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RNAi-directed downregulation of OsBADH2 results in aroma (2-acetyl-1-pyrroline production in rice (Oryza sativa L.  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromatic rice is popular worldwide because of its characteristic fragrance. Genetic studies and physical fine mapping reveal that a candidate gene (fgr/OsBADH2 homologous to betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase is responsible for aroma metabolism in fragrant rice varieties, but the direct evidence demonstrating the functions of OsBADH2 is lacking. To elucidate the physiological roles of OsBADH2, sequencing approach and RNA interference (RNAi technique were employed to analyze allelic variation and functions of OsBADH2 gene in aroma production. Semi-quantitative, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, as well as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS were conducted to determine the expression levels of OsBADH2 and the fragrant compound in wild type and transgenic OsBADH2-RNAi repression lines, respectively. Results The results showed that multiple mutations identical to fgr allele occur in the 13 fragrant rice accessions across China; OsBADH2 is expressed constitutively, with less expression abundance in mature roots; the disrupted OsBADH2 by RNA interference leads to significantly increased 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline production. Conclusion We have found that the altered expression levels of OsBADH2 gene influence aroma accumulation, and the prevalent aromatic allele probably has a single evolutionary origin.

Xiao Yingyong

2008-10-01

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2-acetyl-1-pyrroline - key aroma compound in Mediterranean dried sausages  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In a study characterising sausage types from various parts of Europe, ten Mediterranean and Northern European fermented, dried sausages were compared using static headspace gas chromatography-olfactometry and a sniffing panel of five members. The greatest difference between the Northern and Southern types were attributed to a burned coffee odour from smoke in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The two compounds were 2-furfurylthiol and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. An analysis of five dried, moulded sausages showed that the surface edge of the sausages contained higher amounts of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline than the core, indicating that the mould growing on the surface of Mediterranean products produces 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline.

Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

2000-01-01

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Characterization and the possible formation mechanism of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in aromatic vegetable soybean (Glycine max L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) was identified as an important aroma compound of aromatic vegetable soybean. The level of 2-AP in 6 aromatic vegetable soybean lines was found to be positively correlated with popcorn-like aroma score. Comparison between aromatic and nonaromatic vegetable soybeans found that aromatic vegetable soybean contains higher concentration of methylglyoxal (MG) and Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) than a nonaromatic one. For MG formation-related genes, GapC was down-regulated and TPI was up-regulated in aromatic cultivar (Aromatic 7) as compared to nonaromatic control, which may contribute to the increase of MG level. Based on the data presented, a formation mechanism for 2-AP via interaction between MG and P5C in aromatic vegetable soybean was proposed. PMID:19646056

Wu, Mei-Li; Chou, Kuo-Lung; Wu, Chi-Ruei; Chen, Jian-Kai; Huang, Tzou-Chi

2009-06-01

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Quantification of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in rice by stable isotope dilution assay through headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new and convenient synthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), a potent flavor compound in rice, and its ring-deuterated analog, 2-acetyl-1-d{sub 2}-pyrroline (2AP-d{sub 2}), was reported. A stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA), involving headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-positive chemical ionization-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-PCI-IT-MS-MS), was developed for 2AP quantification. A divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber was used for HS-SPME procedure and parameters affecting analytes recovery, such as extraction time and temperature, pH and salt, were studied. The repeatability of the method (n = 10) expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was 11.6%. A good linearity was observed from 5.9 to 779 ng of 2AP (r{sup 2} = 0.9989). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for 2AP were 0.1 and 0.4 ng g{sup -1} of rice, respectively. The recovery of spiked 2AP from rice matrix was almost complete. The developed method was applied to the quantification of 2AP in aerial parts and grains of scented and non-scented rice cultivars.

Maraval, Isabelle [UMR Qualisud, CIRAD, 73 Rue J. F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); UMR Qualisud, Universite Montpellier 2, place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Sen, Kemal [Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cukurova, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Agrebi, Abdelhamid; Menut, Chantal; Morere, Alain [UMR 5247, Institut des Biomolecules Max Mousseron (IBMM), CNRS, Universites Montpellier 2 et 1, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Montpellier, 8 Rue de l' Ecole Normale, 34296 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Boulanger, Renaud [UMR Qualisud, CIRAD, 73 Rue J. F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Gay, Frederic [CIRAD, DORAS Centre, Research and Development Building, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Mestres, Christian [UMR Qualisud, CIRAD, 73 Rue J. F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Gunata, Ziya, E-mail: zgunata@univ-montp2.fr [UMR Qualisud, Universite Montpellier 2, place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

2010-08-24

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New short and general synthesis of three key Maillard flavour compounds: 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline, 6-acetyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine and 5-acetyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-1,4-thiazine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new general synthetic route towards three key Maillard flavour compounds, namely 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 6-acetyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine and 5-acetyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-1,4-thiazine, was developed. The key step in the process is the methylenation reaction of azaheterocyclic carboxylic esters by means of dimethyltitanocene, giving rise to intermediate vinyl ethers which can be considered as excellent and stable precursors for the title compounds, as a simple acidic treatment of these precursors suffices to release the characteristic Maillard flavours. PMID:25172717

Deblander, Jurgen; Van Aeken, Sam; Adams, An; De Kimpe, Norbert; Abbaspour Tehrani, Kourosch

2015-02-01

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Comparison of aroma active and sulfur volatiles in three fragrant rice cultivars using GC-olfactometry and GC-PFPD.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma volatiles from three cooked fragrant rice types (Jasmine, Basmati and Jasmati) were characterised and identified using SPME GC-O, GC-PFPD and confirmed using GC-MS. A total of 26, 23, and 22 aroma active volatiles were observed in Jasmine, Basmati and Jasmati cooked rice samples. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline was aroma active in all three rice types, but the sulphur-based, cooked rice character impact volatile, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline was aroma active only in Jasmine rice. Five additional sulphur volatiles were found to have aroma activity: dimethyl sulphide, 3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, dimethyl trisulphide, and methional. Other newly-reported aroma active rice volatiles were geranyl acetate, ?-damascone, ?-damascenone, and ?-ionone, contributing nutty, sweet floral attributes to the aroma of cooked aromatic rice. The first two principal components from the principal component analysis of sulphur volatiles explained 60% of the variance. PC1 separated Basmati from the other two cultivars and PC2 completely separated Jasmine from Jasmati cultivars. PMID:24518308

Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Rouseff, Russell L

2014-07-01

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Decoding the key aroma compounds of a Hungarian-type salami by molecular sensory science approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract/distillate prepared from a Hungarian-type salami and subsequent identification experiments led to the identification of 51 of 55 odor-active compounds detected in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 16-4096. Nineteen of these compounds are reported for the first time as aroma components of dry-fermented sausages, among them 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon), trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl) disulfide. The highest FD factors were found for 2-methoxyphenol (smoky, sweet), 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)phenol (clove-like), 2-methoxy-4-(E)-(1-propenyl)phenol (clove-like), and acetic acid (pungent, sour). Forty-five aroma compounds were subsequently quantified using stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated on the basis of odor thresholds in oil. The highest OAVs were calculated for acetic acid, acetaldehyde, 3-(methylthio)propanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-methoxyphenol, and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. A model mixture containing 33 odorants in the same concentrations as they occurred in the sausage was prepared in a matrix consisting of 44% sunflower oil and 56% aqueous phosphate buffer. A comparison of the overall aroma of this model mixture with the original showed a very high similarity, suggesting that the key aroma compounds were successfully identified. PMID:19358532

Söllner, Kerstin; Schieberle, Peter

2009-05-27

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High-quality Italian rice cultivars: chemical indices of ageing and aroma quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The volatile fractions of six Italian high-quality rice cultivars were investigated by HS-SPME-GC-MS to define fingerprinting and identify chemical markers and/or indices of ageing and aroma quality. In particular, four non-aromatic (Carnaroli, Carnise, Cerere and Antares) and two aromatic (Apollo and Venere) rices, harvested in 2010 and 2011, were monitored over 12months. Twenty-five aroma components were considered and, despite considerable inter-annual variability, some of them showed similar trends over time, including 2-(E)-octenal as a marker of ageing for all cultivars, and heptanal, octanal and 2-ethyl hexanol as cultivar-specific indicators. The area ratios 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline/1-octen-3-ol, for Venere, and 3-methyl-1-butanol/2-methyl-1-butanol, for Apollo, were also found to act as ageing indices. Additional information on release of key-aroma compounds was also obtained from quantitation and its dependence on grain shape and chemical composition. Heptanal/1-octen-3-ol and heptanal/octanal ratios were also defined as characterising the aroma quality indices of the six Italian rice cultivars investigated. PMID:25442558

Griglione, Alessandra; Liberto, Erica; Cordero, Chiara; Bressanello, Davide; Cagliero, Cecilia; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Bicchi, Carlo; Sgorbini, Barbara

2015-04-01

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FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

OpenAIRE

Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intens...

Adriana Bramorski; Soccol, Carlos R.; Pierre Christen; Sergio Revah

1998-01-01

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Odor-active compounds of Iberian hams with different aroma characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The odor-active compounds of different commercial types of Iberian hams (Montanera and Pienso) were researched by gas chromatography-olfactometry based on a detection frequency method. The hams (long- and short-Montanera and Pienso Iberian hams) showed different sensory profiles, differences being significant for Montanera ham typical odor, aroma intensity and persistence, and cured and moldy aroma. Significant differences were also found for some odorants. The largest differences appeared in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, hexanal, (Z)-3-hexenal, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, (E)-2-hexenal, 1-octen-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, octanal, and an unknown odorant. Sensory characteristics and olfactometric profiles were significantly different between Montanera and Pienso hams. Significant differences also appeared between long- and short-Montanera hams, which shows great variability in this commercial type. Otherwise, the largest scores for moldy aroma in long-Montanera hams matched with the largest detection frequency of 1-octen-3-one and 1-octen-3-ol in this group. PMID:12381133

Carrapiso, Ana I; Jurado, Angela; Timón, María L; García, Carmen

2002-10-23

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Carotenoid breakdown products the-norisoprenoids-in wine aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years there has been much interest in the role that products of carotenoid breakdown--the norisoprenoids--may play in wine aroma. The basis for this interest is that norisoprenoids have very low olfactory perception thresholds and so have a high sensorial impact on wine aroma. The norisoprenoids can be formed by direct degradation of carotenoids such beta-carotene and neoxanthin or they can be stored as glycoconjugates, which can then release their volatile aglycone during fermentation via enzymatic and acid hydrolysis processes. The norisoprenoids identified in wine with important sensory properties are: TCH (2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexanone), beta-damascenone, beta-ionone, vitispirane, actinidiol, TDN (1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene), riesling acetal and TPB (4-(2,3,6-trimethylphenyl)buta-1,3-diene). The grape carotenoid profile, fermentation process and wine storage conditions, are determinant factors for the aroma of wine. The mechanisms involved in overall aroma development from grapes through fermentation to wine are yet to be defined. Progress in this area will be reviewed. PMID:19320050

Mendes-Pinto, Maria Manuela

2009-03-15

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Optimising aroma quality in curry sauce products using in vivo aroma release measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reducing fat content in foods to meet consumers' preferences and to address the obesity issue is a key task for food manufacturers but simply reducing fat content affects aroma quality adversely. Measuring the aroma release from regular and low-fat samples during eating to rebalance the aroma release has proved successful in model systems. Here, the reformulation of the spice content in a low fat curry sauce is described. Volatile markers of the key spices (coriander, cumin and turmeric) were selected and used to measure aroma release in regular (10 g oil/100 g) and low (2.5 or 5 g oil/100 g) fat sauces. Regression models were used to adjust the ingredient formulation so that the aroma release profiles in vivo were the same for the regular and reduced oil curry sauces and sensory analysis showed no significant difference between these samples. Despite the complexity of spice aromas, rebalancing was successful. PMID:24679775

Hatakeyama, Jun; Davidson, James M; Kant, Avinash; Koizumi, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Fumiyo; Taylor, Andrew J

2014-08-15

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Characterization of the aroma signature of styrian pumpkin seed oil ( Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca) by molecular sensory science.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a distillate prepared from an authentic Styrian pumpkin seed oil followed by identification experiments led to the characterization of 47 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192 among which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Among the set of key odorants, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline and another 20 odorants were identified for the first time as constituents of pumpkin seed oil. To evaluate the aroma contribution in more detail, 31 aroma compounds showing the highest FD factors were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds determined in sunflower oil, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated, and 26 aroma compounds were found to have an OAV above 1. Among them, methanethiol (sulfury), 2-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanal (malty), and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (roasted potato) reached the highest OAVs. Sensory evaluation of an aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 31 key odorants in the concentrations as determined in the oil revealed that the aroma of Styrian pumpkin seed oil could be closely mimicked. Quantitation of 11 key odorants in three commercial pumpkin seed oil revealed clear differences in the concentrations of distinct odorants, which were correlated with the overall aroma profile of the oils. PMID:23461409

Poehlmann, Susan; Schieberle, Peter

2013-03-27

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FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

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Full Text Available Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intensity was detected a few hours before or after the maximum respirometric activity. Sixteen compounds were separated by gas cromatography of the components present in the headspace and fifteen of them were identified as acid (1, alcohols (6, aldehyde (1, ketones (2 and esters (5.Este estudo explorou a versatilidade de Ceratocystis fimbriata de crescer e produzir aromas naturais sobre substratos de resíduos agro-industriais. Bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã, amaranto e soja em diferentes proporções compuseram os sete meios utilizados, mostrando ser substratos adequados para o crescimento e produção de aroma por este fungo em fermentação no estado sólido. Todos os meios contendo bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã e soja em sua composição proporcionaram um forte aroma frutal, enquanto, o meio de amaranto produziu um agradável aroma de abacaxi. A produção de aroma foi dependente do crescimento, visto que a máxima intensidade do aroma foi detectado poucas horas antes ou depois da atividade respiratória máxima. Foram detectados dezesseis compostos pela cromatografia de gás no headspace das culturas, e quinze deles foram identificados: 1 ácido, 6 alcoois, 1 aldeído, 2 cetonas e 5 ésteres.

Adriana Bramorski

1998-09-01

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FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este estudo explorou a versatilidade de Ceratocystis fimbriata de crescer e produzir aromas naturais sobre substratos de resíduos agro-industriais. Bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã, amaranto e soja em diferentes proporções compuseram os sete meios utilizados, mostrando ser substratos adequados par [...] a o crescimento e produção de aroma por este fungo em fermentação no estado sólido. Todos os meios contendo bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã e soja em sua composição proporcionaram um forte aroma frutal, enquanto, o meio de amaranto produziu um agradável aroma de abacaxi. A produção de aroma foi dependente do crescimento, visto que a máxima intensidade do aroma foi detectado poucas horas antes ou depois da atividade respiratória máxima. Foram detectados dezesseis compostos pela cromatografia de gás no headspace das culturas, e quinze deles foram identificados: 1 ácido, 6 alcoois, 1 aldeído, 2 cetonas e 5 ésteres. Abstract in english Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth [...] medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intensity was detected a few hours before or after the maximum respirometric activity. Sixteen compounds were separated by gas cromatography of the components present in the headspace and fifteen of them were identified as acid (1), alcohols (6), aldehyde (1), ketones (2) and esters (5).

Adriana, Bramorski; Carlos R., Soccol; Pierre, Christen; Sergio, Revah.

1998-09-01

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SUGARCANE BAGASSE AS SUPPORT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COCONUT AROMA BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION (SSF  

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Full Text Available Brazil is one of the major producers of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum in the world and consequently produces large quantities of waste such as sugarcane bagasse, which can be used as inert support for the production of aroma compounds by SSF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the centesimal composition and particle size distribution of sugar cane bagasse, as well as its applicability as support for the production of 6-pentyl-?-pyrone by SSF. Analyses were performed in triplicate to evaluate the levels of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and moisture in the waste. Also evaluated were the particle size distribution and morphology structure of the sugarcane bagasse. The aroma compound produced shows that the studied waste can be used for 6PP production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC 4042 by SSF process. By kinetic production of aroma it is concluded that the seventh day of fermentation yielded the largest production of the aroma compound, as published for other studies

Manoela Pessanha da Penha,

2012-04-01

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Production of aromas and fragrances through microbial oxidation of monoterpenes  

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Full Text Available Aromas and fragrances can be obtained through the microbial oxidation of monoterpenes. Many microorganisms can be used to carry out extremely specific conversions using substrates of low commercial value. However, for many species, these substrates are highly toxic, consequently inhibiting their metabolism. In this work, the conversion ability of Aspergillus niger IOC-3913 for terpenic compounds was examined. This species was preselected because of its high resistance to toxic monoterpenic substrates. Though it has been grown in media containing R-limonene (one of the cheapest monoterpenic hydrocarbons, which is widely available on the market, the species has not shown the ability to metabolize it, since biotransformation products were not detected in high resolution gas chromatography analyses. For this reason, other monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and camphor were used as substrates. These compounds were shown to be metabolized by the selected strain, producing oxidized compounds. Four reaction systems were used: a biotransformation in a liquid medium with cells in growth b with pre-grown cultures c with cells immobilized in a synthetic polymer network and d in a solid medium to which the substrate was added via the gas phase. The main biotransformation products were found in all the reaction systems, although the adoption of previously cultivated cells seemed to favor biotransformation. Cell immobilization seemed to be a feasible strategy for alleviating the toxic effect of the substrate. Through mass spectrometry it was possible to identify verbenone and alpha-terpineol as the biotransformation products of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, respectively. The structures of the other oxidation products are described.

H. F. Rozenbaum

2006-09-01

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Production of aromas and fragrances through microbial oxidation of monoterpenes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Aromas and fragrances can be obtained through the microbial oxidation of monoterpenes. Many microorganisms can be used to carry out extremely specific conversions using substrates of low commercial value. However, for many species, these substrates are highly toxic, consequently inhibiting their met [...] abolism. In this work, the conversion ability of Aspergillus niger IOC-3913 for terpenic compounds was examined. This species was preselected because of its high resistance to toxic monoterpenic substrates. Though it has been grown in media containing R-limonene (one of the cheapest monoterpenic hydrocarbons, which is widely available on the market), the species has not shown the ability to metabolize it, since biotransformation products were not detected in high resolution gas chromatography analyses. For this reason, other monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and camphor) were used as substrates. These compounds were shown to be metabolized by the selected strain, producing oxidized compounds. Four reaction systems were used: a) biotransformation in a liquid medium with cells in growth b) with pre-grown cultures c) with cells immobilized in a synthetic polymer network and d) in a solid medium to which the substrate was added via the gas phase. The main biotransformation products were found in all the reaction systems, although the adoption of previously cultivated cells seemed to favor biotransformation. Cell immobilization seemed to be a feasible strategy for alleviating the toxic effect of the substrate. Through mass spectrometry it was possible to identify verbenone and alpha-terpineol as the biotransformation products of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, respectively. The structures of the other oxidation products are described.

H. F., Rozenbaum; M. L., Patitucci; O. A. C., Antunes; N., Pereira Jr.

2006-09-01

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Media components and amino acid supplements influencing the production of fruity aroma by Geotrichum candidum Influência da composição do meio de cultivo e da suplementação com aminoácidos na produção de aroma frutal por Geotrichum candidum  

OpenAIRE

The ability of Geotrichum candidum to produce fruity aroma in food grade sucrose, molasses, corn steep liquor and peptone based culture media was tested by sensory evaluation and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A strong and sweet fruity aroma was produced from molasses, with peptone or corn steep liquor stimulating aroma production. Molasses with peptone supplemented with leucine, valine, or alanine yielded better fruity aroma production and the presence of many esters was c...

Pinotti, T.; Carvalho, P. M. B.; Garcia, K. M. G.; Silva, T. R.; Allen Norton Hagler; Leite, S. G. F.

2006-01-01

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QTL mapping of the production of wine aroma compounds by yeast  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Wine aroma results from the combination of numerous volatile compounds, some produced by yeast and others produced in the grapes and further metabolized by yeast. However, little is known about the consequences of the genetic variation of yeast on the production of these volatile metabolites, or on the metabolic pathways involved in the metabolism of grape compounds. As a tool to decipher how wine aroma develops, we analyzed, under two experimental conditions, the producti...

Steyer Damien; Ambroset Chloe; Brion Christian; Claudel Patricia; Delobel Pierre; Sanchez Isabelle; Erny Claude; Blondin Bruno; Karst Francis; Legras Jean-Luc

2012-01-01

21

Large-scale selection and breeding to generate industrial yeasts with superior aroma production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations and relative ratios of various aroma compounds produced by fermenting yeast cells are essential for the sensory quality of many fermented foods, including beer, bread, wine, and sake. Since the production of these aroma-active compounds varies highly among different yeast strains, careful selection of variants with optimal aromatic profiles is of crucial importance for a high-quality end product. This study evaluates the production of different aroma-active compounds in 301 different Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces paradoxus, and Saccharomyces pastorianus yeast strains. Our results show that the production of key aroma compounds like isoamyl acetate and ethyl acetate varies by an order of magnitude between natural yeasts, with the concentrations of some compounds showing significant positive correlation, whereas others vary independently. Targeted hybridization of some of the best aroma-producing strains yielded 46 intraspecific hybrids, of which some show a distinct heterosis (hybrid vigor) effect and produce up to 45% more isoamyl acetate than the best parental strains while retaining their overall fermentation performance. Together, our results demonstrate the potential of large-scale outbreeding to obtain superior industrial yeasts that are directly applicable for commercial use. PMID:25192996

Steensels, Jan; Meersman, Esther; Snoek, Tim; Saels, Veerle; Verstrepen, Kevin J

2014-11-01

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Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB) would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried o...

Nevenka Mazi?; Rajka Božani?

2008-01-01

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Media components and amino acid supplements influencing the production of fruity aroma by Geotrichum candidum / Influência da composição do meio de cultivo e da suplementação com aminoácidos na produção de aroma frutal por Geotrichum candidum  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Geotrichum candidum foi cultivado em diversos meios de cultura contendo sacarose ou melaço e milhocina ou peptona e a produção de aroma frutal foi verificada através de avaliação sensorial e cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas. Os meios contendo melaço, peptona e leucina, valina [...] ou alanina apresentaram os melhores resultados e a presença de diversos ésteres foi consistente com a formação de aroma frutal. Abstract in english The ability of Geotrichum candidum to produce fruity aroma in food grade sucrose, molasses, corn steep liquor and peptone based culture media was tested by sensory evaluation and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A strong and sweet fruity aroma was produced from molasses, with pepton [...] e or corn steep liquor stimulating aroma production. Molasses with peptone supplemented with leucine, valine, or alanine yielded better fruity aroma production and the presence of many esters was consistent with the fruity aroma production.

T., Pinotti; P.M.B., Carvalho; K.M.G., Garcia; T.R., Silva; Allen Norton, Hagler; S.G.F., Leite.

2006-12-01

24

Media components and amino acid supplements influencing the production of fruity aroma by Geotrichum candidum Influência da composição do meio de cultivo e da suplementação com aminoácidos na produção de aroma frutal por Geotrichum candidum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability of Geotrichum candidum to produce fruity aroma in food grade sucrose, molasses, corn steep liquor and peptone based culture media was tested by sensory evaluation and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A strong and sweet fruity aroma was produced from molasses, with peptone or corn steep liquor stimulating aroma production. Molasses with peptone supplemented with leucine, valine, or alanine yielded better fruity aroma production and the presence of many esters was consistent with the fruity aroma production.Geotrichum candidum foi cultivado em diversos meios de cultura contendo sacarose ou melaço e milhocina ou peptona e a produção de aroma frutal foi verificada através de avaliação sensorial e cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas. Os meios contendo melaço, peptona e leucina, valina ou alanina apresentaram os melhores resultados e a presença de diversos ésteres foi consistente com a formação de aroma frutal.

T. Pinotti

2006-12-01

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Potential applications of glucosyltransferases in terpene glucoside production: impacts on the use of aroma and fragrance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The detection of glucoconjugated forms of monoterpene alcohols in rose petals in the late 1960s opened the new field of nonvolatile aroma precursors in flavor research. It is now well established that odorless glycosides represent a significant pool of aroma precursors in plants where they act as preformed but inactivated defense or attractive chemicals. Technical improvements in the separation and identification of plant secondary metabolites have provided a multitude of chemical structures, but functional characterization of glycosyltransferases that catalyze their formation lags behind. As technical efforts and costs for DNA sequencing dramatically dropped during the last decade, the number of plant genome sequences increased significantly, thus providing opportunities to functionally characterize the glycosyltransferase gene families in plants. These studies yielded the first glycosyltransferase genes that encode efficient biocatalysts for the production of monoterpene glucosides. They have applications in the food, feed, chemical, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries as slow release aroma chemicals. PMID:25431013

Schwab, Wilfried; Fischer, Thilo C; Giri, Ashok; Wüst, Matthias

2015-01-01

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Irradiation and fumigation effects on flavor, aroma and composition of grapefruit products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects were evaluated on grapefruit treated to meet quarantine restrictions against Caribbean fruit fly infestation. Differences were found in flavor of fresh sections, fresh juice, and aroma of peel oil when obtained from fruit irradiated with x-rays, as compared with products from nonirradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in all pasteurized juices from fruit irradiated at 5-60 krad. Vitamin C levels were significantly lower in juice from most irradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in fresh and pasteurized juice from fruit treated with methyl bromide, and in pasteurized juice from fruit treated with ethylene dibromide. Aroma differences were found in peel oil from fruit treated with phosphine. (author)

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Aroma compound production in cheese curd by coculturing with selected yeast and bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The microorganisms involved in cheese ripening produce various volatile compounds and induce typical flavors that contribute to cheese variety. To investigate aroma compound generation of cheese microflora, we used a dynamic headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. To obtain good sensitivity and repeatability of quantification, dynamic headspace conditions and sample preparation were first optimized and led to an extraction set up in which samples were heated at 60 degrees C and diluted with water without pH adjustment. Then three different yeasts and three Geotrichum candidum commonly used in mold surface ripened cheeses were studied in pure culture in a cheese model medium. Thirty-nine cocultures of these three yeasts, the three G. candidum, and five bacteria were studied in the same medium to assess the interaction between microorganisms on aroma compound production. Twenty-four volatile compounds belonging to different chemical classes (alcohols, aldehydes, esters, sulfides, terpenes) were identified and quantified. Yeasts and especially Kluyveromyces lactis produced large amounts of alcohols, aldehydes, esters, and terpenes when cultured alone or in association. Geotrichum candidum and especially G. candidum strain G3 generated the largest amount of sulfides when cultured alone or in association. Finally, bacteria also produced aroma compounds but, except for Brevibacterium linens strain B5, which produced dimethyl trisulfide and ketones, no specific trend in the production of particular aroma compounds could be evidenced. PMID:11699442

Martin, N; Berger, C; Le Du, C; Spinnler, H E

2001-10-01

28

Fruiting Body Production and Aroma Profile Analysis of Agrocybe aegerita Cultivated on Different Substrates  

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Full Text Available The industrial cultivated basidiomycete Agrocybe aegerita, also known as “Pioppino” in Italy or “Samthaube” in Germany, is a high quality mushroom with a delicious aroma. Cultivation of A. aegerita on wheat straw supplemented with different residues of the food industry showed the highest yields in fruiting body production with a biological efficiency of 36% when black tea pomace was added. The addition of other substrates resulted in biological efficiencies of 23% to 33%. Besides the mushroom yields, the number and size of fruiting bodies harvested on the different substrates were determined. A comparison of the aroma profiles of A. aegerita grown on wheat straw and on wheat straw supplemented with black tea by means of GC/MS/MS/O is presented.

Vanessa Kleofas

2014-04-01

29

QTL mapping of the production of wine aroma compounds by yeast  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Wine aroma results from the combination of numerous volatile compounds, some produced by yeast and others produced in the grapes and further metabolized by yeast. However, little is known about the consequences of the genetic variation of yeast on the production of these volatile metabolites, or on the metabolic pathways involved in the metabolism of grape compounds. As a tool to decipher how wine aroma develops, we analyzed, under two experimental conditions, the production of 44 compounds by a population of 30 segregants from a cross between a laboratory strain and an industrial strain genotyped at high density. Results We detected eight genomic regions explaining the diversity concerning 15 compounds, some produced de novo by yeast, such as nerolidol, ethyl esters and phenyl ethanol, and others derived from grape compounds such as citronellol, and cis-rose oxide. In three of these eight regions, we identified genes involved in the phenotype. Hemizygote comparison allowed the attribution of differences in the production of nerolidol and 2-phenyl ethanol to the PDR8 and ABZ1 genes, respectively. Deletion of a PLB2 gene confirmed its involvement in the production of ethyl esters. A comparison of allelic variants of PDR8 and ABZ1 in a set of available sequences revealed that both genes present a higher than expected number of non-synonymous mutations indicating possible balancing selection. Conclusions This study illustrates the value of QTL analysis for the analysis of metabolic traits, and in particular the production of wine aromas. It also identifies the particular role of the PDR8 gene in the production of farnesyldiphosphate derivatives, of ABZ1 in the production of numerous compounds and of PLB2 in ethyl ester synthesis. This work also provides a basis for elucidating the metabolism of various grape compounds, such as citronellol and cis-rose oxide.

Steyer Damien

2012-10-01

30

Chilling and heating may regulate C6 volatile aroma production by different mechanisms in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit  

Science.gov (United States)

Hexanal, Z-3-hexenal, E-2-hexenal, hexanol, and Z-3-hexenol are major tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) volatile aromas derived from oxygenation of unsaturated fatty acids. Chilling and heating may suppress production of these C6 volatiles. The objective of this research was to determine the response...

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Behaviour and hormonal status in healthy rats on a diet rich in Maillard reaction products with or without solvent extractable aroma compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maillard reaction products (MRPs) are generated upon thermal processing of foods, modifying their colour and flavour. We asked whether aroma compounds generated via Maillard-type reactions modulate the in vivo effects of MRP-rich diets (MRPD). Male Wistar rats were fed for 3weeks either with a standard rat chow, an aroma compounds containing MRPD comprising 25% bread crust, or an aroma-extracted MRPD. In contrast to standard rat chow, consumption of MRPDs affected glucose control, induced hyper-leptinemia and hyper-adiponectinemia. Plasma adipokines were significantly higher in rats on aroma containing MRPD in comparison with those consuming aroma-extracted MRPD. Consumption of both MRPDs significantly increased the expression of the insulin receptor in the olfactory bulb, and mildly in the hypothalamus. Administration of the aroma containing MRPD significantly increased the leptin receptor expression in the olfactory bulb, and in the hypothalamus. Under both MRPDs, strong expression of c-fos indicated an increased neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb. Neuronal activity in brain areas involved in the central regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis was more pronounced in rats fed by the aroma containing MRPD. In conclusion, short-term consumption of a MRPD fortified with bread crust, particularly if containing solvent extractable volatile aroma compounds, affected the leptin-induced central signalling of anorexigenic/orexigenic hormones, and the neuronal activity in the central nervous system. Behavioural changes and altered glucose control were more evident in rats on the aroma containing MRPD. Our data suggest that volatile aroma compounds in foods might affect endocrine signalling and neuronal regulation of metabolism. PMID:22019827

Sebeková, Katarína; Klenovics, Kristína Simon; Boor, Peter; Celec, Peter; Behuliak, Michal; Schieberle, Peter; Heidland, August; Palkovits, Miklós; Somoza, Veronika

2012-02-01

32

Coffee residues as substrates for aroma production by Ceratocystis fimbriata in solid state fermentation Produção de aromas por Ceratocystis fimbriata em fermentaç??o no estado sólido utilizando resíduos da agroindústria do café como substratos  

OpenAIRE

The ability of two different strains of Ceratocystis fimbriata for fruity aroma production by solid state fermentation (SSF) was tested on coffee pulp and coffee husk complemented with glucose as substrates. Experiments were carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks and the experimental conditions were: 70% of initial moisture, 20% of glucose addition and pH 6.0. Aeration was made by passive diffusion through the gauze covering the flasks. Headspace analysis of the culture by gas chromatography...

Adriane Bianchi Pedroni Medeiros; Pierre Christen; Sevastianos Roussos; Juliana Carine Gern; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

2003-01-01

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Isolation and Identification of Aspergillus oryzae and the Production of Soy Sauce with New Aroma  

OpenAIRE

Soy sauce is a dark brown salty liquid with a peculiar and a meaty taste. It is the chief savory-seasoning agent used in Oriental cookery, but it is becoming increasingly popular in many other regions of the world. The purpose of this study was to isolate Aspergillus oryzae strain from contaminated rice, soybean and wheat for using in soy sauce production with new aroma of thyme and dill. Samples of rice, soybeans and wheat assumed to be contaminated with Aspergillus oryzae were used in the i...

Abboud Elkichaoui; Amal Fayyad; Tarek Elbashiti

2010-01-01

34

Coffee residues as substrates for aroma production by Ceratocystis fimbriata in solid state fermentation Produção de aromas por Ceratocystis fimbriata em fermentaç??o no estado sólido utilizando resíduos da agroindústria do café como substratos  

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Full Text Available The ability of two different strains of Ceratocystis fimbriata for fruity aroma production by solid state fermentation (SSF was tested on coffee pulp and coffee husk complemented with glucose as substrates. Experiments were carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks and the experimental conditions were: 70% of initial moisture, 20% of glucose addition and pH 6.0. Aeration was made by passive diffusion through the gauze covering the flasks. Headspace analysis of the culture by gas chromatography (GC showed that 12 compounds were produced with coffee husk. Maximum total volatiles (TV concentration was reached after 72 h of culture with coffee husk as substrate (28 µmol.L-1.g-1. Ethyl acetate, ethanol and acetaldehyde were the major compounds produced, representing 84.7%, 7.6% and 2.0% of TV, respectively. A pre-treatment with heat (100ºC/ 40 min of substrates did not improve TV production. Respirometry analysis was used to determine the growth of the culture by measuring carbon dioxide produced. Results showed that the CO2 production follows the aroma production. This result shows the great potential for the use coffee pulp and coffee husk as substrates to microbial aroma production by solid state fermentation.Neste trabalho duas diferentes cepas de Ceratocystis fimbriata foram testadas para a produção de aromas frutais em fermentação no estado sólido (FES utilizando como substratos casca e polpa de café, suplementados com glicose. Os experimentos foram realizados em frascos Erlenmeyer de 250 mL. As condições experimentais foram: umidade inicial de 70%, adição de 20% de glicose e pH 6,0. Os frascos foram cobertos com gaze e a aeração ocorreu por difusão passiva. A análise do "headspace"da cultura foi feita por cromatografia gasosa e 12 compostos foram detectados utilizando a casca de café. A análise respirométrica foi realizada para o acompanhamento do crescimento do microrganismo pela determinação do dióxido de carbono produzido. A produção de ésteres caracterizou o aroma frutal da cultura. A concentração máxima de voláteis totais foi alcançada após 72 h de cultivo em casca de café (28 µmol.L-1.g-1. Os principais compostos produzidos foram acetato de etila, etanol e acetaldeído, representando 84,7%, 7,6% and 2,0% dos voláteis totais, respectivamente.

Adriane Bianchi Pedroni Medeiros

2003-07-01

35

Coffee residues as substrates for aroma production by Ceratocystis fimbriata in solid state fermentation / Produção de aromas por Ceratocystis fimbriata em fermentação no estado sólido utilizando resíduos da agroindústria do café como substratos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho duas diferentes cepas de Ceratocystis fimbriata foram testadas para a produção de aromas frutais em fermentação no estado sólido (FES) utilizando como substratos casca e polpa de café, suplementados com glicose. Os experimentos foram realizados em frascos Erlenmeyer de 250 mL. As cond [...] ições experimentais foram: umidade inicial de 70%, adição de 20% de glicose e pH 6,0. Os frascos foram cobertos com gaze e a aeração ocorreu por difusão passiva. A análise do "headspace"da cultura foi feita por cromatografia gasosa e 12 compostos foram detectados utilizando a casca de café. A análise respirométrica foi realizada para o acompanhamento do crescimento do microrganismo pela determinação do dióxido de carbono produzido. A produção de ésteres caracterizou o aroma frutal da cultura. A concentração máxima de voláteis totais foi alcançada após 72 h de cultivo em casca de café (28 µmol.L-1.g-1). Os principais compostos produzidos foram acetato de etila, etanol e acetaldeído, representando 84,7%, 7,6% and 2,0% dos voláteis totais, respectivamente. Abstract in english The ability of two different strains of Ceratocystis fimbriata for fruity aroma production by solid state fermentation (SSF) was tested on coffee pulp and coffee husk complemented with glucose as substrates. Experiments were carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks and the experimental conditions wer [...] e: 70% of initial moisture, 20% of glucose addition and pH 6.0. Aeration was made by passive diffusion through the gauze covering the flasks. Headspace analysis of the culture by gas chromatography (GC) showed that 12 compounds were produced with coffee husk. Maximum total volatiles (TV) concentration was reached after 72 h of culture with coffee husk as substrate (28 µmol.L-1.g-1). Ethyl acetate, ethanol and acetaldehyde were the major compounds produced, representing 84.7%, 7.6% and 2.0% of TV, respectively. A pre-treatment with heat (100ºC/ 40 min) of substrates did not improve TV production. Respirometry analysis was used to determine the growth of the culture by measuring carbon dioxide produced. Results showed that the CO2 production follows the aroma production. This result shows the great potential for the use coffee pulp and coffee husk as substrates to microbial aroma production by solid state fermentation.

Adriane Bianchi Pedroni, Medeiros; Pierre, Christen; Sevastianos, Roussos; Juliana Carine, Gern; Carlos Ricardo, Soccol.

2003-07-01

36

Lipases microbianas na produção de ésteres formadores de aroma Lipases biocatalysis in the production of flavor esters  

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Full Text Available Foram testadas cinco lipases microbianas produzidas no Laboratório de Bioquímica de Alimentos-FEA-UNICAMP, quanto à capacidade de catalisar a síntese de ésteres formadores de aroma por esterificação em meio isento de solvente orgânico. A natureza da enzima assim como o tamanho da cadeia dos ácidos afetaram as taxas de conversão obtidas.Os melhores resultados obtidos foram 88 % de conversão na síntese de laurato de isoamila e 72% para propionato de isoamila pela lipase de Rhizopus sp após 24 horas de incubação, seguido de 82% de conversão na síntese de acetato de isopropila por Alcaligenes sp após 24 horas de incubação.Five lipases produced at UNICAMP were screened for their ability to synthesize flavor esters by esterification in organic solvent free system. The nature of the enzyme, as well as the chain length of the acyl donor used affected the product yields. Lipase from Rhizopus sp and Alcaligenes sp gave the best overall yield (88 and 82%.

Gabriela A. Macedo

1997-08-01

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Lipases microbianas na produção de ésteres formadores de aroma / Lipases biocatalysis in the production of flavor esters  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Foram testadas cinco lipases microbianas produzidas no Laboratório de Bioquímica de Alimentos-FEA-UNICAMP, quanto à capacidade de catalisar a síntese de ésteres formadores de aroma por esterificação em meio isento de solvente orgânico. A natureza da enzima assim como o tamanho da cadeia dos ácidos a [...] fetaram as taxas de conversão obtidas.Os melhores resultados obtidos foram 88 % de conversão na síntese de laurato de isoamila e 72% para propionato de isoamila pela lipase de Rhizopus sp após 24 horas de incubação, seguido de 82% de conversão na síntese de acetato de isopropila por Alcaligenes sp após 24 horas de incubação. Abstract in english Five lipases produced at UNICAMP were screened for their ability to synthesize flavor esters by esterification in organic solvent free system. The nature of the enzyme, as well as the chain length of the acyl donor used affected the product yields. Lipase from Rhizopus sp and Alcaligenes sp gave the [...] best overall yield (88 and 82%).

Gabriela A., Macedo; Gláucia M., Pastore.

1997-08-01

38

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mixed Culture of Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L.) Juice: Synergism in the Aroma Compounds Production  

Science.gov (United States)

Blackberry (Rubus sp.) juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574) recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (<6°GL) with potential to be produced at an industrial scale was obtained. Alcoholic fermentations were performed at 28°C, 200?rpm, and noncontrolled pH. The synergistic effect on the aromatic compounds production during fermentation in mixed culture was compared with those obtained by monoculture and physic mixture of spirits produced in monoculture. The aromatic composition was determined by HS-SPME-GC. The differences in aromatic profile principally rely on the proportions in aromatic compounds and not on the number of those compounds. The multivariance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA) permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains. PMID:25506606

Ragazzo-Sánchez, Juan Arturo; Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa Isela; Luna-Solano, Guadalupe; Calderón-Santoyo, Montserrat

2014-01-01

39

Aroma profiles of vegetable oils varying in fatty acid composition vs. concentrations of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products  

OpenAIRE

The aroma compositions of oxidised sunflower oil, linseed oil and a blend thereof (85/15) were compared with frequently used indicators for primary and secondary lipid oxidation. Primary lipid oxidation was followed by the formation of conjugated dienes, secondary lipid oxidation by proponal and hexanal formation. Highest concentrations of conjugated dienes and propanal were measured in the linseed oil, followed by the blend and sunflower oil, respectively. Highest concentrations of hexanal w...

Ruth, S. M.; Roozen, J. P.; Jansen, F. J. H. M.

2000-01-01

40

?-carotene biotransformation to obtain aroma compounds / Biotransformação de ?-caroteno para obtenção de compostos de aroma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Carotenoides são importantes constituintes de alimentos por sua coloração e por seus produtos de degradação gerarem compostos voláteis em alimentos. Compostos de aromas derivados de carotenoides estão distribuídos na natureza, constituem precursores de aromas importantes em alimentos como frutas e e [...] m flores. Apresentam alto potencial aromático e, por isso, são de grande interesse para as indústrias de aromas e fragrâncias. Neste trabalho, mais de 300 microrganismos foram selecionados pelo método da placa, de acordo com sua capacidade de degradar carotenoides presentes no meio de cultura. Cerca de 80 linhagens apresentaram capacidade de produção de aromas e 7 cepas apresentaram descritores e intensidades de aromas de interesse, segundo um painel não treinado de provadores, sendo selecionadas e submetidas à fermentação submersa para produção de compostos aromas derivados de ?-caroteno. ?-Ionona foi o principal produto obtido da degradação de ?-caroteno, encontrado em maiores concentrações nas linhagens CS1 (34,0 mg.L-1) e CF9 (42,4 mg.L-1) em 72 e 24 horas de fermentação nos meios de cultura sem e com pré-inóculo, respectivamente. Os compostos ?-damascona e pseudoionona foram encontrados em baixas concentrações, 1,1,6-trimetil-1,2,3,4-tetraidronaftaleno (TTN) foi tentativamente identificado e apocarotenoides, provavelmente obtidos da clivagem da parte central do carotenoide, foram detectados. Abstract in english Carotenoids are important constituents of food due to their color and because their degradation products generate important volatile compounds in foods. Aroma compounds derived from carotenoids are widely distributed in nature, and they are precursors of many important aromas in foods such as fruits [...] and in flowers as well. They present high aromatic potential and are therefore of great interest to the industries of aromas and fragrances. In this study, more than 300 previously isolated microorganisms with potential for biotransformation of ?-carotene present in the culture medium were selected using the plate method; about 80 strains presented capacity to produce aroma compounds and 7 strains were selected by an untrained panel of tasters to generate aroma compounds. The ?-ionone was the main compound produced by CS1 (34.0 mg.L-1) and CF9 (42.4 mg.L-1) microorganisms at 72 and 24 hours of fermentation, cultured with and without pre-inoculation, respectively. The ?-damascone and pseudoionone were found in low concentrations, 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen (TTN) was tentatively identified and other compounds such as apocarotenoids, apparently obtained from the cleavage of the central part of the carotenoid, were detected.

Mariana, Uenojo; Glaucia Maria, Pastore.

2010-09-01

41

Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew. Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discrimination of products; the concentration in the coffee brew was found to be the least discriminatory and concentration in the headspace above the roast and ground coffee was shown to be most discriminatory. Conclusions All approaches should be taken into consideration when classifying roast and ground coffee especially for alignment to sensory perception and consumer insight data as all offer markedly different discrimination abilities due to the variation in volatility, hydrophobicity, air-water partition coefficient and other physicochemical parameters of the key aroma compounds present.

Fisk Ian

2012-08-01

42

Food aroma affects bite size  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

de Wijk René A

2012-03-01

43

Aroma production by Yarrowia lipolytica in airlift and stirred tank bioreactors : differences in yeast metabolism and morphology  

OpenAIRE

The production of ??-decalactone from castor oil in batch cultures of Yarrowia lipolytica W29 was compared in stirred tank (STR) and airlift bioreactors. Oxygen mass transfer from air to biphasic medium was characterized in both bioreactors trough correlations for kLa with power input and superficial gas velocity. Different conditions of oxygen transfer rate (OTR) were selected to perform biotransformations and for both bioreactors improvement of ??-decalactone productivity was obtained with ...

Braga, Adelaide; Mesquita, D. P.; Amaral, A. L.; Ferreira, E. C.; Belo, Isabel

2015-01-01

44

An integrative "omics" approach identifies new candidate genes to impact aroma volatiles in peach fruit  

OpenAIRE

[Background]: Ever since the recent completion of the peach genome, the focus of genetic research in this area has turned to the identification of genes related to important traits, such as fruit aroma volatiles. Of the over 100 volatile compounds described in peach, lactones most likely have the strongest effect on fruit aroma, while esters, terpenoids, and aldehydes have minor, yet significant effects. The identification of key genes underlying the production of aroma compounds is of intere...

Sa?nchez, Gerardo; Venegas-calero?n, Mo?nica; Salas, Joaqui?n J.; Monforte, Antonio J.; Badenes, Mari?a L.; Granell, Antonio

2013-01-01

45

Sensory and instrumental evaluation of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigates the composition of volatile constituents and sensory characteristics of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) grown in Lithuania. Hydrodistillation, simultaneous distillation-solvent extraction, static headspace, and solid phase microextraction methods were used for the isolation of aroma volatiles. Geranyl acetate, citronellyl acetate, citronellol, and geraniol were the major constituents in catnip. Differences in the quantitative compositions of volatile compounds isolated by the different techniques were considerable. A sensory panel performed sensory analysis of the ground herb, pure essential oil, and extract; aroma profiles of the products were expressed graphically, and some effects of odor qualities of individual compounds present in catnip on the overall aroma of this herb were observed. PMID:12797753

Baranauskiene, Renata; Venskutonis, Rimantas P; Demyttenaere, Jan C R

2003-06-18

46

Wine aroma compounds in grapes: a critical review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile organic compounds are vital to wine quality, determining their aroma and varietal characteristics. Which are present, and in what quantity, depends on the cultivar, the situation and soil of the vineyard, weather, cultivation methods, and wine-making practices. Here, we review the literature on the development of wine aroma compounds in grapes, and how it is affected by the above-named factors. Increasing understanding of these processes at the molecular level will aid vine growers in the optimal selection of harvest dates and other decisions favoring the consistent production of balanced, flavorful berries. PMID:24915400

González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

2015-01-01

47

Selective removal of methyl mercaptan in coffee aroma using oxidized microporous carbon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coffee aroma recovered from the extraction process of roasted coffee beans is used to improve the quality of soluble coffee products. Coffee aroma often has an irritating sulfurous odor. In the present work, it is experimentally elucidated that methyl mercaptan could be selectively removed from the coffee aroma-containing gas by the oxidized microporous carbon. Breakthrough curves of coffee aroma-containing gas on zeolite 5A, microporous carbon (MSC 5A), and MSC 5A oxidized with 13.2N HNO{sub 3} aqueous solution revealed that the adsorption capacity of methyl mercaptan on the oxidized carbon was 4.2 times of that on the zeolite. The loss of desired coffee aroma was decreased using the oxidized carbon in the removal of methyl mercaptan. (author)

Sakano, T. [Ajinomoto General Foods Inc., Tokyo (Japan). Central Research Laboratoties; Tamon, H.; Okazaki, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-10-01

48

Aroma therapy and medfly SIT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A summary of the main findings of the research program on the biological competence of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (med fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and the development and implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest is presented. The potential application of aroma therapy to improve the mating success of sterile med fly males is studied. The report assumes a loosely chronological framework as it documents progression along two experimental scales: the number of males simultaneously exposed to ginger root oil, starting with small groups of 25 males and ending with rooms with nearly 200 million males; the experimental arena used to test the effects of aroma therapy, progressing from standard field-cages to large field enclosures to the open field. In addition, brief comments are offered regarding the potential negative effects of GRO exposure, the mechanisms underlying GRO-mediated improvement in male mating success, and the financial costs of GRO aroma therapy. (MAC)

Shelly, Todd E., E-mail: todd.e.shelly@aphis.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-APHIS), HI (United States). Animal and Plant Health Inspection

2006-07-01

49

Characterization of dried whey protein concentrate and isolate flavor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The flavor of whey protein concentrates (WPC 80) and whey protein isolates (WPI) was studied using instrumental and sensory techniques. Four WPC 80 and 4 WPI, less than 3 mo old, were collected in duplicate from 6 manufacturers in the United States. Samples were rehydrated and evaluated in duplicate by descriptive sensory analysis. Duplicate samples with internal standards were extracted with diethyl ether. Extracts were then distilled to remove nonvolatile material using high vacuum distillation. Volatile extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography/olfactometry with post peak intensity analysis and aroma extract dilution analysis. Compounds were identified by comparison of retention indices, odor properties, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry against reference standards. Whey proteins exhibited sweet aromatic, cardboard/wet paper, animal/wet dog, soapy, brothy, cucumber, and cooked/milky flavors, along with the basic taste bitter, and the feeling factor astringency. Key volatile flavor compounds in WPC 80 and WPI were butanoic acid (cheesy), 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn), 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (brothy/burnt), 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-(2H)-furanone (maple/spicy), 2-nonenal (fatty/old books), (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (cucumber), and (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal (fatty/oxidized). This baseline data on flavor and flavor sources in whey proteins will aid ongoing and future research and will help to identify the most appropriate whey ingredients to use to control or minimize flavor variability in whey enhanced products. PMID:16230688

Carunchia Whetstine, M E; Croissant, A E; Drake, M A

2005-11-01

50

Advances in Fruit Aroma Volatile Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fruits produce a range of volatile compounds that make up their characteristic aromas and contribute to their flavor. Fruit volatile compounds are mainly comprised of esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, lactones, terpenoids and apocarotenoids. Many factors affect volatile composition, including the genetic makeup, degree of maturity, environmental conditions, postharvest handling and storage. There are several pathways involved in volatile biosynthesis starting from lipids, amino acids, terpenoids and carotenoids. Once the basic skeletons are produced via these pathways, the diversity of volatiles is achieved via additional modification reactions such as acylation, methylation, oxidation/reduction and cyclic ring closure. In this paper, we review the composition of fruit aroma, the characteristic aroma compounds of several representative fruits, the factors affecting aroma volatile, and the biosynthetic pathways of volatile aroma compounds. We anticipate that this review would provide some critical information for profound research on fruit aroma components and their manipulation during development and storage.

Muna Ahmed Mohamed El Hadi

2013-07-01

51

Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma and flavor of cooked rice are major criteria for preference among consumers. Small variations in these sensory properties can make rice highly desired or unacceptable to consumers. Human sensory analyses have identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental ana...

52

Taste and aroma of fresh and stored mandarins.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last decade there has been a continuous rise in consumption of fresh easy-to-peel mandarins. However, mandarins are much more perishable than other citrus fruit, mainly due to rapid deterioration in sensory acceptability after harvest. In the current review we discuss the biochemical components involved in forming the unique flavor of mandarins, and how postharvest storage operations influence taste and aroma and consequently consumer sensory acceptability. What we perceive as mandarin flavor is actually the combination of basic taste, aroma and mouth-feel. The taste of mandarins is principally governed by the levels of sugars and acids in the juice sacs and the relative ratios among them, whereas the aroma of mandarins is derived from a mixture of different aroma volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, terpenes/hydrocarbons and esters. During postharvest storage and marketing there is a gradual decrease in mandarin sensory acceptability, which has been attributed to decreases in acidity and typical mandarin flavor, paralleling an accumulation of off-flavor. Biochemical analysis of volatile and non-volatile constituents in mandarin juice demonstrated that these changes in sensory acceptability were concomitant with decreases in acidity and content of terpenes and aldehydes, which provide green, piney and citrus aroma on the one hand, and increases in ethanol fermentation metabolism products and esters on the other, which are likely to cause 'overripe' and off-flavors. Overall, we demonstrate the vast importance of the genetic background, maturity stage at harvest, commercial postharvest operation treatments, including curing, degreening and waxing, and storage duration on mandarin sensory quality. PMID:20812381

Tietel, Zipora; Plotto, Anne; Fallik, Elazar; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Porat, Ron

2011-01-15

53

Identification of tartary buckwheat tea aroma compounds with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tartary buckwheat tea, which is an important and healthy product, has a distinct malty aroma. However, its characteristic aroma compounds have not been elucidated. The aims of present study were identification and quantification of its aroma compounds. The analyses were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after 3 different isolation techniques. Seventy-seven compounds were identified. Among these compounds, 35 were quantified by available standards. The compounds with a high probability of contribution to the tartary buckwheat tea aroma (OAV ? 10) were as follows: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone, nonanal, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, benzeneacetaldehyde, maltol, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazine. Some nutritional and bioactive compounds were also identified in this study, such as linoleic acid, niacin, vanillic acid, 7-hydroxycoumarin, butylated hydroxytoluene. Practical Application: Tartary buckwheat, one type of buckwheat, has gained much attention from nutritionists and medical doctors in recent years. It is rich in rutin, quercetin, and other nutrients that are good for health. Tartary buckwheat-based product such as tartary buckwheat tea is an important and popular healthy product in China, Japan,South Korea, European countries as well as in American countries. It has a distinct malty aroma. The present study first identified and quantified of its aroma compounds. The results will draw attention to other researchers in food flavor and buckwheat filed. PMID:22417522

Qin, Peiyou; Ma, Tingjun; Wu, Li; Shan, Fang; Ren, Guixing

2011-08-01

54

True cooking aroma or artefact. 15N gives the answer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to determine the respective contributions of the various nitrous precursor families in aroma preparations, the usually added amino acids were substituted with 15N isotope labelled homologous components. Results concerning isotope ratios for the volatile fraction nitrous components collected from poultry meat aromatic preparations, are presented. Terminal product labelling appears to allow for a better determination of the substrate and functional additive contributions. 4 figs., 6 refs

55

Release and perception of aroma compounds during consumption  

OpenAIRE

Key words: MS-Nose, in vivo aroma release, aroma perception, mouth model, artificial throat, liquid protocol, sweeteners, reversible protein-aroma interactions, emulsions, oil content, droplet size distribution, gel hardness, texture, cross-modal interactions.This thesis evaluated and validated the MS-Nose as a tool to measure aroma release during food consumption. Subsequently, the MS-Nose was used to enhance understanding of the interaction between release and perception of aroma during con...

Weel, K. G. C.

2004-01-01

56

Aroma compounds in fresh cut pomegranate arils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum). Although arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing actual compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Since most commercial usage of pomegranates in...

57

PENGEMBANGAN AROMA DAN CITA RASA BAKSO DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN FLAVOR [Development of Aroma and Taste of Meat Ball Using Flavor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bakso is one of the most popular meat product in Indonesia. This research studied of effect of addition of falvor to the quality of meat ball. The analysis included physical characteristics (specific gravity, hardness, shear, elasticity and color organoleptic test. The results showed that : according to consumer preference, the most like flavour that added in the meat ball were the flavour of beef Q. 1.%, beef Q 1.5%, Beef WIN 1.5% and beef Fat WIN 1.0%. the use of flavor did not cause differences in physical characteristics like specific gravity, hardness, shear, alasticity and color a-value. The use flavour in creased the price of bakso between Rp 4.5,- to Rp 18,-. According to comparison test, meat ball with beef Q 1.5% has the best score compared with Bakso Lapang Tembak (BLT in aroma, and with Bakso Pedagang Keliling (BPK has the best score in aroma, test and texture.

Aulia 2

2001-08-01

58

Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew). Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discr...

Fisk Ian; Kettle Alec; Hofmeister Sonja; Virdie Amarjeet; Kenny Javier

2012-01-01

59

Aroma potential of oak battens prepared from decommissioned oak barrels.  

Science.gov (United States)

During barrel maturation, volatile compounds are extracted from oak wood and impart aroma and flavor to wine, enhancing its character and complexity. However, barrels contain a finite pool of extractable material, which diminishes with time. As a consequence, most barrels are decommissioned after 5 or 6 years. This study investigated whether or not decommissioned barrels can be "reclaimed" and utilized as a previously untapped source of quality oak for wine maturation. Oak battens were prepared from staves of decommissioned French and American oak barrels, and their composition analyzed before and after toasting. The oak lactone glycoconjugate content of untoasted reclaimed oak was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, while the concentrations of cis- and trans-oak lactone, guaiacol, 4-methlyguaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, furfural, and 5-methylfurfural present in toasted reclaimed oak were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aroma potential was then evaluated by comparing the composition of reclaimed oak with that of new oak. Comparable levels of oak lactone glycoconjugates and oak volatiles were observed, demonstrating the aroma potential of reclaimed oak and therefore its suitability as a raw material for alternative oak products, i.e., chips or battens, for the maturation of wine. The temperature profiles achieved during toasting were also measured to evaluate the viability of any yeast or bacteria present in reclaimed oak. PMID:25771908

Li, Sijing; Crump, Anna M; Grbin, Paul R; Cozzolino, Daniel; Warren, Peter; Hayasaka, Yoji; Wilkinson, Kerry L

2015-04-01

60

Investigation of sunlight-induced deterioration of aroma of pummelo (Citrus maxima) essential oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deterioration of aromas of pummelo essential oil (EO) induced by sunlight was compared to those induced by heat and oxygen exposure using the techniques of sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis. The sunlight-exposed EO was found to possess an oily off-flavor odor, which was significantly different from its counterparts induced by oxygen and heat. The strong oily note of the sunlight-exposed EO was attributed to the existence of linalool oxides and limonene oxides, as well as the lack of neral and geranial, for which UV sunlight was revealed to be the critical contributor causing the chemical reactions for the aroma changes. The results demonstrated that UV sunlight could significantly affect the aroma of the pummelo EO, providing valuable information that will benefit the production and storage of EO-based aromatic products. PMID:25438994

Sun, Hao; Ni, Hui; Yang, Yuanfan; Wu, Ling; Cai, Hui-nong; Xiao, An-feng; Chen, Feng

2014-12-10

61

Impact of Fruit Piece Structure in Yogurts on the Dynamics of Aroma Release and Sensory Perception  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma stimuli, which can influence nutritional and hedonic characteristics, as well as consumption behaviors. In yogurts, fruit preparation formulation can be a key factor to modulate aroma stimulation. In this context, the impact of size and hardness of fruit pieces in fat-free pear yogurts was studied. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was used to allow sensitive and on-line monitoring of volatile odorous compound release in the breath during consumption. In parallel, a trained panel used sensory profile and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS methods to characterize yogurt sensory properties and their dynamic changes during consumption. Results showed that the size of pear pieces had few effects on aroma release and perception of yogurts, whereas fruit hardness significantly influenced them. Despite the fact that yogurts presented short and similar residence times in the mouth, this study showed that fruit preparation could be an interesting formulation factor to enhance exposure time to stimuli and thus modify food consumption behaviors. These results could be taken into account to formulate new products that integrate both nutritional and sensory criteria.

Isabelle Souchon

2013-05-01

62

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in Shiraz wine by quantitation, aroma reconstitution, and omission studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The key aroma compounds of premium Australian Shiraz wines from the warm Barossa Valley and cooler Margaret River regions were characterized. GC-Olfactometry was conducted to determine the most important volatile compounds, which were then quantitated. The wine from the Barossa Valley had higher concentrations of ethyl propanoate, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and oak-derived compounds, whereas the Margaret River wine contained above threshold concentrations of the 'cheesy' compounds 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid, as well as rotundone, the 'pepper'-smelling compound. The aromas were reconstituted by combining 44 aroma compounds, and sensory descriptive analysis was used to investigate the importance of the omission of several compounds, including DMS, rotundone, fatty acids, and ?-damascenone, and the influence of nonvolatiles was also assessed. The study showed that the aroma of the Shiraz wines could be reconstituted in both cases, with the changes in the nonvolatile fraction having a large influence. PMID:24745791

Mayr, Christine M; Geue, Jason P; Holt, Helen E; Pearson, Wes P; Jeffery, David W; Francis, I Leigh

2014-05-21

63

Factors influencing the aroma composition of Chardonnay wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chardonnay is one of the oldest and most widely distributed wine grape cultivars and is of commercial importance for the world's wine-producing nations. It is an extremely flexible variety that has adapted to different regions with varied weather and soil characteristics. Somewhat uniquely among white wines, Chardonnay lends itself to a wide variety of production styles, which can be tailored to the target market. Techniques such as skin maceration, barrel and stainless steel fermentation, use of selected or indigenous yeasts, malolactic fermentation, and aging in barrels with or without lees are all applicable and lead to different compositional outcomes. A number of research papers have been published with a view to understanding Chardonnay composition and quality as well as the impact of different enological techniques on the final product. This review summarizes current knowledge, explaining the influence of viticultural and production techniques on aroma composition, and poses directions for further research into Chardonnay wines. PMID:24954266

Gambetta, Joanna M; Bastian, Susan E P; Cozzolino, Daniel; Jeffery, David W

2014-07-16

64

INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT OAK CHIPS ON AROMA COMPOUNDS IN WINE  

OpenAIRE

Oak wood has considerable influence on amount of aroma compounds in wine. During the time, when wine is in contact with oak wood, compounds typical for wood diffuse into wine and enrich its aromatic complexity. Concentration of diffused aroma compounds in wine depends on several factors as contact time, storage conditions, wine properties, geographical origin and toasting degree of oak wood. Because of very small quantities of volatile aroma compounds in wine, it is necessary to use sensitive...

Helena Fran?áková; Reinhard Eder; Stefan Nauer; Walter Brandes; Jana Návojská

2012-01-01

65

Aroma characteristics of cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla Chang).  

Science.gov (United States)

Three types of Cocoa tea, green, oolong, and black, were prepared from fresh young leaves of Camellia ptilophylla. Their aroma characteristics were compared by a sensory evaluation with corresponding traditional tea samples made from C. sinensis. The aroma profile of Cocoa green tea was quite different from that of traditional green tea, but fermented Cocoa oolong tea and black tea showed aroma profiles similar to those of traditional oolong tea and black tea. Cocoa green tea contained vanillin as the most abundant aroma constituent. Almost the same aroma compounds of jasmine lactone, indole and monoterpene alcohols, which are known as important aroma constituents in commercial oolong tea and black tea, were identified as the main aroma compounds in the fermented Cocoa tea types. The composition of these aroma compounds well explained the aroma profile of each Cocoa tea. The monoterpene alcohols seemed to be released during fermented tea manufacture, because seventeen glycosides consisting of the aglycons of terpene alcohols were identified in Cocoa tea leaves, and hydrolytic activity of crude enzymes in the p-nitrophenol glycoside substrate was also detected. PMID:20460717

Wang, Xiujuan; Wang, Dongmei; Li, Jiaxian; Ye, Chuangxing; Kubota, Kikue

2010-01-01

66

Retenção de aroma na secagem em atmosferas normal e modificada: desenvolvimento do sistema de estudo / Aroma retention in drying with normal and modified atmosphere: development of a study system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Na secagem de determinados alimentos, como frutas, juntamente com a água há também a evaporação de outras substâncias voláteis presentes em quantidades menores. Por isso, torna-se interessante considerar nos estudos de secagem a evaporação, além da água, desses outros componentes voláteis. A modific [...] ação da atmosfera tem sido utilizada em armazenamento, principalmente de vegetais, mas pode também ser estendida à secagem, pois pode influenciar a perda de voláteis responsáveis pelas características sensoriais do produto final. No presente trabalho, é apresentado um sistema de secagem previamente desenvolvido, no qual a atmosfera de secagem pode ser modificada pela adição de gases ou líquidos. Desenvolveu-se um sistema-modelo a partir da composição química básica do abacaxi e da adição de outros compostos, contendo um dos principais componentes do aroma desta fruta (hexanoato de etila). Além disso, também foi desenvolvida a metodologia analítica de determinação do aroma no sistema-modelo e no abacaxi, a partir dos estudos de extração de aromas e de análise cromatográfica gasosa. O aroma presente no sistema-modelo foi extraído em hexano e os componentes voláteis do aroma do abacaxi foram extraídos em éter etílico Abstract in english In the drying of some foods such as fruits, besides water there is also the evaporation of other volatile substances present in lesser amounts. Therefore, it is interesting to consider the evaporation of volatile components other than water in drying studies. The modification of atmosphere has been [...] used for storage only, especially for vegetables, but it can be extended to drying since it can influence the loss of volatile components responsible for the sensorial characteristics of the final product. In the present study, a drying system previously developed, in which the drying atmosphere can be modified by the addition of gases or liquids, was presented. A model-system was developed from the basic chemical composition of pineapple and the addition of other compounds containing one of the main aroma components (ethyl hexanoate). An analytical methodology for determing the aroma components present in the model-system and in the pineapple was developed from the studies of aroma extraction and gas chromatography. The aroma present in the model-system was extracted with hexane, and the volatile aroma components of the pineapple were extracted with ethylic ether

Marcilio Machado, Morais; Maria Aparecida, Silva.

2011-06-01

67

Characterization and evaluation of coconut aroma produced by Trichoderma viride EMCC-107 in solid state fermentation on sugarcane bagasse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Background Sugarcane bagasse was shown to be an adequate substrate for the growth and aroma production by Trichoderma species. In the present work the ability of Trichoderma viride EMCC-107 to produce high yield of coconut aroma in solid state fermentation (SSF) by using sugarcane bagasse as solid s [...] ubstrate was evaluated. The produced aroma was characterized. Results Total carbohydrates comprised the highest content (43.9% w/w) compared with the other constituents in sugarcane bagasse. The sensory and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the highest odor intensity and maximum yield of volatiles were perceived at the 5th d of induction period. The unsaturated lactone, 6-pentyl-?-pyrone (6-PP), was the major identified volatile compound. Saturated lactones, ?-octalactone, ?-nonalactone, ?-undecalactone, ?-dodecalactone and ?-dodecalactone, were also identified in the coconut aroma produced during the induction period (12 d). A quite correlation was found between the composition and odor profile of the produced aroma. The effect of varying the concentration of sugarcane bagasse on 6-PP production and biomass growth was evaluated. The results revealed high 6-PP production at 4.5 g sugarcane bagasse whereas the biomass showed significant (P

Hoda Hanem Mohamed, Fadel; Manal Gomaa, Mahmoud; Mohsen Mohamed Selim, Asker; Shereen Nazeh, Lotfy.

2015-01-01

68

Characterisation of aroma profiles of commercial soy sauce by odour activity value and omission test.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-seven commercial soy sauces produced through three different fermentation processes (high-salt liquid-state fermentation soy sauce, HLFSS; low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce, LSFSS; Koikuchi soy sauce, KSS) were examined to identify the aroma compounds and the effect of fermentation process on the flavour of the soy sauce was investigated. Results showed that 129 volatiles were identified, of which 41 aroma-active components were quantified. The types of odorants occurring in the three soy sauce groups were similar, although their intensities significantly differed. Many esters and phenols were found at relatively high intensities in KSS, whereas some volatile acids only occurred in LSFSS. Furthermore, 23 aroma compounds had average OAVs>1, among which 3-methylbutanal, ethyl acetate, 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-methylbutanal and 3-(methylthio)propanal exhibited the highest average OAVs (>100). In addition, omission tests verified the important contribution of the products resulting from amino acid catabolism to the characteristic aroma of soy sauce. PMID:25148982

Feng, Yunzi; Su, Guowan; Zhao, Haifeng; Cai, Yu; Cui, Chun; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Mouming

2015-01-15

69

Aroma interactions with starch : Induction of carbohydrate acting enzymes from Aspergillus nidulans  

OpenAIRE

Starches are used to enhance aroma perception in low-fat foods. Aroma compounds can bind physically to the starch in grooves on the surface or they can form complexes inside amylose helices. This study has been divided into two parts: one part regarding binding of aromas to starches and their aroma-release, and another part regarding stimulation of a fungal secretome using different carbohydrates. In the first part, nine aromas and one aroma-mixture were mixed with nine different starches,...

Jørgensen, Anders Dysted

2012-01-01

70

Studies on the key odorants formed by roasting of wild mango seeds (Irvingia gabonensis).  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a concentrate of volatiles obtained by solvent extraction and high vacuum distillation from roasted seeds (180 degrees C; 15 min) of wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis) revealed 32 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 8 (low odor activity) to 2048 (high odor activity). The identification experiments based on the use of reference odorants revealed methional (cooked potato-like) followed by 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), butan-2,3-dione, pentan-2,3-dione, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine as the key aroma compounds among the 27 odorants identified. All odorants are reported for the first time as components of roasted wild mango seeds. PMID:10888556

Tairu, A O; Hofmann, T; Schieberle, P

2000-06-01

71

Olive oil phenolic compounds affect the release of aroma compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twelve aroma compounds were monitored and quantified by dynamic headspace analysis after their addition in refined olive oil model systems with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) biophenols to simulate EVOO aroma. The influence of polyphenols on aroma release was studied under simulated mouth conditions by using human saliva, and SPME-GC/MS analysis. While few differences were observed in orthonasal assay (without saliva), interesting results were obtained for retronasal aroma. Biophenols caused generally the lowest headspace release of almost all volatile compounds. However, only ethyl esters and linalool concentrations were significantly lower in retronasal than orthonasal assay. Saliva also caused higher concentration of hexanal, probably due to hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) action on linoleyl hydroperoxides. Epicatechin was compared to EVOO phenolics and the behaviour was dramatically different, likely to be due to salivary protein-tannin binding interactions, which influenced aroma headspace release. These results were also confirmed using two extra virgin olive oils. PMID:25794752

Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; Villani, Veronica; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

2015-08-15

72

Characterization of the most aroma-active compounds in cherry tomato by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma and aroma-active compounds of cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by liquid-liquid extraction was representative of tomato odour. A total of 49 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in fresh cherry tomato. Aldehydes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in cherry tomato, followed by alcohols. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of tomato sample. A total of 21 aroma-active compounds were detected in aromatic extract of fresh tomato, of which 18 were identified. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma-active compounds identified in the extract were (Z)-3-hexenal (FD=1024) and (E)-2-hexenal (FD=256), which were described as the strong green-grassy and green-leafy odour, respectively. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and fructose, respectively. PMID:25038709

Selli, Serkan; Kelebek, Hasim; Ayseli, Mehmet Turan; Tokbas, Habip

2014-12-15

73

Investigation into the aroma of rosemary using multi-channel silicone rubber traps, off-line olfactometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Multi-channel polydimethylsiloxane rubber traps were used to sample the headspace of rosemary samples (two essential oils from different sources, one oleoresin and one dried herb) followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography -time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS) or GC-MS an [...] alyses. The aroma of different headspace samples was characterized using a custom-built olfactory apparatus. The differences between the aroma profiles were evident from bubble plots of the perceived aroma at different temperatures. The samples were heat-treated to simulate cooking of food products, and were then reassessed to determine any changes in the aroma profile. It was found that the intense menthol and cooling aromas subsided in all the samples with heating. GCxGC-TOFMS allowed for separation of the numerous components in the headspace samples. Many terpenes and aliphatics were thus tentatively identified and the relative peak areas were compared to better understand the mixture that contributes to the rosemary aroma.

Leandri, van der Wat; Martin, Dovey; Yvette, Naudé; Patricia B.C., Forbes.

2013-08-01

74

Aroma profile and volatiles odor activity along gold cultivar pineapple flesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physicochemical attributes, aroma profile, and odor contribution of pineapple flesh were studied for the top, middle, and bottom cross-sections cut along the central axis of Gold cultivar pineapple. Relationships between volatile and nonvolatile compounds were also studied. Aroma profile constituents were determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction at 30 °C, followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 20 volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Among them, esters were the major components which accounted for 90% of total extracted aroma. Methyl butanoate, methyl 2-methyl butanoate, and methyl hexanoate were the 3 most abundant components representing 74% of total volatiles in pineapple samples. Most odor active contributors were methyl and ethyl 2-methyl butanoate and 2,5-dimethyl 4-methoxy 3(2H)-furanone (mesifuran). Aroma profile components did not vary along the fruit, but volatile compounds content significantly varied (P < 0.05) along the fruit, from 7560 to 10910 ?g/kg, from the top to the bottom cross-sections of the fruit, respectively. In addition, most odor-active volatiles concentration increased from the top to the bottom 3rd of the fruit, concurrently with soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA) differences attributed to fruitlets distinct degree of ripening. Large changes in SSC/TA ratio and volatiles content throughout the fruit found through this study are likely to provoke important differences among individual fresh-cut pineapple trays, compromising consumer perception and acceptance of the product. Such finding highlighted the need to include volatiles content and SSC/TA ratio and their variability along the fruit as selection criteria for pineapples to be processed and quality assessment of the fresh-cut fruit. PMID:21535624

Montero-Calderón, Marta; Rojas-Graü, María Alejandra; Martín-Belloso, Olga

2010-01-01

75

Beyond the characterization of wine aroma compounds: looking for analytical approaches in trying to understand aroma perception during wine consumption  

OpenAIRE

The volatile compounds present in wines are responsible for the quality of the wine aroma. The analysis of these compounds requires different analytical techniques depending on the type of compounds and their concentration. The importance at sensorial level of each compound should be evaluated by using olfactometric techniques and reconstitution and omission studies. In addition, wine aroma is influenced by other factors such as wine matrix, which could affect the compounds’ volatility, dec...

Mun?oz-gonza?lez, Carolina; Rodri?guez-bencomo, Juan Jose?; Moreno Arribas, Mª Victoria; Pozo-bayo?n, Mª A?ngeles

2011-01-01

76

Analysis of neutral volatile aroma components in Tilsit cheese using a combination of dynamic headspace technique, capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tilsit cheese is made by the influence of lab ferment and starter cultures on milk. The ripening is done by repeated inoculation of the surface of the Tilsit cheese with yeasts and read smear cultures. This surface flora forms the typical aroma of the Tilsit cheese during the ripening process. The aim of the work was to receive general knowledge about the kind and amount of the neutral volatile aroma components of Tilsit cheese. Beyond this the ability of forming aroma components by read smear cultures and the dispersion of these components in cheese was to be examined. The results were intended to evaluate the formation of aroma components in Tilsit cheese. The semi-quantitative analyses of the aroma components of all samples were done by combining dynamic headspace extraction, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In this process the neutral volatile aroma components were extracted by dynamic headspace technique, adsorbed on a trap, thermally desorbed, separated by gas chromatography, detected and identified by mass spectrometry. 63 components belonging to the chemical classes of esters, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols and sulfur containing substances as well as aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons were found in the analysed cheese samples of different Austrian Tilsit manufacturing plants. All cheese samples showed a qualitative equal but quantitative varied spectrum of aroma components. The cultivation of pure cultures on a cheese agar ivation of pure cultures on a cheese agar medium showed all analysed aroma components to be involved in the biochemical metabolism of these cultures. The ability to produce aroma components greatly differed between the strains and it was not possible to correlate this ability with the taxonomic classification of the strains. The majority of the components had a non-homogeneous concentration profile in the cheese body. This was explained by effects of diffusion and temporal and spatial different forming of components by the metabolism of the surface flora during ripening. Therefore the conclusion can be drawn that part of the components are formed by the starter cultures and are homogeneous spread in the cheese body at the beginning of the ripening. On the one hand the metabolism of the read smear bacteria and yeasts leads to a reduction of the components. Hereby the concentration gradient is compensated by diffusion of aroma components from the inside to the surface. On the other hand products of the metabolism of the surface flora diffuse into the cheese body. The quantity of the coefficient of diffusion varies timewise and spatially. The concentration profile is influenced not only by the diffusion but also by the shifting of the composition of the surface flora during the ripening period. (author)

77

AROMA: Automatic Generation of Radio Maps for Localization Systems  

CERN Document Server

WLAN localization has become an active research field recently. Due to the wide WLAN deployment, WLAN localization provides ubiquitous coverage and adds to the value of the wireless network by providing the location of its users without using any additional hardware. However, WLAN localization systems usually require constructing a radio map, which is a major barrier of WLAN localization systems' deployment. The radio map stores information about the signal strength from different signal strength streams at selected locations in the site of interest. Typical construction of a radio map involves measurements and calibrations making it a tedious and time-consuming operation. In this paper, we present the AROMA system that automatically constructs accurate active and passive radio maps for both device-based and device-free WLAN localization systems. AROMA has three main goals: high accuracy, low computational requirements, and minimum user overhead. To achieve high accuracy, AROMA uses 3D ray tracing enhanced wi...

Eleryan, Ahmed; Youssef, Moustafa

2010-01-01

78

Caracterización anatómica del leño y evolución del crecimiento en ejemplares de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina en la Región Chaqueña, Argentina / Wood anatomical description and growth in individuals of Acacia aroma and Acacia furcatispina in Chaco region, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La madera de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina se emplea para usos de escaso valor como postes, mangos de herramientas o combustible. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estudiar los caracteres anatómicos del leño de ambas especies y analizar el crecimiento de ejemplares aislados con la finalidad [...] de determinar su potencialidad para usos de mayor valor. Se determinó que la madera de estas especies es dura, pesada y de porosidad difusa con tendencia a semicircular. Acacia furcatispina posee un leño con mayor porcentaje de elementos lignificados, mejores cualidades estéticas y mejor estado fitosanitario que el de A. aroma. Los defectos más frecuentes en estas especies fueron la formación de leño decolorado y pudriciones en la zona del duramen por ataque de hongos, asociados a la presencia de cicatrices de fuego. El espesor promedio de los anillos de crecimiento fue 2,1 mm (DE = 0,47 mm) en A. aroma y 1,9 mm, (DE = 0,74 mm) en A. furcatispina. Las curvas de incremento medio anual e incremento corriente anual del diámetro en A. aroma se interceptan a los 24 años mientras que las de A. furcatispina lo hacen a la edad de 10 años. Los resultados indicaron que A. furcatispina es una especie interesante para manejar en plantaciones debido a las cualidades de su madera, aunque permitiría obtener escuadrías menores. Su madera podría destinarse a usos particulares como parquets, tallas artísticas, entre otros. Acacia aroma es una especie apropiada para manejar con el objetivo de producción de leña debido a la capacidad de producir fustes y ramas de mayor diámetro y a que su estado fitosanitario limita su empleo para otros usos de mayor valor. Abstract in english The wood of Acacia aroma and Acacia furcatispina is employed for uses of little value such us posts, tools and firewood. The objectives of this work were to study anatomical characters of wood and to analyze the growth of isolated individuals with the purpose of determining their potential for uses [...] of greater value. We determined that these species have high density and heavy wood, with diffuse porosity and tendency to semicircular. The wood of Acacia furcatispina has greater percentage of ligneous elements, better aesthetics qualities and health state than A. aroma. The most frequent defects in these species are rots within heartwood due to fungi attack, and discolorated wood formation, both related to fire scars. The mean width of the growth rings was 2.1 mm (DE = 0.47 mm) in A. aroma and 1.9 mm (DE = 0.74 mm) in A. furcatispina. In A. aroma, the curve of mean annual increment (IMA) intercepted the curve of current annual increment (ICA) for diameter at an age of 24 years, while in A. furcatispina it happened at 10 years. The results show that A. furcatispina is an interesting species to manage in plantations due to its wood qualities, although it would only allow small sized timber. This wood could be allocated for others uses such us parquets and artistic sculpture. Acacia aroma is a species suitable to manage for firewood production due to its capacity to produce greater diameter boles and branches, and to frequent wood decay that reduces its use for others more valuables uses.

Sandra, Bravo; Ana, Giménez; Juana, Moglia.

79

Caracterización anatómica del leño y evolución del crecimiento en ejemplares de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina en la Región Chaqueña, Argentina Wood anatomical description and growth in individuals of Acacia aroma and Acacia furcatispina in Chaco region, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La madera de Acacia aroma y Acacia furcatispina se emplea para usos de escaso valor como postes, mangos de herramientas o combustible. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estudiar los caracteres anatómicos del leño de ambas especies y analizar el crecimiento de ejemplares aislados con la finalidad de determinar su potencialidad para usos de mayor valor. Se determinó que la madera de estas especies es dura, pesada y de porosidad difusa con tendencia a semicircular. Acacia furcatispina posee un leño con mayor porcentaje de elementos lignificados, mejores cualidades estéticas y mejor estado fitosanitario que el de A. aroma. Los defectos más frecuentes en estas especies fueron la formación de leño decolorado y pudriciones en la zona del duramen por ataque de hongos, asociados a la presencia de cicatrices de fuego. El espesor promedio de los anillos de crecimiento fue 2,1 mm (DE = 0,47 mm en A. aroma y 1,9 mm, (DE = 0,74 mm en A. furcatispina. Las curvas de incremento medio anual e incremento corriente anual del diámetro en A. aroma se interceptan a los 24 años mientras que las de A. furcatispina lo hacen a la edad de 10 años. Los resultados indicaron que A. furcatispina es una especie interesante para manejar en plantaciones debido a las cualidades de su madera, aunque permitiría obtener escuadrías menores. Su madera podría destinarse a usos particulares como parquets, tallas artísticas, entre otros. Acacia aroma es una especie apropiada para manejar con el objetivo de producción de leña debido a la capacidad de producir fustes y ramas de mayor diámetro y a que su estado fitosanitario limita su empleo para otros usos de mayor valor.The wood of Acacia aroma and Acacia furcatispina is employed for uses of little value such us posts, tools and firewood. The objectives of this work were to study anatomical characters of wood and to analyze the growth of isolated individuals with the purpose of determining their potential for uses of greater value. We determined that these species have high density and heavy wood, with diffuse porosity and tendency to semicircular. The wood of Acacia furcatispina has greater percentage of ligneous elements, better aesthetics qualities and health state than A. aroma. The most frequent defects in these species are rots within heartwood due to fungi attack, and discolorated wood formation, both related to fire scars. The mean width of the growth rings was 2.1 mm (DE = 0.47 mm in A. aroma and 1.9 mm (DE = 0.74 mm in A. furcatispina. In A. aroma, the curve of mean annual increment (IMA intercepted the curve of current annual increment (ICA for diameter at an age of 24 years, while in A. furcatispina it happened at 10 years. The results show that A. furcatispina is an interesting species to manage in plantations due to its wood qualities, although it would only allow small sized timber. This wood could be allocated for others uses such us parquets and artistic sculpture. Acacia aroma is a species suitable to manage for firewood production due to its capacity to produce greater diameter boles and branches, and to frequent wood decay that reduces its use for others more valuables uses.

Sandra Bravo

2006-01-01

80

Volatile Aroma Compounds in Various Brewed Green Teas  

OpenAIRE

This study identifies and semi-quantifies aroma volatiles in brewed green tea samples. The objectives of this study were to identify using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) paired with a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) the common volatile compounds that may be responsible for aroma/flavor of the brewed liquor of a range of green tea samples from various countries as consumed and to determine if green teas from the same region have similarities in volatile composit...

Youngmo Yoon; Koushik Adhikari; Jeehyun Lee; Chambers, Delores H.; Edgar Chambers

2013-01-01

81

Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice). The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the c...

Haypek E.; Silva L.H.M; Batista E.; Marques D. S.; Meireles M.A.A.; Meirelles A.J.A.

2000-01-01

82

Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice. The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the calculation of the activity coefficients.

Haypek E.

2000-01-01

83

Which impact for beta-damascenone on red wines aroma?  

Science.gov (United States)

beta-Damascenone, a C-13 norisoprenoid compound, is usually presented as an impact odorant in red wines. Its direct contribution to their aroma was investigated. Both free beta-damascenone and beta-damascenone precursors were isolated from various French red wines and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, revealing concentrations in the vicinity of 1 and 2 microg/L for free compounds and both forms, respectively. Gas chromatography-olfactometry analyses were also performed on dilutions of both red wine extracts and pure beta-damascenone. The very low detection threshold in olfactometry for this compound explains why it is found at the highest dilution factor in aroma extract dilution analysis methods. Moreover, determination of beta-damascenone's odor thresholds confirmed the huge importance of the matrix: beta-Damascenone is characterized by a very low perception threshold in hydroalcoholic solution as compared to red wine, where it is over 1000-fold higher. In hydroalcoholic solution, beta-damascenone enhanced fruity notes of ethyl cinnamate and caproate and masked the herbaceous aroma of IBMP. Globally, these results suggested that beta-damascenone has more an indirect than a direct impact on red wine aroma. PMID:17447790

Pineau, Bénédicte; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Dubourdieu, Denis

2007-05-16

84

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in an american bourbon whisky by quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-one of the 45 odor-active compounds previously identified by us in an American Bourbon whisky were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays. Also for this purpose, new synthetic pathways were developed for the synthesis of the deuterium-labeled whisky lactone as well as for gamma-nona- and gamma-decalactone. To obtain the odor activity values (OAVs), the concentrations measured were divided by the odor thresholds of the odorants determined in water/ethanol (6:4 by vol.). Twenty-six aroma compounds showed OAVs >1, among which ethanol, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutanal, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (E)-beta-damascenone, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl octanoate, 2-methylpropanal, (3S,4S)- cis-whiskylactone, (E, E)-2,4-decadienal, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, ethyl-3-methylbutanoate, and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate showed the highest values. The overall aroma of the Bourbon whisky could be mimicked by an aroma recombinate consisting of the 26 key odorants in their actual concentrations in whisky using water/ethanol (6:4 by vol.) as the matrix. Omission experiments corroborated the importance of, in particular, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (3S,4S)-cis-whiskylactone, ethanol, and the entire group of esters for the overall aroma of the Bourbon whisky. PMID:18582086

Poisson, Luigi; Schieberle, Peter

2008-07-23

85

Improving the Performance of an Electronic Nose by Wine Aroma Training to Distinguish between Drip Coffee and Canned Coffee  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coffee aroma, with more than 600 components, is considered as one of the most complex food aromas. Although electronic noses have been successfully used for objective analysis and differentiation of total coffee aromas, it is difficult to use them to describe the specific features of coffee aroma (i.e., the type of smell. This is because data obtained by electronic noses are generally based on electrical resistance/current and samples are distinguished by principal component analysis. In this paper, we present an electronic nose that is capable of learning the wine related aromas using the aroma kit “Le Nez du Vin,” and the potential to describe coffee aroma in a similar manner comparable to how wine experts describe wine aroma. The results of our investigation showed that the aromas of three drip coffees were more similar to those of pine and honey in the aroma kit than to the aromas of three canned coffees. Conversely, the aromas of canned coffees were more similar to the kit coffee aroma. In addition, the aromatic patterns of coffees were different from those of green tea and red wine. Although further study is required to fit the data to human olfaction, the presented method and the use of vocabularies in aroma kits promise to enhance objective discrimination and description of aromas by electronic noses.

Kouki Fujioka

2015-01-01

86

Improving the performance of an electronic nose by wine aroma training to distinguish between drip coffee and canned coffee.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coffee aroma, with more than 600 components, is considered as one of the most complex food aromas. Although electronic noses have been successfully used for objective analysis and differentiation of total coffee aromas, it is difficult to use them to describe the specific features of coffee aroma (i.e., the type of smell). This is because data obtained by electronic noses are generally based on electrical resistance/current and samples are distinguished by principal component analysis. In this paper, we present an electronic nose that is capable of learning the wine related aromas using the aroma kit "Le Nez du Vin," and the potential to describe coffee aroma in a similar manner comparable to how wine experts describe wine aroma. The results of our investigation showed that the aromas of three drip coffees were more similar to those of pine and honey in the aroma kit than to the aromas of three canned coffees. Conversely, the aromas of canned coffees were more similar to the kit coffee aroma. In addition, the aromatic patterns of coffees were different from those of green tea and red wine. Although further study is required to fit the data to human olfaction, the presented method and the use of vocabularies in aroma kits promise to enhance objective discrimination and description of aromas by electronic noses. PMID:25587981

Fujioka, Kouki; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Shimizu, Nobuo; Ikeda, Keiichi; Manome, Yoshinobu

2015-01-01

87

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in Bartlett pear brandies by means of the sensomics concept.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma compounds in two commercial Bartlett pear brandies clearly differing in their overall aroma profiles were detected in the volatile fractions by the aroma extract dilution analysis. In brandy A eliciting the more intense pear-like, fruity aroma, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, (E)-?-damascenone, 1,1-diethoxyethane, 2- and 3-methylbutanol, (S)-2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid, and 2-phenylethanol were found with the highest Flavor Dilution (FD) factors. In brandy B judged to have a weaker overall aroma, also (E)-?-damascenone, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, and 2-phenylethanol revealed high FD factors, while many odorants showed lower FD factors. Fourty-four odor-active compounds were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays, and the odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentrations to odor thresholds) confirmed (E)-?-damascenone and ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate as important aroma compounds in brandy A, while the OAVs of most odorants were much lower in brandy B. By aroma recombination studies, the aromas of both brandies could be matched using reference odorants in the same concentrations as they occurred in the spirits. In 15 commercial Bartlett pear brandies ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate and (E,E)-2,4-decadienoate eliciting a pear-like aroma showed a reasonable correlation of their concentrations with the overall aroma quality. PMID:24004345

Willner, Bianca; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

2013-10-01

88

Characterization of the key odorants in light aroma type chinese liquor by gas chromatography-olfactometry, quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The light aroma type liquor is widely welcomed by consumers due to its pleasant fruity and floral aroma, particularly in northern China. To answer the puzzling question of which key aroma compounds are responsible for the typical aroma, three typical liquors were studied in this paper. A total of 66 aroma compounds were identified in three liquors by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), and 27 odorants were further screened out as the important odorants according to quantitative study and odor activity values (OAVs). For OAV calculation, odor thresholds of the odorants were determined in a hydroalcoholic solution at 46% ethanol by volume. The typical light type aroma dominated by fruity and floral notes was successfully simulated by dissolving these important odorants in the 46% vol hydroalcoholic solution in their natural concentrations. Omission experiments further confirmed ?-damascenone and ethyl acetate as the key odorants and revealed the significance of the entire group of esters, particularly ethyl lactate, geosmin, acetic acid, and 2-methylpropanoic acid, for the overall aroma of the light aroma type Chinese liquor. PMID:24909925

Gao, Wenjun; Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan

2014-06-25

89

Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology : Sweeping gas versus vacuum membrane distillation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up. The data were compared to recovery of the aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). The flux of SGMD increased with an increase in temperature, feed flow rate or sweeping gas flow rate. Increased temperature and feed flow rate also increased the concentration factors (Cpermeate/Cfeed) of the aroma compounds. At 45°C the most volatile and hydrophobic aroma compounds obtained the highest concentration factors: 12.1–9.3 (black currant juice) and 17.2–12.8 (model solution). With black currant juice a volume reduction of 13.7% (vol.%) at 45°C, 400L/h, resulted in an aroma recovery of 73–84vol.% for the most volatile compounds. Compared to VMD, the aroma recovery with SGMD was less influenced by the feed flow rate but more influenced by the temperature. Higher fluxes were achieved during concentration by VMD and this reduced the operation time, which in turn reduced the degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevanceHigh temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption. This study gives important clues about the fate of berry juice aroma compounds and polyphenols during concentration by MD, and identifies the main factors influencing the aroma recovery efficiency with MD. Both SGMD and VMD are promising techniques for gentle stripping of berry juice aroma compounds and deserve further consideration as alternative techniques for gentle aroma stripping in industrial fruit juice processing.

Bagger-JØrgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.

2011-01-01

90

Influence of thermal treatment of wood on the aroma of a sugar cane spirit (cachaça model-solution Influência do termotratamento da madeira no aroma de uma solução-modelo de cachaça  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aging process of alcoholic beverages is generally conducted in wood barrels made with species from Quercus sp. Due to the high cost and the lack of viability of commercial production of these trees in Brazil, there is demand for new alternatives to using other native species and the incorporation of new technologies that enable greater competitiveness of sugar cane spirit aged in Brazilian wood. The drying of wood, the thermal treatment applied to it, and manufacturing techniques are important tools in defining the sensory quality of alcoholic beverages after being placed in contact with the barrels. In the thermal treatment, several compounds are changed by the application of heat to the wood and various studies show the compounds are modified, different aromas are developed, there is change in color, and beverages achieve even more pleasant taste, when compared to non-treated woods. This study evaluated the existence of significant differences between hydro-alcoholic solutions of sugar cane spirits elaborated from different species of thermo-treated and non-treated wood in terms of aroma. An acceptance test was applied to evaluate the solutions preferred by tasters under specific test conditions.As bebidas alcoólicas são, geralmente, envelhecidas em tonéis de madeira fabricados a partir de espécies do gênero Quercus sp. Devido ao alto custo de aquisição e necessidade de importação, existe demanda por alternativas de uso de outras espécies nativas e da incorporação de novas tecnologias que aumentem a competitividade da cachaça brasileira. Sabe-se que, com a aplicação de termotratamento, vários compostos são alterados, desenvolvem-se aromas, altera-se a coloração e as bebidas adquirem gostos mais agradáveis. Este trabalho mostra a diferença significativa entre soluções-modelo hidroalcoólicas de cachaça, envelhecidas em diferentes espécies de madeira, em suas formas termotratadas e não termotratadas, avaliadas em relação a seu aroma. O teste de aceitação aplicado verificou as soluções preferidas pelos provadores, nas condições determinadas do teste.

Marta Helena Fillet Spoto

2011-06-01

91

Analysis of accelerants and fire debris using aroma detection technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this work was to investigate the utility of electronic aroma detection technologies for the detection and identification of accelerant residues in suspected arson debris. Through the analysis of known accelerant residues, a trained neural network was developed for classifying suspected arson samples. Three unknown fire debris samples were classified using this neural network. The item corresponding to diesel fuel was correctly identified every time. For the other two items, wide variations in sample concentration and excessive water content, producing high sample humidities, were shown to influence the sensor response. Sorbent sampling prior to aroma detection was demonstrated to reduce these problems and to allow proper neural network classification of the remaining items corresponding to kerosene and gasoline.

Barshick, S.A.

1997-01-17

92

Psychophysical evaluation of interactive effects between sweeteners and aroma compounds  

OpenAIRE

The presence of intense sweeteners in a light soft drink influences the preferences for, and the flavour profiles of these drinks to various extents, depending on the aroma and sweeteners present. In this study equisweet mixtures of sweeteners were composed at 10% Sucrose Equivalent Value. The sucrose/maltitol and sucrose/aspartame mixtures were additive, whereas equisweet binary sucrose/Na-cyclamate mixtures and ternary sucrose/aspartame/Na-cyclamate mixtures revealed synergistic effects.The...

Nahon, D. F.

1999-01-01

93

Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications  

Science.gov (United States)

A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic 'fingerprint' pattern representative of the vapor-phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The result to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

Barshick, Stacy-Ann; Griest, Wayne H.; Vass, Arpad A.

1997-02-01

94

Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic `fingerprint` pattern representative of the vapor- phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The results to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

Barshick, S.-A.; Griest, W.H.; Vass, A.A.

1996-12-31

95

Volatile compounds responsible for aroma of Jutrzenka liquer wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jutrzenka is a sweet liquer wine produced in Poland from the grape variety of the same name, developed in Poland to withstand the harsh climate of winery regions. Jutrzenka wine has a characteristic aroma with strong fruity and flowery notes, which make it unique among other liquer wines as demonstrated in sensory profile analysis. The work was aimed at characterization of volatile compounds in this wine, with the emphasis on characterization of compounds responsible for its unique aroma. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) was applied to identify the key odorants using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) approach. To facilitate free and bound terpenes and C(13)-norisoprenoids identification solid phase extraction (SPE) was used followed by GC/MS. Among identified key odorants ?-damascenone was the compound having the highest FD (4096), followed by isoamyl alcohol, 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (FD=2048), methional, linalool, ethyl decanoate (FD=1024) and ethyl hexanoate, furaneol (FD=512). Other significant compounds were ethyl 2-methyl propanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and phenyl ethyl alcohol. Determination of odor activity values (OAV) showed the highest values for ?-damascenone (566), 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (288) ethyl hexanoate (32) and linalool (7). Jutrzenka exhibited also a rich profile of free, and to lesser extent bound terpenes. PMID:21831389

Jele?, Henryk H; Majcher, Ma?gorzata; Dziadas, Mariusz; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, Renata; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; W?sowicz, Erwin

2011-10-21

96

Manipulation of flavour and aroma compound sequestration and release using a glycosyltransferase with specificity for terpene alcohols.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glycosides are an important potential source of aroma and flavour compounds for release as volatiles in flowers and fruit. The production of glycosides is catalysed by UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) that mediate the transfer of an activated nucleotide sugar to acceptor aglycones. A screen of UGTs expressed in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) identified the gene AdGT4 which was highly expressed in floral tissues and whose expression increased during fruit ripening. Recombinant AdGT4 enzyme glycosylated a range of terpenes and primary alcohols found as glycosides in ripe kiwifruit. Two of the enzyme's preferred alcohol aglycones, hexanol and (Z)-hex-3-enol, contribute strongly to the 'grassy-green' aroma notes of ripe kiwifruit and other fruit including tomato and olive. Transient over-expression of AdGT4 in tobacco leaves showed that enzyme was able to glycosylate geraniol and octan-3-ol in planta whilst transient expression of an RNAi construct in Actinidia eriantha fruit reduced accumulation of a range of terpene glycosides. Stable over-expression of AdGT4 in transgenic petunia resulted in increased sequestration of hexanol and other alcohols in the flowers. Transgenic tomato fruit stably over-expressing AdGT4 showed changes in both the sequestration and release of a range of alcohols including 3-methylbutanol, hexanol and geraniol. Sequestration occurred at all stages of fruit ripening. Ripe fruit sequestering high levels of glycosides were identified as having a less intense, earthier aroma in a sensory trial. These results demonstrate the importance of UGTs in sequestering key volatile compounds in planta and suggest a future approach to enhancing aromas and flavours in flowers and during fruit ripening. PMID:25088478

Yauk, Yar-Khing; Ged, Claire; Wang, Mindy Y; Matich, Adam J; Tessarotto, Lydie; Cooney, Janine M; Chervin, Christian; Atkinson, Ross G

2014-10-01

97

Study on aroma components of osmanthus by absorption wire gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aroma components of fresh osmanthus are captured by absorption wires. The fragrant components absorbed in the wires are desorbed immediately at 358 degree C in Curie-point pyrolyzed, and then led into GC/MS to analyze. As a result, 41 aroma compounds such as ?-linalool, linalooloxide, ?-ocimene etc. in osmanthus are detected qualitatively by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. This method can be used to analyze the change of aroma compounds of fresh flowers while blossoming

98

Characterization of the Volatile Substances and Aroma Components from Traditional Soypaste  

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Full Text Available In this study, the flavor substances of soypaste were extracted by a simultaneous distillation method and identified by GC-MS. The characteristic aroma components of soypaste were determined by the GC-O technique and the FD value of the characteristic aroma components was determined by AEDA method. It could be inferred that the aroma of the soypaste should be attributed to the presence of heterocyclic compounds and organic acids, with the heterocyclic compounds playing a prominent role.

Yan Zhang

2010-05-01

99

Strategies to eliminate atypical aromas and flavors in sow loins-part II: consumer acceptance of loins marinated with sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium bicarbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

An identified challenge in using sow loins as a raw material for value added enhanced whole muscle products is to eliminate or minimize objectionable atypical aromas and flavors ("sow taint," ST) that may occur in some sow carcasses. The objective of this study was to determine consumer acceptance of sow loins exhibiting atypical aromas and flavors marinated with a solution of salt, sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium bicarbonate. Sow loins (N=34) with atypical aromas and flavors and commodity loins (N=6) were fabricated into anterior and posterior loin sections and marinated with one of four ST marinade treatment combinations (15% pump, 0.5% PO(4), 0.70 M NaHCO(3); 15% pump, 0.25% PO(4), 0.70 M NaHCO(3); 15% pump, 0.25% PO(4), 0.35 M NaHCO(3); and 15% pump, 0.25% PO(4), 0.35 M NaHCO(3)), or a control marinade (0.25% sodium tripolyphosphate, 15% injection level) and evaluated by a consumer sensory panel. Sensory ratings determined that ST loin chops injected with a 15% solution of sodium tripolyphosphate (0.50%) and sodium bicarbonate (0.35 M) were not different (P>0.05) than loin chops from marinated commodity control loin sections (N=12) for flavor, texture, juiciness, and overall acceptability. These results indicate that a solution containing sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium bicarbonate minimized the detection of atypical aromas and flavors in sow loins. PMID:22063764

Sindelar, Jeffrey J; Prochaska, Fred; Britt, Jason; Smith, Gordon L; Osburn, Wesley N

2003-12-01

100

Expression of genes associated with aroma formation derived from the fatty acid pathway during peach fruit ripening.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in characteristic aroma volatiles, levels of fatty acids as aroma precursors, and expression patterns of related genes, including lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), alcohol acyltransferase (AAT), and fatty acid desaturase (FAD), were studied in peach ( Prunus persica L. Batsch., cv. Yulu) fruit during postharvest ripening at 20 degrees C. Concentrations of n-hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenol, and (Z)-3-hexenol decreased, whereas the production of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, gamma-hexalactone, gamma-octalactone, gamma-decalactone, and delta-decalactone increased with fruit ripening. Lactones showed a clear pattern concomitant with the climacteric rise in ethylene production, with gamma-decalactone being the principal volatile compound at the late ripening stage. Of the LOX family genes, PpLOX2 and PpLOX3 had relatively high transcript levels initially followed by a decline with fruit ripening, while levels of PpLOX1 and PpLOX4 transcripts were upregulated by accumulated ethylene production. Expression of PpHPL1, PpADH1, PpADH2, and PpADH3 showed similar decreasing patterns during ripening. Expression levels of PpAAT1 showed a rapid increase during the first 2 days of postharvest ripening followed by a gradual decrease. Contents of polyunsaturated linoleic and linolenic acids increased, and saturated palmitic acid levels tended to decline as the fruit ripened. The increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids closely paralleled increasing expression of PpFAD1 and PpFAD2. The significance of gene expression changes in relation to aroma volatile production is discussed. PMID:20415420

Zhang, Bo; Shen, Ji-Yuan; Wei, Wen-Wen; Xi, Wan-Peng; Xu, Chang-Jie; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kunsong

2010-05-26

101

Generation of aroma compounds in sourdough: effects of stress exposure and lactobacilli-yeasts interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of the interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae LBS and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis LSCE1 and of their responses to acid, oxidative or osmotic stress on alcohol and aroma production were assessed. The exposure of S. cerevisiae LBS and L. sanfranciscensis LSCE1 cells to oxidative, acid or osmotic sub-lethal stress gave rise to a common or specific responses. Gamma-decalactone, 2(5H)-furanones and aldehydes were overproduced by LAB following oxidative stress. The acid stress induced both in yeasts and LAB, as well as in their co-cultures, a relevant accumulation of isovaleric and acetic acids and higher alcohols. A cross-exposure of yeasts and LAB to their preconditioned media, generated in S. cerevisiae a release of esters including esters of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids coming from membrane phospholipids. These esters were excreted also by yeasts following a pressure stress. PMID:17008156

Guerzoni, M E; Vernocchi, P; Ndagijimana, M; Gianotti, A; Lanciotti, R

2007-04-01

102

Evaluation of new aroma substances for feline minitablet formulation  

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Full Text Available Despite the global interest in companion animal pharmaceuticals, feline peroral medication still lacks tailor-made, palatable and voluntarily accepted pharmaceuticals with suitable size and attractive taste. As a consequence, treating cats with canine and even human pharmaceuticals has weakened patient compliance and treatment commitment, and has even left many pet cats untreated. In future, the companion animal pharmaceutical business will therefore particularly concentrate on cats and the rapid and economic development of palatable feline medication. Following this goal, the overall aim of this study was to facilitate voluntary drug administration to felines. Specifically we aimed to develop sophisticated and tailor-made feline pharmaceuticals, with the focus on flavours in minitablets. Since excipients should be easily obtained and suitable for formulation, we conducted rapid preformulation compatibility and stability screening tests of synthetic flavours with commonly used tableting excipients. On the basis of the feline carnivorous diet, L-methionine, L-leucine, L-proline and thiamine hydrochloride were presented as new aroma substances for the improvement of feline medication palatability. These flavours and a model substance for a bitter taste, denatonium benzoate, were systematically evaluated for their physicochemical properties, stability and physical compatibility. This was done with substances alone and in binary combinations of flavours and excipients. Stability and compatibility were examined employing DSC and XRPD. The results showed that L-proline and denatonium benzoate anhydrate were hygroscopic. Thiamine hydrochloride was incompatible with talc and sodium stearyl fumarate. The known incompatibility between the amines contained in aromas, and ?-lactose monohydrate was used in assessing method sensitivity. Overall, the study provided new information on the compatibility of novel aromas with the tableting excipients. The study also demonstrated the applicability of XRPD and DSC in the rapid evaluation of instability and incompatibility.

Jaana Hautala

2014-06-01

103

Aroma and thermodynamic stability of heteroboranes. Mono- and dicarboranes, azadicarboranes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the base of structural data for closo-monocarboranes CBn-1Hn- (n=6-12), closo-dicarboranes C2Bn-2Hn (n=6-12), closo-azadodecaborane HNB11H11, decaborane-14, B10H14 and azadicarborane nido-10,7,8-NC2B8H11, arachno-1,8,11-NC2B8H13 estimation of binding energy, enthalpy of formation and energy of three-dimensional (or spheric) aroma is done. All calculation is fulfilled on the bas of equations of structural-thermodynamic model

104

Deficit Irrigation during Berry Development: Impact on Aroma Composition of Merlot Wine  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of irrigation on wine grape composition and wine aroma has been investigated extensively and is still of interest today because of the complexity of wine aroma. Merlot is one of the most popular red wines in the world and is well suited to cultivation in eastern Washington, southwestern ...

105

Post-harvest ripening increase cultivar specific sensory and analytical aroma profile in apple juice : a study of four commercial cultivars in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Apples are normally produced with focus on the fresh fruit marked, which imply high priority on storability and shelf life. The fruits used for juice are normally those discarded along the post-harvest chain. If the main goal is changed to production of high-quality juice with emphasis on single cultivar characteristic flavours, focus can be on optimal fruit ripening for flavour development. To investigate the juice quality potentials during post-harvest ripening, four apple cultivars: ‘Aroma’, ‘Holsteiner Cox’, ‘Ingrid Marie’ and ‘Rajka’ were sampled and juiced after 5 and 10 days of post-harvest storage at room temperature (20°C). The soluble solids content (SSC) of ‘Ingrid Marie’ fruits increased most, and after 10 days, it had the lowest starch content of the four cultivars studied. The mid-to-late season cultivars ‘Ingrid Marie’, ‘Holsteiner Cox’ and ‘Rajka’ had higher SSC/acidity ratio than the middle early season ‘Aroma’ ‘and all of them showed an increase of the ratio SSC/acidity during storage’. The volatile compound measurements (GC-MS) of the juices indicated that particularly ‘Holsteiner Cox’ and ‘Ingrid Marie’ have the ability to produce fruity volatile compounds like ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, 2-methylpropyl acetate, butyl acetate, hexyl acetate, hexanal, ethyl propanoate, pentyl acetate and ethyl 2-metylbutanoate exhibiting remarkable changes during ripening. These volatile compounds may explain the post-harvest development of interesting fruity nuances perceived by the sensory panel. The terms ‘apricot’, ‘peach’ and ‘pineapple’ were used to describe the odour and flavour properties of these cultivar juices in the sensory analysis. ‘Aroma’ apples ranked high on ‘citrus’, ‘red berries’ and ‘pear’ flavour descriptors after 5 days of storage, whereas ‘Rajka’ showed the weakest aroma profile of the group of cultivars. To exploit the aroma and sensory potential fully, apple cultivars should be further investigated in regards to effects of delayed harvest and different post-harvest treatments.

Martinez Vega, Mabel Virginia; Varming, Camilla

2014-01-01

106

PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia  

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Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

Intan Kusumaningrum*

2014-06-01

107

Differential effects of exposure to ambient vanilla and citrus aromas on mood, arousal and food choice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost physiological sensors and semi-real life settings. Tests included physiological (heart rate, physical activity and response times, psychological (emotions and mood and behavioral (food choice measures in a semi-real life environment for 22 participants. Results Exposure to ambient citrus aroma increased physical activity (P P P P P Conclusions The test battery used in this study demonstrated aroma-specific physiological, psychological and behavioral effects of aromas with similar appeal and intensities, and similar food-related origins. These effects could be measured in (semi- real life environments for freely moving subjects using relatively inexpensive commercially available physiological sensors.

de Wijk René A

2012-12-01

108

Postharvest vapour heat treatment as a phytosanitary measure influences the aroma volatiles profile of mango fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our objective was to determine the influence of postharvest vapour heat treatment (VHT) on qualitative and quantitative measurement of aroma volatiles during fruit ripening in mango (cv. Chausa) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). VHT (48°C for 20 min) accelerated the process of fruit ripening leading to edible-soft stage within 4 days after heat treatment against 8 days in control. Reversible inhibition of aroma volatiles emission was observed in heat-treated fruit, with a significant alteration in aroma volatiles profiles at different stages of fruit ripening. The heat-induced increase in the rate of fruit ripening proceeded with a significant lag in the emission of aroma volatiles. The suppression of aroma volatiles at ripe stage in heat-treated fruit might adversely impact the consumer acceptance of fruit. PMID:24996349

Singh, Sukhvinder Pal; Saini, Manpreet Kaur

2014-12-01

109

Evaluation of aroma-active compounds in Pontianak orange peel oil ( Citrus nobilis Lour. Var. microcarpa Hassk.) by gas chromatography-olfactometry, aroma reconstitution, and omission test.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma-active compounds of Pontianak orange peel oil ( Citrus nobilis Lour. var. microcarpa Hassk.) were characterized by using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) techniques. Forty-one compounds were found to be aroma-active, which were mainly dominated by saturated and unsaturated aldehydes. The flavor dilution (FD) factor was within the range of 2-2048, and compounds having the highest FD factor were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, linalool, and 2-methoxy-3-(2-methylpropyl) pyrazine, including a few unknown compounds. On the basis of GC-O results, odor activity value (OAV) and relative flavor activity (RFA) were determined for aroma model reconstitution. These resembled the original aroma of the peel oil for the green, fatty, fresh, peely, floral, and tarry attributes, with the model solution derived from OAV being the closest to Pontianak oil. Omission tests were carried out to verify the significance of (Z)-5-dodecenal and 1-phenylethyl mercaptan as key compounds in the aroma of Pontianak orange peel oil. PMID:19061307

Dharmawan, Jorry; Kasapis, Stefan; Sriramula, Praveena; Lear, Martin J; Curran, Philip

2009-01-14

110

Aroma Volatile Compounds from Two Fresh Pineapple Varieties in China  

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Full Text Available Volatile compounds from two pineapples varieties (Tainong No.4 and No.6 were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. In the Tainong No. 4 and No. 6 pineapples, a total of 11 and 28 volatile compounds were identified according to their retention time on capillary columns and their mass spectra, and quantified with total concentrations of 1080.44 µg·kg?1 and 380.66 µg·kg?1 in the Tainong No.4 and No. 6 pineapples, respectively. The odor active values (OAVs of volatile compounds from pineapples were also calculated. According to the OAVs, four compounds were defined as the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 4 pineapple, including furaneol, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid methyl ester, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester and ?-octalactone. The OAVs of five compounds including ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, methyl-2-methylbutyrate, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl hexanoate and decanal were considered to be the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 6 pineapple.

Chang-Bin Wei

2012-06-01

111

A question of scent: lavender aroma promotes interpersonal trust.  

Science.gov (United States)

A previous study has shown that the degree of trust into others might be biased by inducing either a more "inclusive" or a more "exclusive" cognitive-control mode. Here, we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by environmental factors, such as odors, that are likely to impact cognitive-control states. Arousing olfactory fragrances (e.g., peppermint) are supposed to induce a more exclusive, and calming olfactory fragrances (e.g., lavender) a more inclusive state. Participants performed the Trust Game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor) transfers to another participant (the trustee), while being exposed to either peppermint or lavender aroma. All participants played the role of trustor. As expected, participants transferred significantly more money to the alleged trustee in the lavender as compared to the peppermint and control (no aroma) conditions. This observation might have various serious implications for a broad range of situations in which interpersonal trust is an essential element, such as cooperation (e.g., mixed-motives situations), bargaining and negotiation, consumer behavior, and group performance. PMID:25628577

Sellaro, Roberta; van Dijk, Wilco W; Paccani, Claudia Rossi; Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S

2014-01-01

112

Cashew gum microencapsulation protects the aroma of coffee extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microencapsulation of materials rich in volatile compounds by spray drying presents the challenge of removing water by vapourization without loss of odour and/or flavour components. Crioconcentrated coffee extracts rich in odour components were used as a substrate core to evaluate microencapsulation with cashew gum from Anacardium occidentale L. In Brazil, cashew gum is a low cost alternative to the traditional Arabic gum. A suspension containing coffee extract and the wall material was dissolved in water and then passed through a spray dryer. Core microcapsules were microwave-assisted extracted (MAE) and the aroma protection of the microcapsules produced was evaluated using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The external morphology and size distribution of the microcapsules were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light scattering techniques, respectively. When comparing Arabic and cashew gum microencapsulation of coffee extracts both wall materials were observed to have similar aroma protection, external morphology and size distribution. Sensory analysis was employed to examine flavour protection and consumer preference with microencapsulation. These biochemical, sensory and structural data suggest that low cost cashew gum is a well suited alternative for odour microencapsulation to the more costly Arabic gum currently used in Brazil. PMID:18188728

Rodrigues, R A F; Grosso, C R F

2008-02-01

113

Aroma interactions with starch : Induction of carbohydrate acting enzymes from Aspergillus nidulans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Starches are used to enhance aroma perception in low-fat foods. Aroma compounds can bind physically to the starch in grooves on the surface or they can form complexes inside amylose helices. This study has been divided into two parts: one part regarding binding of aromas to starches and their aroma-release, and another part regarding stimulation of a fungal secretome using different carbohydrates. In the first part, nine aromas and one aroma-mixture were mixed with nine different starches, including genetically modified starches. The objective of this sub-project was to bind aromas to the starches to 15 weight-percent. Aroma binding was tested on both amorphous starches and on native starch granules. A series of aldehydes and alcohols were also tested for binding to the starches. The aromas with the highest volatility were positively retained by starch, whereas for aromas with a lower volatility the starch had a negative effect on retention. No trends were observed that could relate aroma binding or retentionto physical qualities of the starch such as amylose or phosphate content. Still, the physical state of the starch was shown to influence retention of some aromas, possibly by diffusion through the outer layers of the starch granule or binding to grooves on the surface. Chemical reactivity of some of the aromas also influenced the retention. Analysing a series of aldehydes and alcohols revealed an influence of the size of the molecules on retention. Hexanal showed a remarkable drop in retention for all starches, and pentanol showed a favoured retention by native starch granules. The aroma compounds bound to the starch proved very difficult to release as only a minute fraction of the aroma added could be released from the starch, even under conditions favouring aroma release, as monitored by GC-MS and solvent extractions. Addition of water to the extraction lowered the amount of aroma released, and addition of a starch-degrading enzyme, ?-amylase, did not significantly change the amount extracted. Studies by differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray scattering did not show complete complexation of aromas in the amylose helices, but instead changes were observed that could be evidence of partial complexation. This complexation is not exclusive to the amylose helices, but also appears to include interactions in the amylopectin double helices. In particular, one of the analysed aromas showed a very noticeable reduction in melting temperature, but showed only a minor reduction in melting enthalpy and no evidence of amylose complexation. Using an enzyme-discovery approach in the second sub-project, the industrially relevant fungus Aspergillus nidulans was stimulated with different carbohydrates. Stimulation with starch induced expression of starch-degrading enzymes, while stimulation with the hemicellulose xylan induced expression of xylanases. One particular hypothetical protein was ubiquitously expressed. This protein had no apparent homology with known proteins, but may iv be involved in attacking otherorganisms as a weak homology with other proteins involved in membrane attack was detected. Degradation of secreted proteins was observed in some cultures. Identification of a glycoside hydrolase family 61 using xylan as carbon-source was not successful despite previous evidence for the induction of this enzyme.

JØrgensen, Anders Dysted

2011-01-01

114

Impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the in vivo aroma release from wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the retronasal aroma release of four volatile compounds added to different types of wines has been evaluated. For this purpose, a tailor-made retronasal aroma trapping device (RATD) was used to entrap the exhaled breath of six panelists previously trained in a specific consumption procedure. Five wines of different composition (white wine, sparkling white wine, young red wine, aged red wine, and a sweet wine) were evaluated. Prior to the evaluation, with the exception of the sweet wine, the wines were adjusted to the same ethanol content and aromatized with a mixture of four target volatile compounds. Aroma release data were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis in order to relate wine chemical composition and aroma release during wine drinking. Results showed interindividual differences and a clustering of panelists among lower and higher aroma releasers, which was in agreement to the differences in their breathing capacity. A significant influence of the matrix composition in the low aroma releasers group during wine consumption was observed. The consumption of red wines provoked a significantly higher aroma release than the consumption of white and sweet wines. From the chemical composition determined in the wine samples (pH, total acidity, total polyphenols, neutral polysaccharides, residual sugar, and nitrogenous compounds), the amount of total polyphenols was better correlated with the observed effect. PMID:24328128

Muñoz-González, Carolina; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

2014-01-01

115

Genetic analysis and gene fine mapping of aroma in rice (Oryza sativa L. Cyperales, Poaceae  

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Full Text Available We investigated inheritance and carried out gene fine mapping of aroma in crosses between the aromatic elite hybrid rice Oryza sativa indica variety Chuanxiang-29B (Ch-29B and the non-aromatic rice O. sativa indica variety R2 and O. sativa japonica Lemont (Le. The F1 grains and leaves were non-aromatic while the F2 non-aroma to aroma segregation pattern was 3:1. The F3 segregation ratio was consistent with the expected 1:2:1 for a single recessive aroma gene in Ch-29B. Linkage analysis between simple sequence repeat (SSR markers and the aroma locus for the aromatic F2 plants mapped the Ch-29B aroma gene to a chromosome 8 region flanked by SSR markers RM23120 at 0.52 cM and RM3459 at 1.23 cM, a replicate F2 population confirming these results. Three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones cover chromosome 8 markers RM23120 and RM3459. Our molecular mapping data from the two populations indicated that the aroma locus occurs in a 142.85 kb interval on BAC clones AP005301 or AP005537, implying that it might be the same gene reported by Bradbury et al (2005a; Plant Biotec J. 3:363-370. The flanking markers Aro7, RM23120 and RM3459 identified by us could greatly accelerate the efficiency and precision of aromatic rice breeding programs.

Shu Xia Sun

2008-01-01

116

Aroma Classification Using One-vs-One and One-vs-Rest Methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computational Intelligence used in pattern classification problem can be divided into two different parts, one based on Neural Network and the other based on Statistical Learning. The Statistical Learning discovered by Vapnik on 70-est decade. For the pattern classification, Vapnik developed hyperplane optimal separation, which is known as Support Vector Machines Method (SVM. In the beginning, SVM was designed only to solve binary classification problem, where data existing are classified into two classes. To classify data whose consist of more than two classes, the SVM method can not directly be used. There are several methods can be used to solve SVM multiclasses classification problem, they are One-vs-One Method and One-vs-Rest Method. Both of this methods are the extension of SVM binary classification, they will be discussed in this article so that we can see their performance in aroma classification process. Data of aroma used in this experiment is consisted of three classes of aroma, each of them has six classes. The division of this class is based on alcohol concentration mixed into each of those aromas. For example, for aroma A, there are six kinds of aroma A with different alcohol concentration: 0%, 15%, 25%, 30%, 45% and 75%. The performance of these methods is measured based on their ability to recognize and classify aroma, precisely and match with the right class or variety of data existed.

Benyamin Kusumoputro

2003-12-01

117

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in beef and pork vegetable gravies á la chef by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

By application of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on an aroma distillate isolated from a freshly prepared, stewed beef/vegetable gravy, 52 odor-active compounds were detected in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 4-4096. On the basis of high FD factors in combination with the results of the identification experiments, 3-(methylthio)propanal (cooked potato), 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol (gravy-like), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (deep-fried, fatty), 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (lovage-like), vanillin (vanilla-like), (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal (deep-fried), and (E)-2-undecenal (metallic) are suggested as key contributors to the aroma of the gravy. To get an insight into the role of the vegetables as sources of gravy odorants, a beef gravy was prepared without vegetables. The AEDA results revealed that, in particular, onions and leek are important sources of gravy aroma compounds, adding particularly the very potent, gravy-like smelling 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol to the overall aroma profile. Further compounds that were clearly derived from the vegetables and, thus, are important modifiers of the overall aroma were 4-vinyl-2-methoxyphenol, (E)-beta-damascenone, beta-ionone, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, and 2-(sec-butyl)-3-methoxypyrazine. Interestingly, none of the key odorants detected in the gravy can be assumed to be formed from a reaction between beef and vegetable constituents. A comparison of the odorants in the beef/vegetable gravy with a gravy prepared according to the same procedure, but substituting beef by pork meat, indicated that most of the aroma compounds were identical-although different in FD factors-but the tallowy smelling 12-methyltridecanal was detected as key odorant only in the beef/vegetable gravy. PMID:19807161

Christlbauer, Monika; Schieberle, Peter

2009-10-14

118

Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration (AROMA)  

Science.gov (United States)

Automation and Robotics (A&R) systems are a key technology for Mars exploration. All over the world initiatives in this field aim at developing new A&R systems and technologies for planetary surface exploration. From December 2000 to February 2002 Kayser-Threde GmbH, Munich, Germany lead a study called AROMA (Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration) under ESA contract in order to define a reference architecture of A&R elements in support of a human Mars exploration program. One of the goals of this effort is to initiate new developments and to maintain the competitiveness of European industry within this field. c2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Hofmann, Peter; von Richter, Andreas

2003-01-01

119

Influence of thermal treatment of wood on the aroma of a sugar cane spirit (cachaça) model-solution / Influência do termotratamento da madeira no aroma de uma solução-modelo de cachaça  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As bebidas alcoólicas são, geralmente, envelhecidas em tonéis de madeira fabricados a partir de espécies do gênero Quercus sp. Devido ao alto custo de aquisição e necessidade de importação, existe demanda por alternativas de uso de outras espécies nativas e da incorporação de novas tecnologias que a [...] umentem a competitividade da cachaça brasileira. Sabe-se que, com a aplicação de termotratamento, vários compostos são alterados, desenvolvem-se aromas, altera-se a coloração e as bebidas adquirem gostos mais agradáveis. Este trabalho mostra a diferença significativa entre soluções-modelo hidroalcoólicas de cachaça, envelhecidas em diferentes espécies de madeira, em suas formas termotratadas e não termotratadas, avaliadas em relação a seu aroma. O teste de aceitação aplicado verificou as soluções preferidas pelos provadores, nas condições determinadas do teste. Abstract in english The aging process of alcoholic beverages is generally conducted in wood barrels made with species from Quercus sp. Due to the high cost and the lack of viability of commercial production of these trees in Brazil, there is demand for new alternatives to using other native species and the incorporatio [...] n of new technologies that enable greater competitiveness of sugar cane spirit aged in Brazilian wood. The drying of wood, the thermal treatment applied to it, and manufacturing techniques are important tools in defining the sensory quality of alcoholic beverages after being placed in contact with the barrels. In the thermal treatment, several compounds are changed by the application of heat to the wood and various studies show the compounds are modified, different aromas are developed, there is change in color, and beverages achieve even more pleasant taste, when compared to non-treated woods. This study evaluated the existence of significant differences between hydro-alcoholic solutions of sugar cane spirits elaborated from different species of thermo-treated and non-treated wood in terms of aroma. An acceptance test was applied to evaluate the solutions preferred by tasters under specific test conditions.

Marta Helena Fillet, Spoto; Marcelo Machado, Leão; José Otávio Otávio, Brito.

2011-06-01

120

Structural and physical effects of aroma compound binding to native starch granules  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The interaction and physical/structural effects of aroma compounds, at high concentrations on dry native starch granules were studied using eight selected model compounds: acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulphide, diacetyl, allyl isothiocyanate, ethyl butyrate, citral, octanol and butyric acid. The maize, potato and pea starches used represent different typical structural and chemical starch characteristics. Retention of the different aroma compounds varied from a few to one hundred percent and starch was found to induce as well as reduce aroma evaporation depending on the aroma compound and the starch type. As deduced from DSC, powder XRD and SEM analyses, citral, butyric acid and octanol exerted specific effects on the starch granules manifested in local melting of crystalline layers and partial disruption of the granular meso structure. The most prominent effect was obtained with citral that generated surface wrinkles on B? and C?type polymorphic granules and aggregation of A?type polymorphic granules, decreased the melting temperature and suppressed the crystallinity of the starch.

JØrgensen, Anders Dysted; Jensen, Susanne L.

2012-01-01

121

Aroma behaviour during steam cooking within a potato starch-based model matrix.  

Science.gov (United States)

To help understand the organoleptic qualities of steam cooked foods, the kinetics of aroma release during cooking in a potato starch based model matrix was studied. Behaviour of components having a major impact in potato flavour were studied using solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography (SPME-GC). Evolution of microstructure of potato starch model-matrix during steam cooking process was analyzed using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Both aroma compounds that are naturally present in starch matrix and those that were added were analyzed. Both the aroma compounds naturally presented and those added had different behaviour depending on their physico-chemical properties (hydrophobicity, saturation vapour pressure, molecular weight, etc.). The physical state of potato starch influences of the retention of aromatized matrix with Starch gelatinization appearing to be the major phenomenon influencing aroma release. PMID:23618307

Descours, Emilie; Hambleton, Alicia; Kurek, Mia; Debeaufort, Fréderic; Voilley, Andrée; Seuvre, Anne-Marie

2013-06-01

122

Albariño wine aroma enhancement through the use of a recombinant polygalacturonase from Kluyveromyces marxianus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The possible biotechnological application of a recombinant endopolygalacturonase of Kluyveromyces marxianus (KMPG) for the aroma enhancement of Albariño wine was studied. The addition of this enzyme to the must gives rise to a significant increase of the total compounds responsible for the aroma as opposed to the effect when using a commercial pectic enzyme. This increase also results in a significant rise of the odoriferous aglycones which are direct determinants of the aroma. Wines made by using the KMPG enzyme are characterised by a greater richness and diversity with regard to the number of aromatic compounds present, clearly differing from those obtained with a commercial pectic preparation. Based on compounds with odour activity values (OAV)>1, the wines obtained with the enzyme KMPG are richer in citric, balsamic, spicy and above all floral (violet and rose) aromas than untreated wines or wines supplemented with a commercial enzyme. PMID:24128465

Sieiro, Carmen; Villa, Tomás G; da Silva, Abigaíl F; García-Fraga, Belén; Vilanova, Mar

2014-02-15

123

Method for recovering aroma concentrate from a caffeine- or theobromine-comprising food base material  

OpenAIRE

Described is a method for recovering aroma concentrate from a caffeine- or theobromine-comprising food base material, such as coffee or tea, and in particular cocoa, at least comprising the steps of: introducing the food base material into an aqueous extractant and incubating the food base material at a suitable temperature and for a suitable period, substantial extraction of the aromas taking place to form an aqueous food extract, pervaporating the food extract using a hydrophobic pervaporat...

Kattenberg, H. R.; Willemsen, J. H. A.; Starmans, D. A. J.; Hoving, H. D.; Winters, M. G. M.

2002-01-01

124

Aroma Compounds of Some Traditional Turkish Cheeses and Their Importance for Turkish Cuisine  

OpenAIRE

Cheese is so important to the Turkish cuisine. It is eaten plain as part of the traditional Turkish breakfast, used in salads, and incorporated into cooked foods such as b?rek, pide, menemen and also used for some traditional desserts. There are several types of cheeses with different characteristics and aroma compounds, and they can be used for preparation of various foods as an additive. The formation of cheese aroma basically associated with lipids, proteins and lactose...

Fügen Durlu-Özkaya; ?lhan Gün

2014-01-01

125

Instrumental and sensory approaches for the characterization of compounds responsible for wine aroma  

OpenAIRE

More than 800 aromatic compounds have been identified in wine, some of them at the ng/l level. Wine, therefore, constitutes a very complex matrix, from which it is difficult to isolate a specific aroma character. Gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC–O) applied to wine extracts is used to characterize odor-active zones that are often treated in a hierarchical way by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA). The aromatic impact of the volatiles is evaluated, generally by determining percept...

Barbe, Jean-christophe; Pineau, Be?ne?dicte; Ferreira, Antonio Cesar Silva

2008-01-01

126

Dynamics and quantitative analysis of the synthesis of fermentative aromas by an evolved wine strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed a dynamic and quantitative analysis of the synthesis of fermentative aromas by an aromatic wine yeast, ECA5, obtained by adaptive evolution. During fermentation at pilot scale on synthetic and natural musts, ECA5 produced volatile compounds (higher alcohols and their acetates, ethyl esters) at higher rates than the ancestral strain, with the exception of propanol. Marked differences in the chronology of synthesis of several compounds were observed between the two strains. Overproduction of phenyl ethanol occurred mainly during the growth phase for ECA5, consistent with its higher flux through the pentose phosphate pathway, which plays a key role in biosynthetic processes. The kinetics of production of isobutanol and isoamyl alcohol were differently affected by different media (synthetic or natural must) and, in particular, according to the nature of the sterols in the media (ergosterol or phytosterols). We also observed differences in the chronology of synthesis of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate or ethyl esters, suggesting that the regulation of the synthesis of these compounds in the evolved strain differs from that in the ancestral strain. This study shows that a dynamic analysis of volatile compounds, using high acquisition frequency online gas chromatography, can provide novel insights into the synthesis and regulation of aromas and is thus a potentially powerful tool for strain characterization. PMID:24989462

Mouret, J R; Cadiere, A; Aguera, E; Rollero, S; Ortiz-Julien, A; Sablayrolles, J M; Dequin, S

2015-01-01

127

Recovery of volatile aroma compounds from black currant juice by vacuum membrane distillation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study evaluated the recovery of seven characteristic black currant aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) carried out at low temperatures (10-45 degreesC) and at varying feed flow rates (100-500 l/h) in a lab scale membrane distillation set tip. VMD at feed flow from 100 to 500 l/h at 30 degreesC gave concentration factors, calculated for each aroma compound as C-permeate/C-feed: from similar to4 to 15. The concentration factors increased with decreased juice temperature during VMD; at 10 degreesC concentration factors of 21-31 were obtained for the highly volatile aroma esters. The recovered levels of the highly volatile aroma compounds ranged from 68 to 83 vol.% with a feed volume reduction of 5 vol.% (10 degreesC, 400 l/h). The theoretically predicted aroma recovery as a function of the feed volume reduction was in accordance with the experimentally obtained values. VMD thus turned out to be a promising technique for gentle stripping of black currant juice aroma compounds.

Bagger-JØrgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.

2004-01-01

128

Bacteria associated with truffle-fruiting bodies contribute to truffle aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Truffles, symbiotic fungi renown for the captivating aroma of their fruiting bodies, are colonized by a complex bacterial community of unknown function. We characterized the bacterial community of the white truffle Tuber borchii and tested the involvement of its microbiome in the production of sulphur-containing volatiles. We found that sulphur-containing volatiles such as thiophene derivatives, characteristic of T.?borchii fruiting bodies, resulted from the biotransformation of non-volatile precursor(s) into volatile compounds by bacteria. The bacterial community of T.?borchii was dominated by ?- and ?-Proteobacteria. Interestingly, all bacteria phyla/classes tested in this study were able to produce thiophene volatiles from T.?borchii fruiting body extract, irrespective of their isolation source (truffle or other sources). This indicates that the ability to produce thiophene volatiles might be widespread among bacteria and possibly linked to primary metabolism. Treatment of fruiting bodies with antibacterial agents fully suppressed the production of thiophene volatiles while fungicides had no inhibitory effect. This suggests that during the sexual stage of truffles, thiophene volatiles are exclusively synthesized by bacteria and not by the truffle. At this stage, the origin of thiophenes precursor in T.?borchii remains elusive and the involvement of yeasts or other bacteria cannot be excluded. PMID:24903279

Splivallo, Richard; Deveau, Aurélie; Valdez, Nayuf; Kirchhoff, Nina; Frey-Klett, Pascale; Karlovsky, Petr

2014-06-01

129

Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb : Effect of fermentation temperature and baker’s yeast  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Understanding how the dough fermentation conditions influence the wheat bread production time and the bread aroma is important for the bread industry. The overall purpose of this PhD project is to investigate the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion and aroma in bread crumb. In Paper I the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion were investigated. Wheat doughs were fermented by seven commercial baker’s yeasts (baker’s yeast I to VII) at different yeast concentrations (2.88•1014, 5.76•1014 and 8.64• 1014 CFU/kg flour, corresponding to 20-40, 40-80 and 60-120 g/kg flour) and fermentation temperatures (5, 15, 25 and 35°C). Dough expansion was investigated by monitoring the dough height and the expansion profile was found to be described well by a first order kinetic model. The highest kinetic rate constants corresponding to the shortest fermentation times were found for doughs fermented at 25°C and the highest yeast concentration. Doughs fermented with commercial baker’s yeast I, II, III and V had shorter fermentation times compared to fermentation with baker’s yeast IV, VI and VII. The longest fermentation times were generally found for doughs fermented with all baker’s yeasts at 5°C and the lowest yeast concentration (2.88•1014 CFU/kg flour). In Paper II, III and V wheat breads were produced for volatile analysis. The dough samples were fermented to equal height and baked and the volatile compounds from the bread crumb were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling and analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A wide range of volatile compounds was identified in bread crumb, mainly originating from the activity of yeast and from oxidation of flour lipids. The dominating fermentation compounds were alcohols, aldehydes as well as 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin), esters and acids. Furthermore, oxidation of flour lipids was generating primarily aldehydes and ketones. Quantification of the volatile compounds in bread crumb was performed by multiple headspace extraction (Paper II, III and V). The compounds were evaluated according to their odour activity value (OAV). The most aroma active compounds (OAV > 6) identified in bread crumb were; (E)-2-nonanal (green, tallow), 3-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methyl-1-butanol (balsamic, alcoholic), nonanal (citrus), hexanal (green), 2,3-butanedione (buttery, caramel), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom) and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like). Esters were also identified in bread crumb (e.g. ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate) and they are of interest because of their fruity and pleasant odours, however the OAV’s of the esters were generally low (0.1 to 0.5). In Paper II the effects of yeast level (20, 40 and 60 g baker’s yeast VII/kg flour) and fermentation temperature (5, 15 and 35ºC) on aroma in bread crumb were investigated. Fermentation with the highest yeast concentration (60 g/kg flour) resulted in bread containing the highest concentration of the majority of the compounds formed from yeast activity (e.g. 2,3-butanedione and phenylacetaldehyde), compared to doughs fermented at lower yeast concentrations (20 and 40 g/kg flour). A fermentation temIII perature at 5°C resulted in breads with the highest concentration of the three esters; ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate, compared to breads fermented at higher temperatures (15 and 35°C). Fermentation at 15 and 35°C resulted in breads with the highest concentration of many lipid oxidation compounds (e.g. heptanal and hexanal) compared to breads fermented at 5°C. In Paper III the effect of the type of commercial baker’s yeast (baker’s yeast I to VII, 2.88•1014 yeast CFU/kg flour) on bread aroma was investigated. Breads fermented by commercial baker’s yeast I to IV had the significantly highest concentration of 2,3-butanedione and 1-propanol compared to breads fermented by the other yeasts. Furthermore, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methy

Birch, Anja Niehues

2013-01-01

130

Research of fragranced air, environmental aroma, to human and its application. Kankyo hoko no koka to sono oyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of lemon, jasmine and lavender aroma on people was studied through environmental aroma experiments by 270 subjects in a meeting room for two months. As a result, the high percentage of positive responses was obtained on the sense of air cleanliness and efficiency of meetings, and a statistical significance was, in particular, obtained in the case of lemon as smoking was permitted. It was suggested that aroma had physiological and phychological effect even under conditions where the subjects were not necessarily aware of aroma. The effect of the same three aromas was also studied through experiments by 13 subjects in a VDT room for one month. As a result, the number of keypunch errors decreased in every aroma although punching speeds decreased slightly, and lemon showed a significant difference among three aromas. Based on these experimental results, the aroma generator was developed, and more than 30 environmental aroma systems combined with air conditioning ducts have been installed in Japan. 20 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

Hashimoto, S. (Shimizu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1991-06-01

131

Genetic analysis and gene fine mapping of aroma in rice (Oryza sativa L. Cyperales, Poaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We investigated inheritance and carried out gene fine mapping of aroma in crosses between the aromatic elite hybrid rice Oryza sativa indica variety Chuanxiang-29B (Ch-29B) and the non-aromatic rice O. sativa indica variety R2 and O. sativa japonica Lemont (Le). The F1 grains and leaves were non-aro [...] matic while the F2 non-aroma to aroma segregation pattern was 3:1. The F3 segregation ratio was consistent with the expected 1:2:1 for a single recessive aroma gene in Ch-29B. Linkage analysis between simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and the aroma locus for the aromatic F2 plants mapped the Ch-29B aroma gene to a chromosome 8 region flanked by SSR markers RM23120 at 0.52 cM and RM3459 at 1.23 cM, a replicate F2 population confirming these results. Three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones cover chromosome 8 markers RM23120 and RM3459. Our molecular mapping data from the two populations indicated that the aroma locus occurs in a 142.85 kb interval on BAC clones AP005301 or AP005537, implying that it might be the same gene reported by Bradbury et al (2005a; Plant Biotec J. 3:363-370). The flanking markers Aro7, RM23120 and RM3459 identified by us could greatly accelerate the efficiency and precision of aromatic rice breeding programs.

Shu Xia, Sun; Fang Yuan, Gao; Xian Jun, Lu; Xian Jun, Wu; Xu Dong, Wang; Guang Jun, Ren; Hong, Luo.

132

Sulfur volatiles of microbial origin are key contributors to human-sensed truffle aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Truffles are symbiotic fungi in high demand for the aroma of their fruiting bodies which are colonized by a diverse microbial flora. Specific sulfur containing volatiles (thiophene derivatives) characteristic of the white truffle Tuber borchii were recently shown to be derived from the bacterial community inhabiting truffle fruiting bodies. Our aim here was to investigate whether thiophene derivatives contributed to the human-sensed aroma of T. borchii. Furthermore, we questioned whether the concentration of thiophene volatiles was affected by freezing or whether it differed in truffles from distinct geographical origins. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) analysis revealed that thiophene derivatives were major contributors to the aroma of T. borchii. Of four thiophene derivatives detected in this study, 3-methyl-4,5-dihydrothiophene was the most important one in terms of its contribution to the overall aroma. The relative concentration of thiophene derivatives was unaffected by freezing; however, it differed in samples collected in distinct geographical locations (Italy versus New Zealand). The causes of this variability might be differences in storage conditions and/or in bacterial community composition of the fruiting bodies; however, further work is needed to confirm these hypotheses. Overall, our results demonstrate that thiophene derivatives are major contributors to the human-sensed aroma of T. borchii. PMID:25573471

Splivallo, Richard; Ebeler, Susan E

2015-03-01

133

Influence of the structure of cornstarch dispersions on kinetics of aroma release.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study deals with the impact of food structure and texture on aroma release. This was done with cornstarch dispersions with constant concentrations in starch but differing in their structures. The structure parameters of the cornstarch dispersions were varied by changing the shearing conditions during the pasting process. Linalool and isoamyl acetate were chosen as reference aroma compounds. Linalool is known to form complexes with amylose while isoamyl acetate does not. The release of aroma compounds from starch dispersions under stirring was studied at 2 temperatures by discrete sampling of the headspace. Aroma release curves were modeled and the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were extracted. The release of linalool seemed to be governed mainly by the interactions (complexation) with starch. In contrast, the interactions between starch and isoamyl acetate were feebler, and the release of this aroma compound was governed by the structure of the starch dispersion. The observed interactions were better established at 20 degrees C than at 32 degrees C. PMID:18298746

Lafarge, C; Bard, M-H; Breuvart, A; Doublier, J-L; Cayot, N

2008-03-01

134

Aroma Stripping under various Forms of Membrane Distillation Processes: Experiments and modeling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Concentration of fruit juices by membrane distillation is an interesting process as it can be done at low temperature giving a gentle concentration process with little deterioration of the juices. Since the juices contains many different aroma compounds with a wide range of chemical properties such as volatility, activity coefficient and vapor pressure, it is important to know how these aroma compounds will eventually pass through the membrane. Experiments have been made on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up which can be operated in various types of MD configurations: Vacuum Membrane Distillation , Sweeping Gas Membrane Distillation , Direct Contact Membrane Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation. The influence of feed temperature and feed flow rate on the permeate flux and concentration factor for different types of aroma compounds have been measured for these MD configurations. A general transport model for the flux of water and aroma compounds have been derived and compared with the experimental data. A reasonable agreement between the modelling and the experiments could be obtained. From the modelling it was possible to explain the large different in permeate flux and concentration factor that was observed for the different MD configurations. This is highly related to the heat and mass transfer resistances in the membrane as well as in the boundary layers adjacent to the membrane surface and how the driving force develops along the length of the membrane.

Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

135

Instrumental and sensory approaches for the characterization of compounds responsible for wine aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 800 aromatic compounds have been identified in wine, some of them at the ng/l level. Wine, therefore, constitutes a very complex matrix, from which it is difficult to isolate a specific aroma character. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) applied to wine extracts is used to characterize odor-active zones that are often treated in a hierarchical way by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA). The aromatic impact of the volatiles is evaluated, generally by determining perception thresholds. This methodology has provided convincing results concerning wine flavors, but it does have its limitations. For instance, data on beta-damascenone have demonstrated that these methods could reach their limits for this volatile, in particular, because of the non-quantitative representation of aroma extracts of wines, and because of the difficulty to accurately determine the perception threshold in wines for a compound already present. For beta-damascenone, we have shown that its very low detection threshold with GC-O, its wide range, and its dependence on the composition of the medium resulted in overestimating its direct impact on the aroma of wine. Another way to facilitate the characterization of aromatic compounds was, therefore, investigated. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) methods were developed for the analysis of wine extracts. From an aromatic extract, 25 fractions with various flavors were thus obtained, and reverse-phase methodology was used for the selection and characterization of red- and black-fruit aromas in red wines. PMID:18618403

Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Pineau, Bénédicte; Ferreira, Antonio Cesar Silva

2008-06-01

136

Effect of vine foliar treatments on the varietal aroma of Monastrell wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of four vine treatments, comprising the application of eugenol and guaiacol (individually or as a mixture) or whiskey lactones on the concentration of glycosidically bound aroma precursors, determined as glycosyl glucose content by HPLC-IR, in Monastrell grapes and their wines were studied. The impact of treatments on the free varietal wine aroma determined by SBSE-GC-MS and descriptive analysis after alcoholic and malolactic fermentations and six months of ageing were also determined. A synergistic effect was observed between the eugenol and guaiacol on the glycosidically bound aroma precursor fraction. The rate of release of such aroma precursors was time and treatment dependent. The impact on wines varietal aroma at the end of the alcoholic fermentation was reduced by treatments, whereas the opposite effect was observed in the following samplings. At a sensory level, the wood/oak notes were appreciated in all wines; however, the typicity of the Monastrell variety was especially enhanced at the end of the malolactic fermentation, in the wines from whiskey lactone treatment. PMID:24912724

Pardo-García, A I; de la Hoz, K Serrano; Zalacain, A; Alonso, G L; Salinas, M R

2014-11-15

137

Effects of sugar concentration processes in grapes and wine aging on aroma compounds of sweet wines-a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dessert sweet wines from Europe and North America are described in this review from two points of view: both their aroma profile and also their sensorial description. There are growing literature data about the chemical composition and sensory properties of these wines. Wines were grouped according to the production method (concentration of sugars in grapes) and to the aging process of wine (oxidative, biological, or a combination of both and aging in the bottle). It was found that wines natively sweets and wines fortified with liquors differ in their volatile compounds. Sensory properties of these wines include those of dried fruit (raisins), red berries, honey, chocolate and vanilla, which is contributing to their growing sales. However, there is still a need for scientific research on the understanding of the mechanisms for wine flavor enhancement. PMID:24915355

Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

2015-07-01

138

Recuperação e concentração de componentes do aroma de caju (Anacardium occidentale L.) por pervaporação / Recovery of aroma compounds of cashew apple fruit (Anacardium occidentale L.) by pervaporation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A pervaporação é um processo de separação por membranas, no qual misturas líquidas são fracionadas devido à sua vaporização parcial através de uma membrana densa de permeabilidade seletiva. Este processo pode ser utilizado na recuperação e concentração de componentes de aromas. O objetivo deste trab [...] alho foi avaliar a pervaporação para obtenção de um extrato natural de aroma de caju, que poderá ser utilizado como aditivo na indústria de alimentos. Polpa de caju foi a matéria-prima utilizada no trabalho. O processo de pervaporação foi conduzido a 25 e 35 °C em membranas de polidimetilsiloxano. Foram recolhidas amostras do suco de caju, no início e ao final do processo, e do permeado para a caracterização do perfil aromático através de CG-EM. O processo de pervaporação apresentou um alto fluxo de permeado para o suco de caju, 0,11 e 0,17 kg.hm-2 a 25 e 35 °C, respectivamente. Os cromatogramas revelaram um grande aumento no número de picos nas amostras de permeado em relação aos cromatogramas das amostras do suco de caju original, sendo que cerca de 50% dos componentes identificados no permeado apresentaram um acréscimo em suas áreas em relação aos do suco original, indicando a potencialidade deste processo para a concentração do aroma de caju. Abstract in english Pervaporation is a membrane separation process in which components from liquid mixtures are fractionated due to their partial vaporisation through a dense selective membrane. This process can be used to recover aroma compounds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the pervaporation to obtain a [...] natural aroma extract from cashew apple fruit, which can be used as an additive in the food industry. Cashew pulp was used as raw material. Pervaporation was carried out at 25 and 35 °C using polymethylsiloxane membranes. Samples of the cashew juice in the beginning and at the end of the pervaporation and from the permeate were picked to characterise the aromatic profile by GC-MS. The pervaporation of the cashew juice presented a high permeate flux, 0.11 kgh-1m-2 and 0.17 kg.hm-2, at 25 and 35 °C, respectively. The chromatograms showed an increase in the number of compounds in the permeate samples when compared to the chromatograms of the cashew juice. By comparing the peak areas, it could be observed that almost 50% of the identified components in the permeate samples presented an increase in the peak area, showing the potentiality of this process to the concentration of the aroma of cashew apple juice.

André von Randow de, Assis; Humberto Ribeiro, Bizzo; Virgínia Martins da, Matta; Lourdes Maria Corrêa, Cabral.

2007-06-01

139

Chemical and sensory comparison of fresh and dried lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The odour-active volatile compounds of lulo fruit (Solanum quitoense Lam.) were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). GC-O and GCMS analyses as well as quantitation by internal standard method showed that (Z)-3-hexenal, ethyl butanoate, 3-sulphanylhexyl acetate, and ethyl hexanoate were key aroma compounds in this fruit. Other odorants with relevance because their contribution (high OAVs) to the overall aroma were 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, methyl benzoate, (E)-2-hexenal, and hexanal. Lulo fruit pulp in presence of maltodextrin DE-20 was dried by using four different types of drying methods: hot air-drying (HD), spray drying (SD), lyophilisation (LD), and ultrasonic convective hot air-drying (HUD). LD sample exhibited the highest sensory rank (lulo-like) in comparison with fresh fruit pulp. Hot-air drying processes (HD and HUD) changed adversely the aroma of lulo fruit pulp. PMID:25236202

Forero, Diana Paola; Orrego, Carlos Eduardo; Peterson, Devin Grant; Osorio, Coralia

2015-02-15

140

AROMA CONTENT OF FRESH BASIL (OCIMUM BASILICUM L.) LEAVES IS AFFECTED BY LIGHT REFLECTED FROM COLORED MULCHES  

Science.gov (United States)

Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an herb that is used to add a distinct aroma and flavor to food. Aroma compounds emitted from fully-expanded fresh leaves that were grown in drip-irrigated field plots covered with different colors of polyethylene mulch were compared. The colors were selected to ...

141

O aroma ambiental e sua relação com as avaliações e intenções do consumidor no varejo / Ambient scent and its relationship with consumer evaluations and intentions in retail / El aroma ambiental y su relación con las evaluaciones e intenciones del consumidor en el comercio minorista  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A atmosfera de uma loja é capaz de provocar emoções e comportamentos que estimulam a compra. Entre as suas dimensões, está o aroma ambiental, adicionado artificialmente ao ambiente. Este artigo investiga a relação entre a presença de aroma ambiental no varejo e as avaliações de loja, ambiente de loj [...] a e produtos, além das intenções comportamentais relativas ao retorno e ao tempo gasto na loja. A pesquisa teve uma etapa exploratória, exame de publicações em fisiologia, psicologia e comportamento do consumidor, para construção do referencial teórico e formulação das hipóteses, e outra causal, quase experimento, para identificar as relações de causa e efeito na presença de aroma. O estudo foi conduzido em uma butique de frutos do mar, e os instrumentos de coleta de dados, escalas de diferencial semântico, basearam-se em pesquisas similares. As análises incluíram técnicas de estatística descritiva e teste de hipóteses. Os resultados revelaram que a presença de aroma ambiental não aumentou as avaliações nem a intenção de retorno, mas reteve o consumidor por mais tempo na loja. Abstract in spanish La atmósfera de un negocio es capaz de generar emociones y comportamientos que estimulan la compra. Entre sus dimensiones, está el aroma ambiental, adicionado de modo artificial al ambiente. Este artículo averigua la relación entre la presencia de aroma ambiental en el comercio minorista y las evalu [...] aciones de negocio, ambiente de negocio y productos, además de las intenciones de comportamiento con respecto al retorno y al tiempo dedicado al negocio. La investigación tuvo una etapa exploratoria, examen de publicaciones en fisiología, psicología y comportamiento del consumidor, para construcción del referencial teórico y formulación de las hipótesis, y otra causal, casi-experimento, para identificar las relaciones de causa y efecto en la presencia del aroma. El estudio fue conducido en una especie de boutique para frutos del mar y, los instrumentos de colecta de datos, escalas de diferencial semántico, basaranse en investigaciones similares. Los análisis han incluido técnicas de estadística descriptiva y teste de hipótesis. Los resultados han revelado que la presencia de aroma ambiental no aumentó las evaluaciones ni la intención del retorno, pero mantuvo el consumidor por más tiempo en el negocio. Abstract in english The atmosphere of a store can be used to produce specific emotions that enhance purchase probability, and the ambient scent, artificially added, is among its dimensions. This article investigates the relationship between the presence of an ambient scent in a retail store, and customers' evaluation o [...] f the store, its environment and products, as well as the behavioral intentions related to return and time spent in the store. The research design included an exploratory stage, examination of publications in the fields of physiology, psychology and consumer behavior, to provide the conceptual background and to formulate research hypothesis; and a causal stage, quasi-experiment, to verify the effects of scent presence. Semantic differential scales were employed for data collection. Descriptive statistics and hypothesis test were performed for data analysis and the results revealed that the scent presence did not improve the evaluations or the intent to return but retained the consumer longer in the store.

André Luiz Carvalho Nunes da, Costa; Salomão Alencar de, Farias.

2011-12-01

142

Analysis of aroma-active compounds in three sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) cultivars by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS*  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Aroma is the core factor in aromatherapy. Sensory evaluation of aromas differed among three sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) cultivar groups. The purpose of this study was to investigate the aroma-active compounds responsible for these differences. Methods: Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to analyze the aroma-active compounds and volatiles of creamy-white (‘Houban Yingui’, HBYG), yellow (‘Liuye Jingui’, LYJG), and orange (‘Gecheng Dangui’, GCDG) cultivars. Results: Seventeen aroma-active compounds were detected among 54 volatiles. trans-?-Ocimene, trans-?-ionone, and linalool, which were major volatiles, were identified as aroma-active, while cis-3-hexenyl butanoate, ?-terpinene, and hexyl butanoate were also aroma-active compounds, although their contents were low. Analysis of the odors was based on the sum of the modified frequency (MF) values of aroma-active compounds in different odor groups. HBYG contained more herb odors, contributed by cis-?-ocimene and trans-?-ocimene, while LYJG had more woody/violet/fruity odors released by trans-?-ionone, ?-ionone, and hexyl butanoate. In GCDG, the more floral odors were the result of cis-linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide, and linalool. Conclusions: Aroma-active compounds were not necessarily only the major volatiles: some volatiles with low content also contributed to aroma. The aroma differences among the three cultivars resulted from variation in the content of different odor groups and in the intensities of aroma-active compounds. PMID:25001223

Cai, Xuan; Mai, Rong-zhang; Zou, Jing-jing; Zhang, Hong-yan; Zeng, Xiang-ling; Zheng, Ri-ru; Wang, Cai-yun

2014-01-01

143

A study of an aroma extraction method and evaluation of the aroma extract contribution to the palatability and reinforcement effect of dried bonito using mice.  

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Japanese cuisine has provided satisfying meals by fully utilizing the characteristic aroma and taste of katsuodashi (dried bonito broth), though it is not rich in sugars or fats. Katsuodashi is a very basic and indispensable element in Japanese cuisine, and is a hot water extract of katsuobushi (dried bonito). It has been reported that a dextrin solution containing natural dried bonito broth has a significant reinforcement effect, and has been suggested that the olfactory stimulation is important for the reinforcement effect. We examined various source materials for broth and identified an optimal method of aroma extraction by two-bottle choice and conditioned place preference tests in mice. By two-bottle choice tests, a solution containing arabushi (a type of katsuobushi) aroma extract obtained by a supercritical CO2 extraction method showed a significantly high preference. The conditioned place preference test showed the dashi-taste solution with arabushi supercritical CO2 extract had a reinforcement effect. Our results suggest that the arabushi extract obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction contains components responsible for preference and reinforcement effects in mice; it could become conducive to making Japanese cuisine more satisfying and palatable. PMID:25744421

Amitsuka, Takahiko; Okamura, Maya; Shiibashi, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Naoto; Saito, Tsukasa; Nammoku, Takashi; Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

2014-01-01

144

Sensory and chemical characterisation of the aroma of Prieto Picudo rosé wines: the differential role of autochthonous yeast strains on aroma profiles.  

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This study evaluates the specific impact of isolated yeast strains on the aromatic profile of fermented musts from Prieto Picudo, an autochthonous Castilla y León (Spain) red grape variety with an increasing demand in the local marketplace. For this purpose, the aroma profiles of wines elaborated from Prieto Picudo grapes have been studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with the aim of determining the potential of each strain to generate distinctive varietal and fermentation-derived aromatic compounds. The results have shown that the yeast strain exerts a critical influence on the levels of some fermentative (linear and branched ethyl esters, fatty acids, ethyl phenylacetate) and varietal compounds (4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone, 3-mercaptohexylacetate, ?-damascenone), thus inducing a deep influence on the final aroma of the wine. Combination of both sensory and chemical data arises as a major tool to monitor the different patterns of aroma release and formation from selected yeast strains during the winemaking process. PMID:25683397

Álvarez-Pérez, José Manuel; Campo, Eva; San-Juan, Felipe; Coque, Juan José R; Ferreira, Vicente; Hernández-Orte, Purificación

2012-07-15

145

Instrumental and sensory characterization of heat-induced odorants in aseptically packaged soy milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predominant heat-induced odorants generated in soy milk by ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) processing were evaluated by sensory and instrumental techniques. Soy milks processed by UHT (143 degrees C/14 s, 143 degrees C/59 s, 154 degrees C/29 s) were compared to a control soy milk (90 degrees C/10 min) after 0, 1, and 7 days of storage (4.4 +/- 1 degrees C). Dynamic headspace dilution analysis (DHDA) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) in conjunction with GC-olfactometry (GCO)/aroma extract dilution techniques and GC-MS were used to identify and quantify major aroma-active compounds. Sensory results revealed that intensities of overall aroma and sulfur and sweet aromatic flavors were affected by the processing conditions. Odorants mainly responsible for the changes in sulfur perception were methional, methanethiol, and dimethyl sulfide. Increases in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-acetyl-thiazole, and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline intensities were associated with roasted aromas. A marginal increase in intensity of sweet aromatic flavor could be explained by increases in 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, beta-damascenone, and 2- and 3-methylbutanal. Predominant lipid-derived odorants, including (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-octenal, 1-octen-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, and (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, were affected by processing conditions. Intensities of overall aroma and sulfur notes in soy milk decreased during storage, whereas other sensory attributes did not change. Color changes, evaluated by using a Chroma-meter, indicated all UHT heating conditions used in this study generated a more yellow and saturated color in soy milk in comparison to the control soy milk. PMID:17373812

Lozano, Patricio R; Drake, Maryanne; Benitez, Daniel; Cadwallader, Keith R

2007-04-18

146

Key aroma components of a dry-cured sausage with high fat content (sobrassada).  

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The key aroma components and the lipolysis in a dry cured sausage 'Sobrassada of Mallorca from black pig' were studied. Sobrassada was characterized by a fatty acid profile with a high content of monounsaturated fatty acids and by the generation during the curing process of polyunsaturated free fatty acids that were oxidized to generate flavor compounds. Eighty-four different volatile compounds were identified and three of them were for the first time detected in dry sausages (methyl nonanoate, 1-methyl-1H-pyrrole and 2-acetyl pyrrole). Thirty-five different aroma active zones were found. The aroma of sobrassada was not only due to compounds already detected as essential contributors in dry sausages (3-methyl butanoic acid, ethyl 3-methyl butanoate, 2, 3-butanedione and acetic acid) but also to other compounds such as ethyl octanoate, furfural, benzaldehyde, (Z)-2-nonenal, 4-methyl-phenol, delta-hexalactone, heptanoic acid, 2-pentylfuran and 2-acetyl-pyrrole which gave specific aroma notes. PMID:21364047

Gianelli, M P; Olivares, A; Flores, M

2011-02-01

147

Chemical composition and aroma evaluation of essential oils from Evolvulus alsinoides L.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and the odor-active compounds of the essential oils from Evolvulus alsinoides, which is a well-known edible and medicinal plant. The volatile compounds in the oils were identified by hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) in combination with GC, GC/MS, GC/O (=olfactometry), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and relative flavor activities (RFA values). The most abundant compound in the HD oil was cis-?-necrodol (12.62%), an irregular monoterpene with a cyclopentane skeleton, which is very unusual in the plant kingdom. In the SAFE oil, the main components included 2-butoxyethanol (9.01%), benzyl alcohol (8.01%), and ?-butyrolactone (7.37%). Through sensory analysis, 21 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC/O. The most intense aroma-active compounds in the HD oil were hexan-1-ol and ?-nonalactone, both of which showed high RFA values. ?-Methyl-?-butyrolactone and dimethyl sulfone contributed more strongly to the aroma of the SAFE oil. These results imply that the essential oils of E. alsinoides deserve further investigation in the food industry. PMID:24634069

Kashima, Yusei; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

2014-03-01

148

Identification and formation of volatile components responsible for the characteristic aroma of mat rush (igusa).  

Science.gov (United States)

An aroma concentrate of the mat rush (igusa) was prepared by combining solvent extraction with the solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique. An aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) applied to the volatile fraction revealed 51 odor-active peaks with FD factors between 4(3) and 4(7). Among the perceived odorants, twelve peaks with the higher FD factors (>or=4(6)) were proved to be the most important components of the characteristic aroma in mat rush. Eleven odorants were identified or tentatively identified from the twelve peaks as methional, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-nonatrienal, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, isovaleric acid, methyl anthranirate, and vanillin. The FD factors of the odor-active peaks in dried mat rush were observed to be much higher than those in raw mat rush. This finding suggests that the drying process during manufacturing of the mat rush is one of the most important factors for the formation of the characteristic mat rush aroma. PMID:20530899

Kumazawa, Kenji; Sakai, Nao; Amma, Hiroko; Sakamoto, Satoshi; Kodama, Masaki; Wada, Yoshiyuki; Nishimura, Osamu

2010-01-01

149

Changes in key aroma compounds of Criollo cocoa beans during roasting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of a comparative aroma extraction dilution analysis on unroasted and roasted Criollo cocoa beans revealed 42 aroma compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 1-4096 for the unroasted and 4-8192 for the roasted cocoa beans. While the same compounds were present in the unroasted and roasted cocoa beans, respectively, these clearly differed in their intensity. For example, 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (rancid) and acetic acid (sour) showed the highest FD factors in the unroasted beans, while 3-methylbutanal (malty), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel-like), and 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (sweaty) were detected with the highest FD factors in the roasted seeds. Quantitation of 30 odorants by means of stable isotope dilution assays followed by a calculation of odor activity values (ratio of the concentration/odor threshold) revealed concentrations above the odor threshold for 22 compounds in the unroasted and 27 compounds in the roasted cocoa beans, respectively. In particular, a strong increase in the concentrations of the Strecker aldehydes 3-methylbutanal and phenylacetaldehyde as well as 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone was measured, suggesting that these odorants should contribute most to the changes in the overall aroma after roasting. Various compounds contributing to the aroma of roasted cocoa beans, such as 3-methylbutanoic acid, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, and 2-phenylethanol, were already present in unroasted, fermented cocoa beans and were not increased during roasting. PMID:18925740

Frauendorfer, Felix; Schieberle, Peter

2008-11-12

150

Identification of sulphur volatiles and GC-olfactometry aroma profiling in two fresh tomato cultivars.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten sulphur volatiles were observed in two Florida tomato cultivars ('Tasti-Lee' and 'FL 47') harvested at three maturity stages (breaker, turning, and pink) using gas chromatography with a pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD). Eight PFPD peaks were identified using retention values from authentic sulphur standards and GC-MS characteristic masses. Seven were quantified using an internal standard combined with external calibration curves. Dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide 2-propylthiazole and 2-s-butylthiazole were newly identified in fresh tomatoes. Principal component analysis of sulphur volatiles indicated that there were appreciable maturity stage differences clustered in separate quadrants. GC-olfactometry (GC-O) identified 50 aroma-active compounds in 'Tasti-Lee', with 10 reported as odorants in fresh tomatoes for the first time. Four sulphur volatiles exhibited aroma activity, including two of the newly-reported fresh tomato sulphur volatiles, 2-s-butylthiazole and dimethyl sulphide. GC-O aroma profiling indicated that the most intense aroma category was earthy-musty, followed by fruity-floral, green-grassy, sweet-candy and sweaty-stale-sulphurous. PMID:25308674

Du, Xiaofen; Song, Mei; Baldwin, Elizabeth; Rouseff, Russell

2015-03-15

151

The Power of Aroma and the Olfactory Experience in the Classroom.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suggests that despite culturally induced aversions, aromas do have a role to play in writing instruction. Suggest there are many examples in literature of authors' treatment of the olfactory sense. Argues that emphasizing smell as a writing stimulant and encouraging olfactory analyses of literary works can serve as valid ways of introducing…

Sprinkle, Russ

1999-01-01

152

Chromatography-Olfactometry Study of the Aroma of Fino Sherry Wines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aroma of Fino sherry wines produced by industrial biological aging for 0, 1.5, 2.5, 4.5, and 6 years in the Montilla-Moriles region (southern Spain was studied by gas chromatography-olfactometry. The aroma sensations detected by 3 trained sniffers were classified according to their odor descriptors into 8 odorant series (fruity, empyreumatic, chemical, fatty, balsamic, vegetable, floral, and spicy, describing the aroma profile of the studied wines. The results showed 47 detected odors in the unaged wines, 50 in the 1.5-years-old wines and 59, 61 and 69 in the wines aged 2.5, 4.5, and 6 years, respectively. According to the frequency of the perceived aromas, the fruity and empyreumatic series were the most characteristic odorant series. By exception of chemical, floral and balsamic series without changes during aging of the wines, the remainder series increased their participation during the aging, mainly the fruity, empyreumatic, and fatty series.

M. Medina

2010-01-01

153

Study of combined effect of proteins and bentonite fining on the wine aroma loss.  

Science.gov (United States)

The wine aroma loss as a consequence of treatments with bentonite is due to the occurrence of multiple interaction mechanisms. In addition to a direct effect of bentonite, the removal of aroma compounds bound to protein components adsorbed by the clay has been hypothesized but never demonstrated. We studied the effect of bentonite addition on total wine aroma compounds (extracted from Moscato wine) in a model solution in the absence and presence of total and purified (thaumatin-like proteins and chitinase) wine proteins. The results showed that in general bentonite alone has a low effect on the loss of terpenes but removed ethyl esters and fatty acids. The presence of wine proteins in the solution treated with bentonite tended to increase the loss of esters with the longest carbon chains (from ethyl octanoate to ethyl decanoate), and this was significant when the purified proteins were used. The results here reported suggest that hydrophobicity can be one of the driving forces involved in the interaction of aromas with both bentonite and proteins. PMID:25665100

Vincenzi, Simone; Panighel, Annarita; Gazzola, Diana; Flamini, Riccardo; Curioni, Andrea

2015-03-01

154

Identification and quantification of impact aroma compounds in 4 nonfloral Vitis vinifera varieties grapes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma compounds in grapes of Cabernet gernischt, Cabernet sauvignon, Cabernet franc, and Merlot have been studied by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The GC-O study revealed the presence of 58 aroma compounds in which 53 odorants were identified. The most significant odor active volatiles in 4 grape berries were beta-damascenone, hexanal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, beta-ionone, and unknown (RI = 1612). The quantification of volatile aroma compounds in grapes was developed using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The influences of SPME fiber, extracting temperature, and time on the extraction of volatile compounds in grape were investigated. The aroma compounds in 4 grapes were quantified. According to the odor activity values (OAVs), (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (OAV from 334 to 777), beta-damascenone (OAV 245-790), beta-ionone (OAV 97-193), and acetic acid (OAV 7-165) had comparatively high OVA values. PMID:20492207

Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan; Jiang, Wenguang; Li, Jiming

2010-01-01

155

Analysis of carotenoids in grapes to predict norisoprenoid varietal aroma of wines from Apulia.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine a correlation between carotenoid precursors in grapes and norisoprenoid varietal aroma of wine, carotenoids were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD-MS (ESI+) from four representative wine grape varieties of the Apulian region (Chardonnay, Merlot, Negroamaro, Primitivo) in two years of study (2006-2007), and C13-norisoprenoid aroma potential, DeltaC (microg/kg), was calculated from the difference of total carotenoid concentration between veraison and maturity. C13-norisoprenoids were analyzed by GC-MS in the obtained wines from 2006 and 2007 vintages. Higher DeltaC values, found in Chardonnay and Merlot grapes, corresponded to higher norisoprenoid contents in the respective wines, particularly characterized by highly flavorant compounds such as beta-damascenone and 3-oxo-alpha-ionol. A linear regression was determined that was significant at the 0.01% level (F=36.12, p=0.00096) with R=0.9261, between grape DeltaC values and total norisoprenoid contents in wine. These findings support the hypothesis that DeltaC could be a useful technological tool to predict norisoprenoid aroma of wine and, consequently, to identify grapes with higher aroma potential. PMID:20695424

Crupi, Pasquale; Coletta, Antonio; Antonacci, Donato

2010-09-01

156

Relationship of soluble solids, acidity and aroma volatiles to flavor in late-season navel oranges  

Science.gov (United States)

Navel orange flavor development during early fruit maturation is strongly dependent on changes in soluble solids concentration (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA), while later in the season other factors, such as aroma volatiles, also become important. The flavor of individual oranges can differ gre...

157

Comparative analysis of aroma compounds and sensorial features of strawberry and lemon guavas (Psidium cattleianum Sabine).  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma of strawberry and lemon guava fruits (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) was studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and quantitative analysis. Volatiles released from the pulps were collected in a trapping system consisting of LiChrolut EN resins and eluted with dichloromethane/methanol. In total, 23 odour zones were detected by GC-O, of which 16 were found in the extract from the strawberry guava pulp and 17 in the extract from the lemon guava pulp. Among the compounds identified, only 10 were common to both strawberry and lemon guavas. The descriptive sensorial analysis differentiated between the aroma profiles of the strawberry guava pulp with the descriptor "tomato" and the lemon guava pulp with the descriptor "tropical fruit". The typical aroma of the guava fruits was dominated by the presence of numerous aldehydes and ketones among which (Z)-3-hexenal was the most intense odorant, while 1,8-cineole and linalool were also revealed as important aroma constituents. PMID:24996334

Egea, Mariana Buranelo; Pereira-Netto, Adaucto Bellarmino; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Lopez, Ricardo

2014-12-01

158

Characterization of aroma volatiles in select tangerine hybrids by gas chromatography-olfactometry  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma volatiles in orange juice have been well studied1 but little information is available on those found in fresh tangerine. Five of 25 tangerine hybrids studied in the 2007-2008 season were analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) using the time intensity (Osme) method. The choice of sa...

159

Aroma analysis and quality control of food using highly sensitive analytical methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis deals with the development of quality control methods for food based on headspace measurements by Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and with aroma analysis of food using PTR-MS and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O). An objective method was developed for the determination of a herb extract's quality; this quality was checked by a sensory analysis until now. The concentrations of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of 81 different batches were measured by PTR-MS. Based on the sensory judgment of the customer, characteristic differences in the emissions of 'good' and 'bad' quality samples were identified and a method for the quality control of this herb extract was developed. This novel method enables the producing company to check and ensure that they are only selling high-quality products and therefore avoid complaints of the customer. Furthermore this method can be used for controlling, optimizing and automating the production process. VOCs emitted by meat were investigated using PTR-MS to develop a rapid, non-destructive and quantitative technique for determination of the microbial contamination of meat. Meat samples (beef, pork and poultry) that were wrapped into different kinds of packages (air and vacuum) were stored in at 4oC for up to 13 days. The emitted VOCs were measured as a function of storage time and identified partly. The concentration of many of the measured VOCs, e.g. sulfur compounds like measured VOCs, e.g. sulfur compounds like methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide, largely increased over the storage time. There were big differences in the emissions of normal air- and vacuum-packed meat. VOCs typically emitted by air-packaged meat were methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide, while ethanol and methanol were found in vacuum-packaged meat. A comparison of the PTR-MS results with those obtained by a bacteriological examination performed at the same time showed strong correlations (up to 99 %) between the concentrations of some of the VOCs, e.g. dimethylsulfide, and the bacteriological contamination. The concentration of these VOCs increased linearly with the bacterial numbers. This study is a first step towards replacing the time-consuming conventional microbiological analysis via plate counting by fast headspace air measurements where the bacterial spoilage can be determined within minutes instead of days. PTR-MS and GC-O techniques were used to define volatiles and odor active compounds released in the mouth during eating of ripe and unripe banana. The air exhaled through the nose was directly introduced into a PTR-MS and the time-intensity profiles of a series of volatiles were monitored on-line. The breath-by-breath temporal release pattern revealed various dynamic elements that are characteristic of the eating situation. During the eating of unripe banana we observed a gradual increase in 2E-hexenal and hexanal with ongoing mastication, until swallowing. No particular high concentrations were observed in the exhaled air just after swallowing (swallow breath). During the eating of a ripe banana, we observed isopentyl acetate and isobutyl acetate, compounds characteristic of banana aroma. In contrast, volatiles characteristic of unripe banana were largely absent. No gradual increase was observed with mastication, as present during the eating of unripe banana. In contrast, very prominent swallow peaks were observed. For GC-O analysis the volatile compounds contributing to the banana aroma were prepared in an artificial mouth system using three different mastication rates. Large differences were found in the number of odor active compounds of ripe and unripe bananas as well as for the investigated three different mastication rates (0, 26 and 52 min-1). Hexanal was the only compound that was detected by all six assessors for ripe and unripe bananas for each mastication frequency. Eighteen (seven) significant odor active compounds were detected in the odor profile of ripe (unripe) bananas with a mastication rate of 52 min-1, wh

160

Correlation between Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Activation to Food Aromas and Cue-driven Eating: An fMRI Study  

OpenAIRE

Food aromas are signals associated with both food's availability and pleasure. Previous research from this laboratory has shown that food aromas under fasting conditions evoke robust activation of medial prefrontal brain regions thought to reflect reward value (Bragulat, et al. 2010). In the current study, eighteen women (eleven normal-weight and seven obese) underwent a two-day imaging study (one after being fed, one while fasting). All were imaged on a 3T Siemens Trio-Tim scanner while snif...

Eiler, William J. A.; Dzemidzic, Mario; Case, K. Rose; Considine, Robert V.; Kareken, David A.

2012-01-01

161

Assessment of changes in the aroma and sensory profile of dawadawa due to modification in fermentation conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dawadawa is the most popular traditional condiment in West Africa and is produced by the fermentation of African locust bean seeds. Though the alkaline fermentation results in the production of a tasty condiment, it has a strong ammoniacal odour which some consumers find unattractive and offensive. This work was carried out to develop procedures for reducing the pungent odour of dawadawa in order to increase its popularity and market value especially amongst non-traditional users. Various treatments were applied to the fermenting locust bean seeds 15 hours into the fermentation which lasted for a total of 96 hours. Some treatments were also tested on the beans after fermentation. Treatments which were applied during fementation were fementation under conditions of limited oxygen, low temperature fermentation, irradiation by gamma radiation and steaming. Post-fermentation treatments were partial frying and roasting after fermentation. Samples were taken during fermentation and analyzed for Bacillus count on Nutrient Agar, pH, percentage titratable acidity, moisture content by the oven dry method, crude protein content by the kjeldhal method and texture by the texture analyzer. The final product was analyzed for aroma profile by GC-MS analysis using the Dynamic Headspace Sampling (DHS) method and also by descriptive sensory analysis by a semi-trained panel. Application of all the treatments applied during fermentation resulted in a ten to a hundredfold lower Bacillus counts compared to the control sample at various stages of fermentation. The reduction in the Bacillus activities resulted in a lower rise in pH giving final pH values of 6.8 to 7.53 compared to 8.37 in the control. The rise in pH was due to the proteolytic activity of the Bacillus species which break down the proteins into peptides and amino acids and subsequently utilize the amino acids to produce ammonia leading to the rise in pH. All the samples recorded a simultaneous increase in titratable acidity ranging from 0.006% to 0.037% in the control sample. The moisture content for all samples ranged from 54 to 73% with steaming for 10 minutes recording the highest value due to pick up of moisture during steaming. The protein content of all the samples increased during fermentation with final values which ranged between 30.42 to 37.64%. The texture of all the locust bean cotyledons softened during fermentation and the lowest value of hardness 15 was recorded for the limited oxygen sample and the highest value of 152 for the low temperature fermentation. The results of the instrumental textural analysis were supported by the assessment of the texture by the sensory panel which found the control sample to have the softest and smoothest texture due to the greater degree of fermentation of the control sample and which also results in the more pronounced ammoniacal odour. In the description sensory analysis, the panel assessed higher intensities of the descriptors which were considered undesirable/objectionable in the control sample than in the treated sample. These descriptors were stink fish ( momone), Koobi (salted/fermented tilapia) and sweaty sock. The more neutral/tolerant odour notes of rancid oil, fermented cocoa beans, smoked fish and palm kernel oil were higher in the treated sample. The aroma profile of dawadawa was affected by application of the treatments. Forty-nine aroma compounds in total were isolated form the differently treated dawadawa samples. They included mostly esters of acetic, butanoic and propanoic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, furans, sulfur compounds, pyrazines and a pyrrole. In spite of the known pungent smell of dawadawa, most of the aroma compounds identified were esters which are known for their fruity, pleasant odours. However, about 12 of aroma compounds identified such as the sulfur compounds-dimetyhl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide are reported to have strong pungent odours whilst 2,3-benzohyrrole is known to exhibit the charateristic odour of faeces. The levels of all but eight (2-Methlpropyl acetate; 2- Pentylfuran; 1-P

162

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in apricots (Prunus armeniaca) by application of the molecular sensory science concept.  

Science.gov (United States)

An aroma extract dilution analysis applied on an aroma distillate prepared from fresh apricots revealed (R)-gamma-decalactone, (E)-beta-damascenone, delta-decalactone, and (R/S)-linalool with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors among the 26 odor-active compounds identified. On the basis of quantitative measurements performed by application of stable isotope dilution assays, followed by a calculation of odor activity values (OAVs), beta-ionone, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, gamma-decalactone, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, linalool, and acetaldehyde appeared with OAVs >100, whereas in particular certain lactones, often associated with an apricot aroma note, such as gamma-undecalactone, gamma-nonalactone, and delta-decalactone, showed very low OAVs (<5). An aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 18 most important odorants in concentrations as they occurred in the fresh fruits showed an overall aroma very similar to that of apricots. Omission experiments indicated that previously unknown constituents of apricots, such as (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal or (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, are key contributors to the apricot aroma. PMID:17530862

Greger, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

2007-06-27

163

Retention of aroma compounds from Mentha piperita essential oil by cyclodextrins and crosslinked cyclodextrin polymers.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the controlled release of aroma compounds from cyclodextrins (CDs) and CD polymers was studied by multiple headspace extraction (MHE) experiments. Mentha piperita essential oil was obtained by Soxhlet extraction and identification of the major compounds was performed by GC-MS analysis. Menthol, menthone, pulegone and eucalyptol were identified as the major components. Retention of standard compounds in the presence of different CDs and CD polymers has been realised by static headspace gas chromatography (SH-GC) at 25 °C in the aqueous or gaseous phase. Stability constants for standard compounds and for compounds in essential oil have been also determined with monomeric CD derivatives. The obtained results indicated the formation of a 1:1 inclusion complex for all the studied compounds. Molecular modelling was used to investigate the complementarities between host and guest. This study showed that ?-CDs were the most versatile CDs and that ?-CD polymers could perform the controlled release of aroma compounds. PMID:23265490

Ciobanu, A; Mallard, I; Landy, D; Brabie, G; Nistor, D; Fourmentin, S

2013-05-01

164

Effect of Temperature, Water Activity and Storage Time on Color Strength, Aroma and Bitterness of Saffron  

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Full Text Available Saffron is one of the most important crops in Iran and the quality of its dried stigma is highly depended on the processing and storage conditions. In this study, the effect of different storage conditions in terms of temperature (20, 30 and 40°C and water activity (0.32, 0.52 and 0.75 during 12 weeks storage on color strength, aroma and bitterness of saffron were investigated. In order to study of moisture (water activity different saturated solution of MgCl2, Mg(NO32, MgBr2 and NaCl in the various temperatures were used. Results showed the color strength decreased as temperature increased. Increasing of water activity resulted in deterioration of crocin and consequently decreasing of color. Furthermore, after 12 weeks of storage, the color strength had a noticeable decrease, the bitterness also decreased but the aroma increased.

R GHasemzadeh

2009-04-01

165

The Fungal Aroma Gene ATF1 Promotes Dispersal of Yeast Cells through Insect Vectors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yeast cells produce various volatile metabolites that are key contributors to the pleasing fruity and flowery aroma of fermented beverages. Several of these fruity metabolites, including isoamyl acetate and ethyl acetate, are produced by a dedicated enzyme, the alcohol acetyl transferase Atf1. However, despite much research, the physiological role of acetate ester formation in yeast remains unknown. Using a combination of molecular biology, neurobiology, and behavioral tests, we demonstrate that deletion of ATF1 alters the olfactory response in the antennal lobe of fruit flies that feed on yeast cells. The flies are much less attracted to the mutant yeast cells, and this in turn results in reduced dispersal of the mutant yeast cells by the flies. Together, our results uncover the molecular details of an intriguing aroma-based communication and mutualism between microbes and their insect vectors. Similar mechanisms may exist in other microbes, including microbes on flowering plants and pathogens.

Joaquin F. Christiaens

2014-10-01

166

Antibacterial activity of extracts of Acacia aroma against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined using agar diffusion and bioautographic methods. Among all assayed organic extracts only ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented highest activities against all tested Staphylococcus strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 2.5 to 10 mg/ml and from 2.5 to 5 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extracts show little antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus strains. The bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against S. aureus in correspondence with flavonoids and saponins. A. aroma would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for skin infections.

C.M. Mattana

2010-10-01

167

Contribution to the aroma of white wines by controlled Torulaspora delbrueckii cultures in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the positive role of non-Saccharomyces yeasts on the overall quality of wine is encouraging research into their oenological potential, current knowledge on the topic is still far from satisfactory. This work analyzes the contribution of starter cultures of Torulaspora delbrueckii, inoculated sequentially with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (multi-starter fermentation), on the fermentation and aromas of two different white style wines, i.e., dry and sweet wines. Chemical analysis of Soave and Chardonnay wines (dry wines) showed that multi-starter fermentation greatly affected the content of several important volatile compounds, including 2-phenylethanol, isoamyl acetate, fatty acid esters, C4-C10 fatty acids and vinylphenols. Moreover, strain-specific contributions have been shown by testing two different T. delbrueckii strains. Evidence of the positive impact of T. delbrueckii activity on wine quality was also demonstrated in Vino Santo, a sweet wine. Due to its low production of acetic acid, this non-Saccharomyces yeast is recommended for the fermentation of high sugar grapes. T. delbrueckii also influenced the content of different variety of chemical groups, including lactones. From a sensory perspective, all wines produced by multi-starter fermentation have greater aromatic intensity and complexity than wines resulting from a monoculture fermentation. These results emphasize the potential of employing T. delbrueckii, in association with S. cerevisiae, for the production of white wines of different styles with improved and enhanced flavour. PMID:25388474

Azzolini, Michela; Tosi, Emanuele; Lorenzini, Marilinda; Finato, Fabio; Zapparoli, Giacomo

2015-02-01

168

Effects of the origins of Botrytis cinerea on earthy aromas from grape broth media further inoculated with Penicillium expansum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthy "off" aromas from wine and grape juice are highly detrimental to the production of quality grape products. These volatile compounds are produced on grapes by Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum and/or a combination of P. expansum and B. cinerea strains. B. cinerea strains were isolated from different (a) vineyards in Spain and Portugal, (b) grape varieties (c) bunches (i.e., sound and botrytized) and (d) positions in the botrytized bunch (i.e., interior or exterior). A novel Headspace-Phase Microextraction (SPME) followed by Gas Chromatrography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) dedicated to analyze geosmin, methylisoborneol (MIB), 1-octen-3-ol, fenchone and fenchol in grape broth medium was used. Approximately 50% of the B. cinerea strains induced detectable geosmin. One strain accumulated significant amounts of anisoles, demonstrating that this contamination might already occur in the vineyard. Strains from the interior of Cainho grape bunches induced more geosmin and hence it may be possible to reduce this volatile in wine by avoiding using these grapes in case of B. cinerea attack. PMID:21569951

Morales-Valle, H; Silva, L C; Paterson, R R M; Venâncio, A; Lima, N

2011-08-01

169

Key Aroma Components of a Dry-Cured Sausage with High Fat Content (Sobrassada)  

OpenAIRE

The key aroma components and the lipolysis in a dry cured sausage ‘Sobrassada of Mallorca from black pig’ were studied. Sobrassada was characterized by a fatty acid profile with a high content of monounsaturated fatty acids and by the generation during the curing process of polyunsaturated free fatty acids that were oxidized to generate flavor compounds. Eighty-four different volatile compounds were identified and three of them were for the first time detected in dry sausages (methyl nona...

Gianelli Barra, Mari?a Pi?a; Olivares Sevilla, Alicia; Flores Llovera, Mo?nica

2011-01-01

170

Glycosidic aroma precursors of 2-phenylethyl and benzyl alcohols from Jasminum sambac flowers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benzyl 6-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (beta-primeveroside) (1), 2-phenylethyl beta-primeveroside (2), and 2-phenylethyl 6-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (beta-rutinoside) (3) were isolated as aroma precursors of benzyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol from flower buds of Jasminum sambac Ait. The isolation was guided by an enzymatic hydrolysis and GC and GC-MS analyses. PMID:7539643

Inagaki, J; Watanabe, N; Moon, J H; Yagi, A; Sakata, K; Ina, K; Luo, S

1995-04-01

171

Study on Healing Environment Using Green, Blue and Red LED and Aroma  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we evaluated the effects of 1/f fluctuation of Green LED light emitted from the specific object by using psychological and physiological experimental tests of spectral electroencephalogram (EEG) topography. In addition, we also verified that the combination of appropriate aroma, blue LED light irradiation and music such as “Mozart: Serenade in Eine Kleine Nacht Musik” has improved mental healing conditions. We confirmed the possibility that the effect of “Healing” would be improved by the above mentioned environments.

Miyaho, Noriharu; Konno, Noriko; Shimada, Takamasa

172

Discrimination of Complex Mixtures by a Colorimetric Sensor Array: Coffee Aromas  

OpenAIRE

The analysis of complex mixtures presents a difficult challenge even for modern analytical techniques, and the ability to discriminate among closely similar such mixtures often remains problematic. Coffee provides a readily available archetype of such highly multicomponent systems. The use of a low-cost, sensitive colorimetric sensor array for the detection and identification of coffee aromas is reported. The color changes of the sensor array were used as a digital representation of the array...

Suslick, Benjamin A.; Feng, Liang; Suslick, Kenneth S.

2010-01-01

173

SORPTION OF AROMA COMPOUNDS IN PET AND PVC DURING THE STORAGE OF A STRAWBERRY SYRUP  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The sorption of 14 aroma compounds into PET and PVC was monitored during one year storage of a strawberry syrup. Their concentrations in the syrup and in the polymer were assessed during storage and compared with previously published results obtained with glass bottles. Apparent partition coefficients between the polymer and the syrup (noted Kapp) were estimated from experimental kinetics without reaching the equilibrium Kapp values were optimally identified from the k...

Ducruet, Violette; Vitrac, Olivier; Saillard, Philippe; Guichard, Elisabeth; Feigenbaum, Alexandre E.; Fournier, Nicole

2007-01-01

174

Aroma precursors and methylpyrazines in underfermented cocoa beans induced by endogenous carboxypeptidase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cocoa-specific aroma precursors and methylpyrazines in underfermented cocoa beans obtained from fermentation induced by indigenous carboxypeptidase have been investigated. Fermentation conditions and cocoa bean components were analyzed during 0 to 3 d of fermentation. Underfermented cocoa beans were characterized as having hydrophilic peptides and free hydrophobic amino acids much higher than unfermented ones. These 2 key components of cocoa aroma precursors may be produced from the breakdown of proteins and polypeptides by endogenous carboxypeptidase during the fermentation process. The enzyme was activated during fermentation. Polypeptides of 47, 31, and 19 kDa were observed in the samples throughout the 3-d fermentation period; however, only the first 2 polypeptides were remarkably reduced during fermentation. Since the 1st day of fermentation, underfermented cocoa beans contained methylpyrazines, a dominant group of cocoa-specific aroma. This might be due to microbial activities during fermentation, observed through a decrease of pH value and an increase of temperature of cocoa beans. The concentration of tetramethylpyrazines was significantly increased during the 3 d of fermentation. This may increase the cocoa-specific flavor to the beans. PMID:18803708

Jinap, S; Ikrawan, Y; Bakar, J; Saari, N; Lioe, H N

2008-09-01

175

Coupling gas chromatography and electronic nose detection for detailed cigarette smoke aroma characterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma characterization of whole cigarette smoke samples using sensory panels or electronic nose (E-nose) devices is difficult due to the masking effect of major constituents and solvent used for the extraction step. On the other hand, GC in combination with olfactometry detection does not allow to study the delicate balance and synergetic effect of aroma solutes. To overcome these limitations a new instrumental set-up consisting of heart-cutting gas chromatography using a capillary flow technology based Deans switch and low thermal mass GC in combination with an electronic nose device is presented as an alternative to GC-olfactometry. This new hyphenated GC-E-nose configuration is used for the characterization of cigarette smoke aroma. The system allows the transfer, combination or omission of selected GC fractions before injection in the E-nose. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factor analysis (DFA) allowed clear visualizing of the differences among cigarette brands and classifying them independently of their nicotine content. Omission and perceptual interaction tests could also be carried out using this configuration. The results are promising and suggest that the GC-E-nose hyphenation is a good approach to measure the contribution level of individual compounds to the whole cigarette smoke. PMID:25260341

Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Tienpont, Bart; Mitsui, Kazuhisa; Masugi, Eri; Yoshimura, Yuta; Nagata, Hisanori; David, Frank; Sandra, Pat

2014-10-24

176

Interactions between wine volatile compounds and grape and wine matrix components influence aroma compound headspace partitioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

A full-factorial design was used to assess the matrix effects of ethanol, glucose, glycerol, catechin, and proline on the volatile partitioning of 20 volatile compounds considered to play a role in wine aroma. Analysis of variance showed that the two-way interactions of ethanol and glucose, ethanol and glycerol, and glycerol and catechin significantly influenced headspace partitioning of volatiles. Experiments were conducted to observe the effect of varied ethanol and glucose concentrations on headspace partitioning of a constant concentration of volatiles. Analysis of variance and linear regression analysis showed that the presence of glucose increased the concentration of volatiles in the headspace, whereas increasing ethanol concentration was negatively correlated with headspace partitioning of volatiles. A subsequent study assessed the effect of diluting white and red wines with water and ethanol. It was again observed that increased ethanol concentration significantly reduced the relative abundance of volatile compounds in the sample headspace. This study investigates some of the complex matrix interactions of the major components of grape and wine that influence volatile compound headspace partitioning. The magnitude of each matrix-volatile interaction was ethanol > glucose > glycerol > catechin, whereas proline showed no apparent interaction. The results clearly identify that increasing ethanol concentrations significantly reduce the headspace concentration of volatile aroma compounds, which may contribute to explaining recent sensory research observations that indicate ethanol can suppress the fruit aroma attributes in wine. PMID:19845354

Robinson, Anthony L; Ebeler, Susan E; Heymann, Hildegarde; Boss, Paul K; Solomon, Peter S; Trengove, Robert D

2009-11-11

177

Identification and characterization of the aroma-impact components of thai fish sauce.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comprehensive analysis of the potent odorants in Thai premium fish sauce samples was accomplished by use of complementary volatile isolation methods combined with gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-mass spectrometry. Odorants of intermediate and low volatility were determined by direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (DSE-SAFE) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Meanwhile, static headspace dilution analysis (SHDA) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (H-SPME) were used to determine the highly volatile odorants. Results of AEDA indicated the importance (log3FD factor ?6) of five acidic odorants (butanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone, and 2-phenylacetic acid) and four neutral/basic odorants (3-methylbutanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, phenylacetaldehyde, and o-aminoacetophone). Results of SHDA indicated the predominant (log3FD factors ?5) headspace odorants were methanethiol, 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, dimethyl trisulfide, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and butanoic acid. Concentrations for 21 odorants were determined by stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA), and their odor-activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Among these, methanethiol, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, dimethyl trisulfide, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and butanoic acid had the highest OAVs (>500). Results of aroma recombination and omission studies revealed the importance of acids, aldehydes, and sulfur-containing compounds to the overall aroma of the Thai fish sauce. PMID:25730550

Lapsongphon, Nawaporn; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat; Cadwallader, Keith R

2015-03-18

178

Characterization of typical potent odorants in cola-flavored carbonated beverages by aroma extract dilution analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma-active compounds in typical cola-flavored carbonated beverages were characterized using gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The potent odorants in the top three U.S. brands of regular colas were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Among the numerous odorants identified, eugenol (spicy, clovelike, sweet) and coumarin (sweet, herbaceous) were predominant in all colas. Other predominant odorants in at least one brand included guaiacol (smoky) and linalool (floral, sweet), while 1,8-cineole (minty, eucalyptus-like) was a moderately potent odorant in all colas. Determination of the enantiomeric compositions indicated that (R)-(-)-linalool (34.5%) was a more potent odorant than the (S)-(+)-enantiomer (65.6%) due to its much lower odor detection threshold. In addition, lemon-lime and cooling attributes determined by sensory descriptive analysis had the highest odor intensities among the eight sensory descriptors. The aroma profiles of the three colas were in good agreement with the potent odorants identified by AEDA. PMID:25528884

Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa; Cadwallader, Keith R

2015-01-28

179

Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants*  

Science.gov (United States)

Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and ?-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and ?-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (Paroma quality of the MeJA-treated black tea was clearly improved. PMID:24711352

Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

2014-01-01

180

Aroma extraction dilution analysis of Sauternes wines. Key role of polyfunctional thiols.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present work was to investigate Sauternes wine aromas. In all wine extracts, polyfunctional thiols were revealed to have a huge impact. A very strong bacon-petroleum odor emerged at RI = 845 from a CP-Sil5-CB column. Two thiols proved to participate in this perception: 3-methyl-3-sulfanylbutanal and 2-methylfuran-3-thiol. A strong synergetic effect was evidenced between the two compounds. The former, never mentioned before in wines, and not found in the musts of this study, is most probably synthesized during fermentation. 3-Methylbut-2-ene-1-thiol, 3-sulfanylpropyl acetate, 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, and 3-sulfanylheptanal also contribute to the global aromas of Sauternes wines. Among other key odorants, the presence of a varietal aroma (alpha-terpineol), sotolon, fermentation alcohols (3-methylbutan-1-ol and 2-phenylethanol) and esters (ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl isovalerate), carbonyls (trans-non-2-enal and beta-damascenone), and wood flavors (guaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, and Furaneol) is worth stressing. PMID:16968087

Bailly, Sabine; Jerkovic, Vesna; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline; Collin, Sonia

2006-09-20

181

Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in cherry (Prunus avium L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports the occurrence of both free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in three sweet cherry cultivars ('Hongdeng', 'Hongyan' and 'Rainier'), with 97 compounds being identified in the three cultivars. The major free volatile compounds found were hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. The major bound volatile compounds found were benzyl alcohol, geraniol, 2-phenylethanol. Also 4-vinylphenol was found in cherry fruit for the first time, and has a relatively high concentration of the glycosidically-bound form in 'Rainier'. Odour activity values (OAVs) were determined for both free and bound volatiles, with 18 compounds having an OAV above 1. The highest OAVs for three cultivars were (E)-?-ionone, hexanal, decanal and (E)-2-hexenal with the highest being over 800 for (E)-?-ionone in 'Honyang'. From these results, it was concluded that the aroma compounds present were similar in all three cultivars, but there was significant variation found in their levels and hence contribution to the aroma of these cultivars. PMID:24444903

Wen, Ya-Qin; He, Fei; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Li, Chun-You; Reeves, Malcolm J; Wang, Jun

2014-01-01

182

Tomato fruits expressing a bacterial feedback-insensitive 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase of the shikimate pathway possess enhanced levels of multiple specialized metabolites and upgraded aroma  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit contains significant amounts of bioactive compounds, particularly multiple classes of specialized metabolites. Enhancing the synthesis and accumulation of these substances, specifically in fruits, are central for improving tomato fruit quality (e.g. flavour and aroma) and could aid in elucidate pathways of specialized metabolism. To promote the production of specialized metabolites in tomato fruit, this work expressed under a fruit ripening-specific promoter, E8, a bacterial AroG gene encoding a 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS), which is feedback-insensitive to phenylalanine inhibition. DAHPS, the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, links between the primary and specialized metabolism derived from aromatic amino acids. AroG expression influenced the levels of number of primary metabolites, such as shikimic acid and aromatic amino acids, as well as multiple volatile and non-volatile phenylpropanoids specialized metabolites and carotenoids. An organoleptic test, performed by trained panellists, suggested that the ripe AroG-expressing tomato fruits had a preferred floral aroma compare with fruits of the wild-type line. These results imply that fruit-specific manipulation of the conversion of primary to specialized metabolism is an attractive approach for improving fruit aroma and flavour qualities as well as discovering novel fruit-specialized metabolites. PMID:24006429

Tzin, Vered; Moyal Ben Zvi, Michal; Galili, Gad

2013-01-01

183

Identification of 3-hydroxy-beta-damascone and related carotenoid-derived aroma compounds as novel potent inducers of Nrf2-mediated phase 2 response with concomitant anti-inflammatory activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural comparison of apple constituents with known inducers of phase two cytoprotective enzymes led to the identification of 3-hydroxy-beta-damascone and related carotenoid derived aroma compounds as potent inducers of NAD(P)H:quinone reductase (QR) activity. Damascone-related compounds were found to be more potent inducers than ionone derivatives, with CD values (concentrations required to double the specific activity of QR in Hepa1c1c7 cell culture) in the range of 1.0-5.7 microM. QR induction by 3-hydroxy-beta-damascone was shown to be mediated via transcription factor Nrf2 signaling in transient transfection experiments. We further identified aroma compounds as potent inhibitors of LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in Raw 264.7 cell culture. Again, damascone derivatives were most potent with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of 1.8-7.9 microM. These results reveal previously unrecognized cancer chemopreventive potential of aroma compounds such as beta-damascenone, 3-hydroxy-beta-damascone, and related substances, which may contribute to the cancer protective efficacy of apple products and other dietary sources in animal models. PMID:19753606

Gerhäuser, Clarissa; Klimo, Karin; Hümmer, Wolfgang; Hölzer, Jana; Petermann, Astrid; Garreta-Rufas, Antonio; Böhmer, Frank-D; Schreier, Peter

2009-10-01

184

Effects of Aroma Massage on Home Blood Pressure, Ambulatory Blood Pressure, and Sleep Quality in Middle-Aged Women with Hypertension  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of aroma massage applied to middle-aged women with hypertension. The research study had a nonequivalent control group, nonsynchronized design to investigate the effect on home blood pressure (BP), ambulatory BP, and sleep. The hypertensive patients were allocated into the aroma massage group (n = 28), the placebo group (n = 28), and the no-treatment control group (n = 27). To evaluate the effects of aroma massage, the experimental group re...

Myeong-Sook Ju; Sahng Lee; Ikyul Bae; Myung-Haeng Hur; Kayeon Seong; Myeong Soo Lee

2013-01-01

185

Key changes in wine aroma active compounds during bottle storage of Spanish red wines under different oxygen levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples from 16 Spanish red wines have been stored for 6 months at 25 °C under different levels of oxygen (0-56 mg/L). Amino acids, metals, and phenolic compounds were analyzed and related to the production or depletion of key oxidation- and reduction-related aroma compounds. Oxidation brings about sensory-relevant increases in Strecker aldehydes, 1-octen-3-one, and vanillin. Formation of Strecker aldehydes correlates to the wine content on the corresponding amino acid precursor, Zn, and caffeic acid ethyl ester and negatively to some flavonols and anthocyanin derivatives. Formation of most carbonyls correlates to wine-combined SO2, suggesting that part of the increments are the result of the release of aldehydes forming bisulfite combinations once SO2 is oxidized. Methanethiol (MeSH) and dimethylsulfide (DMS), but not H2S levels, increase during storage. MeSH increments correlate to methionine levels and proanthocyanidins and negatively to resveratrol and aluminum. H2S, MeSH, and DMS levels all decreased with oxidation, and for the latter two, there are important effects of Mn and pH, respectively. PMID:25284059

Ferreira, Vicente; Bueno, Mónica; Franco-Luesma, Ernesto; Culleré, Laura; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

2014-10-15

186

De aromas e perfumes, o mercado da indústria do "cheiro" From aromas and perfumes, the market of the "smell" industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several flavors and fragrances (F&F companies hold the economic leadership in the market, although not always have also the leadership in patent applications. The ranking of technological production in the fragrance area still remains with industries while scientific knowledge is equally shared between industries and academia. Contextualizing Brazil in this scene, despite all scientific expertise gained over the years, brazilian technological park is still at the beginning of the production of technologies applied directly to the F&F industries. The dependence on foreign technologies is remarkable as indicated by the great trade deficit in this sector.

Marcelo Gomes Speziali

2012-01-01

187

Characterization of the major aroma-active compounds in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi by application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma-active compounds present in tree-ripened fruits of the five mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometery (GC-O). Application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) afforded 54 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to ?2048, 16 of which are reported for the first time in mango. The results of the identification experiments in combination with the FD factors revealed 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone as an important aroma compound in all cultivars analyzed. Twenty-seven aroma-active compounds were present in at least one mango cultivar at an FD factor ?128. Clear differences in the FD factors of these odorants between each of the mango cultivars suggested that they contributed to the unique sensory profiles of the individual cultivars. PMID:24766361

Munafo, John P; Didzbalis, John; Schnell, Raymond J; Schieberle, Peter; Steinhaus, Martin

2014-05-21

188

De aromas e perfumes, o mercado da indústria do "cheiro" / From aromas and perfumes, the market of the "smell" industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Several flavors and fragrances (F&F) companies hold the economic leadership in the market, although not always have also the leadership in patent applications. The ranking of technological production in the fragrance area still remains with industries while scientific knowledge is equally shared bet [...] ween industries and academia. Contextualizing Brazil in this scene, despite all scientific expertise gained over the years, brazilian technological park is still at the beginning of the production of technologies applied directly to the F&F industries. The dependence on foreign technologies is remarkable as indicated by the great trade deficit in this sector.

Marcelo Gomes, Speziali.

189

Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The sensory quality of chocolate is widely determined by the qualitative and quantitative composition of volatile compounds resulting from microbial metabolism during fermentation, and Maillard reactions taking place during drying, roasting and conching. The influence of applying mixed starter cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, and compared to commercially fermented heap and tray cocoa. Although only minor differences in the concentration of free amino acids and reducing sugars was measured, identification and quantification by dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS/GC-MS) revealed pronounced differences in the composition of volatiles in roasted cocoa liquors and finished chocolates. 19 of the 56 volatile compounds identified in the chocolates were found in significantly higher amounts in the tray fermented sample, whilst significantly higher amounts of 2-methoxyphenol was measured in the two inoculated chocolates. The P. kluyveri inoculated chocolate was characterized by a significantly higher concentration of phenylacetaldehyde and the K. marxianus inoculated chocolate by significantly higher amounts of benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol, benzyl acetate and phenethyl acetate compared to a spontaneously fermented control. Sensory profiling described the heap and tray fermented chocolates as sweet with cocoa and caramel flavours, whilst the inoculated chocolates were characterized as fruity, acid and bitter with berry, yoghurt and balsamic flavours. The choice of fermentation technique had the greatest overall impact on the volatile aroma and sensory profile, but whilst the application of starter cultures did affect the volatile aroma profile, differences were too small to significantly change consumer perception of the chocolates as compared to a spontaneously fermented control. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna

2014-01-01

190

Quantification of selected aroma-active compounds in Pinot noir wines from different grape maturities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effect of grape maturity on aroma-active compounds in Pinot noir wine was investigated using stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS). High correlation coefficient (> 0.95) and low standard deviation (ethyl 2-methylpropanoate and ethyl 3-methylbutanoate consistently decreased with grape maturity. The decreasing trend was also observed for other esters including ethyl cinnamate, ethyl dihydroxycinnamate, and ethyl anthranilate, with the exception of ethyl vanillate, while C13 norisoprenoids, monoterpenes, and guaiacols had increasing trends with grape maturation. PMID:17061835

Fang, Yu; Qian, Michael C

2006-11-01

191

Identification of Key Odorants in Withering-Flavored Green Tea by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This research aims to identify key odorants in withering-flavored green tea. Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis using the volatile fraction of green tea and withering-flavored green tea revealed 25 and 35 odor-active peaks with the flavor dilution factors of?4, respectively. 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, (E)-2-nonenal, linalool, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal and 3-methylnonane-2,4-dione were key odorants in green tea with the flavor dilution factor of?16. As well as these 5 odorants, 1-octen-3-one, ?-damascenone, geraniol, ?-ionone, (Z)-methyljasmonate, indole and coumarine contributed to the withering flavor of green tea.

Mizukami, Yuzo; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

192

Characterization of some Italian ornamental thyme by their aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aromatic profiles of five commercial thyme cultivars (T. vulgaris 'Silver Poise', T. vulgaris 'Erectus', T. vulgaris 'Faustini', T. x citriodorus 'Anderson's Gold', and T. x citriodorus 'Silver Queen'), cultivated in Italy, were defined both by their static headspaces (HS) and essential oils (EOs). In addition, a botanical garden sample of T. vulgaris was considered as reference material to evaluate the morphological and phytochemical differences from the selected market samples. Extractions of the volatile constituents of the different plant material were carried out by SPME (static headspace, HS) and hydrodistillation (HD) processes. GC-MS analysis provided the separation and identification of approximately 70 components in the HS samples and 50 in the hydrodistilled essential oils, accounting for more than 95% of the total. The typical main constituents of T. vulgaris were detected in all the EO samples, although qualitative and quantitative differences were found among the selected ornamental Thymus varieties. Thymol (50-55%) was the marker constituent for the three T. vulgaris cultivars, while geraniol (61-67%) characterized the essential oils of the two T. x citriodorus varieties. In all the analyzed essential oils, non-oxygenated (16-79%) and oxygenated (5-26%) monoterpenes were the typical volatile constituents. Specific target compounds (thymol, geraniol and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one) were selected to characterize the five thyme cultivars that are considered at present only as ornamental plants. A comparative evaluation of their EO quality was carried out in order to propose them as alternative sources of Italian raw plant material for industrial production. PMID:20334146

Bertoli, Alessandra; Sárosi, Szilvia; Bernáth, Jeno; Pistelli, Luisa

2010-02-01

193

Release and formation of varietal aroma compounds during alcoholic fermentation from nonfloral grape odorless flavor precursors fractions.  

Science.gov (United States)

An odorless flavor precursor fraction extracted from different nonfloral grape varietals has been added to a grape must and has been fermented by three different yeast strains. The wines obtained were analyzed by sensory descriptive analysis and by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to determine more than 90 aroma chemicals. The addition of the precursor fraction brought about a significant increase of the wine floral notes, irrespective of the yeast used. The levels of 51 wine aroma chemicals were found to depend on the precursor fraction addition and, in most cases, also on the yeast strain. Only beta-damascenone, beta-ionone, and vinylphenols were produced at concentrations well above threshold. However, the concerted addition of groups of compounds has shown that lactones, cinnamates, vanillins, and terpenes are together active contributors to the floral note. Different observations suggest that the formation of varietal aroma is an integral part of yeast metabolism and not a simple hydrolytical process. PMID:17616208

Loscos, Natalia; Hernandez-Orte, Purificacion; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

2007-08-01

194

Supercritical CO2 extraction applied toward the production of a functional beverage from wine  

OpenAIRE

Supercritical CO2 extraction has been proved to be a potential tool in the recovery of aroma compounds from different natural sources and in the removal of ethanol from aqueous solutions. In this work, both ideas are combined to develop a two-step process toward the production of a low-alcohol beverage from wine, but maintaining the aroma and the antioxidant activity similar to that of the original wine. First, the recovery of aroma from wine was attained in a countercurrent packed column (wh...

Ruiz-rodri?guez, Alejandro; Fornari Reale, Tiziana; Jaime, Laura; Va?zquez, E.; Amador, Beatriz; Nieto, Juan Antonio; Reglero, Guillermo

2012-01-01

195

Aroma active volatiles in four southern highbush blueberry cultivars determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma active volatiles in four southern highbush blueberry cultivars ('Prima Dona', 'Jewel', 'Snow Chaser', and 'Kestrel') were determined using solid phase microextraction (SPME) in combination with gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and identified via GC-PFPD and GC-MS using retention indices of reference compounds and mass spectral data. The aromas of total, unseparated SPME extracts evaluated using GC-O were rated 8.2-9.0/10 for the four cultivars in terms of similarity to the original blueberry homogenates. In terms of GC-O aroma similarity, those aroma active volatile groups characterized as green, fruity, and floral were most intense. Of the 43 volatiles found to have aroma activity, 38 were identified and 13 had not been previously reported in blueberries. Although linalool and (E)-2-hexenal were common major aroma impact volatiles, dominant aroma-active volatiles were different for each cultivar. Principal component analysis confirmed that each cultivar possessed a unique aroma active profile as each cultivar was clustered into a separate score plot quadrant. PMID:24758568

Du, Xiaofen; Rouseff, Russell

2014-05-21

196

Functional characterization of three Coffea arabica L. monoterpene synthases: insights into the enzymatic machinery of coffee aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical composition of the coffee beverage is extremely complex, being made up of hundreds of volatile and non-volatile compounds, many of which are generated in the thermal reactions that occur during the roasting process. However, in the raw coffee bean there are also compounds that survive roasting and are therefore extracted into the beverage. Monoterpenes are an example of this category, as their presence has been reported in the coffee flower, fruit, seed, roasted bean and in the beverage aroma. The present work describes the isolation, heterologous expression and functional characterization of three Coffea arabica cDNAs coding for monoterpene synthases. RNA was purified from C. arabica (cv. Catuai Red) flowers, seeds and fruits at 4 successive ripening stages. Degenerate primers were designed on the most conserved regions of the monoterpene synthase gene family, and then used to isolate monoterpene synthase-like sequences from the cDNA libraries. After 5'- and 3'-RACE, the complete transcripts of 4 putative C. arabica monoterpene synthases (CofarTPS) were obtained. Gene expression in different tissues and developmental stages was analysed. After heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, enzyme activity and substrate specificity were evaluated in vitro by incubation of the recombinant proteins with geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP), geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) and farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), precursors respectively of mono-, di- and sesquiterpenes. The reaction products were characterized by HS-SPME GC-MS. CofarTPS1 was classified as a limonene synthase gene, while CofarTPS2 and 3 showed lower activity with the production of linalool and ?-myrcene. PMID:23398891

Del Terra, Lorenzo; Lonzarich, Valentina; Asquini, Elisa; Navarini, Luciano; Graziosi, Giorgio; Suggi Liverani, Furio; Pallavicini, Alberto

2013-05-01

197

Effect of dehydration by sun or by oven on volatiles and aroma compounds of Trachanas
---
Effet de la déshydratation au soleil ou en four sur les volatiles et composés d'arôme de Trachanas
 

OpenAIRE

Trachanas is one of the most important traditional food products of Cyprus. It is made from fermented sheep or goat's milk or a mixture of both. The fermented milk is heated and crushed wheat is added to produce a porridge mixture. The mixture is then dried and stored in the form of "biscuits". Dehydration is performed either by sun, at a domestic level, or industrially using an oven. The objective of this study was to detect differences in aroma compounds of sun-dried or oven-dried Trachanas...

Carpino, Stefania; Rapisarda, Teresa; Belvedere, Giovanni; Papademas, Photis; Neocleous, Maria; Scadt, Iris; Pasta, Catia; Licitra, Giuseppe

2010-01-01

198

Analysis of the volatile aroma constituents of parental and hybrid clones of pepino (Solanum muricatum).  

Science.gov (United States)

The volatile constituents of 10 clones (4 parents with different flavors and 6 hybrids from selected crossings among these parents) of pepino fruit (Solanum muricatum) were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Odor-contributing volatiles (OCVs) were detected by GC-olfactometry-MS analyses and included 24 esters (acetates, 3-methylbutanoates, and 3-methylbut-2-enoates), 7 aldehydes (especially hexenals and nonenals), 6 ketones, 9 alcohols, 3 lactones, 2 terpenes, beta-damascenone, and mesifurane. Among these compounds, 17, of which 5 had not been reported previously in pepino, were found to contribute significantly to pepino aroma. OCVs can be assigned to three groups according to their odor quality: fruity fresh (acetates and prenol), green vegetable (C6 and C9 aldehydes), and exotic (lactones, mesifuran, and beta-damascenone). Quantitative and qualitative differences between clones for these compounds are clearly related to differences in their overall flavor impression. The positive value found for the hybrid-midparent regression coefficient for volatile composition indicates that an important fraction of the variation observed is inheritable, which has important implications in breeding for improving aroma. Significant and positive correlations were found between OCVs having common precursors or related pathways. PMID:15373407

Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Prohens, Jaime; Nitz, Siegfried; Nuez, Fernando

2004-09-01

199

Identification of volatile compounds responsible for prune aroma in prematurely aged red wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The premature aging of red Vitis vinifera L. wines is mainly associated with the formation of an intense off-flavor reminiscent of prunes. The compounds responsible for this deterioration in red wine flavor have not previously been identified. Sensory descriptive analysis associated with a gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) technique was first performed to find characteristic odoriferous zones of 15 aged red wines with or without a marked prune aroma. Afterward, high-pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and multidimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (MDGC-MS) were used to identify the odorants reminiscent of prunes in prematurely aged red wines and in the dried fruit. Three compounds were detected with a strong odor of prunes: gamma-nonalactone, beta-damascenone, and 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione. The perception threshold of the latter beta-diketone in a model hydroalcoholic solution is 16 ng/L. Identified for the first time in aged red wines, this very powerful volatile compound was also suggested to produce the characteristic prune aroma of prematurely aged red wines. The presence of 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione was also detected in prunes for the first time. PMID:18540625

Pons, Alexandre; Lavigne, Valérie; Eric, Frérot; Darriet, Philippe; Dubourdieu, Denis

2008-07-01

200

Lactic fermentation to improve the aroma of protein extracts of sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius).  

Science.gov (United States)

Lupin protein extracts (LPE) are prone to the emission of a beany off-flavour during storage, which confines its application in foods. Fermentation of LPE using several lactic acid bacteria was conducted to reduce off-flavour formation in stored samples. The aroma profile of untreated LPE was compared to those of fermented protein extracts (LPEF). Hexanal and n-hexanol were used as indicator substances of progressing lipid oxidation. The most powerful odourants were evaluated by GC-olfactometry-flavour dilution analysis and identified according to their mass spectra, odour descriptions, and retention indices. Twenty two volatile substances with dilution factors equal to or higher than 100 were determined in both LPE and LPEF, amongst them n-pentanal, n-hexanal, 1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, 1-octen-3-one, 3-octen-2-one, 1-octen-3-ol, and ?-damascenone. The aroma profile was significantly modified by the fermentation process and the off-flavours were reduced and/or masked by newly formed compounds. PMID:25212139

Schindler, Sabrina; Wittig, Maximilian; Zelena, Kateryna; Krings, Ulrich; Bez, Jürgen; Eisner, Peter; Berger, Ralf G

2011-09-15

201

Identification of aroma-active volatiles in banana Terra spirit using multidimensional gas chromatography with simultaneous mass spectrometry and olfactometry detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fruit spirits have been produced and consumed throughout the world for centuries. However, the aroma composition of banana spirits is still poorly characterised. We have investigated the aroma-impact compounds of the banana Terra spirit for the first time, using multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC and GC×GC) in a multi-hyphenated system - i.e., coupled to flame ionisation detection (FID), mass spectrometry (MS), and olfactometry (O). Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used to isolate the headspace aroma compounds of the banana spirit. The detection frequency (DF) technique was applied and aroma regions, detected in the first column separation at >60% Nasal Impact Frequency (NIF), were screened as target potent odour regions in the sample. Using a polar/non-polar phase column set, the potent odour regions were further subjected to MDGC separation with simultaneous O and MS detection for correlation of the aroma perception with MS data for individual resolved aroma-impact compounds. GC-O analysis enabled 18 aroma-impact regions to be located as providing volatiles of interest for further study; for example, those comprising perceptions of flower, whisky, green, amongst others. Compounds were tentatively identified through MS data matching and retention indices in both first and second dimensions. The principal volatile compounds identified in this work, which are responsible for the characteristic aroma of the banana spirit, are 3-methylbutan-1-ol, 3-methylbutan-1-ol acetate, 2-phenylethyl acetate and phenylethyl alcohol. This is the first such study to reveal the major aroma compounds that contribute to banana spirit aroma. PMID:25728661

Capobiango, Michely; Mastello, Raíssa Bittar; Chin, Sung-Tong; Oliveira, Evelyn de Souza; Cardeal, Zenilda de Lourdes; Marriott, Philip John

2015-04-01

202

New Green Tea Cultivar 'Yumewakaba' which Quality is High on Aroma and Taste by Slight Half Fermentation of Leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

New green tea cultivar‘Yumewakaba’has been bred at the Green Tea and Local Products Laboratory of Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center. The clone was crossed between‘Yabukita’and Saitama No.9’in 1968. Local adaptability, tolerance to bark split frost injury, and Blister blight were tested at 17 prefectural tea experiment stations from 1994 to 2002. It was registered as ‘Norin No.53’and named ‘Yumewakaba’in 20The characteristics of the cultivar are as follows The shape of the cultivar is erect type, and spread of tea bush is the same as‘Yabukita’.The size of mature leaves are smaller than those of ‘Yabukita’. Immature leaves are lustrougreen and soft. The rooting ability of nursery plants are high and taking roots after planting is good. The plucking time of the first crop of this cultivar in Saitama is 1 or 2 days later than that of ‘Yabukita’.‘Yumewakaba’is middle budding cultivar. The yield of 1st or 2nd crop is the same that of‘Yabukita. ‘Yumewakaba’is resistance to cold drought and bark split frost injury. Thlevel of resistance to freezing injur y is stronger than that of ‘Yabukita’ The damage Anthracnose is less than that of ‘Yabukita. The appearance is better than that of ‘Yabukita’, and the quality of liquor is the same as ‘Yabukita’. The quality of processed goods from slightly half fermented leaves of this cultivar is high on the aroma and the taste. ‘Yumewakaba’is suitable for northern tea producing areas, and cool semi-mountainousareas.

Uchino, Hiroshi; Honda, Yusuke; Nakajima, Kenta; Sasaki, Koji; Kobayashi, Akira; Tanaka, Eri; Kume, Nobuo; Sakai, Takashi; Shimazaki, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Iwao; Okano, Nobuo; Kyougoku, Hideo; Funakoshi, Shouji; Kitada, Kaichi; Fuchinoue, Yasumoto; Tanaka, Mankichi

203

Chemical composition and aroma evaluation of volatile oils from edible mushrooms (Pleurotus salmoneostramineus and Pleurotus sajor-caju).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is focused on the volatile oils from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus salmoneostramineus (PS) and P. sajor-caju (PSC), which was extracted by hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) methods. The oils are analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC-olfactometry (GC-O), and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). A total of 31, 31, 45, and 15 components were identified in PS (HD and SAFE) and PSC (HD and SAFE), representing about 80.3%, 92.2%, 88.9%, and 83.0% of the oils, respectively. Regarding the aroma-active components, 13, 12, 13, and 5 components were identified in PS (HD and SAFE) and PSC (HD and SAFE), respectively, by the GC-O analyses. The results of the sniffing test, odor activity value (OAV) and flavor dilution (FD) factor indicate that 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone are the main aroma-active components of PS oils. On the other hands, methional and 1-octen-3-ol were estimated as the main aroma-active components of PSC oils. PMID:25409690

Usami, Atsushi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

2014-01-01

204

Volatile composition and aroma activity of guava puree before and after thermal and dense phase carbon dioxide treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatiles from initially frozen, dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD)- and thermally treated guava purees were isolated by solid phase microextraction (SPME), chromatographically separated and identified using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC-olfactometry (GC-O), and GC-pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD, sulfur mode). Fifty-eight volatiles were identified using GC-MS consisting of: 6 aldehydes, 2 acids, 15 alcohols, 6 ketones, 21 esters, and 8 terpenes. Eleven volatiles were newly identified in guava puree. Hexanal was the most abundant volatile in all 3 types of guava puree. Ten sulfur compounds were identified using GC-PFPD of which 3 possessed aroma activity and 3 were not previously reported in guava puree. Both treatments profoundly reduced total sulfur peak areas and produced different peak patterns compared to control. Thermal treatment reduced total sulfur peak area 47.9% compared to a loss of 34.7% with DPCD treatment. Twenty-six volatiles possessed aroma activity. (Z)-3-Hexenyl hexanoate was the major contributor to the aroma of the freshly thawed and DPCD-treated guava puree. DPCD treatment reduced total MS ion chromatogram (MS TIC) peak area 35% but produced a GC-O aroma profile very similar to control. Whereas thermal treatment reduced total TIC peak area only 8.7% compared to control but produced a 35% loss in total GC-O peak intensities. PMID:25588413

Plaza, Maria Lourdes; Marshall, Maurice R; Rouseff, Russell Lee

2015-02-01

205

Characterizing endogenous and oxidative low molecular weight flavor/aroma compounds in fresh squeezed/blended pomegranate juice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum) juices. Although, arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing volatile and semi-volatile compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Only two reports w...

206

Study of the influence of maceration time and oenological practices on the aroma profile of Vranec wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vranec is one of the most important red grape varieties in Republic of Macedonia, grown in all vineyards, mostly in the Tikveš wine region. In this study, Vranec wines produced with different maceration times (4, 7, 14 and 30 days) in presence of enzyme and oak chips during fermentation were studied in order to determine the influence of vinification conditions on the aroma profile. The volatile compounds were determined using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with a PDMS/Carboxen/DVB fibre, coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total 63 aroma compounds were detected revealing a complex aroma profile of Vranec wines composed of esters, alcohols, fatty acids, aldehydes, ketones and sulphur compounds. The content of aroma compounds was related mostly to maceration time, observing increased relative amount of alcohols, esters and fatty acids from the fourth to seventh day of maceration and the presence of oak chips during the fermentation enhanced their formation. The Student-Newman-Keuls test has been applied to ascertain possible significant differences between the studied wines, and principal component analysis has been employed, showing separation and grouping of the wines according to maceration time and oak chips treatment. PMID:25038705

Petropulos, Violeta Ivanova; Bogeva, Elena; Stafilov, Traj?e; Stefova, Marina; Siegmund, Barbara; Pabi, Nicole; Lankmayr, Ernst

2014-12-15

207

Quantification of Raspberry Aroma by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectometry (SBSE GC-MS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Raspberry aroma has been studied, but reliable quantification is challenging by traditional methods. The Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) technology allows for simple sample preparation paired with minimal extraction time to establish a volatile spectrum. The objective of this study is to develo...

208

Characterization of Fish Sauce Aroma Impact Compounds Using GC-MS, SPME-Osme-GCO, and Stevens' Power Law Exponents  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to characterize volatile compounds and to determine the characteristic aromas associated with impact compounds in 4 fish sauces using solid-phase micro-extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Osme, and gas chromatography olfactometry (SPME-Osme-GCO) couple...

209

Impact of cover crops in vineyard on the aroma compounds of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared the influence of different cover crops with clean tillage on wine aroma compounds of 5-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines. White clover, alfalfa, and tall fescue were used in the vineyard and compared with clean tillage. Aroma compounds of wine were analysed by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Forty-seven volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Wines made from grapes grown with various cover crops had higher levels of aroma compounds. Ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, phenylethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, linalool, citronellol, ?-damascenone, ?-ionone, and 5-amyl-dihydro-2(3H)-furan were the impact odorants of sample wines. Wines from cover crop also had higher contents of these impact odorants than the control. For different cover crops, alfalfa sward yielded the highest levels, followed by the tall fescue treatment. According to the data analysis of aroma compounds and sensory assess, permanent cover crop may have the potential to improve wine quality. PMID:23140695

Xi, Zhu-Mei; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Li; Li, Hua

2011-07-15

210

Chemical characterization of commercial Sherry vinegar aroma by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-olfactometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sensorial representativeness of the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) aroma extract from commercial Sherry vinegars has been determined by direct gas chromatography-olfactometry (D-GCO). Extracts obtained under optimal conditions were used to characterize the aroma of these vinegars by means of GCO and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Among the 37 different odorants determined, 13 of them were identified for the first time in Sherry vinegars: 2 pyrazines (3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine), 2 sulfur compounds (methanethiol, dimethyl trisulfide), 1 unsaturated ketone (1-octen-3-one), 1 norisoprenoid (?-damascenone), 1 ester (ethyl trans-cinnamate) and 6 aldehydes (2- and 3-methylbutanal, octanal, nonanal, (E)-2-nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal). The determination of the odor thresholds in a hydroacetic solution together with the quantitative analysis-which was also performed using the simple and fast SPME technique-allowed obtaining the odor activity values (OAV) of the aromatic compounds found. Thus, a first pattern of their sensory importance on commercial Sherry vinegar aroma was provided. PMID:21410171

Aceña, Laura; Vera, Luciano; Guasch, Josep; Busto, Olga; Mestres, Montserrat

2011-04-27

211

The electronic NOSE and its application to the manufacture of food products  

OpenAIRE

The Electronic NOSE (Neotronics Olfactory Sensing Equipment) is an instrument which mimics the human olfactory sensory system. It analyses complex vapours and produces a simple output. In the food industry there are numerous examples where the aroma from the raw ingredients through to the final product are important. These aromas are currently analysed using human sensory panels or analytical equipment such as gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS).

Hodgins, Diana; Sirnmonds, Derek

1995-01-01

212

Detection of Volatile Aroma Compounds of Morchella by Headspace Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available   This study was conducted at the Horticulture Department of Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey, in 2010 to determine the volatile aroma compounds of Morchella mushroom. Fresh samples of Morchella esculenta (Sample 1 and Morchella elata (Sample 2 were collected from Çanakkale (Sample 1 and Mersin (Sample 2 provinces in Turkey in the spring of 2010. Volatile aroma compounds were analyzed by headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS. A total of 31 aroma compounds were identified in the 2 analyzed samples: 7 alcohols, 7 esters, 7 ketones, 3 acids, 2 aldehydes, 1 terpene, phenol, 1-propanamine, geranyl linalool, and quinoline. Seventeen aroma components were identified in Sample 1, and 18 compounds were found in Sample 2. Phenol was determined as the major aroma compound in both Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 50.888% and 58.293% content, respectively. Alcohols, especially 1-octen-3-ol, were detected as the second major aroma components in Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 15.500% and 5.660% content, respectively. Carbamic acid, methyl ester was found only in Sample 1, at 11.379% content. The aroma components detected in the two samples differed. 1-Octadecanol; cyclooctylalcohol; trans-2-undecen-1-ol; butanoic acid, butyl ester (CAS; carbamic acid, methyl ester; 2-ethylhexyl-2-ethylhexanoate; phthalic acid, decyl isobutyl ester; 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate; decanal; nonanal; 7,9-di-tert-butyl-1-oxaspiro(4.5deca-6,9-diene-2,8-dione; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione; 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl; and trans-alpha-bisabolene were detected only in Sample 1. Ethanol; silanediol, 2-methylaminoethanol; L-alanine, ethyl ester; carbonic acid, dodecyl isobutyl ester; acetic acid; butanoic acid; 2,3,4H-pyran-4-one; 5,9-undecadien-2-one; cyclooctene; 2-cyclopenten-1-one; 1-propanamine; geranyl linalool; and quinoline were determined only in Sample 2.

Hatira TA?KIN

2013-05-01

213

Temporal changes in aroma release of Longjing tea infusion: interaction of volatile and nonvolatile tea components and formation of 2-butyl-2-octenal upon aging.  

Science.gov (United States)

The temporal change in the headspace composition of an aroma model mimicking Longjing green tea aroma was studied in the presence of nonvolatile Longjing green tea constituents. Upon storage at 50 degrees C, the formation of 2-butyl-2-octenal was found, which increased with time. This enal was generated by crotonization of hexanal as demonstrated in model experiments. The formation of 2-butyl-2-octenal was also detected in Longjing tea infusions and Longjing tea leaves upon storage at 50 degrees C. The presence of nonvolatiles induced a strong decrease in aroma release. These effects were mainly due to catechins, major constituents of green tea infusion. Free amino acids, that is, glycine, contributed only to significantly decrease alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl aroma compounds, that is, 1-octen-3-one and geranial. Model reaction containing a mixture of 1-octen-3-one and glycine indicated on the basis of NMR and MS data the formation of the tentatively identified N-1-(3-oxo-octyl)glycine resulting from a 1,4-addition. The perceived aroma of green tea infusion is very likely to be affected by the formation of new aroma compounds and the changes in aroma release affected by interactions with tea nonvolatile components. This deserves further investigations on the sensory level. PMID:18298066

Cheng, Yong; Huynh-Ba, Tuong; Blank, Imre; Robert, Fabien

2008-03-26

214

GC-MS-olfactometric characterization of the most aroma-active components in a representative aromatic extract from Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma and aroma-active compounds of Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry. The saffron aromatic extracts were obtained by four different extraction techniques including solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid phase extraction (SPE), and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and compared to achieve a representative aromatic extract from saffron. According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was the most representative of saffron odour. A total of 28 aroma compounds were identified in saffron. Ketones were quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in saffron, followed by aldehydes and acids. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of saffron. A total of nine aroma-active compounds were detected in the aromatic extract. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma active compounds were safranal (FD=512), 4-ketoisophorone (FD=256) and dihydrooxophorone (FD=128). PMID:25842335

Amanpour, Asghar; Sonmezdag, A Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

2015-09-01

215

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mixed Culture of Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L.) Juice: Synergism in the Aroma Compounds Production  

OpenAIRE

Blackberry (Rubus sp.) juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574) recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (

Bautista-rosales, Pedro Ulises; Ragazzo-sa?nchez, Juan Arturo; Ruiz-montan?ez, Gabriela; Ortiz-basurto, Rosa Isela; Luna-solano, Guadalupe; Caldero?n-santoyo, Montserrat

2014-01-01

216

Radiation dose and storage temperature and period effects on the flavor and aroma of orange juice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of storage temperature and period on orange juice concentrates were studied for samples irradiated with 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy doses from a gamma-ray source as well as for untreated samples. All samples were stored at 00 C, 50 C and 250 C for periods of 1,30, 60 and 90 days. Samples stored for more than one day underwent a diminution in storage attribute rating with corresponding increase in ratings for the bitterness, medicinal and cooked attributes. Storage at 00 C and 50 C seems to have smaller effects on the sweetness rating as well as on the oily, acid and medicinal flavor characteristics. Effect of radiation dose level on the flavor and aroma attributes depended on the storage temperature and time. In most cases, higher radiation levels are associated by lower orange attribute values and higher bitter medicinal and cooked ratings. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

217

Sol-gel microencapsulation of odorants and flavors: opening the route to sustainable fragrances and aromas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sol-gel approach to encapsulate fragrance and aroma chemicals in porous silica-based materials has the potential to afford odorant and flavoured materials with novel and unique beneficial properties. Amorphous sol-gel SiO2 is non-toxic and safe, whereas the sol-gel entrapment of delicate chemicals in its inner pores results in pronounced chemical and physical stabilization of the entrapped actives, thereby broadening the practical utilization of chemically unstable essential oils. Reviewing progress in the fabrication of diverse odorant and flavoured sol-gels, we show how different synthetic strategies afford advanced materials suitable for practical application with important health and environmental benefits. PMID:24077399

Ciriminna, Rosaria; Pagliaro, Mario

2013-12-21

218

Associations of Volatile Compounds with Sensory Aroma and Flavor: The Complex Nature of Flavor  

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Full Text Available Attempts to relate sensory analysis data to specific chemicals such as volatile compounds have been frequent. Often these associations are difficult to interpret or are weak in nature. Although some difficulties may relate to the methods used, the difficulties also result from the complex nature of flavor. For example, there are multiple volatiles responsible for a flavor sensation, combinations of volatiles yield different flavors than those expected from individual compounds, and the differences in perception of volatiles in different matrices. This review identifies some of the reasons sensory analysis and instrumental measurements result in poor associations and suggests issues that need to be addressed in future research for better understanding of the relationships of flavor/aroma phenomena and chemical composition.

Edgar Chambers IV

2013-04-01

219

IMPORTANCE OF AROMAS ON MOOD PROFILE AND HUMAN AURA (Qualitative Vibrations of Prana  

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Full Text Available The Indian Traditional Concept of “Swastya” means to be stationed in one’s own self or well-being, which means to be beyond body / mind yogically. Sri Aurobindo (1970 stated that “Yoga means a methodized effort towards self-perfection by expression of the potentialities latent in the being” and “…a union of the human individual with the universal and transcendent Existence”. According to Sri Aurobindo (1972 “The Spirit has made itself Matter (body in order to place itself there as an instrument for the well-being and joy “Yogakshema”, of created beings for a self-offering of  physical universal utility of service. Interestingly, WHO has stipulated spiritual health for universal well-being. This opens avenues for experimental studies.  Benson (1976 stated that in the year 1968 opened medical laboratory for studies in transcendental meditation.   Chopra (1993 has spoken that there is enormous latent intelligence in the living organism. The “inexperience” of the organism has placed the mind – body relationship on scientific footing. This relationship opens both ways, on one hand it removes disease state and being at “ease” state. Thus enhancing psychoneurotic immunology where the subject herself / himself learns to manipulate the involved energy and to enhance the delightful state of well-being. Aromas have been an area that can open new areas for research on emotional and psychosomatic well-being.  “Pranayama” recognizes science of holding breath or vitality.  “Willfully” holding moods with awareness / consciousness is to experience spirits flow and its freedom in creating a new inner dimension of highest well-being.   To experience subtle and its power of mood is yogically raise mood profile to the dynamics of the spirit subjectively.  This was taken as an experimental study. The Subjects studying in MSc. in the Department of Food Service Management at Smt. V.H.D. Central Institute of Home Science, Bangalore, India took part in the study. A pre-test was conducted to check the Aura status of all the twenty subjects. Based on pre-test health status a purposive sample was worked out. Those subjects whose health aura was in good condition were selected as Control Group, (n=10 and others whose health aura was affected were chosen as Experimental Group (n=10 and the Experimental Group were subjected to intervention programme along with Aroma Treatment. Based on the investigator’s observations, an experiment was designed to study the influence of Aroma on the subject’s physiological and psychological moods and feelings, effect on Chakras and their Human Aura. Statistical test ?2 (Chi-square was used to test the significance between Experimental and Control Groups for comparison. The aroma Nectar of Divine Joy has yielded significant results both in objective and subjective test obtained by the Experimental group. The result showed that the intervention programme helped in retaining higher emotions. This study points out that the auric field one carries depends upon one’s own thought forms that one generates through emotions and feelings.  To bathe inner organs with the highest mood profile is to experience the highest vitality in body and mind as one vibrates and radiates the well-being around them in homonymous state.  This growth is a teleotic journey in emotions and feelings towards the Divine state.

Srilakshmi R* and N ShakuntalaManay

2013-06-01

220

Aroma characterisation and UV elicitation of purple basil from different plant tissue cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to stressful environmental conditions can induce severe metabolic variations in basil (Ocimum basilicum) aroma. The aromatic profiles of Dark Opal and Red Rubim varieties (in vivo plants, in vitro shoots, callus, and suspension cultures) were investigated for the first time. The established calli represented the most interesting miniaturised aromatic plant systems, as they were able to emit many typical basil volatiles with very low amounts of phenylpropanoids (1-2%). The hydrocarbon monoterpenes and oxygenated volatiles emitted from calli of both varieties were greatly and conversely affected by UV-C and UV-B, in comparison with the non-irradiated samples. As calli of both varieties still maintained very low levels of phenylpropanoids even after UV elicitation, they might be regarded not only as efficient in vitro plant models to study volatile compounds under UV stress conditions, but also as safe aromatic biomass in comparison with in vivo basil plants. PMID:23790847

Bertoli, A; Lucchesini, M; Mensuali-Sodi, A; Leonardi, M; Doveri, S; Magnabosco, A; Pistelli, L

2013-11-15

221

Identification of saffron aroma compound ?-isophorone (3,5,5-trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-one) in some V. vinifera grape varieties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carotenoid-derived aroma compounds play an important role in the composition of aroma and grapes, and consequently of wine. The volatile composition of forty-five grape varieties harvested in 2011 and 2012 was investigated by solid phase extraction of samples and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. In grape extracts of cultivars Barbera, Refosco dal Peducolo Rosso, Ribolla gialla and Rossese, the C9-norisoprenoid compound ?-isophorone (3,5,5-trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-one) was found and quantified. This carotenoid-derived compound is characterised by a saffron aroma and is here reported in grape for the first time. PMID:24128466

Panighel, Annarita; Maoz, Itay; De Rosso, Mirko; De Marchi, Fabiola; Dalla Vedova, Antonio; Gardiman, Massimo; Bavaresco, Luigi; Flamini, Riccardo

2014-02-15

222

Composição de voláteis e perfil de aroma e sabor de méis de eucalipto e laranja Volatile composition and aroma and flavor profiles of eucalyptus and orange honeys  

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Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram analisados os compostos voláteis de amostras de mel de eucalipto e laranja colhidos nos estados de São Paulo e de Minas Gerais. O isolamento dos voláteis foi realizado empregando-se uma técnica de ''headspace'' dinâmico, a separação efetuada por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução e a identificação por espectrometria de massas, Índices de Kovats e padrões, quando disponíveis. Foram identificados no mel de laranja o benzaldeído, o óxido cis de linalol, n-heptanal, 6-metil-5-hepten-2-ona, octanal e fenilacetaldeído, e em mel de eucalipto, o nonanal, 2-heptanona, 2-heptanol, octanol e nonanol. A caracterização sensorial desses méis foi obtida por Análise Descritiva Quantitativa e a aplicação de Análise dos Componentes Principais aos dados revelou que os descritores ''queimado'' e ''sabor residual'' caracterizam o mel de eucalipto, enquanto ''floral'' e ''cera'' caracterizam o mel de laranja. Entre os compostos identificados, o nonanal e o nonanol apresentaram contribuição sensorial importante ao mel de eucalipto, enquanto o fenilacetaldeído e o benzaldeído foram relacionados com os principais descritores do mel de laranja.Volatile compounds of orange and eucalyptus bee honeys from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais were isolated by a dynamic headspace technique and separated by high resolution gas chromatography. Volatile compounds were identified by gc-mass spectrometry and the Kovats Indices. Benzaldehyde, cis-linalool oxide, n-heptanal, 6 methyl-5-hepten-2-ona, octanal and phenylacetaldeyde were detected in orange honey. Nonanal, 2-heptanone, 2-heptanol, octanol and nonanol were identified in eucalyptus samples. Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and Principal Component Analysis revealed that orange honey can be sensorially characterized by ''waxy'' and ''floral'' descriptors, while eucalyptus honey by a ''burnt'' and ''after-taste''. Phenylacetaldeyde and benzaldehyde were related to these important descriptors in characterizing orange honey, as determined by sniffing, while nonanal and nonanol were found to be important contributors to the eucalyptus honey aroma.

Deborah Helena Markowicz Bastos

2002-08-01

223

Sensory profiles of breast meat from broilers reared in an organic niche production system and conventional standard broilers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Breast meat from broilers produced in very different production systems may vary considerable in sensory profile, which may affect consumer interests. In this study the aim was to evaluate differences in the sensory profiles of breast meat from five broiler products: two conventional standard products (A and B) and three organic niche genotypes (I657, L40 and K8) reared in an apple orchard. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 22 sensory attributes differed significantly between the products. The aroma attributes `chicken', `bouillon' and `fat' scored highest and the `iron/liver' aroma lowest for the niche products. The meat was more `tender', `short' and `crumbly' and less `hard' and `stringy' in the standard products than in one or more of the niche products. Product `I 657' was less `juicy' than the rest. Products `I 657' and `L 40' were more `cohesive' and tasted more `sourish' and less of `sweet/maize' than the standard products. The `overall liking' score was significantly higher for the `K 8' product than for the `Standard A' and `L 40' products. The `overall liking' score was significantly correlated with the scores for aroma and taste of `chicken', `umami/bouillon', `iron/liver' and `fat' aroma. CONCLUSION: The sensory profiles differed particularly between conventional standard broilers and organic niche broilers, although differences were also found between breeds. The present study indicates that aroma and taste attributes were more important for the assessors than meat `tenderness' for the overall liking of broiler meat.

Horsted, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Bodil Helene

2012-01-01

224

Sensory profile of breast meat from broilers reared in an organic niche production system and conventional standard broilers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Breast meat from broilers produced in very different production systems may vary considerable in sensory profile, which may affect consumer interests. In this study the aim was to evaluate differences in the sensory profiles of breast meat from five broiler products: two conventional standard products (A and B) and three organic niche genotypes (I657, L40 and K8) reared in an apple orchard. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 22 sensory attributes differed significantly between the products. The aroma attributes ‘chicken’, ‘bouillon’ and ‘fat’ scored highest and the ‘iron/liver’ aroma lowest for the niche products. The meat was more ‘tender’, ‘short’ and ‘crumbly’ and less ‘hard’ and ‘stringy’ in the standard products than in one or more of the niche products. Product ‘I 657’ was less ‘juicy’ than the rest. Products ‘I 657’ and ‘L 40’ were more ‘cohesive’ and tasted more ‘sourish’ and less of ‘sweet/maize’ than the standard products. The ‘overall liking’ score was significantly higher for the ‘K 8’ product than for the ‘Standard A’ and ‘L 40’ products. The ‘overall liking’ score was significantly correlated with the scores for aroma and taste of ‘chicken’, ‘umami/bouillon’, ‘iron/liver’ and ‘fat’ aroma. CONCLUSION: The sensory profiles differed particularly between conventional standard broilers and organic niche broilers, although differences were also found between breeds. The present study indicates that aroma and taste attributes were more important for the assessors than meat ‘tenderness’ for the overall liking of broiler meat.

Horsted, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Bodil Helene

2012-01-01

225

Molecular structural differences between low methoxy pectins induced by pectin methyl esterase II: effects on texture, release and perception of aroma in gels of similar modulus of elasticity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six low-methoxy pectins with different degrees of methylesterification and amidation, and molecular weights were used to prepare gels with similar moduli of elasticity by varying the concentrations of pectin and calcium phosphate. Five aroma compounds were added to the gels and their sensory textural properties, release and perception of aromas were investigated. Sensory firmness, springiness, adhesiveness, chewiness and cohesiveness differed according to the gel type, even though the moduli of elasticity were not significantly different (paromas also displayed significant difference according to the gel type (paroma compounds, while pectin-methylesterase-treated pectin gels exhibited relatively higher aroma release and perception. These results showed that the structural properties of pectins and gelling factors that increase the non-polar character of the gel matrices could decrease the release and perception of aromas in pectin gel systems. PMID:24128568

Kim, Yang; Kim, Young-Suk; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Ok

2014-02-15

226

AROMA-AIRWICK: a CHLOE/CDC-3600 system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The AROMA-AIRWICK System for CHLOE, an automatic film scanning equipment built at Argonne by Donald Hodges, and the CDC-3600 computer is a system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks. AROMA-AIRWICK has been an outgrowth of the generally recognized need for the automatic processing of high energy physics data and the fact that the Argonne National Laboratory has been a center of serious spark chamber development in recent years.

Clark, R.K.

227

Sensory characteristics of European, dried, fermented sausages and the correlation to volatile profile  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the European FAIR-project: Control of Bioflavour and Safety in Northern and Mediterranean Fermented Meat Products (FAIR-CT97-3227) four different sausage types were manufactured in five replicates and characterised by sensory and analytical means. The objective of the present study was to characterise the flavour pattern of the FAIR sausages with regards to sensory perceived compounds and volatile/sensory profiles. According to gas chromatography-olfactometry the greatest differences between the Northern and Mediterranean sausages were attributed to coffee/roasted, phenolic and vinegar odours in the smoked sausages and a popcorn note in the Mediterranean products covered with mould. The compounds were 2-furfurylthiol, guaiacol, acetic acid and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, respectively. Sausages added garlic contained two specific odours with salami/onion-like notes. The odours were attributed to allylmercaptane and methylthiirane. Correlation of sensory and volatile profile showed that garlic flavour correlated with sulphur compounds from garlic, smoked flavour with most of the cyclic compounds (furanes, phenols etc.), acid flavour with the acids (acetic, butanoic and hexanoic acid), spice and piquante flavour with the terpenes, rancid flavour with hexanal, octanal, nonanal and decanal and maturity with ethyl esters and methyl-ketones.

Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller; Sunesen, Lars Oddershede

1999-01-01

228

Some carbonyl compounds and free fatty acid composition of Afyon Kaymag? (clotted cream and their effects on aroma and flavor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some carbonyl compounds (acetaldeyhde, acetone, butanone-2 and diacetyl, the lactic acid and free fatty acid compositions of Afyon kaymag?, produced from pure buffalo milk obtained from seven different farms, and their effects on aroma and flavor were investigated. Acetone was found in the highest amount of carbonyl compounds. Butyric, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were characteristic free fatty acids for Afyon Kaymag?. The effect of the investigated compounds on the aroma and flavor scores (AFS of Afyon Kaymag? was found to be 93.3%. Lactic acid was negatively correlated but was the second most important compound for the aroma and flavor of Afyon Kaymag? (R2 = 40%. The investigated carbonyl compounds explained only 3.2% of the variation in aroma and flavor of Afyon Kaymag?. Lactic acid, acetone, diacetyl, C4:0, C8:0, C12:0 and C18:0 had negative effects on the AFS, but acetaldehyde, butanone-2, C6:0, C10:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 were positively related to the AFS.

Se han investigado algunos compuestos carbonílicos (acetaldehido, acetona, 2-butanona y diacetil, el ácido láctico y la composición de los ácidos grasos libres de Afyon kaymagi (cuajada, producida sólo a partir de leche de búfalas obtenidas de siete granjas diferentes y sus efectos sobre el aroma y el sabor. Entre los compuestos carbonílicos, la acetona fué el que se encontró en mayor concentración. Butírico, esteárico, oleico, linoleico y linolénico son los ácidos grasos libres característicos de Afyon Kaymag?. El efecto de los compuestos investigados en las puntuaciones (AFS de aroma y sabor de Afyon Kaymag? se encontró que fué del 93,3%. El ácido láctico, segundo compuesto importante, se correlacionó negativamente con el aroma y el sabor de Afyon Kaymag? (R2 = 40%. Los compuestos carbonilos investigados explican sólo el 3,2% de la variación en el aroma y el sabor de Afyon Kaymag?. El ácido láctico, la acetona, diacetil, y los ácidos C4:0, C8:0, C12:0 y C18:0 tienen un efecto negativo en la AFS, pero el acetaldehído, la 2-butanona, y los ácidos C6:0, C10:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 y C18:3 están positivamente relacionados con el AFS.

?enel, E.

2011-12-01

229

Formulation and conservation of a pharmaceutical form with leaf extracts from Acacia aroma Gill. ex Hook et Arn  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Leaf fluid extracts of Acacia aroma GILL. ex Hook et Arn showed antibacterial activity against antibiotic multiresistant bacteria isolated from clinical samples, antioxidant and ant-inflammatory activities. Toxicological studies carried out on Artemia salina and Allium cepa attested none toxicity po [...] tential. The aim of this work was to elaborate a formulation of topical antibacterial hydrogel with Carbopol acrylic acid polymer containing an A. aroma fluid extract in order to compare with a hydrogel containing commercial antibiotic. The optimal extract concentration in this formulation was determined according to the values of minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration for Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant (F7) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (F352). Physical, chemical, rheological and microbiological stability was observed at least during one year. The hydrogel containing Acacia leaves fluid extract shows remarkable antibacterial effect with a broadspectrum efficacy against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria at low concentration.

M. E, Arias; J. D., Gomez; M., Vatuone; M. I., Isla.

230

Characteristic aroma-active compounds of floral scent in situ from Barringtonia racemosa and their dynamic emission rates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Barringtonia racemosa is a nocturnal flowering plant. Information on its floral volatiles and the dynamic emission profiles was very limited. In this study, the floral volatiles of B. racemosa were monitored hourly during its florescence via detached and in situ collection for the first time. The dynamic odor activity value (OAV) was calculated to elucidate the active aroma components of floral scent. Results of compositional analyses showed that the predominant floral volatiles were linalool and phenylacetaldehyde. Their emission started around 8:00 p.m., and the peak emissions were 20541 and 18234 ng h(-1) flower(-1), respectively, during 10:00 p.m.-2:00 a.m. Results from dynamic OAV profiling revealed that linalool (409 min(-1)) and phenylacetaldehyde (547 min(-1)) had higher OAVs than other components (scent with a strong, sweet, and pleasant aroma. PMID:24369104

Lin, Chun-Ya; Chen, Yu-Han; Chang, Tzu-Cheng; Chen, Ying-Ju; Cheng, Sen-Sung; Chang, Shang-Tzen

2013-12-26

231

A sensory and chemical approach to the aroma of wooden aged Lourinhã wine brandy / Uma abordagem sensorial e química ao aroma de aguardentes vínicas envelhecidas da Lourinhã  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O envelhecimento das aguardentes vínicas em vasilhas de madeira provoca alterações profundas na composição físico-química e sensorial destas bebidas. Neste trabalho são estudados os odorantes em aguardentes vínicas da região da Lourinhã envelhecidas em diferentes condições. Para o efeito recorreu-se [...] à avaliação dos compostos odorantes por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução acoplada à olfactometria (GC-O), à quantificação de alguns dos compostos odorantes por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução acoplada a um detector de ionização de chama (GC-FID) e à avaliação sensorial das aguardentes. Os resultados de GC-O permitiram identificar 29 odorantes diferentes (álcoois, ésteres, ácidos e fenóis), uns originários do destilado e outros provenientes da madeira. A pesquisa de correlações entre a análise sensorial e a análise química confirmou a importância odorante de vários compostos com origem na madeira, designadamente a vanilina, os fenóis voláteis e os aldeídos furânicos. Estes compostos apresentaram importantes correlações com descritores sensoriais como a baunilha, fumo, torrado, frutos secos, madeira, os quais tem uma correlação positiva com a qualidade da aguardente. Abstract in english The maturation of wine brandies in wooden barrels origin many sensory and physical-chemical changes in these alcoholic beverages. This work studies the odorants in different aged brandies from Lourinhã. These brandies were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry (GC-O). A panel taster [...] profiled these brandies and the identified odorants were also quantified by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The GC-O results showed 29 identified odorants (alcohols, esters, acids and phenols). Some of them are proceeding from the distillate while others are extracted from the wood. The analysis of correlation between the sensory profiles and the odorant quantification pointed out the relevance of several wood compounds for the brandy aroma, namely the vanillin, volatile phenols and furanic aldehydes. These compounds presented important correlations with several olfactory attributes like vanilla, smoke, toasted, dried fruits, woody, which influence positively the quality of the brandies.

Ilda, Caldeira; R. Bruno de, Sousa; A. Pedro, Belchior; M. Cristina, Clímaco.

232

Composição de voláteis e perfil de aroma e sabor de méis de eucalipto e laranja / Volatile composition and aroma and flavor profiles of eucalyptus and orange honeys  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho foram analisados os compostos voláteis de amostras de mel de eucalipto e laranja colhidos nos estados de São Paulo e de Minas Gerais. O isolamento dos voláteis foi realizado empregando-se uma técnica de ''headspace'' dinâmico, a separação efetuada por cromatografia gasosa de alta reso [...] lução e a identificação por espectrometria de massas, Índices de Kovats e padrões, quando disponíveis. Foram identificados no mel de laranja o benzaldeído, o óxido cis de linalol, n-heptanal, 6-metil-5-hepten-2-ona, octanal e fenilacetaldeído, e em mel de eucalipto, o nonanal, 2-heptanona, 2-heptanol, octanol e nonanol. A caracterização sensorial desses méis foi obtida por Análise Descritiva Quantitativa e a aplicação de Análise dos Componentes Principais aos dados revelou que os descritores ''queimado'' e ''sabor residual'' caracterizam o mel de eucalipto, enquanto ''floral'' e ''cera'' caracterizam o mel de laranja. Entre os compostos identificados, o nonanal e o nonanol apresentaram contribuição sensorial importante ao mel de eucalipto, enquanto o fenilacetaldeído e o benzaldeído foram relacionados com os principais descritores do mel de laranja. Abstract in english Volatile compounds of orange and eucalyptus bee honeys from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais were isolated by a dynamic headspace technique and separated by high resolution gas chromatography. Volatile compounds were identified by gc-mass spectrometry and the Kovats Indices. Benzaldehyde, ci [...] s-linalool oxide, n-heptanal, 6 methyl-5-hepten-2-ona, octanal and phenylacetaldeyde were detected in orange honey. Nonanal, 2-heptanone, 2-heptanol, octanol and nonanol were identified in eucalyptus samples. Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and Principal Component Analysis revealed that orange honey can be sensorially characterized by ''waxy'' and ''floral'' descriptors, while eucalyptus honey by a ''burnt'' and ''after-taste''. Phenylacetaldeyde and benzaldehyde were related to these important descriptors in characterizing orange honey, as determined by sniffing, while nonanal and nonanol were found to be important contributors to the eucalyptus honey aroma.

Deborah Helena Markowicz, Bastos; Maria Regina Bueno, Franco; Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira da, Silva; Natália Soares, Janzantti; Márcia O. M., Marques.

2002-08-01

233

Aromas florales y su interacción con los insectos polinizadores Floral scents and their interaction with insect pollinators  

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Full Text Available Las plantas emplean diversas señales visuales y olfativas con la finalidad de atraer a los polinizadores que en su mayoría son insectos. Algunas plantas han desarrollado mecanismos, basándose en mensajes olfativos que los hacen únicos para sus polinizadores específicos. Estos mecanismos, así como las variaciones intra- e interespecíficas en el perfil de los aromas florales han evolucionado para determinadas especies. Los aromas florales son un conjunto de compuestos volátiles orgánicos y para su estudio hay varios métodos que requieren de técnicas que cada vez son más eficientes. El uso de estos aromas podría ser una opción en determinados sistemas de polinización, utilizándolos como atrayente de polinizadores o de depredadores y/o herbívoro para incrementar la producción y disminuir los daños por plagas. En este trabajo se revisan las distintas interacciones de los insectos y los aromas florales, los sistemas específicos planta-polinizador, los métodos de análisis, así como algunos patrones o tendencias de estas interacciones y su aplicación e importancia.Plants use visual and olfactory cues to attract pollinators and to allow them to detect the presence of flowers, which most of them are insects. Some plants have evolved with their pollinators, based on the olfactory messages, which make them unique for their specific pollinators. These mechanisms have evolved in certain plants in relation to their pollinators, and there are also inter and intra-specific variation in fragrance cues which show specific chemical profile for each plant species, so insects attracted are specific to them. Most of the floral scents are organic compounds identified with techniques and methodologies which become more specific and efficient along the time. The application of floral scent could be used as a tool in pollination and pest management. In these studies, insect interaction with floral scent is reviewed and specificity of plant-pollinator, additionally the method of analysis, some patterns and trends in these interactions, the application and its importance are examined.

Julieta Grajales-Conesa

2011-12-01

234

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in two bavarian wheat beers by means of the sensomics approach.  

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Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatiles isolated from a commercial Bavarian wheat beer (WB A) eliciting its typical aroma profile, best described by a clove-like, phenolic odor quality, revealed 36 odorants in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 16 to 4096. Among them, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like) and 2-phenylethanol (flowery) showed the highest FD factors. AEDA of a second wheat beer (WB B), somewhat lacking the typical wheat beer odor note, revealed 32 odor-active components in the FD factor range from 32 to 8192. Among them, 2-phenylethanol, (E)-?-damascenone (cooked apple-like) and 3-methylbutanol (malty) were detected with the highest FD factors. Next, all odorants evaluated with an FD factor ?32 were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays in both beers, and the odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated. Thereby, ethanol, (E)-?-damascenone, 3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl methylpropanoate, and ethyl butanoate showed the highest OAVs in WB A, followed by acetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanol, and dimethyl sulfide. In WB B, ethanol, (E)-?-damascenone, ethyl methylpropanoate, ethyl butanoate, and 3-methylbutyl acetate showed the highest OAVs. Whereas most aroma compounds were present in the same order of magnitude in both beer samples, in particular, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol (smoky, leather-like) were by factors of 13 and 15, respectively, higher in WB A. For the first time, the overall aroma of wheat beer (WB A) was successfully simulated on the basis of 27 reference compounds in their natural concentrations using water/ethanol (95:5; v/v) as the matrix. PMID:24219571

Langos, Daniel; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

2013-11-27

235

Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese.  

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Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acid and the interaction between these environmental factors. Growth models were developed by combining new and existing cardinal parameter values. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameters (?ref at 25°C) were fitted to a total of 52 growth rates from cottage cheese to improve model performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese. The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias- and accuracy factors and with the concept of acceptable simulation zone. Evaluation of predicted growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing resulted in bias-factors (Bf) of 1.07-1.10 with corresponding accuracy factor (Af) values of 1.11 to 1.22. Lactic acid bacteria from added starter culture were on average predicted to grow 16% faster than observed (Bf of 1.16 and Af of 1.32) and growth of the diacetyl producing aroma culture was on average predicted 9% slower than observed (Bf of 0.91 and Af of 1.17). The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new models to successfully predict maximum population density of L. monocytogenes when growing together with lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. 11 of 13 simulations of L. monocytogenes growth were within the acceptable simulation zone, which demonstrated good performance of the empirical inter-bacterial interaction model. The new set of models can be used to predict simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria and L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese during chilled storage at constant and dynamic temperatures. The applied methodology is likely to be applicable for safety prediction of other types of fermented and unripened dairy products where inhibition by lactic acid bacteria is important for growth of pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:25086348

Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

2014-10-01

236

Extraction and GC determination of volatile aroma compounds from extracts of three plant species of the Apiaceae family  

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Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and celery (Apium graveolens), three aromatic plants belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) botanical family, were selected as sources of essential or volatile oils. Essential oils are composed of a large diversity of volatile aroma compounds. Plant-derived essential oils and extracts have long been used as natural agents in food preservation, pharmaceuticals and medicinal therapies. In the present study, the plant extracts from leaves of parsley, dill and celery, were obtained by maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. All extractions were performed at 30°C, using different solvents (ethanol, diethyl ether, n-hexane) and solvent mixtures (1:1, v/v). The most effective solvent system for the extraction of volatile aroma compounds was diethyl ether - n-hexane (1:1, v/v). Extraction efficiency and determination of aroma volatiles were performed by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The major volatile compounds present in plant extracts were myristicin, ?-phellandrene, ?-phellandrene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, apiol, dill ether and allyl phenoxyacetate.

Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.; Copolovici, L.; M?ruţoiu, C.

2013-11-01

237

Characterization of aroma compounds of Chinese famous liquors by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and flash GC electronic-nose.  

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Aroma composition of five Chinese premium famous liquors with different origins and liquor flavor types was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and flash gas chromatographic electronic nose system. Eighty-six aroma compounds were identified, including 5 acids, 34 esters, 10 alcohols, 9 aldehydes, 4 ketones, 4 phenols, and 10 nitrous and sulfuric compounds. To investigate possible correlation between aroma compounds identified by GC-MS and sensory attributes, multivariate ANOVA-PLSR (APLSR) was performed. It turned out that there were 30 volatile composition, ethyl acetate, ethyl propanoate, ethyl 2-methyl butanoate, ethyl 3-methyl butanoate, ethyl lactate, ethyl benzenacetate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, hexyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-heptanol, phenylethyl alcohol, acetaldehyde, 1,1-diethoxy-3-methyl butane, furfural, benzaldehyde, 5-methyl-2-furanal, 2-octanone, 2-n-butyl furan, dimethyl trisulfied and 2,6-dimethyl pyrazine, ethyl nonanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, octanoic acid, ethyl 5-methyl hexanoate, 2-phenylethyl acetate,ethyl oleate, propyl hexanoate, butanoic acid and phenol, ethyl benzenepropanoate, which showed good coordination with Chinese liquor characteristics. The multivariate structure of this electronic nose responses was then processed by principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). According to the obtained results, GC-MS and electronic nose can be used for the differentiation of the liquor origins and flavor types. PMID:24333641

Xiao, Zuobing; Yu, Dan; Niu, Yunwei; Chen, Feng; Song, Shiqing; Zhu, Jiancai; Zhu, Guangyong

2014-01-15

238

Effects of distillation system and yeast strain on the aroma profile of Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace spirits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Orujo is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in Galicia (northwest Spain) from distillation of grape pomace, a byproduct of the winemaking industry. In this study, the effect of the distillation system (copper charentais alembic versus packed column) and the yeast strain (native yeast L1 versus commercial yeast L2) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of orujo obtained from Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace has been analyzed. Principal component analysis, with two components explaining 74% of the variance, is able to clearly differentiate the distillates according to distillation system and yeast strain. Principal component 1, mainly defined by C6-C12 esters, isoamyl octanoate, and methanol, differentiates L1 from L2 distillates. In turn, principal component 2, mainly defined by linear alcohols, linalool, and 1-hexenol, differentiates alembic from packed column distillates. In addition, an aroma descriptive test reveals that the distillate obtained with a packed column from a pomace fermented with L1 presented the highest positive general impression, which is associated with the highest fruity and smallest solvent aroma scores. Moreover, chemical analysis shows that use of a packed column increases average ethanol recovery by 12%, increases the concentration of C6-C12 esters by 25%, and reduces the concentration of higher alcohols by 21%. In turn, L2 yeast obtained lower scores in the alembic distillates aroma profile. In addition, with L1, 9% higher ethanol yields were achieved, and L2 distillates contained 34%-40% more methanol than L1 distillates. PMID:25307564

Arrieta-Garay, Y; Blanco, P; López-Vázquez, C; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J J; Pérez-Correa, J R; López, F; Orriols, I

2014-10-29

239

Real-Time Emulation of Heterogeneous Wireless Networks with End-to-Edge Quality of Service Guarantees: The AROMA Testbed  

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Full Text Available This work presents and describes the real-time testbed for all-IP Beyond 3G (B3G heterogeneous wireless networks that has been developed in the framework of the European IST AROMA project. The main objective of the AROMA testbed is to provide a highly accurate and realistic framework where the performance of algorithms, policies, protocols, services, and applications for a complete heterogeneous wireless network can be fully assessed and evaluated before bringing them to a real system. The complexity of the interaction between all-IP B3G systems and user applications, while dealing with the Quality of Service (QoS concept, motivates the development of this kind of emulation platform where different solutions can be tested in realistic conditions that could not be achieved by means of simple offline simulations. This work provides an in-depth description of the AROMA testbed, emphasizing many interesting implementation details and lessons learned during the development of the tool that may result helpful to other researchers and system engineers in the development of similar emulation platforms. Several case studies are also presented in order to illustrate the full potential and capabilities of the presented emulation platform.

Anna Umbert

2010-01-01

240

Aroma characteristic and volatile profiling of carrot varieties and quantitative role of terpenoid compounds for carrot sensory attributes.  

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The aroma characteristics and volatile profiles of 14 carrot varieties were investigated by sensory evaluations and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry volatile analyses. The sensory map obtained by principal components analysis showed that the sensory attributes comprised 3 categories: sour/green, overall carrot/harsh/ink-like, and fruity/fresh/sweet. The Kuroda type is characterized by lower intensities of overall carrot/harsh/ink-like and fruity/fresh/sweet notes. Furthermore, volatile profiling indicated that this type did not have significantly higher amounts of volatiles. Partial least squares regression analysis determined the quantitative contributions to ink-like, harsh, and fruity carrot aromas; monoterpenes had significant positive correlations with these attributes, while bisabolene isomers had negative correlations. The aroma attribute intensity and contents of volatiles and nutritional compounds are relatively low in the Kuroda type than in other carrot types. This type may be useful for reducing carrot harshness during the development of new carrots with good eating qualities. PMID:24245899

Fukuda, Tomohiko; Okazaki, Keiki; Shinano, Takuro

2013-11-01

241

Determination of aroma components in Chinese southwest tobacco by directly suspended droplet microextraction combined with GC-MS.  

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In this paper, a simple and efficient approach, directly suspended droplet microextraction (DSDME), has been applied to extract aroma components in Chinese southwest tobacco prior to analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The extraction parameters such as organic solvent type, extraction time, temperature, stirring speed and volume were systemically optimized. A single drop of cyclohexane was placed on the top of the aqueous sample which was used as solvent. Under the optimal conditions of DSDME, 62 aroma components of tobacco were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. The approach was used to determine some important aromas in tobacco with the relative recoveries ranged from 75.92 to 102.88%, relative standard deviations in the range of 3.40-7.14% (n = 5) and the limits of detection of 0.0002-0.002 ?g/mL. Moreover, the DSDME was applied to identify the aromatic components in Chinese southwest tobacco in this research for the first time and the results suggested that the method can be used as rapid determination of the tobacco. This method can enhance the extracting rate of tobacco aromatic components and meet the need of qualitative analysis of large amount samples. PMID:24363270

Wu, Lijun; Li, Qianqian; Li, Chunzi; Cao, Jinli; Lai, Yanqing; Qiu, Kaixian; Min, Shungeng

2014-01-01

242

A Box-behnken Design for Characterizing Chinese Truffles (Tuber indicum Aroma by HS-SPME-GC-MS  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation is to fully characterize the aroma of Chinese truffles (Tuber indicum by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME. To develop an objective method to extract aroma compounds, four different fibers were studied and a Box-Behnken design (BBD was applied. From the statistical analysis of the experimental result, it was able to determine that the most important factor was the extraction temperature and the optimum extraction conditions were as follows: extraction time 20.6 min, extraction temperature 52.4 oC and equilibrium time 6.8 min, By using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis under the optimal conditions, it identified 24 compounds, three of which were reported for the first time in the Chinese truffle: 2-methylpropanal, 2,3-butanedione, 2-nonanone. And we found that the highest content compound was dimethyl sulfide, followed by 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, 2-butanol and 1-pentanol, 1-octen-3-ol, all of those compounds were previously described as characteristic aroma of truffle.

Sanping Fang

2012-05-01

243

Isolamento e seleção de microrganismos pectinolíticos a partir de resíduos provenientes de agroindústrias para produção de aromas frutais / Screening of fruit flavors producing pectinolitic microorganisms isolated from agroindustrial residues  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As pectinases são enzimas produzidas naturalmente por plantas, fungos, leveduras e bactérias. Estes microrganismos podem ser inoculados em meios contendo resíduos agroindustriais utilizados como fonte de carbono para a produção de compostos de maior valor agregado, como enzimas, etanol, proteínas, a [...] minoácidos e compostos de aroma. Vários microrganismos foram isolados e selecionados quanto à produção de enzimas pectinolíticas pelo método da placa, através de zonas claras de degradação de pectina ao redor da colônia. De 104 linhagens testadas, 18 foram selecionadas para fermentarem em meio líquido, contendo pectina para a determinação de atividade de poligalacturonase (PG) e de pectina liase (PMGL), e em meio frutose/extrato de levedura para produção de aromas. As linhagens 2, 9, 20, 39, 70, 74 e 99 apresentaram unidades de atividade de PG superiores a 80 µmol de ácido galacturônico/mL/min, as linhagens 17, 18, 31, 37, 73, 74 e 125 apresentaram unidades de atividade de PMGL superiores a 1000 etamol de produtos insaturados/mL/min e as linhagens 13, 70, 73, 74, 125 e 144 apresentaram os melhores descritores e as maiores intensidades de aromas percebidos por um painel não treinado de provadores. Abstract in english Pectinases are enzymes used in food industries, produced by plants, fungi, yeasts and bacteria. These microorganisms can be inoculated in a medium containing agro-industrial residues from processing agricultural products, used as a carbon source to produce value-added products such as enzymes, ethan [...] ol, proteins, amino acids and flavor compounds. Several microorganisms were isolated and selected due to their capacity to produce pectinolytic enzymes in clear halos around colonies by plate assay. From 104 strains, 18 were inoculated in a medium containing pectin as a carbon source and the pectinolytic activities of polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin lyase (PMGL) were determined. Strains 2, 9, 20, 39, 70, 74, and 99 showed activity units of PG higher than 80 µmol galacturonic acid/mL/minute. Strains 17, 18, 31, 37, 73, 74 and 125 showed activity units of PMGL higher than 1000 etamol unsaturated products/mL/minute. Strains 13, 70, 73, 74, 125 and 144 showed good signs of flavor noticed in the fructose and yeast extract medium and the most intense flavor according to a non-trained board of tasters.

Mariana, Uenojo; Glaucia Maria, Pastore.

2006-09-01

244

A Study of Inhalation of Peppermint Aroma on the Pain and Anxiety  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Considering the painfulness of labor and its resulting anxiety, and also, complications such as uterine dysfunction, prolonged labor, and unpleasant memories, the present study was performed aimed to investigate the effect of peppermint aroma on the level of pain and anxiety in the first stage of labor in nulliparous women.Methods: This research was done as a clinical trial study on 128 nulliparous women assigned into two groups (64 subjects in aromatherapy group and 64 subjects in control group. In aromatherapy group, mixtures containing 0.2ml essence of peppermint and 2ml normal saline impregnated gauze, and in the control group, only 2ml normal saline impregnated gauze were attached to their dress collar, and the administration was repeated every 30 minutes. Level of anxiety was measured in dilatations 3-4 and 8-10cm and the intensity of pain in dilatations 4-5, 6-7, and 8-10cm. The data were collected through demographic and obstetric questionnaire, observation checklist, spielberger anxiety questionnaire, and pain numerical rating scale. Results: In this study, the age, job, education, and gestational age were the same in both groups. Also, the level of anxiety was the same in both groups before the intervention, but after the intervention, anxiety level decreased in intervention group compared to control group (p<0.001. The mean pain score in the dilatations 4-5, 6-7, and 8-10cm decreased in intervention group compared to control group (p<0.001 for all.Conclusion: Aromatherapy with peppermint essence is recommended for the reduction of pain and anxiety level during labor due to its inexpensiveness, ease and non-invasiveness.

Giti Ozgoli

2013-07-01

245

Aroma biosynthesis in strawberry: s-adenosylmethionine:furaneol o-methyltransferase activity in ripening fruits.  

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Among the most important volatile compounds in the aroma of strawberries are 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (Furaneol) and its methoxy derivative (methoxyfuraneol, mesifuran). Three strawberry varieties, Malach, Tamar, and Yael, were assessed for total volatiles, Furaneol, and methoxyfuraneol. The content of these compounds sharply increased during fruit ripening, with maximum values at the ripe stage. An enzymatic activity that transfers a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to Furaneol sharply increases during ripening of strawberry fruits. The in vitro generated methoxyfuraneol was identified by radio-TLC and GC-MS. The partially purified enzyme had a native molecular mass of approximately 80 kDa, with optimum activity at pH 8.5 and 37 degrees C. A high apparent K(m) of 5 mM was calculated for Furaneol, whereas this enzyme preparation apparently accepted as substrates other o-dihydroxyphenol derivatives (such as catechol, caffeic acid, and protocatechuic aldehyde) with much higher affinities (K(m) approximately 105, 130, and 20 microM, respectively). A K(m) for SAM was found to be approximately 5 microM, regardless of the acceptor used. Substrates that contained a phenolic group with only one OH group, such as p-coumaric and trans-ferulic acid, as well as trans-anol and coniferyl alcohol, were apparently not accepted by this activity. It is suggested that Furaneol methylation is mediated by an O-methyltransferase activity and that this activity increases during fruit ripening. PMID:12083877

Lavid, Noa; Schwab, Wilfried; Kafkas, Ebru; Koch-Dean, Margery; Bar, Einat; Larkov, Olga; Ravid, Uzi; Lewinsohn, Efraim

2002-07-01

246

Reconstitution of the flavor signature of Dornfelder red wine on the basis of the natural concentrations of its key aroma and taste compounds.  

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By application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction isolated from a Dornfelder red wine, 31 odor-active compounds were identified by means of HRGC-MS and comparison with reference compounds. A total of 27 odorants, judged with high FD factors by means of AEDA, was quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays, and acetaldehyde was determined enzymatically. In addition, 36 taste-active compounds were analyzed by means of HPLC-UV, HPLC-MS/MS, and ion chromatography. The quantitative data obtained for the identified aroma and taste compounds enabled for the first time the reconstruction of the overall flavor of the red wine. Sensory evaluation of both the aroma and taste profiles of the authentic red wine and the recombinate revealed that Dornfelder red wine was closely mimicked. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the high molecular weight fraction of red wine is essential for its astringent taste impression. By comparison of the overall odor of the aroma recombinate in ethanol with that of the total flavor recombinate containing all tastants, it was shown for the first time that the nonvolatile tastants had a strong influence on the intensity of certain aroma qualities. PMID:21744781

Frank, Stephanie; Wollmann, Nadine; Schieberle, Peter; Hofmann, Thomas

2011-08-24

247

Characterization of the most odor-active compounds in an American Bourbon whisky by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction carefully isolated from an American Bourbon whisky revealed 45 odor-active areas in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 32-4096 among which (E)-beta-damascenone and delta-nonalactone showed the highest FD factors of 4096 and 2048, respectively. With FD factors of 1024, (3S,4S)-cis-whiskylactone, gamma-decalactone, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (eugenol), and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzaldehyde (vanillin) additionally contributed to the overall vanilla-like, fruity, and smoky aroma note of the spirit. Application of GC-Olfactometry on the headspace above the whisky revealed 23 aroma-active odorants among which 3-methylbutanal, ethanol, and 2-methylbutanal were identified as additional important aroma compounds. Compared to published data on volatile constituents in whisky, besides ranking the whisky odorants on the basis of their odor potency, 13 aroma compounds were newly identified in this study: ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, (E)-2-heptenal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, ethyl phenylacetate, 4-methyl acetophenone, alpha-damascone, 2-phenylethyl propanoate, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, trans-ethyl cinnamate, and (Z)-6-dodeceno-gamma-lactone. PMID:18570373

Poisson, Luigi; Schieberle, Peter

2008-07-23

248

Aromas florales y su interacción con los insectos polinizadores / Floral scents and their interaction with insect pollinators  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las plantas emplean diversas señales visuales y olfativas con la finalidad de atraer a los polinizadores que en su mayoría son insectos. Algunas plantas han desarrollado mecanismos, basándose en mensajes olfativos que los hacen únicos para sus polinizadores específicos. Estos mecanismos, así como la [...] s variaciones intra- e interespecíficas en el perfil de los aromas florales han evolucionado para determinadas especies. Los aromas florales son un conjunto de compuestos volátiles orgánicos y para su estudio hay varios métodos que requieren de técnicas que cada vez son más eficientes. El uso de estos aromas podría ser una opción en determinados sistemas de polinización, utilizándolos como atrayente de polinizadores o de depredadores y/o herbívoro para incrementar la producción y disminuir los daños por plagas. En este trabajo se revisan las distintas interacciones de los insectos y los aromas florales, los sistemas específicos planta-polinizador, los métodos de análisis, así como algunos patrones o tendencias de estas interacciones y su aplicación e importancia. Abstract in english Plants use visual and olfactory cues to attract pollinators and to allow them to detect the presence of flowers, which most of them are insects. Some plants have evolved with their pollinators, based on the olfactory messages, which make them unique for their specific pollinators. These mechanisms h [...] ave evolved in certain plants in relation to their pollinators, and there are also inter and intra-specific variation in fragrance cues which show specific chemical profile for each plant species, so insects attracted are specific to them. Most of the floral scents are organic compounds identified with techniques and methodologies which become more specific and efficient along the time. The application of floral scent could be used as a tool in pollination and pest management. In these studies, insect interaction with floral scent is reviewed and specificity of plant-pollinator, additionally the method of analysis, some patterns and trends in these interactions, the application and its importance are examined.

Julieta, Grajales-Conesa; Virginia, Meléndez-Ramírez; Leopoldo, Cruz-López.

1356-13-01

249

HS/GC-MS analyzed chemical composition of the aroma of fruiting bodies of two species of genus Lentinus (Higher Basidiomycetes).  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical composition of the aroma of fresh fruiting bodies of the cultivated mushroom Lentinus boryanus is described here and compared with medicinal shiitake mushroom L. edodes. Volatile compounds were analyzed through headspace sampling coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mushrooms under study were grown on different substrates based on barley straw, sugarcane bagasse, oak wood sawdust, and beech leaf litter. It was determined that L. boryanus as well as L. edodes contain an abundant amount of a volatile compound identified as 3-octanone with a sweet fruity aroma. On the other hand, only L. boryanus produced 3-octanol a characteristic aroma of cod liver oil. In total, 10 aromatic compounds were identified, some of which were obtained exclusively in one species or substrate. PMID:25271982

Mata, Gerardo; Valdez, Karina; Mendoza, Remedios; Trigos, Ángel

2014-01-01

250

Identification of the key odorants in Tahitian cured vanilla beans (Vanilla tahitensis) by GC-MS and an aroma extract dilution analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The key odorants of Tahitian vanilla beans (Vanilla tahitensis) were characterized by a sensory evaluation, aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), quantification, and aroma reconstitution. Vanillin and anisaldehyde were identified in the same highest flavor dilution (FD) factor as the most characteristic odor-active compounds in Tahitian vanilla beans, followed by anisyl alcohol and anisyl acetate. Vanillin and anisyl alcohol were by far the most abundant odorants present with the highest concentration in the beans, followed by acetic acid, anisaldehyde, and anisyl acetate. A sensory evaluation of Tahitian vanilla beans and its reconstitute aroma concentrate characterized both samples as similar. These results indicated vanillin, anisaldehyde, anisyl alcohol, and anisyl acetate to be the key odorants in Tahitian vanilla beans. 3-Methylnonane-2,4-dione were identified for the first time in vanilla beans. ?-Damascenone and phenylacetic acid were identified for the first time in Tahitian vanilla beans. PMID:23470766

Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

2013-01-01

251

The chemical characterization of the aroma of dessert and sparkling white wines (Pedro Ximénez, Fino, Sauternes, and Cava) by gas chromatography-olfactometry and chemical quantitative analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wines from Pedro Ximénez (PX), Fino, botrytized Sauternes, and Cava were screened by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and the most relevant aroma compounds were further quantified in six different wines of each group. The comparison of GC-O and quantitative data with similar data from white young wines has made it possible to identify the aroma compounds potentially responsible for the specific sensory characteristics of these wines. Results have shown that all these wines are relatively rich in 3-methylbutanal, phenylacetaldehyde, methional, sotolon, and the ethyl esters of 2-, 3-, and 4-methylpentanoic acids. While Cava has a less specific aroma profile halfway between these special wines and young white wines, PX is richest in 3-methylbutanal, furfural, beta-damascenone, ethyl cyclohexanoate, and sotolon; Fino in acetaldehyde, diacetyl, ethyl esters of branched aliphatic acids with four, five, or six carbon atoms, and 4-ethylguaiacol; and Sauternes in phenylacetaldehyde, 3-mercaptohexanol, and 4-methyl-4-mercaptopentanone. PMID:18338867

Campo, Eva; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

2008-04-01

252

Characterization of aroma-active compounds in dry flower of Malva sylvestris L. by GC-MS-O analysis and OAV calculations.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the aroma-active compounds in the dried flower of Malva sylvestris L. were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA). A light yellow oil with a sweet odor was obtained with a percentage yield of 0.039% (w/w), and 143 volatile compounds (89.86%) were identified by GC-MS. The main compounds were hexadecanoic acid (10.1%), pentacosane (4.8%) and 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (4.1%). The essential oil consisted mainly of hydrocarbons (25.40%) followed by, alcohols (18.78%), acids (16.66%), ethers (5.01%) ketones (7.28%), esters(12.43%), aldehydes (2.30%) and others (2.00%). Of these compounds, 20 were determined by GC-O and AEDA, to be odor-active (FD (flavor dilution) factor ? 1). ?-Damascenone (FD = 9, sweet), phenylacetaldehyde (FD = 8, floral, honey-like) and (E)-?-ocimene (FD = 8, spicy) were the most intense aroma-active compounds in M. sylvestris. In order to determine the relative contribution of each of the compounds to the aroma of M. sylvestris, odor activity values (OAVs) were used. ?-Damascenone had the highest odor activity values (OAV) (50,700), followed by (E)-?-ionone (15,444) and decanal (3,510). In particular, ?-damascenone had a high FD factors, and therefore, this compound was considered to be the main aroma-active components of the essential oil. On the basis of AEDA, OAVs, and sensory evaluation results, ?-damascenone is estimated to be the main aroma-active compound of the essential oil. PMID:23985485

Usami, Atsushi; Kashima, Yusei; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

2013-01-01

253

[Effects of soil, climate, and their interaction on some neutral volatile aroma components in flue-cured tobacco leaves from high quality tobacco planting regions of Hunan Province].  

Science.gov (United States)

A pot experiment with the soils from Yongzhou, Liuyang, and Sangzhi, the high-quality tobacco planting regions of Hunan Province, was conducted to study the effects of climate, soil, and their interaction on some neutral volatile aroma components in flue-cured tobacco leaves. The contents of test neutral volatile aroma components in the flue-cured tobacco leaves were of medium variation, and the variation intensity was decreased in the order of dihydroactinolide, damascenone, furfural, total megastigmatrienone, and beta-ionone. Climate, soil, and their interaction affected the neutral volatile aroma components in different degrees. The furfural content was most affected by climate, the damascenone content was most affected by climate and by soil, the total megastigmatrienone and beta-ionone contents were most affected by the interaction of soil and climate, while the dihydroactinolide content was less affected by soil, climate, and their interaction. The contribution of climate, soil, and their interaction to the contents of the five aroma components was 40.82%, 20.67%, and 38.51%, respectively. During different growth periods of tobacco, different climate factors had different effects on the neutral volatile aroma components. The rainfall, cloudiness, and mean air temperature at rooting stage, the diurnal temperature amplitude, sunshine time, and evaporation at vigorous growth stage, and the rainfall, evaporation, and mean air temperature at maturing stage were the top three climate factors affecting the contents of the neutral volatile aroma components in flue-tobacco leaves. For the soil factors, the available potassium, available phosphorus, and pH were the top three factors affecting the contents of the five components. PMID:21043117

Deng, Xiao-Hua; Xie, Peng-Fei; Peng, Xin-Hui; Yi, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Ji-Heng; Zhou, Qing-Ming; Pu, Wen-Xuan; Dai, Yuan-Gang

2010-08-01

254

ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF CRUCIFER GLUCOSINOLATE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The crucifer family, Brassicaceae, is an economically important family for its many food crops. Crucifers are characterized by the presence of a group of secondary compounds called glucosinolates, which with their degradation products are primarily responsible for the characteristic aromas and flav...

255

Quantitative Analysis by GC-MS/MS of 18 Aroma Compounds Related to Oxidative Off-Flavor in Wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

A quantitation method for 18 aroma compounds reported to contribute to "oxidative" flavor in wines was developed. The method allows quantitation of the (E)-2-alkenals ((E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-heptenal, (E)-2-octenal, and (E)-2-nonenal), various Strecker aldehydes (methional, 2-phenylacetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanal, and 2-methylpropanal), aldehydes (furfural, 5-methylfurfural, hexanal, and benzaldehyde), furans (sotolon, furaneol, and homofuraneol), as well as alcohols (methionol, eugenol, and maltol) in the same analysis. The aldehydes were determined after derivatization directly in the wine with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride; the formed oximes along with the underivatized aroma compounds were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by means of GC-MS/MS. The method was used to investigate the effect of different closures (synthetic closures, natural corks, and screw cap) on the formation of oxidation-related compounds in 14 year old white wine. Results showed a significant increase in the concentration of some of the monitored compounds in the wine, particularly methional, 2-phenylacetaldehyde, and 3-methylbutanal. PMID:25819472

Mayr, Christine M; Capone, Dimitra L; Pardon, Kevin H; Black, Cory A; Pomeroy, Damian; Francis, I Leigh

2015-04-01

256

Studies on some precursors involved in meat flavour formation / Estudos de alguns precursores envolvidos na formação do aroma cárneo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O efeito de alguns precursores na formação do aroma cárneo durante o aquecimento foi investigado. Estudos comparativos da influencia de três diferentes precursores, inosina-5'-monofosfato (5'-IMP), cisteína e tiamina, adicionados aos sistemas cárneos, mostrou que a formação de certos compostos heter [...] ocíclicos, como furanos sulfurados, ditiolanonas e tiofenos, foi significativamente afetada pelas mudanças de concentração dos precursores. Entretanto, compostos alifáticos, tais como: hidrocarbonetos, alcoois e cetonas não foram afetados por estas adições. Inosina-5'-monofosfato apresentou-se como o precursor mais eficiente na formação de alguns voláteis de aroma cárneo, como por exemplo os furanos sulfurados, quando aumentou-se em 10 vezes sua concentração na carne crua. Abstract in english The effect of some precursors on the formation of meat flavour during heating has been investigated. A comparison of the influence of three different precursors, inosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-IMP), cysteine and thiamine, added to the meat systems, showed that formation of certain heterocyclic compoun [...] ds, like sulfur-containing furans, dithiolanones and thiophenes, was significantly affected by changes in the concentration of precursors. However, aliphatic compounds, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols and ketones were not changed by these additions. Inosine-5'-monophosphate was established to be more effective than cysteine or thiamine in the formation of some "meaty" volatiles, i.e. the furanthiols, when its concentration was increased 10 times in raw meat.

M.S., Madruga.

1997-08-01

257

Studies on some precursors involved in meat flavour formation Estudos de alguns precursores envolvidos na formação do aroma cárneo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of some precursors on the formation of meat flavour during heating has been investigated. A comparison of the influence of three different precursors, inosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-IMP, cysteine and thiamine, added to the meat systems, showed that formation of certain heterocyclic compounds, like sulfur-containing furans, dithiolanones and thiophenes, was significantly affected by changes in the concentration of precursors. However, aliphatic compounds, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols and ketones were not changed by these additions. Inosine-5'-monophosphate was established to be more effective than cysteine or thiamine in the formation of some "meaty" volatiles, i.e. the furanthiols, when its concentration was increased 10 times in raw meat.O efeito de alguns precursores na formação do aroma cárneo durante o aquecimento foi investigado. Estudos comparativos da influencia de três diferentes precursores, inosina-5'-monofosfato (5'-IMP, cisteína e tiamina, adicionados aos sistemas cárneos, mostrou que a formação de certos compostos heterocíclicos, como furanos sulfurados, ditiolanonas e tiofenos, foi significativamente afetada pelas mudanças de concentração dos precursores. Entretanto, compostos alifáticos, tais como: hidrocarbonetos, alcoois e cetonas não foram afetados por estas adições. Inosina-5'-monofosfato apresentou-se como o precursor mais eficiente na formação de alguns voláteis de aroma cárneo, como por exemplo os furanos sulfurados, quando aumentou-se em 10 vezes sua concentração na carne crua.

M.S. Madruga

1997-08-01

258

Relationship of sensory and instrumental aroma measurements of dark chocolate as influenced by fermentation method, roasting and conching conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The investigation was undertaken to establish a relationship between key odorants and perceived flavor attributes of dark chocolate as influenced by cocoa fermentation method, roasting and conching conditions, using multivariate data analysis in an attempt to use one variable to predict the other. Eight of the sixteen flavor attributes used by a trained sensory panel to describe and quantify the intensity of attributes in the samples were significantly different (p?fermented samples but the reduction in tray-fermented samples was not significant. Unconched samples were rated higher in banana attribute than conched samples. Multivariate data analytical tools, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares (PLS) were used to investigate quantitative descriptive analysis and GC-O data and also to relate the two sets of data. PLS 1 models based on single sensory attributes gave better models than PLS2 models based on all sixteen sensory attributes. Ethyl-3-methylbutanoate (fruity, flowery); 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (popcorn); dihydro-2(3H)-furanone, (sweet); linalool oxide (sweet, flowery); benzaldehyde (earthy, nutty) and 2/3-methylbutanal (cocoa, roasted) modeled fruit attribute. It was also possible to model the attribute astringent from the aroma compounds 5-methyl-2-phenyl-2-hexenal (sweet, roasted cocoa), ethyl-3-methylbutanoate and pentyl acetate (green, cucumber). Since fruit attribute was higher in unconched samples and astringent higher in unroasted samples, it may be possible to use the levels of these important aroma compounds as indicators of the sensory attributes fruit and astringent. PMID:24425997

Owusu, Margaret; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Heimdal, Hanne

2013-10-01

259

A methodological approach to screen diverse cheese-related bacteria for their ability to produce aroma compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microorganisms play an important role in the development of cheese flavor. The aim of this study was to develop an approach to facilitate screening of various cheese-related bacteria for their ability to produce aroma compounds. We combined i) curd-based slurry medium incubated under conditions mimicking cheese manufacturing and ripening, ii) powerful method of extraction of volatiles, headspace trap, coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-trap-GC-MS), and iii) metabolomics-based method of data processing using the XCMS package of R software and multivariate analysis. This approach was applied to eleven species: five lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc lactis, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus helveticus), four actinobacteria (Brachybacterium articum, Brachybacterium tyrofermentans, Brevibacterium aurantiacum, and Microbacterium gubbeenense), Propionibacterium freudenreichii, and Hafnia alvei. All the strains grew, with maximal populations ranging from 7.4 to 9.2 log (CFU/mL). In total, 52 volatile aroma compounds were identified, of which 49 varied significantly in abundance between bacteria. Principal component analysis of volatile profiles differentiated species by their ability to produce ethyl esters (associated with Brachybacteria), sulfur compounds and branched-chain alcohols (H. alvei), branched-chain acids (H. alvei, P. freudenreichii and L. paracasei), diacetyl and related carbonyl compounds (M. gubbeenense and L. paracasei), among others. PMID:25475278

Poga?i?, Tomislav; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Leclerc, Aurélie; Hervé, Christophe; Chuat, Victoria; Yee, Alyson L; Valence, Florence; Thierry, Anne

2015-04-01

260

Identification of a new lactone contributing to overripe orange aroma in Bordeaux dessert wines via perceptual interaction phenomena.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of a typical sensory concept for Bordeaux dessert wines, including the world famous wines of Sauternes. Volatile compounds from several chemical families (thiols, aldehydes, and lactones) were identified and correlated with aromatic typicality in these wines. However, these studies were unable to indicate "key" aromas of overripe fruits, especially overripe orange. The alternative strategy developed in this research combined both analytical and sensory studies of fractions of dessert wine extracts obtained by semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Multidimensional gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry and mass spectrometry (MDGC-O/MS) was applied to some of the HPLC fractions recalling "overripe fruit", and a new lactone, 2-nonen-4-olide, was identified. Reconstitution and omission tests using the HPLC fractions highlighted the importance of specific compounds, particularly 2-nonen-4-olide, in the expression of overripe orange notes. Although this lactone presents minty and fruity odors, its key contribution to the typical aroma of orange in Bordeaux dessert wines was revealed through perceptual blending. PMID:24559261

Stamatopoulos, Panagiotis; Frérot, Eric; Tempère, Sophie; Pons, Alexandre; Darriet, Philippe

2014-03-26

261

Characterization of the key aroma compounds in rape honey by means of the molecular sensory science concept.  

Science.gov (United States)

By application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction isolated by solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) from unifloral rape honey harvested in July 2009, 28 odor-active areas could be detected within a flavor dilution factor (FD) range of 4-2048. The highest FD factors were found for (E)-?-damascenone (cooked apple-like), phenylacetic acid (honey-like), 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (aniseed-like), 3-phenylpropanoic acid (flowery, waxy), and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like). Twenty-three odorants were then quantitated by application of stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAV, ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated on the basis of newly determined odor thresholds in an aqueous fructose-glucose solution. The highest OAVs were calculated for (E)-?-damascenone, 3-phenylpropanoic acid, phenylacetic acid, dimethyl trisulfide, and phenylacetaldehyde. Quantitative measurements on a rape honey produced in 2011 confirmed the results. A model mixture containing the 12 odorants showing an OAV ? 1 at the same concentrations as they occurred in the rape honey was able to mimick the aroma impression of the original honey. The characterization of the key odorants in rape flowers from the same field suggested 3-phenylpropanoic acid, phenylacetic acid, and three further odorants to be transferred via the bees into the honey. PMID:22489542

Ruisinger, Brigitte; Schieberle, Peter

2012-05-01

262

Identification of character-impact odorants in a cola-flavored carbonated beverage by quantitative analysis and omission studies of aroma reconstitution models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty aroma-active components of a cola-flavored carbonated beverage were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. The OAV results revealed that 1,8-cineole, (R)-(-)-linalool, and octanal made the greatest contribution to the overall aroma of the cola. A cola aroma reconstitution model was constructed by adding 20 high-purity standards to an aqueous sucrose-phosphoric acid solution. The results of headspace solid-phase microextraction and sensory analyses were used to adjust the model to better match authentic cola. The rebalanced model was used as a complete model for the omission study. Sensory results indicated that omission of a group consisting of methyleugenol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and (Z)- and (E)-isoeugenols differed from the complete model, while omission of the individual components of this group did not differ from the complete model. These results indicate that a balance of numerous odorants is responsible for the characteristic aroma of cola-flavored carbonated beverages. PMID:25529113

Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa; Cadwallader, Keith R

2015-01-28

263

Bluff package. Swiss scientists warn against mineral oil aromas from recycled cartonboard; Mogelpackung. Schweizer Wissenschaftler warnen vor Mineraloel-Aromaten aus Recyclingkarton  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

However, the German industry processes more than 15 million tons of waste paper and old pasteboard in the year. Investigations of Swiss chemists could bring this well lubricated cycle in stagnation. From recycling cardboard aroma containing mineral oils arrive into the food - more, than it is good.

Friedl, Christa

2010-10-15

264

Evaluación química de precursores de aroma y sabor del cacao criollo merideño durante la fermentación en dos condiciones edafoclimáticas / Chemical evaluation of aroma and flavor of precursors of the criollo merideño cocoa during fermentation in two edafoclimatic conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se evaluó algunos parámetros asociados con los compuestos de aroma y sabor del cacao , Theobroma cacao L., Criollo Merideño (CM) cultivado bajo dos condiciones edafoclimáticas. Un primer lote establecido en el Campo Experimental San Juan de Lagunillas del Instituto Nacional de [...] Investigaciones Agrícolas (INIA-Mérida), Venezuela , a una altura de 1.050 m.s.n.m con temperatura media anual de 26 ºC y otro lote ubicado en la población Zea del mismo estado, a 850 m.s.n.m y 22 ºC, respectivamente. Los análisis se efectuaron en muestras de cotiledones frescos durante el proceso de fermentación. En ambos casos se evaluó el porcentaje de: cascarilla, humedad , grasa y punto de fusión , contenido de ácidos volátiles, azúcares totales, polifenoles, purinas totales, teobromina, cafeína y pirazinas. Los resultados muestran que el cacao CM en San Juan de Lagunillas (SJL), presentó menor acidez titulable al inicio del secado y volátil al final de la fermentación, en comparación con el CM en Zea. Así mismo, se observó ligeras diferencias en el contenido de grasas, azúcares totales , pirazinas, cafeína y teobromina, lo que indica que las condiciones edafoclimáticas generaron cambios en el comportamiento químico de los precursores de aroma y sabor . Todos los parámetros químicos fueron corregidos en función de la humedad de la muestra durante el proceso de fermentación y relacionados con una muestra de cacao fermentado Forastero de Ghana Abstract in english The present study evaluated some parameters associated with the aroma and fl avor compounds in cocoa, Theobroma cacao L., Merideño Creole (MC) grown under soil and climatic conditions. A lot set in the Experimental Station of the San Juan de Lagunillas (INIA-Mérida), Venezuela at an altitude of 1,05 [...] 0 m.a.s.l. and average annual tempe rature of 26 ºC and another in the town of Zea, Zea municipality of Mérida and 850 m.a.s.l. 22 ºC average tempe rature. Tests were conducted on samples of fresh cotyledons during the fermentation process. Both cases evaluated the percentage of fi ber, moisture, fat and its melting point, content of volatile acidity, total sugars, polyphenols, total purines, theobro mine, caffeine and pyrazine. The results show that the MC cacao in San Juan of Lagunillas, a low acidity at the start of drying compared to MC in Zea as well as a less volatile acidity at the end of fermentation. It was also noted slight differences in fat content, total sugars, pyrazine and content of caffeine and theobromine, indicating that soil and climatic conditions have led to changes in the chemical behavior of the precursors of aroma and fl avor. All chemical parameters were corrected according to the moisture of the sample during the fermentation process and were associated with a sample of fermented cocoa of Ghana

Alexis, Zambrano; Carlos, Romero; Álvaro, Gómez; Gladys, Ramos; Carlos, Lacruz; María del Rosario, Brunetto; Gallignani, Máximo; Lubin, Gutiérrez; Yelitza, Delgado.

2010-06-01

265

Screening for key odorants in Moroccan green olives by gas chromatography-olfactometry/aroma extract dilution analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

"Spanish style" Moroccan green table olives were screened for potent odorants by gas chromatography-olfactometry/aroma extraction dilution analysis of a representative Likens-Nickerson extract. (Z)-3-Hexenal [flavor dilution factor (FD) = 256], (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (FD = 128), and (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal (FD = 64) were revealed to confer green and coriander/paraffin oil odors to both fruit and oil extracts, whereas guaiacol (FD = 128) imparted a bad olive, phenolic note. Methional (3-methylthiopropionaldehyde, FD = 128) and several terpenes (FD

Iraqi, Rafika; Vermeulen, Catherine; Benzekri, Amale; Bouseta, Amina; Collin, Sonia

2005-02-23

266

Effect of antioxidant protection of must on volatile compounds and aroma shelf life of Falanghina (Vitis vinifera L.) wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two vinification methods involving different degrees of antioxidant protection of Falanghina must during prefermentative steps, and referred as HAMP (high antioxidant must protection) and LAMP (low antioxidant must protection), were compared in terms of fermentation performances of four different yeast strains, composition of the volatile fraction of wines at the end of alcoholic fermentation, and shelf life of wines during storage. The use of HAMP technology resulted in wines with lower volatile acidity and higher concentrations of medium-chain fatty acid ethyl esters, acetates, and volatile fatty acids. For two of the four strains a lower concentration of isoamyl alcohol was also observed. HAMP wines also revealed increased shelf life because of the higher concentration of odor active esters at the end of storage and better preservation of varietal aromas. PMID:14969547

Moio, Luigi; Ugliano, Maurizio; Genovese, Alessandro; Gambuti, Angelita; Pessina, Rita; Piombino, Paola

2004-02-25

267

Cooked carrot volatiles. AEDA and odor activity comparisons. Identification of linden ether as an important aroma component.  

Science.gov (United States)

MS with GC-RI evidence was found for the presence of linden ether in cooked carrot (Daucus carota). Evaluation of the GC effluent from cooked carrot volatiles using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) found linden ether with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor. Others with 10-fold lower FD factors were ?-ionone, eugenol, the previously unidentified ?-damascenone, (E)-2-nonenal, octanal (+ myrcene), and heptanal. All other previously identified volatiles showed lower FD factors. Odor thresholds, concentrations, and odor activity values of previously identified compounds are reviewed. This indicated that at least 20 compounds occur in cooked carrots above their odor thresholds (in water). Compounds showing the highest odor activity values included ?-damascenone, (E)-2-nonenal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, ?-ionone, octanal, (E)-2-decenal, eugenol, and p-vinylguaiacol. PMID:24000828

Buttery, Ron G; Takeoka, Gary R

2013-09-25

268

Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis beverages  

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Full Text Available Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma while roasted mate was defined as having a smooth, slightly burnt aroma. The relationship between the tentatively identified compounds and flavor must be determined by olfatometric analysis.

Carla Carolina Batista Machado

2007-06-01

269

Evaluación interanual de las estrategias regenerativas de la especie exótica invasora Gleditsia triacanthos en relación a la nativa Acacia aroma en el bosque chaqueño serrano de Córdoba (Argentina) / Interannual evaluation of the regenerative strategies of the exotic invasive species Gleditsia triacanthos compared with the native Acacia aroma in the Chaco Serrano Woodland of Cordoba (Argentina)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se ha propuesto que las especies exóticas, en relación a las nativas, difieren en características o estrategias que favorecerían su expansión. Las características regenerativas de las plantas exóticas pueden variar entre temporadas reproductivas, modificando los patrones con respecto a las especies [...] nativas e influyendo en la velocidad de expansión. En este trabajo, en el bosque chaqueño serrano de Córdoba (Argentina), se comparó en al menos dos temporadas reproductivas la producción de frutos, la densidad de semillas en el banco y la densidad de plántulas alrededor de los adultos y distribuidas en el área de estudio entre la especie exótica invasora Gleditsia triacanthos y la nativa Acacia aroma. En cada temporada de muestreo se contó el número de frutos por individuo y se obtuvo alrededor de los adultos de cada especie: a) la densidad de semillas en el banco (en dos momentos del año) y b) la densidad plántulas. Además, se registró la densidad de plántulas de ambas especies dispersas en los sitios de estudio. En dos de las tres temporadas analizadas la producción de frutos fue mayor en la especie exótica. La densidad de semillas en el banco y de plántulas alrededor de los adultos fue mayor en la especie exótica en las dos temporadas registradas. La densidad de plántulas en los sitios no varío entre las especies en ninguna de las temporadas. Las características regenerativas de G. triacanthos y la consistencia observada en las mismas en las distintas temporadas sugerirían una rápida capacidad de expansión en la región. Abstract in english It has been proposed that exotic species, compared with native ones, differed in certain characteristics that may favor their expansion. The regenerative characteristics of exotic species may vary among reproductive seasons, modifying the patterns observed contrasted with native species and hence in [...] fluencing their expansion velocity. In this work, fruit production, seed density in the soil and seedlings density around the con-specifics and in the study sites were compared between the exotic invasive Gleditsia triacanthos and the native Acacia aroma. The study was developed in at least two reproductive seasons, in areas of the Chaco Serrano Woodland of Córdoba (Argentina). In each season, the number of fruits was counted. Around the con-specifics of each species it was obtained: a) the density of seeds in the soil (in two different moments per year) and b) the density of seedlings. In addition, the density of seedlings distributed in the study sites was registered. In two of the three reproductive seasons analyzed, fruit production was higher in the exotic invasive species. In both seasons the density of seeds in the seed bank and of seedlings around the focal individuals was higher in the exotic species. The density of seedlings in the study sites did not vary between species in any of the seasons. The regenerative characteristics observed in G. triacanthos and the consistency in their response in different reproductive seasons suggest a rapid expansion of the species in the region.

Ana Elisa, Ferreras; Guillermo, Funes; Leonardo, Galetto.

270

Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) beverages  

OpenAIRE

Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z)-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma whi...

Carla Carolina Batista Machado; Deborah Helena Markowicz Bastos; Natália Soares Janzantti; Roselaine Facanali; Marques, Marcia Ortiz M.; Maria Regina Bueno Franco

2007-01-01

271

Studies on the aroma of different species and strains of Pleurotus measured by GC/MS, sensory analysis and electronic nose  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aroma of several strains of Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Pleurotus djamor was studied by GC/MS. Three main mushrooms aroma constituents: 3-octanol, 3-octanone and 1-octen-3-ol were taken into account for quantitative measurements. The highest amount of 1-octen-3-ol was recorded in P. ostreatus, while considerably lower amounts in P. citrinopileatus. Sensory profile analysis as well as the electronic nose also varied between the three species of Pleurotus. Chiral gas chromatography showed the high optical purity of (R-(--1-octen-3-ol in P. ostreatus and P. djamor (the highest one in contrast to P. citrinopileatus. Carpophores of P. djamor was characterized relatively high dry matter and protein contents.

Renata Zawirska-Wojtasiak

2009-03-01

272

Comparative analysis of fruit aroma patterns in the domesticated wild strawberries “Profumata di Tortona” (F. moschata) and “Regina delle Valli” (F. vesca)  

Science.gov (United States)

Strawberry is one of the most valued fruit worldwide. Modern cultivated varieties (Fragaria × ananassa) exhibit large fruits, with intense color and prolonged shell life. Yet, these valuable traits were attained at the cost of the intensity and the variety of the aroma of the berry, two characteristics highly appreciated by consumers. Wild species display smaller fruits and reduced yield compared with cultivated varieties but they accumulate broader and augmented blends of volatile compounds. Because of the large diversity and strength of aromas occurring in natural and domesticated populations, plant breeders regard wild strawberries as important donors of novel scented molecules. Here we report a comprehensive metabolic map of the aroma of the wild strawberry Profumata di Tortona (PdT), an ancient clone of F. moschata, considered as one of the most fragrant strawberry types of all. Comparison with the more renowned woodland strawberry Regina delle Valli (RdV), an aromatic cultivar of F. vesca, revealed a significant enrichment in the total level of esters, alcohols and furanones and a reduction in the content of ketones in in the aroma of PdT berries. Among esters, particularly relevant was the enhanced accumulation of methyl anthranilate, responsible for the intensive sweetish impression of wild strawberries. Interestingly, increased ester accumulation in PdT fruits correlated with enhanced expression of the Strawberry Alcohol Acyltransferase (SAAT) gene, a key regulator of flavor biogenesis in ripening berries. We also detected a remarkable 900-fold increase in the level of mesifurane, the furanone conferring the typical caramel notes to most wild species. PMID:25717332

Negri, Alfredo S.; Allegra, Domenico; Simoni, Laura; Rusconi, Fabio; Tonelli, Chiara; Espen, Luca; Galbiati, Massimo

2015-01-01

273

Comparative analysis of fruit aroma patterns in the domesticated wild strawberries "Profumata di Tortona" (F. moschata) and "Regina delle Valli" (F. vesca).  

Science.gov (United States)

Strawberry is one of the most valued fruit worldwide. Modern cultivated varieties (Fragaria × ananassa) exhibit large fruits, with intense color and prolonged shell life. Yet, these valuable traits were attained at the cost of the intensity and the variety of the aroma of the berry, two characteristics highly appreciated by consumers. Wild species display smaller fruits and reduced yield compared with cultivated varieties but they accumulate broader and augmented blends of volatile compounds. Because of the large diversity and strength of aromas occurring in natural and domesticated populations, plant breeders regard wild strawberries as important donors of novel scented molecules. Here we report a comprehensive metabolic map of the aroma of the wild strawberry Profumata di Tortona (PdT), an ancient clone of F. moschata, considered as one of the most fragrant strawberry types of all. Comparison with the more renowned woodland strawberry Regina delle Valli (RdV), an aromatic cultivar of F. vesca, revealed a significant enrichment in the total level of esters, alcohols and furanones and a reduction in the content of ketones in in the aroma of PdT berries. Among esters, particularly relevant was the enhanced accumulation of methyl anthranilate, responsible for the intensive sweetish impression of wild strawberries. Interestingly, increased ester accumulation in PdT fruits correlated with enhanced expression of the Strawberry Alcohol Acyltransferase (SAAT) gene, a key regulator of flavor biogenesis in ripening berries. We also detected a remarkable 900-fold increase in the level of mesifurane, the furanone conferring the typical caramel notes to most wild species. PMID:25717332

Negri, Alfredo S; Allegra, Domenico; Simoni, Laura; Rusconi, Fabio; Tonelli, Chiara; Espen, Luca; Galbiati, Massimo

2015-01-01

274

Optimization and evaluation of a procedure for the gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of the aromas generated by fast acid hydrolysis of flavor precursors extracted from grapes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A procedure has been developed for the GC-MS analysis of the aromas released in fast acid hydrolysis of precursor fractions from grape musts and skins. Different sorbents for the extraction of the precursors were compared. The best results were obtained with LiChrolut EN polymeric resins which displayed two and six-fold more extraction capacity than Amberlite XAD-2 resins and C18 sorbents, respectively. C18 sorbents are more suitable for selective extraction of less polar precursors. The initial version of the method was imprecise and so the imprecision of the different steps was assessed. The maceration of the solid parts and the liquid-liquid extraction of the aromas released in the acid hydrolysis proved to be the critical steps. Greater crushing of the solid parts and solid-phase extraction (SPE) instead of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) improved reproducibility. In the method finally proposed about 100 aromatic components belonging to four large groups (lipid derivatives, shikimic acid derivatives, norisoprenoids and terpenes) were determined with good reproducibility. Important aroma compounds, such as cis-rose oxide or wine lactone were detected in non-Muscat grapes. PMID:16581079

Jesús Ibarz, Ma; Ferreira, Vicente; Hernández-Orte, Purificación; Loscos, Natalia; Cacho, Juan

2006-05-26

275

Decoding the combinatorial aroma code of a commercial cognac by application of the sensomics concept and first insights into differences from a german brandy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the volatile fraction isolated from a commercial Cognac by means of extraction/SAFE distillation, 39 odor-active areas were detected, among which (E)-?-damascenone showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 2048 followed by 2- and 3-methylbutanol, (S)-2-methylbutanol, 1,1-diethoxyethane, ethyl methylpropanoate, and ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, as well as 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanilla-like) and 2-phenylethanol. The quantitation of 37 odorants by stable isotope dilution assays and a calculation of odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) resulted in 34 odorants with OAVs > 1. Among them (E)-?-damascenone, methylpropanal, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, ethyl methylpropanoate, and ethyl 3-methylbutanoate together with ethanol were established as key contributors to the Cognac aroma. Finally, the overall aroma of the Cognac could be mimicked by an aroma recombinate consisting of these 34 key odorants on the basis of their natural concentrations in the Cognac using an odorless matrix to simulate the influence of the nonvolatile constituents. A comparison of the FD factors of the key odorants identified in a German brandy to those in the Cognac suggested the pair (E)-?-damascenone and ethyl pentanoate as indicators to differentiate various Cognacs from German, French, and Spanish brandies. This was confirmed by calculating a ratio of the concentrations of (E)-?-damascenone to ethyl pentanoate for 12 Cognacs and 7 brandies from Germany and 2 from France and Spain, respectively. PMID:25641554

Uselmann, Verena; Schieberle, Peter

2015-02-25

276

Changes in the bound aroma profiles of 'Hayward' and 'Hort16A' kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) during ripening and GC-olfactometry analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bound volatiles are recognised as a potential source of aroma compounds in fruits. In this study, the bound volatiles of Actinidia deliciosa 'Hayward' and A. chinensis 'Hort16A' were studied at three different ripening stages. The bound volatile content tended to increase as the fruit ripened from under-ripe to ripe, and then decreased in over-ripe fruit. Glycosides of (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and hexanol (green-note volatiles) were present in considerable amounts. ?-Glucosidase activity in 'Hayward' and 'Hort16A' remained fairly constant throughout ripening. GC-olfactometry analysis of the hydrolysates of ripe 'Hayward' and 'Hort16A' revealed the presence of 2-phenylethanol, ?-damascenone, vanillin and 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF). This is the first report of DMHF in 'Hayward' kiwifruit. For both 'Hayward' and 'Hort16A', the odour-active compounds found in the bound volatile extracts were different from those reported as contributors to the aroma of the ripe fruit, suggesting that bound volatiles are probably not significant contributors to the aroma of ripe kiwifruit. PMID:23199989

Garcia, Coralia V; Stevenson, Ralph J; Atkinson, Ross G; Winz, Robert A; Quek, Siew-Young

2013-04-15

277

Odor potency of aroma compounds in Riesling and Vidal blanc table wines and icewines by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to elucidate the odor potency of aroma compounds in Riesling and Vidal blanc (syn. Vidal) table wines and icewines from the Niagara Peninsula using stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry. Dilution analysis determined the most odor-potent compounds in Vidal and Riesling icewines (n = 2) and table wines (n = 2) from a commercial producer. The top 15 odor-potent compounds in each wine were identified and quantified, resulting in 23 and 24 compounds for Riesling and Vidal, respectively. The most odor-potent compounds were ?-damascenone, decanal, 1-hexanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 4-vinylguaiacol, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl 3-methylbutyrate. In general, icewines had higher concentrations of most aroma compounds compared to table wines. Through computation of odor activity values, the compounds with the highest odor activity for the icewines were ?-damascenone, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl octanoate, cis-rose oxide, and ethyl hexanoate. In table wines the highest odor activity values were found for ethyl octanoate, ?-damascenone, ethyl hexanoate, cis-rose oxide, ethyl 3-methylbutyrate, and 4-vinylguaiacol. These findings provide a foundation to determine impact odorants in icewines and the effects of viticultural and enological practices on wine aroma volatile composition. PMID:22324474

Bowen, Amy J; Reynolds, Andrew G

2012-03-21

278

Identification, quantification and comparison between the chemical substances responsible for the irradiated pot still cachaca and commercial rum aromas; Identificacao, quantificacao e comparacao das substancias quimicas responsaveis pelos aromas da cachaca de alambique e do rum comercial tratados pelo processo de irradiacao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The irradiation process has being presented as an alternative technique in food preservation. When applied on beverages, radiation is mainly used for malt decontamination or sterilization of musts and had been proposed also to accelerate aging. Some confusion over rum and cachaca identities has arisen due to the internationalization of cachaca. This research aims to identify, quantify and compare the effect of gamma radiation on the aroma of the Brazilian spirit with rum, irradiated and non irradiated, by instrumental and sensory analysis. Results showed that the content of volatile compounds presented strong correlation with the radiation dose (0,150 and 300 Gy) for all the samples. According to Triangle Test for aroma, all the judges could distinguish among non irradiated and irradiated samples (300 Gy), aged cachaca from rum and non aged cachaca from rum, but they could not distinguish aged cachaca from non aged cachaca. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results from the quantitative descriptive analysis showed that non irradiated non aged cachaca and rum were different in their alcohol, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except caramel and apple aroma attributes. Non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) were different in their apple, caramel, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except alcohol aroma attributes. According to the gas chromatography/olfactometry results, significant difference was found among non irradiated cachaca and rum; non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) when their aromas were compared. (author)

Souza, Maria Djiliah Camargo Alvarenga de

2006-07-01

279

Characterization of key aroma compounds in distiller's grains from wheat as a basis for utilization in the food industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The limited use of distiller's grains (DG) in the food industry depends occasionally on the characteristic odor of DG. For a better understanding of this typical odor, a sensory evaluation was performed first. The impressions seasoninglike, roasty/breadlike, and malty/caramellike were revealed as the most intensive odors. Furthermore, analysis of volatile flavor compounds was applied on dried DG from wheat. Isolation was performed by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction, solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), and simultaneous distillation/extraction and identification with gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry. As a result, 42 odor-active compounds could be identified in total. Among 24 of the 42 odor-active compounds obtained by SAFE, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (seasoninglike) showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor, and 7 compounds (3-methylbutanioc acid, dimethyl trisulfide, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-phenylethanol, 2,6-nonadienal, and 5-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2(5H)-furanone) with a FD factor ? 32 were identified as key aroma compounds in DG from wheat. PMID:25243324

Roth, M; Meiringer, M; Kollmannsberger, H; Zarnkow, M; Jekle, M; Becker, T

2014-11-12

280

The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (?FIC) was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1?:?1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%), additive (48.9%), non-interactive (23.7%), and antagonistic (0.7%) interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1?:?1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender. PMID:23737850

de Rapper, Stephanie; Kamatou, Guy; Viljoen, Alvaro; van Vuuren, Sandy

2013-01-01

281

Aroma character impact compounds in Kinokuni mandarin orange (Citrus kinokuni) compared with Satsuma mandarin orange (Citrus unshiu).  

Science.gov (United States)

The odor-active volatiles of Kinokuni mandarin (Citrus kinokuni Hort. ex Tanaka), an original mandarin orange in Japan, were characterized by a combination of instrumental and sensory analyses and compared with those of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch). An aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the polar fractions of Kinokuni and Satsuma mandarin peel oils identified five odorants in common as the most odor-active volatiles: (Z)-hex-3-enal, decanal, linalool, yuzuol, and (2E)-trans-4,5-epoxydec-2-enal. In addition, seven odorants were identified solely in Kinokuni mandarin as significant contributors: octanal, dodecanal, (2E,4E)-deca-2,4-dienal, geraniol, yuzunone, (2E,7Z)-trans-4,5-epoxydeca-2,7-dienal, and thymol. The odor-active volatiles in both the non-polar components of the peel oil and an extract of the juice prepared from Kinokuni mandarin were also identified. The (S)-isomer of linalool in Kinokuni mandarin peel oil was dominant in the enantiomeric distribution (92%), whereas the (R)-isomer was dominant in Satsuma mandarin peel oil (90%). PMID:20378969

Miyazawa, Norio; Fujita, Akira; Kubota, Kikue

2010-01-01

282

The potential of e-nose aroma profiling for identifying the geographical origin of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) roots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Licorice roots cultivated commercially in distinct geographical areas such as China, Iran, Italy (Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily) and Turkey were classified using an artificial olfactive system (e-nose) based on metal oxide semiconductor sensors (MOS). The resultant instrumental data were processed using a multivariate statistical analysis method in order to classify the raw samples according to its origin. The e-nose odourprintings were obtained by a canonical discriminant analysis carried out with the aim of relating the specific data-sets corresponding to whole licorice roots aroma with the e-nose reference dataset. E-nose results were compared to those obtained by SPME/GC-MS. The HS-SPME/GC/MS analysis was used as a control system to check for the actual existence of differences in the chemical composition of sample headspace. These results imply the possibility to use an electronic nose as a tool for a quick, effective and non-destructive authentication of licorice roots. PMID:25038700

Russo, Mariateresa; Serra, Demetrio; Suraci, Francesca; Di Sanzo, Rosa; Fuda, Salvatore; Postorino, Santo

2014-12-15

283

AROMA 1.4 - a Monte Carlo generator for heavy flavour events in ep collisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A program to simulate the production of heavy quarks through the boson-gluon fusion process in e±p collisions is presented. The full electroweak structure of the electron-gluon interaction is taken into account as well as the masses of the produced heavy quarks. Physics and programming aspects are described in this short manual. (orig.)

284

Use of stable isotopes for testing aromas: vanillin as an example  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The determination of the origin, natural or synthetic, of vanillin is obtained by mass spectrometry of carbon 13. The depletion in 13C of the natural product is due to the photosynthesis mechanism (crassulacean acid metabolism). Deuterium is also a possible isotopic tracer and NMR an alternative analysis method but requires a more important sample

285

AROMA 2.2 - a Monte Carlo generator for heavy flavour events in ep collisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A program to simulate the production of heavy quarks through the boson-gluon fusion process in e±p collisions is presented. The full electroweak structure of the electron-gluon interaction is taken into account as well as the masses of the produced heavy quarks. Higher order QCD radiation is treated using initial and final state parton showers, and hadronization is performed using the Lund string model. Physics and programming aspects are described in this manual. (orig.)

286

AROMA 2.2 a Monte Carlo generator for heavy flavour events in ep collisions  

CERN Document Server

A program to simulate the production of heavy quarks through the boson-gluon fusion process in e^{\\pm}p collisions is presented. The full electro\\-weak structure of the electron--gluon interaction is taken into account as well as the masses of the produced heavy quarks. Higher order QCD radiation is treated using initial and final state parton showers, and hadronization is performed using the Lund string model. Physics and programming aspects are described in this manual.

Ingelman, G; Schuler, G A

1996-01-01

287

Alteração de sabor e aroma em tomates causada por impacto Flavor alteration in tomato fruits due to internal bruising  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tomates (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, 'Solar Set' e 'Agriset-743', foram colhidos no estádio verde-maduro (100% da superfície com coloração verde e tratados com 100 miL L-1 de etileno gasoso a 20°C. Quando atingiram o estádio verde-rosado (menos do que 10% da superfície do fruto possui coloração vermelha ou amarelo-esverdeada, os frutos foram divididos em dois lotes. Um lote sofreu quedas de 40 cm de altura sobre uma superfície plana, rígida e lisa. Os frutos deste lote foram armazenados com os frutos-controle (que não sofreram dano mecânico a 20°C e 85-95% de umidade relativa. No estádio vermelho, os frutos inteiros foram homogeneizados e um teste de análise sensorial foi imediatamente conduzido. Os painelistas foram capazes de distinguir entre frutos com desordem fisiológica causada por impacto e frutos não-injuriados, indicando que esta injúria alterou de maneira significativa o sabor e o aroma dos tomates analisados.Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. fruits, 'Solar Set' and 'Agriset -- 743', were harvested at the mature-green stage of development and treated with 100 muL L-1 ethylene at 20°C. At the breaker stage, fruits were dropped from 40 cm height to induce internal bruising and stored along with undropped fruits at 20°C and 85-95% RH. At the table-ripe stage, whole fruits were chopped in a food processor and a sensory analysis test was immediately performed. The experimental design employed was a completely randomized blocks scheme arranged with 22 panelists (blocks, 3 treatments (unbruised sample; bruised sample 1 and bruised sample 2 and 4 replicates (ten fruits each. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and differences among treatments were determined by the F test (P= 0.05. Panelists were able to distinguish between bruised and unbruised fruits which indicated that internal bruising caused by impact altered tomato flavor.

Celso Luiz Moretti

2000-09-01

288

Partition coefficients of aroma compounds between polyethylene and aqueous ethanol and their estimation using UNIFAC and GCFEOS. (Volumes I and II)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Partition coefficients were measured for n-alkanes and 13 different aroma compounds (isoamylacetate, d-limonene, camphor, linalylacetate, L-menthol, dimethylbenzyl-carbinol, citronellol, phenylethylalcholo, diphenylmethane, diphenyloxide, eugenol, [tau]-undelacotne) at dilute concentrations between aqueous ethanol solutions (100%, 66% and 33% for n-alkanes; 100%, 75%, 50%, 35% w/w) and nitrogen at 25[degrees]C using a gas stripping column method. Partition coefficients for n-alkanes (octane, nonane, decane, dodecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, octadecane, eicosane, docosane) and the aromas were also measured between low density polyethylene, high density polyethylene and ethanol and aqueous ethanol liquid phases (100%, 75%, 50% and 35% ethanol w/w) at 10[degrees], 25[degrees] and 40[degrees]C using an equilibrium sorption method. No significant differences were found for polyethylene samples with different crystallinities and very little temperature effect was seen for the polymer/liquid partition coefficients. The polymer/liquid partition coefficients were most affected by the chemical nature of the mixture. The liquid/gas and polymer/liquid partition coefficients were estimated using UNIFAC with UNIFAC-FV and using the Group-contribution Flory Equation-of-State (GCFEOS). UNIFAC and GCFEOS are useful for qualitative estimations. Significant quantitative differences between the experimental data and the estimations were found for the liquid/gas and polymer/liquid partition coefficients of some solutes, in particular middle polarity aroma compounds. A correlation of the size of estimation error with increasing molecular weight was observed for the n-alkanes and phenols. The variances between experimental and estimated values are explained in terms of the methods' group-contribution additivity and solution of groups assumptions and the methods' semi-empirical nature. UNIFAC gave more consistent and on average better quantitative estimations the GCFEOS.

Baner, A.L. III.

1993-01-01

289

Entrapment of a volatile lipophilic aroma compound (D-limonene) in spray dried water-washed oil bodies naturally derived from sun?ower seeds (Helianthus annus)  

OpenAIRE

Oil bodies are natural emulsions that can be extracted from oil seeds and have previously been shown to be stable after spray drying. The aim of the study was to evaluate for the ?rst time if spray dried water-washed oil bodies are an effective carrier for volatile lipophilic actives (the?avour compound D-limonene was used as an example aroma compound). Water-washed oil bodies were blended with maltodextrin and D-limonene and spray dried using a Buchi B-191 laboratory spray dr...

Fisk, Ian D.; Linforth, Rob S. T.; Trophardy, Gil; Gray, David A.

2013-01-01

290

Entrapment of a volatile lipophilic aroma compound (d-limonene) in spray dried water-washed oil bodies naturally derived from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus)?  

OpenAIRE

Oil bodies are natural emulsions that can be extracted from oil seeds and have previously been shown to be stable after spray drying. The aim of the study was to evaluate for the first time if spray dried water-washed oil bodies are an effective carrier for volatile lipophilic actives (the flavour compound d-limonene was used as an example aroma compound). Water-washed oil bodies were blended with maltodextrin and d-limonene and spray dried using a Buchi B-191 laboratory spray dryer. Lipid an...

Fisk, Ian D.; Linforth, Robert; Trophardy, Gil; Gray, David

2013-01-01

291

Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) / Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) beverages  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and [...] trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z)-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma while roasted mate was defined as having a smooth, slightly burnt aroma. The relationship between the tentatively identified compounds and flavor must be determined by olfatometric analysis.

Carla Carolina Batista, Machado; Deborah Helena Markowicz, Bastos; Natália Soares, Janzantti; Roselaine, Facanali; Marcia Ortiz M., Marques; Maria Regina Bueno, Franco.

2007-06-01

292

Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin) and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma / Estudo de compostos voláteis de ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin) e estimativa da sua contribuição ao aroma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As técnicas de extração-destilação simultâneas (SDE) e de headspace-microextração em fase sólida (HS-SPME) combinadas com GC-FID e GC-MS foram usadas para analisar compostos voláteis da ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin) e para estimar os compostos de aroma mais ativos, pela aplicação de valore [...] s de atividade olfativa (OAV), considerando os compostos voláteis presentes no headspace da fruta. As análises levaram à identificação de 148 componentes, incluindo 58 ésteres, 23 terpenoides, 14 aldeídos, 11 álcoois, 10 cetonas, 9 alcanos, 7 ácidos, 4 lactonas, 3 fenóis e 9 outros compostos de diferentes estruturas. De acordo om os resultados de SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS e OAV, 2-metilbutanoato de etila, acetato de hexila, (E)-2-nonenal, butanoato de etila, (E)-2-decenal, hexanoato de etila, nonanal, decanal, (E)-b-ionona, ?-dodecalactona, acetato de (Z)-3-hexenila, acetato de pentila, linalool, ?-decalactona, acetato de butila, limoneno, acetato de propila, ?-decalactona, sulfeto de dietila, acetato de (E)-2-hexenila, heptanoato de etila, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanoato de (Z)-3-hexenila, eugenol, (E)-2-hexenal, pentanoato de etila, hexil 2-butanoato de metila, hexanoato de isopentila, 1-hexanol, ?-nonalactona, mirceno, acetato de octila, fenilacetaldeído, 1-butanol, acetato de isobutila, (E)-2-heptenal, octadecanal, e nerol são compostos odoríficos característicos em ameixas frescas, já que foram encontrados em concentrações muito acima dos seus limiares de precepção olfativa. Abstract in english Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE) and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin) and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values ( [...] OAV). The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E)-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E)-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E)-?-ionone, ?-dodecalactone, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, ?-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, ?-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z)-3-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E)-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, ?-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E)-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.

Jorge Antonio, Pino; Clara Elizabeth, Quijano.

2012-03-01

293

Evaluation of aroma differences between high-salt liquid-state fermentation and low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauces from China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two types of Chinese soy sauce, high-salt liquid-state fermentation soy sauce (HLFSS) and low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce (LSFSS), were used to investigate their differences in aroma profile by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). Results from descriptive sensory analysis showed that the alcoholic, cooked potato-like and caramel-like attributes were significantly higher in HLFSS, while LSFSS exhibited significantly higher sour and burnt attributes. In addition, aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) revealed 37 and 33 odour-active regions for HLFSS and LSFSS, respectively. Ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, phenylacetaldehyde, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 3-(methylthio)propanal detected in HLFSS showed the highest flavour dilution (FD) factors, while 3-methylbutanal, phenylacetaldehyde and ethyl propanoate possessed the highest FD factors in LSFSS. Therefore, the traditional Chinese soy sauce HLFSS contained more complex volatiles and exhibited a richer aromatic profile compared with LSFSS. PMID:24128458

Feng, Yunzi; Cai, Yu; Su, Guowan; Zhao, Haifeng; Wang, Chenxia; Zhao, Mouming

2014-02-15

294

ACEITAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE IOGURTE SABOR PÊSSEGO ACRESCIDO DE DIFERENTES CONCENTRAÇÕES DE AROMA E POLPA POR MEIO DA TÉCNICA DE MAPA DE PREFERÊNCIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de polpa e aroma artificial na qualidade físico-química e sensorial de iogurte sabor pêssego, aplicando-se a técnica estatística de Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP na elaboração de um Mapa de Preferência Interno. Para tanto, foi realizado um teste de aceitação com 150 consumidores por meio da escala hedônica de nove pontos. Também foram realizadas determinações físico-químicas de acidez titulável, lipídeos, lactose e sacarose. Verificou-se que houve diferença significativa (p < 0,05 entre as formulações de iogurte em relação à aceitabilidade sensorial; já para as medidas físico-químicas, as formulações não apresentaram diferença ao nível de 0,05 de probabilidade, pelo teste F. Foi identificado que a adição de aroma artificial no processamento de iogurte pode ser suspensa pelo Laticínio Lindo Vale sem alterar a aceitabilidade sensorial do produto, diminuindo assim o custo de produção e mantendo a qualidade sensorial do produto. Porém, a concentração de polpa no iogurte sabor pêssego não pode ser reduzida sem que haja diferença na aceitabilidade sensorial, sendo interessante para o laticínio manter a concentração de polpa do produto.

Alan Franco Barbosa

2013-02-01

295

Identification of odorants in frankincense (Boswellia sacra Flueck.) by aroma extract dilution analysis and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Frankincense has been known, traded and used throughout the ages for its exceptional aroma properties, and is still commonly used in both secular and religious settings to convey a pleasant odor. Surprisingly, the odoriferous principle(s) underlying its unique odor profile have never been published. In this study, resin samples of Boswellia sacra Flueck. from both Somalia and Oman were investigated by aroma extract dilution analysis. In a comprehensive, odor-activity guided approach both chemo-analytical and human-sensory parameters were used to identify odor active constituents of the volatile fraction of B. sacra. Among the key odorants found were ?-pinene, ?-myrcene, linalool, p-cresol and two unidentified sesquiterpenoids. Overall, a total of 23 odorants were detected and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry and heart-cut two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry. The majority of the identified odorant compounds were oxygenated monoterpenes, along with some relevant mono- and sesquiterpenes and only one diterpenoid substance. Several of these compounds were reported here for the first time as odorous constituents in B. sacra. Identifying bioactive compounds might support a better understanding with regard to the potential benefits of frankincense, for example in aromatherapy or ecclesial settings. PMID:25468535

Niebler, Johannes; Buettner, Andrea

2015-01-01

296

Development of a headspace trap HRGC/MS method for the assessment of the relevance of certain aroma compounds on the sensorial characteristics of commercial apple juice.  

Science.gov (United States)

A reliable and simple method was developed for the completely automatised analysis of apple juice aroma compounds. In total 26 flavour compounds could be measured by headspace trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). We used the method to analyse 85 commercially available apple juices, of which 67 apple juices were not from concentrate. Our results show that apple juices not from concentrate are mainly characterised by flavour compounds responsible for fruity, ripe, and sweet aroma impressions, such as 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, ethylbutyrate, and ethyl-2-methylbutyrate. On the contrary, apple juices made from concentrate were dominated by acetaldehyde, E-2-hexenal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl acetate, and hexanal, which are mainly responsible for sensory impressions, such as 'green, fresh, estery'. According to our data, neither of the single compounds nor indexes calculated thereof as suggested by some authors could be used for the reliable assessment of apple juice quality. Thus, these results suggest that sensory evaluation remains the ultimate mean to reliably assess apple juice quality. PMID:25213978

Nikfardjam, Martin Pour; Maier, Daniel

2011-06-15

297

Influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration treatment on aroma compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in different industrial scale fermenters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration (CM) on Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in two different industrial-scale fermenters was studied. CM treatment had different effects on wine aroma depending on the types of fermenter, being more effective for automatic pumping-over tank (PO-tank) than automatic punching-down tank (PD-tank). When PO-tank was used, CM-treated wine showed a decrease in some fusel alcohols (isobutanol and isopentanol) and an increase in some esters (especially acetate esters). However, no significant changes were detected in these compounds when PD-tank was used. Ethyl 2-hexenoate and diethyl succinate were decreased, while geranylacetone was increased by the CM treatment in both fermenters. ?-Damascenone was increased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines but decreased in PD-tank fermented wines. The fruity, caramel and floral aroma series were enhanced while chemical series were decreased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines. The content of (Z)-6-nonen-1-ol in the final wines was positively correlated to CM treatment. PMID:24518336

Cai, Jian; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Lu, Lin; Lan, Yi-Bin; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

2014-07-01

298

Volatile sulfur production by pig cecal bacteria in batch culture and screening inhibitors of sulfate reducing bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the effects of specific inhibitors of methanogenesis (2-bromoethane sulfonate, BES) and sulfate reduction (sodium molybdate) on volatile sulfur production in batch cultures of pig cecal bacteria. The volatile sulfur concentration in headspace gas was determined by flame-photometric detector gas chromatography. BES stimulated production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methanethiol, and sodium molybdate completely inhibited the production of these volatile sulfur compounds. The results indicated that dissimilate sulfate reduction is mainly responsible for volatile sulfur production in the hindgut. Therefore the extracts of herbs, food colors, and aroma chemicals were tested for their inhibitory effects on H2S production by a dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria. Desulfovibrio desulfuricans DSM642. H2S was measured by the chromatography of the headspace gas, using a flame photometric detector. Of 306 herbal extracts tested, 69 extracts from 38 herbs inhibited H2S production at 1.0 mg/mL. Sisymbrium officinale (hedge mustard) was the most potent inhibitor. Six pigments inhibited H2S release. Erythrosine and rose bengal showed inhibitory effects at 0.01 mg/mL. Peppermint oil and 96 aroma chemicals were assayed for their effects on H2S release. Thirty-two aroma chemicals suppressed H2S production at 0.1 mg/mL, and camphene, 1-decanol, and 2-nonanone were effective at 0.01 mg/mL. PMID:11185657

Arakawa, T; Ishikawa, Y; Ushida, K

2000-08-01

299

Overproduction of 2-phenylethanol by industrial yeasts to improve organoleptic properties of bakers' products.  

Science.gov (United States)

2-Phenylethanol (PEA), an important alcohol derived from phenylalanine, is involved in aroma and flavour of bakers' products. Four spontaneous mutants of an industrial bakers' yeast, V1 strain, were isolated for their resistance to p-fluoro-DL-phenylalanine (PFP), a toxic analogue of L-phenylalanine. Mutants overproduced this amino acid and showed variations in their internal pool for several other amino acids. Moreover, a rise in PEA production after growth in industrial medium (MAB) was observed in three of the mutants, although their growth and fermentative capacities were slightly impaired. However, concentration of PEA remained higher during dough fermentation and also after baking, thus improving taste and aroma in bread. PMID:24769162

Dueñas-Sánchez, Rafael; Pérez, Ana G; Codón, Antonio C; Benítez, Tahía; Rincón, Ana María

2014-06-16

300

Characterisation of the aroma profiles of different honeys and corresponding flowers using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aroma profiles of thirteen different honey samples from four botanical origins: heather (Calluna vulgaris), raspberry (Rubus idaeus), rape (Brassica napus), alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus) and the blossoms of the four corresponding flowers were investigated to find odour-active compounds exclusively representing specific honeys based on odour-active compounds from the blossoms. Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas-chromatography-olfactometry were used to determine and identify the odour-active compounds. Data was analysed using agglomerative hierarchical clustering and correspondence analysis. Honeys from the same botanical origin clustered together; however, none of the identified compounds were exclusive to a particular honey/blossom combination. Heather honey had the flavour profile most different to the others. Isophorone and 2-methylbutyric acid were found only in heather honeys. Heather honey was characterised by having more "sweet" and "candy-like" notes, raspberry honeys had more "green" notes, while alder buckthorn had more "honey" and "floral" notes. PMID:25236195

Seisonen, Sirli; Kivima, Evelin; Vene, Kristel

2015-02-15

301

Quality and aromatic sensory descriptors (mainly fresh and dry fruit character) of Spanish red wines can be predicted from their aroma-active chemical composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

A satisfactory model explaining quality could be built in a set of 25 high quality Spanish red wines, by aroma-active chemical composition. The quality of the wines was positively correlated with the wine content in fruity esters, acids, enolones, and wood derived compounds, and negatively with phenylacetaldehyde, acetic acid, methional, and 4-ethylphenol. Wine fruitiness was demonstrated to be positively related not only to the wine content on fruity esters and enolones, but to wine volatile fatty acids. Fruitiness is strongly suppressed by 4-ethylphenol, acetic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, and methional, this involved in the perception of dry-fruit notes. Sensory effects were more intense in the presence of ?-damascenone and ?-ionone. A satisfactory model explaining animal notes could be built. Finally, the vegetal character of this set of wines could be related to the combined effect of dimethylsulfide (DMS), 1-hexanol, and methanethiol. PMID:21627324

San-Juan, Felipe; Ferreira, Vicente; Cacho, Juan; Escudero, Ana

2011-07-27

302

Qualitative and quantitative analysis on aroma characteristics of ginseng at different ages using E-nose and GC-MS combined with chemometrics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aroma profiles of ginseng samples at different ages were investigated using electronic nose (E-nose) and GC-MS techniques combined with chemometrics analysis. The bioactive ginsenoside and volatile oil content increased with age. E-nose performed well in the qualitative analyses. Both Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Functions Analysis (DFA) performed well when used to analyze ginseng samples, with the first two principal components (PCs) explaining 85.51% and the first two factors explaining 95.51% of the variations. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) successfully clustered the different types of ginsengs into four groups. A total of 91 volatile constituents were identified. 50 of them were calculated and compared using GC-MS. The main fragrance ingredients were terpenes and alcohols, followed by aromatics and ester. The changes in terpenes, alcohols, aromatics, esters, and acids during the growth year once again confirmed the dominant role of terpenes. The Partial Least Squares (PLS) loading plot of gas sensors and aroma ingredients indicated that particular sensors were closely related to terpenes. The scores plot indicated that terpenes and its corresponding sensors contributed the most in grouping. As regards to quantitative analyze, 7 constituent of terpenes could be accurately explained and predicted by using gas sensors in PLS models. In predicting ginseng age using Back Propagation-Artificial Neural Networks (BP-ANN), E-nose data was found to predict more accurately than GC-MS data. E-nose measurement may be a potential method for determining ginseng age. The combination of GC-MS can help explain the hidden correlation between sensors and fragrance ingredients from two different viewpoints. PMID:25244512

Cui, Shaoqing; Wang, Jun; Yang, Liangcheng; Wu, Jianfeng; Wang, Xinlei

2015-01-01

303

Managing sensory expectations concerning products and brands: Capitalizing on the potential of sound and shape symbolism  

OpenAIRE

In this article, the evidence demonstrating the existence of a variety of robust crossmodal correspondences between both sounds (phonetic speech sounds, tones, and other parameters of musical expression) and shapes, and the sensory attributes (specifically the taste, flavor, aroma, and oral-somatosensory attributes) of various foods and beverages is reviewed. The available research now clearly suggests that marketers can enhance their consumers' product experiences by ensuring that the sound ...

Spence, C.

2012-01-01

304

Spices and Condiments in Ghana: Their Utilization in Comminuted Meat Products  

OpenAIRE

Local spices were collected from seven major markets across Ghana, compiled and identified by their Scientific, Common and Local names, properties, part used and area found. Seven fresh pork sausages prepared using differing compositions of these spices were sensorily evaluated in a pre-trial and four selected and further evaluated in triplicate to determine their acceptability. A 10 member panel assessed the external appearance of uncooked products, internal colour, aroma, taste and the over...

Darkwa Sarah

2013-01-01

305

Improvement of production performance of functional fermented whey-based beverage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was improvement of the performances for the production of whey-based beverages with highly productive strains of Lactobacillus. Individual or mixed culture containing Lactobacillus helveticus ATCC 15009, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis NRRL B-4525 and Streptococcus thermophilus S3 were studied. The scientific hypothesis was that production performances, especially aroma and viable cell count, are positively affected by the strains combination and temperature. Based on the results, beverages obtained by mixed cultures Lb. helveticus ATCC 15009 - S. thermophilus S3 and Lb. delbrueckii ssp. lactis - S. thermophilus S3 had higher aroma values than beverages obtained by individual strains. The symbiosis of tested strains has positive impact on the aroma of produced beverage. In addition, the temperature has significant influence on cell viability during the storage and fermentation dynamic. The beverages produced by mixed cultures Lb. helveticus ATCC 15009 - S. thermophilus S3 and Lb. delbrueckii ssp. lactis - S. thermophilus S3 at 42 oC achieved higher storage stability (19 to 22 days than beverages produced at 37°C and 45°C (13 to 19 days. Subsequently, at 42 °C fermentation time for both mixed cultures was 1.5 h shorter, compared to the time achieved at 37°C.

Bulatovi? Maja Lj.

2014-01-01

306

Determination of blueberry and strawberry maturity and aroma quality and effect of HLB on orange juice aroma: comparison of Z-nose, E-nose and GC-MS technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic nose technology could be very useful in quality control discrimination of products. The Z-nose (Electronic Sensory Technology, Model 4500) was equipped with a Tenax trap (2 mg, 225 ºC), and 1 m DB5 column, an acoustic wave detector and an oven set to ramp from 40-180 ºC at a rate of 10 ºC...

307

Influence of thermal treatment of wood on the aroma of a sugar cane spirit (cachaça) model-solution Influência do termotratamento da madeira no aroma de uma solução-modelo de cachaça  

OpenAIRE

The aging process of alcoholic beverages is generally conducted in wood barrels made with species from Quercus sp. Due to the high cost and the lack of viability of commercial production of these trees in Brazil, there is demand for new alternatives to using other native species and the incorporation of new technologies that enable greater competitiveness of sugar cane spirit aged in Brazilian wood. The drying of wood, the thermal treatment applied to it, and manufacturing techniques are impo...

Marta Helena Fillet Spoto; Marcelo Machado Leão; José Otávio Otávio Brito

2011-01-01

308

Analysis of Volatile Compounds and Identification of Characteristic Aroma Components of Toona sinensis (A. Juss. Roem. Using GC-MS and GC-O  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, volatile compounds present in Toona sinensis (A. Juss. Roem (TS were investigated and their characteristic aromatic components were identified using Headspace Solid-phase Microextraction (HS-SPME followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O. The optimum conditions for extracting the volatiles from TS were achieved with the experimental parameters including the use of a 65 ?m polydimethylsiloxane/divinyl benzene (PDMS/DVB fibre, an extraction temperature of 40? and an extraction time of 30 min. Under these conditions, 56 volatile compounds were separated and 53 were identified by GC-MS. Among them, 21 sulfide compounds (42.146% and 27 terpenes?55.984% were found to be the major components. The sample was analyzed by GC-O and 26 elutes were sniffed and their sensory descriptions evaluated by an odor panelists. Analysis of the data indicated, two compounds cis and trans isomers of 2-Mercapto-3,4-dimethyl-2,3-dihydrothiophene were major contributors to the characteristic aroma of TS.

Li Deng

2013-03-01

309

Characterization of Muscat wines aroma evolution using comprehensive gas chromatography followed by a post-analytic approach to 2D contour plots comparison.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents the application of a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method on the analysis of Muscat-based wines volatiles by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The aroma patterns were established for different samples of Asti Spumante and Moscato d'Asti wines, stored in bottles for 6 months at different temperatures. Wines stored at 5 °C for 6 months did not show significant changes in flavor; otherwise, the samples stored at 15 and 25 °C, showed a significant decrease in linalool, ?-damascenone, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate levels. In these last samples, ?-terpineol, hotrienol, nerol oxide, furanic linalool oxides A/B and rose oxide concentrations significantly increased. A mathematical approach was developed and applied to raw data exported after the chromatographic course, in order (i) to normalise different 2D chromatograms, permitting their direct comparison and (ii) to automatically identify and calculate from pixel-to-pixel re-designed 2D chromatograms any differences among key volatile compounds. PMID:23578615

Bordiga, Matteo; Rinaldi, Maurizio; Locatelli, Monica; Piana, Gianluca; Travaglia, Fabiano; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Arlorio, Marco

2013-09-01

310

Characterization of volatiles and aroma-active compounds in honeybush (Cyclopia subternata) by GC-MS and GC-O analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in fermented honeybush, Cyclopia subternata, were sampled by means of a high-capacity headspace sample enrichment probe (SEP) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Stereochemistry was determined by means of enantioselective GC-MS with derivatized ?-cyclodextrin columns as chiral selectors. A total of 183 compounds, the majority of which are terpenoids (103; 56%), were identified by comparing their mass spectra and retention indices with those of reference compounds or tentatively identified by comparison with spectral library or literature data. Of these compounds, 37 were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), using detection frequency (DF) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), to be odor-active (FD ? 2). (E)-?-Damascenone, (R/S)-linalool, (E)-?-damascone, geraniol, (E)-?-ionone, and (7E)-megastigma-5,7,9-trien-4-one were identified with the highest FD factors (?512). The odors of certain compounds, that is, (6E,8Z)-megastigma-4,6,8-trien-3-one, (6E,8E)-megastigma-4,6,8-trien-3-one, (7E)-megastigma-5,7,9-trien-4-one, 10-epi-?-eudesmol, epi-?-muurolol, and epi-?-cadinol, were perceived by GC-O assessors as typically honeybush-like. PMID:22394400

Le Roux, Maritha; Cronje, J Christel; Burger, Barend V; Joubert, Elizabeth

2012-03-14

311

Shiraz Wines Made from Grape Berries (Vitis vinifera) Delayed in Ripening by Plant Growth Regulator Treatment Have Elevated Rotundone Concentrations and "Pepper" Flavor and Aroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preveraison treatment of Shiraz berries with either 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or Ethrel delayed the onset of ripening and harvest. NAA was more effective than Ethrel, delaying harvest by 23 days, compared to 6 days for Ethrel. Sensory analysis of wines from NAA-treated fruit showed significant differences in 10 attributes, including higher "pepper" flavor and aroma compared to those of the control wines. A nontargeted analysis of headspace volatiles revealed modest differences between wines made from control and NAA- or Ethrel-treated berries. However, the concentration of rotundone, the metabolite responsible for the pepper character, was below the level of detection by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in control wines, low in Ethrel wines (2 ng/L), and much higher in NAA wines (29 ng/L). Thus, NAA, and to a lesser extent Ethrel, treatment of grapes during the preveraison period can delay ripening and enhance rotundone concentrations in Shiraz fruit, thereby enhancing wine "peppery" attributes. PMID:25661455

Davies, Christopher; Nicholson, Emily L; Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; Bastian, Susan E P; Harvey, Katie E; Huang, An-Cheng; Taylor, Dennis K; Boss, Paul K

2015-03-01

312

Effect of Deficit Irrigation and Kaolin-based Foliar Reflectant Particle Film on Aroma of cv. Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Water deficit during development of red-skinned wine grape enhances berry composition for wine production but increases risk of fruit exposure to deleterious levels of heat and/or solar radiation. Foliar application of a kaolin-based particle film has been shown in many crops to alleviate stress sym...

313

Greenhouse production in Macedonia - challenges and opportunities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greenhouse tomato makes the largest share of vegetable production in the World. The developments of biological sciences and high technology in the protected crops sector have enabled drastic increase in the yield and contributed to improvement of the fruit quality. Main indicators for the fruit quality still remain to be evaluated by appearance (shape, color, size) whereas the sensor traits (taste and aroma) are somehow neglected. Among the consumers there is general impression that tomatoes grown on substrates are artificial, plastic, tasteless products, compared to the “genuine” tomato raised on soil. On the other hand, Macedonian vegetables have a very good reputation in the region with their fresh recognizable taste and aroma. It will be a challenge in the future to preserve it. Limiting factors for profitable glass house production in the Republic of Macedonia are the extreme temperatures in winter and in summer time. For that reason, not only that the glass house capacities are under utilized, but the expensive tomato hybrids that are intended for at least 10 months cropping period cannot return the profit within the short cropping period of 3-4 months. The institutional and educational systems in Macedonia do not keep the pace with latest developments in the greenhouse industry. Some of the Macedonian operators have made large investments in greenhouse production to be able to follow the market demands. In the newly erected greenhouses in Macedonia on total area of 7 ha in two locations (Kocani and Gevgelija) tomato is grown on substrates and the production is completely atomized in regards to fertirigation, environment control etc. This technology gives room for larger plants density and consequently, higher yields per unit of area. However, the substrate cultivation is not entirely adopted by the operators and they are completely dependent on the services provided by the supplier. It is of crucial importance to support them in this initial period of new production in identifying the bottlenecks and providing eventually intervention for optimal usage of the new technology. (Author)

314

Production and Preservation of Passion Fruit Juice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production and preservation of Passion Fruit Juice was examined to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the juice using chemical preservatives. The preservation of the juice was carried out using sugar, benzoic acid, citric and a combination of citric and benzoic acid under room temperature.The result revealed that the juice maintained its color, aroma and tastes for at least one month when 30% benzoic acid was used as preservative. This happens to be the best among all. The juice under other preservation like 4% sugar went bad after three days, while that of 4% citric acid maintained its qualities for one week and some days, but thereafter the aroma started to fade. The combination of 3% benzoic acid and 4% citric acid maintained the qualities of the juice fairly between two to three weeks. The alcoholic content was also estimated and it was discovered that the juice containing citric acid and sugar has the highest percentage of alcohol. The preservation used also altered the pH so that it is impossible for pathogens to exist at such a low pH environment.

U. G. AKPAN

2005-06-01

315

High-cell-density fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the optimisation of mead production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mead is a traditional drink that contains 8%-18% (v/v) of ethanol, resulting from the alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey by yeasts. Mead fermentation is a time-consuming process and the quality of the final product is highly variable. Therefore, the present investigation had two main objectives: first, to determine the adequate inoculum size of two commercial wine-making strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the optimisation of mead fermentation; and second, to determine if an increase in yeast pitching rates in batch fermentations altered the resulting aroma profiles. Minor differences were detected in the growth kinetics between the two strains at the lowest pitching rate. With increasing pitching rates net growth of the strain ICV D47 progressively decreased, whereas for the QA23 the increasing inoculum size had no influence on its net growth. The time required to reach the same stage of fermentation ranged from 24 to 96 h depending on the inoculum size. The final aroma composition was dependent on the yeast strain and inoculum size. Fourteen of the twenty-seven volatile compounds quantified could contribute to mead aroma and flavour because their concentrations rose above their respective thresholds. The formation of these compounds was particularly pronounced at low pitching rates, except in mead fermented by strain ICV D47, at 10(6) CFUs/mL. The esters isoamyl acetate, ethyl octanoate and ethyl hexanoate were the major powerful odourants found in the meads. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that yeast strain and inoculum size can favourably impact mead's flavour and aroma profiles. PMID:23122509

Pereira, A P; Mendes-Ferreira, A; Oliveira, J M; Estevinho, L M; Mendes-Faia, A

2013-02-01

316

Real Time Detection of Aroma Compounds in Meat and Meat Products by SIFT-MS and Comparison to Conventional Techniques (SPME-GC-MS).  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 9, ?. 4 (2013), s. 622-630. ISSN 1573-4110 R&D Projects: GA ?R GP203/09/P172; GA ?R GA203/09/0256 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : volatile compounds * flovar * meat Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.194, year: 2013

Flores, M.; Olivares, A.; Dryahina, Kseniya; Špan?l, Patrik

2013-01-01

317

Nutrient limitation leads to penetrative growth into agar and affects aroma formation in Pichia fabianii, P. kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among fermentative yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is most frequently used as a model organism, although other yeast species may have special features that make them interesting candidates to apply in food-fermentation processes. In this study, we used three yeast species isolated from fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit, S. cerevisiae 131, Pichia fabianii 65 and Pichia kudriavzevii 129, and determined the impact of nitrogen and/or glucose limitation on surface growth mode and the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All three species displayed significant changes in growth mode in all nutrient-limited conditions, signified by the formation of metafilaments or pseudohyphae. The timing of the transition was found to be species-specific. Transition in growth mode is suggested to be linked to the production of certain fusel alcohols, such as phenylethyl alcohol, which serve as quorum-sensing molecules. Interestingly, we did not observe concomitant increased production of phenylethyl alcohol and filamentous growth. Notably, a broader range of esters was found only for the Pichia spp. grown on nitrogen-limited agar for 21?days compared to nutrient-rich agar, and when grown on glucose- and glucose- plus nitrogen-limited agar. Our data suggest that for the Pichia spp., the formation of esters may play an important role in the switch in growth mode upon nitrogen limitation. Further biological or ecological implications of ester formation are discussed. PMID:25308873

van Rijswijck, Irma M H; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith C M; Abee, Tjakko; Smid, Eddy J

2015-01-01

318

Surprising structural lability of a cysteine-S-conjugate precursor of 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one, a varietal aroma in wine of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc.  

Science.gov (United States)

4-Methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (1; 4MSP) provides a characteristic aroma compound of wines made from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc. 4MSP has a strong box-tree odor with a very low perception threshold and is derived from the cysteinylated precursor S-(1,1-dimethyl-3-oxobutyl)cysteine (4; P-4MSP). P-4MSP is transformed into 4MSP during alcoholic fermentation and is an excellent marker of varietal aroma potential. An improved synthesis of P-4MSP as well as of its deuterium-labeled analogue [D(6)]-P-4MSP is described. Several analytical methods (NMR, IR, LSI-MS, GC/MS, ESI-MS(n)) were combined to elucidate spontaneous reversible structural changes of P-4MSP at different pH values. At low pH, P-4MSP has a linear keto form. The keto-enol tautomerism was observed at neutral pH. At pH 8, the formation of N-substituted intramolecular hemiaminal was characterized by ESI-MS and ESI-MS(n) experiments. The hemiaminal loses H(2)O at high pH to produce a cycloimine, which is easily opened by acid hydrolysis. The keto-enol tautomerism explained the incorporation of only six D-atoms during the preparation of the P-4MSP deuterated standard even if [D(10)]mesityl oxide was used. Derivatization conditions for GC/MS analysis strongly affected the ratio of the monosilylated intramolecular cyclic form and the disilylated linear form of P-4MSP. The structural changes of P-4MSP may have a considerable impact on the development of methods of measuring varietal aroma potential. PMID:18493966

Shinkaruk, Svitlana; Thibon, Cécile; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Babin, Pierre; Tominaga, Takatoshi; Degueil, Marie; Desbat, Bernard; Jussier, Christophe; Bennetau, Bernard; Dubourdieu, Denis; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine

2008-05-01

319

Discrimination of aromas from several kinds of alcohol using synthetic-resin-film-coated quartz resonator smell sensor; Gosei jushimaku wo tofushita suisho shindoshishiki nioi sensor ni yoru sake no shurui hanbetsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transient response curves for aromas from several kinds of alcohol such as Fruit Liquor (8%), Wine (14%), Japanese Sake (15%) and Whisky (43%) are observed using quartz-crystal-resonator gas sensor coated with synthetic-resin-film(acrylic resin, alkyd resin or urethane resin). The pattern recognition analysis using principal component analysis or neural network analysis is carried out using four parameters which characterize the transient response curves. The recognition probability of neural network for four kinds of alcohol is 100% for 20 trials. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Kondo, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Morita, T. Dogami, N.; Nanto, H. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan); Doguchi, Y. [Industrial Research Institute of Ishikawa Prefecture, Ishikawa (Japan)

1997-08-20

320

Production of the sesquiterpenoid (+)-nootkatone by metabolic engineering of Pichia pastoris.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sesquiterpenoid (+)-nootkatone is a highly demanded and highly valued aroma compound naturally found in grapefruit, pummelo or Nootka cypress tree. Extraction of (+)-nootkatone from plant material or its production by chemical synthesis suffers from low yields and the use of environmentally harmful methods, respectively. Lately, major attention has been paid to biotechnological approaches, using cell extracts or whole-cell systems for the production of (+)-nootkatone. In our study, the yeast Pichia pastoris initially was applied as whole-cell biocatalyst for the production of (+)-nootkatone from (+)-valencene, the abundant aroma compound of oranges. Therefore, we generated a strain co-expressing the premnaspirodiene oxygenase of Hyoscyamus muticus (HPO) and the Arabidopsis thaliana cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) that hydroxylated extracellularly added (+)-valencene. Intracellular production of (+)-valencene by co-expression of valencene synthase from Callitropsis nootkatensis resolved the phase-transfer issues of (+)-valencene. Bi-phasic cultivations of P. pastoris resulted in the production of trans-nootkatol, which was oxidized to (+)-nootkatone by an intrinsic P. pastoris activity. Additional overexpression of a P. pastoris alcohol dehydrogenase and truncated hydroxy-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (tHmg1p) significantly enhanced the (+)-nootkatone yield to 208mg L(-1) cell culture in bioreactor cultivations. Thus, metabolically engineered yeast P. pastoris represents a valuable, whole-cell system for high-level production of (+)-nootkatone from simple carbon sources. PMID:24747046

Wriessnegger, Tamara; Augustin, Peter; Engleder, Matthias; Leitner, Erich; Müller, Monika; Kaluzna, Iwona; Schürmann, Martin; Mink, Daniel; Zellnig, Günther; Schwab, Helmut; Pichler, Harald

2014-07-01

321

27 CFR 5.27 - Formulas.  

Science.gov (United States)

...product which does not possess the taste, aroma, and characteristics generally attributed...as to be without distinctive character, aroma, taste, or color; (3) Mixing with...degrees of proof which lack the taste, aroma and other characteristics generally attributed...

2010-04-01

322

Formation and distribution of 2,4-dihydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-thiophenone, a pigment, an aroma and a biologically active compound formed by the Maillard reaction, in foods and beverages.  

Science.gov (United States)

We recently identified 2,4-dihydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-thiophenone (DHDMT) from soy sauce as a low-molecular-weight pigment formed by the Maillard reaction. DHDMT has also been reported as an aroma compound in a model system and a biologically active compound of heated garlic. To utilize these functions efficiently, we here examined how DHDMT was formed during fermentation of soy sauce and in model systems. Although DHDMT was formed from cysteine and glucose, it was formed more from cystine and fructose in the model system. We also showed that this compound exists in various kinds of soy sauce and miso as well as in some brown foods and beverages such as roasted bread and beer. PMID:23536157

Furusawa, Rina; Goto, Chiaki; Satoh, Miki; Nomi, Yuri; Murata, Masatsune

2013-07-01

323

Use and declaration of additives in meat products: New legal regulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the more important additives used in meat products, their functional characteristics, the permitted quantities and declaration in keeping with the new legal regulations. Additives important for meat products, according to their functional characteristics, can be preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers, emulsifying salts, acidity regulators, sequestrants, thickeners, gelling agents, modified starches, acids, colours, aroma enhancers, packaging gases and coating powders, and it must be pointed out that many additives have several functional characteristics at the same time. In stating additives in the list of contents of a product, the elementary functional characteristic of the additive is given with the E number or name of the additive in brackets; modified starches are declared as „starch" without giving the E number. The declaration does not state the quantity of the additive added to the product, or the biggest permitted quantity of the additive in the given product.

Vukovi? Ilija

2005-01-01

324

Starter cultures used in probiotic dairy product preparation and popular probiotic dairy drinks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Dairy products that contain probiotic bacteria are those that are produced with various fermentation methods, especially lactic acid fermentation, by using starter cultures and those that have various textures and aromas. Fermented dairy products are popular due to their differences in taste and the [...] ir favourable physiological effects. Today, fermented dairy beverages in general are produced locally by using traditional methods. Recently, due to the increased demand for natural nutrients and probiotic products, fermented dairy beverages have reached a different position and are considered to have an important impact on human health and nutrition. In this article, probiotic bacteria and functional dairy products that are produced by using probiotic bacteria are discussed.

Oktay, Yerlikaya.

2014-06-01

325

Fermented Meat Products: Organoleptic Qualities and Biogenic Amines-a Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fermented foods are value added products which have higher nutrients, prolong shelf life and easy in digestibility and are more suitable for the intestinal tract. The organoleptic qualities of such foods are higher particularly in terms of flavour, taste, aroma and colour. For the production of fermented products we require starter culture such as Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB strains, most of the meat starter cultures are Lactobacillus pentosus, L. casei L. curvetus, L. planterum, L. sakei, Pediococcus acidilactici and P. pentosaceus. These foods are also able to produce certain biogenic amines; the most commonly found biogenic amines in the meat and meat products are tyramine, cadaverine, putrescine and also histamine. The formation of such bioamines further enhances the functional properties of the foods besides addition in nutrients.

Akhilesh K. Verma

2012-01-01

326

Innovative Integrated Wet Process for Virgin Coconut Oil Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the recent years, increased interest on the development of the Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO has been observed. This is to maximize the benefit of the multifunctional traditionally used coconut. VCO is rich in the Medium Chain Fatty Acids (MCFAs that have been shown to speed up the metabolism. Almost 50% of the fatty acid in virgin coconut oil is in form of lauric acid. This fatty acid has wide application as wide spectrum of antimicrobial substances against fungi, bacteria and viruses. Moreover, the fatty acid profile of coconut oil shares the similar characteristic with breast milk. The MCFAs in coconut oil are not stored in the body cells but rather processed directly in the liver where they are converted immediately into energy. The present study describes the process for VCO production through integrated wet process. The novel features of this process is the production of virgin coconut oil itself which can minimize the time, cost, energy and man power as well as can maximize the yield and improve the quality of coconut oil. The VCO obtained by this process contribute about 30-40% wt/wt of yield which is 10-20% higher than conventional method. The physical characteristics of VCO along this process shows that the VCO is colorless, retain fresh coconut aroma and sweet coconut taste with the highest content of lauric acid (49.85%. Besides that, the result also indicates the presence of vitamin E VCO. In general, the overall results for sensory analysis were acceptable in terms of aroma and taste of the product.

W.R.W. Sulaiman

2011-01-01

327

Molecular Analysis of the Genes Involved in Aroma Synthesis in the Species S. cerevisiae, S. kudriavzevii and S. bayanus var. uvarum in Winemaking Conditions  

OpenAIRE

The Saccharomyces genus is the main yeast involved in wine fermentations to play a crucial role in the production and release of aromatic compounds. Despite the several studies done into the genome-wide expression analysis using DNA microarray technology in wine S. cerevisiae strains, this is the first to investigate other species of the Saccharomyces genus. This research work investigates the expression of the genes involved in flavor compound production in three different Saccharomyces spec...

Gamero, Amparo; Belloch, Carmela; Iba?n?ez, Clara; Querol, Amparo

2014-01-01

328

Sensory differences between product matrices made with beet and cane sugar sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although beet and cane sugar sources have nearly identical chemical compositions, the sugars differ in their volatile profiles, thermal behaviors, and minor chemical components. Scientific evidence characterizing the impact of these differences on product quality is lacking. The objective of this research was to determine whether panelists could identify a sensory difference between product matrices made with beet and cane sugar sources. Sixty-two panelists used the R-index by ranking method to discern whether there was a difference between 2 brands of beet and 2 brands of cane sugars in regard to their aroma and flavor, along with a difference in pavlova, simple syrup, sugar cookies, pudding, whipped cream, and iced tea made with beet and cane sugars. R-index values and Friedman's rank sum tests showed differences (P beet and cane sugars in regard to their aroma and flavor. Significant differences between the sugar sources were also identified when incorporated into the pavlova and simple syrup. No difference was observed in the sugar cookies, pudding, whipped cream, and iced tea. Possible explanations for the lack of difference in these products include: (1) masking of beet and cane sensory differences by the flavor and complexity of the product matrix, (2) the relatively small quantity of sugar in these products, and (3) variation within these products being more influential than the sugar source. The findings from this research are relevant to sugar manufacturers and the food industry as a whole, because it identifies differences between beet and cane sugars and product matrices in which beet and cane sugars are not directly interchangeable. PMID:25308166

Urbanus, Brittany L; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

2014-11-01

329

Evaluation gives productivity and quality gives fruit in Aguacate subjected has to gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evaluation of productivity, post harvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Has avocado trees irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the La Labor Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300%. In regard to post harvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO2 /kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This means that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and post harvest behavior of fruits

330

Evaluation of fruit productivity and quality in Hass avocado submitted to 60Co gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evaluation of productivity, postharvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Hass avocado trees irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the ''La Labor'' Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologias del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300 %. In regard to postharvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO2/kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This mean that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and postharvest behavior of fruits. (Author)

331

Use of simulated annealing in standardization and optimization of the acerola wine production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, seven wine samples were prepared varying the amount of pulp of acerola fruits and the sugar content using the simulated annealing technique to obtain the optimal sensory qualities and cost for the wine produced. S. cerevisiae yeast was used in the fermentation process and the sensory [...] attributes were evaluated using a hedonic scale. Acerola wines were classified as sweet, with 11°GL of alcohol concentration and with aroma, taste, and color characteristics of the acerola fruit. The simulated annealing experiments showed that the best conditions were found at mass ratio between 1/7.5-1/6 and total soluble solids between 28.6-29.0 °Brix, from which the sensory acceptance scores of 6.9, 6.8, and 8.8 were obtained for color, aroma, and flavor, respectively, with a production cost 43-45% lower than the cost of traditional wines commercialized in Brazil.

Sheyla dos Santos, Almeida; Wonder Alexandre Luz, Alves; Sidnei Alves de, Araújo; José Carlos Curvelo, Santana; Narendra, Narain; Roberto Rodrigues de, Souza.

2014-06-01

332

Use of stable isotopes for testing aromas: vanillin as an example. Utilisation des isotopes stables pour le controle des aromes: exemple de la vanilline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The determination of the origin, natural or synthetic, of vanillin is obtained by mass spectrometry of carbon 13. The depletion in [sup 13]C of the natural product is due to the photosynthesis mechanism (crassulacean acid metabolism). Deuterium is also a possible isotopic tracer and NMR an alternative analysis method but requires a more important sample.

Koziet, J. (Centre de Recherche Pernod-Ricard, 94 - Creteil (France))

333

Study of effect of radiation on the parameters of quality of sterile males of Ceratitis Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and their improvement aroma therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this present work, we are interested in studying the various stages in the production of sterile males, the effect of different doses of irradiation on longevity, compatibility and competitiveness of these males. And the effect of exposure of adults and pupae of Ceratitis to different doses of essential oil of ginger on their compatibility and competitiveness. (Author)

334

Applicability of Vacuum Impregnation to Modify Physico-Chemical, Sensory and Nutritive Characteristics of Plant Origin Products—A Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food. PMID:25244012

Radziejewska-Kubzdela, El?bieta; Biega?ska-Marecik, Ró?a; Kido?, Marcin

2014-01-01

335

Applicability of Vacuum Impregnation to Modify Physico-Chemical, Sensory and Nutritive Characteristics of Plant Origin Products—A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food.

El?bieta Radziejewska-Kubzdela

2014-09-01

336

Production and Sensory Evaluation of Tigernut Beverages  

OpenAIRE

The acceptability of roasted and non-roasted tiger nut beverages has been investigated. Forty panelists were used in the sensory evaluation study. The panelists compared the two beverages on the bases of mouth feel, texture, taste, aroma, consistency, appearance and general acceptability. Correlation analysis of the results showed that although the texture, aroma, appearance and consistency were important for consumers, mouth feel and taste were more important for the overall acceptance of th...

Sanful, Rita E.

2009-01-01

337

Production of hard-type cheese using free or immobilized freeze-dried kefir cells as a starter culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study provides a contribution to hard-type cheese starter culture production through the use of a freeze-dried culture in the ripening of hard-type cheeses. The effect of initial cell concentration, ripening temperature, and cell immobilization of kefir on the degree of openness, mold spoilage, microbial associations, physicochemical characteristics, and aroma-related compounds was studied. Use of kefir starter cultures resulted in cheese with an increased shelf life and resistance to spoilage as compared to control cheeses without kefir inoculants. Furthermore, the freeze-dried kefir culture improved aroma, taste, and texture characteristics while increasing the degree of openness in comparison to traditional hard-type cheese products. The kefir culture resulted in an increase in counts of total aerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds, lactococci, and lactobacilli until the 15th day of ripening. From then on, only lactobacilli counts increased, reaching levels up to 9.17 log CFU/g in cheeses ripened at 5 degrees C using freeze-dried kefir cells immobilized on casein. SPME-GC/MS analysis revealed major differences in volatile composition, especially with regard to alcohols (up to 75%), carbonyl compounds (up to 75%), and esters (up to 64%) between cheeses made with kefir cells and cheeses made without kefir inoculants. PMID:18540611

Katechaki, Eleftheria; Panas, Panayiotis; Rapti, Katerina; Kandilogiannakis, Leonidas; Koutinas, Athanasios A

2008-07-01

338

SPME analytical method for the determination of Hexanal in hazelnuts as indicator of the interaction of active packaging materials with food aroma compounds  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Abstract Fatty foods are susceptible to lipid oxidation, which involves a quality deterioration of the product, since this process is responsible of generation of off-flavours. Hexanal has been reported to be a good indicator of the rancidity. A method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography and flame ionization detector method to determine hexanal formed in hazelnuts during storage was developed. The optimum conditions were the ...

Pastorelli, Sarah; Valzacchi, Sandro; Rodriguez, Ana; Simoneau, Catherine

2006-01-01

339

A Multi-Axis Best Fit to the Collider Supersymmetry Search: The Aroma of Stops and Gluinos at the \\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV LHC  

CERN Document Server

In Profumo di SUSY, we presented evidence that CMS&ATLAS may have already registered a handful of deftly camouflaged supersymmetry events at the LHC in the multijet channels. Here, we explore the prospect for corroboration of this suggestion from 5 additional CMS&ATLAS search strategies targeting the production of light stops & gluinos at lower jet counts, which variously depend on heavy flavor tagging and the inclusion or exclusion of associated leptons. The current operating phase of the 7TeV LHC is highly conducive to the production of gluinos & light stops, given the supersymmetric particle mass hierarchy M_t_1production for these seven search methodologies roundly ...

Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Walker, Joel W

2012-01-01

340

Selected non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts in controlled multistarter fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on alcoholic fermentation behaviour and wine aroma of cherry wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effect of mixed fermentation of non-Saccharomyces (Torulaspora delbrueckii ZYMAFLORE Alpha(TD n. Sacch) and Metschnikowia pulcherrima JS22) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts (D254 and EC1118) on the production of cherry wines, in comparison with commonly used mono-culture. Results obtained during AF demonstrated that negligible inhibitory effect was observed in S. cerevisiae/Alpha pair, whereas a strong antagonistic effect was detected between MJS22 and S. cerevisiae strain, resulting in an early death of MJS22. For volatile components determined, S. cerevisiae/MJS22 couple was found to significantly boost the production of most detected compounds, more particularly in higher alcohols, esters, acids and terpenes; while the characteristic of S. cerevisiae/Alpha pair is an increase in fruity esters, higher alcohols and decrease in acid production. Sensory evaluation revealed that S. cerevisiae/MJS22 pair reinforced sweet, green and fatty notes to the cherry wines, and S. cerevisiae/Alpha trial enhanced the fruity odour and reduced green note. PMID:25084640

Sun, Shu Yang; Gong, Han Sheng; Jiang, Xiao Man; Zhao, Yu Ping

2014-12-01

341

Chocolate: A Marvelous Natural Product of Chemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

Chocolate is a natural product as ubiquitous as television. Of course, it is eaten, but it is also found in air fresheners, marking pens, flavoring in a multitude of products including soda pop, and as an aroma in "chocolate-dyed" T-shirts. However, most of us are completely unaware of the complex chemical reactions that take place to produce chocolate and the necessary technology that has evolved to produce chocolate and all its byproducts. Processing results in a mixture of many components, an interesting contrast to most of the simple, one-step reactions introduced at the high school level. This article is a survey of chocolate from tree to table. After a brief introduction to the history of chocolate and how and where it is grown, the manufacturing process is examined, and the chemistry is explored. A bit of the jargon used in the industry is mentioned. Cocoa butter is a significant ingredient in chocolate, and an investigation of it introduces triglycerides, fatty acids, polymorphic behavior, and molecular packing of the fats in chocolate and how they affect the tempering process. There is a brief discussion of chocolate's non-Newtonian behavior and the resulting challenges presented in the manufacturing process. See Featured Molecules Featured on the Cover

Tannenbaum, Ginger

2004-08-01

342

Wine Production by Guava Piece Immobilized Yeast from Indian Cultivar Grapes and its Volatile Composition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Suitability of guava pieces for the preparation of immobilized yeast biocatalyst for wine production was investigated by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in repeated batch fermentation. The fermentation rate and other parameters were compared with free yeast cells at different temperatures. The volatile compounds, methanol, ethyl acetate, 1-propanol, isobutanol and amyl alcohols which, formed during fermentation were analyzed with the help of GC-FID. The concentrations of ethyl acetate and methanol were not more than 100 mg L-1 in all cases, indicating an improvement in the product. There are no changes in cell metabolism of immobilized yeast. Preliminary sensory tests established the fruity aroma, fine taste and the overall improved quality of the produced wines.

L.V.A. Reddy

2006-01-01

343

Production-integrated environmental protection in wood processing with recycling of wood constituents, process water and heat; Produktionsintegrierter Umweltschutz bei der Herstellung von Holzwerkstoffen mit Rueckgewinnung von Holzinhaltsstoffen, Prozesswasser und Waerme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During wood drying processes, volatile original wood constitutents are released. The most important of these are terpene compounds which are used in the chemical industry as scents or aromas. Steam drying of wood chips in a closed gas loop opens up the economically efficient, production-integrated extraction of terpene compounds from the dried vapours. (orig.) [German] Bei der Trocknung von Holz werden fluechtige originaere Holzinhaltsstoffe freigesetzt. Besondere Bedeutung kommt den Terpenverbindungen zu, da diese als Rohstoffe in der chemischen Industrie (Duft- und Aromastoffherstellung) eingesetzt werden. Mit der Dampftrocknung von Holzspaenen im geschlossenen Gaskreislauf bietet sich erstmals die Moeglichkeit einer wirtschaftlichen produktionsintegrierten Gewinnung von Terpenverbindungen aus den angereicherten Trocknerbrueden. (orig.)

Sievers, M.; Bormann, H. [CUTEC-Inst., Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

2003-07-01

344

Avaliação do uso de inibidores de etileno sobre a produção de compostos voláteis e de mangiferina em manga Evaluation of the use of ethylene inhibitors on production of volatile compounds and mangiferin in mango fruit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effects of two ethylene inhibitors, 1-methylcylopropene (1-MCP and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, on production of volatile compounds and mangiferin (a bioactive xanthone in 'Tommy Atkins' mango fruit were investigated. Volatile composition and mangiferin content, in treated and untreated fruits at three maturity, stages were determined by SPME-GC-MS and HPLC, respectively. These chromatographical analysis revealed that the volatile profiles and mangiferin concentrations were not significantly different, suggesting that the use of ethylene inhibitors does not affect the mango aroma and functional properties relative to this xanthone. Moreover, a simple, precise and accurate HPLC method was developed for quantifying mangiferin in mango pulp.

Kirley Marques Canuto

2010-01-01

345

Functions of Carotenoid Metabolites and Breakdown Products  

Science.gov (United States)

It is not only intact carotenoids but also fragments of carotenoid molecules that have important natural functions and actions. The electron-rich polyene chain of the carotenoids is very susceptible to oxidative breakdown, which may be enzymic or non-enzymic. Central cleavage gives C20 compounds, retinoids, as described in Chapter 16. Cleavage at other positions gives smaller fragments, notably C10, C13 and C15 compounds that retain the carotenoid end group. The formation of these is described in Chapter 17 and in Volume 3, Chapter 4. Oxidative breakdown can also take place during storage, processing and curing of plant material, and the products contribute to the desired aroma/flavour properties of, for example, tea, wine and tobacco. The importance of vitamin A (C20) in animals is well known. Vitamin A deficiency is still a major concern in many parts of the world. It can lead to blindness and serious ill-health or death, especially in young children. Volatile smaller carotenoid fragments (`norisoprenoids') are widespread scent/flavour compounds in plants.

Britton, George

346

Ester production by Pseudomonas fragi. II. Factors influencing ester levels in milk cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cultures of Pseudomonas fragi were grown at 21 C in sterile homogenized milk and reconstituted skim milk media supplemented with ethyl alcohol. Quantitative determinations of ethyl butyrate and ethyl hexanoate by gas-liquid chromatography showed definite increases in the concentrations of the two esters produced in these media in comparison to media not supplemented with ethyl alcohol. Supplementation with butyric acid in addition to ethyl alcohol generally elevated the ethyl butyrate concentration and usually depressed the cell count slightly. Aeration of any of the media during growth tended to reduce the cell population slightly. A relationship between increase in cell number and increase in concentration of esters during the growth of the culture was observed. Media containing high concentrations of ethyl alcohol plus milk fat or low-molecular-weight fatty acids were conducive to the production of a fruity aroma by P. fragi. PMID:5819608

Reddy, M C; Bills, D D; Lindsay, R C

1969-06-01

347

Geosmin (2?,6?-dimethylbicyclo[4.4.0]decan-1?-ol) production associated with Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris is cultivar specific.  

Science.gov (United States)

The characteristic earthy flavor and aroma of table beet [Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris (garden beet group)] is due to the presence of geosmin, C??H??O, a volatile terpenoid compound commonly produced by many soil microorganisms. This study screened beet and related subspecies cultivars grown in three different environments (field, greenhouse in nonautoclaved soil, greenhouse in autoclaved soil) to evaluate the effect of cultivar and environment on geosmin level in table beet. There was no significant difference between years or between cultivars grown in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil, indicating geosmin content may not be primarily attributable to microbial associations. A significant interaction between cultivar and environment was found, but generalizations could be made for high- or low-producing cultivars, demonstrating that geosmin levels were cultivar specific. 'Bull's Blood', 'Chioggia', and sugar beet exhibited the highest geosmin levels. Cultivars grown in the field had the smallest range of geosmin production, from 4.84 to 20.82 ?g geosmin (kg root tissue)?¹. The high degree of consistency in cultivar performance across years and in ranking for geosmin levels across environments as well as the lack of a significant difference between plants grown in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil suggests characteristic levels of geosmin may be present in and produced endogenously by cultivars of table beet. It may be possible to establish breeding populations with defined geosmin levels and to identify variety-specific aroma and flavor intensities that would be durable across environments. PMID:24506519

Freidig, Amy K; Goldman, Irwin L

2014-03-01

348

Fermented milks and milk products as functional foods--a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fermented foods and beverages possess various nutritional and therapeutic properties. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a major role in determining the positive health effects of fermented milks and related products. The L. acidophilus and Bifidobacteria spp are known for their use in probiotic dairy foods. Cultured products sold with any claim of health benefits should meet the criteria of suggested minimum number of more than 10? cfu/g at the time of consumption. Yoghurt is redefined as a probiotic carrier food. Several food powders like yoghurt powder and curd (dahi) powder are manufactured taking into consideration the number of organisms surviving in the product after drying. Such foods, beverages and powders are highly acceptable to consumers because of their flavor and aroma and high nutritive value. Antitumor activity is associated with the cell wall of starter bacteria and so the activity remains even after drying. Other health benefits of fermented milks include prevention of gastrointestinal infections, reduction of serum cholesterol levels and antimutagenic activity. The fermented products are recommended for consumption by lactose intolerant individuals and patients suffering from atherosclerosis. The formulation of fermented dietetic preparations and special products is an expanding research area. The health benefits, the technology of production of fermented milks and the kinetics of lactic acid fermentation in dairy products are reviewed here. PMID:23391015

Shiby, V K; Mishra, H N

2013-01-01

349

Utilization of Lactobacillus fermentum andSaccharomyces cerevisiae as starter cultures in the production of ‘dolo'  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective:  The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of representative strains ofpredominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast as starter cultures in the production of dolo (a type of sorghum beer) of comparable consistency and organoleptic quality to the commercial product in Burkina Faso. Methodology and results: Two strains each of Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae from previous studies (Sawadogo- Lingani et al., 2007; Glover et al., 2005) were used as starter cultures in producing dolo both under laboratory conditions, and in the field (pilot plant). pH, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. Dolo produced from starter combinations of one strain of L. fermentum and both S. cerevisiae strains had taste and aroma that did not differ significantly from the commercial product, while single isolate combinations gave better mouth feel. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of representative strains ofpredominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast as starter cultures in the production of (a type of sorghum beer) of comparable consistency and organoleptic quality to the commercial product in Burkina Faso. Two strains each of and from previous studies (Sawadogo- Lingani 2007; Glover ., 2005) were used as starter cultures in producing both under laboratory conditions, and in the field (pilot plant). pH, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. produced from starter combinations of one strain of and both strains had taste and aroma that did not differ significantly from the commercial product, while single isolate combinations gave better mouth feel. Conclusions and applications of findings: Single-strain and double-strain combinations of lactic acid Single-strain and double-strain combinations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast starter cultures could be used successfully to produce dolo of different quality indices. Combinations of either LAB strain with one yeast strain (AC17) produced dolo that was more comparable to the commercial product than combinations with the other yeast strain (TK25). LAB strain ZN4.1 in combination with yeast strain AC17 gave better dolo in all attributes evaluated. On the whole, dolo produced with double-strain combinations of LAB and yeast under laboratory conditions possessed consistent organoleptic quality and stability comparable to the commercial product. Varied combinations of these starters should be investigated in order to determine a suitable combination for producing dolo possessing all the desired organoleptic qualities and consistency.

Glover, R.L.K.; Sawadogo-Lingani, H.

2009-01-01

350

Production of volatiles in fresh-cut apple: effect of applying alginate coatings containing linoleic acid or isoleucine.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the main quality parameters in apples is aroma, its main precursors are fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). In this study, alginate edible coatings were used as carriers of linoleic acid or isoleucine to serve as precursors for the production of aroma in cut apples. Apple wedges were immersed in a CaCl2 solution and coated with one of the following formulations: alginate solution (Alg-Ca), Alg-Ca-low-level linoleic acid (0.61 g/Lt), (LFA), Alg-Ca-high-level linoleic acid (2.44 g/L; HFA), Alg-Ca-low-level isoleucine (0.61 g/L; LAA), and Alg-Ca-high-level isoleucine (2.44 g/L; HAA). Apple wedges were stored at 3 °C and 85% relative humidity for 21 d and key volatiles were studied during storage. Addition of precursors, mainly isoleucine, showed to increase the production of some key volatiles on coated fresh-cut apples during storage. The concentration of 2-methyl-1-butanol was 4 times higher from day 12 to day 21 in HAA, while 2-methyl butyl acetate increased from day 12 to day 21 in HAA. After 21 d, HAA-apples presented a 40-fold value of 2-methyl-butyl acetate, compared to Alg-Ca cut apples. Values of hexanal increased during cut apple storage when the coating carried linoleic acid, mainly on HFA, from 3 to 12 d. The ability of apples to metabolize AA and FA depends on the concentration of precursors, but also depends on key enzymes, previous apple storage, among others. Further studies should be done to better clarify the behavior of fresh-cut apples as living tissue to metabolize precursors contained in edible coatings for the production of volatiles. PMID:25296624

Maya-Meraz, Irma O; Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Molina-Corral, Francisco J; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Jacobo-Cuellar, Juan L; Sepulveda, David R; Olivas, Guadalupe I

2014-11-01

351

Impact on Human Health of Microorganisms Present in Fermented Dairy Products: An Overview  

Science.gov (United States)

Fermented dairy products provide nutrients in our diet, some of which are produced by the action of microorganisms during fermentation. These products can be populated by a diverse microbiota that impacts the organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics foods as well as human health. Acidification is carried out by starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB) whereas other LAB, moulds, and yeasts become dominant during ripening and contribute to the development of aroma and texture in dairy products. Probiotics are generally part of the nonstarter microbiota, and their use has been extended in recent years. Fermented dairy products can contain beneficial compounds, which are produced by the metabolic activity of their microbiota (vitamins, conjugated linoleic acid, bioactive peptides, and gamma-aminobutyric acid, among others). Some microorganisms can also release toxic compounds, the most notorious being biogenic amines and aflatoxins. Though generally considered safe, fermented dairy products can be contaminated by pathogens. If proliferation occurs during manufacture or storage, they can cause sporadic cases or outbreaks of disease. This paper provides an overview on the current state of different aspects of the research on microorganisms present in dairy products in the light of their positive or negative impact on human health.

Fernández, María; Hudson, John Andrew; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.

2015-01-01

352

Spices and Condiments in Ghana: Their Utilization in Comminuted Meat Products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Local spices were collected from seven major markets across Ghana, compiled and identified by their Scientific, Common and Local names, properties, part used and area found. Seven fresh pork sausages prepared using differing compositions of these spices were sensorily evaluated in a pre-trial and four selected and further evaluated in triplicate to determine their acceptability. A 10 member panel assessed the external appearance of uncooked products, internal colour, aroma, taste and the overall acceptability of cooked products. The data was analysed as a completely randomized block design using the nonparametric analysis as employed in Friedman’s method and Wilcoxon’s signed rank test. A total of fourteen local spices were collected. A 1.52% level of inclusion of the different composite spice mixes in the products was acceptable. The prekese based product was significantly judged the most acceptable (P=.05 while the dawadawa based product the least acceptable. In conclusion, preparing Ready to use composite-spice mixes from local spices to promote comminuted meat processing among meat handlers is feasible but must be done safely in order to keep the health value of the meat products

Darkwa Sarah

2013-11-01

353

Electronic Nose Monitoring the Maillard Reaction Flavors of Sesame Oil from Different Production Processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective in this study was to evaluate the capacity of electronic nose to monitoring the effect of different Maillard reaction processes on natural flavors of sesame oil, using a specific Electronic Nose device (PEN3. The flavors were prepared by Maillard reaction using chemical constituents from water extract of Lentinus and other precursors. The optimum conditions of reaction process was determined by using orthogonal test design, then an Electronic Nose (PEN3was used to characterize and classify eight different flavors from different reaction process and sesame oil from market. This method firstly sampled aroma composition emanating from the flavors by PEN3 systems and then obtained response values of PEN3. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA were used in order to investigate whether the electronic nose was able to distinguish among different Maillard Reaction Production (MRP. The loadings analysis was used to identify the sensors responsible for discrimination in the current pattern file. The results of this study showed that the basic components added with lysine, xylose and glycerin, heated in glycerine bath at 140?C for 120 min, was a novel flavors with sesame oil flavor and taste. The electronic nose PEN 3 can discriminate successfully different MRPs using both PCA and LDA analysis. But, it was not able to detect a clear difference in the sample of similar aroma with sesame oil using PCA analysis. Some sensors have the highest influence in the current pattern file for electronic nose PEN 3. A subset of few sensors can be chosen to explain all the variance. This result could be used in further studies to optimize the number of sensors.

Su Dong-Yang

2014-07-01

354

Predictive Food Microbiology : new tools for risk assessment and dairy product development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Listeria monocytogenes is a well-known food borne pathogen that potentially causes listeriosis. No outbreaks or cases of listeriosis have been associated with cottage cheese, but several confirmed cases and outbreaks in the EU and the US have been related to dairy products made from raw or pasteurised milk. This, in combination with the fact that cottage cheese support growth of Listeria monocytogenes, induces a documentation requirement on the food producer. In the EU regulatory framework, mathematical models are recognised as a suitable supplement to traditional microbiological methods. The models can be used for documentation of compliance with microbiological criteria for Listeria monocytogenes under reasonably foreseeable conditions. Cottage cheese is a fresh, fermented dairy product. It consists of a fermented cheese curd mixed with a fresh or cultured cream dressing. The product contains considerable concentrations of lactic acid bacteria from the added starter or aroma cultures. The presence of these microorganisms induces some complexity to the product, since the lactic acid bacteria metabolites and e.g. bacteriocins exhibit an inhibitory effect towards co-culture microorganisms such as Listeria monocytogenes. During storage at temperatures allowing the mesophilic lactic acid bacteria to grow (> 8-10°C), a pronounced inter-bacterial interaction and growth inhibition of co-culture Listeria monocytogenes was observed. These observations emphasised the need for inter-bacterial interaction models when predicting the growth response of Listeria monocytogenes in fermented dairy products. The objective of the PhD-project was to develop new, or extend existing mathematical models to be used for risk assessment and product development. When the project was initiated, none of the existing predictive models were found to appropriately describe the simultaneous growth of lactic acid bacteria from the added starter or aroma culture and Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. New, deterministic growth models were developed for Listeria monocytogenes, starter lactic acid bacteria and aroma lactic acid bacteria. The new cardinal parameter type growth models included the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic and sorbic acid. The models were developed based on growth data obtained from absorbance measurements in liquid laboratory media and growth data obtained in cottage cheese with fresh or cultured cream dressing. An important step in the modelling procedure was the calibration of the reference growth rate (µref, h-1 at 25°C) which was strongly affected by the dominating lactic acid bacteria culture. By combining the developed secondary growth models with the empirical Jameson approach, good predictions of the simultaneous growth of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria were obtained. Both growth rate and maximum population densities of Listeria monocytogenes was accurately described under constant and dynamic storage temperatures (between 5°C and 15°C). The inter-bacterial interaction was clearly important toinclude when predicting growth response of Listeria monocytogenes in fermented dairy products. Alternative, semi-mechanistic, iimodelling approaches were evaluated based on methods applied in the fermentation technology. The dynamics of lactic acid concentration and product pH was related to growth of lactic acid bacteria by the yield factor concept. The ability to predict the maximum population density of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese based on dynamic lactic acid and pH was evaluated. For cottage cheese with fresh cream dressing, the semi-mechanistic interaction model successfully predicted the maximum population density. Lactic acid and pH was, however, insufficient to describe the growth inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes observed in cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. Improved, mechanistic, prediction of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing would require that additional mechanisms were included in the model, such as other metabolites or bacterioc

Østergaard, Nina Bjerre

2014-01-01

355

CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL AND SENSORY ANALYSIS OF ACTIVITY DIFFERENT YEAST SPECIES ON IDENTICAL SUBSTRATE IN WINE PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rizling vlašský is the second most important variety in Slovakia. The science of wine production includes a summary of knowledge and experience in the field of grape growing and wine making, or the production of different types of wines using specific methods of production. Wine quality is the result of the interaction between yeast, bacteria and microscopic funguses. In this research, we studied the effects of active dry wine yeasts on chemical, physical and sensory parameters in wine production. We have applied five kinds of yeasts (FERMIVIN, FERMIVIN PDV, FERMICRU AR2, FERMIFLOR and FERMICRU VB1. It can be concluded that the application of active dry wine yeasts is beneficial for the production of rizling vlašský. The best showing were yeasts FERMIFLOR and FERMIVIN PDM. In the last sample where they were left the original yeasts the varietal aroma was preserved. It can be noted that the wine was right technologically produced and all wines were harmonious with a pleasant fresh taste.

Vladimír Vietoris

2013-02-01

356

A new technological approach proposed for distillate production using immobilized cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new technological approach to distillate production using immobilized cells was investigated. The effect of temperature on the main volatile by-products in distillates was determined. Wines produced by delignified cellulose-, gluten- and kissiris-supported biocatalysis were used as starting materials. The produced distillates were analyzed for ethanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, propanol-1, isobutanol and amyl alcohol content. The results showed that distillates from delignified cellulosic material (DCM) at 16 degrees C contained smaller amounts of amyl alcohols, 57% of that produced by gluten and 32% of that produced by kissiris. The ethyl acetate content of distillates from DCM improved the aroma of distillates. These results agree with those of sensory evaluation. Subsequently, the scale-up for low-temperature distillate production at 16 degrees C using DCM was further investigated. A new version of an industrial multi-stage fixed bed tower (MFBT) bioreactor with a capacity of 11,000 l proved to be suitable for continuous fermentation by DCM-supported biocatalysis. Economic analysis showed a reduction in the cost of almost 30% for distillate production and 78% for wine production. PMID:16233363

Loukatos, Paul; Kanellaki, Maria; Komaitis, Michael; Athanasiadis, Ilias; Koutinas, Athanasios A

2003-01-01

357

Hydrogen production  

Science.gov (United States)

The state of hydrogen production technology is evaluated. Specific areas discussed include: hydrogen production fossil fuels; coal gasification processes; electrolysis of water; thermochemical production of hydrogen; production of hydrogen by solar energy; and biological production of hydrogen. Supply options are considered along with costs of hydrogen production.

England, C.; Chirivella, J. E.; Fujita, T.; Jeffe, R. E.; Lawson, D.; Manvi, R.

1975-01-01

358

Characterisation of Maillard reaction products derived from LEKFD--a pentapeptide found in ?-lactoglobulin sequence, glycated with glucose--by tandem mass spectrometry, molecular orbital calculations and gel filtration chromatography coupled with continuous photodiode array.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maillard reaction peptides (MRPs) contribute to taste, aroma, colour, texture and biological activity. However, peptide degradation or the cross-linking of MRPs in the Maillard reaction has not been investigated clearly. A peptide of LEKFD, a part of ?-lactoglobulin, was heated at 110 °C for 24h with glucose and the reaction products were analysed by HPLC with ODS, ESI-MS, ESI-MS/MS and HPLC with gel-filtration column and DAD detector. In the HPLC fractions, an imminium ion of LEK*FD, a pyrylium ion or a hydroxymethyl furylium ion of LEK*FD, and KFD and EK were detected by ESI-MS. Therefore, those products may be produced by the Maillard reaction. The molecular orbital of glycated LEKFD at the lysine epsilon-amino residue with Schiff base form was calculated by MOPAC. HPLC with gel-filtration column showed cross-linking and degradation of peptides. PMID:24128561

Yamaguchi, Keiko; Homma, Takeshi; Nomi, Yuri; Otsuka, Yuzuru

2014-02-15

359

Production of Modularised Product Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract: To day, more and more products are customized. Trends are not only to sell a product to the customer, but to sell a product system. The system can either be a combination of physical products or physical products together with some kind of service. Customers get in this way not a product but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks. Here the decoupling point has a central role. The scope for this article is therefore to analyse the possibilities for using modularisation in designing and controlling a production system. How will the development of modularised product systems influence the production system? In the paper, a case will be used to support the ideas.

Jacobsen, Peter

2004-01-01

360

Does information about sugar source influence consumer liking of products made with beet and cane sugars?  

Science.gov (United States)

Beet sugar contains an off-aroma, which was hypothesized to generate expectations on the acceptability of a product made with beet sugar. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of information about the sugar source (beet vs. cane) on the overall liking of an orange-flavored beverage. One hundred panelists evaluated an orange-flavored powdered beverage mix and beverage made with beet and cane sugars using a 5-phase testing protocol involving a tetrad test and hedonic ratings performed under blind and informed conditions. Tetrad test results indicated that there was a significant difference (P beet sugar and cane sugar; however, no difference was found between the beverage made with beet sugar and cane sugar. Hedonic ratings revealed the significance of information conditions on the panelists evaluation of sugar (F = 24.67, P sugar source information in a beverage product. Based on concerns with the use of beet sugar expressed in the popular press, there may be a subgroup of the population that has a preconceived bias about sugar sources due to their prior experiences and knowledge and, thus, would be influenced by labels indicating the sugar source used in a product. PMID:25308071

Urbanus, Brittany L; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

2014-11-01

361

Evaluación de la calidad de productos lácteos por medio de la nariz electrónica / Assessment of dairy products quality by means of electronic nose  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La nariz electrónica, instrumento que utiliza un conjunto de sensores y un sistema de reconocimiento de patrones para el análisis cualitativo de aromas, ha encontrado numerosas aplicaciones en la industria alimentaria, gracias a su versatilidad. En este trabajo una breve descripción de la nariz elec [...] trónica, de su modo de operación y de sus ventajas y desventajas, ha sido realizada. Además, las principales aplicaciones de este instrumento en la industria de alimentos, con un énfasis especial en la industria láctea, han sido revisadas. Estas aplicaciones incluyen la detección de microorganismos en la leche, la identificación de aromas indeseados en la leche, la estimación del tiempo de vida útil de la leche y de varios tipos de quesos, la identificación de leche mastítica, la clasificación de quesos en función del tiempo de maduración, la diferenciación de quesos por origen geográfico y el control de la fermentación de la leche, entre otros. Los resultados de esta revisión indican que la nariz electrónica podría ser utilizada como un instrumento para un rápido control de calidad de los productos. Abstract in english The electronic nose, instrument that uses a group of sensors and a system of pattern recognition for the qualitative analysis of aroma, has found many applications in the food industry, because of its versatility. In this work a brief description of the electronic nose, its operation mode and its ad [...] vantages and disadvantages were carried out. Moreover, the main applications of this instrument in the food industry, with special emphasis on the dairy industry, have been reviewed. These applications include the detection of microorganisms in milk, the identification of off-flavours in milk, the shelf life of milk and various types of cheeses, the identification of mastitic milk, the classification of cheeses according to their time of ripening, the discrimination of cheeses by geographic origin and the control of the milk fermentation, among other. The results of this review indicate that electronic nose could be used as an instrument for the rapid quality control of dairy products.

Luis-Felipe, Gutiérrez.

2011-06-01

362

Product Customization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For the majority of industrial companies, customizing products and services is among the most critical means to deliver true customer value and achieve superior competitive advantage. The challenge is not to customize products and services in itself – but to do it in a profitable way. The implementation of a product configuration system is among the most powerful ways of achieving this in practice, offering a reduction of the lead time for products and quotations, faster and more qualified responses to customer inquiries, fewer transfers of responsibility and fewer specification mistakes, a reduction of the resources spent for the specification of customized products, and the possibility of optimizing the products according to customer demands. This book presents an operational procedure for the design of product configuration systems in industrial companies, based on the experience gained from more than 40 product configuration projects in companies providing customer tailored products and services.

Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

2008-01-01

363

Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

Demin Mirjana A.

2013-01-01

364

Antihydrogen production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Antihydrogen production in ATHENA is analyzed more carefully. The most important peculiarities of the different experimental situations are discussed. The protonium production via the first matter-antimatter chemical reaction is commented too

365

Thermally-dried immobilized kefir on casein as starter culture in dried whey cheese production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of thermally-dried immobilized kefir on casein as a starter culture for protein-enriched dried whey cheese. For comparison reasons, dried whey cheese with thermally-dried free kefir culture and with no starter culture were also produced. The effect of the nature of the culture, the ripening temperature and the ripening process on quality characteristics of the whey cheese was studied. The association of microbial groups during cheese maturation suggested repression of spoilage and protection from pathogens due to the thermally-dried kefir, as counts of coliforms, enterobacteria and staphylococci were significantly reduced in cheeses produced using thermally-dried kefir starter cultures. The effect of the starter culture on production of volatile compounds responsible for cheese flavor was also studied using the SPME GC/MS technique. Thermally-dried immobilized kefir starter culture resulted in an improved profile of aroma-related compounds. The preliminary sensory evaluation ascertained the soft, fine taste and the overall improved quality of cheese produced with the thermally-dried immobilized kefir. The potential of protein-based thermally-dried starter cultures in dairy products is finally highlighted and assessed. PMID:19835765

Dimitrellou, D; Kourkoutas, Y; Koutinas, A A; Kanellaki, M

2009-12-01

366

Potential of membrane distillation for production of high quality fruit juice concentrate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fruit juices are generally concentrated in order to improve the stability during storage and to reduce handling, packaging, and transportation costs. Thermal evaporation is the most widely used technique in industrial fruit juice concentrate production. In addition to high energy consumption, a large part of the characteristics determining the quality of the fresh juice including aroma, color, vitamins, and antioxidants undergoes remarkable alterations through the use of high operation temperatures. Increasing consumer demand for minimally or naturally processed stable products able to retain as much possible the uniqueness of the fresh fruit has engendered a growing interest for development of nonthermal approaches for fruit juice concentration. Among them, membrane distillation (MD) and its variants have attracted much attention for allowing very high concentrations to be reached under atmospheric pressure and temperatures near ambient temperature. This review will provide an overview of the current status and recent developments in the use of MD for concentration of fruit juices. In addition to the most basic concepts of MD variants, crucial suggestions for membrane selection and operating parameters will be presented. Challenges and future trends for industrial adaptation taking into account the possibility of integrating MD with other existing processes will be discussed. PMID:24915342

Onsekizoglu Bagci, Pelin

2015-07-01

367

The acceptance of gamma irradiated pre-cooked processed chicken meat products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was carried out to determine suitable dose, microbiological counts including pathogens and sensory evaluation of pre-cooked chicken meat products in assessing the acceptability of irradiated pre-cooked chicken meat products. Packed pre-cooked chicken sausages and burger samples (sealed individually in plastic-polyethylene pouches) were irradiated at the following doses: 2.5 kGy, 3.5 kGy and 5.5 kGy using 60Co gamma irradiation at MINTec-Sinagama. Acceptability of the sausages was determined through sensory evaluation by 30 members of untrained panelists comprising staff of Malaysian Nuclear Agency. A 5-points hedonic rating scale was used. The attributes evaluated were taste, texture, chewiness, juiciness, aroma, colour, shape and overall acceptance. Samples irradiated with dose of 5.5 kGy were the most acceptable, followed by samples irradiated at 3.5 kGy and 10 kGy. Irradiation at doses up to 3.5 kGy render undetectable microorganisms/fungi and pathogens (faecal coliforms, Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) in pre-cooked chicken sausages, and doses up to 5.5 kGy for pre-cooked chicken burgers

368

Technology transfer for irradiation of spices and fishery products in Indonesia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficacy of irradiation to improve the hygiene quality and to extend the storage life of commercial spices, dried fish and frozen shrimps was tested in collaboration with food industries. These tests consisted of trial irradiation of the spices used in the food industry, quality evaluation of processed meat made with irradiated spices, market testing of the irradiated dried fish and trial irradiation of commercially frozen shrimps. It was found that irradiation at 5 kGy could reduce the microbial load of the different types of spices commonly used in the food industry from 106 to 108 per gram to less than 103 per gram. The aroma and taste of certain spices became weaker or stronger after irradiation at 5 kGy, but the change was still acceptable. Use of irradiated spices in the manufacture of corned beef was found to be effective for improving the 'keeping' quality of the product stored at -2 deg. C. Market testing of the irradiated dried fish showed that the product had a longer market life and a better quality than the untreated dried fish. The microbial load of frozen shrimps could be reduced from about 105 to 106 per gram to 103 per gram when irradiated at about 5 kGy in commercial packaging. (author). 13 refs, 6 tabs

369

Avaliação do uso de inibidores de etileno sobre a produção de compostos voláteis e de mangiferina em manga / Evaluation of the use of ethylene inhibitors on production of volatile compounds and mangiferin in mango fruit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Effects of two ethylene inhibitors, 1-methylcylopropene (1-MCP) and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), on production of volatile compounds and mangiferin (a bioactive xanthone) in 'Tommy Atkins' mango fruit were investigated. Volatile composition and mangiferin content, in treated and untreated fruits a [...] t three maturity, stages were determined by SPME-GC-MS and HPLC, respectively. These chromatographical analysis revealed that the volatile profiles and mangiferin concentrations were not significantly different, suggesting that the use of ethylene inhibitors does not affect the mango aroma and functional properties relative to this xanthone. Moreover, a simple, precise and accurate HPLC method was developed for quantifying mangiferin in mango pulp.

Kirley Marques, Canuto; Manoel Alves de, Souza Neto; Deborah dos Santos, Garruti; Maria Auxiliadora Coêlho de, Lima.

1535-15-01

370

Wounding tomato fruit elicits ripening-stage specific changes in gene expression and production of volatile compounds  

Science.gov (United States)

Fleshy fruits develop from an unripe organ that needs to be protected from damage to a ripe organ that attracts frugivores for seed dispersal through production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Thus, different responses to wounding damage are predicted. The aim of this study was to discover whether wound-induced changes in the transcriptome and VOC production alter as tomato transitions from unripe to ripe. Transcript changes were analysed 3h post-wounding using microarray analysis in two commercial salad-tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars: Luna Rossa and AVG, chosen for their high aroma production. This was followed by quantitative PCR on Luna Rossa genes involved in VOC biosynthesis and defence responses. VOCs elicited by wounding at different ripening stages were analysed by solid phase micro extraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Approximately 4000 differentially expressed genes were identified in the cultivar AVG and 2500 in Luna Rossa. In both cultivars the majority of genes were up-regulated and the most affected pathways were metabolism of terpenes, carotenoids, and lipids. Defence-related genes were mostly up-regulated in immature stages of development, whereas expression of genes related to VOCs changed at riper stages. More than 40 VOCs were detected and profiles changed with ripening stage. Thus, both transcriptome and VOC profiles elicited by wounding depend on stage of ripening, indicating a shift from defence to attraction. PMID:25614658

Baldassarre, Valentina; Cabassi, Giovanni; Spadafora, Natasha D.; Aprile, Alessio; Müller, Carsten T.; Rogers, Hilary J.; Ferrante, Antonio

2015-01-01

371

Investigation of bias of hedonic scores when co-eliciting product attribute information using CATA questions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sensory and consumer scientists disagree on the practice of concurrently obtaining sensory information in hedonic tests. This is in part due to different mindsets about what consumers are able to do and evidence that such co-elicitation may bias hedonic scores. Check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions have been claimed to have a smaller effect on hedonic scores than other attribute such as just-about-right or intensity scales. In this research, nine studies using consumers as participants examined effects on hedonic product scores when sensory attribute information was co-elicited using CATA questions. The use of CATA concurrently with hedonic was benchmarked against concurrent attribute liking scores, attribute intensity scores and just-about-right scaling. Across a range of product categories (beer, fresh fruit, tea, flavoured water, crackers, savoury dips), only weak and transient evidence of bias of hedonic scores when concurrently using CATA questions was established. This effect was independent on whether samples, on average were moderately liked or moderately disliked, and replicated when samples were assessed partially by the sense of smell only or via full product assessment (appearance, aroma, flavour, taste, aftertaste, mouthfeel). The present research suggests that co-elicitation of hedonic scores and product attribute information using CATA questions may bias the hedonic scores, but not that it certainly will do so. This needs to be recognised, leading to more widespread acceptance that co-elicitation has merit. Investigators should decide on whether or not to co-elicit product attribute information using CATA questions on a case-by-case basis, acknowledging that bias may occur. Further research is needed to understand when/when not bias is likely to occur.

Jaeger, Sara R.; Giacalone, Davide

2013-01-01

372

Uranium production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The alltime high for uranium concentrate production is expected to be reached in 1980. The average grade of ore fed to process will be up about 10% from last year. Some curtailments in uranium processing were announced, but three new processing plants began production in 1980. The prospects for 1981 are not as encouraging. The continuation of low prices and slow demand for U3O8 are expected to be reflected in a significant reduction in overall production and in the postponement of some plans for expansion and construction of uranium processing facilities. Increases in production capacity will occur when Plateau Resource's 750 TPD mill at Ticaboo, Utah, starts up early next year, and additional production of byproduct uranium is expected from western phosphate operations and from the southern states. These increases in capacity, however, will not offset the cutbacks in uranium processing already in force together with the additional curtailments anticipated during the course of 1981

373

Impact of cooking and handling conditions on furanic compounds in breaded fish products.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluates the influence of cooking and handling conditions on the quantity of furanic compounds (furan, 2-furfural, furfuryl alcohol, 2-pentylfuran, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) in breaded fish products. Oven-baking and reheating in the microwave lead to low furanic compounds formation in comparison with deep-frying. The use of olive oil for deep-frying promoted higher levels of furanic compounds than sunflower oil. The amounts of these compounds diminished as the temperature and time of deep-frying decreased as well as after a delay after deep-frying. Thus, the generation of furanic compounds can be minimized by adjusting the cooking method and conditions, such as using an electric oven, deep-frying in sunflower oil at 160°C during 4min, or waiting 10min after cooking. However, these conditions that reduce furanic compounds levels also reduce the content of volatile compounds related to the aroma and flavour of fried foods. In this sense, new efforts should be done to reduce the formation of furanic compounds without being detrimental to the volatile profile. PMID:23340093

Pérez-Palacios, T; Petisca, C; Henriques, R; Ferreira, I M P L V O

2013-05-01

374

A novel attractant for Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from a Concord grape product.  

Science.gov (United States)

An attractant for Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was developed from a commercial product called Sabor Uva containing processed Concord grape juice. The principal volatile components of Sabor Uva aroma were identified and an aqueous mixture of 15 components that was gas chromatographically similar to Sabor Uva was prepared. This mixture was equivalent to Sabor Uva in attractiveness by using wind-tunnel bioassays. After deleting chemicals that did not contribute to attractiveness, and increasing the concentrations of the remaining chemicals, the final attractant contained propylene glycol (90,000 ppm, vol/vol), acetic acid (4500), methyl anthranilate (1800), ethyl 2-methylpropionate (670), and one or both of the esters ethyl 3-methylbutyrate (44) and 2-methylbutyl propionate (44), in aqueous solution. This mixture was approximately 1.8X as attractive as Sabor Uva by indirect comparison. Deletion of propylene glycol, acetic acid, methyl anthranilate, or ethyl 2-methylpropionate from the mixture significantly decreased attractiveness. Deletion of either of the other two esters seemed to diminish attractiveness although effects were not statistically significant. Deletion of water from the mixture significantly decreased attractiveness. We conclude that propylene glycol, acetic acid, methyl anthranilate, water, and at least one or as many as all three of the methyl-branched esters are essential for complete attractiveness. PMID:21882683

Robacker, David C; Massa, Michelle J; Sacchetti, Patrizia; Bartelt, Robert J

2011-08-01

375

Radioisotope production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The trial production runs started in the previous report period were continued and have been extended to 67Ga, 81Rb/81mKr and 111In, the production of which will be taken over from the Pretoria cyclotron at the end of this year, when that machine is scheduled to be shut down. After commissioning of the target water cooling system and the helium cooling system for beam foil windows at the beginning of this year, these production runs could also be extended to high beam currents (up to 50 ?A). Test consignments of a number of products have been supplied to various potential future users, and 123I, in the form of Na123I capsules as well as 123I-sodium hippurate, and 52Fe-citrate have actually been used with success in trial diagnostic studies on patients. A procedure for labelling IPPA and 3-IPMPA with 123I has been developed, while initial work has also been done on the radioiodination of monoclonal antifibrine antibodies. The last major facility needed for the commencement of the routine radioisotope production programme, namely the multiple-target facility, is now ready for installation in the production vault within the next few weeks, and routine production runs are expected to start in November 1988. 4 figs., 18 refs

376

Identification of hydroxycinnamic acid-maillard reaction products in low-moisture baking model systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemistry and fate of hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic, p-coumeric, caffeic, sinapic, and cinnamic acid) in a glucose/glycine simulated baking model (10% moisture at 200 degrees C for 15 min) were investigated. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of glucose/glycine and glucose/glycine/hydroxycinnamic acid model systems confirmed the phenolics reacted with Maillard intermediates; two main reaction product adducts were reported. On the basis of isotopomeric analysis, LC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy, structures of two ferulic acid-Maillard reaction products were identified as 6-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-5-(hydroxymethyl)-8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-en-2-one (adduct I) and 2-(6-(furan-2-yl)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-methyl-3-oxo-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl)acetic acid (adduct II). In addition, a pyrazinone-type Maillard product, 2-(5-(furan-2-yl)-6-methyl-2-oxopyrazin-1(2H)-yl) acetic acid (IIa), was identified as an intermediate for reaction product adduct II, whereas 3-deoxy-2-hexosulose was identified as an intermediate of adduct I. Both adducts I and II were suggested to be generated by pericyclic reaction mechanisms. Quantitative gas chromatography (GC) analysis and liquid chromatography (LC) also indicated that the addition of ferulic acid to a glucose/glycine model significantly reduced the generation of select Maillard-type aroma compounds, such as furfurals, methylpyrazines, 2-acetylfuran, 2-acetylpyridine, 2-acetylpyrrole, and cyclotene as well as inhibited color development in these Maillard models. In addition, adducts I and II suppressed the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated expression of two prototypical pro-inflammatory genes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, in an in vitro murine macrophage model; ferulic acid reported negligible activity. PMID:19817410

Jiang, Deshou; Chiaro, Christopher; Maddali, Pranav; Prabhu, K Sandeep; Peterson, Devin G

2009-11-11

377

Financial Products  

Science.gov (United States)

The financial transactions in today's market place may appear overly complex and obscure. A discussion of the subleties of familiar products and the motivations for unfamiliar ones brings perspective to the subject.

Zisook, Albert

1996-03-01

378

Property Modelling and Databases in Product-Process Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Properties of pure chemicals and their mixtures play an important role in the design of chemicals based products and the processes that manufacture them. Although, the use of experimental data in the design and/or analysis of these chemicals based products and their processes is desirable, they are not always available. Also, it may be too expensive or it may take too long to measure the required data. In these situations and when repetitive calculations are involved, as in process simulation, it is useful to have appropriate models to reliably predict the needed properties. For property model development, however, it is necessary to have a large database of measured property data that has been checked for consistency and accuracy. The presentation will first introduce a database, in terms of its knowledge representation structure, the type and range of properties and chemical systems covered, and their internal consistency-accuracy checks. The database includes properties of organic chemicals, polymers andionic liquids. There are also chemical class specific database sections, such as for solvents, aroma-chemicals, surfactants and emulsifiers. The use of this property database for model development will then be highlighted for a class of predictive models employing the group-contributionplus approach, where, the group-contribution (GC) method is combined with the atom-connectivity index (CI) method. Here, two parallel models are developed using the same dataset. However, during applications for property prediction, only the GC-model is used with the option to estimate missing group-contribution parameters through the CI-model. In this way, the application range of the GC-model is increased without the need for additional experimental data. This procedure for model development and use has been successfully employed for a range of pure component properties, polymer repeat-unit properties as well as mixture properties. For the mixture properties, liquid phase activity coefficients are modelled and then predictedthrough the UNIFAC-CI method. For bulk-properties of organic chemical mixtures, a GC-CI version of the PC-SAFT is used. The developed database and property prediction models have been combined into a properties-software that allows different product-process design related applications. The presentation will also briefly highlight applications of the software for virtual product-process design applications.

Gani, Rafiqul; Sansonetti, Sascha

379

Bottom production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

2000-03-15

380

Bottom production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations

381

Energy products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A directory of all Quebec universities, industrial and governmental agencies actively involved in research and development of biomass-based energy products was presented. This directory is one of several issued by the CQVB to facilitate discovery of Quebec centres of excellence involved in research and development of biomass-based products. Entries are organized in a standardized format -- sixteen in all in this volume -- including description of major research activities, principal technologies used, available research and analytical equipment, research personnel, and names and addresses of contact persons. The range of activities covered a diversity of research interests, including the production of ethanol from biomass waste and the treatment and combustion of biomass materials. tabs

382

Environmental products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume in the series of directories of Quebec organizations doing research and development involving biomass-based products or processes focused on environmental products and services. The objective of this, and other directories in the series, was to stimulate interaction, and hence more aggressive development, of products and processes capable of being commercialized, to facilitate interaction between those who possess and those who could utilize biomass resources, and in general, to encourage the development of biomass-based industries. A total of 83 organizations were included in standardized format, describing areas of research interest, principal areas of technological expertise, major equipment, personnel and name and address of contact person. In this volume fields of research interest included environmental audits, waste treatment, biodegradation, composting, oxidation, photodegradation, disinfection and combustion. tabs

383

International training course on solid state fermentation  

OpenAIRE

Solid state fermentation (SSF) has been studied for enzymes, antibiotics, alcohol production or for protein enrichment, but few papers report the production of aromas by such a process. In this work, the study of the production of fruity aromas in SSF by the fungus #Ceratocystis fimbriata$ is presented, with special interest in the nature of the support/substrate, the importance of added precursors in the medium and the aeration. The aromas were characterised by "sniffing" technique an GC hea...

Christen, Pierre; Revah, S.

1998-01-01

384

Phytosanitary products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of a series of directories of Quebec universities, industrial and governmental agencies in Quebec actively involved in research and development of phytosanitary products or services derived from or associated with biomass products. This directory contained standardized entries for 79 organizations from the agriculture, forestry and environmental sectors, active in fields ranging from genetic engineering, fertilizers, crop diseases and pest management, forestry management, harvesting methods and bioconversion. Each entry provided information about major fields of research interest, principal technologies utilized, major equipment, personnel, and name and address of person to be contacted for further information. tabs

385

Evaluation of freeze-dried kefir coculture as starter in feta-type cheese production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of freeze-dried kefir coculture as a starter in the production of feta-type cheese was investigated. Maturation of the produced cheese at 4 degrees C was monitored for up to 70 days, and the effects of the starter culture, the salting method, and the ripening process on quality characteristics were studied. The use of kefir coculture as a starter led to increased lactic acid concentrations and decreased pH values in the final product associated with significantly higher conversion rates compared to salted rennet cheese. Determination of bacterial diversity at the end of the ripening process in salted kefir and rennet cheeses by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technology, based on both DNA and RNA analyses, suggested a potential species-specific inhibition of members of the genera Staphylococcus and Psychrobacter by kefir coculture. The main active microbial associations in salted kefir cheese appeared to be members of the genera Pseudomonas and Lactococcus, while in salted rennet cheese, Oxalobacteraceae, Janthinobacterium, Psychrobacter, and Pseudomonas species were noted. The effect of the starter culture on the production of aroma-related compounds responsible for cheese flavor was also studied by the solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. Kefir coculture also appeared to extend the shelf life of unsalted cheese. Spoilage of kefir cheese was observed on the 9th and 20th days of preservation at 10 and 5 degrees C, respectively, while spoilage in the corresponding rennet cheese was detected on the 7th and 16th days. Microbial counts during preservation of both types of unsalted cheese increased steadily and reached similar levels, with the exception of staphylococci, which were significantly lower in unsalted kefir cheese. All types of cheese produced with kefir as a starter were approved and accepted by the panel during the preliminary sensory evaluation compared to commercial feta-type cheese. PMID:16957238

Kourkoutas, Y; Kandylis, P; Panas, P; Dooley, J S G; Nigam, P; Koutinas, A A

2006-09-01

386

Uranium production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The domestic uranium industry is in a state of stagflation. Costs continue to rise while the market for the product remains stagnant. During the last 12 months, curtailments and closures of mines and mills have eliminated over 5000 jobs in the industry, plus many more in those industries that furnish supplies and services. By January 1982, operations at four mills and the mines that furnish them ore will have been terminated. Other closures may follow, depending on cost trends, duration of current contracts, the degree to which mills have been amortized, the feasibility of placing mines on standby, the grade of the ore, and many other factors. Open-pit mines can be placed on standby without much difficulty, other than the possible cost of restoration before all the ore has been removed. There are a few small, dry, underground mines that could be mothballed; however, the major underground producers are wet sandstone mines that in most cases could not be reopened after a prolonged shutdown; mills can be mothballed for several years. Figure 8 shows the location of all the production centers in operation, as well as those that have operated or are on standby. Table 1 lists the same production centers plus those that have been deferred, showing nominal capacity of conventional mills in tons of ore per calendar day, and the industry production rate for those mills as of October 1, 1981

387

New Products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews new educational technology products, including a microcomputer-based tutoring system, laser barcode reader, video/data projectors, CD-ROM for notebook computers, a system to increase a printer's power, data cartridge storage shell, knowledge-based decision tool, video illustrator, interactive videodiscs, surge protectors, scanner system,…

TechTrends, 1992

1992-01-01

388

Tanning Products  

Science.gov (United States)

... of canthaxanthin are ingested, it can turn the skin a range of colors from orange to brown. It can also cause serious health problems including liver damage; hives; and an eye disorder called canthaxanthin retinopathy, in which ... Radiation Your Skin The Risks of Tanning Tanning Products Sun Protection ...

389

Geophysical Products  

Science.gov (United States)

The Geophysical Products Web site is maintained and provided by the USGS Crustal Imaging and Characterization Team, who "devise new methods for understanding the Earth and apply these methods in interdisciplinary research projects to solve pressing earth-system problems." This comprehensive accumulation of resources includes Regional and State Grid and Database Compilations, Magnetic Reports and Surveys, Gravity Reports and Surveys, Electrical Reports and Surveys, MagnetoTelluric Reports and Surveys, Multi-Discipline Reports and Surveys, Geophysical Software, Fact Sheets, Geophysical Products available on CD-ROMS, geophysical links, and more. The single page site, although seemingly limited, does offer a great deal of information that should be of use to researchers and professionals.

390

Uranium production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The production of uranium dioxide fuel by BNFL at Springfields is discussed. The Integrated Dry Route (IDR) for the manufacture of UO2 powder is described. It is based on the single stage IDR for continuously converting uranium hexafluoride to ceramic grade UO2, and the use of pore-formers to confer a predetermined structure and density on the fuel pellets. The advantages of the process are shown. Also described is the new rotary kiln process, UTK (uranium tetrafluoride in kilns), for the production of UF4, which consists of three stages, hydration of UO3, dehydration and reduction to UO2, and hydrofluorination UO2. Reference is made to effluent treatment, and safety aspects of the new plant are considered. (U.K.)

391

Production processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this historical review, covering roughly the years from 1960 to 1980, some contributions are presented in an exemplary selection that bubble chambers have made to our understanding of particle production processes within the framework of the following phenomenological models: One-particle exchange (in particular one-pion exchange); Regge-pole exchange; duality, finite-energy sum rules and Veneziano models; multiperipheral model, multi-Regge exchange, loongitudinal phase space and diffraction dissociation. (orig.)

392

Queijo tipo minas frescal com derivados de soja: características físicas, químicas e sensoriais Minas frescal cheese with soy product: physical, chemistry and sensorial characteristics  

OpenAIRE

Nove provadores selecionados e treinados avaliaram a aparência, aroma, sabor e textura de três formulações de queijo tipo minas frescal (tradicional, com extrato hidrossolúvel de soja em pó (PS-60) e coalho bovino e com PS-60 e coagulante microbiano). O queijo tradicional caracterizou-se pela aparência de umidade e de sabor coalhada. O queijo com PS-60 elaborado com coalho bovino apresentou cor creme e gosto amargo e a amostra com coagulante microbiano mostrou maior aroma soja. As cara...

Juliany Piazzon-Gomes; Sandra Helena Prudêncio; Rui Sérgio dos Santos Ferreira da Silva

2010-01-01

393

D-meson production by muons in the COMPASS experiment at CERN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the physics goals of the COMPASS experiment at CERN was to measure the contribution of gluons to the nucleon spin. To achieve this, it was proposed to scatter polarized 160 GeV/c muons on a polarized deuteron target and to detect D mesons in the final state. The underlying process in this D meson production is supposed to be the Photon-Gluon Fusion (PGF), where a virtual photon emitted by the muon interacts with a gluon from the target nucleon, producing a charm-anticharm quark pair. Fragmentation of a charm (anticharm) quark leads with high probability to the creation of a D{sup 0} or D{sup *} meson, which COMPASS detects via the D{sup 0}{yields}K{pi} and D{sup *}{yields}D{sup 0}{pi}{yields}K{pi}{pi} decay modes. From the longitudinal cross section spin asymmetries of the D meson production and theoretical predictions for the PGF cross section, the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin has been measured by the COMPASS experiment. The results presented in the thesis are the following. Based on data from the year 2004 a total visible cross section of 1.8{+-}0.4 nb, for the D{sup *} meson production, has been measured, with the error being dominated by systematic effects. It is validated that the D mesons are indeed produced through the PGF process, by comparison of measured D meson kinematic distributions to the ones predicted by a theory (AROMA generator). A good agreement was found for the distribution shapes, which confirms that PGF plays a major role. However, a 20% difference was found in the number of produced D{sup 0} and D{sup 0} mesons (and for the D{sup *+} and D{sup *-} mesons as well) which is significantly larger than predicted by AROMA. Kinematic distributions of D{sup 0} and D{sup *} mesons were compared with the background and also with the nearby K{sup *}{sub 2}(1430){sup 0} resonance, using all longitudinal data taken in 2002-2006. The particle-antiparticle asymmetry has been studied as a function of several kinematic variables. The 20% excess of mesons decaying into K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} over mesons decaying into K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} was observed for all three mesons. The behavior of the D{sup 0}/D{sup 0} (and D{sup *+}/D{sup *-}) asymmetries as a function of virtual photon energy suggests that associated production of D{sup *-}{lambda}{sup +}{sub c} or D{sup 0}{lambda}{sup +}{sub c} may be responsible for the observed effect. The longitudinal double spin asymmetries have been studied for the D{sup 0}, D{sup *} and K{sup *}{sub 2}(1430){sup 0} mesons separately for particle, antiparticle and for the sum of particle and antiparticle. It was found that the asymmetries extracted for D{sup 0} and D{sup *} mesons are compatible with zero. A 3-sigma deviation from zero asymmetry was observed for the K{sup *}{sub 2}(1430){sup 0} meson. An investigation of the K{sup *}{sub 2}(1430){sup 0} double spin asymmetry reveals a dependence as function of the Bjorken x{sub Bj} variable. (orig.)

Zvyagin, Alexander

2011-01-21

394

Predicting the substrate specificity of a glycosyltransferase implicated in the production of phenolic volatiles in tomato fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The volatile compounds that constitute the fruit aroma of ripe tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are often sequestered in glycosylated form. A homology-based screen was used to identify the gene SlUGT5, which is a member of UDP-glycosyltransferase 72 family and shows specificity towards a range of substrates, including flavonoid, flavanols, hydroquinone, xenobiotics and chlorinated pollutants. SlUGT5 was shown to be expressed primarily in ripening fruit and flowers, and mapped to chromosome I in a region containing a QTL that affected the content of guaiacol and eugenol in tomato crosses. Recombinant SlUGT5 protein demonstrated significant activity towards guaiacol and eugenol, as well as benzyl alcohol and methyl salicylate; however, the highest in vitro activity and affinity was shown for hydroquinone and salicyl alcohol. NMR analysis identified isosalicin as the only product of salicyl alcohol glycosylation. Protein modelling and substrate docking analysis were used to assess the basis for the substrate specificity of SlUGT5. The analysis correctly predicted the interactions with SlUGT5 substrates, and also indicated that increased hydrogen bonding, due to the presence of a second hydrophilic group in methyl salicylate, guaiacol and hydroquinone, appeared to more favourably anchor these acceptors within the glycosylation site, leading to increased stability, higher activities and higher substrate affinities. PMID:21166996

Louveau, Thomas; Leitao, Celine; Green, Sol; Hamiaux, Cyril; van der Rest, Benoît; Dechy-Cabaret, Odile; Atkinson, Ross G; Chervin, Christian

2011-01-01

395

Physico-Chemical Characterization of Brew during the Brewing Corn Malt in the Production of Maize Beer in Congo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study consists in the production of a traditional beer from maize in the Congo. The traditional method of brewing corn malt has three main stages: malting corn, brewing corn malt and fermentation. During the brewing corn malt, endogenous amylase activity is destroyed during the stiffening of the starch to about 80°C. A pre-cooking of the mash is necessitated to promote amylolyse at 50°C with an exogenous enzyme. The use of a preparation of ?-amylase can liquefy the mash and produce a sweet wort (average density = 12.5° Balling rich in dextrin corresponding to an apparent extract of 4° Balling in beer. The rising profile of the pH of the corn malt mash, from mashing to extract the wort does not affect the pH of the beer produced. This beer, slightly alcoholic (3.6% ethanol, is characterized by a nomal acid pH (pH = 4.15 on average and a brown color (25 EBC units. Its slight bitterness (21 EBU and the fine aroma of a beer closer barley produced industrially in the Congo.

P. Diakabana

2013-06-01

396