho; K.M.G., Garcia; T.R., Silva; Allen Norton, Hagler; S.G.F., Leite.

2006-12-01

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SUGARCANE BAGASSE AS SUPPORT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COCONUT AROMA BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION (SSF)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Brazil is one of the major producers of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) in the world and consequently produces large quantities of waste such as sugarcane bagasse, which can be used as inert support for the production of aroma compounds by SSF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the centesimal composition and particle size distribution of sugar cane bagasse, as well as its applicability as support for the production of 6-pentyl-?-pyrone by SSF. Analyses were performed in triplicate to e...

Manoela Pessanha da Penha,; Maria Helena Miguez da Rocha-Leão,; Selma Gomes Ferreira Leite

2012-01-01

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Contribution of several cheese-ripening microbial associations to aroma compound production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aromatic potential of various cocultures of yeasts, Brevibacterium linens and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was studied in cheese-based medium. Three yeasts (Debaryomyces hansenii, Geotrichum candidum and Kluyveromyces lactis) were cultivated in association with B. linens, in the presence or in the absence of LAB - added as the commercial lactic acid starter Flora Danica®. Various parameters were analysed such as aroma compound production, the growth of each microorganism and lactose/lactat...

Arfi, Kenza; Leclercq-perlat, Marie-noe?lle; Baucher, Aure?lie; Ta?che, Roselyne; Delettre, Je?ro?me; Bonnarme, Pascal

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Fruiting Body Production and Aroma Profile Analysis of Agrocybe aegerita Cultivated on Different Substrates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The industrial cultivated basidiomycete Agrocybe aegerita, also known as “Pioppino” in Italy or “Samthaube” in Germany, is a high quality mushroom with a delicious aroma. Cultivation of A. aegerita on wheat straw supplemented with different residues of the food industry showed the highest yields in fruiting body production with a biological efficiency of 36% when black tea pomace was added. The addition of other substrates resulted in biological efficiencies of 23% to 33%. Besides the mushroom yields, the number and size of fruiting bodies harvested on the different substrates were determined. A comparison of the aroma profiles of A. aegerita grown on wheat straw and on wheat straw supplemented with black tea by means of GC/MS/MS/O is presented.

Vanessa Kleofas

2014-04-01

22

Solid state fermentation of food waste mixtures for single cell protein, aroma volatiles and fat production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth of selected microorganisms of industrial interest (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus and kefir) by solid state fermentation (SSF) of various food industry waste mixtures was studied. The fermented products were analysed for protein, and nutrient minerals content, as well as for aroma volatile compounds by GC/MS. The substrate fermented by K. marxianus contained the highest sum of fat and protein concentration (59.2% w/w dm) and therefore it could be considered for utilisation of its fat content and for livestock feed enrichment. Regarding volatiles, the formation of high amounts of ?-pinene was observed only in the SSF product of kefir at a yield estimated to be 4 kg/tn of SSF product. A preliminary design of a biorefinery-type process flow sheet and its economic analysis, indicated potential production of products (enriched livestock feed, fat and ?-pinene) of significant added value. PMID:24128535

Aggelopoulos, Theodoros; Katsieris, Konstantinos; Bekatorou, Argyro; Pandey, Ashok; Banat, Ibrahim M; Koutinas, Athanasios A

2014-02-15

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Isolation and Identification of Aspergillus oryzae and the Production of Soy Sauce with New Aroma  

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Full Text Available Soy sauce is a dark brown salty liquid with a peculiar and a meaty taste. It is the chief savory-seasoning agent used in Oriental cookery, but it is becoming increasingly popular in many other regions of the world. The purpose of this study was to isolate Aspergillus oryzae strain from contaminated rice, soybean and wheat for using in soy sauce production with new aroma of thyme and dill. Samples of rice, soybeans and wheat assumed to be contaminated with Aspergillus oryzae were used in the isolation. Pure cultures obtained by culturing and subculturing on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA were maintained on PDA slant. All isolates were inoculated on Aspergillus flavus and Parasiticus agar (AFPA medium to differentiate them from Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus based on reverse color. These isolates and the reference strain were inoculated on Czapack Yeast Extract Agar (CYA and the macroscopic characteristics amongst these strains were compared. Slide cultures for these strains were prepared and their microscopic characteristics were compared. The preparation of the soy sauce was carried out by two stages. The first stage was Koji, which was prepared by mixing the isolates and the reference strain separately with steamed soybeans and the crushed millet was incubated for three days. The second stage involved the preparation of brine which consists of a koji and salt solution. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS program. The results of analysis of soy sauce encouraged the use of the isolates, especially the rice isolate in soy sauce production and the addition of dill or thyme gave a specific aroma to the final product.

Abboud Elkichaoui

2010-01-01

24

Effect of cysteine and cystine addition on sensory profile and potent odorants of extruded potato snacks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aromas generated in extruded potato snacks without and with addition of 0.25, 0.5, and 1% (w/w) of flavor precursors, cysteine and cystine, were compared and evaluated by descriptive sensory profiling. The results showed that high addition of cysteine (0.5 and 1%) resulted in the formation of undesirable odor and taste described as mercaptanic/sulfur, onion-like, and bitter; on the contrary, addition of cystine even at high concentration gave product with pleasant odor and taste, slightly changed into breadlike notes. GC/O analysis showed cysteine to be a much more reactive flavor precursor than cystine, stimulating formation of 12 compounds with garlic, sulfury, burnt, pungent/beer, cabbage/mold, meatlike, roasted, and popcorn odor notes. Further analysis performed by the AEDA technique identified 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (FD 2048) as a most potent odorant of extruded potato snacks with 1% addition of cysteine. Other identified compounds with high FD were butanal, 3-methyl-2-butenethiol, 2-methylthiazole, methional, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone. In the case of cystine addition (1%) the highest FD factors were calculated for butanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, benzenemethanethiol, methional, phenylacetaldehyde, dimethyltrisulfide, 1-octen-3-ol, 1,5-octadien-3-one, and 2-acetylpyrazine. PMID:17567142

Majcher, Ma?gorzata A; Jele?, Henryk H

2007-07-11

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Coffee residues as substrates for aroma production by Ceratocystis fimbriata in solid state fermentation / Produção de aromas por Ceratocystis fimbriata em fermentação no estado sólido utilizando resíduos da agroindústria do café como substratos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho duas diferentes cepas de Ceratocystis fimbriata foram testadas para a produção de aromas frutais em fermentação no estado sólido (FES) utilizando como substratos casca e polpa de café, suplementados com glicose. Os experimentos foram realizados em frascos Erlenmeyer de 250 mL. As cond [...] ições experimentais foram: umidade inicial de 70%, adição de 20% de glicose e pH 6,0. Os frascos foram cobertos com gaze e a aeração ocorreu por difusão passiva. A análise do "headspace"da cultura foi feita por cromatografia gasosa e 12 compostos foram detectados utilizando a casca de café. A análise respirométrica foi realizada para o acompanhamento do crescimento do microrganismo pela determinação do dióxido de carbono produzido. A produção de ésteres caracterizou o aroma frutal da cultura. A concentração máxima de voláteis totais foi alcançada após 72 h de cultivo em casca de café (28 µmol.L-1.g-1). Os principais compostos produzidos foram acetato de etila, etanol e acetaldeído, representando 84,7%, 7,6% and 2,0% dos voláteis totais, respectivamente. Abstract in english The ability of two different strains of Ceratocystis fimbriata for fruity aroma production by solid state fermentation (SSF) was tested on coffee pulp and coffee husk complemented with glucose as substrates. Experiments were carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks and the experimental conditions wer [...] e: 70% of initial moisture, 20% of glucose addition and pH 6.0. Aeration was made by passive diffusion through the gauze covering the flasks. Headspace analysis of the culture by gas chromatography (GC) showed that 12 compounds were produced with coffee husk. Maximum total volatiles (TV) concentration was reached after 72 h of culture with coffee husk as substrate (28 µmol.L-1.g-1). Ethyl acetate, ethanol and acetaldehyde were the major compounds produced, representing 84.7%, 7.6% and 2.0% of TV, respectively. A pre-treatment with heat (100ºC/ 40 min) of substrates did not improve TV production. Respirometry analysis was used to determine the growth of the culture by measuring carbon dioxide produced. Results showed that the CO2 production follows the aroma production. This result shows the great potential for the use coffee pulp and coffee husk as substrates to microbial aroma production by solid state fermentation.

Adriane Bianchi Pedroni, Medeiros; Pierre, Christen; Sevastianos, Roussos; Juliana Carine, Gern; Carlos Ricardo, Soccol.

2003-07-01

26

Wine flavor and aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The perception of wine flavor and aroma is the result of a multitude of interactions between a large number of chemical compounds and sensory receptors. Compounds interact and combine and show synergistic (i.e., the presence of one compound enhances the perception of another) and antagonistic (a compound suppresses the perception of another) interactions. The chemical profile of a wine is derived from the grape, the fermentation microflora (in particular the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae), secondary microbial fermentations that may occur, and the aging and storage conditions. Grape composition depends on the varietal and clonal genotype of the vine and on the interaction of the genotype and its phenotype with many environmental factors which, in wine terms, are usually grouped under the concept of "terroir" (macro, meso and microclimate, soil, topography). The microflora, and in particular the yeast responsible for fermentation, contributes to wine aroma by several mechanisms: firstly by utilizing grape juice constituents and biotransforming them into aroma- or flavor-impacting components, secondly by producing enzymes that transform neutral grape compounds into flavor-active compounds, and lastly by the de novo synthesis of many flavor-active primary (e.g., ethanol, glycerol, acetic acid, and acetaldehyde) and secondary metabolites (e.g., esters, higher alcohols, fatty acids). This review aims to present an overview of the formation of wine flavor and aroma-active components, including the varietal precursor molecules present in grapes and the chemical compounds produced during alcoholic fermentation by yeast, including compounds directly related to ethanol production or secondary metabolites. The contribution of malolactic fermentation, ageing, and maturation on the aroma and flavor of wine is also discussed. PMID:21786136

Styger, Gustav; Prior, Bernard; Bauer, Florian F

2011-09-01

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Lipases microbianas na produção de ésteres formadores de aroma Lipases biocatalysis in the production of flavor esters  

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Full Text Available Foram testadas cinco lipases microbianas produzidas no Laboratório de Bioquímica de Alimentos-FEA-UNICAMP, quanto à capacidade de catalisar a síntese de ésteres formadores de aroma por esterificação em meio isento de solvente orgânico. A natureza da enzima assim como o tamanho da cadeia dos ácidos afetaram as taxas de conversão obtidas.Os melhores resultados obtidos foram 88 % de conversão na síntese de laurato de isoamila e 72% para propionato de isoamila pela lipase de Rhizopus sp após 24 horas de incubação, seguido de 82% de conversão na síntese de acetato de isopropila por Alcaligenes sp após 24 horas de incubação.Five lipases produced at UNICAMP were screened for their ability to synthesize flavor esters by esterification in organic solvent free system. The nature of the enzyme, as well as the chain length of the acyl donor used affected the product yields. Lipase from Rhizopus sp and Alcaligenes sp gave the best overall yield (88 and 82%.

Gabriela A. Macedo

1997-08-01

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A genomics approach reveals that aroma production in apple is controlled by ethylene predominantly at the final step in each biosynthetic pathway.  

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Ethylene is the major effector of ripening in many fleshy fruits. In apples (Malus x domestica) the addition of ethylene causes a climacteric burst of respiration, an increase in aroma, and softening of the flesh. We have generated a transgenic line of 'Royal Gala' apple that produces no detectable levels of ethylene using antisense ACC OXIDASE, resulting in apples with no ethylene-induced ripening attributes. In response to external ethylene these antisense fruits undergo a normal climacteric burst and produced increasing concentrations of ester, polypropanoid, and terpene volatile compounds over an 8-d period. A total of 186 candidate genes that might be involved in the production of these compounds were mined from expressed sequence tags databases and full sequence obtained. Expression patterns of 179 of these were assessed using a 15,720 oligonucleotide apple microarray. Based on sequence similarity and gene expression patterns we identified 17 candidate genes that are likely to be ethylene control points for aroma production in apple. While many of the biosynthetic steps in these pathways were represented by gene families containing two or more genes, expression patterns revealed that only a single member is typically regulated by ethylene. Only certain points within the aroma biosynthesis pathways were regulated by ethylene. Often the first step, and in all pathways the last steps, contained enzymes that were ethylene regulated. This analysis suggests that the initial and final enzymatic steps with the biosynthetic pathways are important transcriptional regulation points for aroma production in apple. PMID:17556515

Schaffer, Robert J; Friel, Ellen N; Souleyre, Edwige J F; Bolitho, Karen; Thodey, Kate; Ledger, Susan; Bowen, Judith H; Ma, Jun-Hong; Nain, Bhawana; Cohen, Daniel; Gleave, Andrew P; Crowhurst, Ross N; Janssen, Bart J; Yao, Jia-Long; Newcomb, Richard D

2007-08-01

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Lipases microbianas na produção de ésteres formadores de aroma / Lipases biocatalysis in the production of flavor esters  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram testadas cinco lipases microbianas produzidas no Laboratório de Bioquímica de Alimentos-FEA-UNICAMP, quanto à capacidade de catalisar a síntese de ésteres formadores de aroma por esterificação em meio isento de solvente orgânico. A natureza da enzima assim como o tamanho da cadeia dos ácidos a [...] fetaram as taxas de conversão obtidas.Os melhores resultados obtidos foram 88 % de conversão na síntese de laurato de isoamila e 72% para propionato de isoamila pela lipase de Rhizopus sp após 24 horas de incubação, seguido de 82% de conversão na síntese de acetato de isopropila por Alcaligenes sp após 24 horas de incubação. Abstract in english Five lipases produced at UNICAMP were screened for their ability to synthesize flavor esters by esterification in organic solvent free system. The nature of the enzyme, as well as the chain length of the acyl donor used affected the product yields. Lipase from Rhizopus sp and Alcaligenes sp gave the [...] best overall yield (88 and 82%).

Gabriela A., Macedo; Gláucia M., Pastore.

1997-08-01

30

Metagenomics of Ancient Fermentation Pits Used for the Production of Chinese Strong-Aroma Liquor  

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The complex microbiota of pit mud of solid-state fermentation reactors used for the production of Chinese liquor is responsible for producing one of the oldest distillates in the world. We apply a deep-sequencing approach to characterize the microbiota from pits that have been in use for up to 440 years. PMID:25342677

Guo, Ming-Yi; Huo, Dan-Qun; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Shen, Cai-Hong; Zhang, Niang; Zhang, Su-Yi

2014-01-01

31

Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew. Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discrimination of products; the concentration in the coffee brew was found to be the least discriminatory and concentration in the headspace above the roast and ground coffee was shown to be most discriminatory. Conclusions All approaches should be taken into consideration when classifying roast and ground coffee especially for alignment to sensory perception and consumer insight data as all offer markedly different discrimination abilities due to the variation in volatility, hydrophobicity, air-water partition coefficient and other physicochemical parameters of the key aroma compounds present.

Fisk Ian

2012-08-01

32

PENGOLAHAN BERAS WANGI BUATAN METODE DAN RETENSI SENYAWA AROMA [Processing of Artificial Fragrant Rice The Method and Aroma Retention  

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Full Text Available Processing of artificial fragrant rice in which one or more aroma compounds were introduced into raw milled rice were studied. The end product, which is potentially marketable, showed no visible difference in appearance from the untreated rice, and the cooked product showed perceivable aroma to the consumers. The aromatisation process used liquid carbon dioxide as a vehicle to deliver the aroma. Five aroma compounds of eugenol, iso-eugenol, methyl eugenol, cinnamyl alcohol, and cinnamaldehyde were used as model compounds. The results showed that liquid carbon dioxide at a pressure of 8 MPa and an equilibration time of 5 minutes were found to be the optimum conditions for imparting the aroma compounds into the rice. The retention of the model aroma compounds in rice were in the range of 33% to 50%. The aroma carrier was found to be able to carry the model compounds into the core of rice. This was significant, as it potentially provided a longer period for the aroma compounds to remain in the rice.

Filli Pratama

2006-08-01

33

Effects of retro-nasal aroma release on satiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is suggested that the brain response of a food odour sensed retro-nasally is related to satiation. The extent of retro-nasal aroma release during consumption depends on the physical structure of a food, i.e. solid foods generate a longer, more pronounced retro-nasal aroma release than liquid foods. The aim of this study was to investigate if a beverage becomes more satiating when the retro-nasal aroma release profile coincides with the profile of a (soft) solid food. In a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised cross-over full factorial design, twenty-seven healthy subjects (fourteen males and thirteen females; aged 16-65 years; BMI 19-37 kg/m(2) were administered aroma profiles by a computer-controlled stimulator based on air dilution olfactometry. Profile A consisted of a profile that is obtained during consumption of normal beverages. Profile B is normally observed during consumption of (soft) solids. The two profiles were produced with strawberry aroma and administered in a retro-nasal fashion, while the subjects consumed a sweetened milk drink. Before, during and after the sensory stimulation, appetite profile measurements were performed. Subjects felt significantly more satiated if they were aroma stimulated with profile B (P = 0.04). After stimulation with sweet strawberry aroma, there was a significant decrease in desire to eat sweet products (P = 0.0001). In conclusion, perceived satiation was increased by altering the extent of retro-nasal aroma release. PMID:17953786

Ruijschop, Rianne M A J; Boelrijk, Alexandra E M; de Ru, Jacob A; de Graaf, Cees; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

2008-05-01

34

Food aroma affects bite size  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

de Wijk René A

2012-03-01

35

Grape contribution to wine aroma: production of hexyl acetate, octyl acetate, and benzyl acetate during yeast fermentation is dependent upon precursors in the must.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wine is a complex consumer product produced predominately by the action of yeast upon grape juice musts. Model must systems have proven ideal for studies of the effects of fermentation conditions on the production of certain wine volatiles. To identify grape-derived precursors to acetate esters, model fermentation systems were developed by spiking precursors into model must at different concentrations. Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatgraphy mass spectrometry analysis of the fermented wines showed that a variety of grape-derived aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes are precursors to acetate esters. The C6 compounds hexan-1-ol, hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, and (E)-2-hexenal are all precursors to hexyl acetate, and octanol and benzyl alcohol are precursors to octyl acetate and benzyl acetate, respectively. In these cases, the postfermentation concentration of an acetate ester increased proportionally with the prefermentation concentration of the respective precursor in the model must. Determining viticultural or winemaking methods to alter the prefermentation concentration of precursor compounds or change the precursor-to-acetate ester ratio will have implications upon the final flavor and aroma of wines. PMID:22332880

Dennis, Eric G; Keyzers, Robert A; Kalua, Curtis M; Maffei, Suzanne M; Nicholson, Emily L; Boss, Paul K

2012-03-14

36

Acidification of grape marc for alcoholic beverage production: effects on indigenous microflora and aroma profile after distillation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grappa is an Italian alcoholic beverage obtained from distillation of grape marc, the raw material derived from separation of must during the winemaking process. Marc is stored for a period lasting from few days to several weeks, when fermentation of residual sugars occurs mainly by yeast activity. Many distilleries have adopted different solutions to manage this critical phase in order to avoid spoilage microorganisms: marc acidification is the most widely diffused. In this work, Prosecco grape pomace was acidified with sulphuric acid (to pH 2.9) and stored, whereas non-acidified grape marc was used as control (pH 3.9). Samples for microbiological analysis were collected at the beginning of the storage period, after 15 and 43days. At the beginning of the ensilage (time T0) the indigenous microflora was represented both by yeasts and bacteria at a concentration of about 10(6)cfu/g. During the first 15days, when the fermentation generally takes place, yeast population grew considerably (up to 10(7)cfu/g) in acidified grape marc, where bacterial population was maintained at low levels. Moreover, yeast populations recovered at the three sampling times in both treated and untreated marc were genetically characterised. This analysis showed that the species succession lead to non-Saccharomyces species dominance (in particular Issatchenkia and Pichia genera) in both conditions although acidified marc showed a lower percentage of Saccharomyces at any sampling time analysed, this meaning that non-Saccharomyces species were favoured in this environment. Gas chromatographic analysis showed a remarkable change in the aromatic profile of distilled grape marcs at the end of the storage, thus evidencing that concentration of monitored volatile compounds usually produced by microflora was generally lowered by the acidification treatment. This work demonstrates for the first time the strong effect of a persistent acidification treatment both on the microbiota of grape pomace and on the aromatic profile of the distillate. Indeed, the lowering of the pH caused significant changes in yeast-bacteria populations ratio and in yeast species turnover. These microbiological changes determine an improvement of the aromatic profile of the distillate, due to the reduction of the main volatile products associated with potential off-flavours. PMID:22056624

Bovo, Barbara; Nardi, Tiziana; Fontana, Federico; Carlot, Milena; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana

2012-01-16

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Biodegradation of C5-C 8 fatty acids and production of aroma volatiles by Myroides sp. ZB35 isolated from activated sludge.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the effluents of a biologically treated wastewater from a heavy oil-refining plant, C5-C8 fatty acids including pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid, heptanoic acid, octanoic acid, and 2-methylbutanoic acid are often detected. As these residual fatty acids can cause further air and water pollution, a new Myroides isolate ZB35 from activated sludge was explored to degrade these C5-C8 fatty acids in this study. It was found that the biodegradation process involved a lag phase that became prolonged with increasing acyl chain length when the fatty acids were individually fed to this strain. However, when fed as a mixture, the ones with longer acyl chains were found to become more quickly assimilated. The branched 2-methylbutanoic acid was always the last one to be depleted among the five fatty acids under both conditions. Metabolite analysis revealed one possible origin of short chain fatty acids in the biologically treated wastewater. Aroma volatiles including 2-methylbutyl isovalerate, isoamyl 2-methylbutanoate, isoamyl isovalerate, and 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutanoate were subsequently identified from ZB35 extracts, linking the source of the fruity odor to these esters excreted by Myroides species. To our best knowledge, this is the first finding of these aroma esters in bacteria. From a biotechnological viewpoint, this study has revealed the potential of Myroides species as a promising source of aroma esters attractive for food and fragrance industries. PMID:24810320

Xiao, Zijun; Zhu, Xiankun; Xi, Lijun; Hou, Xiaoyuan; Fang, Li; Lu, Jian R

2014-05-01

38

The Development of Aromas in Ruminant Meat  

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Full Text Available This review provides an update on our understanding of the chemical reactions (lipid oxidation, Strecker and Maillard reactions, thiamine degradation and a discussion of the principal aroma compounds derived from those reaction or other sources in cooked meat, mainly focused on ruminant species. This knowledge is essential in order to understand, control, and improve the quality of food products. More studies are necessary to fully understand the role of each compound in the overall cooked meat flavour and their possible effect in consumer acceptability.

María M. Campo

2013-06-01

39

Aroma glycosides from Hovenia dulsis.  

Science.gov (United States)

From the fresh leaves of Hovenia dulsis var. tomentella, two new aroma glycosides named kenposide A and B have been isolated together with the known glycoside, icariside C1. Their structures were determined on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence. PMID:7764288

Yoshikawa, K; Nagai, M; Wakabayashi, M; Arihara, S

1993-11-01

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Effect of drying conditions on drying kinetics and quality of aromatic Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pandanus amaryllifolius is a plant with aromatic leaves, which impart the characteristic flavour of aromatic rice. The quality of aromatic Pandanus leaves dried at low temperature (35 °C) and low RH (27%) in a heat pump dryer was evaluated and compared with those obtained from hot air drying at 45 °C. Thin-layer drying kinetics has been studied for both the conditions. To determine the kinetic parameters, the drying data were fitted to various semi-theoretical models. The goodness of fit was determined using the coefficient of determination, reduced chi square, and root mean square error. Aroma, colour, and overall acceptability determination of fresh and dried leaves were made using sensory evaluation. Drying of leaves took place mainly under the falling-rate period. The Page equation was found to be best among the proposed models to describe the thin-layer drying of Pandanus leaves with higher coefficient of determination. The effective moisture diffusivity values were also determined. The effect of low RH was prominent during the initial drying when the product was moist. The effect of temperature was prominent in the later part of drying, which acted as a driving force for moisture diffusion and hence the total drying time was reduced. Retention of aromatic compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline content was more in low temperature dried samples with higher sensory scores. PMID:23572703

Rayaguru, Kalpana; Routray, Winny

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

Characterization of dried whey protein concentrate and isolate flavor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The flavor of whey protein concentrates (WPC 80) and whey protein isolates (WPI) was studied using instrumental and sensory techniques. Four WPC 80 and 4 WPI, less than 3 mo old, were collected in duplicate from 6 manufacturers in the United States. Samples were rehydrated and evaluated in duplicate by descriptive sensory analysis. Duplicate samples with internal standards were extracted with diethyl ether. Extracts were then distilled to remove nonvolatile material using high vacuum distillation. Volatile extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography/olfactometry with post peak intensity analysis and aroma extract dilution analysis. Compounds were identified by comparison of retention indices, odor properties, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry against reference standards. Whey proteins exhibited sweet aromatic, cardboard/wet paper, animal/wet dog, soapy, brothy, cucumber, and cooked/milky flavors, along with the basic taste bitter, and the feeling factor astringency. Key volatile flavor compounds in WPC 80 and WPI were butanoic acid (cheesy), 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn), 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (brothy/burnt), 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-(2H)-furanone (maple/spicy), 2-nonenal (fatty/old books), (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (cucumber), and (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal (fatty/oxidized). This baseline data on flavor and flavor sources in whey proteins will aid ongoing and future research and will help to identify the most appropriate whey ingredients to use to control or minimize flavor variability in whey enhanced products. PMID:16230688

Carunchia Whetstine, M E; Croissant, A E; Drake, M A

2005-11-01

42

Determination of Favorite Wine from Comparison of Wine Aroma Attributes  

Science.gov (United States)

The decision to choose the appropriate product matching the preference of each individual is based on the psychological impression of the adjective and the alternatives. The preference for a product group and physical condition also affect decision-making. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of differences in the preference of wine and changes in hunger level on the psychological and neuro-physiological aspects of decision-making where the subjects were asked to choose their most favorite wine after sniffing the aroma of several wines. The psychological aspects of decision-making while sniffing five different kinds of wine were evaluated by the analytical hierarchal process (AHP) method, while the neuro-physiological aspects were evaluated by measuring the level of oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations (O2Hb) in the process of smelling the wine aromas within three minutes compared to when the non-odor and alcoholic solutions were presented. AHP analysis showed that the adjective “Favorite” was given the highest importance and a white wine with a sweet aroma was the most favored wine, regardless of the wine preference. The normalized mean O2Hb levels in each minute showed that, in the case of the wine lovers, the time course of the O2Hb level, decreased when they sensed the wine aroma compared to when they sensed non-odor solutions, and, in non-wine lovers, the O2Hb levels remained at higher values compared to the smell of the non-odor solution when they sensed the aroma of the alcoholic solution. The results indicate that there are differences with regard to decision-making between the psychological and physiological aspects when people are made to choose their most favorite wine by sniffing wine aromas.

Koike, Takayuki; Kamimura, Hironobu; Shimada, Kouji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kaneki, Noriaki

43

Sulfur Aroma Compounds in Coffee: Origin and Degradation [Compostos Sulfurados no Aroma do Café: Origem e Degradação  

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Full Text Available Flavor is a physiological sensation with the contribution from many of our senses.Taste and aroma are determinant in food and beverages and can lead consumers to reject or accept a product. The beverage obtained from roasted and ground coffee is one of the most popular in the world. In roasted coffee over 100 sulfur compounds have been identified, and its origin is only partially understood. The attractive aroma of a freshly prepared coffee beverage is not persistent and, in particular, the intensity of the roasted-sulfur aroma decreases rapidly. This loss impacts on beverage consumption and its mechanism is still poorly understood. This article is focused in a compilation of scientific literature, regarding formation and degradation mechanisms proposed for sulfur compounds in coffee beverage, in order to contribute to a better comprehension of the phenomena.

Thais M. Uekane

2013-08-01

44

Sulfur Aroma Compounds in Coffee: Origin and Degradation [Compostos Sulfurados no Aroma do Café: Origem e Degradação  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Flavor is a physiological sensation with the contribution from many of our senses.Taste and aroma are determinant in food and beverages and can lead consumers to reject or accept a product. The beverage obtained from roasted and ground coffee is one of the most popular in the world. In roasted coffee over 100 sulfur compounds have been identified, and its origin is only partially understood. The attractive aroma of a freshly prepared coffee beverage is not persistent and, in particular, the i...

Uekane, Thais M.; Rocha Lea?o, Maria Helena M.; Rezende, Cla?udia M.

2013-01-01

45

Selective removal of methyl mercaptan in coffee aroma using oxidized microporous carbon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coffee aroma recovered from the extraction process of roasted coffee beans is used to improve the quality of soluble coffee products. Coffee aroma often has an irritating sulfurous odor. In the present work, it is experimentally elucidated that methyl mercaptan could be selectively removed from the coffee aroma-containing gas by the oxidized microporous carbon. Breakthrough curves of coffee aroma-containing gas on zeolite 5A, microporous carbon (MSC 5A), and MSC 5A oxidized with 13.2N HNO{sub 3} aqueous solution revealed that the adsorption capacity of methyl mercaptan on the oxidized carbon was 4.2 times of that on the zeolite. The loss of desired coffee aroma was decreased using the oxidized carbon in the removal of methyl mercaptan. (author)

Sakano, T. [Ajinomoto General Foods Inc., Tokyo (Japan). Central Research Laboratoties; Tamon, H.; Okazaki, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-10-01

46

Aroma therapy and medfly SIT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A summary of the main findings of the research program on the biological competence of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (med fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and the development and implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest is presented. The potential application of aroma therapy to improve the mating success of sterile med fly males is studied. The report assumes a loosely chronological framework as it documents progression along two experimental scales: the number of males simultaneously exposed to ginger root oil, starting with small groups of 25 males and ending with rooms with nearly 200 million males; the experimental arena used to test the effects of aroma therapy, progressing from standard field-cages to large field enclosures to the open field. In addition, brief comments are offered regarding the potential negative effects of GRO exposure, the mechanisms underlying GRO-mediated improvement in male mating success, and the financial costs of GRO aroma therapy. (MAC)

Shelly, Todd E., E-mail: todd.e.shelly@aphis.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-APHIS), HI (United States). Animal and Plant Health Inspection

2006-07-01

47

Advances in Fruit Aroma Volatile Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fruits produce a range of volatile compounds that make up their characteristic aromas and contribute to their flavor. Fruit volatile compounds are mainly comprised of esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, lactones, terpenoids and apocarotenoids. Many factors affect volatile composition, including the genetic makeup, degree of maturity, environmental conditions, postharvest handling and storage. There are several pathways involved in volatile biosynthesis starting from lipids, amino acids, terpenoids and carotenoids. Once the basic skeletons are produced via these pathways, the diversity of volatiles is achieved via additional modification reactions such as acylation, methylation, oxidation/reduction and cyclic ring closure. In this paper, we review the composition of fruit aroma, the characteristic aroma compounds of several representative fruits, the factors affecting aroma volatile, and the biosynthetic pathways of volatile aroma compounds. We anticipate that this review would provide some critical information for profound research on fruit aroma components and their manipulation during development and storage.

Muna Ahmed Mohamed El Hadi

2013-07-01

48

Direct Aromaization of Methane  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thermal decomposition of methane offers significant potential as a means of producing higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of reaction is limited. Work in the literature previous to this project had shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds would significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon or heavier (Clo+) materials. This project studied the effect and optimization of the quenching process as a means of increasing the amount of value added products during the pyrolysis of methane. A reactor was designed to rapidly quench the free-radical combustion reaction so as to maximize the yield of aromatics. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts were studied as a means of lowering the reaction temperature. A lower reaction temperature would have the benefits of more rapid quenching as well as a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. It was the goal of the project to identify promising routes from methane to higher hydrocarbons based on the pyrolysis of methane.

George Marcelin

1997-01-15

49

A comparative analysis of the influence of human salivary enzymes on odorant concentration in three palm wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines' odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA) and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs), respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD) factor range of 4-256, and all were subsequently identified. Of the 46 odorants, 41 were identified in the Elaeis guineensis wine, 36 in Raphia hookeri wine and 29 in Borassus flabellifer wine. Among the odorants, the highest FD-factors were obtained from acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Among the 13 potent odorants identified, five aroma compounds are reported here as important contributors to palm wine aroma, namely 3-isobutyl-2-methoxy-pyrazine, acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methylbutylacetate and ethyl hexanoate. Meanwhile, salivary enzymic degradation of odorants was more pronounced among the aldehydes, esters and thiols. PMID:24071987

Lasekan, Ola

2013-01-01

50

A Comparative Analysis of the Influence of Human Salivary Enzymes on Odorant Concentration in Three Palm Wines  

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Full Text Available The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines’ odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs, respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA, and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD factor range of 4-256, and all were subsequently identified. Of the 46 odorants, 41 were identified in the Elaeis guineensis wine, 36 in Raphia hookeri wine and 29 in Borassus flabellifer wine. Among the odorants, the highest FD-factors were obtained from acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Among the 13 potent odorants identified, five aroma compounds are reported here as important contributors to palm wine aroma, namely 3-isobutyl-2-methoxy-pyrazine, acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methylbutylacetate and ethyl hexanoate. Meanwhile, salivary enzymic degradation of odorants was more pronounced among the aldehydes, esters and thiols.

Ola Lasekan

2013-09-01

51

Identification of tartary buckwheat tea aroma compounds with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tartary buckwheat tea, which is an important and healthy product, has a distinct malty aroma. However, its characteristic aroma compounds have not been elucidated. The aims of present study were identification and quantification of its aroma compounds. The analyses were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after 3 different isolation techniques. Seventy-seven compounds were identified. Among these compounds, 35 were quantified by available standards. The compounds with a high probability of contribution to the tartary buckwheat tea aroma (OAV ? 10) were as follows: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone, nonanal, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, benzeneacetaldehyde, maltol, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazine. Some nutritional and bioactive compounds were also identified in this study, such as linoleic acid, niacin, vanillic acid, 7-hydroxycoumarin, butylated hydroxytoluene. Practical Application: Tartary buckwheat, one type of buckwheat, has gained much attention from nutritionists and medical doctors in recent years. It is rich in rutin, quercetin, and other nutrients that are good for health. Tartary buckwheat-based product such as tartary buckwheat tea is an important and popular healthy product in China, Japan,South Korea, European countries as well as in American countries. It has a distinct malty aroma. The present study first identified and quantified of its aroma compounds. The results will draw attention to other researchers in food flavor and buckwheat filed. PMID:22417522

Qin, Peiyou; Ma, Tingjun; Wu, Li; Shan, Fang; Ren, Guixing

2011-08-01

52

Produccion de aromas por fermentacion en medio solido  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fermentation of solid raw materials has been used for a long time to improve the organoleptic quality of food. Some examples come from traditional fermented food in Asia, Europe and America. Many microorganisms such as lactic bacteria (vegetables, dairy products, meat), some yeasts (bread) and various filamentous fungi (cheeses) are involved in these natural processes. In this paper are presented some examples of the use of microorganisms for the generation of aroma in solid medium. This ...

Christen, Pierre

1995-01-01

53

True cooking aroma or artefact. 15N gives the answer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to determine the respective contributions of the various nitrous precursor families in aroma preparations, the usually added amino acids were substituted with 15N isotope labelled homologous components. Results concerning isotope ratios for the volatile fraction nitrous components collected from poultry meat aromatic preparations, are presented. Terminal product labelling appears to allow for a better determination of the substrate and functional additive contributions. 4 figs., 6 refs

54

Release and perception of aroma compounds during consumption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Key words: MS-Nose, in vivo aroma release, aroma perception, mouth model, artificial throat, liquid protocol, sweeteners, reversible protein-aroma interactions, emulsions, oil content, droplet size distribution, gel hardness, texture, cross-modal interactions.This thesis evaluated and validated the MS-Nose as a tool to measure aroma release during food consumption. Subsequently, the MS-Nose was used to enhance understanding of the interaction between release and perception of aroma during con...

Weel, K. G. C.

2004-01-01

55

PENGEMBANGAN AROMA DAN CITA RASA BAKSO DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN FLAVOR [Development of Aroma and Taste of Meat Ball Using Flavor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bakso is one of the most popular meat product in Indonesia. This research studied of effect of addition of falvor to the quality of meat ball. The analysis included physical characteristics (specific gravity, hardness, shear, elasticity and color organoleptic test. The results showed that : according to consumer preference, the most like flavour that added in the meat ball were the flavour of beef Q. 1.%, beef Q 1.5%, Beef WIN 1.5% and beef Fat WIN 1.0%. the use of flavor did not cause differences in physical characteristics like specific gravity, hardness, shear, alasticity and color a-value. The use flavour in creased the price of bakso between Rp 4.5,- to Rp 18,-. According to comparison test, meat ball with beef Q 1.5% has the best score compared with Bakso Lapang Tembak (BLT in aroma, and with Bakso Pedagang Keliling (BPK has the best score in aroma, test and texture.

Aulia 2

2001-08-01

56

Aroma compounds in sweet whey powder.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma compounds in sweet whey powder were investigated in this study. Volatiles were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation. Fractionation was used to separate acidic from nonacidic volatiles. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/olfactometry were used for the identification of aroma compounds. Osme methodology was applied to assess the relative importance of each aroma compound. The most aroma-intense free fatty acids detected were acetic, propanoic, butanoic, hexanoic, heptanoic, octanoic, decanoic, dodecanoic, and 9-decenoic acids. The most aroma-intense nonacidic compounds detected were hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-octen-3-one, methional, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, furfuryl alcohol, p-cresol, 2-acetylpyrrole, maltol, furaneol, and several lactones. This study suggested that the aroma of whey powder could comprise compounds originating from milk, compounds generated by the starter culture during cheese making, and compounds formed during the manufacturing process of whey powder. PMID:15545366

Mahajan, S S; Goddik, L; Qian, M C

2004-12-01

57

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in pork soup stock by using an aroma extract dilution analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma extract dilution analysis of an extract prepared from pork stock and subsequent experiments led to the identification of 15 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution factor range of 64-2048. Omission experiments to select the most aroma-active compounds from the 15 odor compounds suggested acetol, octanoic acid, ?-decalactone, and decanoic acid as the main active compounds contributing to the aroma of pork stock. Aroma recombination, addition, and omission experiments of these four aroma compounds in taste-reconstituted pork stock showed that each compound had an individual aroma profile. A comparison of the overall aroma between this recombined mixture and pork stock showed strong similarity, suggesting that the key aroma compounds had been successfully identified. PMID:25036494

Takakura, Yukiko; Osanai, Hiroki; Masuzawa, Takuya; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko; Nishimura, Toshihide

2014-01-01

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Characteristic Aroma Compounds from Different Pineapple Parts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Characteristic aroma volatile compounds from different parts of cayenne pineapple were analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The main volatile compounds were esters, terpenes, ketones and aldehydes. The number and content of aroma compounds detected in pulp were higher than those found in core. In pulp, the characteristic aroma compounds were ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl hexanoate, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H-furanone (DMHF, decanal, ethyl 3-(methylthiopropionate, ethyl butanoate, and ethyl (E-3-hexenoate; while in core the main compounds were ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl hexanoate and DMHF. The highest odor units were found to correspond to ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, followed by ethyl hexanoate and DMHF. The odor units found for pulp were higher than those for core.

Guang-Ming Sun

2011-06-01

59

Characteristic aroma compounds from different pineapple parts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Characteristic aroma volatile compounds from different parts of cayenne pineapple were analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main volatile compounds were esters, terpenes, ketones and aldehydes. The number and content of aroma compounds detected in pulp were higher than those found in core. In pulp, the characteristic aroma compounds were ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl hexanoate, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF), decanal, ethyl 3-(methylthio)propionate, ethyl butanoate, and ethyl (E)-3-hexenoate; while in core the main compounds were ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl hexanoate and DMHF. The highest odor units were found to correspond to ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, followed by ethyl hexanoate and DMHF. The odor units found for pulp were higher than those for core. PMID:21694674

Wei, Chang-Bin; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Liu, Yu-Ge; Lv, Ling-Ling; Yang, Wen-Xiu; Sun, Guang-Ming

2011-01-01

60

Generation of aroma compounds in a fermented sausage meat model system by Debaryomyces hansenii strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of seven Debaryomyces hansenii strains to generate aroma compounds in a fermented sausage model system was evaluated. The presence of the yeast, in the inoculated models, was confirmed by PCR amplification of M13 minisatellite. Volatile compounds production was analysed using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Forty volatile compounds were detected, quantified and their odour activity values (OAVs) calculated. All volatile compounds increased during time in the inoculated models although significant differences were found amongst them. Ester and sulphur production was strongly dependent on the strain inoculated. D. hansenii P2 and M6 strains were the highest producers of sulphur compounds where dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl trisulfide were the most prominent aroma components identified by their OAVs whereas, M4 showed the highest OAVs for ester compounds followed by the P2 strain. The meat model system has been useful to show the real ability of yeast strains to produce aroma compounds. PMID:24423545

Cano-García, Liliana; Rivera-Jiménez, Silvia; Belloch, Carmela; Flores, Mónica

2014-05-15

 
 
 
 
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Comparative quantitative analysis of headspace volatiles and their association with BADH2 marker in non-basmati scented, basmati and non-scented rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars of India.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the first time, 91 Indian rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, belonging to non-basmati scented (77), basmati (9) and non-scented (5) categories, were quantitatively analysed for 23 headspace volatiles. In addition, the BADH2 marker related to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) synthesis is validated among the cultivars representing these categories. The non-basmati scented cultivars (15) excelled in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) content compared to basmati cultivars. The major aroma volatile (2AP) correlated positively with 1-tetradecene and indole, and negatively with benzyl alcohol. On the basis of nonanal, octanal, decanal and 1-octen-3-ol contents, basmati cultivars were different from non-scented cultivars. Benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, 2-amino acetophenone, indole, 1-hexanol and nonanoic acid exhibited significant variation among rice categories under study. This study reports 16 non-basmati scented cultivars with variations in the BADH2 locus rendering a marker based on 8bp deletion in BADH2 as unsuitable for MAS in rice cultivars under study. PMID:24001856

Mathure, Sarika V; Jawali, Narendra; Thengane, Ratnakar J; Nadaf, Altafhusian B

2014-01-01

62

Identification of potent odorants in different green tea varieties using flavor dilution technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two kinds of pan-fired green teas (Japanese Kamairi-cha and Chinese Longing tea) were compared with the common Japanese green tea (Sen-cha). Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) using the volatile fraction of the Sen-cha, Kamairi-cha and Longing tea infusions revealed 32, 51, and 52 odor-active peaks with flavor dilution factors between 16 and 1024, respectively. (Z)-1,5-Octadien-3-one (metallic, geranium-like), 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (meaty, black currant-like), methional (potato-like), (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (cucumber-like), and 3-methylnonane-2,4-dione (green, fruity, hay-like) showed high flavor dilution factors in all varieties. In addition, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn-like), 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (nutty), 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (nutty), and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline (popcorn-like) belonged to the most potent odorants only in the pan-fired green teas. Among these odorants, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline were identified for the first time among the tea volatiles. PMID:12236694

Kumazawa, Kenji; Masuda, Hideki

2002-09-25

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Impact of Fruit Piece Structure in Yogurts on the Dynamics of Aroma Release and Sensory Perception  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma stimuli, which can influence nutritional and hedonic characteristics, as well as consumption behaviors. In yogurts, fruit preparation formulation can be a key factor to modulate aroma stimulation. In this context, the impact of size and hardness of fruit pieces in fat-free pear yogurts was studied. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was used to allow sensitive and on-line monitoring of volatile odorous compound release in the breath during consumption. In parallel, a trained panel used sensory profile and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS methods to characterize yogurt sensory properties and their dynamic changes during consumption. Results showed that the size of pear pieces had few effects on aroma release and perception of yogurts, whereas fruit hardness significantly influenced them. Despite the fact that yogurts presented short and similar residence times in the mouth, this study showed that fruit preparation could be an interesting formulation factor to enhance exposure time to stimuli and thus modify food consumption behaviors. These results could be taken into account to formulate new products that integrate both nutritional and sensory criteria.

Isabelle Souchon

2013-05-01

64

Aroma compounds formed from 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione under photooxidative conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The behavior of the prominent aroma compound 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione under photooxidative conditions was investigated in a model experiment. The four well-known aroma compounds 2,3-butanedione, 2,3-octanedione, acetic acid, and caproic acid were identified. The main oxidation product was 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione, an aroma compound with the odor description of rubbery, earthy, and plastic-like (GC-O). Its structure has been tentatively assigned based on mass (GC-MS) and vapor phase infrared spectra (GC-IR). The formal formation pathways are discussed for these compounds, and other origins described in the literature are presented. PMID:12744678

Sigrist, Isabelle A; Manzardo, Giuseppe G G; Amadò, Renato

2003-05-21

65

Complex viscosity induced by protein composition variation influences the aroma release of flavored stirred yogurt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dairy protein composition is known to influence the structure and the texture characteristics of yogurt. The objective of the present work was therefore to investigate the impact of protein composition, at a constant protein level, on the physicochemical properties of 4% fat flavored stirred yogurt and, more specifically, on the rheological properties, the microstructure, and the aroma release. The results showed that caseinate-enriched yogurt generally presented changes in their microstructure network and had a higher complex viscosity than whey protein-enriched yogurt. To a lesser extent, the release of the majority of aroma compounds was lower in caseinate-enriched yogurt. It was therefore possible to quantify physicochemical interactions between aroma compounds and proteins. The influence of gel structure on the flavor release was observed and was in agreement with sensory characteristics previously studied for these products. PMID:16719526

Saint-Eve, Anne; Juteau, Alexandre; Atlan, Samuel; Martin, Nathalie; Souchon, Isabelle

2006-05-31

66

Factors influencing the aroma composition of Chardonnay wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chardonnay is one of the oldest and most widely distributed wine grape cultivars and is of commercial importance for the world's wine-producing nations. It is an extremely flexible variety that has adapted to different regions with varied weather and soil characteristics. Somewhat uniquely among white wines, Chardonnay lends itself to a wide variety of production styles, which can be tailored to the target market. Techniques such as skin maceration, barrel and stainless steel fermentation, use of selected or indigenous yeasts, malolactic fermentation, and aging in barrels with or without lees are all applicable and lead to different compositional outcomes. A number of research papers have been published with a view to understanding Chardonnay composition and quality as well as the impact of different enological techniques on the final product. This review summarizes current knowledge, explaining the influence of viticultural and production techniques on aroma composition, and poses directions for further research into Chardonnay wines. PMID:24954266

Gambetta, Joanna M; Bastian, Susan E P; Cozzolino, Daniel; Jeffery, David W

2014-07-16

67

Characterization of some Allium hybrids by aroma precursors, aroma profiles, and alliinase activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various Allium hybrids, obtained by the crossbreeding of Allium cepa (onion) as the mother plant and six taxonomically distant wild species obtained by embryo rescue, were investigated with special respect to their individual profiles of cysteine sulfoxides as well as enzymically and nonenzymically formed aroma substances. Alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) catalyzes the conversion of odorless (+)-S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides into volatile thiosulfinates. These thiosulfinates were converted to a variety of sulfides by steam distillation. SPME-gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) used for the analysis of aroma components and their precursors permitted a high sample throughput, so that numerous gene bank accessions and Allium breeding materials were analyzed within a comparatively short time. Cysteine sulfoxides as well as alliinase activity were found in all investigated samples at different levels, but (+)-S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (methiin) was the most abundant sulfoxide present. (+)-S-(trans-1-Propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (isoalliin) is typical for onion and was found in all investigated hybrids. The pattern of the other cysteine sulfoxides depended strongly on the parent plants used. The profile of aroma components corresponded with the related pattern of aroma precursors (cysteine sulfoxides). Successful hybridization was proven by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Together with these established marker techniques, HPLC and SPME-GC analysis provide support to breeding projects designed to improve the health and aroma properties of Allium hybrids. PMID:11982415

Keusgen, Michael; Schulz, Hartwig; Glodek, Janina; Krest, Ingo; Krüger, Hans; Herchert, Nadine; Keller, Joachim

2002-05-01

68

Wine aroma improvement using a ?-glucosidase preparation from Aureobasidium pullulans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial ?-glucosidases have been used for the enhancement of wine aroma. Nevertheless, few enzymes are active in the conditions of winemaking. In this work, the production of a ?-glucosidase by an Aureobasidium pullulans strain (Ap-?-gl) isolated from grape ecosystems was evaluated. The maximum enzymatic synthesis using submerged fermentation was after 96 h of growth in complex media containing 20 g/L of cellobiose as the sole carbon source. The crude enzyme (Ap-?-gl) showed optimal pH at 5.5 and two peaks of optimum temperature (at 45 and 70 °C). It showed a wide range of pH stability, stability at low temperatures, and tolerance to ethanol, showing suitable characteristics for winemaking conditions. The hydrolysis of glycosidic terpenes by Ap-?-gl was studied, and its ability to efficiently release free terpenols was demonstrated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The enzymatic treatment notably increased the amount of monoterpenes, showing good prospects for its potential application for the development of aroma in wines. PMID:23233193

Baffi, Milla A; Tobal, Thaise; Lago, João Henrique Ghilardi; Boscolo, Maurício; Gomes, Eleni; Da-Silva, Roberto

2013-01-01

69

Healing of pain by music and aroma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To see the alteration and modification by music and aroma of the brain activity at the moment of pain stimulus, authors studied 3D images by dynamic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with continuous intravenous 99mTc-HMPAO (hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime) method that they had developed. The radiopharmaceutical was i.v. injected at a constant infusion rate of 1,110 MBq/30 ml/30 min and dynamic SPECT was performed for 30 min at every 2 min interval with the gamma camera GCA 7200A/UI 2-head SPECT system (Toshiba) to make the time-activity curve of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). During the infusion, pain stimulus was given by clipping the tip of third finger for 3 sec repeatedly for 2 min. Subjects, healthy normal or with disease, were 18 cases with no healing, 14 with music and 32 with aroma. Pain alone or plus pop music induced rCBF increase in wide regions of the brain while slow-paced music or calm aroma (rose and lavender) suppressed the rCBF increase by pain in the lateral margin of frontal lobe. These changes were thought to be related to healing effects. (T.I.)

70

Retenção de aroma na secagem em atmosferas normal e modificada: desenvolvimento do sistema de estudo / Aroma retention in drying with normal and modified atmosphere: development of a study system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Na secagem de determinados alimentos, como frutas, juntamente com a água há também a evaporação de outras substâncias voláteis presentes em quantidades menores. Por isso, torna-se interessante considerar nos estudos de secagem a evaporação, além da água, desses outros componentes voláteis. A modific [...] ação da atmosfera tem sido utilizada em armazenamento, principalmente de vegetais, mas pode também ser estendida à secagem, pois pode influenciar a perda de voláteis responsáveis pelas características sensoriais do produto final. No presente trabalho, é apresentado um sistema de secagem previamente desenvolvido, no qual a atmosfera de secagem pode ser modificada pela adição de gases ou líquidos. Desenvolveu-se um sistema-modelo a partir da composição química básica do abacaxi e da adição de outros compostos, contendo um dos principais componentes do aroma desta fruta (hexanoato de etila). Além disso, também foi desenvolvida a metodologia analítica de determinação do aroma no sistema-modelo e no abacaxi, a partir dos estudos de extração de aromas e de análise cromatográfica gasosa. O aroma presente no sistema-modelo foi extraído em hexano e os componentes voláteis do aroma do abacaxi foram extraídos em éter etílico Abstract in english In the drying of some foods such as fruits, besides water there is also the evaporation of other volatile substances present in lesser amounts. Therefore, it is interesting to consider the evaporation of volatile components other than water in drying studies. The modification of atmosphere has been [...] used for storage only, especially for vegetables, but it can be extended to drying since it can influence the loss of volatile components responsible for the sensorial characteristics of the final product. In the present study, a drying system previously developed, in which the drying atmosphere can be modified by the addition of gases or liquids, was presented. A model-system was developed from the basic chemical composition of pineapple and the addition of other compounds containing one of the main aroma components (ethyl hexanoate). An analytical methodology for determing the aroma components present in the model-system and in the pineapple was developed from the studies of aroma extraction and gas chromatography. The aroma present in the model-system was extracted with hexane, and the volatile aroma components of the pineapple were extracted with ethylic ether

Marcilio Machado, Morais; Maria Aparecida, Silva.

71

Retenção de aroma na secagem em atmosferas normal e modificada: desenvolvimento do sistema de estudo / Aroma retention in drying with normal and modified atmosphere: development of a study system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Na secagem de determinados alimentos, como frutas, juntamente com a água há também a evaporação de outras substâncias voláteis presentes em quantidades menores. Por isso, torna-se interessante considerar nos estudos de secagem a evaporação, além da água, desses outros componentes voláteis. A modific [...] ação da atmosfera tem sido utilizada em armazenamento, principalmente de vegetais, mas pode também ser estendida à secagem, pois pode influenciar a perda de voláteis responsáveis pelas características sensoriais do produto final. No presente trabalho, é apresentado um sistema de secagem previamente desenvolvido, no qual a atmosfera de secagem pode ser modificada pela adição de gases ou líquidos. Desenvolveu-se um sistema-modelo a partir da composição química básica do abacaxi e da adição de outros compostos, contendo um dos principais componentes do aroma desta fruta (hexanoato de etila). Além disso, também foi desenvolvida a metodologia analítica de determinação do aroma no sistema-modelo e no abacaxi, a partir dos estudos de extração de aromas e de análise cromatográfica gasosa. O aroma presente no sistema-modelo foi extraído em hexano e os componentes voláteis do aroma do abacaxi foram extraídos em éter etílico Abstract in english In the drying of some foods such as fruits, besides water there is also the evaporation of other volatile substances present in lesser amounts. Therefore, it is interesting to consider the evaporation of volatile components other than water in drying studies. The modification of atmosphere has been [...] used for storage only, especially for vegetables, but it can be extended to drying since it can influence the loss of volatile components responsible for the sensorial characteristics of the final product. In the present study, a drying system previously developed, in which the drying atmosphere can be modified by the addition of gases or liquids, was presented. A model-system was developed from the basic chemical composition of pineapple and the addition of other compounds containing one of the main aroma components (ethyl hexanoate). An analytical methodology for determing the aroma components present in the model-system and in the pineapple was developed from the studies of aroma extraction and gas chromatography. The aroma present in the model-system was extracted with hexane, and the volatile aroma components of the pineapple were extracted with ethylic ether

Marcilio Machado, Morais; Maria Aparecida, Silva.

2011-06-01

72

Retenção de aroma na secagem em atmosferas normal e modificada: desenvolvimento do sistema de estudo Aroma retention in drying with normal and modified atmosphere: development of a study system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Na secagem de determinados alimentos, como frutas, juntamente com a água há também a evaporação de outras substâncias voláteis presentes em quantidades menores. Por isso, torna-se interessante considerar nos estudos de secagem a evaporação, além da água, desses outros componentes voláteis. A modificação da atmosfera tem sido utilizada em armazenamento, principalmente de vegetais, mas pode também ser estendida à secagem, pois pode influenciar a perda de voláteis responsáveis pelas características sensoriais do produto final. No presente trabalho, é apresentado um sistema de secagem previamente desenvolvido, no qual a atmosfera de secagem pode ser modificada pela adição de gases ou líquidos. Desenvolveu-se um sistema-modelo a partir da composição química básica do abacaxi e da adição de outros compostos, contendo um dos principais componentes do aroma desta fruta (hexanoato de etila. Além disso, também foi desenvolvida a metodologia analítica de determinação do aroma no sistema-modelo e no abacaxi, a partir dos estudos de extração de aromas e de análise cromatográfica gasosa. O aroma presente no sistema-modelo foi extraído em hexano e os componentes voláteis do aroma do abacaxi foram extraídos em éter etílicoIn the drying of some foods such as fruits, besides water there is also the evaporation of other volatile substances present in lesser amounts. Therefore, it is interesting to consider the evaporation of volatile components other than water in drying studies. The modification of atmosphere has been used for storage only, especially for vegetables, but it can be extended to drying since it can influence the loss of volatile components responsible for the sensorial characteristics of the final product. In the present study, a drying system previously developed, in which the drying atmosphere can be modified by the addition of gases or liquids, was presented. A model-system was developed from the basic chemical composition of pineapple and the addition of other compounds containing one of the main aroma components (ethyl hexanoate. An analytical methodology for determing the aroma components present in the model-system and in the pineapple was developed from the studies of aroma extraction and gas chromatography. The aroma present in the model-system was extracted with hexane, and the volatile aroma components of the pineapple were extracted with ethylic ether

Marcilio Machado Morais

2011-06-01

73

Impact of different malolactic fermentation inoculation scenarios on Riesling wine aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

During malolactic fermentation (MLF), lactic acid bacteria influence wine aroma and flavour by the production of volatile metabolites and the modification of aroma compounds derived from grapes and yeasts. The present study investigated the impact of different MLF inoculation strategies with two different Oenococcus oeni strains on cool climate Riesling wines and the volatile wine aroma profile. Four different timings were chosen for inoculation with bacteria to conduct MLF in a Riesling must/wine with a high acidity (pH 2.9-3.1). Treatments with simultaneous inoculation showed a reduced total fermentation time (alcoholic and malolactic) compared to the sequential inoculations. No negative impact of simultaneous alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on fermentation success and on the final wine volatile aroma composition was observed. Compared to sequential inoculation, wines with co-inoculation tended to have higher concentrations of ethyl and acetate esters, including acetic acid phenylethylester, acetic acid 3-methylbutylester, butyric acid ethylester, lactic acid ethylester and succinic acid diethylester. Results of this study provide some alternatives to diversify the number of wine styles by safely conducting MLF in low-pH, cool-climate white musts with potential high alcohol content. PMID:22805835

Knoll, Caroline; Fritsch, Stefanie; Schnell, Sylvia; Grossmann, Manfred; Krieger-Weber, Sibylle; du Toit, Maret; Rauhut, Doris

2012-03-01

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Characterisation of aroma profiles of commercial soy sauce by odour activity value and omission test.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-seven commercial soy sauces produced through three different fermentation processes (high-salt liquid-state fermentation soy sauce, HLFSS; low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce, LSFSS; Koikuchi soy sauce, KSS) were examined to identify the aroma compounds and the effect of fermentation process on the flavour of the soy sauce was investigated. Results showed that 129 volatiles were identified, of which 41 aroma-active components were quantified. The types of odorants occurring in the three soy sauce groups were similar, although their intensities significantly differed. Many esters and phenols were found at relatively high intensities in KSS, whereas some volatile acids only occurred in LSFSS. Furthermore, 23 aroma compounds had average OAVs>1, among which 3-methylbutanal, ethyl acetate, 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-methylbutanal and 3-(methylthio)propanal exhibited the highest average OAVs (>100). In addition, omission tests verified the important contribution of the products resulting from amino acid catabolism to the characteristic aroma of soy sauce. PMID:25148982

Feng, Yunzi; Su, Guowan; Zhao, Haifeng; Cai, Yu; Cui, Chun; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Mouming

2015-01-15

75

Identification of impact aroma compounds in Eugenia uniflora L. (Brazilian Pitanga) leaf essential oil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O óleo essencial das folhas de Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) foi obtido a partir do arraste a vapor em aparelhagem de Clevenger e analisado por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas. As folhas foram colhidas e imediatamente extraídas durante cinco dias consecutivos, às 9 e 14h, [...] não sendo observada variação significativa no rendimento dos óleos extraídos no período. Furanodieno e seu produto de rearranjo, furanoelemeno (ou curzereno, num total de 50,2%), beta-elemeno (5,9%) e alfa-cadinol (4,7%) foram os constituintes majoritários. Pela técnica de cromatografia gasosa-olfatometria (CG-O), associada à análise por diluição de aroma AEDA (Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis), foi possível identificar nove substâncias ativas no aroma do óleo de pitanga, sendo que três foram consideradas como de maior impacto: furanodieno (juntamente com furanoelemeno, FD 1024), beta-elemeno (FD 256) e (E,E)-germacrona (FD 256). A mistura destas três substâncias, coletadas a partir do CG-sniffing port, levou a uma essência de pitanga de aroma bastante semelhante à fruta, de acordo com a avaliação por análise olfativa comparativa. Abstract in english The leaf essential oil of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) was extracted by Clevenger apparatus and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The leaves were collected and immediately extracted for five consecutive days at 9:00 am and 2:00 pm. No variance in the oil yields were observ [...] ed in the period. Furanodiene and its rearrangement product, furanoelemene (or curzerene, 50.2%), beta-elemene (5.9%) and alpha-cadinol (4.7%) were identified as the most abundant compounds. GC-Olfatometry (GC-O) associated to Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA) allowed the identification of nine active aroma compounds, where furanodiene (along with furanoelemene, FD 1024), beta-elemene (FD 256) and (E,E)-germacrone (FD 256) were characterized as the main impact aroma compounds in the odor of this essential oil. Those substances were collected through a sniffing port adapted on the GC allowing to obtain a typical essence of pitanga as indicated by comparative olfatometric analysis.

Rosineia M., Melo; Vivian F. S., Corrêa; Ana Carolina L., Amorim; Ana Luisa P., Miranda; Claudia M., Rezende.

76

Studies on the key aroma compounds in raw (unheated) and heated Japanese soy sauce.  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation using the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) technique of the aroma concentrate from a raw Japanese soy sauce and the heated soy sauce revealed 40 key aroma compounds including 7 newly identified compounds. Among them, 5(or 2)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone exhibited the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 2048, followed by 3-(methylthio)propanal, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone having FD factors from 128 to 512 in the raw soy sauce. Furthermore, comparative AEDAs, a quantitative analysis, and a sensory analysis demonstrated that whereas most of the key aroma compounds in the raw soy sauce were common in the heated soy sauce, some of the Strecker aldehydes and 4-vinylphenols contributed less to the raw soy sauce aroma. The model decarboxylation reactions of the phenolic acids during heating of the raw soy sauce revealed that although all reactions resulted in low yields, the hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were much more reactive than the hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives due to the stable reaction intermediates. Besides the quantitative analyses of the soy sauces, the estimation of the reaction yields of the phenolic compounds in the heated soy sauce revealed that although only the 4-vinylphenols increased during heating of the raw soy sauce, they might not mainly be formed as decarboxylation products from the corresponding hydroxycinnamic acids but from the other proposed precursors, such as lignin, shakuchirin, and esters with arabinoxylan. PMID:23521524

Kaneko, Shu; Kumazawa, Kenji; Nishimura, Osamu

2013-04-10

77

Aroma characterization of chinese rice wine by gas chromatography-olfactometry, chemical quantitative analysis, and aroma reconstitution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma profile of Chinese rice wine was investigated in this study. The volatile compounds in a traditional Chinese rice wine were extracted using Lichrolut EN and further separated by silica gel normal phase chromatography. Seventy-three aroma-active compounds were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition to acids, esters, and alcohols, benzaldehyde, vanillin, geosmin, and ?-nonalactone were identified to be potentially important to Chinse rice wine. The concentration of these aroma-active compounds in the Chinese rice wine was further quantitated by combination of four different methods, including headsapce-gas chromatography, solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography (SPME)-GC-MS, solid-phase extraction-GC-MS, and SPME-GC-pulsed flame photometric detection (PFPD). Quantitative results showed that 34 aroma compounds were at concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds. On the basis of the odor activity values (OAVs), vanillin, dimethyl trisulfide, ?-phenylethyl alcohol, guaiacol, geosmin, and benzaldehyde could be responsible for the unique aroma of Chinese rice wine. An aroma reconstitution model prepared by mixing 34 aroma compounds with OAVs > 1 in an odorless Chinese rice wine matrix showed a good similarity to the aroma of the original Chinese rice wine. PMID:24099139

Chen, Shuang; Xu, Yan; Qian, Michael C

2013-11-27

78

Similarities in the aroma chemistry of Gewürztraminer variety wines and lychee (Litchi chinesis sonn.) fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

GC/O analysis of canned lychees indicated that cis-rose oxide, linalool, ethyl isohexanoate, geraniol, furaneol, vanillin, (E)-2-nonenal, beta-damascenone, isovaleric acid, and (E)-furan linalool oxide were the most odor potent compounds detected in the fruit extracts. However, on the basis of calculated odor activity values (OAVs), cis-rose oxide, beta-damascenone, linalool, furaneol, ethyl isobutyrate, (E)-2-nonenal, ethyl isohexanoate, geraniol, and delta-decalactone were determined to be the main contributors of canned lychee aroma. When these results were compared with GC/O results of fresh lychees and Gewürztraminer wine, 12 common odor-active volatile compounds were found in all three products. These included cis-rose oxide, ethyl hexanoate/ethyl isohexanoate, beta-damascenone, linalool, ethyl isobutyrate, geraniol, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, 2-phenylethanol, furaneol, vanillin, citronellol, and phenethyl acetate. On the basis of OAVs, cis-rose oxide had the highest values among the common odorants in the three products, indicating its importance to the aroma of both lychee fruit and Gewürztraminer wines. Other compounds that had significant OAVs included beta-damascenone, linalool, furaneol, ethyl hexanoate, and geraniol. This indicated that while differences exist in the aroma profile of lychee and Gewürztraminer, the common odorants detected in both fruit and wine, particularly cis-rose oxide, were responsible for the lychee aroma in Gewürztraminer wine. When headspace SPME was used as a rapid analytical tool to detect the levels of selected aroma compounds deemed important to lychee aroma in Gewürztraminer-type wines, cis-rose oxide, linalool, and geraniol were found to be at relatively higher levels in Gewürztraminers. No cis-rose oxide was detected in the control wines (Chardonnay and Riesling), while lower levels were detected in the Gewürztraminer-hybrid wine Traminette. Gewürztraminers produced in the Alsace region showed differences in the levels of the 3 monoterpenes when compared to those from New York State, which could be attributed to differences in viticultural and enological practices between regions. PMID:10563950

Ong, P K; Acree, T E

1999-02-01

79

Effects of retro-nasal aroma release on satiation  

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It is suggested that the brain response of a food odour sensed retro-nasally is related to satiation. The extent of retro-nasal aroma release during consumption depends on the physical structure of a food, i.e. solid foods generate a longer, more pronounced retro-nasal aroma release than liquid foods. The aim of this study was to investigate if a beverage becomes more satiating when the retro-nasal aroma release profile coincides with the profile of a (soft) solid food. In a double-blind plac...

Ruijschop, R.; Boelrijk, A. E. M.; Ru, J. A.; Graaf, C.; Westerterp-plantenga, M.

2008-01-01

80

Characterization of the most aroma-active compounds in cherry tomato by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma and aroma-active compounds of cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by liquid-liquid extraction was representative of tomato odour. A total of 49 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in fresh cherry tomato. Aldehydes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in cherry tomato, followed by alcohols. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of tomato sample. A total of 21 aroma-active compounds were detected in aromatic extract of fresh tomato, of which 18 were identified. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma-active compounds identified in the extract were (Z)-3-hexenal (FD=1024) and (E)-2-hexenal (FD=256), which were described as the strong green-grassy and green-leafy odour, respectively. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and fructose, respectively. PMID:25038709

Selli, Serkan; Kelebek, Hasim; Ayseli, Mehmet Turan; Tokbas, Habip

2014-12-15

 
 
 
 
81

Analytical characterisation of Negroamaro red wines by "Aroma Wheels".  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work we characterised Negroamaro red wines, made by an autochthonous cultivar of Southern Italy, by linking volatile composition to aroma properties. This linking was carried out by picturing "Aroma Wheels", built by Odour Activity Values (OAVs) of all the identified volatile compounds grouped in "aromatic series" belonging to 13 classes of sensory descriptors. The 18 most active odorants with OAV>1 were mainly alcohols, fatty acids and their ethyl esters. The "OAVs' Aroma Wheels" showed that the classes of sensory descriptors are first fruity and floral, next fatty and pungent and minor nutty and caramelised notes. Principal Component Analysis displayed correlations between sensory descriptors and wine samples; the main 7-fruity and 5-floral sensory features of Negroamaro wines have negative values of PC1 and they are negatively correlated with the second main sensory feature, i.e. 13-fatty, falling at positive value of PC1; this fit the aroma perception of this varietal. PMID:23871040

Capone, Simonetta; Tufariello, Maria; Siciliano, Pietro

2013-12-01

82

Investigation into the aroma of rosemary using multi-channel silicone rubber traps, off-line olfactometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Multi-channel polydimethylsiloxane rubber traps were used to sample the headspace of rosemary samples (two essential oils from different sources, one oleoresin and one dried herb) followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography -time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS) or GC-MS an [...] alyses. The aroma of different headspace samples was characterized using a custom-built olfactory apparatus. The differences between the aroma profiles were evident from bubble plots of the perceived aroma at different temperatures. The samples were heat-treated to simulate cooking of food products, and were then reassessed to determine any changes in the aroma profile. It was found that the intense menthol and cooling aromas subsided in all the samples with heating. GCxGC-TOFMS allowed for separation of the numerous components in the headspace samples. Many terpenes and aliphatics were thus tentatively identified and the relative peak areas were compared to better understand the mixture that contributes to the rosemary aroma.

Leandri, van der Wat; Martin, Dovey; Yvette, Naudé; Patricia B.C., Forbes.

83

Investigation into the aroma of rosemary using multi-channel silicone rubber traps, off-line olfactometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Multi-channel polydimethylsiloxane rubber traps were used to sample the headspace of rosemary samples (two essential oils from different sources, one oleoresin and one dried herb) followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography -time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS) or GC-MS an [...] alyses. The aroma of different headspace samples was characterized using a custom-built olfactory apparatus. The differences between the aroma profiles were evident from bubble plots of the perceived aroma at different temperatures. The samples were heat-treated to simulate cooking of food products, and were then reassessed to determine any changes in the aroma profile. It was found that the intense menthol and cooling aromas subsided in all the samples with heating. GCxGC-TOFMS allowed for separation of the numerous components in the headspace samples. Many terpenes and aliphatics were thus tentatively identified and the relative peak areas were compared to better understand the mixture that contributes to the rosemary aroma.

Leandri, van der Wat; Martin, Dovey; Yvette, Naudé; Patricia B.C., Forbes.

2013-08-01

84

Analysis of neutral volatile aroma components in Tilsit cheese using a combination of dynamic headspace technique, capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tilsit cheese is made by the influence of lab ferment and starter cultures on milk. The ripening is done by repeated inoculation of the surface of the Tilsit cheese with yeasts and read smear cultures. This surface flora forms the typical aroma of the Tilsit cheese during the ripening process. The aim of the work was to receive general knowledge about the kind and amount of the neutral volatile aroma components of Tilsit cheese. Beyond this the ability of forming aroma components by read smear cultures and the dispersion of these components in cheese was to be examined. The results were intended to evaluate the formation of aroma components in Tilsit cheese. The semi-quantitative analyses of the aroma components of all samples were done by combining dynamic headspace extraction, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In this process the neutral volatile aroma components were extracted by dynamic headspace technique, adsorbed on a trap, thermally desorbed, separated by gas chromatography, detected and identified by mass spectrometry. 63 components belonging to the chemical classes of esters, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols and sulfur containing substances as well as aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons were found in the analysed cheese samples of different Austrian Tilsit manufacturing plants. All cheese samples showed a qualitative equal but quantitative varied spectrum of aroma components. The cultivation of pure cultures on a cheese agar medium showed all analysed aroma components to be involved in the biochemical metabolism of these cultures. The ability to produce aroma components greatly differed between the strains and it was not possible to correlate this ability with the taxonomic classification of the strains. The majority of the components had a non-homogeneous concentration profile in the cheese body. This was explained by effects of diffusion and temporal and spatial different forming of components by the metabolism of the surface flora during ripening. Therefore the conclusion can be drawn that part of the components are formed by the starter cultures and are homogeneous spread in the cheese body at the beginning of the ripening. On the one hand the metabolism of the read smear bacteria and yeasts leads to a reduction of the components. Hereby the concentration gradient is compensated by diffusion of aroma components from the inside to the surface. On the other hand products of the metabolism of the surface flora diffuse into the cheese body. The quantity of the coefficient of diffusion varies timewise and spatially. The concentration profile is influenced not only by the diffusion but also by the shifting of the composition of the surface flora during the ripening period. (author)

85

Caracterización anatómica del leño y evolución del crecimiento en ejemplares de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina en la Región Chaqueña, Argentina Wood anatomical description and growth in individuals of Acacia aroma and Acacia furcatispina in Chaco region, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La madera de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina se emplea para usos de escaso valor como postes, mangos de herramientas o combustible. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estudiar los caracteres anatómicos del leño de ambas especies y analizar el crecimiento de ejemplares aislados con la finalidad de determinar su potencialidad para usos de mayor valor. Se determinó que la madera de estas especies es dura, pesada y de porosidad difusa con tendencia a semicircular. Acacia furcatispina posee un leño con mayor porcentaje de elementos lignificados, mejores cualidades estéticas y mejor estado fitosanitario que el de A. aroma. Los defectos más frecuentes en estas especies fueron la formación de leño decolorado y pudriciones en la zona del duramen por ataque de hongos, asociados a la presencia de cicatrices de fuego. El espesor promedio de los anillos de crecimiento fue 2,1 mm (DE = 0,47 mm en A. aroma y 1,9 mm, (DE = 0,74 mm en A. furcatispina. Las curvas de incremento medio anual e incremento corriente anual del diámetro en A. aroma se interceptan a los 24 años mientras que las de A. furcatispina lo hacen a la edad de 10 años. Los resultados indicaron que A. furcatispina es una especie interesante para manejar en plantaciones debido a las cualidades de su madera, aunque permitiría obtener escuadrías menores. Su madera podría destinarse a usos particulares como parquets, tallas artísticas, entre otros. Acacia aroma es una especie apropiada para manejar con el objetivo de producción de leña debido a la capacidad de producir fustes y ramas de mayor diámetro y a que su estado fitosanitario limita su empleo para otros usos de mayor valor.The wood of Acacia aroma and Acacia furcatispina is employed for uses of little value such us posts, tools and firewood. The objectives of this work were to study anatomical characters of wood and to analyze the growth of isolated individuals with the purpose of determining their potential for uses of greater value. We determined that these species have high density and heavy wood, with diffuse porosity and tendency to semicircular. The wood of Acacia furcatispina has greater percentage of ligneous elements, better aesthetics qualities and health state than A. aroma. The most frequent defects in these species are rots within heartwood due to fungi attack, and discolorated wood formation, both related to fire scars. The mean width of the growth rings was 2.1 mm (DE = 0.47 mm in A. aroma and 1.9 mm (DE = 0.74 mm in A. furcatispina. In A. aroma, the curve of mean annual increment (IMA intercepted the curve of current annual increment (ICA for diameter at an age of 24 years, while in A. furcatispina it happened at 10 years. The results show that A. furcatispina is an interesting species to manage in plantations due to its wood qualities, although it would only allow small sized timber. This wood could be allocated for others uses such us parquets and artistic sculpture. Acacia aroma is a species suitable to manage for firewood production due to its capacity to produce greater diameter boles and branches, and to frequent wood decay that reduces its use for others more valuables uses.

Sandra Bravo

2006-01-01

86

Impact of Fruit Piece Structure in Yogurts on the Dynamics of Aroma Release and Sensory Perception  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma stimuli, which can influence nutritional and hedonic characteristics, as well as consumption behaviors. In yogurts, fruit preparation formulation can be a key factor to modulate aroma stimul...

Isabelle Souchon; Anne Saint-Eve; Isabelle Déléris; Joshua Mesurolle

2013-01-01

87

Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice. The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the calculation of the activity coefficients.

Haypek E.

2000-01-01

88

Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice). The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the c...

Batista E.

2000-01-01

89

Volatile Aroma Compounds in Various Brewed Green Teas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study identifies and semi-quantifies aroma volatiles in brewed green tea samples. The objectives of this study were to identify using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) paired with a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) the common volatile compounds that may be responsible for aroma/flavor of the brewed liquor of a range of green tea samples from various countries as consumed and to determine if green teas from the same region have similarities in volatile composit...

Youngmo Yoon; Koushik Adhikari; Jeehyun Lee; Chambers, Delores H.; Edgar Chambers

2013-01-01

90

Transport of hop aroma compounds across Caco-2 monolayers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although being reported and used as a sedative remedy for several years, the bioactive principle of hop preparations is still not decisively clarified. Understanding absorption and transformation processes of potential physiologically active constituents is essential to evaluate the likeliness of biological effects on humans. Therefore, single hop aroma compounds as well as digestive transformation products thereof have been investigated in view of their human intestinal absorption, applying Caco-2 transport experiments as well as investigations on potential biotransformation processes. Selective and sensitive identification and quantification were thereby achieved by application of two-dimensional high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in conjunction with stable isotope dilution analysis, leading to the determination of apparent permeability values by different mathematical approaches considering sink and non-sink conditions. Overall, calculated permeability values ranged from 2.6 × 10(-6) to 1.8 × 10(-4) cm s(-1) with all mathematical approaches, indicating high absorption potential and almost complete bioavailability for all tested compounds with hydroxyl-functionalities. Considering this high permeability together with the high lipophilicity of these substances, a passive transcellular uptake route can be speculated. Investigated sesquiterpenes and ?-myrcene showed flat absorption profiles while the investigated esters showed decreasing profiles. In view of the lipophilic and volatile nature of the investigated substances, special attention was paid to recovery and mass balance determination. Furthermore, in the course of the transport experiments of 1-octen-3-ol and 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, additional biotransformation products were observed, namely 3-octanone and 3-methyl-2-butenal, respectively. The absence of these additional substances in control experiments strongly indicates an intestinal first-pass metabolism of the ?,?-unsaturated alcohols 1-octen-3-ol and 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol in Caco-2 cells. PMID:24977259

Heinlein, A; Metzger, M; Walles, H; Buettner, A

2014-10-22

91

[Effect of acid hydrolysis of oak wood on its aroma-forming complex].  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of acid hydrolysis of English oak (Quercus robur. L) wood on its aroma-forming complex was studied. The contents of methanol, acetic and crotonic acids, and furfural increased considerably in the samples treated with hydrochloric acid. In the composition of minor compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons were synthesized de novo, whereas the contents of volatile phenols, such as vanillin, lilac aldehyde, and coniferaldehyde decreased; relative content of guaiacol and syringol elevated; and acetovanillon and propiovanilIon were formed as well as products of degradation of hexoses-levoglucosenone, 1,4:3,6-dianhydroglucose, maltol, and 1,6-dianhydroglucopyran. PMID:15609864

Pisarnitski?, A F; Klimov, S A; Brazhnikova, E V

2004-01-01

92

Gas chromatography/olfactometry and electronic nose analyses of retronasal aroma of espresso and correlation with sensory evaluation by an artificial neural network.  

Science.gov (United States)

To develop a method for evaluating and designing the retronasal aroma of espresso, sensory evaluation data was correlated with data obtained from gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O, CharmAnalysis™) and from an electronic nose system ?FOX4000 (E-nose). The volatile compounds of various kinds of espresso (arabica coffee beans from 6 production countries: Brazil, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Colombia, Indonesia, and Tanzania; 3 roasting degrees for each country: L values, 18, 23, and 26) were collected with a retronasal aroma simulator (RAS) and examined by GC/O and E-nose. In addition, sensory descriptive analysis using a 7-point scale for RAS effluent gas was performed by 5 trained flavorists using sensory descriptors selected based on the frequency in use and coefficient of correlation. The charm values of 10 odor descriptions obtained from GC/O analysis exhibited the significant (P sensory evaluation scores showed that the differences of aroma characteristics among the roasting degrees were larger than those among the origins. Based on an artificial neural network (ANN) model applied to the data from GC/O analyses and sensory evaluations, the perceptual factor of the RAS aroma was predicted to be mainly affected by sweet-caramel, smoke-roast, and acidic odors. Also, 3 metal oxide semiconductor sensors (LY2/Gh, P30/1, and T40/1) of E-nose were selected for analyses of RAS aroma and correlated with the sensory descriptive scores by the ANN to support sensory evaluation. PMID:21535621

Michishita, Tomomi; Akiyama, Masayuki; Hirano, Yuta; Ikeda, Michio; Sagara, Yasuyuki; Araki, Tetsuya

2010-01-01

93

Volatile aroma compounds in various brewed green teas.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study identifies and semi-quantifies aroma volatiles in brewed green tea samples. The objectives of this study were to identify using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) paired with a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) the common volatile compounds that may be responsible for aroma/flavor of the brewed liquor of a range of green tea samples from various countries as consumed and to determine if green teas from the same region have similarities in volatile composition when green tea samples are prepared for consumption. Twenty-four green tea samples from eight different countries were brewed as recommended for consumer brewing. The aroma volatiles were extracted by HS-SPME, separated on a gas chromatograph and identified using a mass spectrometer. Thirty-eight compounds were identified and the concentrations were semi-quantified. The concentrations were lower than those reported by other researchers, probably because this research examined headspace volatiles from brewed tea rather than solvent extraction of leaves. No relationship to country of origin was found, which indicates that other factors have a greater influence than country of origin on aroma. PMID:23966086

Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores H; Chambers, Edgar; Adhikari, Koushik; Yoon, Youngmo

2013-01-01

94

Volatile Aroma Compounds in Various Brewed Green Teas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study identifies and semi-quantifies aroma volatiles in brewed green tea samples. The objectives of this study were to identify using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS paired with a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME the common volatile compounds that may be responsible for aroma/flavor of the brewed liquor of a range of green tea samples from various countries as consumed and to determine if green teas from the same region have similarities in volatile composition when green tea samples are prepared for consumption. Twenty-four green tea samples from eight different countries were brewed as recommended for consumer brewing. The aroma volatiles were extracted by HS-SPME, separated on a gas chromatograph and identified using a mass spectrometer. Thirty-eight compounds were identified and the concentrations were semi-quantified. The concentrations were lower than those reported by other researchers, probably because this research examined headspace volatiles from brewed tea rather than solvent extraction of leaves. No relationship to country of origin was found, which indicates that other factors have a greater influence than country of origin on aroma.

Youngmo Yoon

2013-08-01

95

INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT OAK CHIPS ON AROMA COMPOUNDS IN WINE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oak wood has considerable influence on amount of aroma compounds in wine. During the time, when wine is in contact with oak wood, compounds typical for wood diffuse into wine and enrich its aromatic complexity. Concentration of diffused aroma compounds in wine depends on several factors as contact time, storage conditions, wine properties, geographical origin and toasting degree of oak wood. Because of very small quantities of volatile aroma compounds in wine, it is necessary to use sensitive method as gas chromatography with appropriate sample preparation, to concentrate and analyse the relevant volatiles. In our work, four different wines and eight chips samples with different geographic origin and degree of toasting were used. With GC-MS following substances were determined in wines after 30 days of maceration with oak chips: furfural, 5-methylfurfural, guaiacol, 4-ethylguaiacol, eugenol, isoeugenol, cis- and trans-whiskey lactones, 4-ethylphenol. Our results show, that the degree of toasting influences the concentration of furfural, guaiacol and cis- and trans- whiskeylactone. Higher toasting leads to an increase of furfural and guaiacol and a decrease of cis- and trans-whiskeylactone in wine. The highest increase of volatile aroma compounds was determined in wine samples with French oak chips with intense toasting. We did not find any specific, definite differences among chips with different geographic origin.

Helena Fran?áková

2012-02-01

96

Evaluation of aroma active compounds in Tuber fruiting bodies by gas chromatography-olfactometry in combination with aroma reconstitution and omission test.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma active compounds of three Tuber fruiting bodies (i.e., Tuber himalayense, Tuber indicum, and Tuber sinense) were firstly systematically evaluated by instrumental gas chromatography-olfactometry combining with quantitative analysis, aroma reconstitution, and omission tests. Twelve aroma active compounds were characterized by aroma extract dilution analysis, and 3-(methylthio) propanal, 3-methylbutanal, and 1-octen-3-ol with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor (i.e., 1,024-2,048) were suggested as key contributors to the aroma. Odor activity value (OAV) was employed to determine the relative contribution of each compound to the aroma, and the compound with the highest FD factor also had the highest OAV (i.e., 10,234-242,951). Then, the synthetic blends of odorants (aroma reconstitution) were prepared with OAV larger than 15, and their aromas were very similar to the originals. Omission tests were carried out to verify the significance of 3-(methylthio) propanal, 1-octen-3-ol, and 3-methylbutanal as key compounds in the aroma of tested Tuber fruiting bodies. PMID:22246529

Liu, Rui-Sang; Li, Dao-Cheng; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Jie

2012-04-01

97

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in an american bourbon whisky by quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-one of the 45 odor-active compounds previously identified by us in an American Bourbon whisky were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays. Also for this purpose, new synthetic pathways were developed for the synthesis of the deuterium-labeled whisky lactone as well as for gamma-nona- and gamma-decalactone. To obtain the odor activity values (OAVs), the concentrations measured were divided by the odor thresholds of the odorants determined in water/ethanol (6:4 by vol.). Twenty-six aroma compounds showed OAVs >1, among which ethanol, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutanal, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (E)-beta-damascenone, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl octanoate, 2-methylpropanal, (3S,4S)- cis-whiskylactone, (E, E)-2,4-decadienal, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, ethyl-3-methylbutanoate, and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate showed the highest values. The overall aroma of the Bourbon whisky could be mimicked by an aroma recombinate consisting of the 26 key odorants in their actual concentrations in whisky using water/ethanol (6:4 by vol.) as the matrix. Omission experiments corroborated the importance of, in particular, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (3S,4S)-cis-whiskylactone, ethanol, and the entire group of esters for the overall aroma of the Bourbon whisky. PMID:18582086

Poisson, Luigi; Schieberle, Peter

2008-07-23

98

Influence of volatile thiols in the development of blackcurrant aroma in red wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A strong blackcurrant aroma was recently perceived in some red wines originating from the same appellation. Varietal thiols such as 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (4MMP), 3-(mercapto)hexyl acetate (3MHA) and 3-mercapto-1-hexanol (3MH) are compounds potentially responsible for the development of this aroma. In order to demonstrate the correlation between thiols concentrations in red wines and blackcurrant aroma intensity, a multiple variable analysis was realised with thiols concentrations obtained by chemical analysis and blackcurrant aroma intensities obtained by descriptive sensory analysis. The 4MMP concentration was very well correlated to the blackcurrant aroma, and 3MHA and 3MH present at high concentrations act as enhancers of the perception of this aroma. This correlation was further supported after performing a sensory comparison by classification test. The different factors that could impact on the development of blackcurrant aroma in red wine were discussed. PMID:24001837

Rigou, Peggy; Triay, Aurélie; Razungles, Alain

2014-01-01

99

Characterization of the key odorants in light aroma type chinese liquor by gas chromatography-olfactometry, quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The light aroma type liquor is widely welcomed by consumers due to its pleasant fruity and floral aroma, particularly in northern China. To answer the puzzling question of which key aroma compounds are responsible for the typical aroma, three typical liquors were studied in this paper. A total of 66 aroma compounds were identified in three liquors by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), and 27 odorants were further screened out as the important odorants according to quantitative study and odor activity values (OAVs). For OAV calculation, odor thresholds of the odorants were determined in a hydroalcoholic solution at 46% ethanol by volume. The typical light type aroma dominated by fruity and floral notes was successfully simulated by dissolving these important odorants in the 46% vol hydroalcoholic solution in their natural concentrations. Omission experiments further confirmed ?-damascenone and ethyl acetate as the key odorants and revealed the significance of the entire group of esters, particularly ethyl lactate, geosmin, acetic acid, and 2-methylpropanoic acid, for the overall aroma of the light aroma type Chinese liquor. PMID:24909925

Gao, Wenjun; Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan

2014-06-25

100

Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology : Sweeping gas versus vacuum membrane distillation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up. The data were compared to recovery of the aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). The flux of SGMD increased with an increase in temperature, feed flow rate or sweeping gas flow rate. Increased temperature and feed flow rate also increased the concentration factors (Cpermeate/Cfeed) of the aroma compounds. At 45°C the most volatile and hydrophobic aroma compounds obtained the highest concentration factors: 12.1–9.3 (black currant juice) and 17.2–12.8 (model solution). With black currant juice a volume reduction of 13.7% (vol.%) at 45°C, 400L/h, resulted in an aroma recovery of 73–84vol.% for the most volatile compounds. Compared to VMD, the aroma recovery with SGMD was less influenced by the feed flow rate but more influenced by the temperature. Higher fluxes were achieved during concentration by VMD and this reduced the operation time, which in turn reduced the degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevanceHigh temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption. This study gives important clues about the fate of berry juice aroma compounds and polyphenols during concentration by MD, and identifies the main factors influencing the aroma recovery efficiency with MD. Both SGMD and VMD are promising techniques for gentle stripping of berry juice aroma compounds and deserve further consideration as alternative techniques for gentle aroma stripping in industrial fruit juice processing.

Bagger-JØrgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Analysis of accelerants and fire debris using aroma detection technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this work was to investigate the utility of electronic aroma detection technologies for the detection and identification of accelerant residues in suspected arson debris. Through the analysis of known accelerant residues, a trained neural network was developed for classifying suspected arson samples. Three unknown fire debris samples were classified using this neural network. The item corresponding to diesel fuel was correctly identified every time. For the other two items, wide variations in sample concentration and excessive water content, producing high sample humidities, were shown to influence the sensor response. Sorbent sampling prior to aroma detection was demonstrated to reduce these problems and to allow proper neural network classification of the remaining items corresponding to kerosene and gasoline.

Barshick, S.A.

1997-01-17

102

Aroma components from dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sausages with and without Staphylococcus xylosus were manufactured with four replicates. Antibiotics and a fungicide to inhibit growth of naturally occuring microorganisms were added to the control sausages. The volatile compounds from the sausages were collected and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the effluent evaluated by sniffing and the sausages assessed by a trained panel. The study showed that sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus contained several fragrant esters that were not found in control sausages without microbial growth. Control sausages had an unpleasant, rancid odour compared to sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus, indicating that the esterase activity of Staphylococcus xylosus or other microorganisms is very important in order to obtain the proper fermented sausage aroma.Although sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus contained the highest amounts of free fatty acids, it seemed to be of no importance to aroma development. It is therefore questionable whether lipolytic activity of starter cultures has an influence on sausage flavour.

Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

1994-01-01

103

Aroma components from dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sausages with and without Staphylococcus xylosus were manufactured with four replicates. Antibiotics and a fungicide to inhibit growth of naturally occuring microorganisms were added to the control sausages. The volatile compounds from the sausages were collected and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the effluent evaluated by sniffing and the sausages assessed by a trained panel. The study showed that sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus contained several fragrant esters that were not found in control sausages without microbial growth. Control sausages had an unpleasant, rancid odour compared to sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus, indicating that the esterase activity of Staphylococcus xylosus or other microorganisms is very important in order to obtain the proper fermented sausage aroma. Although sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus contained the highest amounts of free fatty acids, it seemed to be of no importance to the aroma development. It is therefore questionable whether lipolytic activity of starter cultures has any influence on sausage flavour. PMID:22059607

Stahnke, L H

1994-01-01

104

Verification of aroma profiles of Jiashi muskmelon juice characterized by odor activity value and gas chromatography-olfactometry/detection frequency analysis: aroma reconstitution experiments and omission tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

To verify the aroma profile of Jiashi muskmelon previously identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry/detection frequency analysis (GC-O/DFA) and odor activity value (OAV) calculation, the synthetic blends of odorants (aroma models) were prepared and then were compared with the original Jiashi muskmelon juice aroma using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and electronic nose analysis (ENA), respectively. QDA and ENA both indicated that the model solution derived from OAV calculation more closely resembled the original melon juice aroma than that based on DFA data. Omission tests corroborated the significant contribution of five unsaturated aldehydes and alcohols with nine carbon atoms as well as five branched esters, in particular, the "fruity"-smelling ethyl butanoate and the "cucumber-like" (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienal to Jiashi muskmelon overall aroma. PMID:22970770

Pang, Xueli; Chen, Dong; Hu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Jihong

2012-10-24

105

Discrimination of truffle fruiting body versus mycelial aromas by stir bar sorptive extraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) was applied in head space mode (HS), coupled with GC/MS, to compare the aroma profile of three truffle species. A total of 119 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified from the fruiting bodies, of which 70 were not yet described in truffles and 60 in fungi. VOCs profile showed a high intra- and inter-specific variability, with alcohols and sulfur compounds dominating the HS of Tuber borchii and, alcohols, aldehydes and aromatic compounds the HS of T. melanosporum and T. indicum. Despite these variations, eight VOCs markers could be identified allowing the discrimination of the three species. Additionally, T. borchii and T. melanosporum both distinguished themselves from T. indicum due to higher aroma content and larger variety of sulfur containing compounds. Mycelial VOCs production was also investigated under two cultural conditions and led to the identification of eight VOCs. On one side, seven of them were also detected in the fruiting body, confirming their mycelial origin. On the other side, the total absence of some class of compounds (i.e. sulfur) in the mycelium raises questions about their origins in the fruiting bodies and confirms deep metabolic changes between the reproductive (fruiting body) and vegetative (mycelium) stages. PMID:17574637

Splivallo, Richard; Bossi, Simone; Maffei, Massimo; Bonfante, Paola

2007-10-01

106

Aromas potentiality of tuna cooking juice concentrated by nanofiltration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tuna cooking juices contain high organic load preventing the rejection in the environment without treatment. But the effluents present an interesting fishy odour and it is worth recovering aroma compounds. In this work, two industrial tuna cooking juices were concentrated by nanofiltration. Nanofiltration performance was discussed in terms of permeation fluxes, organic matter retention and impact on the aromatic properties of juices. NF sharply decreases the global intensity of juices and mod...

Walha, Khaled; Ben Amar, Raja; Masse, Anthony; Bourseau, Patrick; Cardinal, Mireille; Cornet, Josiane; Prost, Carole; Jaouen, Pascal

2011-01-01

107

Psychophysical evaluation of interactive effects between sweeteners and aroma compounds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The presence of intense sweeteners in a light soft drink influences the preferences for, and the flavour profiles of these drinks to various extents, depending on the aroma and sweeteners present. In this study equisweet mixtures of sweeteners were composed at 10% Sucrose Equivalent Value. The sucrose/maltitol and sucrose/aspartame mixtures were additive, whereas equisweet binary sucrose/Na-cyclamate mixtures and ternary sucrose/aspartame/Na-cyclamate mixtures revealed synergistic effects.The...

Nahon, D. F.

1999-01-01

108

Influence of thermal treatment of wood on the aroma of a sugar cane spirit (cachaça model-solution Influência do termotratamento da madeira no aroma de uma solução-modelo de cachaça  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aging process of alcoholic beverages is generally conducted in wood barrels made with species from Quercus sp. Due to the high cost and the lack of viability of commercial production of these trees in Brazil, there is demand for new alternatives to using other native species and the incorporation of new technologies that enable greater competitiveness of sugar cane spirit aged in Brazilian wood. The drying of wood, the thermal treatment applied to it, and manufacturing techniques are important tools in defining the sensory quality of alcoholic beverages after being placed in contact with the barrels. In the thermal treatment, several compounds are changed by the application of heat to the wood and various studies show the compounds are modified, different aromas are developed, there is change in color, and beverages achieve even more pleasant taste, when compared to non-treated woods. This study evaluated the existence of significant differences between hydro-alcoholic solutions of sugar cane spirits elaborated from different species of thermo-treated and non-treated wood in terms of aroma. An acceptance test was applied to evaluate the solutions preferred by tasters under specific test conditions.As bebidas alcoólicas são, geralmente, envelhecidas em tonéis de madeira fabricados a partir de espécies do gênero Quercus sp. Devido ao alto custo de aquisição e necessidade de importação, existe demanda por alternativas de uso de outras espécies nativas e da incorporação de novas tecnologias que aumentem a competitividade da cachaça brasileira. Sabe-se que, com a aplicação de termotratamento, vários compostos são alterados, desenvolvem-se aromas, altera-se a coloração e as bebidas adquirem gostos mais agradáveis. Este trabalho mostra a diferença significativa entre soluções-modelo hidroalcoólicas de cachaça, envelhecidas em diferentes espécies de madeira, em suas formas termotratadas e não termotratadas, avaliadas em relação a seu aroma. O teste de aceitação aplicado verificou as soluções preferidas pelos provadores, nas condições determinadas do teste.

Marta Helena Fillet Spoto

2011-06-01

109

Effects of Film Mulching on Aroma Components of Pineapple Fruits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the effects of film mulching treatment on aroma components of pineapple fruits. In this present study, the pineapple fruits of treatment and control (open field were harvested twice (in winter and summer, respectively to detect the aroma components. The results indicated that esters and alkenes were the main aroma components of both treatment and control pineapple fruits. There were more kinds of esters with higher total relative contents detected in the treatment fruits both harvested in winter and summer. There were fewer kinds of alkenes with lower total relative contents detected in the treatment fruits harvested in summer. There were equal kinds of alkenes detected in both treatment and control fruits harvested in winter. But the total relative content of alkenes of treatment fruits harvested in winter was lower than that of control. There was one ester containing sulfur, propanoic acid, 3-(methylthio-, methyl ester with relative content of 1.40%, detected in the treatment fruits harvested in winter. No ester containing sulfur was detected in the control fruits harvested in winter. In the treatment fruits harvested in summer, two esters containing sulfur, propanoic acid, 3-(methylthio-, methyl ester (2.60% and 3-(methylthio propanoic acid ethyl ester (1.46% were detected. There was only one ester containing sulfur, propanoic acid, 3-(methylthio-, methyl ester (3.01% was detected in the control fruits harvested in summer.

Chuanhe Liu

2011-09-01

110

Changes in the key odorants of Italian Hazelnuts ( Coryllus avellana L. Var. Tonda Romana) induced by roasting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis on aroma distillates isolated from either raw Italian hazelnuts or a roasted hazelnut material produced thereof revealed 37 odor-active compounds in the raw nuts, whereas 46 aroma compounds were detected in the roasted nut material. 2-Methoxy-3-isopropylpyrazine and 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine as well as 5-methyl-4-heptanone predominated with the highest flavor dilution factors in the raw nuts, whereas 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, 2-furfurylthiol, and 2-thenylthiol as well as (Z)-2-octenal, (Z)-2-nonenal, and (Z)-2-decenal showed the highest odor activities in the roasted nuts. These odorants, as well as several others, were previously unknown in hazelnuts. In addition, the intensely seasoning-like smelling 3,5,5'-trimethyl-2(5H)-furanone was identified for the first time as a food aroma compound on the basis of a newly developed synthetic route and NMR measurements. PMID:20426421

Burdack-Freitag, Andrea; Schieberle, Peter

2010-05-26

111

Volatile Compounds in Honey: A Review on Their Involvement in Aroma, Botanical Origin Determination and Potential Biomedical Activities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs in honey are obtained from diverse biosynthetic pathways and extracted by using various methods associated with varying degrees of selectivity and effectiveness. These compounds are grouped into chemical categories such as aldehyde, ketone, acid, alcohol, hydrocarbon, norisoprenoids, terpenes and benzene compounds and their derivatives, furan and pyran derivatives. They represent a fingerprint of a specific honey and therefore could be used to differentiate between monofloral honeys from different floral sources, thus providing valuable information concerning the honey’s botanical and geographical origin. However, only plant derived compounds and their metabolites (terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene compounds and their derivatives must be employed to discriminate among floral origins of honey. Notwithstanding, many authors have reported different floral markers for honey of the same floral origin, consequently sensory analysis, in conjunction with analysis of VOCs could help to clear this ambiguity. Furthermore, VOCs influence honey’s aroma described as sweet, citrus, floral, almond, rancid, etc. Clearly, the contribution of a volatile compound to honey aroma is determined by its odor activity value. Elucidation of the aroma compounds along with floral origins of a particular honey can help to standardize its quality and avoid fraudulent labeling of the product. Although only present in low concentrations, VOCS could contribute to biomedical activities of honey, especially the antioxidant effect due to their natural radical scavenging potential.

Christy E. Manyi-Loh

2011-12-01

112

Manipulation of flavour and aroma compound sequestration and release using a glycosyltransferase with specificity for terpene alcohols.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glycosides are an important potential source of aroma and flavour compounds for release as volatiles in flowers and fruit. The production of glycosides is catalysed by UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) that mediate the transfer of an activated nucleotide sugar to acceptor aglycones. A screen of UGTs expressed in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) identified the gene AdGT4 which was highly expressed in floral tissues and whose expression increased during fruit ripening. Recombinant AdGT4 enzyme glycosylated a range of terpenes and primary alcohols found as glycosides in ripe kiwifruit. Two of the enzyme's preferred alcohol aglycones, hexanol and (Z)-hex-3-enol, contribute strongly to the 'grassy-green' aroma notes of ripe kiwifruit and other fruit including tomato and olive. Transient over-expression of AdGT4 in tobacco leaves showed that enzyme was able to glycosylate geraniol and octan-3-ol in planta whilst transient expression of an RNAi construct in Actinidia eriantha fruit reduced accumulation of a range of terpene glycosides. Stable over-expression of AdGT4 in transgenic petunia resulted in increased sequestration of hexanol and other alcohols in the flowers. Transgenic tomato fruit stably over-expressing AdGT4 showed changes in both the sequestration and release of a range of alcohols including 3-methylbutanol, hexanol and geraniol. Sequestration occurred at all stages of fruit ripening. Ripe fruit sequestering high levels of glycosides were identified as having a less intense, earthier aroma in a sensory trial. These results demonstrate the importance of UGTs in sequestering key volatile compounds in planta and suggest a future approach to enhancing aromas and flavours in flowers and during fruit ripening. PMID:25088478

Yauk, Yar-Khing; Ged, Claire; Wang, Mindy Y; Matich, Adam J; Tessarotto, Lydie; Cooney, Janine M; Chervin, Christian; Atkinson, Ross G

2014-10-01

113

Characterization of the Volatile Substances and Aroma Components from Traditional Soypaste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the flavor substances of soypaste were extracted by a simultaneous distillation method and identified by GC-MS. The characteristic aroma components of soypaste were determined by the GC-O technique and the FD value of the characteristic aroma components was determined by AEDA method. It could be inferred that the aroma of the soypaste should be attributed to the presence of heterocyclic compounds and organic acids, with the heterocyclic compounds playing a prominent role.

Yan Zhang

2010-05-01

114

KOMPONEN VOTALIT DANKARAKTERISASI KOMPONEN KUNCI AROMA BUAH ANDALIMAN (Zanthoxylum acanthoodium DC. [Colatile Aroma Constituents and Potent Odorant of Andaliman (Zanthoxylum acanthoodium DC. Fruit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Andaliman, a wild spice well known in Northem Sumatera, has a fresh citrusy and warm sweet peppery odor. This research was conducted to analyse pontent odorant from andaliman maceration extract using GC-MS, GC/O and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA method. Monoterpenes were the main constituens among the 24 identified components by GC-MS. Results od AEDA revealed that citronellal and limonene had the greatest impact on the aroma of andaliman with flavour dilution factor 128 and 32. ?-myrcene, 2-?-ocimene, linalool, ?-citronellol, neral, geraniol, gerabial, geranyl acetate, an unkwown compound, and a sesquiterpene also contributed to andaliman fresh citrusy and warm sweet peppery aroma.

Anton Apriyantono 1

2001-08-01

115

The Effect of Central American Smoke Aerosols on the Air Quality and Climate over the Southeastern United States: First Results from RAMS-AROMA  

Science.gov (United States)

Observation shows that smoke aerosols from biomass burning activities in Central America can be transported to the Southeastern United States (SEUS). In this study, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System - Assimilation and Radiation Online Modeling of Aerosols (RAMS-AROMA) is used to investigate the effect of transported smoke aerosols on climate and air quality over the SEUS. AROMA is an aerosol transport model with capabilities of online integration of aerosol radiation effects and online assimilation of satellite-derived aerosol and emission products. It is assembled within the RAMS, so two-way interactions between aerosol fields and other meteorology fields are achieved simultaneously during each model time step. RAMS-AROMA is a unique tool that can be used to examine the aerosol radiative impacts on the surface energy budget and atmospheric heating rate and to investigate how atmospheric thermal and dynamical processes respond to such impacts and consequently affect the aerosol distribution (so called feedbacks). First results regarding air quality effects and radiative forcing of transported smoke aerosols will be presented from RAMS-AROMA based on assimilation of smoke emission products from the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) project and aerosol optical thickness data derived from the MODIS instrument on the Terra and Aqua satellites. Comparisons with PM2.5 data collected from the EPA observation network and the aerosol optical thickness data from the DOE Atmosphere Radiation Measurements in the Southern Great Plains (ARM SGP) showed that RAMS-AROMA can predict the timing and spatial distribution of smoke events very well, with an accuracy useful for air quality forecasts. The smoke radiative effects on the surface temperature and atmospheric heating rate as well as their feedbacks will also be discussed.

Wang, J.; Christopher, S. A.; Nair, U. S.; Reid, J.; Prins, E. M.; Szykman, J.

2004-12-01

116

Chemical and aroma determination of the pulp and seeds of murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L., Malpighiaceae) é uma pequena fruta tropical de intenso aroma frutal e semelhante a queijo rançoso. Aplicando a cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução-olfatometria acoplada a espectrometria de massas e usando técnica de diluição de aroma ("Aroma extract dilution an [...] alysis"), as substâncias de maior impacto no aroma do murici foram identificadas como sendo: butanoato de etila (frutal, doce), hexanoato de etila (frutal), 1-octeno-3-ol (odor semelhante a cogumelo), ácido butírico (queijo rançoso), ácido hexanóico (pungente, queijo) e 2-feniletanol (floral). A polpa da fruta é principalmente composta por ésteres etílicos, metílicos e feniletílicos, juntamente com ácidos carboxílicos, terpenos, delta-lactonas e algumas substâncias sulfuradas. As sementes, que apresentaram um aroma semelhante ao de óleo rançoso, também lembrando queijo, tem como componentes majoritários os ácidos linoleico, oleico, esteárico e palmítico. Seu aroma foi associado aos ácidos butírico e hexanóico, ambos minoritários. Abstract in english Murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L., Malpighiaceae), a small, tropical fruit, very popular in Brazil, has a strong fruity, rancid cheese aroma. High resolution gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry and aroma extract dilution analysis identified the most potent substances in its aroma as eth [...] yl butanoate (fruity, sweet), ethyl hexanoate (fruity), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom like), butyric acid (rancid, cheese), hexanoic acid (pungent, cheese) and phenylethyl alcohol (floral). Its pulp is mainly composed of ethyl, methyl and phenylethyl esters and by carboxylic acids, terpenoids, delta-lactones and some sulfur compounds. Seed analysis also showed a buttery and oily cheese aroma and GC-MS revealed linoleic, oleic, stearic and palmitic acids as foremost components, while the aroma was associated to the butyric and hexanoic acids present in minor amounts.

Claudia M., Rezende; Sandra R. G., Fraga.

117

Evaluation of new aroma substances for feline minitablet formulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite the global interest in companion animal pharmaceuticals, feline peroral medication still lacks tailor-made, palatable and voluntarily accepted pharmaceuticals with suitable size and attractive taste. As a consequence, treating cats with canine and even human pharmaceuticals has weakened patient compliance and treatment commitment, and has even left many pet cats untreated. In future, the companion animal pharmaceutical business will therefore particularly concentrate on cats and the rapid and economic development of palatable feline medication. Following this goal, the overall aim of this study was to facilitate voluntary drug administration to felines. Specifically we aimed to develop sophisticated and tailor-made feline pharmaceuticals, with the focus on flavours in minitablets. Since excipients should be easily obtained and suitable for formulation, we conducted rapid preformulation compatibility and stability screening tests of synthetic flavours with commonly used tableting excipients. On the basis of the feline carnivorous diet, L-methionine, L-leucine, L-proline and thiamine hydrochloride were presented as new aroma substances for the improvement of feline medication palatability. These flavours and a model substance for a bitter taste, denatonium benzoate, were systematically evaluated for their physicochemical properties, stability and physical compatibility. This was done with substances alone and in binary combinations of flavours and excipients. Stability and compatibility were examined employing DSC and XRPD. The results showed that L-proline and denatonium benzoate anhydrate were hygroscopic. Thiamine hydrochloride was incompatible with talc and sodium stearyl fumarate. The known incompatibility between the amines contained in aromas, and ?-lactose monohydrate was used in assessing method sensitivity. Overall, the study provided new information on the compatibility of novel aromas with the tableting excipients. The study also demonstrated the applicability of XRPD and DSC in the rapid evaluation of instability and incompatibility.

Jaana Hautala

2014-06-01

118

Influence of new generation fungicides on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth, grape must fermentation and aroma biosynthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of ten new generation fungicides (ametoctradin, benthiavalicarb-isopropyl, boscalid, cyazofamid, dimethomorph, fenhexamid, kresoxim-methyl, mepanipyrim, metrafenone, and pyraclostrobin) on the fermentative activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was initially evaluated in pasteurised red must. The presence of ametoctradin, dimethomorph and mepanipyrim seemed to affect sugars-to-ethanol yield in the stationary phase. The same fermentation experiments were carried out for these three fungicides in ecological red must from Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo. When ecological must was unfiltered, the fermentative activity of yeasts was unaffected by the presence of these selected fungicides. However, when ecological must was filtered beforehand, a slight decrease of biomass and ethanol production (in terms of biomass-to-ethanol yield and sugars-to-ethanol yield, respectively), as well as a decrease in fruity aroma, were registered with respect to the control wine. PMID:24176337

Noguerol-Pato, R; Torrado-Agrasar, A; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

2014-03-01

119

Green tea aroma fraction reduces ?-amyloid peptide-induced toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans transfected with human ?-amyloid minigene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Green tea is a popular world-wide beverage with health benefits that include preventive effects on cancer as well as cardiovascular, liver and Alzheimer's diseases (AD). This study will examine the preventive effects on AD of a unique aroma of Japanese green tea. First, a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) CL4176 expressing human ?-amyloid peptide (A?) was used as a model of AD. A hexane extract of processed green tea was further fractionated into volatile and non-volatile fractions, named roasty aroma and green tea aroma fractions depending on their aroma, by microscale distillation. Both hexane extract and green tea aroma fraction were found to inhibit A?-induced paralysis, while only green tea aroma fraction extended lifespan in CL4176. We also found that green tea aroma fraction has antioxidant activity. This paper indicates that the green tea aroma fraction is an additional component for prevention of AD. PMID:25229860

Takahashi, Atsushi; Watanabe, Tatsuro; Fujita, Takashi; Hasegawa, Toshio; Saito, Michio; Suganuma, Masami

2014-07-01

120

Characterization of potent odorants in male giant water bug (Lethocerus indicus Lep. and Serv.), an important edible insect of Southeast Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potent odorants in frozen fresh (FFB) and salted boiled (SBB) male giant water bugs (Lethocerus indicus), or 'Maengdana' in Thai, were characterized by application of direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Twenty and 27 potent odorants were detected in FFB and SBB, respectively. Most odorants were lipid-derived compounds, including the two most abundant volatile components (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenyl butanoate, which contributed banana-like odours. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, responsible for popcorn-like odours, were detected in SBB only. An aroma reconstitution model of SBB was constructed in an oil-in-water emulsion matrix using 12 selected potent odorants based on the results of AEDA, accurate compound quantification and the calculated odour-activity values (OAV). Omission studies were carried out to verify the significance of esters, particularly (E)-2-hexenyl acetate was determined to be an important character-impact odorant in male giant water bug aroma. PMID:25172758

Kiatbenjakul, Patthamawadi; Intarapichet, Kanok-Orn; Cadwallader, Keith R

2015-02-01

 
 
 
 
121

PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

Intan Kusumaningrum*

2014-06-01

122

Recuperação e concentração de componentes do aroma de caju (Anacardium occidentale L.) por pervaporação Recovery of aroma compounds of cashew apple fruit (Anacardium occidentale L.) by pervaporation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A pervaporação é um processo de separação por membranas, no qual misturas líquidas são fracionadas devido à sua vaporização parcial através de uma membrana densa de permeabilidade seletiva. Este processo pode ser utilizado na recuperação e concentração de componentes de aromas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a pervaporação para obtenção de um extrato natural de aroma de caju, que poderá ser utilizado como aditivo na indústria de alimentos. Polpa de caju foi a maté...

André von Randow de Assis; Humberto Ribeiro Bizzo; Virgínia Martins da Matta; Lourdes Maria Corrêa Cabral

2007-01-01

123

Chemical and aroma determination of the pulp and seeds of murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L., Malpighiaceae, a small, tropical fruit, very popular in Brazil, has a strong fruity, rancid cheese aroma. High resolution gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry and aroma extract dilution analysis identified the most potent substances in its aroma as ethyl butanoate (fruity, sweet, ethyl hexanoate (fruity, 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom like, butyric acid (rancid, cheese, hexanoic acid (pungent, cheese and phenylethyl alcohol (floral. Its pulp is mainly composed of ethyl, methyl and phenylethyl esters and by carboxylic acids, terpenoids, delta-lactones and some sulfur compounds. Seed analysis also showed a buttery and oily cheese aroma and GC-MS revealed linoleic, oleic, stearic and palmitic acids as foremost components, while the aroma was associated to the butyric and hexanoic acids present in minor amounts.

Rezende Claudia M.

2003-01-01

124

Postharvest vapour heat treatment as a phytosanitary measure influences the aroma volatiles profile of mango fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our objective was to determine the influence of postharvest vapour heat treatment (VHT) on qualitative and quantitative measurement of aroma volatiles during fruit ripening in mango (cv. Chausa) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). VHT (48°C for 20 min) accelerated the process of fruit ripening leading to edible-soft stage within 4 days after heat treatment against 8 days in control. Reversible inhibition of aroma volatiles emission was observed in heat-treated fruit, with a significant alteration in aroma volatiles profiles at different stages of fruit ripening. The heat-induced increase in the rate of fruit ripening proceeded with a significant lag in the emission of aroma volatiles. The suppression of aroma volatiles at ripe stage in heat-treated fruit might adversely impact the consumer acceptance of fruit. PMID:24996349

Singh, Sukhvinder Pal; Saini, Manpreet Kaur

2014-12-01

125

Differential effects of exposure to ambient vanilla and citrus aromas on mood, arousal and food choice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost physiological sensors and semi-real life settings. Tests included physiological (heart rate, physical activity and response times, psychological (emotions and mood and behavioral (food choice measures in a semi-real life environment for 22 participants. Results Exposure to ambient citrus aroma increased physical activity (P P P P P Conclusions The test battery used in this study demonstrated aroma-specific physiological, psychological and behavioral effects of aromas with similar appeal and intensities, and similar food-related origins. These effects could be measured in (semi- real life environments for freely moving subjects using relatively inexpensive commercially available physiological sensors.

de Wijk René A

2012-12-01

126

Aroma Volatile Compounds from Two Fresh Pineapple Varieties in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Volatile compounds from two pineapples varieties (Tainong No.4 and No.6 were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. In the Tainong No. 4 and No. 6 pineapples, a total of 11 and 28 volatile compounds were identified according to their retention time on capillary columns and their mass spectra, and quantified with total concentrations of 1080.44 µg·kg?1 and 380.66 µg·kg?1 in the Tainong No.4 and No. 6 pineapples, respectively. The odor active values (OAVs of volatile compounds from pineapples were also calculated. According to the OAVs, four compounds were defined as the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 4 pineapple, including furaneol, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid methyl ester, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester and ?-octalactone. The OAVs of five compounds including ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, methyl-2-methylbutyrate, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl hexanoate and decanal were considered to be the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 6 pineapple.

Chang-Bin Wei

2012-06-01

127

Truffle aroma characterization by headspace solid-phase microextraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been used to fully characterize aroma of truffles of different species. A fiber of medium polarity (for flavors) was used to avoid discrimination towards very non-polar and polar volatile compounds. In a previous work, extraction conditions were optimized by means of an experimental design leading to the following conditions that were used in the present study: extraction temperature, 53 degrees C; extraction time, 13.6 min; and equilibrium time, 5 min. A comparison among different truffles species has been established in terms of qualitative and quantitative differences on volatile composition. By using the optimal extraction conditions and GC-MS it was possible to identify 89 compounds in two different truffle species such as Tuber aestivum and Tuber melanosporum. An attempt has been made in order to be able to determine the influence of different geographical origins on the aroma fraction of such fungi. PMID:14584705

Díaz, P; Ibáñez, E; Señoráns, F J; Reglero, G

2003-10-31

128

Cashew gum microencapsulation protects the aroma of coffee extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microencapsulation of materials rich in volatile compounds by spray drying presents the challenge of removing water by vapourization without loss of odour and/or flavour components. Crioconcentrated coffee extracts rich in odour components were used as a substrate core to evaluate microencapsulation with cashew gum from Anacardium occidentale L. In Brazil, cashew gum is a low cost alternative to the traditional Arabic gum. A suspension containing coffee extract and the wall material was dissolved in water and then passed through a spray dryer. Core microcapsules were microwave-assisted extracted (MAE) and the aroma protection of the microcapsules produced was evaluated using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The external morphology and size distribution of the microcapsules were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light scattering techniques, respectively. When comparing Arabic and cashew gum microencapsulation of coffee extracts both wall materials were observed to have similar aroma protection, external morphology and size distribution. Sensory analysis was employed to examine flavour protection and consumer preference with microencapsulation. These biochemical, sensory and structural data suggest that low cost cashew gum is a well suited alternative for odour microencapsulation to the more costly Arabic gum currently used in Brazil. PMID:18188728

Rodrigues, R A F; Grosso, C R F

2008-02-01

129

Aroma interactions with starch : Induction of carbohydrate acting enzymes from Aspergillus nidulans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Starches are used to enhance aroma perception in low-fat foods. Aroma compounds can bind physically to the starch in grooves on the surface or they can form complexes inside amylose helices. This study has been divided into two parts: one part regarding binding of aromas to starches and their aroma-release, and another part regarding stimulation of a fungal secretome using different carbohydrates. In the first part, nine aromas and one aroma-mixture were mixed with nine different starches, including genetically modified starches. The objective of this sub-project was to bind aromas to the starches to 15 weight-percent. Aroma binding was tested on both amorphous starches and on native starch granules. A series of aldehydes and alcohols were also tested for binding to the starches. The aromas with the highest volatility were positively retained by starch, whereas for aromas with a lower volatility the starch had a negative effect on retention. No trends were observed that could relate aroma binding or retentionto physical qualities of the starch such as amylose or phosphate content. Still, the physical state of the starch was shown to influence retention of some aromas, possibly by diffusion through the outer layers of the starch granule or binding to grooves on the surface. Chemical reactivity of some of the aromas also influenced the retention. Analysing a series of aldehydes and alcohols revealed an influence of the size of the molecules on retention. Hexanal showed a remarkable drop in retention for all starches, and pentanol showed a favoured retention by native starch granules. The aroma compounds bound to the starch proved very difficult to release as only a minute fraction of the aroma added could be released from the starch, even under conditions favouring aroma release, as monitored by GC-MS and solvent extractions. Addition of water to the extraction lowered the amount of aroma released, and addition of a starch-degrading enzyme, ?-amylase, did not significantly change the amount extracted. Studies by differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray scattering did not show complete complexation of aromas in the amylose helices, but instead changes were observed that could be evidence of partial complexation. This complexation is not exclusive to the amylose helices, but also appears to include interactions in the amylopectin double helices. In particular, one of the analysed aromas showed a very noticeable reduction in melting temperature, but showed only a minor reduction in melting enthalpy and no evidence of amylose complexation. Using an enzyme-discovery approach in the second sub-project, the industrially relevant fungus Aspergillus nidulans was stimulated with different carbohydrates. Stimulation with starch induced expression of starch-degrading enzymes, while stimulation with the hemicellulose xylan induced expression of xylanases. One particular hypothetical protein was ubiquitously expressed. This protein had no apparent homology with known proteins, but may iv be involved in attacking otherorganisms as a weak homology with other proteins involved in membrane attack was detected. Degradation of secreted proteins was observed in some cultures. Identification of a glycoside hydrolase family 61 using xylan as carbon-source was not successful despite previous evidence for the induction of this enzyme.

JØrgensen, Anders Dysted

2011-01-01

130

Impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the in vivo aroma release from wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the retronasal aroma release of four volatile compounds added to different types of wines has been evaluated. For this purpose, a tailor-made retronasal aroma trapping device (RATD) was used to entrap the exhaled breath of six panelists previously trained in a specific consumption procedure. Five wines of different composition (white wine, sparkling white wine, young red wine, aged red wine, and a sweet wine) were evaluated. Prior to the evaluation, with the exception of the sweet wine, the wines were adjusted to the same ethanol content and aromatized with a mixture of four target volatile compounds. Aroma release data were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis in order to relate wine chemical composition and aroma release during wine drinking. Results showed interindividual differences and a clustering of panelists among lower and higher aroma releasers, which was in agreement to the differences in their breathing capacity. A significant influence of the matrix composition in the low aroma releasers group during wine consumption was observed. The consumption of red wines provoked a significantly higher aroma release than the consumption of white and sweet wines. From the chemical composition determined in the wine samples (pH, total acidity, total polyphenols, neutral polysaccharides, residual sugar, and nitrogenous compounds), the amount of total polyphenols was better correlated with the observed effect. PMID:24328128

Muñoz-González, Carolina; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

2014-01-01

131

Metabolomics in melon: a new opportunity for aroma analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cucumis melo fruit is highly valued for its sweet and refreshing flesh, however the flavour and value are also highly influenced by aroma as dictated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A simple and robust method of sampling VOCs on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been developed. Contrasting cultivars of C. melo subspecies melo were investigated at commercial maturity: three cultivars of var. Cantalupensis group Charentais (cv. Cézanne, Escrito, and Dalton) known to exhibit differences in ripening behaviour and shelf-life, as well as one cultivar of var. Cantalupensis group Ha'Ogan (cv. Noy Yisre'el) and one non-climacteric cultivar of var. Inodorus (cv. Tam Dew). The melon cultivar selection was based upon fruits exhibiting clear differences (cv. Noy Yisre'el and Tam Dew) and similarities (cv. Cézanne, Escrito, and Dalton) in flavour. In total, 58 VOCs were detected by thermal desorption (TD)-GC-MS which permitted the discrimination of each cultivar via Principal component analysis (PCA). PCA indicated a reduction in VOCs in the non-climacteric cv. Tam Dew compared to the four Cantalupensis cultivars. Within the group Charentais melons, the differences between the short, mid and long shelf-life cultivars were considerable. ¹H NMR analysis led to the quantification of 12 core amino acids, their levels were 3-10-fold greater in the Charentais melons, although they were reduced in the highly fragrant cv. Cézanne, indicating their role as VOC precursors. This study along with comparisons to more traditional labour intensive solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) GC-MS VOC profiling data has indicated that the high-throughput PDMS method is of great potential for the assessment of melon aroma and quality. PMID:24417788

Allwood, J William; Cheung, William; Xu, Yun; Mumm, Roland; De Vos, Ric C H; Deborde, Catherine; Biais, Benoit; Maucourt, Mickael; Berger, Yosef; Schaffer, Arthur A; Rolin, Dominique; Moing, Annick; Hall, Robert D; Goodacre, Royston

2014-03-01

132

Metabolomics in melon: A new opportunity for aroma analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Cucumis melo fruit is highly valued for its sweet and refreshing flesh, however the flavour and value are also highly influenced by aroma as dictated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A simple and robust method of sampling VOCs on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been developed. Contrasting cultivars of C. melo subspecies melo were investigated at commercial maturity: three cultivars of var. Cantalupensis group Charentais (cv. Cézanne, Escrito, and Dalton) known to exhibit differences in ripening behaviour and shelf-life, as well as one cultivar of var. Cantalupensis group Ha’Ogan (cv. Noy Yisre’el) and one non-climacteric cultivar of var. Inodorus (cv. Tam Dew). The melon cultivar selection was based upon fruits exhibiting clear differences (cv. Noy Yisre’el and Tam Dew) and similarities (cv. Cézanne, Escrito, and Dalton) in flavour. In total, 58 VOCs were detected by thermal desorption (TD)-GC–MS which permitted the discrimination of each cultivar via Principal component analysis (PCA). PCA indicated a reduction in VOCs in the non-climacteric cv. Tam Dew compared to the four Cantalupensis cultivars. Within the group Charentais melons, the differences between the short, mid and long shelf-life cultivars were considerable. 1H NMR analysis led to the quantification of 12 core amino acids, their levels were 3–10-fold greater in the Charentais melons, although they were reduced in the highly fragrant cv. Cézanne, indicating their role as VOC precursors. This study along with comparisons to more traditional labour intensive solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) GC–MS VOC profiling data has indicated that the high-throughput PDMS method is of great potential for the assessment of melon aroma and quality. PMID:24417788

Allwood, J. William; Cheung, William; Xu, Yun; Mumm, Roland; De Vos, Ric C.H.; Deborde, Catherine; Biais, Benoit; Maucourt, Mickael; Berger, Yosef; Schaffer, Arthur A.; Rolin, Dominique; Moing, Annick; Hall, Robert D.; Goodacre, Royston

2014-01-01

133

Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and aroma quality of anthograin liqueur.  

Science.gov (United States)

Moderate consumption of wine, beer, whisky or liqueur is known to be beneficial for improving health because of the radical scavenging action of antioxidants present in them. Thus, antioxidant and aroma properties of anthograin liqueur made from purple wheat grain were evaluated for the added-value processing purpose of that grain. Anthograin liqueur showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content (TPC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) in comparison with three control samples Canadian iceberg vodka (CIV), Hiram walker special old rye whisky (HWSORW) and Wiser's De Luxe Canadian whisky (WDLCW). Only anthograin liqueur contained anthocyanins and its total anthocyanin content (TAC) was 81mg/l. In lipid-soluble phase, TPC and ORAC were 241.1 and 998.6mg/l for anthograin liqueur, 40.0 and 93.6mg/ld for WDLCW, 23.1 and 63.6mg/l for HWSORW, and 1.1 and 12.4mg/l for CIV, respectively. In water-soluble phase, TPC and ORAC were 685.5 and 1467.7mg/l for anthograin liqueur, 29.0 and 96.0mg/l for WDLCW, 36.4 and 99.2mg/l for HWSORW, and 2.0 and 42.8mg/l for CIV, respectively. Eight types of phenolic acids in anthograin liqueur, four types of phenolic acids in WDLCW and three types of phenolic acids in HWSORW were found and no phenolic acid was detectable in CIV. Total phenolic acids in anthograin liqueur, WDLCW and HWSORW were 28.8, 10.3 and 5.7mg/l, respectively. Similarity in aroma quality was found between anthograin liqueur and CIV by using the electronic nose. Purple wheat grain may have potential as a novel material for liqueur brewing. PMID:25214085

Li, Wende; Beta, Trust

2011-08-01

134

Influence of thermal treatment of wood on the aroma of a sugar cane spirit (cachaça) model-solution / Influência do termotratamento da madeira no aroma de uma solução-modelo de cachaça  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As bebidas alcoólicas são, geralmente, envelhecidas em tonéis de madeira fabricados a partir de espécies do gênero Quercus sp. Devido ao alto custo de aquisição e necessidade de importação, existe demanda por alternativas de uso de outras espécies nativas e da incorporação de novas tecnologias que a [...] umentem a competitividade da cachaça brasileira. Sabe-se que, com a aplicação de termotratamento, vários compostos são alterados, desenvolvem-se aromas, altera-se a coloração e as bebidas adquirem gostos mais agradáveis. Este trabalho mostra a diferença significativa entre soluções-modelo hidroalcoólicas de cachaça, envelhecidas em diferentes espécies de madeira, em suas formas termotratadas e não termotratadas, avaliadas em relação a seu aroma. O teste de aceitação aplicado verificou as soluções preferidas pelos provadores, nas condições determinadas do teste. Abstract in english The aging process of alcoholic beverages is generally conducted in wood barrels made with species from Quercus sp. Due to the high cost and the lack of viability of commercial production of these trees in Brazil, there is demand for new alternatives to using other native species and the incorporatio [...] n of new technologies that enable greater competitiveness of sugar cane spirit aged in Brazilian wood. The drying of wood, the thermal treatment applied to it, and manufacturing techniques are important tools in defining the sensory quality of alcoholic beverages after being placed in contact with the barrels. In the thermal treatment, several compounds are changed by the application of heat to the wood and various studies show the compounds are modified, different aromas are developed, there is change in color, and beverages achieve even more pleasant taste, when compared to non-treated woods. This study evaluated the existence of significant differences between hydro-alcoholic solutions of sugar cane spirits elaborated from different species of thermo-treated and non-treated wood in terms of aroma. An acceptance test was applied to evaluate the solutions preferred by tasters under specific test conditions.

Marta Helena Fillet, Spoto; Marcelo Machado, Leão; José Otávio Otávio, Brito.

2011-06-01

135

Impact of Australian Dekkera bruxellensis strains grown under oxygen-limited conditions on model wine composition and aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spoilage of red wine by the yeast species Dekkera bruxellensis is a common problem for the global wine industry. When conditions are conducive for growth of these yeasts in wine, they efficiently convert non-volatile hydroxycinnamic acids into aroma-active ethylphenols, thereby reducing the quality of the wine. It has been demonstrated previously that dissolved oxygen is a key factor which stimulates D. bruxellensis growth in wine. We demonstrate that whereas the presence of oxygen accelerates the growth of this species, oxygen-limited conditions favour 4-ethylphenol production. Consequently, we evaluated wine spoilage potential of three D. bruxellensis strains (AWRI1499, AWRI1608 and AWRI1613) under oxygen-limited conditions. Each strain was cultured in a chemically-defined wine medium and the fermentation products were analysed using HPLC and HS-SPME-GC/MS. The strains displayed different growth characteristics but were equally capable of producing ethylphenols. On the other hand, significant differences were observed for 18 of the remaining 33 metabolites analysed and duo-trio sensory analysis indicated significant aroma differences between wines inoculated with AWRI1499 and AWRI1613. When these wines were spiked with low concentrations of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol, no sensorial differences could be perceived. Together these data suggest that the three predominant D. bruxellensis strains previously isolated during a large survey of Australian wineries do not differ substantively in their capacity to grow in, and spoil, a model wine medium. PMID:24010603

Curtin, Chris D; Langhans, Geoffrey; Henschke, Paul A; Grbin, Paul R

2013-12-01

136

Sensory profile and contribution of major components of aroma in dry red wine quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the sensory profile and main volatile compounds of a set of commercial wines from two major wine regions in Brazil. A total of 28 descriptors were selected by quantitative descriptive analysis, and “red”, “violet”, “pungent aroma”, “vinegary aroma” and “softness” were the most important descriptors in sample discrimination (p<=0.05. 42 volatile aroma compounds were considered relevant for the evaluation of red wine samples. Several acetates and esters that contribute to the pleasant aroma in wines were found in the samples, but other undesirable compounds were also identified: acetic acid and octanoic acid may have contributed to the vinegary and sulphur odors perceived by a trained team.

Luisa Costa de Oliveira

2012-11-01

137

Aroma changes due to second fermentation and glycosylated precursors in Chardonnay and Riesling sparkling wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma changes in Chardonnay and Riesling base wines caused by the second fermentation were investigated by a targeted component analysis: A stable isotope dilution approach using headspace solid phase microextraction coupled online to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was applied to quantify 37 compounds relevant for sparkling wine aroma. In an enrichment experiment, glycosylated precursors isolated from one Chardonnay and one Riesling base wine were used to double the original amount in these base wines. Along with increased concentrations of precursor-derived volatiles after the second fermentation, descriptive sensory evaluation revealed an enhancement of fruity aroma impressions reminiscent of, for example, peach or cantaloupe. Except for benzyl alcohol, linalool, and 3-methylpentanol, no quantitative 2-fold increase of volatiles was found with a 2-fold increase in precursor concentration, as other metabolic pathways seem to interfere with aroma formation from glycosides. PMID:21341698

Ganss, Sebastian; Kirsch, Frauke; Winterhalter, Peter; Fischer, Ulrich; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

2011-03-23

138

Aroma behaviour during steam cooking within a potato starch-based model matrix.  

Science.gov (United States)

To help understand the organoleptic qualities of steam cooked foods, the kinetics of aroma release during cooking in a potato starch based model matrix was studied. Behaviour of components having a major impact in potato flavour were studied using solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography (SPME-GC). Evolution of microstructure of potato starch model-matrix during steam cooking process was analyzed using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Both aroma compounds that are naturally present in starch matrix and those that were added were analyzed. Both the aroma compounds naturally presented and those added had different behaviour depending on their physico-chemical properties (hydrophobicity, saturation vapour pressure, molecular weight, etc.). The physical state of potato starch influences of the retention of aromatized matrix with Starch gelatinization appearing to be the major phenomenon influencing aroma release. PMID:23618307

Descours, Emilie; Hambleton, Alicia; Kurek, Mia; Debeaufort, Fréderic; Voilley, Andrée; Seuvre, Anne-Marie

2013-06-01

139

Structural and physical effects of aroma compound binding to native starch granules  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The interaction and physical/structural effects of aroma compounds, at high concentrations on dry native starch granules were studied using eight selected model compounds: acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulphide, diacetyl, allyl isothiocyanate, ethyl butyrate, citral, octanol and butyric acid. The maize, potato and pea starches used represent different typical structural and chemical starch characteristics. Retention of the different aroma compounds varied from a few to one hundred percent and starch was found to induce as well as reduce aroma evaporation depending on the aroma compound and the starch type. As deduced from DSC, powder XRD and SEM analyses, citral, butyric acid and octanol exerted specific effects on the starch granules manifested in local melting of crystalline layers and partial disruption of the granular meso structure. The most prominent effect was obtained with citral that generated surface wrinkles on B? and C?type polymorphic granules and aggregation of A?type polymorphic granules, decreased the melting temperature and suppressed the crystallinity of the starch.

JØrgensen, Anders Dysted; Jensen, Susanne L.

2012-01-01

140

Identification of reddish alcoholic beverages by GC/MS using aroma components as indicators.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method to identify reddish alcoholic beverages used for dissolving stimulant drugs was devised using aroma components as indicators. Thirteen brands of beverages including red wines, blueberry liquors, raspberry liquors, strawberry liquor, a mixture of red wine and blueberry juice and a mixture of red wine and grape juice were examined. Aroma components in each sample were effectively concentrated with a porous polymer beads column (Porapak Q) and were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Specific aroma components were detected in each beverage and reddish alcoholic beverages were successfully classified into five groups using five aroma components as indicators. The present method should prove to be useful in criminal investigations. PMID:12935701

Hida, Y; Kudo, K; Nishida, N; Ikeda, N

2001-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

Albariño wine aroma enhancement through the use of a recombinant polygalacturonase from Kluyveromyces marxianus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The possible biotechnological application of a recombinant endopolygalacturonase of Kluyveromyces marxianus (KMPG) for the aroma enhancement of Albariño wine was studied. The addition of this enzyme to the must gives rise to a significant increase of the total compounds responsible for the aroma as opposed to the effect when using a commercial pectic enzyme. This increase also results in a significant rise of the odoriferous aglycones which are direct determinants of the aroma. Wines made by using the KMPG enzyme are characterised by a greater richness and diversity with regard to the number of aromatic compounds present, clearly differing from those obtained with a commercial pectic preparation. Based on compounds with odour activity values (OAV)>1, the wines obtained with the enzyme KMPG are richer in citric, balsamic, spicy and above all floral (violet and rose) aromas than untreated wines or wines supplemented with a commercial enzyme. PMID:24128465

Sieiro, Carmen; Villa, Tomás G; da Silva, Abigaíl F; García-Fraga, Belén; Vilanova, Mar

2014-02-15

142

Influence of thermal treatment on black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) juice aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of thermal treatment on black currant juice aroma was investigated in temperature and time ranges relevant for black currant juice concentration processes, namely, 45, 60, 75, and 90 degrees C. Forty-nine aroma compounds were quantified, and the thermal treatment resulted in concentration increases of most terpenes, aldehydes, furans, and phenols, whereas the concentration of esters slightly decreased. Higher temperatures and longer exposure times had larger effects on the aroma compounds. Odor triangle tests showed no sensory difference between pasteurized juice and juice heated at 60 degrees C, whereas juice heated at 90 degrees C differed significantly from pasteurized juice. It is concluded that a 90 degrees C thermal treatment of black currant juice, which is in the temperature range used for conventional evaporation of black currant juice, has an effect on the aroma and sensory properties. PMID:15675814

Varming, Camilla; Andersen, Mogens L; Poll, Leif

2004-12-15

143

Simultaneous real-time measurements of mastication, swallowing, nasal airflow, and aroma release.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mastication, swallowing, breath flow, and aroma release were measured simultaneously in vivo using electromyography, electroglottography, a turbine air flow meter, and the MS-Nose, respectively. Signals were synchronized either electronically or by aligning the nasal airflow data with the breath by breath release of acetone. Chewing affected nasal airflow, with the flow fluctuations following the mastication pattern. Data analysis suggested that air was pumped out of the mouth into the throat with each chew, and the mean volume was 26 mL. Aroma release was associated with the pulses of air pumped from the mouth with each chew. During swallowing, there was no nasal airflow, but after swallowing, aroma release was evident. The volume of the retronasal route was estimated at 48 mL when swallowing and 72 mL when samples were chewed. The combination of techniques shows the effects of physiological processes on aroma release. PMID:12903969

Hodgson, M; Linforth, R S T; Taylor, A J

2003-08-13

144

Gas chromatography/sniffing port analysis of aroma compounds released under mouth conditions  

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The technique of gas chromatography/sniffing port analysis was evaluated for studying the release of aroma compounds from rehydrated diced French beans. The aroma compounds 2-/3-methylbutanal and hexanal were released at a constant rate over time. An identical selection of odour active compounds was obtained at different sampling times. Mutual proportions were remained among the sampling times, although the total number of perceptions of assessors were different

Ruth, S. M.; Roozen, J. P.

2000-01-01

145

Aroma of some plants cultivated in Lithuania : Composition, processing and release  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, some factors affecting the aroma of some plants of the families Umbelliferae and Asteraceae were evaluated. The composition of the aromas is influenced by several factors: plant family, harvesting time, anatomical part of plant, method used to isolate volatiles, cultivar, fertilisers used for the growing of plant, cultivation site. The yield of caraway fruits varies over a wide range depending on fertiliser content, cultivation area and the cultivar itself. The trends for the a...

Bylaite, E.

2000-01-01

146

Procedimiento para extraer, mediante extracción con fluidos supercríticos, aromas de café libre de la fracción lipídica.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[EN]The extraction of aromas of coffee free of lipid fraction comprises preparation of coffee oil containing the aroma constituents and the lipid fraction and the antioxidant compounds. Fractionation of the oil yields a first fraction containing the lipid components, and a second fraction with the volatile and antioxidant components. EMBODIMENT - The extraction, based on ground roasted coffee, employs carbon monoxide as solvent under supercritical conditions. [ES]Procedimiento para extraer, m...

Santa-mari?a Blanco, Jose? Guillermo; Reglero, Guillermo; Tabera, Javier; Blanch, Gracia P.; Pastor, Julia?n

2001-01-01

147

Recovery of volatile aroma compounds from black currant juice by vacuum membrane distillation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study evaluated the recovery of seven characteristic black currant aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) carried out at low temperatures (10-45 degreesC) and at varying feed flow rates (100-500 l/h) in a lab scale membrane distillation set tip. VMD at feed flow from 100 to 500 l/h at 30 degreesC gave concentration factors, calculated for each aroma compound as C-permeate/C-feed: from similar to4 to 15. The concentration factors increased with decreased juice temperature during VMD; at 10 degreesC concentration factors of 21-31 were obtained for the highly volatile aroma esters. The recovered levels of the highly volatile aroma compounds ranged from 68 to 83 vol.% with a feed volume reduction of 5 vol.% (10 degreesC, 400 l/h). The theoretically predicted aroma recovery as a function of the feed volume reduction was in accordance with the experimentally obtained values. VMD thus turned out to be a promising technique for gentle stripping of black currant juice aroma compounds.

Bagger-JØrgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.

2004-01-01

148

Aroma enhancement and enzymolysis regulation of grape wine using ?-glycosidase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adding ?-glycosidase into grape wine for enhancing aroma was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Kramer sensory evaluation. Compared with the extract from control wines, the extract from enzyme-treated wines increased more aromatic compounds using steam distillation extraction (SDE) and GC-MS analyses. Theses aromatic compounds were as follows: 3-methyl-1-butanol formate, 3-pentanol, furfural, 3-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl-butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-butanoic acid ethyl ester, hexanoic acid, hexanoic acid ethyl ester, benzyl alcohol, octanoic acid, octanoic acid ethyl ester, dodecanoic acid, and ethyl ester. The enzymolysis regulation conditions, including enzymolysis temperature, enzymolysis time, and enzyme amount, were optimized through L9(3(4)) orthogonal test. Kramer sensory evaluation was performed by an 11-man panel of judges. The optimum enzymolysis regulation conditions were found to be temperature of 45°C, enzymolysis time of 90 min, and enzyme amount of 58.32 U/mL grape wine, respectively. The Kramer sensory evaluation supported that the enzyme-treated wines produced a stronger fragrance. PMID:24804072

Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

2014-03-01

149

Genetic analysis and gene fine mapping of aroma in rice (Oryza sativa L. Cyperales, Poaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We investigated inheritance and carried out gene fine mapping of aroma in crosses between the aromatic elite hybrid rice Oryza sativa indica variety Chuanxiang-29B (Ch-29B) and the non-aromatic rice O. sativa indica variety R2 and O. sativa japonica Lemont (Le). The F1 grains and leaves were non-aro [...] matic while the F2 non-aroma to aroma segregation pattern was 3:1. The F3 segregation ratio was consistent with the expected 1:2:1 for a single recessive aroma gene in Ch-29B. Linkage analysis between simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and the aroma locus for the aromatic F2 plants mapped the Ch-29B aroma gene to a chromosome 8 region flanked by SSR markers RM23120 at 0.52 cM and RM3459 at 1.23 cM, a replicate F2 population confirming these results. Three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones cover chromosome 8 markers RM23120 and RM3459. Our molecular mapping data from the two populations indicated that the aroma locus occurs in a 142.85 kb interval on BAC clones AP005301 or AP005537, implying that it might be the same gene reported by Bradbury et al (2005a; Plant Biotec J. 3:363-370). The flanking markers Aro7, RM23120 and RM3459 identified by us could greatly accelerate the efficiency and precision of aromatic rice breeding programs.

Shu Xia, Sun; Fang Yuan, Gao; Xian Jun, Lu; Xian Jun, Wu; Xu Dong, Wang; Guang Jun, Ren; Hong, Luo.

150

Efecto del deshuesado de la aceituna sobre el aroma del aceite de oliva virgen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Olive fruit stoning gives rise to an important modification in olive oil aroma. The level of this modification is a function of the cultivar. An increment in the content of six-carbon compounds (C6 was observed in olive oils obtained from the cultivars Verdial and Manzanilla, but not in the cultivar Picual. In the three cultivars under study, contents of five-carbon compounds (C5 and esters decreased as a consequence of fruit stoning. The modification of olive oil aroma composition in the cultivar Verdial caused by olive fruit stoning was observed to be due both to tissue wounding and to the absence of the olive seed during the crushing-malaxation process to obtain olive oil aroma. Both factors contribute independently to the content modification of C6, C5 compounds and esters in the olive oil aroma from stoned fruits.El deshuesado de la aceituna da lugar a una importante modificación del aroma del aceite de oliva virgen. La intensidad de esta modificación es característica de cada variedad. En los aceites obtenidos de aceitunas Verdial y Manzanilla se produce un incremento en el contenido de los compuestos de seis átomos de carbono (C6 que no se detecta en la variedad Picual. En las tres variedades estudiadas se observa un descenso del contenido de compuestos de cinco átomos de carbono (C5 así como del contenido en ésteres. En la variedad Verdial se ha comprobado que la modificación del aroma como consecuencia del deshuesado del fruto se debe tanto al daño tisular generado durante este proceso como a la ausencia de la semilla durante la molturación de la aceituna. Ambos factores contribuyen de forma independiente a la modificación del contenido de compuestos C6, C5 y ésteres en el aroma del aceite de oliva virgen procedente de aceituna deshuesada.

Sanz, C.

2004-06-01

151

A fermented meat model system for studies of microbial aroma formation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A fermented meat model system was developed, by which microbial formation of volatiles could be examined The model was evaluated against dry, fermented sausages with respect to microbial growth, pH and volatile profiles. Fast and slowly acidified sausages and models were produced using the starter cultures Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus xylosus. Volatiles were collected and analysed by dynamic headspace sampling and GC MS. The analysis was primarily focused on volatiles arising from amino acid degradation and a total of 24 compounds, of which 19 were quantified, were used for multivariate data analysis. Growth of lactic acid bacteria was comparable for model and sausages, whereas survival of S. xylosus was better in the model. Multivariate analysis of volatiles showed that differences between fast and slowly acidified samples were identical for model and sausage. For both sausage and model, fast-acidified samples had a high content of ketones, sulphides and methyl-branched acids, whereas slowly acidified samples had the highest content of methyl-branched alcohols, aldehydes, their ethyl esters, phenylacetaldehyde and methional. Furthermore, model repeatability with respect to pH, microbial growth and volatile profiles was similar to sausage production. Based on these findings, the model system was considered valid for studies of aroma formation of meat cultures for fermented sausage.

Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller

2003-01-01

152

Processing and products of Japanese quince  

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In this paper, applied research on the usefulness of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica) fruits in processing and for development of products is reported. Juice was extracted by crushing and centrifugation or by pressing, with and without prior treatment with pectolytic enzymes. Aroma was extracted from fresh fruits by sugar and was also enriched by pervaporation from juice. Several products were developed based on fruit juice, purée and aroma extracts, including consumer products such as...

Hellin, P.; Jordan, M. J.; Vila, Roser; Gustafsson, M.; Go?ransson, E.; A?kesson, Bengt; Gro?o?n, I.; Laencina, J.; Ros, J. M.

2003-01-01

153

Effect of vine foliar treatments on the varietal aroma of Monastrell wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of four vine treatments, comprising the application of eugenol and guaiacol (individually or as a mixture) or whiskey lactones on the concentration of glycosidically bound aroma precursors, determined as glycosyl glucose content by HPLC-IR, in Monastrell grapes and their wines were studied. The impact of treatments on the free varietal wine aroma determined by SBSE-GC-MS and descriptive analysis after alcoholic and malolactic fermentations and six months of ageing were also determined. A synergistic effect was observed between the eugenol and guaiacol on the glycosidically bound aroma precursor fraction. The rate of release of such aroma precursors was time and treatment dependent. The impact on wines varietal aroma at the end of the alcoholic fermentation was reduced by treatments, whereas the opposite effect was observed in the following samplings. At a sensory level, the wood/oak notes were appreciated in all wines; however, the typicity of the Monastrell variety was especially enhanced at the end of the malolactic fermentation, in the wines from whiskey lactone treatment. PMID:24912724

Pardo-García, A I; de la Hoz, K Serrano; Zalacain, A; Alonso, G L; Salinas, M R

2014-11-15

154

Aroma Stripping under various Forms of Membrane Distillation Processes: Experiments and modeling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Concentration of fruit juices by membrane distillation is an interesting process as it can be done at low temperature giving a gentle concentration process with little deterioration of the juices. Since the juices contains many different aroma compounds with a wide range of chemical properties such as volatility, activity coefficient and vapor pressure, it is important to know how these aroma compounds will eventually pass through the membrane. Experiments have been made on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up which can be operated in various types of MD configurations: Vacuum Membrane Distillation , Sweeping Gas Membrane Distillation , Direct Contact Membrane Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation. The influence of feed temperature and feed flow rate on the permeate flux and concentration factor for different types of aroma compounds have been measured for these MD configurations. A general transport model for the flux of water and aroma compounds have been derived and compared with the experimental data. A reasonable agreement between the modelling and the experiments could be obtained. From the modelling it was possible to explain the large different in permeate flux and concentration factor that was observed for the different MD configurations. This is highly related to the heat and mass transfer resistances in the membrane as well as in the boundary layers adjacent to the membrane surface and how the driving force develops along the length of the membrane.

Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

155

Binding of aroma compounds with myofibrillar proteins modified by a hydroxyl-radical-induced oxidative system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of oxidation-induced structural modifications of myofibrillar protein on its binding ability with aroma compounds such as 2-methyl-butanal, methional, 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, and nonanal. A method using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to determine the corresponding binding ability. The binding with aroma compounds was found to be strongly affected by the oxidation levels of proteins, probably due to the varying modifications in protein structure and surface. Incubation with oxidants around or below 1 mM mainly caused the refolding of protein structure and accelerated the protein aggregation, which reduced the affinity of the aroma compounds, thus decreasing the binding ability. Nevertheless, treatment with oxidants over 2.5 mM would cause protein reaggregation and partial degradation, and thus, the subsequent modification of protein surface properties. The aggregated protein with wrinkled surfaces favored the hydrophobic interactions with aroma compounds, forming the protein-aroma compound complex, thus enhancing the resultant binding ability as evidenced by fluorescence quenching and SPME-GC/MS analysis. PMID:25175304

Zhou, Feibai; Zhao, Mouming; Su, Guowan; Sun, Weizheng

2014-10-01

156

Instrumental and sensory characterization of heat-induced odorants in aseptically packaged soy milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predominant heat-induced odorants generated in soy milk by ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) processing were evaluated by sensory and instrumental techniques. Soy milks processed by UHT (143 degrees C/14 s, 143 degrees C/59 s, 154 degrees C/29 s) were compared to a control soy milk (90 degrees C/10 min) after 0, 1, and 7 days of storage (4.4 +/- 1 degrees C). Dynamic headspace dilution analysis (DHDA) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) in conjunction with GC-olfactometry (GCO)/aroma extract dilution techniques and GC-MS were used to identify and quantify major aroma-active compounds. Sensory results revealed that intensities of overall aroma and sulfur and sweet aromatic flavors were affected by the processing conditions. Odorants mainly responsible for the changes in sulfur perception were methional, methanethiol, and dimethyl sulfide. Increases in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-acetyl-thiazole, and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline intensities were associated with roasted aromas. A marginal increase in intensity of sweet aromatic flavor could be explained by increases in 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, beta-damascenone, and 2- and 3-methylbutanal. Predominant lipid-derived odorants, including (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-octenal, 1-octen-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, and (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, were affected by processing conditions. Intensities of overall aroma and sulfur notes in soy milk decreased during storage, whereas other sensory attributes did not change. Color changes, evaluated by using a Chroma-meter, indicated all UHT heating conditions used in this study generated a more yellow and saturated color in soy milk in comparison to the control soy milk. PMID:17373812

Lozano, Patricio R; Drake, Maryanne; Benitez, Daniel; Cadwallader, Keith R

2007-04-18

157

Recuperação e concentração de componentes do aroma de caju (Anacardium occidentale L.) por pervaporação / Recovery of aroma compounds of cashew apple fruit (Anacardium occidentale L.) by pervaporation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A pervaporação é um processo de separação por membranas, no qual misturas líquidas são fracionadas devido à sua vaporização parcial através de uma membrana densa de permeabilidade seletiva. Este processo pode ser utilizado na recuperação e concentração de componentes de aromas. O objetivo deste trab [...] alho foi avaliar a pervaporação para obtenção de um extrato natural de aroma de caju, que poderá ser utilizado como aditivo na indústria de alimentos. Polpa de caju foi a matéria-prima utilizada no trabalho. O processo de pervaporação foi conduzido a 25 e 35 °C em membranas de polidimetilsiloxano. Foram recolhidas amostras do suco de caju, no início e ao final do processo, e do permeado para a caracterização do perfil aromático através de CG-EM. O processo de pervaporação apresentou um alto fluxo de permeado para o suco de caju, 0,11 e 0,17 kg.hm-2 a 25 e 35 °C, respectivamente. Os cromatogramas revelaram um grande aumento no número de picos nas amostras de permeado em relação aos cromatogramas das amostras do suco de caju original, sendo que cerca de 50% dos componentes identificados no permeado apresentaram um acréscimo em suas áreas em relação aos do suco original, indicando a potencialidade deste processo para a concentração do aroma de caju. Abstract in english Pervaporation is a membrane separation process in which components from liquid mixtures are fractionated due to their partial vaporisation through a dense selective membrane. This process can be used to recover aroma compounds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the pervaporation to obtain a [...] natural aroma extract from cashew apple fruit, which can be used as an additive in the food industry. Cashew pulp was used as raw material. Pervaporation was carried out at 25 and 35 °C using polymethylsiloxane membranes. Samples of the cashew juice in the beginning and at the end of the pervaporation and from the permeate were picked to characterise the aromatic profile by GC-MS. The pervaporation of the cashew juice presented a high permeate flux, 0.11 kgh-1m-2 and 0.17 kg.hm-2, at 25 and 35 °C, respectively. The chromatograms showed an increase in the number of compounds in the permeate samples when compared to the chromatograms of the cashew juice. By comparing the peak areas, it could be observed that almost 50% of the identified components in the permeate samples presented an increase in the peak area, showing the potentiality of this process to the concentration of the aroma of cashew apple juice.

André von Randow de, Assis; Humberto Ribeiro, Bizzo; Virgínia Martins da, Matta; Lourdes Maria Corrêa, Cabral.

158

Recuperação e concentração de componentes do aroma de caju (Anacardium occidentale L.) por pervaporação / Recovery of aroma compounds of cashew apple fruit (Anacardium occidentale L.) by pervaporation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A pervaporação é um processo de separação por membranas, no qual misturas líquidas são fracionadas devido à sua vaporização parcial através de uma membrana densa de permeabilidade seletiva. Este processo pode ser utilizado na recuperação e concentração de componentes de aromas. O objetivo deste trab [...] alho foi avaliar a pervaporação para obtenção de um extrato natural de aroma de caju, que poderá ser utilizado como aditivo na indústria de alimentos. Polpa de caju foi a matéria-prima utilizada no trabalho. O processo de pervaporação foi conduzido a 25 e 35 °C em membranas de polidimetilsiloxano. Foram recolhidas amostras do suco de caju, no início e ao final do processo, e do permeado para a caracterização do perfil aromático através de CG-EM. O processo de pervaporação apresentou um alto fluxo de permeado para o suco de caju, 0,11 e 0,17 kg.hm-2 a 25 e 35 °C, respectivamente. Os cromatogramas revelaram um grande aumento no número de picos nas amostras de permeado em relação aos cromatogramas das amostras do suco de caju original, sendo que cerca de 50% dos componentes identificados no permeado apresentaram um acréscimo em suas áreas em relação aos do suco original, indicando a potencialidade deste processo para a concentração do aroma de caju. Abstract in english Pervaporation is a membrane separation process in which components from liquid mixtures are fractionated due to their partial vaporisation through a dense selective membrane. This process can be used to recover aroma compounds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the pervaporation to obtain a [...] natural aroma extract from cashew apple fruit, which can be used as an additive in the food industry. Cashew pulp was used as raw material. Pervaporation was carried out at 25 and 35 °C using polymethylsiloxane membranes. Samples of the cashew juice in the beginning and at the end of the pervaporation and from the permeate were picked to characterise the aromatic profile by GC-MS. The pervaporation of the cashew juice presented a high permeate flux, 0.11 kgh-1m-2 and 0.17 kg.hm-2, at 25 and 35 °C, respectively. The chromatograms showed an increase in the number of compounds in the permeate samples when compared to the chromatograms of the cashew juice. By comparing the peak areas, it could be observed that almost 50% of the identified components in the permeate samples presented an increase in the peak area, showing the potentiality of this process to the concentration of the aroma of cashew apple juice.

André von Randow de, Assis; Humberto Ribeiro, Bizzo; Virgínia Martins da, Matta; Lourdes Maria Corrêa, Cabral.

2007-06-01

159

Aroma-active compounds in jinhua ham produced with different fermentation periods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma-active compounds in Jinhua ham processed and stored for 9, 12, 15 and 18 months were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling (DHS) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS). In GC-O-MS, volatile compounds were identified based on their mass spectrum, linear retention index (LRI), odor properties, or reference compound comparisons. The results showed that a total number of 81 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-O-MS. Among them, acids (such as acetic acid, butanoic acid and 3-methylbutanoic acid), saturated aldehydes (such as hexanal, heptanal, octanal and 3-methylbutanal), benzene derivatives (such as benzeneacetic acid), ester and lactone (such as ?-nonalactone and ?-decalactone) were identified as critical compounds in Jinhua ham aroma. The results also indicated that the type and content of the odorants increased significantly with the duration of the fermentation period. PMID:25415474

Liu, Xiao-Sheng; Liu, Jian-Bin; Yang, Zheng-Mao; Song, Huan-Lu; Liu, Ye; Zou, Ting-Ting

2014-01-01

160

Chemical and sensory comparison of fresh and dried lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The odour-active volatile compounds of lulo fruit (Solanum quitoense Lam.) were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). GC-O and GCMS analyses as well as quantitation by internal standard method showed that (Z)-3-hexenal, ethyl butanoate, 3-sulphanylhexyl acetate, and ethyl hexanoate were key aroma compounds in this fruit. Other odorants with relevance because their contribution (high OAVs) to the overall aroma were 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, methyl benzoate, (E)-2-hexenal, and hexanal. Lulo fruit pulp in presence of maltodextrin DE-20 was dried by using four different types of drying methods: hot air-drying (HD), spray drying (SD), lyophilisation (LD), and ultrasonic convective hot air-drying (HUD). LD sample exhibited the highest sensory rank (lulo-like) in comparison with fresh fruit pulp. Hot-air drying processes (HD and HUD) changed adversely the aroma of lulo fruit pulp. PMID:25236202

Forero, Diana Paola; Orrego, Carlos Eduardo; Peterson, Devin Grant; Osorio, Coralia

2015-02-15

 
 
 
 
161

Determination of rotundone, the pepper aroma impact compound, in grapes and wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shiraz, also known as Syrah or Hermitage, is one of Australia's most popular red wine varieties both domestically and internationally. Black pepper aroma and flavor are important to some Australian Shiraz red wine styles. Recently, rotundone (a bicyclic sesquiterpene) was identified as the potent aroma compound responsible for pepper aromas in grapes, wine, herbs, and spices, including peppercorns. Here the development, optimization, and validation of the analytical method for the quantitative determination of rotundone in grapes and wine are described and discussed. The method is precise, accurate, robust, and sensitive with a subpart per trillion limit of quantitation. The method uses stable isotope dilution analysis with d(5)-rotundone as internal standard, solid-phase extraction and microextraction, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PMID:18461962

Siebert, Tracey E; Wood, Claudia; Elsey, Gordon M; Pollnitz, Alan P

2008-05-28

162

Identification of beverages and beverage stains by GC/MS using aroma components as indicators.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method to identify brown coloured beverages or beverage stains for criminological purposes was devised using aroma components as indicators. The examined beverages comprised three brands each of beer, coffee, cola and black tea, two brands of oolong tea, and four brands of green tea. Aroma components in each sample were efficiently concentrated with a porous polymer beads column (Porapak Q) and were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using n-octyl alcohol as the internal standard. Specific aroma components were found in each beverage and beverage stain, for example cis-terpin hydrate in cola, and thus identification of beverages or beverage stains became feasible through the detection of these specific components. The present method was applied efficiently to two practical criminological cases. PMID:9457532

Hida, Y; Matsumoto, M; Kudo, K; Imamura, T; Ikeda, N

1998-01-01

163

O aroma ambiental e sua relação com as avaliações e intenções do consumidor no varejo / Ambient scent and its relationship with consumer evaluations and intentions in retail / El aroma ambiental y su relación con las evaluaciones e intenciones del consumidor en el comercio minorista  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A atmosfera de uma loja é capaz de provocar emoções e comportamentos que estimulam a compra. Entre as suas dimensões, está o aroma ambiental, adicionado artificialmente ao ambiente. Este artigo investiga a relação entre a presença de aroma ambiental no varejo e as avaliações de loja, ambiente de loj [...] a e produtos, além das intenções comportamentais relativas ao retorno e ao tempo gasto na loja. A pesquisa teve uma etapa exploratória, exame de publicações em fisiologia, psicologia e comportamento do consumidor, para construção do referencial teórico e formulação das hipóteses, e outra causal, quase experimento, para identificar as relações de causa e efeito na presença de aroma. O estudo foi conduzido em uma butique de frutos do mar, e os instrumentos de coleta de dados, escalas de diferencial semântico, basearam-se em pesquisas similares. As análises incluíram técnicas de estatística descritiva e teste de hipóteses. Os resultados revelaram que a presença de aroma ambiental não aumentou as avaliações nem a intenção de retorno, mas reteve o consumidor por mais tempo na loja. Abstract in spanish La atmósfera de un negocio es capaz de generar emociones y comportamientos que estimulan la compra. Entre sus dimensiones, está el aroma ambiental, adicionado de modo artificial al ambiente. Este artículo averigua la relación entre la presencia de aroma ambiental en el comercio minorista y las evalu [...] aciones de negocio, ambiente de negocio y productos, además de las intenciones de comportamiento con respecto al retorno y al tiempo dedicado al negocio. La investigación tuvo una etapa exploratoria, examen de publicaciones en fisiología, psicología y comportamiento del consumidor, para construcción del referencial teórico y formulación de las hipótesis, y otra causal, casi-experimento, para identificar las relaciones de causa y efecto en la presencia del aroma. El estudio fue conducido en una especie de boutique para frutos del mar y, los instrumentos de colecta de datos, escalas de diferencial semántico, basaranse en investigaciones similares. Los análisis han incluido técnicas de estadística descriptiva y teste de hipótesis. Los resultados han revelado que la presencia de aroma ambiental no aumentó las evaluaciones ni la intención del retorno, pero mantuvo el consumidor por más tiempo en el negocio. Abstract in english The atmosphere of a store can be used to produce specific emotions that enhance purchase probability, and the ambient scent, artificially added, is among its dimensions. This article investigates the relationship between the presence of an ambient scent in a retail store, and customers' evaluation o [...] f the store, its environment and products, as well as the behavioral intentions related to return and time spent in the store. The research design included an exploratory stage, examination of publications in the fields of physiology, psychology and consumer behavior, to provide the conceptual background and to formulate research hypothesis; and a causal stage, quasi-experiment, to verify the effects of scent presence. Semantic differential scales were employed for data collection. Descriptive statistics and hypothesis test were performed for data analysis and the results revealed that the scent presence did not improve the evaluations or the intent to return but retained the consumer longer in the store.

André Luiz Carvalho Nunes da, Costa; Salomão Alencar de, Farias.

2011-12-01

164

O aroma ambiental e sua relação com as avaliações e intenções do consumidor no varejo / Ambient scent and its relationship with consumer evaluations and intentions in retail / El aroma ambiental y su relación con las evaluaciones e intenciones del consumidor en el comercio minorista  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A atmosfera de uma loja é capaz de provocar emoções e comportamentos que estimulam a compra. Entre as suas dimensões, está o aroma ambiental, adicionado artificialmente ao ambiente. Este artigo investiga a relação entre a presença de aroma ambiental no varejo e as avaliações de loja, ambiente de loj [...] a e produtos, além das intenções comportamentais relativas ao retorno e ao tempo gasto na loja. A pesquisa teve uma etapa exploratória, exame de publicações em fisiologia, psicologia e comportamento do consumidor, para construção do referencial teórico e formulação das hipóteses, e outra causal, quase experimento, para identificar as relações de causa e efeito na presença de aroma. O estudo foi conduzido em uma butique de frutos do mar, e os instrumentos de coleta de dados, escalas de diferencial semântico, basearam-se em pesquisas similares. As análises incluíram técnicas de estatística descritiva e teste de hipóteses. Os resultados revelaram que a presença de aroma ambiental não aumentou as avaliações nem a intenção de retorno, mas reteve o consumidor por mais tempo na loja. Abstract in spanish La atmósfera de un negocio es capaz de generar emociones y comportamientos que estimulan la compra. Entre sus dimensiones, está el aroma ambiental, adicionado de modo artificial al ambiente. Este artículo averigua la relación entre la presencia de aroma ambiental en el comercio minorista y las evalu [...] aciones de negocio, ambiente de negocio y productos, además de las intenciones de comportamiento con respecto al retorno y al tiempo dedicado al negocio. La investigación tuvo una etapa exploratoria, examen de publicaciones en fisiología, psicología y comportamiento del consumidor, para construcción del referencial teórico y formulación de las hipótesis, y otra causal, casi-experimento, para identificar las relaciones de causa y efecto en la presencia del aroma. El estudio fue conducido en una especie de boutique para frutos del mar y, los instrumentos de colecta de datos, escalas de diferencial semántico, basaranse en investigaciones similares. Los análisis han incluido técnicas de estadística descriptiva y teste de hipótesis. Los resultados han revelado que la presencia de aroma ambiental no aumentó las evaluaciones ni la intención del retorno, pero mantuvo el consumidor por más tiempo en el negocio. Abstract in english The atmosphere of a store can be used to produce specific emotions that enhance purchase probability, and the ambient scent, artificially added, is among its dimensions. This article investigates the relationship between the presence of an ambient scent in a retail store, and customers' evaluation o [...] f the store, its environment and products, as well as the behavioral intentions related to return and time spent in the store. The research design included an exploratory stage, examination of publications in the fields of physiology, psychology and consumer behavior, to provide the conceptual background and to formulate research hypothesis; and a causal stage, quasi-experiment, to verify the effects of scent presence. Semantic differential scales were employed for data collection. Descriptive statistics and hypothesis test were performed for data analysis and the results revealed that the scent presence did not improve the evaluations or the intent to return but retained the consumer longer in the store.

André Luiz Carvalho Nunes da, Costa; Salomão Alencar de, Farias.

165

Bound aroma compounds of Gual and Listán blanco grape varieties and their influence in the elaborated wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Listán blanco and Gual are two white grape varieties grown in Spain (Canary Islands) and Gual is also grown in Portugal (Madeira Island). Wine quality could be improved by exploiting the varietal characteristics present in grapes as aroma precursors. At the present time, the enologic potential of these varieties has not yet been studied. Aroma precursors in musts and skins, and free volatiles in wines were determined in samples of both varieties. Aroma precursors of must and skins were isolated by absorption on XAD-2 resin and the aglycone liberated by means of acid hydrolysis. Free volatiles from wines and from aroma precursors were extracted with dichloromethane and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the aroma precursors analysed, only ?-terpineol, linalool and linalool oxides, 4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin and benzyl alcohol showed contents in grapes comparable to the levels observed in wine volatile compounds. PMID:25214108

Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan J; Cabrera-Valido, Héctor M; Pérez-Trujillo, Juan P; Cacho, Juan

2011-08-01

166

Analysis of aroma-active compounds in three sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) cultivars by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS*  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Aroma is the core factor in aromatherapy. Sensory evaluation of aromas differed among three sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) cultivar groups. The purpose of this study was to investigate the aroma-active compounds responsible for these differences. Methods: Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to analyze the aroma-active compounds and volatiles of creamy-white (‘Houban Yingui’, HBYG), yellow (‘Liuye Jingui’, LYJG), and orange (‘Gecheng Dangui’, GCDG) cultivars. Results: Seventeen aroma-active compounds were detected among 54 volatiles. trans-?-Ocimene, trans-?-ionone, and linalool, which were major volatiles, were identified as aroma-active, while cis-3-hexenyl butanoate, ?-terpinene, and hexyl butanoate were also aroma-active compounds, although their contents were low. Analysis of the odors was based on the sum of the modified frequency (MF) values of aroma-active compounds in different odor groups. HBYG contained more herb odors, contributed by cis-?-ocimene and trans-?-ocimene, while LYJG had more woody/violet/fruity odors released by trans-?-ionone, ?-ionone, and hexyl butanoate. In GCDG, the more floral odors were the result of cis-linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide, and linalool. Conclusions: Aroma-active compounds were not necessarily only the major volatiles: some volatiles with low content also contributed to aroma. The aroma differences among the three cultivars resulted from variation in the content of different odor groups and in the intensities of aroma-active compounds. PMID:25001223

Cai, Xuan; Mai, Rong-zhang; Zou, Jing-jing; Zhang, Hong-yan; Zeng, Xiang-ling; Zheng, Ri-ru; Wang, Cai-yun

2014-01-01

167

Characterization of the key odorants in raw Italian hazelnuts ( Corylus avellana L. var. Tonda Romana) and roasted hazelnut paste by means of molecular sensory science.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations of 19 odorants, recently characterized by GC-olfactometry and aroma extract dilution analysis as the most odor-active compounds in raw hazelnuts, were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Calculation of odor activity values (OAV) on the basis of odor thresholds in oil revealed high OAVs, in particular for linalool, 5-methyl-4-heptanone, 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, and 4-methylphenol. A model mixture in sunflower oil containing the 13 odorants showing OAVs above 1 in their natural concentrations resulted in a good similarity compared to the overall nut-like, fruity aroma of the raw hazelnuts. Quantitation of the 25 most odor-active compounds in roasted hazelnut paste by SIDA showed clear changes in the concentrations of most odorants, and formation of new odor-active compounds induced by the roasting process was observed. The highest OAVs were calculated for 3-methylbutanal (malty), 2,3-pentanedione (buttery), 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn), and (Z)-2-nonenal (fatty), followed by dimethyl trisulfide, 2-furfurylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone. The aroma of a model mixture containing the 19 odorants with OAVs above 1 in their actual concentrations in the roasted nut material was judged to elicit a very good similarity to the popcorn-like, coffee-like, and sweet-smoky aroma of the roasted hazelnut paste. New SIDAs were developed for the quantitation of 5-methyl-4-heptanone, 5-methyl-(E)-2-hepten-4-one, 2-thenylthiol, and 3,5,5-trimethyl-2(5H)-furanone. PMID:22515832

Burdack-Freitag, Andrea; Schieberle, Peter

2012-05-23

168

Chromatography-Olfactometry Study of the Aroma of Fino Sherry Wines  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma of Fino sherry wines produced by industrial biological aging for 0, 1.5, 2.5, 4.5, and 6 years in the Montilla-Moriles region (southern Spain) was studied by gas chromatography-olfactometry. The aroma sensations detected by 3 trained sniffers were classified according to their odor descriptors into 8 odorant series (fruity, empyreumatic, chemical, fatty, balsamic, vegetable, floral, and spicy), describing the aroma profile of the studied wines. The results showed 47 detected odors in the unaged wines, 50 in the 1.5-years-old wines and 59, 61 and 69 in the wines aged 2.5, 4.5, and 6 years, respectively. According to the frequency of the perceived aromas, the fruity and empyreumatic series were the most characteristic odorant series. By exception of chemical, floral and balsamic series without changes during aging of the wines, the remainder series increased their participation during the aging, mainly the fruity, empyreumatic, and fatty series. PMID:20689702

Zea, L.; Moyano, L.; Ruiz, M. J.; Medina, M.

2010-01-01

169

Chromatography-Olfactometry Study of the Aroma of Fino Sherry Wines  

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Full Text Available The aroma of Fino sherry wines produced by industrial biological aging for 0, 1.5, 2.5, 4.5, and 6 years in the Montilla-Moriles region (southern Spain was studied by gas chromatography-olfactometry. The aroma sensations detected by 3 trained sniffers were classified according to their odor descriptors into 8 odorant series (fruity, empyreumatic, chemical, fatty, balsamic, vegetable, floral, and spicy, describing the aroma profile of the studied wines. The results showed 47 detected odors in the unaged wines, 50 in the 1.5-years-old wines and 59, 61 and 69 in the wines aged 2.5, 4.5, and 6 years, respectively. According to the frequency of the perceived aromas, the fruity and empyreumatic series were the most characteristic odorant series. By exception of chemical, floral and balsamic series without changes during aging of the wines, the remainder series increased their participation during the aging, mainly the fruity, empyreumatic, and fatty series.

M. Medina

2010-01-01

170

Chemical composition and aroma evaluation of essential oils from Evolvulus alsinoides L.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and the odor-active compounds of the essential oils from Evolvulus alsinoides, which is a well-known edible and medicinal plant. The volatile compounds in the oils were identified by hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) in combination with GC, GC/MS, GC/O (=olfactometry), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and relative flavor activities (RFA values). The most abundant compound in the HD oil was cis-?-necrodol (12.62%), an irregular monoterpene with a cyclopentane skeleton, which is very unusual in the plant kingdom. In the SAFE oil, the main components included 2-butoxyethanol (9.01%), benzyl alcohol (8.01%), and ?-butyrolactone (7.37%). Through sensory analysis, 21 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC/O. The most intense aroma-active compounds in the HD oil were hexan-1-ol and ?-nonalactone, both of which showed high RFA values. ?-Methyl-?-butyrolactone and dimethyl sulfone contributed more strongly to the aroma of the SAFE oil. These results imply that the essential oils of E. alsinoides deserve further investigation in the food industry. PMID:24634069

Kashima, Yusei; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

2014-03-01

171

Identification of novel aroma-active thiols in pan-roasted white sesame seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Screening for aroma-active compounds in an aroma distillate obtained from freshly pan-roasted sesame seeds by aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 32 odorants in the FD factor range of 2-2048, 29 of which could be identified. The highest FD factors were found for the coffee-like smelling 2-furfurylthiol, the caramel-like smelling 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, the coffee-like smelling 2-thenylthiol (thiophen-2-yl-methylthiol), and the clove-like smelling 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol. In addition, 9 odor-active thiols with sulfurous, meaty, and/or catty, black-currant-like odors were identified for the first time in roasted sesame seeds. Among them, 2-methyl-1-propene-1-thiol, (Z)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (Z)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, and 4-mercapto-3-hexanone were previously unknown as food constituents. Their structures were confirmed by comparing their mass spectra and retention indices as well as their sensory properties with those of synthesized reference compounds. The relatively unstable 1-alkene-1-thiols represent a new class of food odorants and are suggested as the key contributors to the characteristic, but quickly vanishing, aroma of freshly ground roasted sesame seeds. PMID:20491509

Tamura, Hitoshi; Fujita, Akira; Steinhaus, Martin; Takahisa, Eisuke; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Schieberle, Peter

2010-06-23

172

Identification of sulphur volatiles and GC-olfactometry aroma profiling in two fresh tomato cultivars.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten sulphur volatiles were observed in two Florida tomato cultivars ('Tasti-Lee' and 'FL 47') harvested at three maturity stages (breaker, turning, and pink) using gas chromatography with a pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD). Eight PFPD peaks were identified using retention values from authentic sulphur standards and GC-MS characteristic masses. Seven were quantified using an internal standard combined with external calibration curves. Dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide 2-propylthiazole and 2-s-butylthiazole were newly identified in fresh tomatoes. Principal component analysis of sulphur volatiles indicated that there were appreciable maturity stage differences clustered in separate quadrants. GC-olfactometry (GC-O) identified 50 aroma-active compounds in 'Tasti-Lee', with 10 reported as odorants in fresh tomatoes for the first time. Four sulphur volatiles exhibited aroma activity, including two of the newly-reported fresh tomato sulphur volatiles, 2-s-butylthiazole and dimethyl sulphide. GC-O aroma profiling indicated that the most intense aroma category was earthy-musty, followed by fruity-floral, green-grassy, sweet-candy and sweaty-stale-sulphurous. PMID:25308674

Du, Xiaofen; Song, Mei; Baldwin, Elizabeth; Rouseff, Russell

2015-03-15

173

Perceptual Characterization and Analysis of Aroma Mixtures Using Gas Chromatography Recomposition-Olfactometry  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the design of a new instrumental technique, Gas Chromatography Recomposition-Olfactometry (GC-R), that adapts the reconstitution technique used in flavor chemistry studies by extracting volatiles from a sample by headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME), separating the extract on a capillary GC column, and recombining individual compounds selectively as they elute off of the column into a mixture for sensory analysis (Figure 1). Using the chromatogram of a mixture as a map, the GC-R instrument allows the operator to “cut apart" and recombine the components of the mixture at will, selecting compounds, peaks, or sections based on retention time to include or exclude in a reconstitution for sensory analysis. Selective recombination is accomplished with the installation of a Deans Switch directly in-line with the column, which directs compounds either to waste or to a cryotrap at the operator's discretion. This enables the creation of, for example, aroma reconstitutions incorporating all of the volatiles in a sample, including instrumentally undetectable compounds as well those present at concentrations below sensory thresholds, thus correcting for the “reconstitution discrepancy" sometimes noted in flavor chemistry studies. Using only flowering lavender (Lavandula angustifola ‘Hidcote Blue’) as a source for volatiles, we used the instrument to build mixtures of subsets of lavender volatiles in-instrument and characterized their aroma qualities with a sensory panel. We showed evidence of additive, masking, and synergistic effects in these mixtures and of “lavender' aroma character as an emergent property of specific mixtures. This was accomplished without the need for chemical standards, reductive aroma models, or calculation of Odor Activity Values, and is broadly applicable to any aroma or flavor. PMID:22912722

Johnson, Arielle J.; Hirson, Gregory D.; Ebeler, Susan E.

2012-01-01

174

Characterization of geosmin as source of earthy odor in different aroma type Chinese liquors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthy odor is one of the most frequent and serious causes for the aroma deterioration in Chinese liquor, which causes a dirty and dusty impression. The odor in Chinese liquor is similar to that of rice husk, one kind of auxiliary material widely used as a filler in the distillation process. So it is experientially hypothesized that such odor may derive from rice husk. In this paper, the gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) technique and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to discover and identify the characteristic odoriferous zone of Chinese liquor marked by earthy odor. Geosmin was found to be responsible for this odor. The levels of the compound in ten bottled liquors and thirty liquors aging for different years belonging to four different aroma types were determined by the optimized headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method. Quantitative analysis of bottled liquor revealed the presence of geosmin in all aroma type liquors with concentrations ranging from 1.10 ?g/L to 9.90 ?g/L, except for strong-aroma type liquor. Meanwhile in the aged liquors belonging to the same aroma type, geosmin was detected with significant concentrations and high odor activity values (OAVs) during different years of aging. However, geosmin was not detected in steamed rice husk nor in nonsteamed rice husk, which suggests that rice husk is not the origin of earthy odor in Chinese liquor, and there may be another origin of it during the brewing process. PMID:21662241

Du, Hai; Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan

2011-08-10

175

Molecular analysis of the genes involved in aroma synthesis in the species S. cerevisiae, S. kudriavzevii and S. bayanus var. uvarum in winemaking conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Saccharomyces genus is the main yeast involved in wine fermentations to play a crucial role in the production and release of aromatic compounds. Despite the several studies done into the genome-wide expression analysis using DNA microarray technology in wine S. cerevisiae strains, this is the first to investigate other species of the Saccharomyces genus. This research work investigates the expression of the genes involved in flavor compound production in three different Saccharomyces species (S. cerevisiae, S. bayanus var. uvarum and S. kudriavzevii) under low (12°C) and moderate fermentation temperatures (28°C). The global genes analysis showed that 30% of genes appeared to be differently expressed in the three cryophilic strains if compared to the reference strain (mesophilic S. cerevisiae), suggesting a very close cold adaptation response. Remarkable differences in the gene expression level were observed when comparing the three species, S. cerevisiae, S. bayanus var. uvarum and S. kudriavzevii, which will result in different aroma profiles. Knowledge of these differences in the transcriptome can be a tool to help modulate aroma to create wines with the desired aromatic traits. PMID:24854353

Gamero, Amparo; Belloch, Carmela; Ibáñez, Clara; Querol, Amparo

2014-01-01

176

Effect of jasmonates on ethylene biosynthesis and aroma volatile emission in Japanese apricot infected by a pathogen (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of the application of the jasmonic acid derivative n-propyl dihydrojasmonate (PDJ) on ethylene biosynthesis, volatile compounds, and endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were examined in Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb.) infected by a pathogen (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). The fruit were dipped into 0.4 mM PDJ solution before inoculation with the pathogen and stored at 25 °C for 6 days. The inoculation induced an increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), ethylene, JA, and MeJA. In contrast, PDJ application reduced the endogenous JA, MeJA, and ethylene production and expression of the ACC oxidase gene (PmACO1) caused by the pathogen infection. The lesion diameter with C. gloeosporioides decreased upon PDJ application. The alcohol, ester, ketone, and lactone concentrations and alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) activity increased in the pathogen-infected fruit, but were decreased by PDJ application. These results suggest that PDJ application might influence ethylene production through PmACO1 and that aroma volatile emissions affected by pathogen infection can be correlated with the ethylene production, which is mediated by the levels of jasmonates. PMID:21599017

Nimitkeatkai, Hataitip; Shishido, Masahiro; Okawa, Katsuya; Ohara, Hitoshi; Ban, Yusuke; Kita, Masayuki; Moriguchi, Takaya; Ikeura, Hiromi; Hayata, Yasuyoshi; Kondo, Satoru

2011-06-22

177

Fragrance Analysis among Recombinant Inbred Lines of Rice  

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Full Text Available The aroma or fragrance of Basmati rice is associated with the presence of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. Aroma in Basmati is reported to be monogenic recessive. Several PCR-based co-dominant markers based on RG28 locus were developed which can differentiate between fragrant and non-fragrant rice cultivars. For analysis of aroma among RILs derived from a diverse cross between CSR 10 and Taraori Basmati through SSD method both molecular as well as biochemical methods were used to clearly distinguish aromatic and non-aromatic RILs of rice RG28 locus specific markers. Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs among various mapping populations provide a noble material for linkage of marker and trait. RILs were analyzed for polymorphism using RG28 locus specific primers (BAD2, BADEX7-5, SCUSSR1. Biochemical analysis of aroma was performed with the 1.7% KOH solution and molecular analysis of aroma was carried out with microsatellite markers present on chromosome 8 to determine the extent of association between trait, marker and chromosome 8. Out of these, BAD 2 amplified aroma specific alleles having 256 bp in 72 lines, BADEX7-5 with 95 bp in 74 lines and SCUSSR1 with 129 bp in 79 lines. Mental test of significance detected by biochemical analysis of RILs (with 1.7% KOH and molecular marker study revealed 97 , 95 and 90.1% of association of aroma with the markers, respectively. Some of the F10 lines amplified the heterozygous alleles by using the 2 sets of specific markers but did not show the presence of aroma as analyzed by chemical test. In Basmati, it seems that aroma is a complex trait and not as simple monogenic (3:1 as reported earlier. Aromatic and non-aromatic lines were almost common in three markers indicating association of markers with the trait and chromosome 8. The results revealed that these markers could be used for marker assisted selection and RIL population for mapping of aroma QTLs/genes.

R.K. Jain

2012-01-01

178

Characterization of the key odorants in pan-fried white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) by means of molecular sensory science: comparison with the raw mushroom tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction isolated from pan-fried white mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus L.) revealed 40 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192, among which the caramel-like smelling 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one showed the highest FD factor of 8192, followed by 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn-like) and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one (seasoning-like). A total of 36 compounds are reported for the first time in processed mushrooms, and 25 odorants showing the highest FD factors were then quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated as ratio of their concentrations to their odor thresholds. Among them, 3-methylbutanal (malty), 3-(methylthio)propanal (cooked potato), and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn-like) showed the highest OAVs (>100) in the pan-fried mushrooms, followed by 1-octen-3-one, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one, phenylacetaldehyde, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one with OAVs >10. An aqueous aroma recombinate containing 13 odorants (OAV > 1) in their actual concentrations in the fried mushrooms showed a good similarity to the original aroma profile. The quantitation of the key odorants in raw mushrooms, identified with high FD factors during the AEDA, revealed that numerous odorants were quantitatively changed by the frying process, but in particular the concentrations of 2-phenylacetaldehyde and 3-methylbutanal were higher by factors of ?40 and 6, respectively, compared to the amounts in the processed mushrooms. The data suggested an enzymatic formation of both Strecker aldehydes by the cut mushroom tissue. In total, 26 odorants were newly identified in raw mushrooms. PMID:23581517

Grosshauser, Sonja; Schieberle, Peter

2013-04-24

179

Effect of Temperature, Water Activity and Storage Time on Color Strength, Aroma and Bitterness of Saffron  

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Full Text Available Saffron is one of the most important crops in Iran and the quality of its dried stigma is highly depended on the processing and storage conditions. In this study, the effect of different storage conditions in terms of temperature (20, 30 and 40°C and water activity (0.32, 0.52 and 0.75 during 12 weeks storage on color strength, aroma and bitterness of saffron were investigated. In order to study of moisture (water activity different saturated solution of MgCl2, Mg(NO32, MgBr2 and NaCl in the various temperatures were used. Results showed the color strength decreased as temperature increased. Increasing of water activity resulted in deterioration of crocin and consequently decreasing of color. Furthermore, after 12 weeks of storage, the color strength had a noticeable decrease, the bitterness also decreased but the aroma increased.

R GHasemzadeh

2009-04-01

180

Distinctive exotic flavor and aroma compounds of some exotic tropical fruits and berries: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The characteristic flavor of exotic tropical fruits is one of their most attractive attributes to consumers. In this article, the enormous diversity of exotic fruit flavors is reviewed. Classifying some of the exotic fruits into two classes on the basis of whether esters or terpenes predominate in the aroma was also attempted. Indeed, as far as exotic tropical fruits are concerned, the majority of fruits have terpenes predominating in their aroma profile. Some of the fruits in this group are the Amazonian fruits such as pitanga, umbu-caja, camu-camu, garcinia, and bacuri. The ester group is made up of rambutan, durians, star fruit, snake fruit, acerola, tamarind, sapodilla, genipap, soursop, cashew, melon, jackfruit, and cupuacu respectively. Also, the role of sulphur-volatiles in some of the exotic fruits is detailed. PMID:22591343

Lasekan, Ola; Abbas, Kassim A

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Glycosidic aroma precursors of Syrah and Chardonnay grapes after an oak extract application to the grapevines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Syrah and Chardonnay grapevines were treated with an oak extract in order to determine the effect on glycosidic aroma precursors. Grapevines were treated at three different timings of the veraison (treatment 1, 2 and 3). Aglycons were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis, and these were identified and quantified by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results suggest that after the applications the majority of compounds from the oak extract were assimilated and stored as glycosidic forms in both cultivars. Also, other compounds not present in the extract were affected, with a different behaviour observed depending on the timing of application and the variety. In general, C6 compounds, alcohols, terpenes, phenols and C13-norisoprenoids in Syrah showed a decrease and in Chardonnay an increase. Thus, this study proved a change in the glycosidic aroma profile in grapes after the oak application, so these treated grapes could produce wines with different aromatic quality. PMID:23411201

Martínez-Gil, Ana M; Angenieux, Magaly; Pardo-García, Ana I; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Ojeda, Hernán; Rosario Salinas, M

2013-06-01

182

An extract procedure for studying the free and glycosilated aroma compounds in grapes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study seven published methods of extraction of skin free and bound volatile compounds have been compared. The free and bound volatiles were separated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and then analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the extraction of volatile compounds from grapes is highly affected by extraction solution features. The solution at pH 3.2 and 0% ethanol resulted the most effective as it led to the extraction of a higher number and amount of free and glycosilated volatile compounds. The selected extraction method of grape skin and the process of pulp juice were validated for quantitative determination of a wide range of grape aroma compounds. A total of 37 free and bound grape aroma compounds were quantified by GC-MS in selective ion monitoring modality (SIM). Among them, 26 volatile compounds resulted validated in grape skin and pulp juice. PMID:23122133

Genovese, Alessandro; Gambuti, Angelita; Lamorte, Simona A; Moio, Luigi

2013-01-15

183

Assessment of changes in the aroma and sensory profile of dawadawa due to modification in fermentation conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dawadawa is the most popular traditional condiment in West Africa and is produced by the fermentation of African locust bean seeds. Though the alkaline fermentation results in the production of a tasty condiment, it has a strong ammoniacal odour which some consumers find unattractive and offensive. This work was carried out to develop procedures for reducing the pungent odour of dawadawa in order to increase its popularity and market value especially amongst non-traditional users. Various treatments were applied to the fermenting locust bean seeds 15 hours into the fermentation which lasted for a total of 96 hours. Some treatments were also tested on the beans after fermentation. Treatments which were applied during fementation were fementation under conditions of limited oxygen, low temperature fermentation, irradiation by gamma radiation and steaming. Post-fermentation treatments were partial frying and roasting after fermentation. Samples were taken during fermentation and analyzed for Bacillus count on Nutrient Agar, pH, percentage titratable acidity, moisture content by the oven dry method, crude protein content by the kjeldhal method and texture by the texture analyzer. The final product was analyzed for aroma profile by GC-MS analysis using the Dynamic Headspace Sampling (DHS) method and also by descriptive sensory analysis by a semi-trained panel. Application of all the treatments applied during fermentation resulted in a ten to a hundredfold lower Bacillus counts compared to the control sample at various stages of fermentation. The reduction in the Bacillus activities resulted in a lower rise in pH giving final pH values of 6.8 to 7.53 compared to 8.37 in the control. The rise in pH was due to the proteolytic activity of the Bacillus species which break down the proteins into peptides and amino acids and subsequently utilize the amino acids to produce ammonia leading to the rise in pH. All the samples recorded a simultaneous increase in titratable acidity ranging from 0.006% to 0.037% in the control sample. The moisture content for all samples ranged from 54 to 73% with steaming for 10 minutes recording the highest value due to pick up of moisture during steaming. The protein content of all the samples increased during fermentation with final values which ranged between 30.42 to 37.64%. The texture of all the locust bean cotyledons softened during fermentation and the lowest value of hardness 15 was recorded for the limited oxygen sample and the highest value of 152 for the low temperature fermentation. The results of the instrumental textural analysis were supported by the assessment of the texture by the sensory panel which found the control sample to have the softest and smoothest texture due to the greater degree of fermentation of the control sample and which also results in the more pronounced ammoniacal odour. In the description sensory analysis, the panel assessed higher intensities of the descriptors which were considered undesirable/objectionable in the control sample than in the treated sample. These descriptors were stink fish ( momone), Koobi (salted/fermented tilapia) and sweaty sock. The more neutral/tolerant odour notes of rancid oil, fermented cocoa beans, smoked fish and palm kernel oil were higher in the treated sample. The aroma profile of dawadawa was affected by application of the treatments. Forty-nine aroma compounds in total were isolated form the differently treated dawadawa samples. They included mostly esters of acetic, butanoic and propanoic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, furans, sulfur compounds, pyrazines and a pyrrole. In spite of the known pungent smell of dawadawa, most of the aroma compounds identified were esters which are known for their fruity, pleasant odours. However, about 12 of aroma compounds identified such as the sulfur compounds-dimetyhl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide are reported to have strong pungent odours whilst 2,3-benzohyrrole is known to exhibit the charateristic odour of faeces. The levels of all but eight (2-Methlpropyl acetate; 2- Pentylfuran; 1-P

184

Non-Destructive Assessment of Aroma Volatiles from a Climacteric Near-Isogenic Line of Melon Obtained by Headspace Stir-Bar Sorptive Extraction  

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Full Text Available A climacteric aromatic near-isogenic line (NIL of melon (Cucumis melo L. SC3-5-1 contained an introgression of the non-climacteric Korean cultivar “Shongwan Charmi” accession PI 161375 (SC in the genetic background of the non-climacteric cultivar “Piel de Sapo” (PS. The aroma production was monitored during ripening at 21 °C in intact fruit using headspace sorptive bar extraction (HSSE. Bars were composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and aromas were desorbed and analyzed by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry. The aromatic profile was composed of 70 aromatic compounds plus 21 alkanes with a predominance of esters, particularly acetate (2-methylbutyl acetate, 2-methylpropyl acetate, hexyl acetate, and phenylmethyl acetate. Some compounds were severely affected by postharvest time. The acetate esters (3-methylbutyl acetate, butan-2-yl acetate and phenylmethyl acetate decreased with ripening and sulfur-derived compounds (S-methyl butanethioate and S-methyl 3-methylbutanethioate increased gradually with ripening. A few compounds increased at the senescence phase (propyl ethanoate. Other compounds such as hexadecanoic acid showed a marked decrease after harvest, some decreasing from a relative maximum at harvest (2-methylpropyl hexanoate; n-hexanoic acid; nonanoic acid.

Juan Pablo Fernández-Trujillo

2013-08-01

185

Analysis of beer aroma using purge-and-trap sampling and gas chromatography  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fingerprint profiles generated through GC analysis, are powerful tools for quality control in the food and beverage industry. Beer aroma profiles can be used for the fingerprinting of specific beer brands or for trouble shooting purposes such as the identification of off-flavours. The multichannel silicone rubber trap (MCT) lends itself perfectly to this task. The simplicity and robustness of the MCT makes it ideal for concentrating the volatile compounds that constitute the arom...

Potgieter, Nardus

2007-01-01

186

Einfluss der Temperatur beim Rösten von Sesam auf Aroma und antioxidative Eigenschaften des Öls  

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Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, die durch Röstung von Sesam bewirkte antioxidative Wirkung des Produktes in eine Korrelation zum Aroma zu setzen. Durch Säulenchromatographie wurden die wichtigsten Antioxidantien des Sesamöls identifiziert: Sesamin wirkt im Körper bedingt antioxidativ. Es ist noch bei 180°C stabil, zersetzt sich aber bei 200°C. Sesamol verstärkt seine Konzentration mit steigender Temperatur auch über 200°C. Es wird vermutet, dass es durch thermischen Abbau des Se...

Kim, Jeong Seon

2001-01-01

187

Study on Healing Environment Using Green, Blue and Red LED and Aroma  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we evaluated the effects of 1/f fluctuation of Green LED light emitted from the specific object by using psychological and physiological experimental tests of spectral electroencephalogram (EEG) topography. In addition, we also verified that the combination of appropriate aroma, blue LED light irradiation and music such as “Mozart: Serenade in Eine Kleine Nacht Musik” has improved mental healing conditions. We confirmed the possibility that the effect of “Healing” would be improved by the above mentioned environments.

Miyaho, Noriharu; Konno, Noriko; Shimada, Takamasa

188

Pollen aroma fingerprint of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes characterized by different pollen colors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples of fresh pollen grains, collected from capitula in full bloom from two genotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and characterized by a different color, i.e., white-cream (WC) and orange (O), were analyzed by the HS-SPME (headspace?solid phase microextraction)/GC/MS technique. This study defined for the first time the fingerprint of the sunflower pollen, separated from the disc flowers, to define its contribution to the inflorescence aroma. In the GC/MS fingerprints of the WC and O genotypes, 61 and 62 volatile compounds were identified, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (34% in O vs. 28% in WC) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (37% in O vs. 31% in WC) were ubiquitous in all samples analyzed and represented the main chemical classes. ?-Pinene (21% in O vs. 20% in WC) and sabinene (11% in O vs. 6% in WC) were the dominant volatiles, but also a full range of aliphatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives gave a decisive contribution to the aroma composition (10% in O vs. 12% in WC). In addition, dendrolasin (3% in O vs. 4% in WC) and some minor constituents such as (E)-hex-2-en-1-ol (0.4% in O vs. 0.1% in WC) were pointed out not only for their contribution to the pollen scent, but also for their well-known role in the plant ecological relationships. Having evaluated two pollen morphs with different carotenoid-based colors, the study sought to highlight also the presence of some volatile precursors or derivatives of these pigments in the aroma. However, the pollen aroma of the two selected genotypes made a specific chemical contribution to the sunflower inflorescence scent without any influence on carotenoid derivatives. PMID:21922665

Bertoli, Alessandra; Fambrini, Marco; Doveri, Silvia; Leonardi, Michele; Pugliesi, Claudio; Pistelli, Luisa

2011-09-01

189

A Study of Inhalation of Peppermint Aroma on the Pain and Anxiety  

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Background and Objectives: Considering the painfulness of labor and its resulting anxiety, and also, complications such as uterine dysfunction, prolonged labor, and unpleasant memories, the present study was performed aimed to investigate the effect of peppermint aroma on the level of pain and anxiety in the first stage of labor in nulliparous women.Methods: This research was done as a clinical trial study on 128 nulliparous women assigned into two groups (64 subjects in aromatherapy group an...

Giti Ozgoli; Zeinab Aryamanesh; Faraz Mojab; Hamid Alavi Majd

2013-01-01

190

Effects of the origins of Botrytis cinerea on earthy aromas from grape broth media further inoculated with Penicillium expansum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthy "off" aromas from wine and grape juice are highly detrimental to the production of quality grape products. These volatile compounds are produced on grapes by Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum and/or a combination of P. expansum and B. cinerea strains. B. cinerea strains were isolated from different (a) vineyards in Spain and Portugal, (b) grape varieties (c) bunches (i.e., sound and botrytized) and (d) positions in the botrytized bunch (i.e., interior or exterior). A novel Headspace-Phase Microextraction (SPME) followed by Gas Chromatrography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) dedicated to analyze geosmin, methylisoborneol (MIB), 1-octen-3-ol, fenchone and fenchol in grape broth medium was used. Approximately 50% of the B. cinerea strains induced detectable geosmin. One strain accumulated significant amounts of anisoles, demonstrating that this contamination might already occur in the vineyard. Strains from the interior of Cainho grape bunches induced more geosmin and hence it may be possible to reduce this volatile in wine by avoiding using these grapes in case of B. cinerea attack. PMID:21569951

Morales-Valle, H; Silva, L C; Paterson, R R M; Venâncio, A; Lima, N

2011-08-01

191

Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and ?-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and ?-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (PMeJA-treated black tea was clearly improved. PMID:24711352

Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

2014-04-01

192

Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants*  

Science.gov (United States)

Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and ?-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and ?-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (PMeJA-treated black tea was clearly improved. PMID:24711352

Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

2014-01-01

193

Influence of temperature, modified atmosphere packaging, and heat treatment on aroma compounds in broccoli.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma compounds in broccoli stored in different modified atmospheres were studied. The packaging materials used were oriented polypropylene (OPP), poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) containing an ethylene-absorbing sachet. All samples were stored for either 1 week at a constant temperature of 10 degrees C or for 3 days at 4 degrees C, followed by 4 days at 10 degrees C. The atmospheres that developed inside the packaging materials differed significantly. The broccoli samples were analyzed raw and after cooking, with regard to volatile compounds, using gas-phase (headspace) extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), hexanal, 3-cis-hexen-1-ol, nonanal, ethanol, and a group of thiocyanates were selected for a detailed study because these compounds cause off-odor and can be used as indicators of stress. Significant differences were found in the aroma profiles of the broccoli samples relative to the packaging materials used for storage. Storage in OPP (14% O(2), 10.5% CO(2)) resulted in most of the off-odors, while storage in LDPE (6% O(2), 7% CO(2)) and PVC (17.9% O(2), 4% CO(2)) was found to maintain the concentration of DMS, DMDS, and DMTS during storage. Heat treatment of the broccoli increased the content of aroma compounds as well as the number of compounds containing sulfur. PMID:15030219

Jacobsson, Annelie; Nielsen, Tim; Sjöholm, Ingegerd

2004-03-24

194

Coupling gas chromatography and electronic nose detection for detailed cigarette smoke aroma characterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma characterization of whole cigarette smoke samples using sensory panels or electronic nose (E-nose) devices is difficult due to the masking effect of major constituents and solvent used for the extraction step. On the other hand, GC in combination with olfactometry detection does not allow to study the delicate balance and synergetic effect of aroma solutes. To overcome these limitations a new instrumental set-up consisting of heart-cutting gas chromatography using a capillary flow technology based Deans switch and low thermal mass GC in combination with an electronic nose device is presented as an alternative to GC-olfactometry. This new hyphenated GC-E-nose configuration is used for the characterization of cigarette smoke aroma. The system allows the transfer, combination or omission of selected GC fractions before injection in the E-nose. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factor analysis (DFA) allowed clear visualizing of the differences among cigarette brands and classifying them independently of their nicotine content. Omission and perceptual interaction tests could also be carried out using this configuration. The results are promising and suggest that the GC-E-nose hyphenation is a good approach to measure the contribution level of individual compounds to the whole cigarette smoke. PMID:25260341

Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Tienpont, Bart; Mitsui, Kazuhisa; Masugi, Eri; Yoshimura, Yuta; Nagata, Hisanori; David, Frank; Sandra, Pat

2014-10-24

195

Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in cherry (Prunus avium L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports the occurrence of both free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in three sweet cherry cultivars ('Hongdeng', 'Hongyan' and 'Rainier'), with 97 compounds being identified in the three cultivars. The major free volatile compounds found were hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. The major bound volatile compounds found were benzyl alcohol, geraniol, 2-phenylethanol. Also 4-vinylphenol was found in cherry fruit for the first time, and has a relatively high concentration of the glycosidically-bound form in 'Rainier'. Odour activity values (OAVs) were determined for both free and bound volatiles, with 18 compounds having an OAV above 1. The highest OAVs for three cultivars were (E)-?-ionone, hexanal, decanal and (E)-2-hexenal with the highest being over 800 for (E)-?-ionone in 'Honyang'. From these results, it was concluded that the aroma compounds present were similar in all three cultivars, but there was significant variation found in their levels and hence contribution to the aroma of these cultivars. PMID:24444903

Wen, Ya-Qin; He, Fei; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Li, Chun-You; Reeves, Malcolm J; Wang, Jun

2014-01-01

196

Fractionation and identification of minor and aroma-active constituents in Kangra orthodox black tea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma constituents of Kangra orthodox black tea were isolated by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), supercritical fluid extraction and beverage method. The aroma-active compounds were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry. Geraniol, linalool, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, (E)-2-hexenal, phytol, ?-ionone, hotrienol, methylpyrazine and methyl salicylate were major volatile constituents in all the extracts. Minor volatile compounds in all the extracts were 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, ethylpyrazine, 2-6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, acetylfuran, hexanoic acid, dihydroactinidiolide and (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal. The concentrated SDE extract was fractionated into acidic, basic, water-soluble and neutral fractions. The neutral fraction was further chromatographed on a packed silica gel column eluted with pentane and diethyl ether to separate minor compounds. The aroma-active compounds identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry were 2-amylfuran, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 1-pentanol, epoxylinalool, (Z)-jasmone, 2-acetylpyrrole, farnesyl acetone, geranyl acetone, cadinol, cubenol and dihydroactinidiolide. AEDA studies showed 2-hexenal, 3-hexenol, ethylpyrazine, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, linalool, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, geraniol, phenylethanol, ?-ionone, hotrienol and dihydroactinidiolide to be odour active components. PMID:25148991

Joshi, Robin; Gulati, Ashu

2015-01-15

197

Tomato fruits expressing a bacterial feedback-insensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase of the shikimate pathway possess enhanced levels of multiple specialized metabolites and upgraded aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit contains significant amounts of bioactive compounds, particularly multiple classes of specialized metabolites. Enhancing the synthesis and accumulation of these substances, specifically in fruits, are central for improving tomato fruit quality (e.g. flavour and aroma) and could aid in elucidate pathways of specialized metabolism. To promote the production of specialized metabolites in tomato fruit, this work expressed under a fruit ripening-specific promoter, E8, a bacterial AroG gene encoding a 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS), which is feedback-insensitive to phenylalanine inhibition. DAHPS, the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, links between the primary and specialized metabolism derived from aromatic amino acids. AroG expression influenced the levels of number of primary metabolites, such as shikimic acid and aromatic amino acids, as well as multiple volatile and non-volatile phenylpropanoids specialized metabolites and carotenoids. An organoleptic test, performed by trained panellists, suggested that the ripe AroG-expressing tomato fruits had a preferred floral aroma compare with fruits of the wild-type line. These results imply that fruit-specific manipulation of the conversion of primary to specialized metabolism is an attractive approach for improving fruit aroma and flavour qualities as well as discovering novel fruit-specialized metabolites. PMID:24006429

Tzin, Vered; Rogachev, Ilana; Meir, Sagit; Moyal Ben Zvi, Michal; Masci, Tania; Vainstein, Alexander; Aharoni, Asaph; Galili, Gad

2013-11-01

198

Characterization of the interaction between two food aroma components, alpha-pinene and ethyl butyrate, and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) packaging films as a function of environmental humidity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOHs) are well-known high oxygen barrier materials that are being used successfully in the design of packaging structures for oxygen-sensitive food or pharmaceutical products. Recently, there has been increasing interest in using EVOH materials to provide a high barrier to organic compounds as a means to reduce food aroma scalping. However, the barrier function of this family of materials diminishes significantly in humid environments, and it is supposed that so does the organic vapor barrier. In this work, a new sorption-based method to characterize the interaction between food aroma and polymer films for packaging as a function of relative humidity is presented and is used to determine the barrier to ethyl butyrate and alpha-pinene of EVOH at 23 degrees C. The results show that although EVOH is an excellent barrier to food aroma when dry, a property that even improves at low relative humidity (RH), the solubility and diffusivity of the compounds tested increase dramatically with humidity at medium to high water activities. However, even in the worst case (100% RH), EVOH outperforms low-density polyethylene (LDPE) as a barrier to organic vapors at least 500,000-fold. PMID:16131132

López-Carballo, Gracia; Cava, David; Lagarón, Jose M; Catalá, Ramón; Gavara, Rafael

2005-09-01

199

De aromas e perfumes, o mercado da indústria do "cheiro" From aromas and perfumes, the market of the "smell" industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several flavors and fragrances (F&F companies hold the economic leadership in the market, although not always have also the leadership in patent applications. The ranking of technological production in the fragrance area still remains with industries while scientific knowledge is equally shared between industries and academia. Contextualizing Brazil in this scene, despite all scientific expertise gained over the years, brazilian technological park is still at the beginning of the production of technologies applied directly to the F&F industries. The dependence on foreign technologies is remarkable as indicated by the great trade deficit in this sector.

Marcelo Gomes Speziali

2012-01-01

200

Key Changes in Wine Aroma Active Compounds during Bottle Storage of Spanish Red Wines under Different Oxygen Levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples from 16 Spanish red wines have been stored for 6 months at 25 °C under different levels of oxygen (0-56 mg/L). Amino acids, metals, and phenolic compounds were analyzed and related to the production or depletion of key oxidation- and reduction-related aroma compounds. Oxidation brings about sensory-relevant increases in Strecker aldehydes, 1-octen-3-one, and vanillin. Formation of Strecker aldehydes correlates to the wine content on the corresponding amino acid precursor, Zn, and caffeic acid ethyl ester and negatively to some flavonols and anthocyanin derivatives. Formation of most carbonyls correlates to wine-combined SO2, suggesting that part of the increments are the result of the release of aldehydes forming bisulfite combinations once SO2 is oxidized. Methanethiol (MeSH) and dimethylsulfide (DMS), but not H2S levels, increase during storage. MeSH increments correlate to methionine levels and proanthocyanidins and negatively to resveratrol and aluminum. H2S, MeSH, and DMS levels all decreased with oxidation, and for the latter two, there are important effects of Mn and pH, respectively. PMID:25284059

Ferreira, Vicente; Bueno, Mónica; Franco-Luesma, Ernesto; Culleré, Laura; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

2014-10-15

 
 
 
 
201

An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-ion-trap mass spectrometer for the on-line analysis of volatile compounds in foods: a tool for linking aroma release to aroma perception.  

Science.gov (United States)

An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion-trap mass spectrometer was set up for the on-line analysis of aroma compounds. This instrument, which has been successfully employed for some years in several in vitro and in vivo flavour release studies, is described for the first time in detail. The ion source was fashioned from polyether ether ketone and operated at ambient pressure and temperature making use of a discharge corona pin facing coaxially the capillary ion entrance of the ion-trap mass spectrometer. Linear dynamic ranges (LDR), limits of detection (LOD) and other analytical characteristics have been re-evaluated. LDRs and LODs have been found fully compatible with the concentrations of aroma compounds commonly found in foods. Thus, detection limits have been found in the low ppt range for common flavouring aroma compounds (for example 5.3?ppt (0.82?ppbV) for ethyl hexanoate and 4.8?ppt (1.0?ppbV) for 2,5-dimethylpyrazine). This makes the instrument applicable for in vitro and in vivo aroma release investigations. The use of dynamic sensory techniques such as the temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) method conducted simultaneously with in vivo aroma release measurements allowed to get some new insights in the link between flavour release and flavour perception. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25230189

Le Quéré, Jean-Luc; Gierczynski, Isabelle; Sémon, Etienne

2014-09-01

202

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) using aroma extract dilution analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract of the dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica obtained by extraction with diethyl ether followed by sublimation in vacuo revealed 28 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 4-8192, all of which could be identified. The highest FD factor was found for linalol (floral), followed by (E)-beta-ocimene (flowery), alpha-farnesene (sweet, flowery), beta-pinene (terpeny), alpha-pinene (pine needle-like), myrtenol (flowery), and beta-phellandrene (terpeny). Vanillin (vanilla-like) and 3-ethylphenol (smoky, phenolic) showing somewhat lower FD factors (FD = 128) were detected for the first time as constituents of the dried fruit. PMID:10552646

Tairu, A O; Hofmann, T; Schieberle, P

1999-08-01

203

De aromas e perfumes, o mercado da indústria do "cheiro" / From aromas and perfumes, the market of the "smell" industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Several flavors and fragrances (F&F) companies hold the economic leadership in the market, although not always have also the leadership in patent applications. The ranking of technological production in the fragrance area still remains with industries while scientific knowledge is equally shared bet [...] ween industries and academia. Contextualizing Brazil in this scene, despite all scientific expertise gained over the years, brazilian technological park is still at the beginning of the production of technologies applied directly to the F&F industries. The dependence on foreign technologies is remarkable as indicated by the great trade deficit in this sector.

Marcelo Gomes, Speziali.

204

PENGEMBANGAN AROMA DAN CITA RASA BAKSO DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN FLAVOR [Development of Aroma and Taste of Meat Ball Using Flavor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bakso is one of the most popular meat product in Indonesia. This research studied of effect of addition of falvor to the quality of meat ball. The analysis included physical characteristics (specific gravity, hardness, shear, elasticity and color organoleptic test). The results showed that : according to consumer preference, the most like flavour that added in the meat ball were the flavour of beef Q. 1.%, beef Q 1.5%, Beef WIN 1.5% and beef Fat WIN 1.0%. the use of flavor did not cause diffe...

Aulia 2); Joko Hermianto 1)

2001-01-01

205

Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The sensory quality of chocolate is widely determined by the qualitative and quantitative composition of volatile compounds resulting from microbial metabolism during fermentation, and Maillard reactions taking place during drying, roasting and conching. The influence of applying mixed starter cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, and compared to commercially fermented heap and tray cocoa. Although only minor differences in the concentration of free amino acids and reducing sugars was measured, identification and quantification by dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS/GC-MS) revealed pronounced differences in the composition of volatiles in roasted cocoa liquors and finished chocolates. 19 of the 56 volatile compounds identified in the chocolates were found in significantly higher amounts in the tray fermented sample, whilst significantly higher amounts of 2-methoxyphenol was measured in the two inoculated chocolates. The P. kluyveri inoculated chocolate was characterized by a significantly higher concentration of phenylacetaldehyde and the K. marxianus inoculated chocolate by significantly higher amounts of benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol, benzyl acetate and phenethyl acetate compared to a spontaneously fermented control. Sensory profiling described the heap and tray fermented chocolates as sweet with cocoa and caramel flavours, whilst the inoculated chocolates were characterized as fruity, acid and bitter with berry, yoghurt and balsamic flavours. The choice of fermentation technique had the greatest overall impact on the volatile aroma and sensory profile, but whilst the application of starter cultures did affect the volatile aroma profile, differences were too small to significantly change consumer perception of the chocolates as compared to a spontaneously fermented control. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna

2014-01-01

206

Effect of Temperature, Water Activity and Storage Time on Color Strength, Aroma and Bitterness of Saffron  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saffron is one of the most important crops in Iran and the quality of its dried stigma is highly depended on the processing and storage conditions. In this study, the effect of different storage conditions in terms of temperature (20, 30 and 40°C) and water activity (0.32, 0.52 and 0.75) during 12 weeks storage on color strength, aroma and bitterness of saffron were investigated. In order to study of moisture (water activity) different saturated solution of MgCl2, Mg(NO3)2, MgBr2 and NaCl in...

Ghasemzadeh, R.; Sedaghat, N.; Farhosh, R.; Shahidi, F.; Bolandi, M.

2009-01-01

207

The effects of gamma-irradiation on some pure aroma compounds of spices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical changes due to gamma-irradiation were investigated in 11 pure aroma compounds typically found in spices. Samples were irradiated with doses of 0, 10, and 50 kGy. The irradiation source was 60Co. Irradiated samples and unirradiated controls were analyzed by gas chromatography alone and coupled with mass spectrometry. Significant changes due to the irradiation occurred only in (+/-)-linalool and alpha-terpineol, which are typical components of, for example, coriander and bay leaf. Their total amounts decreased by about 4-13% and some minor peaks increased as a result of irradiation. However, different results may be obtained when the spices themselves are irradiated. PMID:2238837

Sjövall, O; Honkanen, E; Kallio, H; Latva-Kala, K; Sjöberg, A M

1990-09-01

208

Identification of Key Odorants in Withering-Flavored Green Tea by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This research aims to identify key odorants in withering-flavored green tea. Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis using the volatile fraction of green tea and withering-flavored green tea revealed 25 and 35 odor-active peaks with the flavor dilution factors of?4, respectively. 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, (E)-2-nonenal, linalool, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal and 3-methylnonane-2,4-dione were key odorants in green tea with the flavor dilution factor of?16. As well as these 5 odorants, 1-octen-3-one, ?-damascenone, geraniol, ?-ionone, (Z)-methyljasmonate, indole and coumarine contributed to the withering flavor of green tea.

Mizukami, Yuzo; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

209

Screening of Brazilian fruit aromas using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Manual headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for the qualitative analysis of the aromas of four native Brazilian fruits: cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Spreng.), cajá (Spondias lutea. L.), siriguela (Spondias purpurea, L.) and graviola (Anona reticulata, L). Industrialized pulps of these fruits were used as samples, and extractions with SPME fibers coated with polydimethylsiloxane, polyacrylate, Carbowax and Carboxen were carried out. The analytes identified included several alcohols, esters, carbonyl compounds and terpernoids. The highest amounts extracted, evaluated from the sum of peak areas, were achieved using the Carboxen fiber. PMID:10757290

Augusto, F; Valente, A L; dos Santos Tada, E; Rivellino, S R

2000-03-17

210

Understanding the role of saliva in aroma release from wine by using static and dynamic headspace conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to determine the role of saliva in wine aroma release by using static and dynamic headspace conditions. In the latter conditions, two different sampling points (t = 0 and t = 10 min) corresponding with oral (25.5 °C) and postoral phases (36 °C) were monitored. Both methodologies were applied to reconstituted dearomatized white and red wines with different nonvolatile wine matrix compositions and a synthetic wine (without matrix effect). All of the wines had the same ethanol concentration and were spiked with a mixture of 45 aroma compounds covering a wide range of physicochemical characteristics at typical wine concentrations. Two types of saliva (human and artificial) or control samples (water) were added to the wines. The adequacy of the two headspace methodologies for the purposes of the study (repeatability, linear ranges, determination coefficients, etc.) was previously determined. After application of different chemometric analysis (ANOVA, LSD, PCA), results showed a significant effect of saliva on aroma release dependent on saliva type (differences between artificial and human) and on wine matrix using static headspace conditions. Red wines were more affected than white and synthetic wines by saliva, specifically human saliva, which provoked a reduction in aroma release for most of the assayed aroma compounds independent of their chemical structure. The application of dynamic headspace conditions using a saliva bioreactor at the two different sampling points (t = 0 and t = 10 min) showed a lesser but significant effect of saliva than matrix composition and a high influence of temperature (oral and postoral phases) on aroma release. PMID:25075966

Muñoz-González, Carolina; Feron, Gilles; Guichard, Elisabeth; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J José; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

2014-08-20

211

Aroma active volatiles in four southern highbush blueberry cultivars determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma active volatiles in four southern highbush blueberry cultivars ('Prima Dona', 'Jewel', 'Snow Chaser', and 'Kestrel') were determined using solid phase microextraction (SPME) in combination with gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and identified via GC-PFPD and GC-MS using retention indices of reference compounds and mass spectral data. The aromas of total, unseparated SPME extracts evaluated using GC-O were rated 8.2-9.0/10 for the four cultivars in terms of similarity to the original blueberry homogenates. In terms of GC-O aroma similarity, those aroma active volatile groups characterized as green, fruity, and floral were most intense. Of the 43 volatiles found to have aroma activity, 38 were identified and 13 had not been previously reported in blueberries. Although linalool and (E)-2-hexenal were common major aroma impact volatiles, dominant aroma-active volatiles were different for each cultivar. Principal component analysis confirmed that each cultivar possessed a unique aroma active profile as each cultivar was clustered into a separate score plot quadrant. PMID:24758568

Du, Xiaofen; Rouseff, Russell

2014-05-21

212

Functional characterization of three Coffea arabica L. monoterpene synthases: insights into the enzymatic machinery of coffee aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical composition of the coffee beverage is extremely complex, being made up of hundreds of volatile and non-volatile compounds, many of which are generated in the thermal reactions that occur during the roasting process. However, in the raw coffee bean there are also compounds that survive roasting and are therefore extracted into the beverage. Monoterpenes are an example of this category, as their presence has been reported in the coffee flower, fruit, seed, roasted bean and in the beverage aroma. The present work describes the isolation, heterologous expression and functional characterization of three Coffea arabica cDNAs coding for monoterpene synthases. RNA was purified from C. arabica (cv. Catuai Red) flowers, seeds and fruits at 4 successive ripening stages. Degenerate primers were designed on the most conserved regions of the monoterpene synthase gene family, and then used to isolate monoterpene synthase-like sequences from the cDNA libraries. After 5'- and 3'-RACE, the complete transcripts of 4 putative C. arabica monoterpene synthases (CofarTPS) were obtained. Gene expression in different tissues and developmental stages was analysed. After heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, enzyme activity and substrate specificity were evaluated in vitro by incubation of the recombinant proteins with geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP), geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) and farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), precursors respectively of mono-, di- and sesquiterpenes. The reaction products were characterized by HS-SPME GC-MS. CofarTPS1 was classified as a limonene synthase gene, while CofarTPS2 and 3 showed lower activity with the production of linalool and ?-myrcene. PMID:23398891

Del Terra, Lorenzo; Lonzarich, Valentina; Asquini, Elisa; Navarini, Luciano; Graziosi, Giorgio; Suggi Liverani, Furio; Pallavicini, Alberto

2013-05-01

213

S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides, alliinase and aroma in Leucocoryne.  

Science.gov (United States)

Levels of S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides, alliinase and enzymatically generated pyruvic acid were determined in the bulb, leaf and scape of five species and a natural hybrid of Leucocoryne (Liliaceae), a genus of ornamental geophytes indigenous to Chile. (+)-S-Methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (MCSO) was present in all plant parts of all species at levels between 0.09 and 1.41 mg g(-1) fr. wt. Trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (PRENCSO) was present in plant parts of three species only (L. angustipetala, L. oadorata and L. purpurea) at levels between 0.12 and 1.82 mg g(-1) fr. wt. No other S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides were detected. Alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) was detected in the leaf, bulb and scape of L. angustipetala and L. purpurea, only in the leaves of L. coquimbensis and L. purpurea x L. coquimbensis, and only in the bulb of L. odorata. Enzymatically generated pyruvic acid was detected in all plant parts of all species at levels between trace amounts and 5.33 micromol g(-1) fr. wt. As PRENCSO is produced only in Leucocoryne species exhibiting a strong and unpleasant onion-like aroma, it is probable that the enzymatic degradation of PRENCSO is the main cause of that aroma. Consequently, Leucocoryne cultivars should be selected in species and hybrids that lack the ability to synthesise PRENCSO. PMID:11065288

Lancaster, J E; Shaw, M L; Walton, E F

2000-09-01

214

Relationship between potentiometric measurements, sensorial analysis, and some substances responsible for aroma degradation of white wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidative degradation of white wines can be described sensorially as developing from a loss at positive aroma characteristics, through the development of negative aromas to a linel stage of chromatic alterations. This work attempts to relate the oxidation "status" evaluate by potentiometric titrations, with sensorial degradation and the levels of substances responsible for "off-flavors", such as methional and phenylacetaldehyde. The potentiometric titration employed measures the most powerful antioxidants of white wines (e.g., those which more rapidly consume oxygen). Considering that aromatic precedes chromatic degradation, resistance to oxidation (ROX) constitutes a useful indicator of resistance to oxidation. Sensorial degradation (ID), potentiometric measures, and volatiles were determined both in samples submitted to a "forced aging" protocol and normal aged white wines. High correlation values were observed between ROX and the ID, in both sets (r > 0.87). ID is better explained by ROX values than by the indicated wine age or by the "degree of browning" (Abs = 420 nm). It was also observed that in samples with ROX values higher than 10, the concentration of methional and phenylacetaldehyde were above their respective odor threshold. Finally, it was observed that there is a relationship between oxygen consumption and the respective ROX. Although these results seem very promising, they needed to be further complemented in order to estimate the shelf life of a white wine using potentiometric titrations. PMID:14705894

Silva Ferreira, A C; Oliveira, Carla; Hogg, T; Guedes de Pinho, P

2003-07-30

215

Lactic fermentation to improve the aroma of protein extracts of sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius).  

Science.gov (United States)

Lupin protein extracts (LPE) are prone to the emission of a beany off-flavour during storage, which confines its application in foods. Fermentation of LPE using several lactic acid bacteria was conducted to reduce off-flavour formation in stored samples. The aroma profile of untreated LPE was compared to those of fermented protein extracts (LPEF). Hexanal and n-hexanol were used as indicator substances of progressing lipid oxidation. The most powerful odourants were evaluated by GC-olfactometry-flavour dilution analysis and identified according to their mass spectra, odour descriptions, and retention indices. Twenty two volatile substances with dilution factors equal to or higher than 100 were determined in both LPE and LPEF, amongst them n-pentanal, n-hexanal, 1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, 1-octen-3-one, 3-octen-2-one, 1-octen-3-ol, and ?-damascenone. The aroma profile was significantly modified by the fermentation process and the off-flavours were reduced and/or masked by newly formed compounds. PMID:25212139

Schindler, Sabrina; Wittig, Maximilian; Zelena, Kateryna; Krings, Ulrich; Bez, Jürgen; Eisner, Peter; Berger, Ralf G

2011-09-15

216

Centrifugal partition chromatography applied to the isolation of oak wood aroma precursors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flavours extracted from oak wood during barrel ageing contribute to the organoleptic character of wines and spirits. The aim of this work was to identify the glycosidic precursors of the key volatile compounds responsible for oak wood aroma. Oak extract is a very complex matrix and, furthermore, precursors are present in very small quantities. Preparative centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) is a promising solution for purifying the oak extract. The solvent system was selected on the basis of the partition coefficient of glycosidase enzyme activity (Kca). Thanks to the efficacy of CPC separation, three glucoside gallates were subsequently isolated by HPLC chromatography. Vanillin-(6'-O-galloyl)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-(6'-O-galloyl)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, and (6R,9R)-3-oxo-?-ionol-9-O-(6'-O-galloyl)-?-glucopyranoside (macarangioside E) were isolated and identified. This was the first time that vanillin-(6'-O-galloyl)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside was identified and the first time that macarangioside E was isolated from oak wood. Heating macarangioside E resulted in the formation of megastigmatrienone, which has an aroma reminiscent of tobacco. PMID:23870953

Slaghenaufi, Davide; Marchand-Marion, Stéphanie; Richard, Tristan; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Bisson, Jonathan; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Merillon, Jean-Michel; de Revel, Gilles

2013-12-01

217

Tomato phenylacetaldehyde reductases catalyze the last step in the synthesis of the aroma volatile 2-phenylethanol.  

Science.gov (United States)

The volatile compounds, 2-phenylacetaldehyde and 2-phenylethanol, are important for the aroma and flavor of many foods, such as ripe tomato fruits, and are also major constituents of scent of many flowers, most notably roses. While much work has gone into elucidating the pathway for 2-phenylethanol synthesis in bacteria and yeast, the pathways for synthesis in plants are not well characterized. We have identified two tomato enzymes (LePAR1 and LePAR2) that catalyze the conversion of 2-phenylacetaldehyde to 2-phenylethanol: LePAR1, a member of the large and diverse short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, strongly prefers 2-phenylacetaldehyde to its shorter and longer homologues (benzaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde, respectively) and does not catalyze the reverse reaction at a measurable rate; LePAR2, however, has similar affinity for 2-phenylacetaldehyde, benzaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde. To confirm the activity of these enzymes in vivo, LePAR1 and LePAR2 cDNAs were individually expressed constitutively in petunia. While wild type petunia flowers emit relatively high levels of 2-phenylacetaldehyde and lower levels of 2-phenylethanol, flowers from the transgenic plants expressing LePAR1 or LePAR2 had significantly higher levels of 2-phenylethanol and lower levels of 2-phenylacetaldehyde. The in vivo alteration of volatile emissions is an important step toward altering aroma volatiles in plants. PMID:17644147

Tieman, Denise M; Loucas, Holly M; Kim, Joo Young; Clark, David G; Klee, Harry J

2007-11-01

218

Aroma profile of Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines by chromatographic and sensorial analyses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma profiles obtained of three Garnacha Tintorera-based wines were studied: a base wine, a naturally sweet wine, and a mixture of naturally sweet wine with other sweet wine obtained by fortification with spirits. The aroma fingerprint was traced by GC-MS analysis of volatile compounds and by sensorial analysis of odours and tastes. Within the volatiles compounds, sotolon (73 ?g/L) and acetoin (122 ?g/L) were the two main compounds found in naturally sweet wine. With regards to the odorant series, those most dominant for Garnacha Tintorera base wine were floral, fruity and spicy. Instead, the most marked odorant series affected by off-vine drying of the grapes were floral, caramelized and vegetal-wood. Finally, odorant series affected by the switch-off of alcoholic fermentation with ethanol 96% (v/v) fit for human consumption followed by oak barrel aging were caramelized and vegetal-wood. A partial least square test (PLS-2) was used to detect correlations between sets of sensory data (those obtained with mouth and nose) with the ultimate aim of improving our current understanding of the flavour of Garnacha Tintorera red wines, both base and sweet. Based on the sensory dataset analysis, the descriptors with the highest weight for separating base and sweet wines from Garnacha Tintorera were sweetness, dried fruit and caramel (for sweet wines) vs. bitterness, astringency and geranium (for base wines). PMID:23442690

Noguerol-Pato, R; González-Álvarez, M; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

2012-10-15

219

Antibacterial activity of plants used in cooking for aroma and taste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-three plants used in cooking for aroma and taste were examined for antibacterial activity against pathogens causing foodborne infections. Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to many kinds of plant extracts, whereas Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella Enteritidis populations decreased in only six, one, and three plant extracts, respectively. The polyphenol content in the plants was significantly different between the antibacterial plants and nonantibacterial plants, indicating that the polyphenols were related to the antibacterial action of these plants. Antibacterial activity of various concentrations of leaf extracts from Japanese persimmon, white cedar, and grape were investigated. Japanese persimmon and white cedar leaf extracts at low concentrations affected L. monocytogenes and V. parahaemolyticus rapidly. With grape leaf extract at low concentrations, the population of L. monocytogenes decreased similarly to Japanese persimmon and white cedar leaves. This study demonstrates that many plants used in cooking for aroma and taste contain polyphenols and exhibit antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens. PMID:15633695

Hara-Kudo, Y; Kobayashi, l A; Sugita-Konishi, Y; Kondo, K

2004-12-01

220

New Green Tea Cultivar 'Yumewakaba' which Quality is High on Aroma and Taste by Slight Half Fermentation of Leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

New green tea cultivar‘Yumewakaba’has been bred at the Green Tea and Local Products Laboratory of Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center. The clone was crossed between‘Yabukita’and Saitama No.9’in 1968. Local adaptability, tolerance to bark split frost injury, and Blister blight were tested at 17 prefectural tea experiment stations from 1994 to 2002. It was registered as ‘Norin No.53’and named ‘Yumewakaba’in 20The characteristics of the cultivar are as follows The shape of the cultivar is erect type, and spread of tea bush is the same as‘Yabukita’.The size of mature leaves are smaller than those of ‘Yabukita’. Immature leaves are lustrougreen and soft. The rooting ability of nursery plants are high and taking roots after planting is good. The plucking time of the first crop of this cultivar in Saitama is 1 or 2 days later than that of ‘Yabukita’.‘Yumewakaba’is middle budding cultivar. The yield of 1st or 2nd crop is the same that of‘Yabukita. ‘Yumewakaba’is resistance to cold drought and bark split frost injury. Thlevel of resistance to freezing injur y is stronger than that of ‘Yabukita’ The damage Anthracnose is less than that of ‘Yabukita. The appearance is better than that of ‘Yabukita’, and the quality of liquor is the same as ‘Yabukita’. The quality of processed goods from slightly half fermented leaves of this cultivar is high on the aroma and the taste. ‘Yumewakaba’is suitable for northern tea producing areas, and cool semi-mountainousareas.

Uchino, Hiroshi; Honda, Yusuke; Nakajima, Kenta; Sasaki, Koji; Kobayashi, Akira; Tanaka, Eri; Kume, Nobuo; Sakai, Takashi; Shimazaki, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Iwao; Okano, Nobuo; Kyougoku, Hideo; Funakoshi, Shouji; Kitada, Kaichi; Fuchinoue, Yasumoto; Tanaka, Mankichi

 
 
 
 
221

Impact of cover crops in vineyard on the aroma compounds of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared the influence of different cover crops with clean tillage on wine aroma compounds of 5-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines. White clover, alfalfa, and tall fescue were used in the vineyard and compared with clean tillage. Aroma compounds of wine were analysed by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Forty-seven volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Wines made from grapes grown with various cover crops had higher levels of aroma compounds. Ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, phenylethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, linalool, citronellol, ?-damascenone, ?-ionone, and 5-amyl-dihydro-2(3H)-furan were the impact odorants of sample wines. Wines from cover crop also had higher contents of these impact odorants than the control. For different cover crops, alfalfa sward yielded the highest levels, followed by the tall fescue treatment. According to the data analysis of aroma compounds and sensory assess, permanent cover crop may have the potential to improve wine quality. PMID:23140695

Xi, Zhu-Mei; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Li; Li, Hua

2011-07-15

222

Chemical Composition and Aroma Evaluation of Volatile oils from Edible Mushrooms (Pleurotus salmoneostramineus and Pleurotus sajor-caju).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is focused on the volatile oils from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus salmoneostramineus (PS) and P. sajor-caju (PSC), which was extracted by hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) methods. The oils are analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC-olfactometry (GC-O), and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). A total of 31, 31, 45, and 15 components were identified in PS (HD and SAFE) and PSC (HD and SAFE), representing about 80.3%, 92.2%, 88.9%, and 83.0% of the oils, respectively. Regarding the aroma-active components, 13, 12, 13, and 5 components were identified in PS (HD and SAFE) and PSC (HD and SAFE), respectively, by the GC-O analyses. The results of the sniffing test, odor activity value (OAV) and flavor dilution (FD) factor indicate that 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone are the main aroma-active components of PS oils. On the other hands, methional and 1-octen-3-ol were estimated as the main aroma-active components of PSC oils. PMID:25409690

Usami, Atsushi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

2014-12-01

223

Study of the influence of maceration time and oenological practices on the aroma profile of Vranec wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vranec is one of the most important red grape varieties in Republic of Macedonia, grown in all vineyards, mostly in the Tikveš wine region. In this study, Vranec wines produced with different maceration times (4, 7, 14 and 30 days) in presence of enzyme and oak chips during fermentation were studied in order to determine the influence of vinification conditions on the aroma profile. The volatile compounds were determined using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with a PDMS/Carboxen/DVB fibre, coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total 63 aroma compounds were detected revealing a complex aroma profile of Vranec wines composed of esters, alcohols, fatty acids, aldehydes, ketones and sulphur compounds. The content of aroma compounds was related mostly to maceration time, observing increased relative amount of alcohols, esters and fatty acids from the fourth to seventh day of maceration and the presence of oak chips during the fermentation enhanced their formation. The Student-Newman-Keuls test has been applied to ascertain possible significant differences between the studied wines, and principal component analysis has been employed, showing separation and grouping of the wines according to maceration time and oak chips treatment. PMID:25038705

Petropulos, Violeta Ivanova; Bogeva, Elena; Stafilov, Traj?e; Stefova, Marina; Siegmund, Barbara; Pabi, Nicole; Lankmayr, Ernst

2014-12-15

224

Determinaton of Volatile Aroma Components of Gyromitra Mushroom Using Headspace Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS  

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Full Text Available Gyromitra is one of the poisonous mushrooms with being evaluated as edible mushrooms in Turkey and in many countries. This study was performed to determine volatile aroma compounds of Gyromitra collected from Turkey at Horticulture Department of Çukurova University, Adana-Turkey in 2011. Gyromitra mushroom samples collected from Adana province of Turkey were used as material. Volatile aroma compounds were determined using Headspace Gas Kromotografi Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS technique. Twenty-four different volatile aroma compounds were detected in this study. Phenol was identified as the major aroma component at 47.10% content. This compound was followed with Carbamic acid methyl ester (14.12%, Acetic acid (4.47%, 1-Octen-3-ol (4.14% and Acetaldehyde (4.10%. Phenol is an antioxidant compound and it has anti-carcinogenic effect. 1-Octen-3-ol is an alcohol which commonly found in mushroom. Acetic acid and Acetaldehyde are poisonous compounds. Although high number of phenol and 1-Octen-3-ol in Gyromitra fungus is displayed as flavor and significant in terms of health, containing toxic compounds such as acetic acid and the acid aldehyde raises the risk factors in exhaustion.

Hat?ra Ta?k?n

2013-12-01

225

Sensory characteristics of European, dried, fermented sausages and the correlation to volatile profile  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the European FAIR-project: Control of Bioflavour and Safety in Northern and Mediterranean Fermented Meat Products (FAIR-CT97-3227) four different sausage types were manufactured in five replicates and characterised by sensory and analytical means. The objective of the present study was to characterise the flavour pattern of the FAIR sausages with regards to sensory perceived compounds and volatile/sensory profiles. According to gas chromatography-olfactometry the greatest differences between the Northern and Mediterranean sausages were attributed to coffee/roasted, phenolic and vinegar odours in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The compounds were 2-furfurylthiol, guaiacol, acetic acid and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. Sausages added garlic contained two specific odours with salami/onion-like notes. The odours were attributed to allylmercaptane and methylthiirane. Correlation of sensory and volatile profile showed that garlic flavour correlated with sulphur compounds from garlic, smoked flavour with most of the cyclic compounds (furanes, phenols etc.), acid flavour with the acids (acetic, butanoic and hexanoic acid), spice and piquante flavour with the terpenes, rancid flavour with hexanal, octanal, nonanal and decanal and maturity with ethyl esters and methyl-ketones.

Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller; Sunesen, Lars Oddershede

1999-01-01

226

Detection of Volatile Aroma Compounds of Morchella by Headspace Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available   This study was conducted at the Horticulture Department of Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey, in 2010 to determine the volatile aroma compounds of Morchella mushroom. Fresh samples of Morchella esculenta (Sample 1 and Morchella elata (Sample 2 were collected from Çanakkale (Sample 1 and Mersin (Sample 2 provinces in Turkey in the spring of 2010. Volatile aroma compounds were analyzed by headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS. A total of 31 aroma compounds were identified in the 2 analyzed samples: 7 alcohols, 7 esters, 7 ketones, 3 acids, 2 aldehydes, 1 terpene, phenol, 1-propanamine, geranyl linalool, and quinoline. Seventeen aroma components were identified in Sample 1, and 18 compounds were found in Sample 2. Phenol was determined as the major aroma compound in both Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 50.888% and 58.293% content, respectively. Alcohols, especially 1-octen-3-ol, were detected as the second major aroma components in Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 15.500% and 5.660% content, respectively. Carbamic acid, methyl ester was found only in Sample 1, at 11.379% content. The aroma components detected in the two samples differed. 1-Octadecanol; cyclooctylalcohol; trans-2-undecen-1-ol; butanoic acid, butyl ester (CAS; carbamic acid, methyl ester; 2-ethylhexyl-2-ethylhexanoate; phthalic acid, decyl isobutyl ester; 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate; decanal; nonanal; 7,9-di-tert-butyl-1-oxaspiro(4.5deca-6,9-diene-2,8-dione; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione; 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl; and trans-alpha-bisabolene were detected only in Sample 1. Ethanol; silanediol, 2-methylaminoethanol; L-alanine, ethyl ester; carbonic acid, dodecyl isobutyl ester; acetic acid; butanoic acid; 2,3,4H-pyran-4-one; 5,9-undecadien-2-one; cyclooctene; 2-cyclopenten-1-one; 1-propanamine; geranyl linalool; and quinoline were determined only in Sample 2.

Hatira TA?KIN

2013-05-01

227

Temporal changes in aroma release of Longjing tea infusion: interaction of volatile and nonvolatile tea components and formation of 2-butyl-2-octenal upon aging.  

Science.gov (United States)

The temporal change in the headspace composition of an aroma model mimicking Longjing green tea aroma was studied in the presence of nonvolatile Longjing green tea constituents. Upon storage at 50 degrees C, the formation of 2-butyl-2-octenal was found, which increased with time. This enal was generated by crotonization of hexanal as demonstrated in model experiments. The formation of 2-butyl-2-octenal was also detected in Longjing tea infusions and Longjing tea leaves upon storage at 50 degrees C. The presence of nonvolatiles induced a strong decrease in aroma release. These effects were mainly due to catechins, major constituents of green tea infusion. Free amino acids, that is, glycine, contributed only to significantly decrease alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl aroma compounds, that is, 1-octen-3-one and geranial. Model reaction containing a mixture of 1-octen-3-one and glycine indicated on the basis of NMR and MS data the formation of the tentatively identified N-1-(3-oxo-octyl)glycine resulting from a 1,4-addition. The perceived aroma of green tea infusion is very likely to be affected by the formation of new aroma compounds and the changes in aroma release affected by interactions with tea nonvolatile components. This deserves further investigations on the sensory level. PMID:18298066

Cheng, Yong; Huynh-Ba, Tuong; Blank, Imre; Robert, Fabien

2008-03-26

228

Response of the aroma fraction in sherry wines subjected to accelerated biological aging.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of an acceleration assay, carried out with a periodic aeration and an increased surface/volume ratio, on various aroma compounds of "fino" Sherry wines aging under a veil of a pure culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae race capensis G1 flor film yeast was studied. The results were subjected to multifactor analysis of variance, and the compounds simultaneously depending on acceleration conditions and aging time at p wines in a shorter time than they did in control wines, and no browning problems were detected. Taking into account that these compounds can be used as indicators for biological aging of "fino" Sherry wines, the acceleration condition assayed can be applied to shorten the time of this process. PMID:10552649

Cortes, M B; Moreno, J J; Zea, L; Moyano, L; Medina, M

1999-08-01

229

IMPORTANCE OF AROMAS ON MOOD PROFILE AND HUMAN AURA (Qualitative Vibrations of Prana  

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Full Text Available The Indian Traditional Concept of “Swastya” means to be stationed in one’s own self or well-being, which means to be beyond body / mind yogically. Sri Aurobindo (1970 stated that “Yoga means a methodized effort towards self-perfection by expression of the potentialities latent in the being” and “…a union of the human individual with the universal and transcendent Existence”. According to Sri Aurobindo (1972 “The Spirit has made itself Matter (body in order to place itself there as an instrument for the well-being and joy “Yogakshema”, of created beings for a self-offering of  physical universal utility of service. Interestingly, WHO has stipulated spiritual health for universal well-being. This opens avenues for experimental studies.  Benson (1976 stated that in the year 1968 opened medical laboratory for studies in transcendental meditation.   Chopra (1993 has spoken that there is enormous latent intelligence in the living organism. The “inexperience” of the organism has placed the mind – body relationship on scientific footing. This relationship opens both ways, on one hand it removes disease state and being at “ease” state. Thus enhancing psychoneurotic immunology where the subject herself / himself learns to manipulate the involved energy and to enhance the delightful state of well-being. Aromas have been an area that can open new areas for research on emotional and psychosomatic well-being.  “Pranayama” recognizes science of holding breath or vitality.  “Willfully” holding moods with awareness / consciousness is to experience spirits flow and its freedom in creating a new inner dimension of highest well-being.   To experience subtle and its power of mood is yogically raise mood profile to the dynamics of the spirit subjectively.  This was taken as an experimental study. The Subjects studying in MSc. in the Department of Food Service Management at Smt. V.H.D. Central Institute of Home Science, Bangalore, India took part in the study. A pre-test was conducted to check the Aura status of all the twenty subjects. Based on pre-test health status a purposive sample was worked out. Those subjects whose health aura was in good condition were selected as Control Group, (n=10 and others whose health aura was affected were chosen as Experimental Group (n=10 and the Experimental Group were subjected to intervention programme along with Aroma Treatment. Based on the investigator’s observations, an experiment was designed to study the influence of Aroma on the subject’s physiological and psychological moods and feelings, effect on Chakras and their Human Aura. Statistical test ?2 (Chi-square was used to test the significance between Experimental and Control Groups for comparison. The aroma Nectar of Divine Joy has yielded significant results both in objective and subjective test obtained by the Experimental group. The result showed that the intervention programme helped in retaining higher emotions. This study points out that the auric field one carries depends upon one’s own thought forms that one generates through emotions and feelings.  To bathe inner organs with the highest mood profile is to experience the highest vitality in body and mind as one vibrates and radiates the well-being around them in homonymous state.  This growth is a teleotic journey in emotions and feelings towards the Divine state.

Srilakshmi R* and N ShakuntalaManay

2013-06-01

230

Poikilodermatous changes on the forearms of a woman practicing aroma-therapy: extracervical poikiloderma of Civatte?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We report the case of a 48-year-old, Caucasian female who presented with slowly progressing asymptomatic poikilodermatous changes of the extensor aspects of the forearms. She also had typical Poikiloderma of Civatte on the V of the neck and erythemato-telangiectatic rosacea of the central face. The [...] patient had been practicing aroma-therapy for many years. Histologic examination revealed findings consistent with PC. Patch-testing revealed positive reactions to Fragrance mix and Nickel sulphate. Based on clinical and histological findings, a diagnosis of extracervical PC was suggested. PC with extra-cervical or extra-facial involvement is rare. In addition, this case supports the theory that contact sensitization to fragrances may contribute to the development of PC.

Alexandros, Katoulis; Michalis, Makris; Stamatis, Gregoriou; Eustathios, Rallis; Antonis, Kanelleas; Nicolaos, Stavrianeas; Dimitris, Rigopoulos.

2014-07-01

231

Radiation dose and storage temperature and period effects on the flavor and aroma of orange juice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of storage temperature and period on orange juice concentrates were studied for samples irradiated with 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy doses from a gamma-ray source as well as for untreated samples. All samples were stored at 00 C, 50 C and 250 C for periods of 1,30, 60 and 90 days. Samples stored for more than one day underwent a diminution in storage attribute rating with corresponding increase in ratings for the bitterness, medicinal and cooked attributes. Storage at 00 C and 50 C seems to have smaller effects on the sweetness rating as well as on the oily, acid and medicinal flavor characteristics. Effect of radiation dose level on the flavor and aroma attributes depended on the storage temperature and time. In most cases, higher radiation levels are associated by lower orange attribute values and higher bitter medicinal and cooked ratings. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

232

Key volatile aroma compounds of three black velvet tamarind (Dialium) fruit species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nineteen odour-active compounds were quantified in three black velvet tamarind fruit species. Calculation of the odour activity values (OAVs) of the odorants showed that differences in odour profiles of the tamarinds were mainly caused by linalool, limonene, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, nonanal, and (Z)-3-hexenal. On the basis of their high OAVs, cis-linalool oxide (furanoid), geranyl acetone, and cinnamyl acetate were identified as other potent odorants in the three tamarinds. Sensory studies revealed very distinct aroma profiles, which are characteristic of these types of fruits. While the Dialiumguineense elicited floral, flowery, caramel-like notes, the other two species were dominated by leaf-like, caramel, and green notes. PMID:25172748

Lasekan, Ola; See, Ng Siew

2015-02-01

233

The Storage of Green Coffee (Coffea arabica): Decrease of Viability and Changes of Potential Aroma Precursors  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Aims When green coffee is stored for a prolonged time the coffee quality decreases distinctively. Apart from well-known ‘off-notes’ that arise from undesired oxidations of lipids, a typical ‘flattening’ of the cup quality is detectable. In order to elucidate the biological causes for this phenomenon, differentially processed coffees (wet, dry, semi-dry processing), were stored under standard conditions for 2 years and analysed comprehensively. Methods Wet-processed coffee was stored either as parchment coffee, where the endocarp remained around the beans or as hulled beans. Viability of coffee seeds was estimated using the tetrazolium-test of seed viability. Changes in concentration of free amino acids and soluble carbohydrates were analysed by HPLC. Key Results Whereas all other coffees lost viability within the first 6 months of storage, coffee beans stored within the parchment remained viable for >1 year. Glucose and fructose decreased slightly in the course of storage and glutamine content declined significantly. However, the changes observed in sugar and amino acid content were not correlated with the viability of the coffee beans. Consequently, neither typical metabolic reactions occurring within living cells nor characteristic post-mortem reactions could be responsible for the observed changes. As a result of post-mortem reactions in re-imbibed seeds, a characteristic bluish-green colour developed, putatively due to the oxidation of chlorogenic acids and subsequent reactions with primary amino compounds. This coloration might be an appropriate marker to substantiate if coffee seeds had been stored for an expanded time and putative quality losses were not relevant so far. Conclusions It is suggested that loss of viability is relevant for the aroma flattening. As neither metabolic nor post-mortem reactions were responsible for the observed changes, it is concluded that Maillard reactions that occur during storage might be the cause of the decrease in potential aroma precursors. PMID:17981880

Selmar, Dirk; Bytof, Gerhard; Knopp, Sven-Erik

2008-01-01

234

Ability of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria to produce aroma compounds from amino acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although a large number of key odorants of Swiss-type cheese result from amino acid catabolism, the amino acid catabolic pathways in the bacteria present in these cheeses are not well known. In this study, we compared the in vitro abilities of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Streptococcus thermophilus to produce aroma compounds from three amino acids, leucine, phenylalanine, and methionine, under mid-pH conditions of cheese ripening (pH 5.5), and we investigated the catabolic pathways used by these bacteria. In the three lactic acid bacterial species, amino acid catabolism was initiated by a transamination step, which requires the presence of an alpha-keto acid such as alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG) as the amino group acceptor, and produced alpha-keto acids. Only S. thermophilus exhibited glutamate dehydrogenase activity, which produces alpha-KG from glutamate, and consequently only S. thermophilus was capable of catabolizing amino acids in the reaction medium without alpha-KG addition. In the presence of alpha-KG, lactobacilli produced much more varied aroma compounds such as acids, aldehydes, and alcohols than S. thermophilus, which mainly produced alpha-keto acids and a small amount of hydroxy acids and acids. L. helveticus mainly produced acids from phenylalanine and leucine, while L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis produced larger amounts of alcohols and/or aldehydes. Formation of aldehydes, alcohols, and acids from alpha-keto acids by L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis mainly results from the action of an alpha-keto acid decarboxylase, which produces aldehydes that are then oxidized or reduced to acids or alcohols. In contrast, the enzyme involved in the alpha-keto acid conversion to acids in L. helveticus and S. thermophilus is an alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase that produces acyl coenzymes A. PMID:15240255

Helinck, Sandra; Le Bars, Dominique; Moreau, Daniel; Yvon, Mireille

2004-07-01

235

Complementary use of hyphenated purge-and-trap gas chromatography techniques and sensory analysis in the aroma profiling of strawberries (Fragaria ananassa).  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma compositions of Fragaria ananassa varieties are assessed by purge-and-trap high-resolution gas chromatography. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy allow the identification of 93 components from which 21 are for the first time described as constituents of strawberry aroma. Despite the complexity of the aroma, sensory properties are assigned to 40 components as perceived by three independent testers by application of a sniffing technique to the chromatographic effluent. The data are used for comparative sensory characterization of strawberry varieties by means of principal component analysis. PMID:10552851

Gomes Da Silva, M D; Chaves Das Neves, H J

1999-11-01

236

Identification of saffron aroma compound ?-isophorone (3,5,5-trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-one) in some V. vinifera grape varieties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carotenoid-derived aroma compounds play an important role in the composition of aroma and grapes, and consequently of wine. The volatile composition of forty-five grape varieties harvested in 2011 and 2012 was investigated by solid phase extraction of samples and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. In grape extracts of cultivars Barbera, Refosco dal Peducolo Rosso, Ribolla gialla and Rossese, the C9-norisoprenoid compound ?-isophorone (3,5,5-trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-one) was found and quantified. This carotenoid-derived compound is characterised by a saffron aroma and is here reported in grape for the first time. PMID:24128466

Panighel, Annarita; Maoz, Itay; De Rosso, Mirko; De Marchi, Fabiola; Dalla Vedova, Antonio; Gardiman, Massimo; Bavaresco, Luigi; Flamini, Riccardo

2014-02-15

237

Composição de voláteis e perfil de aroma e sabor de méis de eucalipto e laranja Volatile composition and aroma and flavor profiles of eucalyptus and orange honeys  

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Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram analisados os compostos voláteis de amostras de mel de eucalipto e laranja colhidos nos estados de São Paulo e de Minas Gerais. O isolamento dos voláteis foi realizado empregando-se uma técnica de ''headspace'' dinâmico, a separação efetuada por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução e a identificação por espectrometria de massas, Índices de Kovats e padrões, quando disponíveis. Foram identificados no mel de laranja o benzaldeído, o óxido cis de linalol, n-heptanal, 6-metil-5-hepten-2-ona, octanal e fenilacetaldeído, e em mel de eucalipto, o nonanal, 2-heptanona, 2-heptanol, octanol e nonanol. A caracterização sensorial desses méis foi obtida por Análise Descritiva Quantitativa e a aplicação de Análise dos Componentes Principais aos dados revelou que os descritores ''queimado'' e ''sabor residual'' caracterizam o mel de eucalipto, enquanto ''floral'' e ''cera'' caracterizam o mel de laranja. Entre os compostos identificados, o nonanal e o nonanol apresentaram contribuição sensorial importante ao mel de eucalipto, enquanto o fenilacetaldeído e o benzaldeído foram relacionados com os principais descritores do mel de laranja.Volatile compounds of orange and eucalyptus bee honeys from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais were isolated by a dynamic headspace technique and separated by high resolution gas chromatography. Volatile compounds were identified by gc-mass spectrometry and the Kovats Indices. Benzaldehyde, cis-linalool oxide, n-heptanal, 6 methyl-5-hepten-2-ona, octanal and phenylacetaldeyde were detected in orange honey. Nonanal, 2-heptanone, 2-heptanol, octanol and nonanol were identified in eucalyptus samples. Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and Principal Component Analysis revealed that orange honey can be sensorially characterized by ''waxy'' and ''floral'' descriptors, while eucalyptus honey by a ''burnt'' and ''after-taste''. Phenylacetaldeyde and benzaldehyde were related to these important descriptors in characterizing orange honey, as determined by sniffing, while nonanal and nonanol were found to be important contributors to the eucalyptus honey aroma.

Deborah Helena Markowicz Bastos

2002-08-01

238

Principais substâncias responsáveis pelo aroma de mangas comerciais brasileiras identificadas por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução/olfatometria/espectrometria de massas / Aroma impact substances on commercial brazilian mangoes by HRGC-O-AEDA-MS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Six Brazilian commercial mangoes were analysed by HRGC-O-AEDA-MS, viz., Carlota, Haden, Espada, Coração de boi, Rubi and Tommy Atkins. All them showed ethyl butanoate as the main aroma character impact compound by AEDA evaluation. The ethyl esters of 2 and 3-methylbutanoic acids are also important, [...] the main contribution in Carlota variety being 2(S) enantiomer. In Rubi variety, both 2(R) enantiomer and 3-methyl isomer contributes to the caprylic fruity note observed. In four varieties, viz., Haden, Espada, Rubi and Tommy Atkins, d-3-carene showed to be the second impact aroma compound presented. In Tommy Atkins variety, a-pinene also has a significant contribution, mainly due to its (1R,5R)(+)-enantiomer.

Diógenes C., Lopes; Sandra Regina, Fraga; Claudia M., Rezende.

239

Effect of five enological practices and of the general phenolic composition on fermentation-related aroma compounds in Mencia young red wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of five technological procedures and of the contents of total anthocyanins and condensed tannins on 19 fermentation-related aroma compounds of young red Mencia wines were studied. Multifactor ANOVA revealed that levels of those volatiles changed significantly over the length of storage in bottles and, to a lesser extent, due to other technological factors considered; total anthocyanins and condensed tannins also changed significantly as a result of the five practices assayed. Five aroma compounds possessed an odour activity value >1 in all wines, and another four in some wines. Linear correlation among volatile compounds and general phenolic composition revealed that total anthocyanins were highly related to 14 different aroma compounds. Multifactor ANOVA, considering the content of total anthocyanins as a sixth random factor, revealed that this parameter affected significantly the contents of ethyl lactate, ethyl isovalerate, 1-pentanol and ethyl octanoate. Thus, the aroma of young red Mencia wines may be affected by levels of total anthocyanins. PMID:24262556

Añón, Ana; López, Jorge F; Hernando, Diego; Orriols, Ignacio; Revilla, Eugenio; Losada, Manuel M

2014-04-01

240

Investigation into the aroma of rosemary using multi-channel silicone rubber traps, off-line olfactometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Multi-channel polydimethylsiloxane rubber traps were used to sample the headspace of rosemary samples (two essential oils from different sources, one oleoresin and one dried herb) followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography – time of flight mass spectrometry(GCxGC-TOFMS) or GC-MS analyses. The aroma of different headspace samples was characterized using a custom-built olfactory apparatus. The differences between the aroma profiles were evident from bubble plots of ...

Wat, Leandri; Dovey, Martin; Naude, Yvette; Forbes, Patricia B. C.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

AROMA-AIRWICK: a CHLOE/CDC-3600 system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The AROMA-AIRWICK System for CHLOE, an automatic film scanning equipment built at Argonne by Donald Hodges, and the CDC-3600 computer is a system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks. AROMA-AIRWICK has been an outgrowth of the generally recognized need for the automatic processing of high energy physics data and the fact that the Argonne National Laboratory has been a center of serious spark chamber development in recent years.

Clark, R.K.

242

A sensory and chemical approach to the aroma of wooden aged Lourinhã wine brandy / Uma abordagem sensorial e química ao aroma de aguardentes vínicas envelhecidas da Lourinhã  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O envelhecimento das aguardentes vínicas em vasilhas de madeira provoca alterações profundas na composição físico-química e sensorial destas bebidas. Neste trabalho são estudados os odorantes em aguardentes vínicas da região da Lourinhã envelhecidas em diferentes condições. Para o efeito recorreu-se [...] à avaliação dos compostos odorantes por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução acoplada à olfactometria (GC-O), à quantificação de alguns dos compostos odorantes por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução acoplada a um detector de ionização de chama (GC-FID) e à avaliação sensorial das aguardentes. Os resultados de GC-O permitiram identificar 29 odorantes diferentes (álcoois, ésteres, ácidos e fenóis), uns originários do destilado e outros provenientes da madeira. A pesquisa de correlações entre a análise sensorial e a análise química confirmou a importância odorante de vários compostos com origem na madeira, designadamente a vanilina, os fenóis voláteis e os aldeídos furânicos. Estes compostos apresentaram importantes correlações com descritores sensoriais como a baunilha, fumo, torrado, frutos secos, madeira, os quais tem uma correlação positiva com a qualidade da aguardente. Abstract in english The maturation of wine brandies in wooden barrels origin many sensory and physical-chemical changes in these alcoholic beverages. This work studies the odorants in different aged brandies from Lourinhã. These brandies were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry (GC-O). A panel taster [...] profiled these brandies and the identified odorants were also quantified by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The GC-O results showed 29 identified odorants (alcohols, esters, acids and phenols). Some of them are proceeding from the distillate while others are extracted from the wood. The analysis of correlation between the sensory profiles and the odorant quantification pointed out the relevance of several wood compounds for the brandy aroma, namely the vanillin, volatile phenols and furanic aldehydes. These compounds presented important correlations with several olfactory attributes like vanilla, smoke, toasted, dried fruits, woody, which influence positively the quality of the brandies.

Ilda, Caldeira; R. Bruno de, Sousa; A. Pedro, Belchior; M. Cristina, Clímaco.

243

Composição de voláteis e perfil de aroma e sabor de méis de eucalipto e laranja / Volatile composition and aroma and flavor profiles of eucalyptus and orange honeys  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho foram analisados os compostos voláteis de amostras de mel de eucalipto e laranja colhidos nos estados de São Paulo e de Minas Gerais. O isolamento dos voláteis foi realizado empregando-se uma técnica de ''headspace'' dinâmico, a separação efetuada por cromatografia gasosa de alta reso [...] lução e a identificação por espectrometria de massas, Índices de Kovats e padrões, quando disponíveis. Foram identificados no mel de laranja o benzaldeído, o óxido cis de linalol, n-heptanal, 6-metil-5-hepten-2-ona, octanal e fenilacetaldeído, e em mel de eucalipto, o nonanal, 2-heptanona, 2-heptanol, octanol e nonanol. A caracterização sensorial desses méis foi obtida por Análise Descritiva Quantitativa e a aplicação de Análise dos Componentes Principais aos dados revelou que os descritores ''queimado'' e ''sabor residual'' caracterizam o mel de eucalipto, enquanto ''floral'' e ''cera'' caracterizam o mel de laranja. Entre os compostos identificados, o nonanal e o nonanol apresentaram contribuição sensorial importante ao mel de eucalipto, enquanto o fenilacetaldeído e o benzaldeído foram relacionados com os principais descritores do mel de laranja. Abstract in english Volatile compounds of orange and eucalyptus bee honeys from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais were isolated by a dynamic headspace technique and separated by high resolution gas chromatography. Volatile compounds were identified by gc-mass spectrometry and the Kovats Indices. Benzaldehyde, ci [...] s-linalool oxide, n-heptanal, 6 methyl-5-hepten-2-ona, octanal and phenylacetaldeyde were detected in orange honey. Nonanal, 2-heptanone, 2-heptanol, octanol and nonanol were identified in eucalyptus samples. Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and Principal Component Analysis revealed that orange honey can be sensorially characterized by ''waxy'' and ''floral'' descriptors, while eucalyptus honey by a ''burnt'' and ''after-taste''. Phenylacetaldeyde and benzaldehyde were related to these important descriptors in characterizing orange honey, as determined by sniffing, while nonanal and nonanol were found to be important contributors to the eucalyptus honey aroma.

Deborah Helena Markowicz, Bastos; Maria Regina Bueno, Franco; Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira da, Silva; Natália Soares, Janzantti; Márcia O. M., Marques.

2002-08-01

244

Formulation and conservation of a pharmaceutical form with leaf extracts from Acacia aroma Gill. ex Hook et Arn  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Leaf fluid extracts of Acacia aroma GILL. ex Hook et Arn showed antibacterial activity against antibiotic multiresistant bacteria isolated from clinical samples, antioxidant and ant-inflammatory activities. Toxicological studies carried out on Artemia salina and Allium cepa attested none toxicity po [...] tential. The aim of this work was to elaborate a formulation of topical antibacterial hydrogel with Carbopol acrylic acid polymer containing an A. aroma fluid extract in order to compare with a hydrogel containing commercial antibiotic. The optimal extract concentration in this formulation was determined according to the values of minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration for Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant (F7) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (F352). Physical, chemical, rheological and microbiological stability was observed at least during one year. The hydrogel containing Acacia leaves fluid extract shows remarkable antibacterial effect with a broadspectrum efficacy against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria at low concentration.

M. E, Arias; J. D., Gomez; M., Vatuone; M. I., Isla.

245

Characterization of novel varietal floral hop aromas by headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were optimized and implemented to investigate the volatile composition of novel floral hop essences prepared from four German aroma hop varieties. In total, 91 different constituents were assigned, which were further grouped into monoterpene hydrocarbons, esters, ketones, aldehydes, furans, and oxygenated and nonoxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most volatiles belong to the ester group, whereas the monoterpene hydrocarbon ?-myrcene appears to be the predominant compound in all hop oil preparations investigated. Furthermore, as demonstrated by principal component analysis, varietal floral hop essences are clearly discriminated on the basis of their characteristic volatile composition. Via GC-olfactometry on the floral essence variety Spalter Select, ?-myrcene and 2-undecanone were identified as the most potent odorants. Several hop oil constituents were reported for the first time as impact odorants of hop aroma. PMID:23186043

Van Opstaele, Filip; De Causmaecker, Brecht; Aerts, Guido; De Cooman, Luc

2012-12-19

246

Some carbonyl compounds and free fatty acid composition of Afyon Kaymag? (clotted cream and their effects on aroma and flavor  

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Full Text Available Some carbonyl compounds (acetaldeyhde, acetone, butanone-2 and diacetyl, the lactic acid and free fatty acid compositions of Afyon kaymag?, produced from pure buffalo milk obtained from seven different farms, and their effects on aroma and flavor were investigated. Acetone was found in the highest amount of carbonyl compounds. Butyric, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were characteristic free fatty acids for Afyon Kaymag?. The effect of the investigated compounds on the aroma and flavor scores (AFS of Afyon Kaymag? was found to be 93.3%. Lactic acid was negatively correlated but was the second most important compound for the aroma and flavor of Afyon Kaymag? (R2 = 40%. The investigated carbonyl compounds explained only 3.2% of the variation in aroma and flavor of Afyon Kaymag?. Lactic acid, acetone, diacetyl, C4:0, C8:0, C12:0 and C18:0 had negative effects on the AFS, but acetaldehyde, butanone-2, C6:0, C10:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 were positively related to the AFS.

Se han investigado algunos compuestos carbonílicos (acetaldehido, acetona, 2-butanona y diacetil, el ácido láctico y la composición de los ácidos grasos libres de Afyon kaymagi (cuajada, producida sólo a partir de leche de búfalas obtenidas de siete granjas diferentes y sus efectos sobre el aroma y el sabor. Entre los compuestos carbonílicos, la acetona fué el que se encontró en mayor concentración. Butírico, esteárico, oleico, linoleico y linolénico son los ácidos grasos libres característicos de Afyon Kaymag?. El efecto de los compuestos investigados en las puntuaciones (AFS de aroma y sabor de Afyon Kaymag? se encontró que fué del 93,3%. El ácido láctico, segundo compuesto importante, se correlacionó negativamente con el aroma y el sabor de Afyon Kaymag? (R2 = 40%. Los compuestos carbonilos investigados explican sólo el 3,2% de la variación en el aroma y el sabor de Afyon Kaymag?. El ácido láctico, la acetona, diacetil, y los ácidos C4:0, C8:0, C12:0 y C18:0 tienen un efecto negativo en la AFS, pero el acetaldehído, la 2-butanona, y los ácidos C6:0, C10:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 y C18:3 están positivamente relacionados con el AFS.

?enel, E.

2011-12-01

247

Molecular structural differences between low methoxy pectins induced by pectin methyl esterase II: effects on texture, release and perception of aroma in gels of similar modulus of elasticity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six low-methoxy pectins with different degrees of methylesterification and amidation, and molecular weights were used to prepare gels with similar moduli of elasticity by varying the concentrations of pectin and calcium phosphate. Five aroma compounds were added to the gels and their sensory textural properties, release and perception of aromas were investigated. Sensory firmness, springiness, adhesiveness, chewiness and cohesiveness differed according to the gel type, even though the moduli of elasticity were not significantly different (p<0.05). Release and perception of aromas also displayed significant difference according to the gel type (p<0.05). Low-methoxy amidated pectin exhibited the lowest release and perception for all the aroma compounds, while pectin-methylesterase-treated pectin gels exhibited relatively higher aroma release and perception. These results showed that the structural properties of pectins and gelling factors that increase the non-polar character of the gel matrices could decrease the release and perception of aromas in pectin gel systems. PMID:24128568

Kim, Yang; Kim, Young-Suk; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Ok

2014-02-15

248

Cyclodextrin derivatives as chiral selector for direct GC separation of enantiomers in essential oil, aroma and flavour fields  

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This article reviews papers published over the period 1995–1998 dealing with the application of cyclodextrin derivatives (CDs) as chiral selector for direct enantiomer GC separation of volatile optically active components in the essential oil, extract, flavour and aroma fields. For each application, the racemate analysed, the CD employed as chiral selector and the matrix investigated are reported. The applications are grouped by analytical technique employed: capillary gas chromatography an...

Bicchi, Carlo; Rubiolo, Patrizia

1999-01-01

249

Aromas florales y su interacción con los insectos polinizadores Floral scents and their interaction with insect pollinators  

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Full Text Available Las plantas emplean diversas señales visuales y olfativas con la finalidad de atraer a los polinizadores que en su mayoría son insectos. Algunas plantas han desarrollado mecanismos, basándose en mensajes olfativos que los hacen únicos para sus polinizadores específicos. Estos mecanismos, así como las variaciones intra- e interespecíficas en el perfil de los aromas florales han evolucionado para determinadas especies. Los aromas florales son un conjunto de compuestos volátiles orgánicos y para su estudio hay varios métodos que requieren de técnicas que cada vez son más eficientes. El uso de estos aromas podría ser una opción en determinados sistemas de polinización, utilizándolos como atrayente de polinizadores o de depredadores y/o herbívoro para incrementar la producción y disminuir los daños por plagas. En este trabajo se revisan las distintas interacciones de los insectos y los aromas florales, los sistemas específicos planta-polinizador, los métodos de análisis, así como algunos patrones o tendencias de estas interacciones y su aplicación e importancia.Plants use visual and olfactory cues to attract pollinators and to allow them to detect the presence of flowers, which most of them are insects. Some plants have evolved with their pollinators, based on the olfactory messages, which make them unique for their specific pollinators. These mechanisms have evolved in certain plants in relation to their pollinators, and there are also inter and intra-specific variation in fragrance cues which show specific chemical profile for each plant species, so insects attracted are specific to them. Most of the floral scents are organic compounds identified with techniques and methodologies which become more specific and efficient along the time. The application of floral scent could be used as a tool in pollination and pest management. In these studies, insect interaction with floral scent is reviewed and specificity of plant-pollinator, additionally the method of analysis, some patterns and trends in these interactions, the application and its importance are examined.

Julieta Grajales-Conesa

2011-12-01

250

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in two bavarian wheat beers by means of the sensomics approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatiles isolated from a commercial Bavarian wheat beer (WB A) eliciting its typical aroma profile, best described by a clove-like, phenolic odor quality, revealed 36 odorants in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 16 to 4096. Among them, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like) and 2-phenylethanol (flowery) showed the highest FD factors. AEDA of a second wheat beer (WB B), somewhat lacking the typical wheat beer odor note, revealed 32 odor-active components in the FD factor range from 32 to 8192. Among them, 2-phenylethanol, (E)-?-damascenone (cooked apple-like) and 3-methylbutanol (malty) were detected with the highest FD factors. Next, all odorants evaluated with an FD factor ?32 were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays in both beers, and the odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated. Thereby, ethanol, (E)-?-damascenone, 3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl methylpropanoate, and ethyl butanoate showed the highest OAVs in WB A, followed by acetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanol, and dimethyl sulfide. In WB B, ethanol, (E)-?-damascenone, ethyl methylpropanoate, ethyl butanoate, and 3-methylbutyl acetate showed the highest OAVs. Whereas most aroma compounds were present in the same order of magnitude in both beer samples, in particular, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol (smoky, leather-like) were by factors of 13 and 15, respectively, higher in WB A. For the first time, the overall aroma of wheat beer (WB A) was successfully simulated on the basis of 27 reference compounds in their natural concentrations using water/ethanol (95:5; v/v) as the matrix. PMID:24219571

Langos, Daniel; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

2013-11-27

251

Effect on the Aroma Profile of Graciano and Tempranillo Red Wines of the Application of Two Antifungal Treatments onto Vines  

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Full Text Available The effect of two antifungals (boscalid + kresoxim-methyl and metrafenone applied onto vines under Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs on the volatile composition of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines was studied. Changes in aroma profile in the wines were assessed from the combined odour activity values (OAVs for the volatile compounds in each of seven different odorant series (viz., ripe fruits, fresh fruits, lactic, floral, vinous, spicy and herbaceous. Graciano wines obtained from grapes treated with the antifungals exhibited markedly increased concentrations of varietal volatile compounds (monoterpenes and C13-norisoprenoids and aldehydes, and decreased concentrations of acetates and aromatic alcohols. By contrast, the concentrations of volatile compounds in Tempranillo wines showed different changes depending on the fungicide applied. Also, the aroma profiles of wines obtained from treated grapes were modified, particularly the ripe fruit nuances in Graciano wines. The OAV of this odorant series underwent an increase by more than 60% with respect to the control wine as a result of the increase of ?-damascenone concentration (which imparts wine a dry plum note. The aroma profile of Tempranillo red wines containing metrafenone residues exhibited marked changes relative to those from untreated grapes.

Raquel Noguerol-Pato

2014-08-01

252

A model explaining and predicting lamb flavour from the aroma-active chemical compounds released upon grilling light lamb loins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the work is to understand the role of the different aroma compounds in the perception of the local "lamb flavour" concept. For this, a set of 70 loins (Longissimus dorsi) from approximately seventy day-old Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were grilled and the aroma-active chemicals released during the grilling process were trapped and analyzed. Carbonyl compounds were derivatizated and determined by GC-NCI-MS, whereas other aromatic compounds were directly analyzed by GC-GC-MS. Odour activity values (OAVs) were calculated using their odour threshold values in air. Lamb flavour could be satisfactory explained by a partial least-squares model (74% explained variance in cross-validation) built by the OAVs of 32 aroma-active chemical compounds. The model demonstrates that the lamb flavour concept is the result of a complex balance. Its intensity critically and positively depends to the levels of volatile fatty acids and several dimethylpyrazines while is negatively influenced by the different alkenals and alkadienals. (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and (E)-2-nonenal showed top OAVs. PMID:25089786

Bueno, Mónica; Campo, M Mar; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

2014-12-01

253

Effects of Distillation System and Yeast Strain on the Aroma Profile of Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape Pomace Spirits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Orujo is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in Galicia (northwest Spain) from distillation of grape pomace, a byproduct of the winemaking industry. In this study, the effect of the distillation system (copper charentais alembic versus packed column) and the yeast strain (native yeast L1 versus commercial yeast L2) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of orujo obtained from Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace has been analyzed. Principal component analysis, with two components explaining 74% of the variance, is able to clearly differentiate the distillates according to distillation system and yeast strain. Principal component 1, mainly defined by C6-C12 esters, isoamyl octanoate, and methanol, differentiates L1 from L2 distillates. In turn, principal component 2, mainly defined by linear alcohols, linalool, and 1-hexenol, differentiates alembic from packed column distillates. In addition, an aroma descriptive test reveals that the distillate obtained with a packed column from a pomace fermented with L1 presented the highest positive general impression, which is associated with the highest fruity and smallest solvent aroma scores. Moreover, chemical analysis shows that use of a packed column increases average ethanol recovery by 12%, increases the concentration of C6-C12 esters by 25%, and reduces the concentration of higher alcohols by 21%. In turn, L2 yeast obtained lower scores in the alembic distillates aroma profile. In addition, with L1, 9% higher ethanol yields were achieved, and L2 distillates contained 34%-40% more methanol than L1 distillates. PMID:25307564

Arrieta-Garay, Y; Blanco, P; López-Vázquez, C; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J J; Pérez-Correa, J R; López, F; Orriols, I

2014-10-29

254

Chemical and sensory effects of the freezing process on the aroma profile of black truffles (Tuber melanosporum).  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of freezing black truffles (Tuber melanosporum) on their aroma both in sensory and chemical terms. The truffles were frozen at temperatures of -20 to -80°C. Descriptive and discriminative sensory and chemical analyses, based on headspace solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (HS-SPME-GC-MS), were carried out after 1, 20, 40 and 60 days. Fifteen compounds with high aromatic potential in truffles were determined. Their selective ion peak areas were calculated, summed and expressed as percentage of active odour compound, in order to monitor changes in odour profile. The aroma of frozen truffles differed significantly from the aroma of fresh truffles. Volatile composition data revealed that T. melanosporum aromatic profile is deeply modified as a consequence of a freezing process. These aromatic changes could explain the loss of freshness observed in all frozen truffles. Methional and some phenols were suggested as markers of freezing time. Interestingly, 1-octen-3-one appeared as a general marker of freezing process. PMID:23122092

Culleré, Laura; Ferreira, Vicente; Venturini, María E; Marco, Pedro; Blanco, Domingo

2013-01-15

255

Extraction and GC determination of volatile aroma compounds from extracts of three plant species of the Apiaceae family  

Science.gov (United States)

Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and celery (Apium graveolens), three aromatic plants belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) botanical family, were selected as sources of essential or volatile oils. Essential oils are composed of a large diversity of volatile aroma compounds. Plant-derived essential oils and extracts have long been used as natural agents in food preservation, pharmaceuticals and medicinal therapies. In the present study, the plant extracts from leaves of parsley, dill and celery, were obtained by maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. All extractions were performed at 30°C, using different solvents (ethanol, diethyl ether, n-hexane) and solvent mixtures (1:1, v/v). The most effective solvent system for the extraction of volatile aroma compounds was diethyl ether - n-hexane (1:1, v/v). Extraction efficiency and determination of aroma volatiles were performed by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The major volatile compounds present in plant extracts were myristicin, ?-phellandrene, ?-phellandrene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, apiol, dill ether and allyl phenoxyacetate.

Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.; Copolovici, L.; M?ruţoiu, C.

2013-11-01

256

Effect on the aroma profile of Graciano and Tempranillo red wines of the application of two antifungal treatments onto vines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of two antifungals (boscalid+kresoxim-methyl and metrafenone) applied onto vines under Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) on the volatile composition of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines was studied. Changes in aroma profile in the wines were assessed from the combined odour activity values (OAVs) for the volatile compounds in each of seven different odorant series (viz., ripe fruits, fresh fruits, lactic, floral, vinous, spicy and herbaceous). Graciano wines obtained from grapes treated with the antifungals exhibited markedly increased concentrations of varietal volatile compounds (monoterpenes and C13-norisoprenoids) and aldehydes, and decreased concentrations of acetates and aromatic alcohols. By contrast, the concentrations of volatile compounds in Tempranillo wines showed different changes depending on the fungicide applied. Also, the aroma profiles of wines obtained from treated grapes were modified, particularly the ripe fruit nuances in Graciano wines. The OAV of this odorant series underwent an increase by more than 60% with respect to the control wine as a result of the increase of ?-damascenone concentration (which imparts wine a dry plum note). The aroma profile of Tempranillo red wines containing metrafenone residues exhibited marked changes relative to those from untreated grapes. PMID:25123185

Noguerol-Pato, Raquel; Sieiro-Sampredro, Thais; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

2014-01-01

257

Determination of Aroma Components in Chinese Southwest Tobacco by Directly Suspended Droplet Microextraction Combined with GC-MS.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a simple and efficient approach, directly suspended droplet microextraction (DSDME), has been applied to extract aroma components in Chinese southwest tobacco prior to analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The extraction parameters such as organic solvent type, extraction time, temperature, stirring speed and volume were systemically optimized. A single drop of cyclohexane was placed on the top of the aqueous sample which was used as solvent. Under the optimal conditions of DSDME, 62 aroma components of tobacco were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. The approach was used to determine some important aromas in tobacco with the relative recoveries ranged from 75.92 to 102.88%, relative standard deviations in the range of 3.40-7.14% (n = 5) and the limits of detection of 0.0002-0.002 ?g/mL. Moreover, the DSDME was applied to identify the aromatic components in Chinese southwest tobacco in this research for the first time and the results suggested that the method can be used as rapid determination of the tobacco. This method can enhance the extracting rate of tobacco aromatic components and meet the need of qualitative analysis of large amount samples. PMID:24363270

Wu, Lijun; Li, Qianqian; Li, Chunzi; Cao, Jinli; Lai, Yanqing; Qiu, Kaixian; Min, Shungeng

2014-11-01

258

Free and bound aroma compounds characterization by GC-MS of Negroamaro wine as affected by soil management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Negroamaro is an autochthonous wine grape variety of Southern Italy, which is becoming very important for the Italian wine market. The wine aroma is primary affected by the chemical composition of grapes, which can be influenced also by agronomic practices such as soil management. In this study, the free and bound aroma characterization was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, and the influence of two soil managements (cover cropping and soil tillage) was evaluated. A total of 40 volatile compounds were observed in the wine samples. Alcohols (55.7?mg/L), fatty acids (7.0?mg/L) and esters (6.6?mg/L) were found as the main classes in Negroamaro wine. The results showed that the aroma composition of Negroamaro wine was positively affected by soil tillage probably because of the higher water stress (?(s)) recorded in the vines from this treatment. Indeed, among the free volatile compounds, higher contents of esters, carboxylic acids, alcohols, phenolics and acetamides together with lower contents of sulfurs compounds were found in soil tillage wine. Conversely, no difference was observed in glycoside volatile compounds. PMID:22972778

Toci, Aline T; Crupi, Pasquale; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Dipalmo, Tiziana; Antonacci, Donato; Coletta, Antonio

2012-09-01

259

Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acid and the interaction between these environmental factors. Growth models were developed by combining new and existing cardinal parameter values. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameters (?ref at 25°C) were fitted to a total of 52 growth rates from cottage cheese to improve model performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese. The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias- and accuracy factors and with the concept of acceptable simulation zone. Evaluation of predicted growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing resulted in bias-factors (Bf) of 1.07-1.10 with corresponding accuracy factor (Af) values of 1.11 to 1.22. Lactic acid bacteria from added starter culture were on average predicted to grow 16% faster than observed (Bf of 1.16 and Af of 1.32) and growth of the diacetyl producing aroma culture was on average predicted 9% slower than observed (Bf of 0.91 and Af of 1.17). The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new models to successfully predict maximum population density of L. monocytogenes when growing together with lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. 11 of 13 simulations of L. monocytogenes growth were within the acceptable simulation zone, which demonstrated good performance of the empirical inter-bacterial interaction model. The new set of models can be used to predict simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria and L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese during chilled storage at constant and dynamic temperatures. The applied methodology is likely to be applicable for safety prediction of other types of fermented and unripened dairy products where inhibition by lactic acid bacteria is important for growth of pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:25086348

Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

2014-10-01

260

Phenolics, aroma profile, and in vitro antioxidant activity of Italian dessert passito wine from Saracena (Italy).  

Science.gov (United States)

A traditional sweet dessert wine from Saracena (Italy), made with nonmacerated local white grapes (Guarnaccia, Malvasia and Moscato), was analyzed for phenolics and aroma profile and antioxidant activities. The most abundant classes of phenols identified by high-performance liquid chromatography were hydroxybenzoic acids and flavan-3-ols, where gallic acid showed the highest content (376.5 mg/L). The analysis by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of superior alcohols (from iso-butanol and iso-amyl alcohol up to 2-phenylethanol) and their ethyl esters, terpenes (such as linalool), furfuryl compounds, and free fatty acids (up to palmitic acid) as the key odorants of this wine. The antioxidant activity, evaluated by different in vitro assays 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), and ?-carotene bleaching test), showed that passito wine had a radical scavenging activity (IC50 value of 0.03 v/v against DPPH·) and inhibited linoleic acid oxidation with an IC50 value of 0.4 v/v after 30 min of incubation. PMID:23574495

Loizzo, Monica R; Bonesi, Marco; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Boselli, Emanuele; Tundis, Rosa; Pugliese, Alessandro; Menichini, Francesco; Frega, Natale Giuseppe

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

Anxiolytic-like effect of sweet orange aroma in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aromatherapy is the use of essential oils as an alternative treatment for medical purposes. Despite the lack of sufficient scientific proof, it is considered a holistic complementary therapy employed to enhance comfort and decrease distress. Citrus fragrances have been particularly used by aromatherapists for the treatment of anxiety symptoms. Based on this claim, the present study investigated the effects of Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) essential oil on Wistar, male rats evaluated in the elevated plus-maze followed by the light/dark paradigm. The animals were exposed to the orange aroma (100, 200 or 400 microl) for 5 min while in a Plexiglas chamber and were then immediately submitted to the behavioural tests. At all doses, C.sinensis oil demonstrated anxiolytic activity in at least one of the tests and, at the highest dose, it presented significant effects in both animal models, as indicated by increased exploration of the open arms of the elevated plus-maze (time: p=0.004; entries: p=0.044) and of the lit chamber of the light/dark paradigm (time: p=0.030). In order to discard the possibility that this outcome was due to non-specific effects of any odour exposure, the behavioural response to Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil was also evaluated, using the same animal models, but no anxiolytic effects were observed. These results suggest an acute anxiolytic activity of sweet orange essence, giving some scientific support to its use as a tranquilizer by aromatherapists. PMID:20211673

Faturi, Claudia Brito; Leite, José Roberto; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Canton, Adriane Conte; Teixeira-Silva, Flavia

2010-05-30

262

Influence of grape-harvesting steps on varietal thiol aromas in Sauvignon blanc wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intense tropical fruit aroma of Sauvignon blanc wines has been associated with the varietal thiols 3-mercaptohexanol (3MH), derived from odorless precursors in the grape, and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA), arising from 3MH during fermentation. Grapes and juice were sourced from five locations in Marlborough, New Zealand, taking hand-picked grapes and samples at four stages during the mechanical harvesting process and pressing, which were then fermented in replicated 750 mL bottles. With each set of juices, the highest concentrations of Cys-3MH and Glut-3MH were found in the juices pressed to 1 bar, but these juices produced wines with lower 3MH and 3MHA concentrations. With three of the juices, there was an increase in varietal thiol content for wines made from juices that had been machine harvested compared to the hand-picked samples, which matched earlier findings of lower 3MH and 3MHA levels in wines made from hand-picked grapes. Juices that were more oxidized, and which showed a higher absorbance at 420 nm, were found to produce wines with lower 3MH and 3MHA concentrations. PMID:21854044

Allen, Thomas; Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Girault, Melanie; Butler, Paul; Logan, Gerard; Jouanneau, Sara; Nicolau, Laura; Kilmartin, Paul A

2011-10-12

263

Cell-free supernatants obtained from fermentation of cheese whey hydrolyzates and phenylpyruvic acid by Lactobacillus plantarum as a source of antimicrobial compounds, bacteriocins, and natural aromas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cheese whey hydrolyzates supplemented with phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) and commercial nutrients can be efficiently metabolized by Lactobacillus plantarum CECT-221 to biosynthesize some compounds with attractive applications in the food market. The main metabolites of cell-free extracts were antimicrobial compounds such as phenyllactic acid (PLA) and lactic acid (LA). The production of PLA by L. plantarum CECT-221 was evaluated in the Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth supplemented with two biosynthetic precursors: phenylalanine or PPA. Using 30.5 mM PPA, the microorganism increased sevenfold the concentration of PLA producing 16.4 mM PLA in 46 h. A concentration of 40 mM PPA was a threshold to avoid substrate inhibition. The biosynthesis of whey hydrolyzates as a carbon source was enhanced by fed-batch fermentation of PPA; the average productivity of PLA increased up to 45.4?±?3.02 mM after 120 h with a product yield of 0.244 mM mM(-1); meanwhile, LA reached 26.1?±?1.3 g L(-1) with a product yield of 0.72 g g(-1). Cell-free fed-batch extracts charged in wells showed bacteriocin activity with halos of 7.49?±?1.44 mm in plates inoculated with Carnobacterium piscicola and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (11.54?±?1.14 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.17?±?2.46 mm), Listeria monocytogenes (7.75?±?1.31 mm), and Salmonella enterica (3.60?±?1.52 mm). Additionally, the analysis of the volatile composition of the headspace of this cell-free extract revealed that L. plantarum is a potential producer for natural aromas, such as acetophenone, with high price in the market. This is the first report of PLA production from cheese whey and PPA. The extracts showed bacteriocin activity and potential to be applied as an antimicrobial in the elaboration of safer foods. PMID:23934083

Rodríguez-Pazo, Noelia; Vázquez-Araújo, Laura; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés-Diéguez, Sandra; Domínguez, José Manuel

2013-10-01

264

Aroma-therapeutic effects of massage blended essential oils on humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although blended essential oils are increasingly being used for the improvement of the quality of life and for the relief of various symptoms in patients, the scientific evaluation of the aroma-therapeutic effects of blended essential oils in humans is rather scarce. In this study, we hypothesized that applying blended essential oil would provide a synergistic effect that would have a chance for success in treating depression or anxiety. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the blended essential oil on autonomic parameters and on emotional responses in humans following transdermal absorption. The blended essential oil consisted of lavender and bergamot oils. Human autonomic parameters, i.e. blood pressure, pulse rate, breathing rate, and skin temperature, were recorded as indicators of the arousal level of the autonomic nervous system. In addition, subjects had to rate their emotional condition in terms of relaxation, vigor, calmness, attentiveness, mood, and alertness in order to assess subjective behavioral arousal. Forty healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Blended essential oil was applied topically to the skin of the abdomen of each subject. Compared with placebo, blended essential oil caused significant decreases of pulse rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which indicated a decrease of autonomic arousal. At the emotional level, subjects in the blended essential oil group rated themselves as 'more calm' and 'more relaxed' than subjects in the control group. This finding suggests a decrease of subjective behavioral arousal. In conclusion, our investigation demonstrates the relaxing effect of a mixture of lavender and bergamot oils. This synergistic blend provides evidence for its use in medicine for treating depression or anxiety in humans. PMID:21922934

Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee

2011-08-01

265

Principal volatile odorants and dynamics of their formation during the production of May Bryndza cheese.  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile aroma compounds were investigated along the production of May Bryndza cheese, a traditional Slovakian cheese produced from raw ewes' milk. Solid phase microextraction was used to isolate the volatile fractions, which were subsequently analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Twenty-seven key odorants were found and described in the intermediate product, ewes' curd ripened for 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8days, or in the final product. A major overall increase in the number of aroma-active volatile compounds and in their odour intensity or concentration took place during the first day of ripening of the ewes' curd, and the odour gradually culminated at the end of ripening. During the final technological step of Bryndza cheese production, when the ewes' curd ripened for 10days is decrusted, pressed and milled with NaCl solution, 8 aroma-active volatile compounds disappeared. PMID:24360454

Sádecká, Jana; Kolek, Emil; Pangallo, Domenico; Valík, Lubomír; Kuchta, Tomáš

2014-05-01

266

Characterization of the most odor-active compounds in an American Bourbon whisky by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction carefully isolated from an American Bourbon whisky revealed 45 odor-active areas in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 32-4096 among which (E)-beta-damascenone and delta-nonalactone showed the highest FD factors of 4096 and 2048, respectively. With FD factors of 1024, (3S,4S)-cis-whiskylactone, gamma-decalactone, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (eugenol), and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzaldehyde (vanillin) additionally contributed to the overall vanilla-like, fruity, and smoky aroma note of the spirit. Application of GC-Olfactometry on the headspace above the whisky revealed 23 aroma-active odorants among which 3-methylbutanal, ethanol, and 2-methylbutanal were identified as additional important aroma compounds. Compared to published data on volatile constituents in whisky, besides ranking the whisky odorants on the basis of their odor potency, 13 aroma compounds were newly identified in this study: ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, (E)-2-heptenal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, ethyl phenylacetate, 4-methyl acetophenone, alpha-damascone, 2-phenylethyl propanoate, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, trans-ethyl cinnamate, and (Z)-6-dodeceno-gamma-lactone. PMID:18570373

Poisson, Luigi; Schieberle, Peter

2008-07-23

267

Comparative study of the whisky aroma profile based on headspace solid phase microextraction using different fibre coatings.  

Science.gov (United States)

A dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-(IT)MS) method was developed and applied for the qualitative determination of the volatile compounds present in commercial whisky samples which alcoholic content was previously adjusted to 13% (v/v). Headspace SPME experimental conditions, such as fibre coating, extraction temperature and extraction time, were optimized in order to improve the extraction process. Five different SPME fibres were used in this study, namely, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), poly(acrylate) (PA), Carboxen-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (CAR/PDMS), Carbowax-divinylbenzene (CW/DVB) and Carboxen-poly(dimethylsiloxane)-divinylbenzene (CAR/PDMS/DVB). The best results were obtained using a 75 microm CAR/PDMS fibre during headspace extraction at 40 degrees C with stirring at 750 rpm for 60 min, after saturating the samples with salt. The optimised methodology was then applied to investigate the volatile composition profile of three Scotch whisky samples--Black Label, Ballantines and Highland Clan. Approximately seventy volatile compounds were identified in the these samples, pertaining at several chemical groups, mainly fatty acids ethyl esters, higher alcohols, fatty acids, carbonyl compounds, monoterpenols, C13 norisoprenoids and some volatile phenols. The ethyl esters form an essential group of aroma components in whisky, to which they confer a pleasant aroma, with "fruity" odours. Qualitatively, the isoamyl acetate, with "banana" aroma, was the most interesting. Quantitatively, significant components are ethyl esters of caprilic, capric and lauric acids. The highest concentration of fatty acids, were observed for caprilic and capric acids. From the higher alcohols the fusel oils (3-methylbutan-1-ol and 2.phenyletanol) are the most important ones. PMID:17027810

Câmara, J S; Marques, J C; Perestrelo, R M; Rodrigues, F; Oliveira, L; Andrade, P; Caldeira, M

2007-05-25

268

Aromas florales y su interacción con los insectos polinizadores / Floral scents and their interaction with insect pollinators  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las plantas emplean diversas señales visuales y olfativas con la finalidad de atraer a los polinizadores que en su mayoría son insectos. Algunas plantas han desarrollado mecanismos, basándose en mensajes olfativos que los hacen únicos para sus polinizadores específicos. Estos mecanismos, así como la [...] s variaciones intra- e interespecíficas en el perfil de los aromas florales han evolucionado para determinadas especies. Los aromas florales son un conjunto de compuestos volátiles orgánicos y para su estudio hay varios métodos que requieren de técnicas que cada vez son más eficientes. El uso de estos aromas podría ser una opción en determinados sistemas de polinización, utilizándolos como atrayente de polinizadores o de depredadores y/o herbívoro para incrementar la producción y disminuir los daños por plagas. En este trabajo se revisan las distintas interacciones de los insectos y los aromas florales, los sistemas específicos planta-polinizador, los métodos de análisis, así como algunos patrones o tendencias de estas interacciones y su aplicación e importancia. Abstract in english Plants use visual and olfactory cues to attract pollinators and to allow them to detect the presence of flowers, which most of them are insects. Some plants have evolved with their pollinators, based on the olfactory messages, which make them unique for their specific pollinators. These mechanisms h [...] ave evolved in certain plants in relation to their pollinators, and there are also inter and intra-specific variation in fragrance cues which show specific chemical profile for each plant species, so insects attracted are specific to them. Most of the floral scents are organic compounds identified with techniques and methodologies which become more specific and efficient along the time. The application of floral scent could be used as a tool in pollination and pest management. In these studies, insect interaction with floral scent is reviewed and specificity of plant-pollinator, additionally the method of analysis, some patterns and trends in these interactions, the application and its importance are examined.

Julieta, Grajales-Conesa; Virginia, Meléndez-Ramírez; Leopoldo, Cruz-López.

269

Characterization of aroma compounds in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and olfactometry (GC-O).  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma-active compounds in Chinese bayberry were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-mass spectrometry techniques. The volatile compounds were extracted using Liquid-liquid extraction, solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), respectively. On the basis of odor intensity, the most important aroma compounds in Chinese bayberry samples were caryophyllene, menthol, 4-terpineol, linalool oxide, linalool, benzyl alcohol, ?-methylbenzyl alcohol, ?-phenylethanol, 3-methylbutanoic acid and acetic acid, and so on. Moreover, HS-SPME technique was employed to investigate the aroma compounds among immature and mature waxberry fruits. The results showed that terpenes (for example, ?-caryophyllene) was predominant and its concentration represented over 89.9% of the overall compounds, and alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, acids, and others were typically present in lesser amounts. Finally, principal component analysis revealed that there was also significant difference between immature and mature waxberry fruits. PMID:23009608

Kang, Wenhuai; Li, Yan; Xu, Yan; Jiang, Wenguang; Tao, Yongsheng

2012-10-01

270

HS/GC-MS analyzed chemical composition of the aroma of fruiting bodies of two species of genus Lentinus (Higher Basidiomycetes).  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical composition of the aroma of fresh fruiting bodies of the cultivated mushroom Lentinus boryanus is described here and compared with medicinal shiitake mushroom L. edodes. Volatile compounds were analyzed through headspace sampling coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mushrooms under study were grown on different substrates based on barley straw, sugarcane bagasse, oak wood sawdust, and beech leaf litter. It was determined that L. boryanus as well as L. edodes contain an abundant amount of a volatile compound identified as 3-octanone with a sweet fruity aroma. On the other hand, only L. boryanus produced 3-octanol a characteristic aroma of cod liver oil. In total, 10 aromatic compounds were identified, some of which were obtained exclusively in one species or substrate. PMID:25271982

Mata, Gerardo; Valdez, Karina; Mendoza, Remedios; Trigos, Ángel

2014-01-01

271

Organic apple production in Sweden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Consumer interest in organically grown fruit appears to have increased considerably in recent years but the organic apple growing in Sweden cannot match the demand. One objective of this thesis was to study conversion of an orchard with 'Aroma' and 'Karin Schneider' from IFP to organic production. The accumulated yield for both cultivars was slightly lower in the organic sections compared to the IFP-grown sections, due mainly to a lower number of fruits while fruit size remained the same. In ...

Jo?nsson, A?sa

2007-01-01

272

Characterization of aroma-active compounds in dry flower of Malva sylvestris L. by GC-MS-O analysis and OAV calculations.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the aroma-active compounds in the dried flower of Malva sylvestris L. were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA). A light yellow oil with a sweet odor was obtained with a percentage yield of 0.039% (w/w), and 143 volatile compounds (89.86%) were identified by GC-MS. The main compounds were hexadecanoic acid (10.1%), pentacosane (4.8%) and 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (4.1%). The essential oil consisted mainly of hydrocarbons (25.40%) followed by, alcohols (18.78%), acids (16.66%), ethers (5.01%) ketones (7.28%), esters(12.43%), aldehydes (2.30%) and others (2.00%). Of these compounds, 20 were determined by GC-O and AEDA, to be odor-active (FD (flavor dilution) factor ? 1). ?-Damascenone (FD = 9, sweet), phenylacetaldehyde (FD = 8, floral, honey-like) and (E)-?-ocimene (FD = 8, spicy) were the most intense aroma-active compounds in M. sylvestris. In order to determine the relative contribution of each of the compounds to the aroma of M. sylvestris, odor activity values (OAVs) were used. ?-Damascenone had the highest odor activity values (OAV) (50,700), followed by (E)-?-ionone (15,444) and decanal (3,510). In particular, ?-damascenone had a high FD factors, and therefore, this compound was considered to be the main aroma-active components of the essential oil. On the basis of AEDA, OAVs, and sensory evaluation results, ?-damascenone is estimated to be the main aroma-active compound of the essential oil. PMID:23985485

Usami, Atsushi; Kashima, Yusei; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

2013-01-01

273

Studies on some precursors involved in meat flavour formation / Estudos de alguns precursores envolvidos na formação do aroma cárneo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O efeito de alguns precursores na formação do aroma cárneo durante o aquecimento foi investigado. Estudos comparativos da influencia de três diferentes precursores, inosina-5'-monofosfato (5'-IMP), cisteína e tiamina, adicionados aos sistemas cárneos, mostrou que a formação de certos compostos heter [...] ocíclicos, como furanos sulfurados, ditiolanonas e tiofenos, foi significativamente afetada pelas mudanças de concentração dos precursores. Entretanto, compostos alifáticos, tais como: hidrocarbonetos, alcoois e cetonas não foram afetados por estas adições. Inosina-5'-monofosfato apresentou-se como o precursor mais eficiente na formação de alguns voláteis de aroma cárneo, como por exemplo os furanos sulfurados, quando aumentou-se em 10 vezes sua concentração na carne crua. Abstract in english The effect of some precursors on the formation of meat flavour during heating has been investigated. A comparison of the influence of three different precursors, inosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-IMP), cysteine and thiamine, added to the meat systems, showed that formation of certain heterocyclic compoun [...] ds, like sulfur-containing furans, dithiolanones and thiophenes, was significantly affected by changes in the concentration of precursors. However, aliphatic compounds, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols and ketones were not changed by these additions. Inosine-5'-monophosphate was established to be more effective than cysteine or thiamine in the formation of some "meaty" volatiles, i.e. the furanthiols, when its concentration was increased 10 times in raw meat.

M.S., Madruga.

1997-08-01

274

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in rape honey by means of the molecular sensory science concept.  

Science.gov (United States)

By application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction isolated by solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) from unifloral rape honey harvested in July 2009, 28 odor-active areas could be detected within a flavor dilution factor (FD) range of 4-2048. The highest FD factors were found for (E)-?-damascenone (cooked apple-like), phenylacetic acid (honey-like), 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (aniseed-like), 3-phenylpropanoic acid (flowery, waxy), and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like). Twenty-three odorants were then quantitated by application of stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAV, ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated on the basis of newly determined odor thresholds in an aqueous fructose-glucose solution. The highest OAVs were calculated for (E)-?-damascenone, 3-phenylpropanoic acid, phenylacetic acid, dimethyl trisulfide, and phenylacetaldehyde. Quantitative measurements on a rape honey produced in 2011 confirmed the results. A model mixture containing the 12 odorants showing an OAV ? 1 at the same concentrations as they occurred in the rape honey was able to mimick the aroma impression of the original honey. The characterization of the key odorants in rape flowers from the same field suggested 3-phenylpropanoic acid, phenylacetic acid, and three further odorants to be transferred via the bees into the honey. PMID:22489542

Ruisinger, Brigitte; Schieberle, Peter

2012-05-01

275

Identification of a new lactone contributing to overripe orange aroma in Bordeaux dessert wines via perceptual interaction phenomena.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of a typical sensory concept for Bordeaux dessert wines, including the world famous wines of Sauternes. Volatile compounds from several chemical families (thiols, aldehydes, and lactones) were identified and correlated with aromatic typicality in these wines. However, these studies were unable to indicate "key" aromas of overripe fruits, especially overripe orange. The alternative strategy developed in this research combined both analytical and sensory studies of fractions of dessert wine extracts obtained by semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Multidimensional gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry and mass spectrometry (MDGC-O/MS) was applied to some of the HPLC fractions recalling "overripe fruit", and a new lactone, 2-nonen-4-olide, was identified. Reconstitution and omission tests using the HPLC fractions highlighted the importance of specific compounds, particularly 2-nonen-4-olide, in the expression of overripe orange notes. Although this lactone presents minty and fruity odors, its key contribution to the typical aroma of orange in Bordeaux dessert wines was revealed through perceptual blending. PMID:24559261

Stamatopoulos, Panagiotis; Frérot, Eric; Tempère, Sophie; Pons, Alexandre; Darriet, Philippe

2014-03-26

276

Growth regulators and essential oil production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aroma and fragrance industry is a billion-dollar world market which grows annually. Essential oils comprise the majority of compounds used by these industries. These sets of metabolites are formed mainly by monoterpenes, which are products of the plants' secondary metabolism. Biosynthesized from mevalonate and methylerythitol phosphate, the essential oil production depends not only on genetic factors and the developmental stage of plants, but also on environmental factors which could resu...

Prins, Cla?udia L.; Vieira, Ivo J. C.; Freitas, Silve?rio P.

2010-01-01

277

Characterization of the major odor-active compounds in Thai durian ( Durio zibethinus L. 'Monthong') by aroma extract dilution analysis and headspace gas chromatography-olfactometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

An aroma extract dilution analysis applied on the volatile fraction isolated from Thai durian by solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation resulted in 44 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 1-16384, 41 of which could be identified and 24 that had not been reported in durian before. High FD factors were found for ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate (fruity; FD 16384), ethyl cinnamate (honey; FD 4096), and 1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethanethiol (roasted onion; FD 1024), followed by 1-(ethyldisulfanyl)-1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethane (sulfury, onion), 2(5)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5(2)-methylfuran-3(2H)-one (caramel), 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one (soup seasoning), ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity), ethyl butanoate (fruity), 3-methylbut-2-ene-1-thiol (skunky), ethane-1,1-dithiol (sulfury, durian), 1-(methylsulfanyl)ethanethiol (roasted onion), 1-(ethylsulfanyl)propane-1-thiol (roasted onion), and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one (caramel). Among the highly volatile compounds screened by static headspace gas chromatography-olfactometry, hydrogen sulfide (rotten egg), acetaldehyde (fresh, fruity), methanethiol (rotten, cabbage), ethanethiol (rotten, onion), and propane-1-thiol (rotten, durian) were found as additional potent odor-active compounds. Fourteen of the 41 characterized durian odorants showed an alkane-1,1-dithiol, 1-(alkylsulfanyl)alkane-1-thiol, or 1,1-bis(alkylsulfanyl)alkane structure derived from acetaldehyde, propanal, hydrogen sulfide, and alkane-1-thiols. Among these, 1-(propylsulfanyl)ethanethiol, 1-{[1-(methylsulfanyl)ethyl]sulfanyl}ethanethiol, and 1-{[1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethyl]sulfanyl}ethanethiol were reported for the first time in a natural product. PMID:23088286

Li, Jia-Xiao; Schieberle, Peter; Steinhaus, Martin

2012-11-14

278

Evaluación química de precursores de aroma y sabor del cacao criollo merideño durante la fermentación en dos condiciones edafoclimáticas / Chemical evaluation of aroma and flavor of precursors of the criollo merideño cocoa during fermentation in two edafoclimatic conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se evaluó algunos parámetros asociados con los compuestos de aroma y sabor del cacao , Theobroma cacao L., Criollo Merideño (CM) cultivado bajo dos condiciones edafoclimáticas. Un primer lote establecido en el Campo Experimental San Juan de Lagunillas del Instituto Nacional de [...] Investigaciones Agrícolas (INIA-Mérida), Venezuela , a una altura de 1.050 m.s.n.m con temperatura media anual de 26 ºC y otro lote ubicado en la población Zea del mismo estado, a 850 m.s.n.m y 22 ºC, respectivamente. Los análisis se efectuaron en muestras de cotiledones frescos durante el proceso de fermentación. En ambos casos se evaluó el porcentaje de: cascarilla, humedad , grasa y punto de fusión , contenido de ácidos volátiles, azúcares totales, polifenoles, purinas totales, teobromina, cafeína y pirazinas. Los resultados muestran que el cacao CM en San Juan de Lagunillas (SJL), presentó menor acidez titulable al inicio del secado y volátil al final de la fermentación, en comparación con el CM en Zea. Así mismo, se observó ligeras diferencias en el contenido de grasas, azúcares totales , pirazinas, cafeína y teobromina, lo que indica que las condiciones edafoclimáticas generaron cambios en el comportamiento químico de los precursores de aroma y sabor . Todos los parámetros químicos fueron corregidos en función de la humedad de la muestra durante el proceso de fermentación y relacionados con una muestra de cacao fermentado Forastero de Ghana Abstract in english The present study evaluated some parameters associated with the aroma and fl avor compounds in cocoa, Theobroma cacao L., Merideño Creole (MC) grown under soil and climatic conditions. A lot set in the Experimental Station of the San Juan de Lagunillas (INIA-Mérida), Venezuela at an altitude of 1,05 [...] 0 m.a.s.l. and average annual tempe rature of 26 ºC and another in the town of Zea, Zea municipality of Mérida and 850 m.a.s.l. 22 ºC average tempe rature. Tests were conducted on samples of fresh cotyledons during the fermentation process. Both cases evaluated the percentage of fi ber, moisture, fat and its melting point, content of volatile acidity, total sugars, polyphenols, total purines, theobro mine, caffeine and pyrazine. The results show that the MC cacao in San Juan of Lagunillas, a low acidity at the start of drying compared to MC in Zea as well as a less volatile acidity at the end of fermentation. It was also noted slight differences in fat content, total sugars, pyrazine and content of caffeine and theobromine, indicating that soil and climatic conditions have led to changes in the chemical behavior of the precursors of aroma and fl avor. All chemical parameters were corrected according to the moisture of the sample during the fermentation process and were associated with a sample of fermented cocoa of Ghana

Alexis, Zambrano; Carlos, Romero; Álvaro, Gómez; Gladys, Ramos; Carlos, Lacruz; María del Rosario, Brunetto; Gallignani, Máximo; Lubin, Gutiérrez; Yelitza, Delgado.

279

Study of contents in cells and must of aroma fractions during the vinification with three types of Sacharomyces cerevisiae; Estudio de los contenidos en celulas y mostos de compuestos del aroma durante la vinificacion con tres razas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contents of different aroma fractions in cells and must during 134 days of vinification with Saccharomyces cerevisiae races cerevisiae, bayanues and capensis are studied.During the first 72 fermentation hours the ethyl esters of C3-C16 acids present the highest value of the cell/must ratio, while during the remaining vinification time the higher ratio corresponding to ethyl lactate. The higher alcohols and lactones groups are the comounds that present the smallest ratio during the study. Intermediate values of this ratio are shown by the medium chain fatty acids, terpenes and acetates. After 134 days race capensis developed a thick flor film yeast, while bayanus a thin film and cerevisae fomed no film. The values of the ratio for bayanus race during 31-134 days confirm that this yeast grow more slowly than capensis races on the wine surface, although a more active metabolism. (Author) 22 refs.

Zea, L.; Moreno, J.; Medina, M [Universidad de Cordoba. (Spain)

1997-12-31

280

Evaluación química de precursores de aroma y sabor del cacao criollo merideño durante la fermentación en dos condiciones edafoclimáticas / Chemical evaluation of aroma and flavor of precursors of the criollo merideño cocoa during fermentation in two edafoclimatic conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se evaluó algunos parámetros asociados con los compuestos de aroma y sabor del cacao , Theobroma cacao L., Criollo Merideño (CM) cultivado bajo dos condiciones edafoclimáticas. Un primer lote establecido en el Campo Experimental San Juan de Lagunillas del Instituto Nacional de [...] Investigaciones Agrícolas (INIA-Mérida), Venezuela , a una altura de 1.050 m.s.n.m con temperatura media anual de 26 ºC y otro lote ubicado en la población Zea del mismo estado, a 850 m.s.n.m y 22 ºC, respectivamente. Los análisis se efectuaron en muestras de cotiledones frescos durante el proceso de fermentación. En ambos casos se evaluó el porcentaje de: cascarilla, humedad , grasa y punto de fusión , contenido de ácidos volátiles, azúcares totales, polifenoles, purinas totales, teobromina, cafeína y pirazinas. Los resultados muestran que el cacao CM en San Juan de Lagunillas (SJL), presentó menor acidez titulable al inicio del secado y volátil al final de la fermentación, en comparación con el CM en Zea. Así mismo, se observó ligeras diferencias en el contenido de grasas, azúcares totales , pirazinas, cafeína y teobromina, lo que indica que las condiciones edafoclimáticas generaron cambios en el comportamiento químico de los precursores de aroma y sabor . Todos los parámetros químicos fueron corregidos en función de la humedad de la muestra durante el proceso de fermentación y relacionados con una muestra de cacao fermentado Forastero de Ghana Abstract in english The present study evaluated some parameters associated with the aroma and fl avor compounds in cocoa, Theobroma cacao L., Merideño Creole (MC) grown under soil and climatic conditions. A lot set in the Experimental Station of the San Juan de Lagunillas (INIA-Mérida), Venezuela at an altitude of 1,05 [...] 0 m.a.s.l. and average annual tempe rature of 26 ºC and another in the town of Zea, Zea municipality of Mérida and 850 m.a.s.l. 22 ºC average tempe rature. Tests were conducted on samples of fresh cotyledons during the fermentation process. Both cases evaluated the percentage of fi ber, moisture, fat and its melting point, content of volatile acidity, total sugars, polyphenols, total purines, theobro mine, caffeine and pyrazine. The results show that the MC cacao in San Juan of Lagunillas, a low acidity at the start of drying compared to MC in Zea as well as a less volatile acidity at the end of fermentation. It was also noted slight differences in fat content, total sugars, pyrazine and content of caffeine and theobromine, indicating that soil and climatic conditions have led to changes in the chemical behavior of the precursors of aroma and fl avor. All chemical parameters were corrected according to the moisture of the sample during the fermentation process and were associated with a sample of fermented cocoa of Ghana

Alexis, Zambrano; Carlos, Romero; Álvaro, Gómez; Gladys, Ramos; Carlos, Lacruz; María del Rosario, Brunetto; Gallignani, Máximo; Lubin, Gutiérrez; Yelitza, Delgado.

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
281

Cooked carrot volatiles. AEDA and odor activity comparisons. Identification of linden ether as an important aroma component.  

Science.gov (United States)

MS with GC-RI evidence was found for the presence of linden ether in cooked carrot (Daucus carota). Evaluation of the GC effluent from cooked carrot volatiles using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) found linden ether with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor. Others with 10-fold lower FD factors were ?-ionone, eugenol, the previously unidentified ?-damascenone, (E)-2-nonenal, octanal (+ myrcene), and heptanal. All other previously identified volatiles showed lower FD factors. Odor thresholds, concentrations, and odor activity values of previously identified compounds are reviewed. This indicated that at least 20 compounds occur in cooked carrots above their odor thresholds (in water). Compounds showing the highest odor activity values included ?-damascenone, (E)-2-nonenal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, ?-ionone, octanal, (E)-2-decenal, eugenol, and p-vinylguaiacol. PMID:24000828

Buttery, Ron G; Takeoka, Gary R

2013-09-25

282

Formation of the aroma of a raw goat milk cheese during maturation analysed by SPME-GC-MS.  

Science.gov (United States)

The volatile profile of the Spanish goat raw milk cheese of the protected designation of origin (PDO) "Queso Ibores" was studied at four stages of maturation (day 1, 30, 60, and 90) by the method of solid-phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) to determinate the characteristic volatile compounds of this cheese and to know the changes in the volatile profile of this cheese during maturation. According to the PDO, Ibores cheese aroma varies between sweet and mild and it has a strong taste, slightly tart. A total of 64 compounds were detected: 14 acids, 18 alcohols, 13 esters, 6 ketones and 13 compounds which could not be classified in these groups. Carboxylic acids were the most abundant volatile compounds in the headspace of Ibores cheese. Content of volatile compounds was significantly modified (Pheptanone) and ?-decalactone. PMID:25212351

Delgado, Francisco José; González-Crespo, José; Cava, Ramón; Ramírez, Rosario

2011-12-01

283

Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis beverages  

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Full Text Available Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma while roasted mate was defined as having a smooth, slightly burnt aroma. The relationship between the tentatively identified compounds and flavor must be determined by olfatometric analysis.

Carla Carolina Batista Machado

2007-06-01

284

Stabilization of enzymes activities of lipoxygenase pathway by irradiation to improve the production of olive oil aroma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main purpose of this work was to improve the synthesis of volatile compounds leading to green note in olives and olive tree leaves by improving enzymes activities of lipoxygenase pathway. Lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxyde lyase (HPL) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities were tested in olives and olive tree leaves during maturation. The gamma irradiation effects on these samples were studied. LOX, HPL and ADH showed maximum activities at black stage for olives and in December for olive leaves. Those activities, from olives and Chemlali olive leaves, were improved after irradiation with 0,5KGy. For the case of Chetoui olive leaves, the irradiation treatment was unfavorable because it causes a loss in enzymes activities. (Author)

285

Evaluación interanual de las estrategias regenerativas de la especie exótica invasora Gleditsia triacanthos en relación a la nativa Acacia aroma en el bosque chaqueño serrano de Córdoba (Argentina) / Interannual evaluation of the regenerative strategies of the exotic invasive species Gleditsia triacanthos compared with the native Acacia aroma in the Chaco Serrano Woodland of Cordoba (Argentina)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se ha propuesto que las especies exóticas, en relación a las nativas, difieren en características o estrategias que favorecerían su expansión. Las características regenerativas de las plantas exóticas pueden variar entre temporadas reproductivas, modificando los patrones con respecto a las especies [...] nativas e influyendo en la velocidad de expansión. En este trabajo, en el bosque chaqueño serrano de Córdoba (Argentina), se comparó en al menos dos temporadas reproductivas la producción de frutos, la densidad de semillas en el banco y la densidad de plántulas alrededor de los adultos y distribuidas en el área de estudio entre la especie exótica invasora Gleditsia triacanthos y la nativa Acacia aroma. En cada temporada de muestreo se contó el número de frutos por individuo y se obtuvo alrededor de los adultos de cada especie: a) la densidad de semillas en el banco (en dos momentos del año) y b) la densidad plántulas. Además, se registró la densidad de plántulas de ambas especies dispersas en los sitios de estudio. En dos de las tres temporadas analizadas la producción de frutos fue mayor en la especie exótica. La densidad de semillas en el banco y de plántulas alrededor de los adultos fue mayor en la especie exótica en las dos temporadas registradas. La densidad de plántulas en los sitios no varío entre las especies en ninguna de las temporadas. Las características regenerativas de G. triacanthos y la consistencia observada en las mismas en las distintas temporadas sugerirían una rápida capacidad de expansión en la región. Abstract in english It has been proposed that exotic species, compared with native ones, differed in certain characteristics that may favor their expansion. The regenerative characteristics of exotic species may vary among reproductive seasons, modifying the patterns observed contrasted with native species and hence in [...] fluencing their expansion velocity. In this work, fruit production, seed density in the soil and seedlings density around the con-specifics and in the study sites were compared between the exotic invasive Gleditsia triacanthos and the native Acacia aroma. The study was developed in at least two reproductive seasons, in areas of the Chaco Serrano Woodland of Córdoba (Argentina). In each season, the number of fruits was counted. Around the con-specifics of each species it was obtained: a) the density of seeds in the soil (in two different moments per year) and b) the density of seedlings. In addition, the density of seedlings distributed in the study sites was registered. In two of the three reproductive seasons analyzed, fruit production was higher in the exotic invasive species. In both seasons the density of seeds in the seed bank and of seedlings around the focal individuals was higher in the exotic species. The density of seedlings in the study sites did not vary between species in any of the seasons. The regenerative characteristics observed in G. triacanthos and the consistency in their response in different reproductive seasons suggest a rapid expansion of the species in the region.

Ana Elisa, Ferreras; Guillermo, Funes; Leonardo, Galetto.

286

Principais substâncias responsáveis pelo aroma de mangas comerciais brasileiras identificadas por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução/olfatometria/espectrometria de massas  

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Full Text Available Six Brazilian commercial mangoes were analysed by HRGC-O-AEDA-MS, viz., Carlota, Haden, Espada, Coração de boi, Rubi and Tommy Atkins. All them showed ethyl butanoate as the main aroma character impact compound by AEDA evaluation. The ethyl esters of 2 and 3-methylbutanoic acids are also important, the main contribution in Carlota variety being 2(S enantiomer. In Rubi variety, both 2(R enantiomer and 3-methyl isomer contributes to the caprylic fruity note observed. In four varieties, viz., Haden, Espada, Rubi and Tommy Atkins, d-3-carene showed to be the second impact aroma compound presented. In Tommy Atkins variety, a-pinene also has a significant contribution, mainly due to its (1R,5R(+-enantiomer.

Lopes Diógenes C.

1999-01-01

287

A ?-glucosidase from Oenococcus oeni ATCC BAA-1163 with potential for aroma release in wine: Cloning and expression in E. coli  

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Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are responsible for olfactory changes in wine during malolactic fermentation (MLF). A side characteristic of MLF is the release of grape derived aroma compounds from their glycosylated precursors by ?-glycosidase activities of these bacteria. Apart from Oenococcus oeni, which is regarded as the most promising species for MLF, glycosidic activities have also been observed in wine related members of the genera Lactobacillus and Pediococcus. Nevertheless, information ...

Michlmayr, Herbert; Schu?mann, Christina; Wurbs, Phillip; Barreira Braz Da Silva, Nuno M.; Rogl, Veronika; Kulbe, Klaus D.; Del Hierro, Andre?s M.

2010-01-01

288

Odor potency of aroma compounds in Riesling and Vidal blanc table wines and icewines by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to elucidate the odor potency of aroma compounds in Riesling and Vidal blanc (syn. Vidal) table wines and icewines from the Niagara Peninsula using stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry. Dilution analysis determined the most odor-potent compounds in Vidal and Riesling icewines (n = 2) and table wines (n = 2) from a commercial producer. The top 15 odor-potent compounds in each wine were identified and quantified, resulting in 23 and 24 compounds for Riesling and Vidal, respectively. The most odor-potent compounds were ?-damascenone, decanal, 1-hexanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 4-vinylguaiacol, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl 3-methylbutyrate. In general, icewines had higher concentrations of most aroma compounds compared to table wines. Through computation of odor activity values, the compounds with the highest odor activity for the icewines were ?-damascenone, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl octanoate, cis-rose oxide, and ethyl hexanoate. In table wines the highest odor activity values were found for ethyl octanoate, ?-damascenone, ethyl hexanoate, cis-rose oxide, ethyl 3-methylbutyrate, and 4-vinylguaiacol. These findings provide a foundation to determine impact odorants in icewines and the effects of viticultural and enological practices on wine aroma volatile composition. PMID:22324474

Bowen, Amy J; Reynolds, Andrew G

2012-03-21

289

Development of a method for identification and accurate quantitation of aroma compounds in Chinese Daohuaxiang liquors based on SPME using a sol-gel fibre.  

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Aroma compositions of Chinese Daohuaxiang liquors, including five kinds of commercial liquors and three kinds of base liquors, were extracted by solid phase microextraction using a sol-gel divinylbenzene/hydroxy-terminated silicone oil fibre. The effectiveness of the fibre was evaluated in comparison with commercial fibres and liquid-liquid extraction. After identification by GC-MS and GC-O, the compounds were accurately quantified by GC-FID using internal standards. Wide linear ranges, low limits of detection, satisfactory precision and recoveries were achieved. A total of 57 volatile compounds were detected and 28 of them were quantified. Most of them were common in these liquors but differed in terms of their relative amounts. Thirteen out of the 28 compounds had odour activity values greater than 1 in all of the liquors, and are suggested to be the key aroma-contributing substances of Daohuaxiang liquors. Besides, the differences among different aroma types and kinds of Daohuaxiang liquors were also discussed. PMID:25236221

Wang, Pei-Pei; Li, Zhao; Qi, Ting-Ting; Li, Xiu-Juan; Pan, Si-Yi

2015-02-15

290

Identification of aroma-active compounds in Jiashi muskmelon juice by GC-O-MS and OAV calculation.  

Science.gov (United States)

To identify aromatic compounds in Jiashi melon juice, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O) analysis was used. Odor activity values (OAVs) were also calculated on the basis of the qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile compounds. Results showed that 42 volatiles were identified, among which 4 compounds, namely, diethyl carbonate, isophorone, 2-butoxyethyl acetate, and menthol, were identified or tentatively identified for the first time as volatiles in melon fruit. Twelve compounds, namely, (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienal, (3Z,6Z)-nona-3,6-dien-1-ol, ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, (Z)-non-6-enal, (E)-2-nonenal, heptanal, methyl 2-methylbutyrate, nonanal, hexanal, and 2-methylpropyl acetate, were identified as the potent odorants of Jiashi melon juice by both OAV and detection frequency analysis (DFA). In addition, seven odorants were detected by all of the panelists and showed higher OAVs, indicating that DFA and OAV resulted in relatively similar "Jiashi" melon aroma patterns. PMID:22497266

Pang, Xueli; Guo, Xingfeng; Qin, Zihan; Yao, Yubo; Hu, Xiaosong; Wu, Jihong

2012-05-01

291

Characterization of Key Aroma Compounds in Distiller's Grains from Wheat as a Basis for Utilization in the Food Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The limited use of distiller's grains (DG) in the food industry depends occasionally on the characteristic odor of DG. For a better understanding of this typical odor, a sensory evaluation was performed first. The impressions seasoninglike, roasty/breadlike, and malty/caramellike were revealed as the most intensive odors. Furthermore, analysis of volatile flavor compounds was applied on dried DG from wheat. Isolation was performed by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction, solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), and simultaneous distillation/extraction and identification with gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry. As a result, 42 odor-active compounds could be identified in total. Among 24 of the 42 odor-active compounds obtained by SAFE, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (seasoninglike) showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor, and 7 compounds (3-methylbutanioc acid, dimethyl trisulfide, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-phenylethanol, 2,6-nonadienal, and 5-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2(5H)-furanone) with a FD factor ? 32 were identified as key aroma compounds in DG from wheat. PMID:25243324

Roth, M; Meiringer, M; Kollmannsberger, H; Zarnkow, M; Jekle, M; Becker, T

2014-11-12

292

Effect of screwcap and cork closures on SO2 levels and aromas in a Sauvignon Blanc wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of a Sauvignon Blanc wine sealed under screwcap and cork was undertaken using different fill heights and initial levels of free SO2 (20, 25, and 30 mg/L) over 2 years. More SO2 was lost for wines under cork over the first 3 months, corresponding to a higher level of dissolved oxygen at bottling. From this time wines under cork and screwcap lost SO2 at a similar rate and retained dissolved CO2 equally well, indicating that both types of closure presented a similar effective barrier to gas movement. After 2 years in the bottle, the different treatments retained similar levels of the volatile thiols 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA) and 3-mercaptohexanol (3MH) responsible for fruity aromas, with initial SO2 levels having no effect, but the thiol concentrations were 18-23% lower under cork, which may be due to absorption of volatiles into the cork. Levels of polyphenols such as caftaric acid and the absorbance at 420 nm were the same for wines under cork and screwcap, whereas some indication was given that more oxidation occurred with a lower level of initial free SO2. Although the different treatments were not readily distinguished by a sensory panel, the data for individual wines showed a positive correlation between passion fruit descriptors and levels of 3MHA and 3MH. PMID:16366687

Brajkovich, Michael; Tibbits, Nigel; Peron, Guilaine; Lund, Cynthia M; Dykes, Stuart I; Kilmartin, Paul A; Nicolau, Laura

2005-12-28

293

Impact of crema on the aroma release and the in-mouth sensory perception of espresso coffee.  

Science.gov (United States)

A set of six espresso coffees with different foam characteristics and similar above cup and in-mouth flavour sensory profiles was produced by combination of two varying parameters, the extraction pressure and the filtration of the coffee beverage. The coffees were subsequently evaluated in a comparative manner by a set of analytical (headspace, nose-space) and sensory (Temporal Dominance of Sensations) techniques. The presence of espresso crema in its standard quantity was demonstrated to be associated with the optimum release of pleasant high volatiles, both in the above cup headspace and in-mouth. On the other hand, the TDS study demonstrated that increasing amount of crema was associated with increasing roasted dominance along coffee consumption. Furthermore, a parallel was established between the roasted sensory dominance and the dominant release of 2-methylfuran in the nose-space. This was, however, an indirect link as 2-methylfuran was indeed a chemical marker of roasting but does not contribute to the roasted aroma. Lowering the standard amount of crema by filtration clearly decreased the release of pleasant high volatiles and the in-mouth roasted sensory dominance. On the other hand, increasing the usual crema volume by increasing the extraction pressure did not bring any added value concerning the above cup and in-mouth release of pleasant high volatiles. PMID:22706310

Barron, D; Pineau, N; Matthey-Doret, W; Ali, S; Sudre, J; Germain, J C; Kolodziejczyk, E; Pollien, P; Labbe, D; Jarisch, C; Dugas, V; Hartmann, C; Folmer, B

2012-09-01

294

The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (?FIC) was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1?:?1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%), additive (48.9%), non-interactive (23.7%), and antagonistic (0.7%) interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1?:?1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender. PMID:23737850

de Rapper, Stephanie; Kamatou, Guy; Viljoen, Alvaro; van Vuuren, Sandy

2013-01-01

295

Study to elucidate formation pathways of selected roast-smelling odorants upon extrusion cooking.  

Science.gov (United States)

The formation pathways of the N-containing roast-smelling compounds 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-acetyl-1(or 3),4,5,6-tetrahydropyridine, and their structural analogues 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline and 2-propionyl-1(or 3),4,5,6-tetrahydropyridine were studied upon extrusion cooking using the CAMOLA approach. The samples were produced under moderate extrusion conditions (135 °C, 20% moisture, 400 rpm) employing a rice-based model recipe enriched with flavor precursors ([U-(13)C6]-D-glucose, D-glucose, glycine, L-proline, and L-ornithine). The obtained data indicate that the formation of these compounds upon extrusion follows pathways similar to those reported for nonsheared model systems containing D-glucose and L-proline. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline is formed (i) by acylation of 1-pyrroline via C2 sugar fragments (major pathway) and (ii) via ring-opening of 1-pyrroline incorporating C3 sugar fragments (minor pathway), whereas 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline incorporates exclusively C3 sugar fragments. 2-Acetyl-1(or 3),4,5,6-tetrahydropyridine and the corresponding propionyl analogue incorporate C3 and C4 sugar fragments, respectively. In addition, it has been shown that the formation of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in low-moisture systems depends on the pH value of the reaction mixture. PMID:23621440

Davidek, Tomas; Festring, Daniel; Dufossé, Thierry; Novotny, Ondrej; Blank, Imre

2013-10-30

296

Tadeusz Reichstein: from description of coffee aroma to discoveries of cortisone and aldosterone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tadeusz Reichstein was born in Wloclawek (Poland) into a Polish-Jewish family. His family emigrated to Switzerland, and he was educated in the Technical University of Zurich, becoming an engineer of chemistry. Thus he started his scientific career, firstly in Zurich and later in Basel. In his very busy life, he developed a method of vitamin C synthesis enabling industrial production of this important compound. Later, Reichstein isolated and synthesized such important adrenocortical hormones as cortisone, desoxycorticosterone and aldosterone. He received several awards but the most important was a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1950). Reichstein spent the last years of his life in his own botanical garden and laboratory working on fern cytogenetics and the relations between different species of this archaic plant. Despite extraordinary and still valuable scientific achievements, he was always a very modest man with a humanistic attitude. PMID:20013737

Rutkowski, Boleslaw; Ostrowski, Janusz

2009-01-01

297

Partition coefficients of aroma compounds between polyethylene and aqueous ethanol and their estimation using UNIFAC and GCFEOS. (Volumes I and II)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Partition coefficients were measured for n-alkanes and 13 different aroma compounds (isoamylacetate, d-limonene, camphor, linalylacetate, L-menthol, dimethylbenzyl-carbinol, citronellol, phenylethylalcholo, diphenylmethane, diphenyloxide, eugenol, [tau]-undelacotne) at dilute concentrations between aqueous ethanol solutions (100%, 66% and 33% for n-alkanes; 100%, 75%, 50%, 35% w/w) and nitrogen at 25[degrees]C using a gas stripping column method. Partition coefficients for n-alkanes (octane, nonane, decane, dodecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, octadecane, eicosane, docosane) and the aromas were also measured between low density polyethylene, high density polyethylene and ethanol and aqueous ethanol liquid phases (100%, 75%, 50% and 35% ethanol w/w) at 10[degrees], 25[degrees] and 40[degrees]C using an equilibrium sorption method. No significant differences were found for polyethylene samples with different crystallinities and very little temperature effect was seen for the polymer/liquid partition coefficients. The polymer/liquid partition coefficients were most affected by the chemical nature of the mixture. The liquid/gas and polymer/liquid partition coefficients were estimated using UNIFAC with UNIFAC-FV and using the Group-contribution Flory Equation-of-State (GCFEOS). UNIFAC and GCFEOS are useful for qualitative estimations. Significant quantitative differences between the experimental data and the estimations were found for the liquid/gas and polymer/liquid partition coefficients of some solutes, in particular middle polarity aroma compounds. A correlation of the size of estimation error with increasing molecular weight was observed for the n-alkanes and phenols. The variances between experimental and estimated values are explained in terms of the methods' group-contribution additivity and solution of groups assumptions and the methods' semi-empirical nature. UNIFAC gave more consistent and on average better quantitative estimations the GCFEOS.

Baner, A.L. III.

1993-01-01

298

Compuestos fenólicos, actividad antioxidante, contenido de resveratrol y componentes del aroma de 8 vinos peruanos / Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, resveratrol content and volatile components of 8 peruvian wines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo de investigación tuvo como objetivo conocer las propiedades fisicoquímicas, actividad antioxidante, componentes del aroma y contenido de resveratrol y quercetina de 8 vinos peruanos. Se encontró que las densidades relativas de los vinos están dentro del rango de 0,9916 a 1,0174 g [...] /mL, mientras que los valores de pH varían de 3,18 a 3,97. Mediante métodos espectrofotométricos se pudo cuantificar la concentración de fenoles totales (2374,25 a 3610,43 mg/L), flavonoides totales (1869,19 a 3138,85 mg/L) y antocianinas totales (102,64 a 317,50 mg/L). Por medio de cromatografía líquida de alta performance (HPLC) se pudo detectar la presencia del compuesto trans-resveratrol en 6 de los 8 vinos peruanos evaluados. El vino Tabernero Malbec-Merlot contiene la mayor concentración de dicho compuesto (0,56 ± 0,03 µg/mL) y, además, es el que presenta la mejor actividad antioxidante en el test de DPPH. Por medio de cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS) se pudo determinar que los compuestos volátiles de mayor concentración en el aroma de los vinos fueron el ácido sórbico, feniletanol, ácido propanoico y monoetil éster del ácido butanodioico. Abstract in english The aim of this investigation was to evaluate some physicochemical properties, the antioxidant activity, the aroma components and resveratrol and quercitin contents of 8 Peruvian wines. We found that the density of the selected wines was in the range of 0,9916 - 1,0174 g/mL, while the pH values were [...] between 3,18 and 3,97. Spectrophotometric methods were used to determine the concentrations of total phenolics (2374,25 - 3610,43 mg/L), flavonoids (1869,19 - 3138,85 mg/L) and anthocyanins (102,64 - 317,50 mg/L). The compound trans-resveratrol was detected by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) on 6 of the 8 Peruvian wines selected for the present study. The Tabernero Malbec-Merlot wine had the highest concentration of this compound (0,56 ± 0,03 µg/mL) and the best antioxidant activity on the DPPH test. GC-MS studies on the aroma of the evaluated wines showed that the major compounds were sorbic acid, phenylethyl alcohol, propanoic acid and ethyl hydrogen succinate.

Rodrigo, Salazar; Giovana, Espinoza; Candy, Ruiz; María de Fátima, Fernández; Rosario, Rojas.

299

Influência da variedade, no sabor e aroma do leite de soja Influence of soybean variety on the taste and flavor of soy milK  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de verificar a influência que a variedade da planta poderia exercer no sabor e aroma do leite de soja, preparado de acordo com as normas do chamado "Método DEC", modificado. A degustação das amostras foi realizada por uma equipe de provadores constituída por 25 pessoas que antes nunca haviam experimentado o leite de soja. Foi empregada técnica especializada para evitar a influência de fatores estranhos à experiência e adotou-se o teste triangular para a apresentação das amostras, transformando-se depois a preferência de sabor e aroma numa escala de pontos. Preliminarmente foi necessário estudar a influência da descorticaçao na aceitação do produto, verificando-se que, pelo menos para a variedade Mojiana, adotada como padrão, o leite é de melhor sabor quando preparado com a prévia remoção das cascas. Os diversos testes realizados mostraram que a variedade Rio Grande apresentou melhor sabor e melhor aroma que as variedades Abura, Mojiana e Chosen, muito embora essas diferenças não tivessem atingido o limite da significância estatística.Laboratory experiments were accomplished to determine the influence of soybean variety npon the taste and flavor of soy milk prepared according to the so-called "DEC Method", modified, and the results are here reported. A special panel was organized with the personnel working at the Instituto Agronômico of Campinas, composed of 25 people who never had been submitted to such a test before and the results expressed in a numerical scale. A preliminary test to evaluate the influence of lhe skin (seed coat on the tasle of soy milk has proved that for the case of the variety Mojiana the removal of the skin was necessary to approach to standard technique. The experimental data showed that taste improves when seed coats are removed right after maceration. These results were statistically significant. There was not any significant difference among the treatments in the laboratory trials with soy milk prepared from four different soybean varieties (Rio Grande, Ahura, Mojiana and Chosen as far as taste and aroma are concerned, although the Rio Grande appeared as the leading variety in the average of both judgements.

Ruth dos Santos Garruti

1960-01-01

300

Influência da variedade, no sabor e aroma do leite de soja / Influence of soybean variety on the taste and flavor of soy milK  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de verificar a influência que a variedade da planta poderia exercer no sabor e aroma do leite de soja, preparado de acordo com as normas do chamado "Método DEC", modificado. A degustação das amostras foi realizada por uma equipe de provadores consti [...] tuída por 25 pessoas que antes nunca haviam experimentado o leite de soja. Foi empregada técnica especializada para evitar a influência de fatores estranhos à experiência e adotou-se o teste triangular para a apresentação das amostras, transformando-se depois a preferência de sabor e aroma numa escala de pontos. Preliminarmente foi necessário estudar a influência da descorticaçao na aceitação do produto, verificando-se que, pelo menos para a variedade Mojiana, adotada como padrão, o leite é de melhor sabor quando preparado com a prévia remoção das cascas. Os diversos testes realizados mostraram que a variedade Rio Grande apresentou melhor sabor e melhor aroma que as variedades Abura, Mojiana e Chosen, muito embora essas diferenças não tivessem atingido o limite da significância estatística. Abstract in english Laboratory experiments were accomplished to determine the influence of soybean variety npon the taste and flavor of soy milk prepared according to the so-called "DEC Method", modified, and the results are here reported. A special panel was organized with the personnel working at the Instituto Agronô [...] mico of Campinas, composed of 25 people who never had been submitted to such a test before and the results expressed in a numerical scale. A preliminary test to evaluate the influence of lhe skin (seed coat) on the tasle of soy milk has proved that for the case of the variety Mojiana the removal of the skin was necessary to approach to standard technique. The experimental data showed that taste improves when seed coats are removed right after maceration. These results were statistically significant. There was not any significant difference among the treatments in the laboratory trials with soy milk prepared from four different soybean varieties (Rio Grande, Ahura, Mojiana and Chosen) as far as taste and aroma are concerned, although the Rio Grande appeared as the leading variety in the average of both judgements.

Ruth dos Santos, Garruti; Lucinda Valverde Souza Queiróz de, Barros.

 
 
 
 
301

Compuestos fenólicos, actividad antioxidante, contenido de resveratrol y componentes del aroma de 8 vinos peruanos / Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, resveratrol content and volatile components of 8 peruvian wines  

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Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo de investigación tuvo como objetivo conocer las propiedades fisicoquímicas, actividad antioxidante, componentes del aroma y contenido de resveratrol y quercetina de 8 vinos peruanos. Se encontró que las densidades relativas de los vinos están dentro del rango de 0,9916 a 1,0174 g [...] /mL, mientras que los valores de pH varían de 3,18 a 3,97. Mediante métodos espectrofotométricos se pudo cuantificar la concentración de fenoles totales (2374,25 a 3610,43 mg/L), flavonoides totales (1869,19 a 3138,85 mg/L) y antocianinas totales (102,64 a 317,50 mg/L). Por medio de cromatografía líquida de alta performance (HPLC) se pudo detectar la presencia del compuesto trans-resveratrol en 6 de los 8 vinos peruanos evaluados. El vino Tabernero Malbec-Merlot contiene la mayor concentración de dicho compuesto (0,56 ± 0,03 µg/mL) y, además, es el que presenta la mejor actividad antioxidante en el test de DPPH. Por medio de cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS) se pudo determinar que los compuestos volátiles de mayor concentración en el aroma de los vinos fueron el ácido sórbico, feniletanol, ácido propanoico y monoetil éster del ácido butanodioico. Abstract in english The aim of this investigation was to evaluate some physicochemical properties, the antioxidant activity, the aroma components and resveratrol and quercitin contents of 8 Peruvian wines. We found that the density of the selected wines was in the range of 0,9916 - 1,0174 g/mL, while the pH values were [...] between 3,18 and 3,97. Spectrophotometric methods were used to determine the concentrations of total phenolics (2374,25 - 3610,43 mg/L), flavonoids (1869,19 - 3138,85 mg/L) and anthocyanins (102,64 - 317,50 mg/L). The compound trans-resveratrol was detected by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) on 6 of the 8 Peruvian wines selected for the present study. The Tabernero Malbec-Merlot wine had the highest concentration of this compound (0,56 ± 0,03 µg/mL) and the best antioxidant activity on the DPPH test. GC-MS studies on the aroma of the evaluated wines showed that the major compounds were sorbic acid, phenylethyl alcohol, propanoic acid and ethyl hydrogen succinate.

Rodrigo, Salazar; Giovana, Espinoza; Candy, Ruiz; María de Fátima, Fernández; Rosario, Rojas.

2011-04-01

302

Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin) and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma / Estudo de compostos voláteis de ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin) e estimativa da sua contribuição ao aroma  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As técnicas de extração-destilação simultâneas (SDE) e de headspace-microextração em fase sólida (HS-SPME) combinadas com GC-FID e GC-MS foram usadas para analisar compostos voláteis da ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin) e para estimar os compostos de aroma mais ativos, pela aplicação de valore [...] s de atividade olfativa (OAV), considerando os compostos voláteis presentes no headspace da fruta. As análises levaram à identificação de 148 componentes, incluindo 58 ésteres, 23 terpenoides, 14 aldeídos, 11 álcoois, 10 cetonas, 9 alcanos, 7 ácidos, 4 lactonas, 3 fenóis e 9 outros compostos de diferentes estruturas. De acordo om os resultados de SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS e OAV, 2-metilbutanoato de etila, acetato de hexila, (E)-2-nonenal, butanoato de etila, (E)-2-decenal, hexanoato de etila, nonanal, decanal, (E)-b-ionona, ?-dodecalactona, acetato de (Z)-3-hexenila, acetato de pentila, linalool, ?-decalactona, acetato de butila, limoneno, acetato de propila, ?-decalactona, sulfeto de dietila, acetato de (E)-2-hexenila, heptanoato de etila, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanoato de (Z)-3-hexenila, eugenol, (E)-2-hexenal, pentanoato de etila, hexil 2-butanoato de metila, hexanoato de isopentila, 1-hexanol, ?-nonalactona, mirceno, acetato de octila, fenilacetaldeído, 1-butanol, acetato de isobutila, (E)-2-heptenal, octadecanal, e nerol são compostos odoríficos característicos em ameixas frescas, já que foram encontrados em concentrações muito acima dos seus limiares de precepção olfativa. Abstract in english Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE) and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin) and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values ( [...] OAV). The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E)-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E)-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E)-?-ionone, ?-dodecalactone, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, ?-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, ?-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z)-3-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E)-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, ?-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E)-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.

Jorge Antonio, Pino; Clara Elizabeth, Quijano.

303

Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin) and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma / Estudo de compostos voláteis de ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin) e estimativa da sua contribuição ao aroma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As técnicas de extração-destilação simultâneas (SDE) e de headspace-microextração em fase sólida (HS-SPME) combinadas com GC-FID e GC-MS foram usadas para analisar compostos voláteis da ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin) e para estimar os compostos de aroma mais ativos, pela aplicação de valore [...] s de atividade olfativa (OAV), considerando os compostos voláteis presentes no headspace da fruta. As análises levaram à identificação de 148 componentes, incluindo 58 ésteres, 23 terpenoides, 14 aldeídos, 11 álcoois, 10 cetonas, 9 alcanos, 7 ácidos, 4 lactonas, 3 fenóis e 9 outros compostos de diferentes estruturas. De acordo om os resultados de SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS e OAV, 2-metilbutanoato de etila, acetato de hexila, (E)-2-nonenal, butanoato de etila, (E)-2-decenal, hexanoato de etila, nonanal, decanal, (E)-b-ionona, ?-dodecalactona, acetato de (Z)-3-hexenila, acetato de pentila, linalool, ?-decalactona, acetato de butila, limoneno, acetato de propila, ?-decalactona, sulfeto de dietila, acetato de (E)-2-hexenila, heptanoato de etila, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanoato de (Z)-3-hexenila, eugenol, (E)-2-hexenal, pentanoato de etila, hexil 2-butanoato de metila, hexanoato de isopentila, 1-hexanol, ?-nonalactona, mirceno, acetato de octila, fenilacetaldeído, 1-butanol, acetato de isobutila, (E)-2-heptenal, octadecanal, e nerol são compostos odoríficos característicos em ameixas frescas, já que foram encontrados em concentrações muito acima dos seus limiares de precepção olfativa. Abstract in english Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE) and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin) and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values ( [...] OAV). The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E)-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E)-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E)-?-ionone, ?-dodecalactone, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, ?-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, ?-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z)-3-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E)-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, ?-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E)-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.

Jorge Antonio, Pino; Clara Elizabeth, Quijano.

2012-03-01

304

Oxidative stability of fermented meat products  

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Full Text Available Meat and meat products, which form a major part of our diet, are very susceptible to quality changes resulting from oxidative processes. Quality of fermented food products depends on the course of various physicochemical and biochemical processes. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products may be the result of enzymatic changes occurring as a result of activity of enzymes originating in tissues and microorganisms, as well as lipid peroxidation by free radicals. Primary and secondary products of lipid oxidation are extremely reactive and react with other components of meat, changing their physical and chemical properties. Oxidised proteins take on a yellowish, red through brown hue. Products of lipid and protein degradation create a specifi c fl avour and aroma ; furthermore, toxic substances (such as biogenic amines or new substances are formed as a result of interactions between meat components, e.g. protein-lipid or protein-protein combinations, as well as transverse bonds in protein structures. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products is a particularly diffi cult process. On the one hand it is essential, since the enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid oxidation creates fl avour and aroma compounds characteristic for ripening products; on the other hand excessive amounts or transformations of those compounds may cause the fermented meat product to become a risk to health.

Zbigniew J. Dolatowski

2012-06-01

305

Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) / Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) beverages  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and [...] trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z)-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma while roasted mate was defined as having a smooth, slightly burnt aroma. The relationship between the tentatively identified compounds and flavor must be determined by olfatometric analysis.

Carla Carolina Batista, Machado; Deborah Helena Markowicz, Bastos; Natália Soares, Janzantti; Roselaine, Facanali; Marcia Ortiz M., Marques; Maria Regina Bueno, Franco.

306

Effect of pH and Water Activity in Generation of Selected Meaty Aroma Compounds in a Meat Model System  

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Full Text Available Longissimus dorsi post rigor minced beef meat was washed repeatedly with 0.02 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.8 to obtain pigment-free muscle fibers. The resultant muscle fiber was freeze dried and used as a meat model system. The results were compared with or without an aqueous model system containing a mixture of cysteine, thiamine and ribose reaction mixture. Gas chromatography-Mass spectrophotometry was used to study the effect of pH and water activity on the generation of volatiles in model systems. Seven sulphur-containing meaty aroma volatiles were identified in the meat fiber model system by odour port analyser and the generated mass spectra. The generation of volatile in reaction mixture as well as in meat fiber model system were strongly influenced by pH. The intensity of 2-methyl tetrahydrothioph-ene-3-one was low (p?0.05 at lower pH. The generation of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol and bis-(2-methyl-3-furyl was more (p?0.05 in reaction mixture model system at a pH 5.5 and 6.5 than at lower pH. However, the increase in generation of 2-methyl thiophene in model systems studied was dependent (p?0.05 on the increase of pH. The volatiles, 2-methyl-4-5-dihydrothiophene, 2-methyl-3-(methylthio furan and 2-methyl-3-thiophenethiol were not detected at low pH in a meat fiber model system. However, their generation in reaction mixture and meat fiber containing reaction mixture system was observed. The formation of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol and bis-(2-methyl-3-furyl was favoured (p?0.05 by higher aw whereas, the formation of thiophene was maximum at aw 0.80. At higher aw, an inverse relationship between aw and quantity of thiophene was observed.

A.J. Taylor

2008-01-01

307

Improvement of soluble coffee aroma using an integrated process of supercritical CO2 extraction with selective removal of the pungent volatiles by adsorption on activates carbon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this paper a two-step integrated process consisting of CO2 supercritical extraction of volatile coffee compounds (the most valuable) from roasted and milled coffee, and a subsequent step of selective removal of pungent volatiles by adsorption on activated carbon is presented. Some experiments wer [...] e carried out with key compounds from roasted coffee aroma in order to study the adsorption step: ethyl acetate as a desirable compound and furfural as a pungent component. Operational parameters such as adsorption pressure and temperature and CO2 flowrate were optimized. Experiments were conducted at adsorption pressures of 12-17 MPa, adsorption temperatures of 35-50ºC and a solvent flow rate of 3-5 kg/h. In all cases, the solute concentration and the activated particle size were kept constant. Results show that low pressures (12 MPa), low temperatures (35ºC) and low CO2 flowrates (3 kg/h) are suitable for removing the undesirable pungent and smell components (e.g. furfural) and retaining the desirable aroma compounds (e.g. ethyl acetate). The later operation with real roasted coffee has corroborated the previous results obtained with the key compounds.

S., Lucas; M. J., Cocero.

2006-06-01

308

Studies on the aroma of five fresh tomato cultivars and the precursors of cis- and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenals and methional.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three tasty (BR-139, FA-624, and FA-612) and two less tasty (R-144 and R-175) fresh greenhouse tomato cultivars, which significantly differ in their flavor profiles, were screened for potent odorants using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). On the basis of AEDA results, 19 volatiles were selected for quantification in those 5 cultivars using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Compounds such as 1-penten-3-one, ( E, E)- and ( E, Z)-2,4-decadienal, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2 H)-furanone (Furaneol) had higher odor units in the more preferred cultivars, whereas methional, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-phenylethanol, or 2-isobutylthiazole had higher odor units in the less preferred cultivars. Simulation of the odor of the selected tomato cultivars by preparation of aroma models and comparison with the corresponding real samples confirmed that all important fresh tomato odorants were identified, that their concentrations were determined correctly in all five cultivars, and that differences in concentration, especially of the compounds mentioned above, make it possible to distinguish between them and are responsible for the differential preference. To help elucidate formation pathways of key odorants, labeled precursors were added to tomatoes. Biogenesis of cis- and trans-4,5-epoxy-( E)-2-decenals from linoleic acid and methional from methionine was confirmed. PMID:18459793

Mayer, Florian; Takeoka, Gary R; Buttery, Ron G; Whitehand, Linda C; Naim, Michael; Rabinowitch, Haim D

2008-05-28

309

Purification and characterization of an ethanol-tolerant ?-glucosidase from Sporidiobolus pararoseus and its potential for hydrolysis of wine aroma precursors.  

Science.gov (United States)

An extracellular ethanol-tolerant ?-glucosidase from Sporidiobolus pararoseus was purified to homogeneity and characterized, and its potential use for the enhancement of wine aroma was investigated. The crude enzymatic extract was purified in four steps (concentration, dialysis, ultrafiltration, and chromatography) with a yield of around 40 % for total activity. The purified enzyme (designated Sp-?gl-P) showed a specific activity of approximately 20.0 U/mg, an estimated molecular mass of 63 kDa after sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and isoelectric point of 5.0 by isoelectric focusing. Sp-?gl-P has optimal activity at pH 4.0 and at 55 °C. It was stable in a broad pH range at low temperatures and it was tolerant to ethanol and glucose, indicating suitable properties for winemaking. The hydrolysis of glycosidic terpenes was analyzed by adding Sp-?gl-P directly to the wines. The released terpene compounds were evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The enzymatic treatment significantly increased the amount of free terpenes, suggesting that this enzyme could potentially be applicable in wine aroma improvement. PMID:23996123

Baffi, Milla Alves; Martin, Natália; Tobal, Thaise Mariá; Ferrarezi, Ana Lúcia; Lago, João Henrique Ghilardi; Boscolo, Maurício; Gomes, Eleni; Da-Silva, Roberto

2013-12-01

310

Influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration treatment on aroma compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in different industrial scale fermenters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration (CM) on Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in two different industrial-scale fermenters was studied. CM treatment had different effects on wine aroma depending on the types of fermenter, being more effective for automatic pumping-over tank (PO-tank) than automatic punching-down tank (PD-tank). When PO-tank was used, CM-treated wine showed a decrease in some fusel alcohols (isobutanol and isopentanol) and an increase in some esters (especially acetate esters). However, no significant changes were detected in these compounds when PD-tank was used. Ethyl 2-hexenoate and diethyl succinate were decreased, while geranylacetone was increased by the CM treatment in both fermenters. ?-Damascenone was increased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines but decreased in PD-tank fermented wines. The fruity, caramel and floral aroma series were enhanced while chemical series were decreased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines. The content of (Z)-6-nonen-1-ol in the final wines was positively correlated to CM treatment. PMID:24518336

Cai, Jian; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Lu, Lin; Lan, Yi-Bin; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

2014-07-01

311

Evaluation of aroma differences between high-salt liquid-state fermentation and low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauces from China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two types of Chinese soy sauce, high-salt liquid-state fermentation soy sauce (HLFSS) and low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce (LSFSS), were used to investigate their differences in aroma profile by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). Results from descriptive sensory analysis showed that the alcoholic, cooked potato-like and caramel-like attributes were significantly higher in HLFSS, while LSFSS exhibited significantly higher sour and burnt attributes. In addition, aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) revealed 37 and 33 odour-active regions for HLFSS and LSFSS, respectively. Ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, phenylacetaldehyde, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 3-(methylthio)propanal detected in HLFSS showed the highest flavour dilution (FD) factors, while 3-methylbutanal, phenylacetaldehyde and ethyl propanoate possessed the highest FD factors in LSFSS. Therefore, the traditional Chinese soy sauce HLFSS contained more complex volatiles and exhibited a richer aromatic profile compared with LSFSS. PMID:24128458

Feng, Yunzi; Cai, Yu; Su, Guowan; Zhao, Haifeng; Wang, Chenxia; Zhao, Mouming

2014-02-15

312

Improvement of soluble coffee aroma using an integrated process of supercritical CO2 extraction with selective removal of the pungent volatiles by adsorption on activates carbon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this paper a two-step integrated process consisting of CO2 supercritical extraction of volatile coffee compounds (the most valuable) from roasted and milled coffee, and a subsequent step of selective removal of pungent volatiles by adsorption on activated carbon is presented. Some experiments wer [...] e carried out with key compounds from roasted coffee aroma in order to study the adsorption step: ethyl acetate as a desirable compound and furfural as a pungent component. Operational parameters such as adsorption pressure and temperature and CO2 flowrate were optimized. Experiments were conducted at adsorption pressures of 12-17 MPa, adsorption temperatures of 35-50ºC and a solvent flow rate of 3-5 kg/h. In all cases, the solute concentration and the activated particle size were kept constant. Results show that low pressures (12 MPa), low temperatures (35ºC) and low CO2 flowrates (3 kg/h) are suitable for removing the undesirable pungent and smell components (e.g. furfural) and retaining the desirable aroma compounds (e.g. ethyl acetate). The later operation with real roasted coffee has corroborated the previous results obtained with the key compounds.

S., Lucas; M. J., Cocero.

313

Improvement of soluble coffee aroma using an integrated process of supercritical CO2 extraction with selective removal of the pungent volatiles by adsorption on activates carbon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper a two-step integrated process consisting of CO2 supercritical extraction of volatile coffee compounds (the most valuable from roasted and milled coffee, and a subsequent step of selective removal of pungent volatiles by adsorption on activated carbon is presented. Some experiments were carried out with key compounds from roasted coffee aroma in order to study the adsorption step: ethyl acetate as a desirable compound and furfural as a pungent component. Operational parameters such as adsorption pressure and temperature and CO2 flowrate were optimized. Experiments were conducted at adsorption pressures of 12-17 MPa, adsorption temperatures of 35-50ºC and a solvent flow rate of 3-5 kg/h. In all cases, the solute concentration and the activated particle size were kept constant. Results show that low pressures (12 MPa, low temperatures (35ºC and low CO2 flowrates (3 kg/h are suitable for removing the undesirable pungent and smell components (e.g. furfural and retaining the desirable aroma compounds (e.g. ethyl acetate. The later operation with real roasted coffee has corroborated the previous results obtained with the key compounds.

S. Lucas

2006-06-01

314

Biosynthesis of wine aroma: transcript profiles of hydroxymethylbutenyl diphosphate reductase, geranyl diphosphate synthase, and linalool/nerolidol synthase parallel monoterpenol glycoside accumulation in Gewürztraminer grapes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In developing grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berries, precursor volatile organic compounds (PVOCs) are largely stored as glycosides which may be hydrolyzed to release VOCs during fruit ripening, wine making, or aging. VOCs can be further transformed by yeast metabolism. Together, these processes contribute to complexity of wine aromas. Floral and citrus odors of many white wine varietals are attributed to monoterpenes and monoterpene alcohols, while phenolic compounds, norisoprenoids, and other volatiles also play important roles in determining aroma. We present an analysis of PVOCs stored as glycosides in developing Gewürztraminer berries during the growing season. We optimized a method for PVOC analysis suitable for small amounts of Muscat grapevine berries and showed that the amount of PVOCs dramatically increased during and after véraison. Transcript profiling of the same berry samples underscored the involvement of terpenoid pathway genes in the accumulation of PVOCs. The onset of monoterpenol PVOC accumulation in developing grapes was correlated with an increase of transcript abundances of early terpenoid pathway enzymes. Transcripts encoding the methylerythritol phosphate pathway gene 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase, as well as geraniol diphosphate synthase, were up-regulated preceding and during the increase in monoterpenol PVOCs. Transcripts for linalool/nerolidol synthase increased in later véraison stages. PMID:22824963

Martin, Diane M; Chiang, Angela; Lund, Steven T; Bohlmann, Jörg

2012-09-01

315

Diversity of odor-active compounds from local cultivars and wild accessions of Iwateyamanashi (Pyrus ussuriensis var. aromatica) revealed by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA)  

Science.gov (United States)

Some local cultivars and wilds of Iwateyamanashi (Pyrus ussuriensis var. aromatica) that grows wild in Northern Tohoku, Japan have good aromatic fruit. Iwateyamanashi may be valuable germplasms as a donor of odor compounds in breeding of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia), because almost all Japanese pear cultivars have faint odor. Fruits odors from a local cultivar ‘Sanenashi’, a wild accession (i0830) in Iwateyamanashi, cultivars of ‘Kosui’ and ‘La France’ were characterized at first with comparative Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA). Application of AEDA, based on Gas chromatography/Olfactometry analysis (GC/O), on the odor concentration prepared from ‘Sanenashi’ indicated the presence of 33 odor-active compounds including methyl and ethyl esters, aldehydes and alcohol. The eleven odor compounds from 16 accessions of Iwateyamanashi showed various combinations and wide range of odor concentrations by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Especially 2 accessions of local cultivar ‘Natsunashi’ plotted in the highly ethyl ester group might be useful for Japanese pear breeding. PMID:23641185

Katayama, Hironori; Ohe, Miho; Sugawara, Etsuko

2013-01-01

316

Diversity of odor-active compounds from local cultivars and wild accessions of Iwateyamanashi (Pyrus ussuriensis var. aromatica) revealed by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA).  

Science.gov (United States)

Some local cultivars and wilds of Iwateyamanashi (Pyrus ussuriensis var. aromatica) that grows wild in Northern Tohoku, Japan have good aromatic fruit. Iwateyamanashi may be valuable germplasms as a donor of odor compounds in breeding of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia), because almost all Japanese pear cultivars have faint odor. Fruits odors from a local cultivar 'Sanenashi', a wild accession (i0830) in Iwateyamanashi, cultivars of 'Kosui' and 'La France' were characterized at first with comparative Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA). Application of AEDA, based on Gas chromatography/Olfactometry analysis (GC/O), on the odor concentration prepared from 'Sanenashi' indicated the presence of 33 odor-active compounds including methyl and ethyl esters, aldehydes and alcohol. The eleven odor compounds from 16 accessions of Iwateyamanashi showed various combinations and wide range of odor concentrations by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Especially 2 accessions of local cultivar 'Natsunashi' plotted in the highly ethyl ester group might be useful for Japanese pear breeding. PMID:23641185

Katayama, Hironori; Ohe, Miho; Sugawara, Etsuko

2013-03-01

317

Comparison of isolation methods for the determination of important aroma compounds in black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) juice, using nasal impact frequency profiling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of isolation method on the determination of important aroma compounds in black currant juice was investigated by surface of nasal impact frequency (SNIF) gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The applied methods were solvent extraction, static headspace, and purge and trap using 15 and 60 min of purge time. By the four methods, a total of 59 odors were observed, and, of these, 44 corresponded to compounds that could be identified. For the headspace methods increasing purge volumes resulted in recoveries of additional, less volatile compounds. The main compound groups recovered by the headspace methods were esters and terpenes, whereas compounds recovered by solvent extraction were not as dominated by fruity odors. For most compounds there was agreement between the size of the SNIF value obtained by GC-O and the amount of the measurable compound found by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PMID:15030225

Varming, Camilla; Petersen, Mikael A; Poll, Leif

2004-03-24

318

Characterisation of the aroma profiles of different honeys and corresponding flowers using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma profiles of thirteen different honey samples from four botanical origins: heather (Calluna vulgaris), raspberry (Rubus idaeus), rape (Brassica napus), alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus) and the blossoms of the four corresponding flowers were investigated to find odour-active compounds exclusively representing specific honeys based on odour-active compounds from the blossoms. Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas-chromatography-olfactometry were used to determine and identify the odour-active compounds. Data was analysed using agglomerative hierarchical clustering and correspondence analysis. Honeys from the same botanical origin clustered together; however, none of the identified compounds were exclusive to a particular honey/blossom combination. Heather honey had the flavour profile most different to the others. Isophorone and 2-methylbutyric acid were found only in heather honeys. Heather honey was characterised by having more "sweet" and "candy-like" notes, raspberry honeys had more "green" notes, while alder buckthorn had more "honey" and "floral" notes. PMID:25236195

Seisonen, Sirli; Kivima, Evelin; Vene, Kristel

2015-02-15

319

Managing sensory expectations concerning products and brands: Capitalizing on the potential of sound and shape symbolism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, the evidence demonstrating the existence of a variety of robust crossmodal correspondences between both sounds (phonetic speech sounds, tones, and other parameters of musical expression) and shapes, and the sensory attributes (specifically the taste, flavor, aroma, and oral-somatosensory attributes) of various foods and beverages is reviewed. The available research now clearly suggests that marketers can enhance their consumers' product experiences by ensuring that the sound ...

Spence, C.

2012-01-01

320

Production, chemical characterization, and sensory profile of a novel spirit elaborated from spent coffee ground  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study describes a process for the production of a spirit from spent coffee ground (SCG), the chemical composition, and sensory profile of this distillate. The process consisted in three steps starting with the extraction of aroma compounds by hydrothermal treatment of SCG, followed by the fermentation of this extract supplemented with sucrose to ethanol, and the fermented broth distillation. Seventeen volatile compounds were identified in the distillate (including alcohols, esters, aldeh...

Sampaio, Armando; Dragone, Giuliano; Vilanova, Mar; Oliveira, J. M.; Teixeira, J. A.; Mussatto, Solange I.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Improvement of production performance of functional fermented whey-based beverage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was improvement of the performances for the production of whey-based beverages with highly productive strains of Lactobacillus. Individual or mixed culture containing Lactobacillus helveticus ATCC 15009, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis NRRL B-4525 and Streptococcus thermophilus S3 were studied. The scientific hypothesis was that production performances, especially aroma and viable cell count, are positively affected by the strains combination and temperature. Based on the results, beverages obtained by mixed cultures Lb. helveticus ATCC 15009 - S. thermophilus S3 and Lb. delbrueckii ssp. lactis - S. thermophilus S3 had higher aroma values than beverages obtained by individual strains. The symbiosis of tested strains has positive impact on the aroma of produced beverage. In addition, the temperature has significant influence on cell viability during the storage and fermentation dynamic. The beverages produced by mixed cultures Lb. helveticus ATCC 15009 - S. thermophilus S3 and Lb. delbrueckii ssp. lactis - S. thermophilus S3 at 42 oC achieved higher storage stability (19 to 22 days than beverages produced at 37°C and 45°C (13 to 19 days. Subsequently, at 42 °C fermentation time for both mixed cultures was 1.5 h shorter, compared to the time achieved at 37°C.

Bulatovi? Maja Lj.

2014-01-01

322

OPTIMIZATION OF 6-PENTYL-ALPHA-PYRONE PRODUCTION BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION USING SUGARCANE BAGASSE AS RESIDUE  

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Full Text Available Solid state fermentation (SSF has been used as a model for the study of metabolism and physiology of microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to enhance 6-PP production by Trichoderma harzianum 4040 in solid state fermentation using sugarcane bagasse as a residue. A fractional factorial design was used to select the components of the nutrient solution. The fermentation was carried out during 9 days, and the aroma extraction was done on the third, fifth, seventh, and ninth days using organic solvent. On the seventh day the major concentration of 6-PP was found. The variables glucose, sucrose, and MgSO4 were found to be significant statistically (p> 0.05 as components of the nutrient solution used in the production of 6-PP by filamentous fungi in SSF using sugarcane bagasse as a residue. GC-MS was used for quantification of 6-PP aroma.

Natalia C. Ladeira

2010-09-01

323

Contribution to aroma characteristics of mutton process flavor from the enzymatic hydrolysate of sheep bone protein assessed by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography olfactometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in the aroma characteristics of mutton process flavors (MPFs) prepared from sheep bone protein hydrolysates (SBPHs) with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and descriptive sensory analysis (DSA). Five attributes (muttony, meaty, roasted, mouthful, and simulate) were selected to assess MPFs. The results of DSA showed a distinct difference among the control sample MPF0 and other MPF samples with added SBPHs for different DHs of almost all sensory attributes. MPF5 (DH 25.92%) was the strongest in the muttony, meaty, and roasted attributes, whereas MPF6 (DH 30.89%) was the strongest in the simulate and roasted attributes. Thirty-six compounds were identified as odor-active compounds for the evaluation of the sensory characteristics of MPFs via GC-MS-O analysis. The results of correlation analysis among odor-active compounds, molecular weight, and DSA further confirmed that the SBPH with a DH range of 25.92-30.89% may be a desirable precursor for the sensory characteristics of MPF. PMID:23416288

Zhan, Ping; Tian, Honglei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wang, Liping

2013-03-15

324

Characterization of volatiles and aroma-active compounds in honeybush (Cyclopia subternata) by GC-MS and GC-O analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in fermented honeybush, Cyclopia subternata, were sampled by means of a high-capacity headspace sample enrichment probe (SEP) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Stereochemistry was determined by means of enantioselective GC-MS with derivatized ?-cyclodextrin columns as chiral selectors. A total of 183 compounds, the majority of which are terpenoids (103; 56%), were identified by comparing their mass spectra and retention indices with those of reference compounds or tentatively identified by comparison with spectral library or literature data. Of these compounds, 37 were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), using detection frequency (DF) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), to be odor-active (FD ? 2). (E)-?-Damascenone, (R/S)-linalool, (E)-?-damascone, geraniol, (E)-?-ionone, and (7E)-megastigma-5,7,9-trien-4-one were identified with the highest FD factors (?512). The odors of certain compounds, that is, (6E,8Z)-megastigma-4,6,8-trien-3-one, (6E,8E)-megastigma-4,6,8-trien-3-one, (7E)-megastigma-5,7,9-trien-4-one, 10-epi-?-eudesmol, epi-?-muurolol, and epi-?-cadinol, were perceived by GC-O assessors as typically honeybush-like. PMID:22394400

Le Roux, Maritha; Cronje, J Christel; Burger, Barend V; Joubert, Elizabeth

2012-03-14

325

A ?-glucosidase from Oenococcus oeni ATCC BAA-1163 with potential for aroma release in wine: Cloning and expression in E. coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are responsible for olfactory changes in wine during malolactic fermentation (MLF). A side characteristic of MLF is the release of grape derived aroma compounds from their glycosylated precursors by ?-glycosidase activities of these bacteria. Apart from Oenococcus oeni, which is regarded as the most promising species for MLF, glycosidic activities have also been observed in wine related members of the genera Lactobacillus and Pediococcus. Nevertheless, information on the involved enzymes including their potential use in winemaking is limited. In this study we report that ?-glucosidases with similar protein sequences can be identified in the genomes of Lactobacillus brevis, O. oeni and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. TTG serves as start codon for the glucosidase gene of O. oeni. The ?-glucosidase of O. oeni ATCC BAA-1163 was expressed in E. coli and partially characterized. The enzyme displayed characteristics similar to ?-glucosidases isolated from L. brevis and L. mesenteroides. A pH optimum between 5.0 and 5.5, and a K(m) of 0.17 mmol L(-1 )pNP-?-D-glucopyranoside were determined. A glycosyltransferase activity was observed in the presence of ethanol. The enzyme from O. oeni was capable to hydrolyze glycosides extracted from Muskat wine. This study also contains a report on glycosidase activities of several LAB species including Oenococcus kitaharae. PMID:21243086

Michlmayr, Herbert; Schümann, Christina; Wurbs, Phillip; Barreira Braz da Silva, Nuno M; Rogl, Veronika; Kulbe, Klaus D; Del Hierro, Andrés M

2010-07-01

326

Contribution of oxidized tallow to aroma characteristics of beeflike process flavour assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and partial least squares regression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flavour profiles of seven beeflike process flavours (BFs) including non-oxidized or oxidized tallow were comparatively analysed by electronic nose, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and descriptive sensory analysis to characterize the headspace of BFs. Analysis of volatiles by GC-MS indicated that the effect of oxidized tallow with moderate oxidization level on Maillard reaction was more prominent than that of others, which potentially could result in an optimal meat flavour with strong, harmony and species-specific characteristics detected by sensory analysis. In addition, electronic nose data confirmed the accuracy of the GC-MS and sensory analysis results. Correlation analysis of the electronic nose measurements, sensory evaluation and characteristic compounds through Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) further explained that moderate oxidized tallow with peroxide value (PV) of 87.67-160 mequiv./kg, the p-anisidine value (p-AV) of 30.57-50, and the acid value (AV) of 1.8-2.2 mg KOH/g tallow was a desirable precursor for imparting aroma characteristics of beef flavour. PMID:22858364

Song, Shiqing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xiao, Zuobing; Niu, Yunwei; Hayat, Khizar; Eric, Karangwa

2012-09-01

327

Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to release 3-Mercaptohexan-1-ol during fermentation through overexpression of an S. cerevisiae Gene, STR3, for improvement of wine aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfur-containing aroma compounds are key contributors to the flavor of a diverse range of foods and beverages. The tropical fruit characters of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc wines are attributed to the presence of the aromatic thiols 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH), 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol-acetate, and 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP). These volatile thiols are found in small amounts in grape juice and are formed from nonvolatile cysteinylated precursors during fermentation. In this study, we overexpressed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene, STR3, which led to an increase in 3MH release during fermentation of a V. vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc juice. Characterization of the enzymatic properties of Str3p confirmed it to be a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent cystathionine ?-lyase, and we demonstrated that this enzyme was able to cleave the cysteinylated precursors of 3MH and 4MMP to release the free thiols. These data provide direct evidence for a yeast enzyme able to release aromatic thiols in vitro that can be applied in the development of self-cloned yeast to enhance wine flavor. PMID:21478306

Holt, Sylvester; Cordente, Antonio G; Williams, Simon J; Capone, Dimitra L; Jitjaroen, Wanphen; Menz, Ian R; Curtin, Chris; Anderson, Peter A

2011-06-01

328

Characterization of Muscat wines aroma evolution using comprehensive gas chromatography followed by a post-analytic approach to 2D contour plots comparison.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents the application of a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method on the analysis of Muscat-based wines volatiles by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The aroma patterns were established for different samples of Asti Spumante and Moscato d'Asti wines, stored in bottles for 6 months at different temperatures. Wines stored at 5 °C for 6 months did not show significant changes in flavor; otherwise, the samples stored at 15 and 25 °C, showed a significant decrease in linalool, ?-damascenone, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate levels. In these last samples, ?-terpineol, hotrienol, nerol oxide, furanic linalool oxides A/B and rose oxide concentrations significantly increased. A mathematical approach was developed and applied to raw data exported after the chromatographic course, in order (i) to normalise different 2D chromatograms, permitting their direct comparison and (ii) to automatically identify and calculate from pixel-to-pixel re-designed 2D chromatograms any differences among key volatile compounds. PMID:23578615

Bordiga, Matteo; Rinaldi, Maurizio; Locatelli, Monica; Piana, Gianluca; Travaglia, Fabiano; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Arlorio, Marco

2013-09-01

329

Analysis of Volatile Compounds and Identification of Characteristic Aroma Components of Toona sinensis (A. Juss. Roem. Using GC-MS and GC-O  

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Full Text Available In this study, volatile compounds present in Toona sinensis (A. Juss. Roem (TS were investigated and their characteristic aromatic components were identified using Headspace Solid-phase Microextraction (HS-SPME followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O. The optimum conditions for extracting the volatiles from TS were achieved with the experimental parameters including the use of a 65 ?m polydimethylsiloxane/divinyl benzene (PDMS/DVB fibre, an extraction temperature of 40? and an extraction time of 30 min. Under these conditions, 56 volatile compounds were separated and 53 were identified by GC-MS. Among them, 21 sulfide compounds (42.146% and 27 terpenes?55.984% were found to be the major components. The sample was analyzed by GC-O and 26 elutes were sniffed and their sensory descriptions evaluated by an odor panelists. Analysis of the data indicated, two compounds cis and trans isomers of 2-Mercapto-3,4-dimethyl-2,3-dihydrothiophene were major contributors to the characteristic aroma of TS.

Li Deng

2013-03-01

330

Purification and gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry of aroma compounds from green tea products and comparison to bulk analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for carbon isotope ratio (?(13)C) analysis was developed for compound-specific isotope analysis of tea volatiles, and the values were compared with the ?(13)C value from bulk isotope analyses. The ?(13)C value of 2-phenylethanol liberated via enzymatic hydrolysis of the 2-phenylethyl ?-primeveroside standard was examined first. Isotope fractionations for 2-phenylethyl ?-primeveroside from preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were also analyzed. The enzymatic treatment and the preparative HPLC process did not cause carbon isotope fractionations, substantiating the strategies available for ?(13)C analysis of volatile compounds. On the basis of the gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry data from 2-phenylethanol, it was possible to derive the conditions for enzyme treatment and preparative HPLC of the glycoconjugates of 2-phenylethanol, (Z)-3-hexenol, and benzyl alcohol isolated from green tea leaves. Larger variations in ?(13)C were found for individual volatile compounds compared with bulk analytical data from the leaves, indicating the potential to utilize this strategy in assigning the geographical origin of green tea. PMID:24206364

Murata, Ariaki; Engelhardt, Ulrich H; Fleischmann, Peter; Yamada, Keita; Yoshida, Naohiro; Juchelka, Dieter; Hilkert, Andreas; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Naoharu; Winterhalter, Peter

2013-11-27

331

Análisis del metabolismo nitrogenado durante la fermentación alcohólica en levaduras vínicas (Nitrogen metaolism in wine yeast during alcoholic fermentation: effect on growth, fermentation activity and aroma production)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La carencia de nitrógeno es uno de los principales problemas encontrados en la elaboración del vino, especialmente relacionados con fermentaciones lentas e incompletas. En condiciones de vinificación, bajos niveles iniciales de nitrógeno limitan el crecimiento y la producción de biomasa, provocando una baja tasa de fermentación. Los compuestos nitrogenados presentes en el mosto también influyen en la producción de metabolitos volátiles y no volátiles que son los ...

Gutie?rrez Linares, Alicia

2013-01-01

332

Production and Preservation of Passion Fruit Juice  

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Full Text Available Production and preservation of Passion Fruit Juice was examined to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the juice using chemical preservatives. The preservation of the juice was carried out using sugar, benzoic acid, citric and a combination of citric and benzoic acid under room temperature.The result revealed that the juice maintained its color, aroma and tastes for at least one month when 30% benzoic acid was used as preservative. This happens to be the best among all. The juice under other preservation like 4% sugar went bad after three days, while that of 4% citric acid maintained its qualities for one week and some days, but thereafter the aroma started to fade. The combination of 3% benzoic acid and 4% citric acid maintained the qualities of the juice fairly between two to three weeks. The alcoholic content was also estimated and it was discovered that the juice containing citric acid and sugar has the highest percentage of alcohol. The preservation used also altered the pH so that it is impossible for pathogens to exist at such a low pH environment.

U. G. AKPAN

2005-06-01

333

Greenhouse production in Macedonia - challenges and opportunities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greenhouse tomato makes the largest share of vegetable production in the World. The developments of biological sciences and high technology in the protected crops sector have enabled drastic increase in the yield and contributed to improvement of the fruit quality. Main indicators for the fruit quality still remain to be evaluated by appearance (shape, color, size) whereas the sensor traits (taste and aroma) are somehow neglected. Among the consumers there is general impression that tomatoes grown on substrates are artificial, plastic, tasteless products, compared to the “genuine” tomato raised on soil. On the other hand, Macedonian vegetables have a very good reputation in the region with their fresh recognizable taste and aroma. It will be a challenge in the future to preserve it. Limiting factors for profitable glass house production in the Republic of Macedonia are the extreme temperatures in winter and in summer time. For that reason, not only that the glass house capacities are under utilized, but the expensive tomato hybrids that are intended for at least 10 months cropping period cannot return the profit within the short cropping period of 3-4 months. The institutional and educational systems in Macedonia do not keep the pace with latest developments in the greenhouse industry. Some of the Macedonian operators have made large investments in greenhouse production to be able to follow the market demands. In the newly erected greenhouses in Macedonia on total area of 7 ha in two locations (Kocani and Gevgelija) tomato is grown on substrates and the production is completely atomized in regards to fertirigation, environment control etc. This technology gives room for larger plants density and consequently, higher yields per unit of area. However, the substrate cultivation is not entirely adopted by the operators and they are completely dependent on the services provided by the supplier. It is of crucial importance to support them in this initial period of new production in identifying the bottlenecks and providing eventually intervention for optimal usage of the new technology. (Author)

334

Assessment of the aroma impact of major odor-active thiols in pan-roasted white sesame seeds by calculation of odor activity values.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eleven odor-active thiols, namely, 2-methyl-1-propene-1-thiol, (Z)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (Z)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 3-mercapto-2-pentanone, 2-mercapto-3-pentanone, 4-mercapto-3-hexanone, 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, and 2-methyl-3-thiophenethiol, recently identified in an extract prepared from white sesame seeds, were quantitated in sesame using stable isotope dilution analyses. For that purpose, the following deuterium-labeled compounds were synthesized and used as internal standards in the quantitation assays: [2H6]-2-methyl-1-propene-1-thiol, [2H3]-(E)- and [2H3]-(Z)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, [2H3]-2-methyl-3-furanthiol, [2H2]-3-mercapto-2-pentanone, [2H3]-4-mercapto-3-hexanone, [2H6]-3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, and [2H3]-2-methyl-3-thiophenethiol. On the basis of the results obtained, odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated as ratio of the concentration and odor threshold of the individual compounds in cooking oil. According to their high OAVs, particularly the 3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiols (OAV: 2400) and the 2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiols (OAV: 960) were identified as the most odor-active compounds in pan-roasted white sesame seeds. These compounds were therefore suggested to be mainly responsible for the characteristic but rather unstable sulfury aroma of freshly pan-roasted white sesame seeds. PMID:21815692

Tamura, Hitoshi; Fujita, Akira; Steinhaus, Martin; Takahisa, Eisuke; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Schieberle, Peter

2011-09-28

335

Discrimination of aromas from several kinds of alcohol using synthetic-resin-film-coated quartz resonator smell sensor; Gosei jushimaku wo tofushita suisho shindoshishiki nioi sensor ni yoru sake no shurui hanbetsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transient response curves for aromas from several kinds of alcohol such as Fruit Liquor (8%), Wine (14%), Japanese Sake (15%) and Whisky (43%) are observed using quartz-crystal-resonator gas sensor coated with synthetic-resin-film(acrylic resin, alkyd resin or urethane resin). The pattern recognition analysis using principal component analysis or neural network analysis is carried out using four parameters which characterize the transient response curves. The recognition probability of neural network for four kinds of alcohol is 100% for 20 trials. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Kondo, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Morita, T. Dogami, N.; Nanto, H. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan); Doguchi, Y. [Industrial Research Institute of Ishikawa Prefecture, Ishikawa (Japan)

1997-08-20

336

Flavor enhancement as a tool for increasing pleasantness and intake of a snack product among the elderly.  

Science.gov (United States)

A yogurt-like fermented oat bran product, flavored with regular and heightened concentrations of red currant aroma, was tested in two tasting sessions (side-by-side) and, between these, in a six-day home-use (monadic testing daily, 3+3 packages of the snack) by the elderly (n=50, mean age 73.7, range 63-85 years) and the young (n=58, mean age 23.1, range 18-34 years). The subjects rated the odor and flavor intensity and pleasantness and also conducted an odor detection and identification test. In home-use, the subjects reported the quantity consumed, willingness to eat, buy or recommend the snack. The young outperformed the elderly in the olfactory test. The heightened aroma samples were initially rated as less pleasant by both age groups, but among the elderly, the ratings given to the two samples merged during exposure. For the young, the large difference in perceived odor and flavor intensities reflected marked differences in pleasantness, while the elderly were less responsive to intensity differences in their pleasantness ratings. Overall, both age groups ate less of the heightened aroma sample. Despite the impaired olfactory capabilities of the elderly, no clear indication of benefit of the enhanced flavor was found for either pleasantness or intake. PMID:12880625

Koskinen, S; Kälviäinen, N; Tuorila, H

2003-08-01

337

Cream cheese products: A review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cream cheese is a soft fresh acid-coagulated cheese product, which is acidified by mesophilic lactic acid starter culture, i.e. Lactococcus and Leuconostoc. Cream cheese products are categorized into two main types based on the different fat content in the initial mix and the final composition. These are double-cream cheese with at least 9-11% fat content in the initial mix, and single-cream cheese with 4.5-5% fat content in initial mix. Cream cheese was first made by using the cooked-curd method, which was developed in the early twenties, and the cold-pack and hot-pack methods were developed, and are still used at present. The products with high quality should have a uniform white to light cream color with a lightly lactic acid and cultured diacetyl flavor and aroma. The texture of the products should be smooth without lumps, grittiness, or any indication of cracking and wheying off, and with the ability to spread at room temperature.

Chanokphat Phadungath

2005-01-01

338

Use of Probiotics in Fermented Meat Products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In spite of a negative judgements among consumers about meat and meat products, in human nutrition meat and meat products are important for nutrient components which they contain essential nutrients. Intensively produced fermented meat product such as sucuk in our country and lactic acid bacteria (LAB are used for production of various fermented sausages all over the world. LAB primarily used in order to increase the food safety of such products. LAB with probiotic properties have effect on product taste, flavour and aroma as well as the positive effects on functional and physiological properties. Positive effects of probiotics in human health and product properties in the absence of any adverse effects various cultures have been used for the production of probiotic fermented meat products. In the production of such products prepared dough which have meat and fat in the matrix form a suitable vehicle for probiotic cells. During production of products formation of lactic acid reduced the pH, during ripening conditions water activity reduced so these factors adversely affect viability of probiotic cells. For this reason protecting probiotic cultures from negative effects during exposure in the product and vitality of cells in human gastro-intestinal system to continue operating for consumption to be provided during the order process the cells are coated with microencapsuation. The use of probiotic microorganisms isolated from various foods is being investigated for the production of sausages. Studies on the effects of probiotics on human health of meat products are also needed. In this study the probiotic microorganisms used in the production of probiotic fermented sausages were investigated.

Recep Palamuto?lu

2014-05-01

339

Thermally-dried free and immobilized kefir cells as starter culture in hard-type cheese production.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an attempt to seek for suitable dried cultures, thermally-dried kefir was employed as starter in hard-type cheese production and tested in cheeses ripened at 5, 18 and 22 degrees C. Both free and immobilised on casein kefir cells were used and compared to cheese made without starter culture. Cheese products made with free cells of kefir culture were characterized by longer preservation time, improved aroma, taste, texture characteristics and increased degree of openness. Volatile profiles obtained by GC/MS analysis revealed a 216% increase in total concentration of esters, organic acids, alcohols and carbonyl compounds between cheeses prepared with and without kefir culture. PMID:19329301

Katechaki, Eleftheria; Panas, Panayiotis; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Koliopoulos, Dionisis; Koutinas, Athanasios A

2009-07-01

340

Projective Mapping and Product Positioning of Deep Fat Fried Snack  

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Full Text Available A study was carried out to examine the quality parameters of commercially available popular deep-fried snack-Mu- rukku. Eight samples (four spicy and four salty of most commonly consumed deep-fried snacks in India, viz., murukku (an extruded strands-like product made from the mixture of rice flour and black gram dhal flour were analyzed for moisture, oil content, CIE instrumental color (L*a*b*, instrumental texture measurement (breaking strength of murukku strands, aroma finger printing by electronic nose and sensory quality. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA and results showed that sample ‘A’ had highest acceptance and sample D lowest acceptance scores. The results indicated that significant variations were observed in moisture content (2.21 - 3.35%, oil content (30.10 - 34.61% and textural parameters. Electronic nose technique was found useful in fingerprinting the aroma pattern of market samples in a short time. Descriptive sensory profiling coupled with principal component analysis showed the interrelationship among and between sensory, instrumental, chemical parameters.

Ramasamy Ravi

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
341

Peroxisomal ?-oxidation and Production of ?-decalactone by the Yeast Rhodotorula aurantiaca  

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Full Text Available ?-Decalactone is a fruity aroma compound resulting from the peroxisomal ?-oxidation of ricinoleic acid by yeasts. During the ?-oxidation of fatty acids, the acyl-CoA oxidase and thioesterase play an important role. In R. aurantiaca, we demonstrated the presence of partial gene sequences homologous to acyl-CoA oxidase and thioesterase involved in the pathways synthesis of ?-decalactone. This preliminary work is expected to characterize the relationship between the ?-decalactone production and the transcription of these partial gene sequences of R. aurantiaca probably involved in the oxidation of ricinoleic acid.

Philippe THONART

2010-09-01

342

Growth regulators and essential oil production  

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Full Text Available The aroma and fragrance industry is a billion-dollar world market which grows annually. Essential oils comprise the majority of compounds used by these industries. These sets of metabolites are formed mainly by monoterpenes, which are products of the plants' secondary metabolism. Biosynthesized from mevalonate and methylerythitol phosphate, the essential oil production depends not only on genetic factors and the developmental stage of plants, but also on environmental factors which could result in biochemical and physiological alterations in plants modifying the quantity and quality of the essential oil. These modifications impair aromatic plant production aimed at essential oil by reducing their quality. It is desirable to develop techniques of agronomical management to improve essential oil products and their specific compounds. Among other factors influencing essential oil production are plant growth regulators or plant hormones. Endogenous levels as well exogenous application could affect essential oil production and chemical composition. In this review we will present research in which plant growth regulators or their synthetic analogs were used and their effects on essential oil production.

Cláudia L Prins

2010-01-01

343

Growth regulators and essential oil production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aroma and fragrance industry is a billion-dollar world market which grows annually. Essential oils comprise the majority of compounds used by these industries. These sets of metabolites are formed mainly by monoterpenes, which are products of the plants' secondary metabolism. Biosynthesized from [...] mevalonate and methylerythitol phosphate, the essential oil production depends not only on genetic factors and the developmental stage of plants, but also on environmental factors which could result in biochemical and physiological alterations in plants modifying the quantity and quality of the essential oil. These modifications impair aromatic plant production aimed at essential oil by reducing their quality. It is desirable to develop techniques of agronomical management to improve essential oil products and their specific compounds. Among other factors influencing essential oil production are plant growth regulators or plant hormones. Endogenous levels as well exogenous application could affect essential oil production and chemical composition. In this review we will present research in which plant growth regulators or their synthetic analogs were used and their effects on essential oil production.

Cláudia L, Prins; Ivo J. C, Vieira; Silvério P, Freitas.

344

Enzymic Pathways for Formation of Carotenoid Cleavage Products  

Science.gov (United States)

Degraded carotenoids (apocarotenoids, norisoprenoids) have been a subject of intensive research for several decades. From the perspective of human physiology and nutrition, the retinoids, acting as vitamins, signalling molecules, and visual pigments, attracted the greatest attention (Chapters 15 and 16). Plant scientists, however, detected a wealth of different apocarotenoids, presumably derived by the excentric cleavage of carotenoids in various species, the plant hormone abscisic acid (1, Scheme 6) being the best-investigated example. With the onset of fruit ripening, flower opening or senescence of green tissues, carotenoids are degraded oxidatively to smaller, volatile compounds. The natural biological functions of the reaction products are outlined in Chapter 15. As many of these apocarotenoids act as potent flavour compounds, food chemists and flavourists worldwide have investigated meticulously their structural and sensory properties. Many aspects of carotenoid metabolites and breakdown products as aroma compounds are presented in a comprehensive book [1].

Fleischmann, Peter; Zorn, Holger

345

Use and declaration of additives in meat products: New legal regulations  

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Full Text Available The paper presents the more important additives used in meat products, their functional characteristics, the permitted quantities and declaration in keeping with the new legal regulations. Additives important for meat products, according to their functional characteristics, can be preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers, emulsifying salts, acidity regulators, sequestrants, thickeners, gelling agents, modified starches, acids, colours, aroma enhancers, packaging gases and coating powders, and it must be pointed out that many additives have several functional characteristics at the same time. In stating additives in the list of contents of a product, the elementary functional characteristic of the additive is given with the E number or name of the additive in brackets; modified starches are declared as „starch" without giving the E number. The declaration does not state the quantity of the additive added to the product, or the biggest permitted quantity of the additive in the given product.

Vukovi? Ilija

2005-01-01

346

Innovative Integrated Wet Process for Virgin Coconut Oil Production  

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Full Text Available During the recent years, increased interest on the development of the Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO has been observed. This is to maximize the benefit of the multifunctional traditionally used coconut. VCO is rich in the Medium Chain Fatty Acids (MCFAs that have been shown to speed up the metabolism. Almost 50% of the fatty acid in virgin coconut oil is in form of lauric acid. This fatty acid has wide application as wide spectrum of antimicrobial substances against fungi, bacteria and viruses. Moreover, the fatty acid profile of coconut oil shares the similar characteristic with breast milk. The MCFAs in coconut oil are not stored in the body cells but rather processed directly in the liver where they are converted immediately into energy. The present study describes the process for VCO production through integrated wet process. The novel features of this process is the production of virgin coconut oil itself which can minimize the time, cost, energy and man power as well as can maximize the yield and improve the quality of coconut oil. The VCO obtained by this process contribute about 30-40% wt/wt of yield which is 10-20% higher than conventional method. The physical characteristics of VCO along this process shows that the VCO is colorless, retain fresh coconut aroma and sweet coconut taste with the highest content of lauric acid (49.85%. Besides that, the result also indicates the presence of vitamin E VCO. In general, the overall results for sensory analysis were acceptable in terms of aroma and taste of the product.

W.R.W. Sulaiman

2011-01-01

347

Starter cultures used in probiotic dairy product preparation and popular probiotic dairy drinks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Dairy products that contain probiotic bacteria are those that are produced with various fermentation methods, especially lactic acid fermentation, by using starter cultures and those that have various textures and aromas. Fermented dairy products are popular due to their differences in taste and the [...] ir favourable physiological effects. Today, fermented dairy beverages in general are produced locally by using traditional methods. Recently, due to the increased demand for natural nutrients and probiotic products, fermented dairy beverages have reached a different position and are considered to have an important impact on human health and nutrition. In this article, probiotic bacteria and functional dairy products that are produced by using probiotic bacteria are discussed.

Oktay, Yerlikaya.

2014-06-01

348

Terpene production in the peel of sweet orange fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Terpenoids constitute the largest and most diverse class of natural products. They are important factors for aroma and flavor, and their synthesis is basically done from two compounds: isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Isopentenyl diphosphate is synthesized through two different [...] pathways, one that occurs in the cytoplasm and one in the plastid. With the sequencing of ESTs from citrus, we were able to perform in silico analyses on the pathways that lead to the synthesis of terpenes as well as on the terpene synthases present in sweet orange. Moreover, expression analysis using real-time qPCR was performed to verify the expression pattern of a terpene synthase in plants. The results show that all the pathways for isopentenyl diphosphate are present in citrus and a high expression of terpene synthases seems to have an important role in the constitution of the essential oils of citrus.

Marco A., Takita; Irving J., Berger; Ana Carolina, Basílio-Palmieri; Kleber M., Borges; Juliana M. de, Souza; Maria L.N.P., Targon.

349

[Assessment of dairy products quality by means of electronic nose].  

Science.gov (United States)

The electronic nose, instrument that uses a group of sensors and a system of pattern recognition for the qualitative analysis of aroma, has found many applications in the food industry, because of its versatility. In this work a brief description of the electronic nose, its operation mode and its advantages and disadvantages were carried out. Moreover, the main applications of this instrument in the food industry, with special emphasis on the dairy industry, have been reviewed. These applications include the detection of microorganisms in milk, the identification of off-flavours in milk, the shelf life of milk and various types ofcheeses, the identification of mastitic milk, the classification of cheeses according to their time of ripening, the discrimination of cheeses by geographic origin and the control of the milk fermentation, among other. The results of this review indicate that electronic nose could be used as an instrument for the rapid quality control of dairy products. PMID:22308946

Gutiérrez, Luis-Felipe

2011-06-01

350

Terpene production in the peel of sweet orange fruits  

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Full Text Available Terpenoids constitute the largest and most diverse class of natural products. They are important factors for aroma and flavor, and their synthesis is basically done from two compounds: isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Isopentenyl diphosphate is synthesized through two different pathways, one that occurs in the cytoplasm and one in the plastid. With the sequencing of ESTs from citrus, we were able to perform in silico analyses on the pathways that lead to the synthesis of terpenes as well as on the terpene synthases present in sweet orange. Moreover, expression analysis using real-time qPCR was performed to verify the expression pattern of a terpene synthase in plants. The results show that all the pathways for isopentenyl diphosphate are present in citrus and a high expression of terpene synthases seems to have an important role in the constitution of the essential oils of citrus.

Marco A. Takita

2007-01-01

351

Evaluation gives productivity and quality gives fruit in Aguacate subjected has to gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evaluation of productivity, post harvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Has avocado trees irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the La Labor Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300%. In regard to post harvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO2 /kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This means that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and post harvest behavior of fruits

352

Evaluation of fruit productivity and quality in Hass avocado submitted to 60Co gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evaluation of productivity, postharvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Hass avocado trees irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the ''La Labor'' Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologias del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300 %. In regard to postharvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO2/kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This mean that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and postharvest behavior of fruits. (Author)

353

Study of effect of radiation on the parameters of quality of sterile males of Ceratitis Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and their improvement aroma therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this present work, we are interested in studying the various stages in the production of sterile males, the effect of different doses of irradiation on longevity, compatibility and competitiveness of these males. And the effect of exposure of adults and pupae of Ceratitis to different doses of essential oil of ginger on their compatibility and competitiveness. (Author)

354

Use of simulated annealing in standardization and optimization of the acerola wine production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, seven wine samples were prepared varying the amount of pulp of acerola fruits and the sugar content using the simulated annealing technique to obtain the optimal sensory qualities and cost for the wine produced. S. cerevisiae yeast was used in the fermentation process and the sensory [...] attributes were evaluated using a hedonic scale. Acerola wines were classified as sweet, with 11°GL of alcohol concentration and with aroma, taste, and color characteristics of the acerola fruit. The simulated annealing experiments showed that the best conditions were found at mass ratio between 1/7.5-1/6 and total soluble solids between 28.6-29.0 °Brix, from which the sensory acceptance scores of 6.9, 6.8, and 8.8 were obtained for color, aroma, and flavor, respectively, with a production cost 43-45% lower than the cost of traditional wines commercialized in Brazil.

Sheyla dos Santos, Almeida; Wonder Alexandre Luz, Alves; Sidnei Alves de, Araújo; José Carlos Curvelo, Santana; Narendra, Narain; Roberto Rodrigues de, Souza.

355

Use of simulated annealing in standardization and optimization of the acerola wine production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, seven wine samples were prepared varying the amount of pulp of acerola fruits and the sugar content using the simulated annealing technique to obtain the optimal sensory qualities and cost for the wine produced. S. cerevisiae yeast was used in the fermentation process and the sensory [...] attributes were evaluated using a hedonic scale. Acerola wines were classified as sweet, with 11°GL of alcohol concentration and with aroma, taste, and color characteristics of the acerola fruit. The simulated annealing experiments showed that the best conditions were found at mass ratio between 1/7.5-1/6 and total soluble solids between 28.6-29.0 °Brix, from which the sensory acceptance scores of 6.9, 6.8, and 8.8 were obtained for color, aroma, and flavor, respectively, with a production cost 43-45% lower than the cost of traditional wines commercialized in Brazil.

Sheyla dos Santos, Almeida; Wonder Alexandre Luz, Alves; Sidnei Alves de, Araújo; José Carlos Curvelo, Santana; Narendra, Narain; Roberto Rodrigues de, Souza.

2014-06-01

356

SPME analytical method for the determination of Hexanal in hazelnuts as indicator of the interaction of active packaging materials with food aroma compounds  

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Abstract Abstract Fatty foods are susceptible to lipid oxidation, which involves a quality deterioration of the product, since this process is responsible of generation of off-flavours. Hexanal has been reported to be a good indicator of the rancidity. A method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography and flame ionization detector method to determine hexanal formed in hazelnuts during storage was developed. The optimum conditions were the ...

2006-01-01

357

Selected non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts in controlled multistarter fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on alcoholic fermentation behaviour and wine aroma of cherry wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effect of mixed fermentation of non-Saccharomyces (Torulaspora delbrueckii ZYMAFLORE Alpha(TD n. Sacch) and Metschnikowia pulcherrima JS22) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts (D254 and EC1118) on the production of cherry wines, in comparison with commonly used mono-culture. Results obtained during AF demonstrated that negligible inhibitory effect was observed in S. cerevisiae/Alpha pair, whereas a strong antagonistic effect was detected between MJS22 and S. cerevisiae strain, resulting in an early death of MJS22. For volatile components determined, S. cerevisiae/MJS22 couple was found to significantly boost the production of most detected compounds, more particularly in higher alcohols, esters, acids and terpenes; while the characteristic of S. cerevisiae/Alpha pair is an increase in fruity esters, higher alcohols and decrease in acid production. Sensory evaluation revealed that S. cerevisiae/MJS22 pair reinforced sweet, green and fatty notes to the cherry wines, and S. cerevisiae/Alpha trial enhanced the fruity odour and reduced green note. PMID:25084640

Sun, Shu Yang; Gong, Han Sheng; Jiang, Xiao Man; Zhao, Yu Ping

2014-12-01

358

Production of hard-type cheese using free or immobilized freeze-dried kefir cells as a starter culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study provides a contribution to hard-type cheese starter culture production through the use of a freeze-dried culture in the ripening of hard-type cheeses. The effect of initial cell concentration, ripening temperature, and cell immobilization of kefir on the degree of openness, mold spoilage, microbial associations, physicochemical characteristics, and aroma-related compounds was studied. Use of kefir starter cultures resulted in cheese with an increased shelf life and resistance to spoilage as compared to control cheeses without kefir inoculants. Furthermore, the freeze-dried kefir culture improved aroma, taste, and texture characteristics while increasing the degree of openness in comparison to traditional hard-type cheese products. The kefir culture resulted in an increase in counts of total aerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds, lactococci, and lactobacilli until the 15th day of ripening. From then on, only lactobacilli counts increased, reaching levels up to 9.17 log CFU/g in cheeses ripened at 5 degrees C using freeze-dried kefir cells immobilized on casein. SPME-GC/MS analysis revealed major differences in volatile composition, especially with regard to alcohols (up to 75%), carbonyl compounds (up to 75%), and esters (up to 64%) between cheeses made with kefir cells and cheeses made without kefir inoculants. PMID:18540611

Katechaki, Eleftheria; Panas, Panayiotis; Rapti, Katerina; Kandilogiannakis, Leonidas; Koutinas, Athanasios A

2008-07-01

359

Applicability of Vacuum Impregnation to Modify Physico-Chemical, Sensory and Nutritive Characteristics of Plant Origin Products—A Review  

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Full Text Available Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food.

El?bieta Radziejewska-Kubzdela

2014-09-01

360

Yeast: the soul of beer's aroma--a review of flavour-active esters and higher alcohols produced by the brewing yeast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the most important factors influencing beer quality is the presence of well-adjusted amounts of higher alcohols and esters. Thus, a heavy body of literature focuses on these substances and on the parameters influencing their production by the brewing yeast. Additionally, the complex metabolic pathways involved in their synthesis require special attention. More than a century of data, mainly in genetic and proteomic fields, has built up enough information to describe in detail each step in the pathway for the synthesis of higher alcohols and their esters, but there is still place for more. Higher alcohols are formed either by anabolism or catabolism (Ehrlich pathway) of amino acids. Esters are formed by enzymatic condensation of organic acids and alcohols. The current paper reviews the up-to-date knowledge in the pathways involving the synthesis of higher alcohols and esters by brewing yeasts. Fermentation parameters affecting yeast response during biosynthesis of these aromatic substances are also fully reviewed. PMID:24384752

Pires, Eduardo J; Teixeira, José A; Brányik, Tomás; Vicente, António A

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
361

Bronquiolite associada à exposição a aroma artificial de manteiga em trabalhadores de uma fábrica de biscoitos no Brasil / Bronchiolitis associated with exposure to artificial butter flavoring in workers at a cookie factory in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Relatar quatro casos de bronquiolite decorrente de exposição a aroma artificial de manteiga em uma fábrica de biscoitos no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Descrevemos os achados clínicos, espirométricos e tomográficos nos quatro pacientes, assim como achados de biópsia pulmonar em um dos pacientes. RESUL [...] TADOS: Os quatro pacientes eram homens jovens, não fumantes, e desenvolveram obstrução persistente ao fluxo aéreo (relação VEF1/CVF reduzida e VEF1 de 25-44% do previsto) após 1-3 anos de exposição a diacetil, sem a utilização de equipamentos de proteção individual, em uma fábrica de biscoitos. A TCAR mostrou achados indicativos de bronquiolite. Em um paciente, a biópsia pulmonar cirúrgica mostrou bronquiolite obliterante associada a células gigantes. CONCLUSÕES: A bronquiolite decorrente de exposição a flavorizantes artificiais deve ser considerada em trabalhadores com obstrução ao fluxo aéreo no Brasil. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report the cases of four patients with bronchiolitis caused by exposure to artificial butter flavoring at a cookie factory in Brazil. METHODS: We described the clinical, tomographic, and spirometric findings in the four patients, as well as the lung biopsy findings in one of the patien [...] ts. RESULTS: All four patients were young male nonsmokers and developed persistent airflow obstruction (reduced FEV1/FVC ratio and FEV1 at 25-44% of predicted) after 1-3 years of exposure to diacetyl, without the use of personal protective equipment, at a cookie factory. The HRCT findings were indicative of bronchiolitis. In one patient, the surgical lung biopsy revealed bronchiolitis obliterans accompanied by giant cells. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchiolitis resulting from exposure to artificial flavoring agents should be included in the differential diagnosis of airflow obstruction in workers in Brazil.

Zaida do Rego, Cavalcanti; Alfredo Pereira Leite de, Albuquerque Filho; Carlos Alberto de Castro, Pereira; Ester Nei Aparecida Martins, Coletta.

362

Bronquiolite associada à exposição a aroma artificial de manteiga em trabalhadores de uma fábrica de biscoitos no Brasil / Bronchiolitis associated with exposure to artificial butter flavoring in workers at a cookie factory in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Relatar quatro casos de bronquiolite decorrente de exposição a aroma artificial de manteiga em uma fábrica de biscoitos no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Descrevemos os achados clínicos, espirométricos e tomográficos nos quatro pacientes, assim como achados de biópsia pulmonar em um dos pacientes. RESUL [...] TADOS: Os quatro pacientes eram homens jovens, não fumantes, e desenvolveram obstrução persistente ao fluxo aéreo (relação VEF1/CVF reduzida e VEF1 de 25-44% do previsto) após 1-3 anos de exposição a diacetil, sem a utilização de equipamentos de proteçã