Sample records for areas by point of view

  1. Teaching mathematics online in the European Area of Higher Education: an instructor's point of view

    Juan, Angel A.; Steegmann, Cristina; Huertas, Antonia; Martinez, M. Jesus; Simosa, J.


    This article first discusses how information technologies are changing the way knowledge is delivered at universities worldwide. Then, the article reviews some of the most popular learning management systems available today and some of the most useful online resources in the areas of Mathematics and Statistics. After that, some long-term experiences regarding the teaching of online courses in those areas at the Open University of Catalonia are discussed. Finally, the article presents the results of a large-scale survey performed in Spain that aims to reflect instructors' opinions and feelings about potential benefits and challenges of teaching mathematics online, as well as the role of emergent technologies in the context of the European Area of Higher Education. Therefore, this article contributes to the existing literature as an additional reference point, one based on our long-term experience in a large-scale online environment, for discussions involving mathematical e-learning.

  2. Tracking Point of View in Narrative

    Wiebe, J M


    Third-person fictional narrative text is composed not only of passages that objectively narrate events, but also of passages that present characters' thoughts, perceptions, and inner states. Such passages take a character's ``psychological point of view''. A language understander must determine the current psychological point of view in order to distinguish the beliefs of the characters from the facts of the story, to correctly attribute beliefs and other attitudes to their sources, and to understand the discourse relations among sentences. Tracking the psychological point of view is not a trivial problem, because many sentences are not explicitly marked for point of view, and whether the point of view of a sentence is objective or that of a character (and if the latter, which character it is) often depends on the context in which the sentence appears. Tracking the psychological point of view is the problem addressed in this work. The approach is to seek, by extensive examinations of naturally-occurring narra...

  3. Analysis of Ankara urban area from human bioclimatologic point of view

    Necla Türkoğlu


    Full Text Available In this study, the Physiological Equivalent Temperatures (PET of different land patterns in the Ankara urban area has been analyzed. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of the thermal perceptions and the grades of thermal stress caused by the thermal conditions have been determined for 00:00, 03:00, 06:00, 09:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00 and 21:00 hours during the December and July of 2010. The effects of physiographic features such as elevation, aspect, slope, and especially land use, on the PETs have also been examined. According to the analysis which is carried out by using PET thermal perception index, in the research area the thermal comfort values varies around from -6 to -11°C in winter and from 13°C to 50°C in summer. In both periods the open spaces (grasslands of the city forests have the maximum PET values during the day. Either in December and in July the urban area (city center has and cool island during the day and has a heat island during the night.

  4. Evaluation of Recreational Areas in Reservoir Serie of Belgrad Forest From Forest Management Point of View

    Özcan, Mehmet; Destan, Sinan


     ã€€The aim of this study was to implement a developed and tested methodology to determine the function of forest recreation, which can be useful for forest management and planning. In the study, structural components that are effective in evaluation of categories and types of seven recreational areas (Bentler, Falih Rıfkı Atay, Irmak, Kirazlıbent, Kömürcübent, Neşetsuyu and M.Akif Ersoy) in The Bentler Planning Unit of Belgrad Forest were rendered into a measurable situation and digitized. O...

  5. The educator's point of view.

    Dengo De Vargas, M E


    Education is considered as an important means of promoting social change, and within this context how population issues can be integrated into development planning and educational practices is discussed. Education is expected to have an impact in future years, and is a necessary means of creating awareness of population-related problems; education for all is a human right. New approaches to population education must include teacher training and creation of awareness about population issues that respect cultural identity and free choice and do not influence customs and values that would run counter to the society. Educators have an ethical responsibility to address issues of population and human life; when seeking outside expertise, the nation should not be "carried away by the pressures of financial agencies which respond to foreign interests." For instance, the psychosocial dynamics and practice of sexual intercourse in Central America are different from those in North America or Europe. Sexual education must be based on sound scientific approaches, but must also include ethical values. Population education must use a holistic, intersectoral approach. Nations have human, natural, and economic resources, which must have a balanced influence. Human development involves being both the object and planner of development. Pope John Paul II noted that development must include the biological, the psychosocial, and the spiritual and reach all men. Human rights must be guaranteed. In addition to equality for women everyone has the right to dignity, education, employment, health, housing, and leisure. Quality of life is a part of human development, and is achieved through a balance between man, his environment, and resources, and liberty and peace. Educational strategies involve macro planning for placement and number of schools and teachers, and decentralizing educational services in order to reach rural areas. Formal and informal education is required. Adult education is

  6. Extralaryngeal Terminal Division of the Inferior Laryngeal Nerve: Anatomical Classification by a Surgical Point of View

    Emin Gurleyik


    Full Text Available Background. Complete anatomic knowledge including all variations of the inferior laryngeal nerve (ILN is mandatory for thyroid surgeon. Extralaryngeal terminal division (ETD of the ILN has significant importance for the safety of thyroidectomy. Material and Methods. Surgical dissection of 200 ILNs was performed on 100 cases. The presence of ETD of the nerve was determined intraoperatively. We propose by a surgical point of view a regional (segmental classification of ETD of the ILN along its cervical course. Results. ETD has been observed in 54/200 nerves (27%. Great majority are bifurcated nerves (trifurcation 2%. Four types of ETD are classified. In type 1 (arterial; 46.3%, ETD has occurred near inferior thyroid artery (ITA. In type 2 (postarterial; 31.5%, division has been found on postarterial segment. In type 3 (prelaryngeal; 11%, division has been located very close to laryngeal entry point. In type 4 (prearterial; 11%, ETD has occurred before the nerve crossing the ITA. Conclusions. ETD of the ILN is a common anatomical variation. The bifurcation occurs in the ILN at various distances from laryngeal entry point. The classification increasing surgeons’ awareness may help to simplify identification and exposure of terminal branches. Preservation of both extralaryngeal terminal branches of the ILN has paramount importance for the safety of thyroid operations.

  7. Irradiation: Consumers' point of view

    The various potential reactions of consumers to irradiated foods are enumerated, with consideration being given to significant factors that will influence acceptance such as accentuation of freshness, just sufficient information (since the consumer wants a few reassuring facts, not too many technical details and a good reason to buy the product), assurance of safety, taste and appearance of the products, assurance of correct treatment under product conditions that will ensure the expected benefit, and indication of the expiry date (to ensure that shelf life used up in new transportation and distribution shcedules is clear to the consumer), assurance that the nutritional value has not been affected, competitive pricing - particularly where the handler has benefited from part of the shelf life extension, and information as to the benefits to the economy (lower food spoilage). Some steps taken in Canada to promote the technology and its acceptance by consumers were: adoption of the Codex Standard and Recommended Code of Practice, assurance of proper industry performance, and a decision to develop an appropriate symbol to designate irradiated food in a clearly recognisable manner, without unduly antagonizing the consumer. The Consumer's Association has acted to allay consumers' fears by supplying information to all media and by providing speakers at Seminars. It is now the task of industry to use ''marketing experts'' to further the education and selling process, and to tell the facts in simple concise terms. (author)

  8. The economy point of view

    Breeder reactors give our country a chance to become independent of the importation of energy raw materials for the production of electricity. This security is gained at the cost of heavier capital investments than for the light water reactor version, more expenses for research and development, and a higher cost for one kWh. This article presents elements of comparison as a function of several assumptions

  9. A point's point of view of stringy geometry

    The notion of a 'point' is essential to describe the topology of spacetime. Despite this, a point probably does not play a particularly distinguished role in any intrinsic formulation of string theory. We discuss one way to try to determine the notion of a point from a worldsheet point of view. The derived category description of D-branes is the key tool. The case of a flop is analyzed and Π-stability in this context is tied in to some ideas of Bridgeland. Monodromy associated to the flop is also computed via Π-stability and shown to be consistent with previous conjectures. (author)

  10. Introduction: another point of view

    Rix, Jonathan; Walsh, Christopher; Parry, John,; Kumrai, Rajni


    About the book: What are the experiences of children and young people? How can we think about the challenges they face? What systems and practices can support them? How can we develop greater equality, participation and inclusion across diverse settings? This second edition of Equality, Participation and Inclusion 1: Diverse Perspectives is the first of two Readers aimed at people with an interest in issues of equality, participation and inclusion for children and young people. This fir...

  11. The Software Point of View

    Bentvelsen, Stan

    Physics was meant to be the topic of the LUND workshop, but it was software that dominated throughout the week. ATLAS' new software proves a tough nut to crack. Many presented physics analyses were repetitions of the Physics TDR, using (or trying to use) the new software. The main purpose was to demonstrate that results were invariant with new software. Hard to prove since the 'new software' is not yet completed. Nevertheless the so far existing sofware is massively experimented with throughout the entire ATLAS community. So what does this "new software" really mean? The answer depends strongly on the person who deals with this question. The scope varies between "migrating from Fortran77 to C++" and "learn Object Oriented approach" to "implementing services and algorithms in Athena" or "feeding detector description in FADS". Clearly the new software primarily involves migrating from the old Fortran code to C++ with its object oriententation paradigm. Occasionaly there was a hint that this migration is not c...

  12. Fast Breeder Development: EDF's point of view

    This paper presents EDF's views and contributions to fast breeder development and to the French SFR trilateral program. Utility requirements are first outlined, based on the approach followed for the EPR reactor. R and D contributions are presented in the areas of core physics, safety, technology innovations, materials, deployment and fuel cycle scenarios. The paper also deals with some of the issues of the 2020 French prototype as seen by EDF.

  13. Features of Point Clouds Synthesized from Multi-View ALOS/PRISM Data and Comparisons with LiDAR Data in Forested Areas

    Ni, Wenjian; Ranson, Kenneth Jon; Zhang, Zhiyu; Sun, Guoqing


    LiDAR waveform data from airborne LiDAR scanners (ALS) e.g. the Land Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS) havebeen successfully used for estimation of forest height and biomass at local scales and have become the preferredremote sensing dataset. However, regional and global applications are limited by the cost of the airborne LiDARdata acquisition and there are no available spaceborne LiDAR systems. Some researchers have demonstrated thepotential for mapping forest height using aerial or spaceborne stereo imagery with very high spatial resolutions.For stereo imageswith global coverage but coarse resolution newanalysis methods need to be used. Unlike mostresearch based on digital surface models, this study concentrated on analyzing the features of point cloud datagenerated from stereo imagery. The synthesizing of point cloud data from multi-view stereo imagery increasedthe point density of the data. The point cloud data over forested areas were analyzed and compared to small footprintLiDAR data and large-footprint LiDAR waveform data. The results showed that the synthesized point clouddata from ALOSPRISM triplets produce vertical distributions similar to LiDAR data and detected the verticalstructure of sparse and non-closed forests at 30mresolution. For dense forest canopies, the canopy could be capturedbut the ground surface could not be seen, so surface elevations from other sourceswould be needed to calculatethe height of the canopy. A canopy height map with 30 m pixels was produced by subtracting nationalelevation dataset (NED) fromthe averaged elevation of synthesized point clouds,which exhibited spatial featuresof roads, forest edges and patches. The linear regression showed that the canopy height map had a good correlationwith RH50 of LVIS data with a slope of 1.04 and R2 of 0.74 indicating that the canopy height derived fromPRISM triplets can be used to estimate forest biomass at 30 m resolution.

  14. Suicide from a Holistic Point of View

    Søren Ventegodt; Joav Merrick


    Suicide has been honoured and respected in the eastern culture, especially in Japan with the famous tradition of Hara-kiri, or seppuku, while in most western societies suicide has been seen negatively and many contemporary physicians tend to consider suicide the most self-destructive and evil thing a human being can do and something that should be avoided at all cost. Religions also have different viewpoints on suicide, but from a philosophical point of view we believe that considering the ch...

  15. INSPIRE from the JRC Point of View

    Vlado Cetl


    Full Text Available This paper summarises some recent developments in INSPIRE implementation from the JRC (Joint Research Centre point of view. The INSPIRE process started around 11 years ago and today, clear results and benefits can be seen. Spatial data are more accessible and shared more frequently between countries and at the European level. In addition to this, efficient, unified coordination and collaboration between different stakeholders and participants has been achieved, which is another great success. The JRC, as a scientific think-tank of the European Commission, has played a very important role in this process from the very beginning. This role is in line with its mission, which is to provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of European Union (EU policies. The JRC acts as the overall technical coordinator of INSPIRE, but it also carries out the activities necessary to support the coherent implementation of INSPIRE, by helping member states in the implementation process. Experiences drawn from collaboration and negotiation in each country and at the European level will be of great importance in the revision of the INSPIRE Directive, which is envisaged for 2014. Keywords: spatial data infrastructure (SDI; INSPIRE; development; Joint Research Centre (JRC

  16. Economic and market feasibility analysis, by the point of view of gas and electrical companies, for replacement of the electric powered showers by the natural gas powered showers in ABC Paulista area; Analise da viabilidade economica e do mercado, do ponto de vista das concessionarias de gas e de energia eletrica, pela substituicao de chuveiros eletricos por gas natural, na area do ABC paulista

    Callari, Roberto [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rosim, Sidney Olivieri [Rosim e Papaleo Consultoria e Participacoes Ltda. (Brazil)


    The possibility of an exchange of energy for heating residential water should be seen, by the point of view of the concessionaires, as a single market and exclusionary, in which the development of new customers by the concessionaire of electric energy directly involves the development of these non-customers for the distributor of natural gas. The study shows that, under the terms of concession of electricity, the loss of any part of the markets, current and expansion would be attractive only if the natural gas concessionaire could pass part of their earnings with customers users of electric showers that change their profile to the gas heaters, for electrical distribution. Under the terms of the concession to natural gas, the condition of massive investments replacement of electric showers and absorption of growth and expansion entrant with customers, increase the turnover to allow the search of a mechanism for transferring part of that revenue to absorb also customers of electricity. Thus, both the concessionaire of electricity preserve their revenue and, in turn, the concessionaire of natural gas would have an effective gain of revenue for the absorption of the customers of electric showers. (author.


    Matis Dumitru


    Full Text Available The concept of “true and fair view” is a very subjective one , which didn’t find yet the definition general accepted and in this way we can’t say that there are relevant instruments for measuring the level of the fidelity reflected in the financial statements. The financial audit plays an important role for delimitating the true and fair view supplied by the financial statements and despite the fact that the financial auditors are consciences that there isn’t a mathematical formula or other kind of formula through which could be possible to measure the level of the fidelity and the true and fair view of the financial statement, they consider that they have the possibility to identify the situations in which the financial statements didn’t present the reality true and fair, using the professional though to determine the level of the financial statements to give a true and fair view We have made an empirical survey which permits us to analyze the quality of the true and fair view supplied by the financial statements from the point of view of the financial auditor, without having the pretentious of using all the significant aspects.

  18. Games, Montage and the First Person Point of View

    Nitsche, Michael


    Games, Montage and the First Person Point of View By Michael Nitsche LCC – Georgia Tech Executive Abstract Montage of moving images is an effect present in games. To investigate this effect we look at the use of the first person point of view (POV) in montage elements controlled by the player. The focus of the analysis lies on montage that combines gameplay and visualization. The interactive control that generates a reference between player and player-character ...

  19. Dental CT in the planning of surgery. Role in the oromaxillofacial area from the dentist's point of view

    Dental computer assisted tomography (Dental CT) represents a valuable addition to the diagnostic spectrum for planning oral and maxillofacial surgery. High resolution CT and specially designed computer software allow representation of the jaws in different planes that are easy to match. They further allow the display of very small structures relevant to oral surgical interventions and reveal their spatial relationship in three dimensions. Thus, communication between dentists and radiologists may be intensified and supported by usage of modern telecommunication systems. Dental CT is indicated, when clinical and conventional radiological techniques will not allow exact interpretation of the situation. It is modern oral implantology that primarily benefits from computer software enabling the assessment of surgical sites in the presurgical phase. Such planning was not yet possible using two dimensional radiographic techniques. The dental-implantological part expects from radiography sharply defined contours of the external bony contours and the mandibular canal, exactly defined relation between slices and planes, no distortion in the orthoradial planes, tools for reliable measurements of distances, angles and volumes, possibility to transmit pictures electronically or on hardcopy without loss of quality. (orig.)

  20. Whose point-of-view is it anyway?

    Garvey, Gregory P.


    Shared virtual worlds such as Second Life privilege a single point-of-view, namely that of the user. When logged into Second Life a user sees the virtual world from a default viewpoint, which is from slightly above and behind the user's avatar (the user's alter ego 'in-world.') This point-of-view is as if the user were viewing his or her avatar using a camera floating a few feet behind it. In fact it is possible to set the view to as if you were seeing the world through the eyes of your avatar or you can even move the camera completely independent of your avatar. A change in point-of-view, means, more than just a different camera point-of-view. The practice of using multiple avatars requires a transformation of identity and personality. When a user 'enacts' the identity of a particular avatar, their 'real' personality is masked by the assumed personality. The technology of virtual worlds permits both a change of point-of -view and also facilitates a change in identity. Does this cause any psychological distress? Or is the ability to be someone else and see a world (a game, a virtual world) through a different set of eyes somehow liberating and even beneficial?

  1. EPR: the electricians' point of view

    This article gives the French and German electricians point of view about the technical solutions retained in the European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR) project for the choice of systems, components and safety standards according to their respective experience. Standardisation, availability, unit power and cycle cost are the main factors that determine the cost of the project. The new requests of French and German safety authorities have determined the fundamental choices for safety systems, nuclear auxiliary systems, external aggression protections and prevention of severe accidents in agreement with the solutions retained for existing reactors. The main differences in the conception of the existing N4 french reactor and the Konvoi German reactor are listed as an example and compared to the solutions retained for the common EPR project. The standardisation policy adopted for the EPR project will lead in 1997 to the redaction of a preliminary safety and functional specificities report necessary to start the authorization procedure for a first realisation. (J.S.). 1 tab

  2. Habitability from a microbial point of view

    Westall, Frances; Loizeau, Damien; Foucher, Frédéric; Bost, Nicolas; Bertrand, Marylène; Vago, Jorge; Kminek, Gerhard


    We examine here the definition of habitability from the point of view of primitive, anaerobic microorganisms noting that the conditions of habitability are different for the appearance of life, for established life, and for life in dormant mode [1]. Habitability in this sense is clearly distinguished from the 'prebiotic world' that precedes the appearance of life. The differences in the conditions of habitability necessary for life to appear, for life to flourish and for dormant life entrain differences in spatial and temporal scales of habitability. For the origin of life, the ingredients carbon molecules, water, nutrients and energy need to be present on time scales applicable for the origin of life (105 to a few 106 y ?), necessitating the spatial scales of a minimum of ~100 km. Established life can take advantage of short-lived habitats (hours, days) to much longer lived ones on spatial scales of 100s μm to cm-m, whereas dormant life can survive (but not metabolise) in extreme environments for very long periods (perhaps up to millions of years) at microbial spatial scales (100s μm - mms). Thus, it is not necessary for the whole of a planet of satellite to be habitable. But the degree of continued habitability will have a strong influence on the possibility of organisms to evolve. For a planet such as Mars, for instance, microbial habitability was (perhaps still is) at different times and in different places. Habitable conditions conducive to the appearance of life, established life and possibly even dormant life could co-exist at different locations. Reference: [1] F. Westall, D. Loizeau, F. Foucher, N. Bost, M. Bertrand, J. Vago, & G. Kminek, Astrobiology 13:9, 887-897 (2013).

  3. Entertainment costs from the corporate income tax point of view

    Veselá, Lucie


    The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the current legislation concerning the entertainment costs which are treated as tax non-deductible expenses in the Czech Republic. Further, this thesis compares these costs with promotion and sponsorship costs which are frequently interchanged in practice. After evaluation of the existing legislation in this area, I focus on the question whether these expenses should be treated as non-deductible expenses from the tax point of view while I base my opinion ...

  4. The poetic nature of non-religious Spirituality: A point of view by Jean Paul Sartre

    Alex Villas Boas


    Full Text Available This article proposes to examine some theories of non-religious spirituality in light of the growing phenomenon of those individuals who declared themselves as having "no religion" by Brazilian religious census conducted in 2010 by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. The intention here is to identify how the poetic question presents itself as the fundamental element of these proposals about spirituality for authors, since beauty is part of the spiritual quest, as in: Viktor Frankl and existential religiosity grounded in the search for meaning in life; Marià Corbí and his non-religious or secular spirituality; Robert Solomon and his spirituality for skeptics, and André Comte-Sponville and his atheistic spirituality, or spirituality without God. From there, we then present the perception of spirituality in the poetry of the thought of Jean Paul Sartre, primarily in his work “what is Literature?”

  5. Lasers, microwave tubes, and accelerators: a unified point of view

    Many practical devices of technical interest rely for their operation on the coherent interaction between harmonic electromagnetic fields and ensembles of charged particles, constrained to move in orbits or trajectories by electric or magnetic fields. These have in many cases been studied by different communities of physicists and engineers, and different points of view have emerged. Some relatively recent developments, such as the gyrotron and free electron laser have features in common with lasers, microwave tubes, and particle accelerators. Some of these devices will be examined in an informal way from several different view points, with emphasis on a physical rather than mathematical description. (author)

  6. Quality evaluation of the dental service rendered by a private university: the users’ point of view

    Sharmênia de Araújo Soares Nuto; Keline Portela da Silva; Guerda Portela Câmara; Eveline Silva Nobre


    The user’s satisfaction must be the main goal of all health services. Through the evaluation of the patients’ satisfaction, data regarding their expectations can be obtained, the service’s failures can be detected and solution for improvements can be made. This descriptive and cross-sectional study aimed at evaluating the satisfaction of the users of the Fortaleza University Dentistry Course. In this research, a process evaluation was accomplished emphasizing the characteristics related to th...

  7. Symbol in Point View of Ambiguity

    Dr. M. R. Yousefi

    Full Text Available Symbol from the perspective of rhetorical word, is phrase or sentence that apparent meaning, also inspires to reader a wide range of semantic.Since exploring the complex social and political ideas in the most mysticalway and indirectreflectionsocial and political thoughts symbolically is easier, so the symbol and symbolism especially in Persian literatureespeciallyin the realm of Persian poetry, has a special appearance.In addition to the factors mentioned in the contemporary literature, according familiar in literature and the emergence of particular schools interest toambiguoussymbolization has spreadfurther, especially the symbol has all the features of art ambiguity in the poem and it isone the major factors causing uncertainty.Thus, the precise definitions and symbols of contemporary poetry could be dominant in the unwinding ambiguous symbol detection of cryptic allusions and metaphors that matches the cursor symbol to help readers.In the literature, especially language poetry, the inability of language toreflecting obscure mystical ideas, avoid to directexpression of political and social concerns of the reader in the course of participate to creation ambiguous literary works is the main motivation towards symbol and symbolization.According widespread use of symbol and its different of species can be viewed from different perspectives.The creation of ambiguity is the main purposes of using symbols (especially in poetry, so many poets have tried to achieve this goal have to formation of similar symbols and the explanation and resolution of this issue can open new window for understanding the poetry in front of an audience.In this paper examines the ambiguity of symbols in terms of its precise boundaries are reviewed. Ambiguity is one of the important processes and also is the key Iranian poetry; its means is today poetry. In such poetry ambiguity is a need to explore the new world from a different perspective, or explore this complex world

  8. A point of view about identification of irradiated foods by electron spin resonance

    Principles and conditions required for using electron spin resonance (ESR) in identifying irradiated foods are first put forth. After a literature review, examples of irradiated cereals and French prunes are described in order to derive general conclusions concerning the future of ESR in this field

  9. Naval gunnery from user's point of view

    Capt. A.H.F. Hunt


    Full Text Available This paper pointed out that although Internal Ballistics forms only one part of the whole problem, if this subject were neglected, the guns would not fire straight nor to the correct range, and however skilful the men and however complicated the fire control machinery, it would not be possible to hit the target. The scientific study of Internal Ballistics was therefore, of the greatest importance

  10. Free points of view by Academicians on the environment and sustainable development

    A first set of contributions deals with climate evolutions. The authors (all members of the French Academie des Sciences) address the greenhouse effect explanation, its measurement and its consequences in France, the question whether there is a climate change due to human activities, the effect of global warming on our everyday life, the existence of important temperature changes and extreme climatic events in the past, and the credibility of mathematical models for the prediction of possible climate changes and of their consequences. A second set deals with the environment and oceans. The authors address sea level rise and its consequences for some low coastal regions and for France, and sea water acidification. A third set of articles deals with the environment and energies. The authors address the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in France, the benefits and drawbacks of the use of bio-fuels mixed with fossil fuels, the share of wind energy in France, the perspective of the use of oil and natural gas in Europe, the perspectives of carbon capture and storage, the development of the photovoltaic sector in France. The next set of contributions deals with the environment, demography, water, food and health. The authors address the consequences of demographic evolutions, the impact of population increase on water shortage and on environment degradation, the issue of water shortage in France during the next decades and the possible consequences for the French food industry, and the possible impacts of problems related to climate change on health. A last article deals with the environment and biodiversity. It discusses the possible impacts of environmental changes on biodiversity, and the facts already noticed in France

  11. Efficiency of guns from the technical point of view

    G. Baranski


    Full Text Available From the engineering point of view, a gun or machine gun is a heat engine very similar to a Diesel or petrol engine. It has to do work when-operated by a soldier. A fuel is burnt, namely the propellant, and certain power (energy per unit time is obtained, namely the kinetic energy of the projectile for each interval of rounds fired.

  12. Research of the Rock Art from the point of view of geography: the neolithic painting of the Mediterranean area of the Iberian Peninsula

    Cruz Berrocal, María


    Full Text Available The rock art of the Mediterranean Arch (which includes what are conventionally called Levantine Rock Art, Schematic Rock Art and Macroschematic Rock Art, among other styles, designated as part of the Human Heritage in 1997, is studied from the point of view of the Archaeology of Landscape. The information sources used were field work, cartographic analysis and analysis in GIS, besides two Rock Art Archives: the UNESCO Document and the Corpus of Levantine Cave Painting (Corpus de Pintura Rupestre Levantina. The initial hypothesis was that this rock art was involved in the process of neolithisation of the Eastern part of Iberia, of which it is a symptom and a result, and it must be understood as an element of landscape construction. If this is true, it would have a concrete distribution in the form of locational patterns. Through statistical procedures and heuristical approaches, it has been demonstrated that there is a structure of the neolithic landscape, defined by rock art, which is possible to interpret functional and economically.

    Se estudia el arte rupestre del Arco Mediterráneo (que incluye a los convencionalmente conocidos como Arte Levantino, Arte Esquemático y Arte Macroesquemático, entre otros estilos, nombrado Patrimonio de la Humanidad en 1998, desde el punto de vista de su localización. Las fuentes de información utilizadas fueron trabajo de campo, revisión cartográfica y análisis en Sistema de Información Geográfica, además de dos archivos de arte rupestre: el Expediente UNESCO y el Corpus de Pintura Rupestre Levantina. La hipótesis inicial fue que este arte rupestre se imbrica en el proceso de neolitización del Levante peninsular, del que es síntoma y resultado, y debe entenderse como un elemento de construcción paisajística, de lo que se deduce que ha de presentar una distribución determinable en forma de patrones locacionales. Por medio tanto de contrastes y descripciones estadísticas como de

  13. Editorial - Wikipedia popularity from a citation analysis point of view

    Alireza Noruzi


    Full Text Available This study aims to provide an overview of the citation rate of Wikipedia since its launch in 2004. It is worth noting that since its inception Wikipedia, the free international multi-lingual encyclopedia, has been subject to criticism (Fasoldt, 2004; Orlowski, 2005; Lipczynska, 2005. Wikipedia as a popular web resource appears in response to every keyword search on Google. One way to test the popularity of a web resource is to use citation analysis method to predict to what extend it is cited by scientific papers. This study tries to identify and quantify the number of citations to Wikipedia in the papers indexed by the ISI Web of Science, studying the citation behavior of authors who have published papers in journals indexed by this database. Another simple search was conducted in order to analyze the number of citations to Britannica in the Cited Work=(Britannica* AND Cited Year=(2004-2009. The result showed that Britannica was cited only 10 times by 10 different subject areas and only in English language documents. The data show that Wikipedia is cited 26 times more than Britannica. Although, the credibility and reliability of content of Wikipedia as an authoritative reference source was widely criticized (e.g., Lih, 2004; Andrew et al., 2005; Korfiatis, Poulos, & Bokos, 2006, it is cited more than Britannica. The significance of Wikipedia from a citation analysis point of view goes well beyond open access and enhanced opportunities for citation.

  14. A Point of View on Ontogeny.

    Mounoud, Pierre


    Explores contradictions arising from Piaget's transposition of the phylogenetic problem of the appearance of new forms to the ontogeny of knowledge. Discussion focuses on development as the organization of contents by preformed structures, on early development as a succession of representational organizations, and on concepts of structure and…

  15. Regulatory point of view of SAT application

    I present the regulatory system for monitoring operator training and check competency of operator personnel in Hungary and the effects of SAT to the regulatory framework/practice related to recruitment, training and authorisation of operating personnel. Also I introduce an application to manage the initial and refreshing training to regulatory bodies. (author)

  16. Food Safety. Commodity Science Point of View

    Romuald I. Zalewski; Skawinska, Eulalia


    The paper addresses "food safety" and 'food quality' from the position of commodity and food science rather than economy. The various descriptions of both terms in literature are reviewed in connection with customer/supplier ability to evaluate food safety and quality by examination of various characteristics. Food safety has been described as opposite to food risk. Differences in perception of food risk by customer, producer/supplier and official agencies are discussed in this paper. The obj...

  17. Another point of view on proportional navigation

    E. Duflos


    Full Text Available Proportional navigation is one of the most popular and one of the most used of the guidance laws. But the way it is studied is always the same: the acceleration needed to reach a known target is derived or analyzed. This way of studying guidance laws is called “the direct problem” by the authors. On the contrary, the problem considered here is to find, from the knowledge of a part of the trajectory of a maneuvering object, the target of this object. The authors call this way of studying guidance laws “the inverse problem”.

  18. Ecstasy from a physiological point of view

    Kaj Björkqvist


    Full Text Available The biological study of man is one of today's most rapidly advancing sciences. There is no reason for not utilizing these methodologies of research and the knowledge already gained when studying ecstasy and other similar religious phenomena. Drugs have been used in all parts of the world as an ecstasy technique. Since mental states and physiological correlates always accompany each other, it is obvious that the human mind can be affected by external means, for instance by drugs. But the opposite is also true; mental changes affect the body, as they do in the case of psychosomatic diseases. Ecstasy is often described as an extremely joyful experience; this pleasure must necessarily also have a physiological basis. It is of course too early to say anything for certain, but the discovery of pleasure centres in the brain might offer an explanation. It is not far-fetched to suggest that when a person experiences euphoric ecstasy, it might, in some way or other, be connected with a cerebral pleasure center. Can it be, for example, that religious ecstasy is attained only by some mechanism triggering off changes in the balance of the transmitter substances? Or is it reached only via a change in the hormonal balance, or only by a slowing down of the brain waves, or is a pleasure centre activated? When a person is using an ecstasy technique, he usually does so within a religious tradition. When he reaches an experience, a traditional interpretation of it already exists.

  19. Emergent gravity: From statistical point of view

    Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan


    Near the event horizon of a black hole, the effective theory is two dimensional conformal theory. Here we show that the holographic modes characterising this underlying conformal symmetry and the basic definition of entropy $S$ in statistical mechanics lead the equipartition law of energy. We also show that $S$ is proportional to the gravity action which suggests the emergent nature of gravity. This is further bolstered by expressing the generalised Smarr formula as a thermodynamic relation, ...

  20. Disability and the Moral Point of View.

    Hyland, Terry


    Discussions of disability should be within a clearly-defined moral framework if the disabled person's rights are to be translated into society's duty to the disabled. An ethical system based on modern versions of utilitarianism is suggested as a moral framework, supplemented by prescriptions based on social justice and respect. (Author/CB)

  1. Seismic Progressive Collapse: Qualitative Point of View

    H. Wibowo


    Full Text Available Progressive collapse is a catastrophic structural phenomenon that can occur because of human-made and natural hazards. In progressive collapse mechanism, a single local failure may cause a significant deformation which then may lead to collapse of a structure. The current practices in progressive collapse analysis and design method generally focus on preventing progressive collapse due to abnormal gravity and blast loads. Progressive collapse behaviour of structures due to earthquake loads has not received as much attention. This paper presents a brief overview of the current state-of-knowledge, insights, and issues related to progressive collapse behaviour of structures caused by earthquake loading.

  2. Entanglement: a topological point of view

    Zhou, Dong


    In recent model studies of 2-qubit systems, the surprising phenomenon of entanglement sudden death has been observed. Sudden birth and even oscillations of entanglement have also been seen. Transitions between these types of behavior and the expected exponential decay of entanglement as a function of physical parameters are also possible. We give a topological classification of the curves that represent evolutions of the quantum system into four categories, and show that the various behaviors of the entanglement correspond to these categories. Hence the transition from exponential decay to sudden death is a topological one. It corresponds to a change in the intersection of the dynamical manifold determined by the physical model with the manifold of separable states. Markovian dynamics nearly always leads to monotonic entanglement evolution, but non-Markovian evolution can show oscillatory behaviors. We illustrate the general concepts with a visualizable model.

  3. Reversibility: An Engineer's Point of View

    Reversibility is the most consistent option in a democratic country. However reversibility may also have several drawbacks which must be identified and mitigated. Reversibility of a geological repository is a relatively new idea in France. The 1991 law dedicated to nuclear waste management considered reversibility as a possible option. Fifteen years later, the 2006 law mandated that a deep repository must be reversible and that the exact content of this notion should be defined by a new law to be discussed by the Parliament in 2015. Reversibility was not a concern put forward by engineers. It clearly originated from a societal demand sponsored and formulated by the Parliament. Since 1991, the exact meaning of this mandate progressively became more precise. In the early days, reversibility meant the technical and financial capability to retrieve the wastes from the repository, at least for some period of time after being emplaced. Progressively, a broader definition, suggested by Andra, was accepted: reversibility also means that a disposal facility should be operated in such a way that a stepwise decision-making process is possible. At each step, society must be able to decide to proceed to the next step, to pause or to reverse a step. Several benefits can be expected from a reversible repository. Some technical safety concerns may be only recognised after waste emplacement. Radioactive wastes may become a resource whose recoverability is desirable. Regulations may change, alternative waste treatment or better disposal techniques may be developed, or the need to modify a component of the facility may arise. Looking back at how chemical or domestic wastes were managed some 50 years ago easily underscores that it is not unreasonable to hope for significant advances in the future. For scientists and engineers, reversibility proves to have several other merits. To design and build a good repository, time is needed. The operator of a mine or of an oil field knows that

  4. Cognitive Therapys from Rumi’s Point of View

    Mehmet AK


    Full Text Available Psychotherapy is a general name of interventions used to resolve emotional conflicts, support and sustain the improvement of mental health. Relationship is one of the most important factors of regenerative effect in psychotherapy. Understanding the client is crucial to help the client understand the psychotherapy and psychotherapist. Thus, in order to be effective in psychotherapeutic interventions, it is neccessary to use the language by considering the client’s believes, culture, religion and background. Comprehending and using of psychotherapy only from the Western point of view could reduce the efficacy of psychotherapy. Although, it is common that people working in mental health area learn and use the techniques of authorities lived in West, our culture is considerably wealthy of thoughts and aspects that can be used in psychotherapy. Raised on the lands that have extremely rich cultural heritage, as psychotherapists, we think that it is our responsibility to integrate modern psychotherapy with cultural heritage when learning, practicing and teaching the practice of psychotherapy. In this article, it is aimed to increase the awareness of being able to use the philosophy of Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi whose masterpieces involve psychotherapeutic elements yet are not well understood and who has been an inspration to the trends in psychotherapy which are currently described as third generation trends

  5. Microscopic foundations of some doubly even Ru and Pd nuclei by the point of view of interacting boson model

    In the present article, we suggested the most appropriate Hamiltonian that is needed for present calculations of nuclei at the onset of the deformed region by the view of interacting boson model (IBM-2). B(E2) transition probabilities and mixing ratios of some doubly even Ru and Pd nuclei were calculated. The results were compared with the previous experimental and theoretical data and it is observed that they are in good agreement

  6. The temperatures of Giordano Bruno crater observed by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment: Application of an effective field of view model for a point-based data set

    Williams, J.-P.; Sefton-Nash, E.; Paige, D. A.


    Point based planetary datasets are typically stored as discrete records that represent an infinitesimal location on the target body. Instrumental effects and spacecraft motion during integration time can cause single points to inadequately represent the total area on the target that contributes to an observation. Production of mapped data products from these data for scientific analysis proceeds by binning points onto rectangular grids. Empty bins occur where data coverage is insufficient relative to grid resolution, a common problem at high latitudes in cylindrical projections, and remedial interpolation can lead to high uncertainty areas and artifacts in maps. To address such issues and make better use of available data, we present a method to calculate the ground-projected effective field of view (EFOV) for point-based datasets, using knowledge of instrumental characteristics and observation geometry. We apply this approach to data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment, a visible to far-infrared multispectral radiometer which acquires radiometric measurements of reflected visible and emitted infrared radiation of the Moon in 9 spectral channels between 0.35 and 400 μm. Analysis of gridded radiance from crater Giordano Bruno, a 22 km diameter rayed crater, is used to demonstrate our gridding procedure. Diviner data, with such processing, reveals details of the surface that are seen in the high-resolution LRO Camera NAC images. Brightness temperatures and anisothermality observed in Diviner's IR channels show the thermophysical properties of the crater ejecta to be very heterogeneous indicative of minimal mechanical disruption by micrometeoroid impacts consistent with a very young (homogenized over time. This heterogeneity has implications for crater-count studies as regions of high anisothermality are characterized by large blocks of material and lower crater densities.

  7. Ethical point of view in design

    Ikonen, Emma


    The thesis studies ethical problems in design, shows how to design according to ethical principles, and thus offers understanding of the concept. Products are designed according to the ethical design principles out of trash material. The topic of the thesis was chosen because of the unethical phenomena in the field of design mostly due to striving for economic growth. The problems and solutions are presented according to the stages of product life cycle from ecological, social and cultura...

  8. Pharmaceutical Point of View on Parenteral Nutrition

    Stawny, M.; Olijarczyk, R.; E. Jaroszkiewicz; Jelińska, A.


    Parenteral nutrition—a form of administering nutrients, electrolytes, trace elements, vitamins, and water—is a widely used mode of therapy applied in many diseases, in patients of different ages both at home and in hospital. The success of nutritional therapy depends chiefly on proper determination of the patient’s energetic and electrolytic needs as well as preparation and administration of a safe nutritional mixture. As a parenterally administered drug, it is expected to be microbiologicall...

  9. Pharmaceutical Point of View on Parenteral Nutrition

    M. Stawny


    Full Text Available Parenteral nutrition—a form of administering nutrients, electrolytes, trace elements, vitamins, and water—is a widely used mode of therapy applied in many diseases, in patients of different ages both at home and in hospital. The success of nutritional therapy depends chiefly on proper determination of the patient’s energetic and electrolytic needs as well as preparation and administration of a safe nutritional mixture. As a parenterally administered drug, it is expected to be microbiologically and physicochemically stable, with all of the components compatible with each other. It is very difficult to obtain a stable nutritional mixture due to the fact that it is a complex, two-phase drug. Also, the risk of incompatibility between mixture components and packaging should be taken into consideration and possibly eliminated. Since parenteral nutrition is a part of therapy, simultaneous use of drugs may cause pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions as well as those with the pharmaceutical phase. The aim of this paper is to discuss such aspects of parenteral nutrition as mixture stability, methodology, and methods for determining the stability of nutritional mixtures and drugs added to them.

  10. Primordial nucleosynthesis: A cosmological point of view

    Mathews, G. J. [University of Notre Dame, Center for Astrophysics/JINA, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA and Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kajino, T.; Yamazaki, D. [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kusakabe, M. [School of Liberal Arts and Science, Korea Aerospace University, Goyang 412-791, Korea and Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Cheoun, M.-K. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of)


    Primordial nucleosynthesis remains as one of the pillars of modern cosmology. It is the test-ing ground upon which all cosmological models must ultimately rest. It is our only probe of the universe during the first few minutes of cosmic expansion and in particular during the important radiation-dominated epoch. These lectures review the basic equations of space-time, cosmology, and big bang nucleosynthesis. We will then review the current state of observational constraints on primordial abundances along with the key nuclear reactions and their uncertainties. We summarize which nuclear measure-ments are most crucial during the big bang. We also review various cosmological models and their constraints. In particular, we summarize the constraints that big bang nucleosynthesis places upon the possible time variation of fundamental constants, along with constraints on the nature and origin of dark matter and dark energy, long-lived supersymmetric particles, gravity waves, and the primordial magnetic field.

  11. My point of view - a diabetic story

    Jones, T; King, F.


    A portrait of ex-ballerina, Fiona King, as she recovered from surgery to remove part of her heel. Through the extensive use of home movies the film follows her attempts to rebuild her life, learn to become mobile again and pass on the lessons she has learned coping with diabetes.




    The article analyses different strategies of the startup development. The author considers such phases of the startup development as pre-startup, launch, post-startup. The author analyzes factors that affect startup development. The paper presents conclusions about key elements of startup's strategic development.

  13. Myeloid Sarcoma: The Clinician's Point of View

    M. Malagola


    Full Text Available Myeloid Sarcoma may occur in patients with an acute or chronic myeloproliferative disorder as well as de novo, with no apparent sign or symptom of concomitant haematological disease. The patients are preferentially young male and the site of disease localization may vary from central nervous system to pleura and thorax, with a common involvement of the reticuloendothelial system. The disease often shows chromosomal rearrangements, involving chromosomes 7, 8 and 3 and sometimes a complex karyotype (more than 3 abnormalities is detected at diagnosis. The prognosis of this disease is dismal and only high-dose chemotherapy with autologous or allogeneic stem cells transplantation (auto or allo-SCT may be potentially curative. In the absence of definitive elements that can define the prognosis of extra-medullary localization of “standard risk” AML, Clinicians should pursue the collection of data from different Centres and design of homogeneous treatment strategies, that could integrate standard chemotherapy with specific approaches, such as radiotherapy, transplant procedures or, in selected cases (such as those displaying molecular abnormalities involving protein tyrosine-kinases, molecularly targeted therapies.

  14. Imaging from an orthopaedic point of view

    The paradigm of coping with sometimes gross pathology, while having some small and at first sight insignificant lesions demands for accurate radiological detection and orthopaedic treatment makes it interesting and challenging to be involved in the treatment of professional athletes. In the diagnostic process we differentiate between acute, posttraumatic and overuse injuries. We must realize the importance of reproducible routine X-rays as a first step in the diagnostic process. In case of additional diagnostics, appropriate consultation between the orthopaedic surgeon and the radiologist is essential in order to determine the best strategy

  15. Myth from a Psychological Point of View

    Mozhgan Yahyazade


    One of the most mysterious phenomena in the world that engage the human's curious mind for long time is to discover the unknown world of myth. Believes and costumes of every nation is like a very strong and big tree. That has rooted in myth and their result has appeared in art and literature; and now we can understand the importance of myth. In this study we have tried to consider myth and theory's about collective subcontinent and dream and to make clear relationship be literature's notion w...

  16. Points of view on lactose intolerance

    Hambræus, Leif


    In this issue of Scand J Nutr (pp 154-176) nine articles are published from the meeting Lactose intolerance revisited, February 1-2,2001, Stockholm, Sweden. Some further subjects of special interest were discussed during the meeting, and are reviewed in this short article.

  17. Thermal stratifications. An industrial point of view

    In PWR's, mechanical damages (cracks) have been detected at the internal faces of steam generator feedwater piping when thermal stratification occurs. This paper reports some studies of flows under operating conditions leading to of a stable stratified flow. Two geometries corresponding to different mock-up studied at EDF and CEA have been investigated. Numerical simulations have been performed with the code ESTET. Good agreement is observed on the mean temperature but it seems that the present modelling of the temperature variance fails to reproduce correctly the fluctuating phenomena It appears that with a stably stratified flow, wall conduction should be taken into account. It lead us to create a new numerical tool (SYRTHES) to compute the thermal field inside the wall, and the thermal coupling between the fluid and the solid at the interface. Some industrial examples illustrating the use of such a numerical tool are briefly presented. (author). 12 refs., 13 figs

  18. Decidability from a Numerical Point of View

    Ratschan, Stefan

    Springer, 2016 - (Kotsireas, I.; Rump, S.; Yao, C.). XVI-XVI ISBN 978-3-319-32858-4. ISSN 0302-9743. [MACIS 2015. International Conference on Mathematical Aspects of Computer and Information Sciences /6./. 11.11.2015-13.11.2015, Berlin] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-14484S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  19. Prosocial behaviour of students from teachers point of view

    Mervar, Maja


    The diploma thesis deals with prosocial behaviour of primary school children observed from teachers’ point of view. Teachers are viewed as significant factor in the socialization process of children with their working methods and personality enhancing children’s social experiences. Nowadays, teachers should focus not only on teaching, but on educating their students as well. Youth violence and aggressive behaviour should not be tolerated; prosocial behaviour of children therefore needs to be ...


    V. M. Shubik


    Full Text Available The article presents two alternative points of view on the relationship of health malfunctions after the Chernobyl accident with radiation effect or with the factors of non-radiation nature (social, stress, nutrition peculiarities, etc.. An analysis of literature data and results of author’s own research of radiosensitive indicators of immunity condition, having essential value for the immediate and long term consequences of radiation effect was done. Possible correlation between health malfunctions of the population living in the regions, contaminated by the radionuclides, and combined effect of radiation and factors of non-radiation nature is shown.

  1. Characteristic classes of transitive Lie algebroids. Categorical point of view

    Mishchenko, A S


    The talk was done at the International Conference "Analysis, Topology and Applications", Harbin, China, 23.08.2011. Transitive Lie algebroids have specific properties that allow to look at the transitive Lie algebroid as an element of the object of a homotopy functor. Roughly speaking each transitive Lie algebroids can be described as a vector bundle over the tangent bundle of the manifold which is endowed with additional structures. Therefore transitive Lie algebroids admits a construction of inverse image generated by a smooth mapping of smooth manifolds. The intention of my talk is to use a homotopy classification of transitive Lie algebroids due to K.Mackenzie (2005) and on this basis to construct a classifying space. The realization of the intention allows to describe characteristic classes of transitive Lie algebroids form the point of view a natural transformation of functors similar to the classical abstract characteristic classes for vector bundles and to compare them with that derived from the Chern...

  2. Humanism Factors and Islam Viewpoint from Motahri's Point of View

    Yousefi, Zargham; Yousefy, Alireza; Keshtiaray, Narges


    The aim of this research is to criticize liberal humanism based on Islam viewpoint emphasizing Motahri's point of view. In this paper, the researchers tried to identify liberalism humanism factors with analytical look in order to present a new categorization called "main factor of liberal humanism". Then, each factor was studied and…

  3. Information Theory Point of View on Stochastic Networks

    Stochastic networks represent very important subject of research because they have been found in almost all branches of modern science, including also sociology and economy. We provide a information theory point of view, mostly based on its nonextensive version, on their most characteristic properties illustrating it with some examples. (author)

  4. Mathematical Definitions of Point, Line and Area Symbols in Cartography

    WEI Wenzhan; ZHONG Yexun; PENG Yueying; ZHENG Hongbo


    The line cartographic symbol located on the boundary and the point cartographic symbol located by single point are the main body and stress of the map. The cartographic symbols are divided into point, line and area symbol in cartography and traditional educational books, but up to now there is only qualitative description about the three kinds of symbols, there are not the mathematical definitions of point, line and area symbols. This paper tries to solve the problem. The authors propose the mathematical definition about point,line and area cartographic symbol according to the theory of topology and expound their dependence relation.

  5. [Care provided by nursing students in a neonatal intensive care unit from the mother's point of view].

    Pacheco, S T; do Valle, E R; Simões, S M


    The objective of the present study is to investigate the perspective of mothers regarding the care given by academics of nursing to their newborn in a neonatal intensive therapy unit. This is a qualitative research based on a phenomenological approach which has as its philosophical framework the thought of Martin Heidegger expressed in his book Being and Time. The data used in the investigation were interviews given by ten mothers who had their newborns in a neonatal intensive therapy unit of a university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The interpretation of the data collected revealed that mothers viewed the nursing academics as solicitous beings regarding the care given to their newborns. They also acknowledged that these students were engaged in the assistance given and concerned with what was being done and to whom it was being done. PMID:12098862

  6. The new demands by patients in the modern era of total joint arthroplasty : a point of view.

    Mason, J Bohannon


    Historians have the opportunity of viewing events, people, and their epoch through an aperture in time. With retrospective clarity, change and the forces effecting change can be appropriately categorized, emphasized, and interpreted. Sociologists see change in a forward-focused manner. When we examine our patients today, it is clear our current patients having total joint arthroplasty are different from those in years past. The sociologic influences effecting this change are many and include the revolutionary explosion of, access to, and dissemination of information; increased wealth, life activity expectation, and life expectancy; and an aging workforce. Concurrent with these forces registering change in our patient population is an erosion in respect for professionalism and vertically oriented authoritarian structure throughout society. Our patients are citizens of our modern age. Our public has come to expect miracles in medicine as the norm, yet these miracles are not without inherent risk. The trap implicit in allowing an incompletely informed populace to drive the decisions we make may be bridged by a more complete understanding of who our patients are and what their needs include. This discussion attempts to offer some insight into the forces at play. It focuses on how the changes in society, population, and technology have affected patients' knowledge and attitude toward medicine and what our response as physicians should be. PMID:18196387

  7. Images of HTGR fuel cycle and view points important

    Small and modular high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR)s and very high temperature reactor (VHTR)s, capable of supplying nuclear heat of about 1000 deg. C, and then generating electricity and hydrogen with high efficiency, are now very highly evaluated as next generation nuclear system from view points of energy security and global environment. Technologies for their fuel cycles, typically 'recycle' or 'once-through' are already or being available. Such HTGRs and their fuel cycles, however, are necessary to be internationally and carefully designed and managed from view points of nuclear non-proliferation, etc., because of graphite-moderated system and expected dispersed instalment in global scale, and here 'Regional fuel centres' differentiating such fuel cycles are proposed. And now is the timing for start of such international measures. (author)

  8. The New Demands by Patients in the Modern Era of Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Point of View

    Mason, J. Bohannon


    Historians have the opportunity of viewing events, people, and their epoch through an aperture in time. With retrospective clarity, change and the forces effecting change can be appropriately categorized, emphasized, and interpreted. Sociologists see change in a forward-focused manner. When we examine our patients today, it is clear our current patients having total joint arthroplasty are different from those in years past. The sociologic influences effecting this change are many and include ...


    Mustafa, Saeed


    ABSTRACT In the thesis, the author reviews measure the key factors in performance management. Furthermore, the main focus of this research will base on literature and as well as across the different in organizations. The thesis con-fines, its research to the Key factors in Performance Management according to an employee point of view in any organization. The fundamentals of how employees and organizations need to relate each other to achieve high employee performance management and or...

  10. Differences in the interpretation of the GLP requirements by OECD monitoring authorities: the point of view from the pharmaceutical industry.

    Lowing, Raymond K


    The need to harmonise the principles of good laboratory practice (GLP), their application and their monitoring has always been a preoccupation of the authorities. This can be seen by the very early publication of the set of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) documents, the training of the national inspectors, and the system of joint mutual visits. These aspects are now, for the most part, aligned. However, often the expectations of the inspectors and the interpretation behind the text are different and sometimes even opposite. In Sanofi-Aventis there is an almost unique position having 12 research and development sites in 7 different countries, all performing phases of studies which can be used by any of the other sites and all inspected by monitoring authorities (MAs) of the OECD GLP system. As with most international pharmaceutical companies a large majority of studies are multisite and even multicountry. This paper illustrates some of the challenges which are encountered when a global system of high quality is established to satisfy all the expectations of the multiple MAs, with particular reference to the diversity of origins of the requirements, specific guidance documents on GLP, question and answer sessions on GLP interpretations, annex requirements on specific areas (21 CFR Part 11, veterinary legislation etc.) and conference presentations by MAs. It is important to realize that even though there might be interpretations that the industry has some difficulty in understanding, the objective of this paper is not to complain or to criticize one or other of the MAs. Rather, the objective is to try to be constructive and to show where there are differences so that industry and the MAs can work together to establish systems which possess the level of quality necessary to ensure the safety of patients and the marketing of efficient products. PMID:19352003

  11. Mapping availability of sea view for potential building development areas.

    Alphan, Hakan; Sonmez, Fizyon


    Scenic attraction can be regarded as one of the most important factors for recreation- and/or tourism-oriented landscape planning and management processes. Sea view is generally one of the most predominant scenery components of coastal landscapes. Therefore, presence and degree of its availability contribute to scenic attraction of residential development sites. This attribute of the environment can be quantified by GIS-based visibility analyses that rely on multiple viewshed calculations, during which observation and/or target locations are taken as variables. The main aim of this paper is to analyze availability of sea view for currently undeveloped (i.e., non-built-up) areas in an urbanized coast in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Four study sites (sites 1-4) of varying geomorphological and built-up features, located approximately 40 km south of the city of Mersin, were taken into consideration. Multiple viewshed analyses were performed using a high-resolution terrain model and 541, 533, 540, and 532 observation points for the sites, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Impact of topography and built-up features on sea visibility was discussed in the light of visibility information classified as percentage visibility of the sea surface available from each of the sites. PMID:26050064

  12. Point of view filming and the elicitation interview.

    Skinner, Jonathan; Gormley, Gerard J


    Face-to-face interviews are a fundamental research tool in qualitative research. Whilst this form of data collection can provide many valuable insights, it can often fall short of providing a complete picture of a research subject's experiences. Point of view (PoV) interviewing is an elicitation technique used in the social sciences as a means of enriching data obtained from research interviews. Recording research subjects' first person perspectives, for example by wearing digital video glasses, can afford deeper insights into their experiences. PoV interviewing can promote making visible the unverbalizable and does not rely as much on memory as the traditional interview. The use of such relatively inexpensive technology is gaining interest in health profession educational research and pedagogy, such as dynamic simulation-based learning and research activities. In this interview, Dr Gerry Gormley (a medical education researcher) talks to Dr Jonathan Skinner (an anthropologist with an interest in PoV interviewing), exploring some of the many crossover implications with PoV interviewing for medical education research and practice. PMID:27438056

  13. CO2 capture and sequestration: the association's point of view

    This document gives an overview of the opinion of the FNE (France Nature Environnement), a French association involved in the protection of the environment, about the idea of developing technologies enabling the capturing and sequestrating of carbon dioxide. It outlines that industries are considering such technologies as the adequate solution as they would allow a development of activities while limiting greenhouse gas releases. But the FNE has an opposite point of view; advantages and limitations of this technology are thus discussed (reduction of greenhouse gas emissions but with an increase of energy consumption, industrial hazards, mobilization of large financial resources). The principles under which such technologies could be used and financed in some specific situations and under precise conditions are then discussed. Notably, it stresses the importance of a limitation of public financing, of participation and communication, of judicial guarantees

  14. Special relativity from observer's mathematics point of view

    Khots, Boris; Khots, Dmitriy


    When we create mathematical models for quantum theory of light we assume that the mathematical apparatus used in modeling, at least the simplest mathematical apparatus, is infallible. In particular, this relates to the use of "infinitely small" and "infinitely large" quantities in arithmetic and the use of Newton - Cauchy definitions of a limit and derivative in analysis. We believe that is where the main problem lies in contemporary study of nature. We have introduced a new concept of Observer's Mathematics (see Observer's Mathematics creates new arithmetic, algebra, geometry, topology, analysis and logic which do not contain the concept of continuum, but locally coincide with the standard fields. We use Einstein special relativity principles and get the analogue of classical Lorentz transformation. This work considers this transformation from Observer's Mathematics point of view.

  15. Center-to-limb variation of the area covered by magnetic bright points in the quiet Sun

    Bonet, J A; Almeida, J Sanchez


    CONTEXT: The quiet Sun magnetic fields produce ubiquitous bright points (BPs) that cover a significant fraction of the solar surface. Their contribution to the total solar irradiance (TSI) is so-far unknown. AIMS: To measure the center-to-limb variation (CLV) of the fraction of solar surface covered by quiet Sun magnetic bright points. The fraction is referred to as 'fraction of covered surface', or FCS. METHODS: Counting of the area covered by BPs in G-band images obtained at various heliocentric angles with the 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope on La Palma. Through restoration, the images are close to the diffraction limit of the instrument (~0.1 arcsec). RESULTS: The FCS is largest at disk center (~1 %), and then drops down to become 0.2 % at 'mu'= 0.3 (with 'mu' the cosine of the heliocentric angle. The relationship has large scatter, which we evaluate comparing different subfields within our FOVs. We work out a toy-model to describe the observed CLV, which considers the BPs to be depressions in the mean solar ...

  16. Delineation of wetland areas from high resolution WorldView-2 data by object-based method

    Various classification methods are available that can be used to delineate land cover types. Object-based is one of such methods for delineating the land cover from satellite imageries. This paper focuses on the digital image processing aspects of discriminating wetland areas via object-based method using high resolution satellite multispectral WorldView-2 image data taken over part of Penang Island region. This research is an attempt to improve the wetland area delineation in conjunction with a range of classification techniques which can be applied to satellite data with high spatial and spectral resolution such as World View 2. The intent is to determine a suitable approach to delineate and map these wetland areas more appropriately. There are common parameters to take into account that are pivotal in object-based method which are the spatial resolution and the range of spectral channels of the imaging sensor system. The preliminary results of the study showed object-based analysis is capable of delineating wetland region of interest with an accuracy that is acceptable to the required tolerance for land cover classification

  17. Reflections on the artist interview and the conservator's point of view by example of Ger van Elk

    S. Stigter


    Ger van Elk is regarded as a conceptual artist, although the relationship between the material execution and the concept contributes significantly to the final work of art. He creates painterly or sculptural artworks and installations in which photography, film and video are incorporated in an uncon

  18. A internação de adolescentes pela lente dos tribunais Adolescent internment by the court's point of view

    Maria Auxiliadora Minahim


    Full Text Available Desde sua entrada em vigor, o Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente sofre sistemáticas críticas no debate público não havendo, entretanto, no campo da doutrina especializada e da jurisprudência efetivos esforços para uma compreensão do alcance da lei e de seus princípios sobretudo quando o tema é a imposição de medidas de internação a adolescentes autores de infração penal. Este texto procura demonstrar a feição homogênea e estável da jurisprudência brasileira nos Tribunais Estaduais nessa matéria à luz dos principais argumentos utilizados como fundamentação das decisões em sede recursal. Alguns resultados da pesquisa "Responsabilidade e garantias ao adolescente autor de ato infracional: uma proposta de revisão do ECA em seus 18 anos de vigência" apoiada pela Secretaria de Assuntos Legislativos do Ministério da Justiça, ilustram as dificuldades de mplementação dos preceitos legais, possibilitando refletir se é a textura aberta da lei o que vem favorecendo a persistência de argumentos extrajurídicos e ideológicos em sua interpretação.Since its approval, The Child and Adolescent Act has been attacked for several critics in the public debate. However neither the specialized dogmatic nor jurisprudence have presented effective efforts to the comprehension of the law or its principles, especially related to internment measures applied to young offenders. the text shows the homogeneous appearance of the brazilian jurisprudence into the State Courts, according to the most used arguments by the decisions. some results from the "Responsibility and Guarantees to young offender: a revision proposal for the child and adolescent act in 18 years of existence" research illustrate these difficulties to implement the legislation, avoiding the consideration regarding the open texture of the law as a possible cause for the persistence of extralegal and ideological arguments on its interpretation.


    SAKAI, Nobuyuki


    In this article, eating behavior is discussed from the point of view of various areas of psychology. First, tasting food and the perception of food palatability are discussed from the viewpoints of sensory and perceptual psychology and of physiological psychology. Second, the phenomenology of some social-psychological effects on eating behavior are introduced for example, communication at the table, sociocultural variations in food liking/disliking, and emotional changes after eating. Third, ...

  20. Muon sites in Ce(Ru,Rh)2Al10 investigated by using Density Functional Theory from the view point of electronic potential

    Numerical investigations on muon sites in Ce-based Kondo semiconductors, Ce(Ru,Rh)2Al10 were carried out by using the Density Functional Theory. From the view point of simple electrostatic potential calculations, we found all the previously reported muon sites, suggested by different groups (Kambe S et al. 2010 J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 79 053708 and Khalyavin D D et al., 2010 Phys. Rev. B 82 100405(R)), can be possibly chosen as muon stopping sites. We also investigated the changes in the potential of the Rh-doped case. We discovered that the electronic potential around the nearest Ru atom to the substituted Rh atom is affected and the potential becomes asymmetric around the nearest Ru ion. Although big changes in hyperfine fields at muon sites have been reported (Guo H et al. 2013 Phys. Rev. B 88 115206), the muon positions estimated from the potential calculations do not change much

  1. Etiology of cicatricial alopecias: a basic science point of view.

    McElwee, Kevin J


    This article presents a short summary of our current knowledge of cicatricial alopecia disease pathogenesis and the hypothetical disease mechanisms that may be involved in scarring alopecia development. Several forms of scarring alopecia likely involve targeted cytotoxic action against hair follicle cells mediated by a folliculocentric inflammation. However, the specific nature of the inflammatory interference in hair follicle growth is open to question. A popular hypothesis of lymphocyte-mediated scarring alopecia development involves autoimmune targeting of hair follicle-specific self-antigens, although there is no direct evidence in support of such a view. Alternative hypotheses focus on defects in sebaceous gland function, destruction of hair follicle stem cells, and interference in the communication between hair follicle mesenchyme and epithelium. Many questions arise from these hypotheses, and addressing them with a systematic research approach may enable significant advances in understanding cicatricial alopecia etiology. PMID:18715290

  2. R and R: The ASN Point of View

    after closure such as ventilation, sensors and gallery retaining structures, for example. 6) D uring the whole reversibility period, provisions have to be implemented in order to ensure that the necessary and useful information is collected, stored and accessible (on the package itself and on the conditions of its emplacement). Moreover, provisions for knowledge transfer related to reversibility management will have to be defined for the commissioning of the facility. 7) If the law on reversibility includes provisions on retrievability of the waste packages: - funding of the retrieval would have to be specified; - facilities have to be designed to store the packages and to re-condition them safely. From the safety point of view, retrievability can provide a possibility to retrieve a package already put in place and to re-condition it, should an anomaly be seen on it. But ASN stresses that before any retrieval is performed, an analysis of the risks in terms of radiation protection and safety during operation and in the long term as compared to awaited benefits will have to be performed. Reversibility is a complex issue which has to be shared socially and politically and which deserves to be thoroughly addressed. We consider that the flexibility and margin introduced by the reversibility principle, except major technical evolution not identified today, will decrease with time, in particular because of the evolution of the packages and of the facility with time

  3. Radiographic imaging of calcaneal fractures - the surgeons view point

    This paper presents a detailed description of calcaneal fractures, which are underestimated and neglected despite their relatively high frequency. In association with significant anatomic destruction of the calcaneus they lead to unsatisfactory results of fracture treatment. Radiographic features of a healthy calcaneal bone together with pathomechanism and radiographic attributes of most common fracture types are presented. The prognostic role of the posterior talo-calcaneal joint and extraarticular anatomy of the calcaneus are emphasized. Special attention is directed to the methods of calcaneal imaging, especially the most valuable in the authors opinion - lateral radiographic view and computed tomography. Other commonly used views: axial, antero-posterior or Broden, are also described, with explanation why they are rarely recommended. The widely used standard classification system for calcaneal fractures introduced by Sanders, based on computed tomography is presented. Correct x-ray imaging is the basis for further diagnostic workup and treatment, giving also valuable prognostic information. The orthopedic surgeon, who undertakes the difficult task of treating the broken calcaneus receives thorough information about bone damage, which helps to realize the consequences of injury and of possible negligence. According to the authors experience, problems discussed in this paper are rarely fully appreciated by radiologists and orthopedic surgeons resulting in, often, catastrophic consequences. (author)

  4. Reflections on Cosmology: an Outsider's Point of View

    Toloza, Adolfo


    Some of the assumptions of cosmology, as based on the simplest version of General Relativity, are discussed. It is argued that by slight modi?cations of standard gravitation theory, our notion of the sources of gravity {the right hand side of Einstein's equations{, could be something radically di?erent from what is usually expected. One example is exhibited to prove the point, and some consequences are discussed.

  5. Logistics engineering education from the point of view environment

    Bányai, Ágota


    -the-art, reliable, automated mechatronics-material flow system with its single control engineering system provides the academic staff with up-to-date research facilities, and enables the students to study sophisticated equipment and systems that could also operate under industrial conditions, thus offering knowledge that can be efficiently utilised in the industry after graduation. The laboratory measurements of the programme in logistics engineering are performed in this laboratory, and they are supplemented by the theoretical and practical measurements in the ‘Robotic Technology Assembly Laboratory', the ‘Power Electronics Laboratory', the ‘Mechatronics Laboratory', the ‘CAD/CAM Laboratory' and the ‘Acoustics and Product Laboratory'. The bodies of knowledge connected with environment protection and sustainable development can be grouped around three large topic areas. In environmental economics the objective is to present the corporate-organisational aspects of environmental management. Putting environmental management in the focal point, the objective of the programme is to impart knowledge that can be utilised in practice which can be used to shift the relation between the organisation and its environment in the direction of sustainability. The tools include environmental controlling, environmental marketing and various solutions of environmental performance evaluation. The second large topic area is globalization and its logistic aspects. In the field of global logistics the following knowledge carries special weight: logistic challenges in a globalised world; the concept of global logistics, its conditions and effects; delayed manufacture, assembly, packaging; the economic investigation of delayed assembly; globalised purchase and distribution in logistics; the logistic features of the globalised production supply/distribution chain; meta-logistics systems; logistics-related EU harmonisation issues; the effect of e-commerce on the global logistic system; logistic

  6. Cancer Theory from Systems Biology Point of View

    Wang, Gaowei; Tang, Ying; Yuan, Ruoshi; Ao, Ping

    In our previous work, we have proposed a novel cancer theory, endogenous network theory, to understand mechanism underlying cancer genesis and development. Recently, we apply this theory to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A core endogenous network of hepatocyte was established by integrating the current understanding of hepatocyte at molecular level. Quantitative description of the endogenous network consisted of a set of stochastic differential equations which could generate many local attractors with obvious or non-obvious biological functions. By comparing with clinical observation and experimental data, the results showed that two robust attractors from the model reproduced the main known features of normal hepatocyte and cancerous hepatocyte respectively at both modular and molecular level. In light of our theory, the genesis and progression of cancer is viewed as transition from normal attractor to HCC attractor. A set of new insights on understanding cancer genesis and progression, and on strategies for cancer prevention, cure, and care were provided.

  7. Study on the documents of Java in Siku Quanshu; Historical knowledge and historians’ point of view

    Nurni Wahyu Wuryandari


    Full Text Available The dissertation discusses various documents on Java collected in Siku Quanshu (Complete Library of Four Treasures. The documents used as the sources of this study are the ones with complete pictures and strong narration on Javanese recorded from Han Dynasty (206 bc–220 ad to Ming Dynasty (1364–1644 in order to reveal what kind of historical knowledge or historical information is delivered by Chinese historians in general and what kind of point of view is used by historians to deliver the notes about Java. Through analytical reading, the readers will find that historians paid attention to three issues: the relationship between China and Java, the condition of Javanese kingdoms and their culture, and the Java land natural resources. People of China regard their country as an ancient country with long history of remarkable civilization which located in the centre of the world. The awareness of how important is their country, indirectly influences the historians’ points of views. The texts analyzed indirectly prove that some areas on Java are culturally left behind and the countries beyond China, including Java, are the barbaric ones obliging their people to submit or pay tributes to the Kingdoms of China.

  8. Are motorways rational from slime mould's point of view?

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Alonso-Sanz, Ramon; van Dessel, Wesley; Ibrahim, Zuwairie; Ilachinski, Andrew; Jones, Jeff; Kayem, Anne V D M; Martinez, Genaro J; de Oliveira, Pedro; Prokopenko, Mikhail; Schubert, Theresa; Sloot, Peter; Strano, Emanuele; Yang, Xin-She


    We analyse the results of our experimental laboratory approximation of motorways networks with slime mould Physarum polycephalum. Motorway networks of fourteen geographical areas are considered: Australia, Africa, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, Iberia, Italy, Malaysia, Mexico, The Netherlands, UK, USA. For each geographical entity we represented major urban areas by oat flakes and inoculated the slime mould in a capital. After slime mould spanned all urban areas with a network of its protoplasmic tubes we extracted a generalised Physarum graph from the network and compared the graphs with an abstract motorway graph using most common measures. The measures employed are the number of independent cycles, cohesion, shortest paths lengths, diameter, the Harary index and the Randic index. We obtained a series of intriguing results, and found that the slime mould approximates best of all the motorway graphs of Belgium, Canada and China, and that for all entities studied the best match between Physarum and ...

  9. Cyclodextrin-assisted enantioseparation of warfarin and 10-hydroxywarfarin by capillary electrophoresis studied from the analytical and thermodynamic points of view.

    Nowak, Paweł Mateusz; Woźniakiewicz, Michał; Kościelniak, Paweł


    In this work cyclodextrin-assisted enantioseparation of warfarin and 10-hydroxywarfarin by CE has been studied from the analytical and thermodynamic points of view. The role of cyclodextrin concentration and temperature has been analyzed in reference to three different analytical parameters, corresponding to selectivity, resolution and resolution/analysis time ratio. The optimal conditions for enantioseparation have been found, they have been selected on the basis of critical difference in electrophoretic mobility and possibly short analysis time. The values of complexation percentage have also been calculated, to provide a link between the state of complexation equilibrium and the effectiveness of enantioseparation. In the optimal conditions the difference in complexation degree between enantiomers reaches 2.5% and 7.3% for warfarin and 10-hydroxywarfarin, respectively. At each temperature the highest enantioresolution is observed when the average complexation degree is close to 50%. In each case complexation is exothermic and driven by some enthalpically favorable process. 10-hydroxywarfarin exerts the stronger affinity to cyclodextrin and the stronger stereoselective effect. The presented results may be helpful in optimization and understanding of chiral separations by CE. PMID:27160739

  10. Resident training in pathology: From resident's point of view



    qualified staff and increases the burden on residents may be reassigned to medical secretary or pathology assistants; therefore energy of residents can be saved for educational activities. Optimization of physical working conditions, assortment of training programs, rotation in lacking subjects and consultations will enhance the quality of the education of the resident. Feedback assessment of trainer and trainee is an essential part of a training program.In conclusion, an ideal resident from the resident's point of view is the person who is endowed with medical and pathological knowledge, orderly interrelates with staff, professionally communicates with clinicians, manages a laboratory and is trained hard to achieve all the above mentioned competencies.

  11. Vertical view of Apollo 16 landing site located Descartes area lunar nearside


    A vertical view of the Apollo 16 landing site located in the Descartes area lunar nearside. The overlay indicates the location of the proposed touchdown point for the Apollo 16 Lunar Module. Descartes is located west of the Sea of Nectar and southwest of the Sea of Tranquility. This photograph was taken with a 500mm lens camera from lunar orbit by the Apollo 14 crew.

  12. Chernobyl from the point of view of disaster sociology

    Some social aspects of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus are considered. The information system of publications on this theme is analyzed. The influence of various factors of the Chernobyl accident on social changes in the areas of radioactive contamination is investigated. The Chernobyl subculture formation process in the contaminated areas is considered. Practical recommendations of sociologists on the elimination of the Chernobyl catastrophe effects are given. 12 refs

  13. Aerial view of the West Area complex


    The SPS lies below ground beyond the top of the picture, and the proton beam from it enters the large West Hall from the right. All hadronic beams but one were concentrated in this hall. The neutrino beam from the underground target Passes through BEBC in the tall structure left of centre. The light-coloured building further left houses the neutrino counter experiments WA1 and WA18, and at the left end of the line, in the small block near the edge of the picture sits Gargamelle on a pedestal, since the beam is rising at an angle of about 2 deg. From right to left: West Hall - Bld 180; BEBC - Bld 191; Neutrino - Bld 182; Gargamelle - Bld 185.

  14. Faults--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. The vector data file is...

  15. Folds--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. The vector data file is included...

  16. Bathymetry--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. Raster data file is included in...

  17. Bathymetry Offshore of Point Reyes Map Map Area, California

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. Raster data file is included in...

  18. Bathymetry Hillshade Offshore of Point Reyes Map Map Area, California

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. Raster data file is included in...

  19. Contours--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. The vector data file is...

  20. Contours Offshore of Point Reyes Map Map Area, California

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. The vector data file...

  1. Bathymetry Hillshade--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. Raster data file is included in...

  2. Folds--Offshore of Tomales Point Map Area, California

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Tomales Point map area, California. The vector data file is...

  3. Faults--Offshore of Tomales Point Map Area, California

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Tomales Point map area, California. The vector data file is...

  4. Folds--Offshore of Point Reyes Map Area, California

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  5. Faults--Offshore of Point Reyes Map Area, California

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  6. Formative Assessment: Revisiting the Territory from the Point of View of Teachers

    Morrissette, Joelle


    This research documented the know-how of five elementary-school teachers regarding formative assessment, working from their point of view on the question. Group interviews gave them the opportunity to negotiate their "ways of doing things," by revisiting and elaborating upon assessment episodes that had been previously identified on classroom…

  7. Response to the Point of View of Gregory B. Pauly, David M. Hillis, and David C. Cannatella, by the Anuran Subcommittee of the SSAR/HL/ASIH Scientific and Standard English Names List

    Frost, Darrel R.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Mendelson, Joseph R., III


    The Point of View by Gregory Pauly, David Hillis, and David Cannatella misrepresents the motives and activities of the anuran subcommittee of the Scientific and Standard English Names Committee, contains a number of misleading statements, omits evidence and references to critical literature that have already rejected or superseded their positions, and cloaks the limitations of their nomenclatural approach in ambiguous language. Their Point of View is not about promoting transparency in the process of constructing the English Names list, assuring that its taxonomy is adequately reviewed, or promoting nomenclatural stability in any global sense. Rather, their Point of View focuses in large part on a single publication, The Amphibian Tree of Life, which is formally unrelated to the Standard English Names List, and promotes an approach to nomenclature mistakenly asserted by them to be compatible with both the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and one of its competitors, the PhyloCode.

  8. [Demographic information in crisis: one point of view].

    Morelos, J B


    This work argues that doubts concerning the reliability of demographic information in Mexico from censuses and other sources should prompt a search for ways of improving existing data rather than developing new data sources and measurement techniques. The example of labor force data is used to illustrate the achievements of past data collection efforts and to suggest a framework for reconciling statistics from diverse sources and exploiting existing sources more fully. From a practical perspective, it would be difficult to identify a nontraditional source of information, statistical procedure, or conceptual framework for collection of labor force and other demographic data that has not been tried somewhere, at some time. Economists and other social scientists who have analyzed the adequacy of existing data sources have pointed to the financial implications of extensive alterations in them and have suggested new questions to be added to censuses and surveys to fill gaps in information. Studies based on census data have been particularly effective in furthering understanding of the supply of labor in Mexico and the factors affecting behavior of the economically active population. Economic surveys have contributed to analysis of employment in the different sectors and the characteristics of workers in different types of establishments and activities. Surveys, both specialized and multipurpose, have also contributed to knowledge of employment and the labor market, especially in urban areas and in aspects related to migration. To classify the different potential sources of labor force data, 2 tables are presented. The 1st lists continuous, periodic, and sporadic sources of data produced in the public, social, and private sectors. The listing of different data sources suggests the rich potential for combining findings from different sources, e.g., correlating deaths occurring in a certain time period to working age adults with information derived from the census to

  9. Use of Point of View in Literary Works as Teaching and Learning Material

    Nakamura, Yoshito


    Are literary works useful as teaching and learning material in English language education? To answer this question we have to define first what is literary and what is not. This is no easy task at all, but by examining point of view in a novel and a short story we will tackle the question somehow or other here.

  10. Computer Crime and the Law from an Islamic Point of View

    Al-A`Ali, Mansoor

    Information technology is facing waves of laws guarding the interest of people using the Web technology. These laws were derived from the common laws and legislations applied in general crimes. One of these laws is the law of the state is Texas in the United States in 1985. In a world which has more than one billion Muslims, it is time to consider proposing a law that is in line with their teachings. Several calls were also raised in the Islamic countries to establish a law suitable to handle computer crimes which matches the Islamic Shar'iah law. The main question to ask here is how can the Islamic law which was established in the seventh century handle crimes resulting from the use or abuse of the new technology and provide suitable laws for the protection of its computer users. To answer this question our research has analyzed the Adellah () (Shar'iah Evidences of Quraan, Hadith and Imams sayings) that match Texas computer crime law items to verify the outlook of Islam in computer crime. We set out to prove that computer crime with its high technology is not entirely a new type of crime that needs a new Islamic theory and thus is already covered by the general Islamic Shar'iah laws. Based on the available computer crime laws and our understanding of the Quranic verses, we propose to tackle this very difficult area by proposing a computer crime law from an Islamic point of view. We believe this research is the first of its kind and will open the discussion in this important area with the exception of one study which addresses the e-commerce from an Islamic view point.

  11. Are motorways rational from slime mould's point of view?

    A. Adamatzky; S. Akl; R. Alonso-Sanz; W. van Dessel; Z. Ibrahim; A. Ilachinski; J. Jones; A.V.D.M. Kayem; G.J. Martínez; P. de Oliveira; M. Prokopenko; T. Schubert; P. Sloot; E. Strano; X.-S. Yang


    We analyse the results of our experimental laboratory approximation of motorway networks with slime mould Physarum polycephalum. Motorway networks of 14 geographical areas are considered: Australia, Africa, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, Iberia, Italy, Malaysia, Mexico, the Netherlands, UK

  12. The point of view in the documentary film

    Gustavo Souza


    Full Text Available Consideringthe controversythat has for decadespermeatedthedocumentary theory, especiallyinrelationto itsdefinition and specificities, any attemptin that directionnowseems tobe in aminefield. I intend toconsiderthe possibilityof a point of viewin thedocumentaryin a debatethatarticulatesthe materiality of theimageandsoundwithsubjectivityregarding the interpretation, using studies from different theoretical traditions in trying.

  13. The CAREM-25 project from the risk point of view

    The future use of the nuclear energy for electricity production is considered a possible alternative, mainly taking into account the high environmental impact of the fossil fuel alternatives (greenhouse effect, acid rain). In a worldwide context, however, it is desirable for the new nuclear power plants to be safer than the present ones. To demonstrate the safety level of a nuclear installation, the Risk Analysis (in fact, Probabilistic Safety Analysis) is an adequate tool, as it allows for the risk level quantification. The risk itself is composed of two factors, the first takes into account the probability associated with accidental sequences that release radioactive materials, the second takes into account the amount and consequences of such a release. In the present work, the reduction of both factors is faced, the probability by using simpler safety systems (inherently safe systems), and the consequence by using small power production units, that have, besides, passive mitigation systems and long response times. The work is illustrated with a risk comparison for electricity production via CAREM-25 units, against via a classic design unit (Atucha II). The results are base in Probabilistic Safety Studies performed for both installations. The conclusions show an effective risk reduction (both in probability and in consequence), reaching the point where in no case acute irradiation effects are predicted in the vicinity of the accidented plant. (author)

  14. Points of View and the reconciliation of Identity Oppositions: examples from the Maltese in Britain

    Sammut, G.


    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a case study of Maltese migrants to Britain. In the absence of a cohesive community, Maltese migrants to Britain are required to negotiate a new social reality at the individual level. Previous research has demonstrated that individuals can relate to alternative perspectives in different ways (Sammut and Gaskell, 2010. The present study demonstrates that individuals with different points of view negotiate different identities that serve to position them functionally within one or both social realities. Individuals with monological points of view elaborated exclusive identities that positioned them well in a single social setting. Individuals with dialogical points of view elaborated hierarchical identities, holding their own bicultural identities as superior. This had further positioning ramifications. In contrast, individuals with metalogical points of view elaborated non- hierarchical, chameleon or individualistic identities, by which they positioned themselves functionally in both social settings. For metalogical types, belonging to one group meant that one was neither more nor less a member of the other group. These findings thus add a third type to Duveen’s dual- typology of identity strategies in the reconciliation of oppositional categories.

  15. Atypical Face Perception in Autism: A Point of View?

    Morin, Karine; Guy, Jacalyn; Habak, Claudine; Wilson, Hugh R; Pagani, Linda; Mottron, Laurent; Bertone, Armando


    Face perception is the most commonly used visual metric of social perception in autism. However, when found to be atypical, the origin of face perception differences in autism is contentious. One hypothesis proposes that a locally oriented visual analysis, characteristic of individuals with autism, ultimately affects performance on face tasks where a global analysis is optimal. The objective of this study was to evaluate this hypothesis by assessing face identity discrimination with synthetic faces presented with and without changes in viewpoint, with the former condition minimizing access to local face attributes used for identity discrimination. Twenty-eight individuals with autism and 30 neurotypical participants performed a face identity discrimination task. Stimuli were synthetic faces extracted from traditional face photographs in both front and 20° side viewpoints, digitized from 37 points to provide a continuous measure of facial geometry. Face identity discrimination thresholds were obtained using a two-alternative, temporal forced choice match-to-sample paradigm. Analyses revealed an interaction between group and condition, with group differences found only for the viewpoint change condition, where performance in the autism group was decreased compared to that of neurotypical participants. The selective decrease in performance for the viewpoint change condition suggests that face identity discrimination in autism is more difficult when access to local cues is minimized, and/or when dependence on integrative analysis is increased. These results lend support to a perceptual contribution of atypical face perception in autism. PMID:25683613

  16. Waste-to-energy: Technical, economic and ecological point of views

    Overwhelming waste-recycling should be considered more as a psychological than as a technological method to deal with wastes. The best waste disposal systems should actually grant mass or energy recovery from technical, economic and ecological point-of-views. Highest results seem to be granted by waste-to-energy technologies since energy content is the best preserved property after using materials

  17. Dental ethics in a larger context: one point of view.

    Baumrind, Sheldon


    Since the end of World War II, the practice of dentistry has been largely transformed from a "calling" into a cog in the ever-expanding "Healthcare Industry". In the process, the distinction between professional ethics and the ethics of commerce has been attenuated and, to a large extent, lost. Today's dentist is faced with an inherent conflict between the pledge of the health professional to hold the patient's interests primary (and above all, to do no harm), and the self-protective commercial principle of caveat emptor. Pressures towards commercialism come from the government and the insurance industry, the increasingly unfavorable ratio between professional fees and the cost of production, and the high cost of dental education. Viewed simplistically, much of dentistry today has an outward form resembling commodity production. Recognizing the substantial forces tending to attenuate ethical standards in our profession may aid us in resisting their encroachments. PMID:18380251

  18. Virtual egocenters as a function of display geometric field of view and eye station point

    Psotka, Joseph


    The accurate location of one's virtual egocenter in a geometric space is of critical importance for immersion technologies. This experiment was conducted to investigate the role of field of view (FOV) and observer station points in the perception of the location of one's egocenter (the personal viewpoint) in virtual space. Rivalrous cues to the accurate location of one's egocenter may be one factor involved in simulator sickness. Fourteen subjects viewed an animated 3D model, of the room in which they sat, binocularly, from Eye Station Points (ESP) of either 300 or 800 millimeters. The display was on a 190 by 245 mm monitor, at a resolution of 320 by 200 pixels with 256 colors. They saw four models of the room designed with four geometric field of view (FOVg) conditions of 18, 48, 86, and 140 degrees. They drew the apparent paths of the camera in the room on a bitmap of the room as seen from infinity above. Large differences in the paths of the camera were seen as a function of both FOVg and ESP. Ten of the subjects were then asked to find the position for each display that minimized camera motion. The results fit well with predictions from an equation that took the ratio of human FOV (roughly 180 degrees) to FOVg times the Geometric Eye Point (GEP) of the imager: Zero Station Point = (180/FOVg)*GEP

  19. Marriage and Sexuality from a Psychiatric Point of View

    Ali Bozkurt

    Full Text Available Sexuality, taking on a shape in the interaction of psychological, social, and biological variables, may lose its functionality with the blockage of these components. Sexual dysfunction may be handled as if it is only a symptom being based on the decay of marital relationship in the content of therapy, and sexual dysfunction may be neglected by family and marriage therapists from time to time. Contrarily, sex therapists may show the tendency to handle the problem in aspect of only sexuality. In the relationships of all spouses, thought and emotional intimacy should not be neglected whatever sexual problem they may have. Factors determining happiness such as physical attractiveness, impressiveness, positive and negative attitudes, marriage age, children, socioeconomic conditions, common intentions, and hobbies, sexual life, have attracted the attention of investigators for long time. Most important element among these factors seems to be sexuality. In recent years, researchers have begun to consider interaction between sexuality and marriage much more. Marital life includes food, shelter, togetherness, satisfaction originated from positive marital relationships, sharing role to cause of sexual maturation, acceptance of social role, and responsibility, individual entrepreneurship, and supporting to creativity. Marriage, consisting of spouses completing each other in these fields, is the headstone of social development and maturation. It has been suggested that there is a role of sexual dysfunction in protecting the balance of marital relationships. According to this suggestion, these disorders may prevent any damage to self and conserve the border of ego. Moreover, we may suggest that sexual dysfunction breaks the marital relationship, removes the protective effect on marital balance if we consider the beneficial effects of sexuality in points of intimacy in thought and emotional fields. Sexuality can be only experienced with healthy personality

  20. Fuzzy Epistemology From View Point of Mystical Theology

    Hadi Vakili


    Full Text Available Abstrak : Isu imanensi dan transendensi sangat penting dalam pemikiran keagamaan. Salah satu alasan mengapa masalah ini tidak pernah terselesaikan adalah bahwa ia memiliki banyak makna dan muncul dalam konteks yang berbeda. Pandangan yang menekankan imanensi dalam satu konteks mungkin menekankan transendensi pada konteks lain. Arti keduanya pun sangat tergantung pada asumsi metafisik mereka yang biasanya secara tidak sadar menggunakannya. Dua sisi yang saling terkait dan bergantung satu sama lain ini pasti hadir di konsep pikiran, jika hubungan antara Allah dan alam semesta, Realitas dan penampilan, benar-benar untuk dipahami. Karena ketiadaanlah bahwa Allah digambarkan sebagai transenden (tanzīh, dan karena keberadaan sehingga Ia dikenal sebagai imanen (tashbīh. Dua aspek Tuhan, transenden dan imanen diringkaskan oleh Ibn ‘Arabi melalui pendekatan ayat Qur’an (42:11. Pakar sejarah agama, peneliti dan mistikus berpegang pada prinsip ini juga dan meyakini bahwa apa yang disebut sebagai “logika panggilan” memiliki dua sisi fungsi yang berarti. Menurut logika ini, seseorang harus mengklasifikasikan panggilan nabi pada kesatuan atau pluralitas seperti dalam kategorisasi panggilan transenden, imanen atau transenden-imanen, dan akibatnya adalah agama Ilahiah akan diperspesi dari sisi ini pula. “Fuzzy logic” atau logika fuzzy dipahami berdasarkan preposisi yang paradoks dari berbagai penjelasan dan analisa mistis.Kata kunci : Logika fuzzy, Transenden, Imanen, Teologi fuzzy, ParadoxAbstract : The issue of immanence and transcendence is crucial for religious thought. One reason why that is never resolved is that it has so many meanings and turns up in so many different contexts. A view may emphasize immanence in one context and emphasize transcendence in another. What the terms mean depends in part on the metaphysical assumptions, usually unconscious, of those who use them. According to Ibn al-Arabī, these two mutually dependent sides

  1. The Undergraduate Research Experience from a Personal Point of View

    Kartaltepe, J. S.


    As an undergraduate at Colgate University, I have had many opportunities to get involved with research. I spent the summer after my first year on a project at Colgate that extended into a junior research course and I have also worked at two very different national programs (National Radio Astronomy Observatory at Green Bank and the Space Telescope Science Institute). As a result, I have gained research and observing experience at different observatories, including the Foggy Bottom Observatory at Colgate, Lowell Observatory, and the NRAO at Green Bank. From these diverse experiences I have learned a great deal about research in astronomy in general as well as what some aspects of the field are like specifically. For instance, I have learned about quasars, weak gravitational lensing, and HI absorption. I have come to appreciate things about astronomy that one never learns inside of a classroom. By having the chance to try out different types of research, I have gotten a better idea of what areas of research I might like to pursue in the future. These experiences have given me some highly beneficial skills for my future career in research.

  2. Skills renewal in nuclear an industrialist's point of view

    Global energy needs are increasing and at the same time, the use of fossil fuels for energy is being questioned for several reasons: the possible shortage of resources; the volatility of their prices; the impact of their use on global warming, to name but a few. Focusing on the demand for electricity, forecasts from the World Nuclear Association show a dramatically growing trend and a necessity for massive investments in response to this. Over the 2000-2030 period, the needs for extra electricity generation in Europe are estimated at 660 GW, in North America the forecasted level of needs is 850 GW, in China, it is 1,300 GW. Given the current fossil fuel situation, nuclear energy is undoubtedly part of the answer to the growing demand for electricity generation, along with renewable energies and energy efficiency. In most countries, nuclear power plants were commissioned over a relatively short period (1970-1985). Except maybe in some regions, the Chernobyl accident put this technology on hold for twenty years, meaning that an ageing workforce is now an issue for the nuclear industry. The recruitment of a significant number of engineers is thus necessary, both to launch new nuclear projects and to replace employees about to retire. In France, 40% of all nuclear engineers will retire over the next decade. During this period, around 1,200 engineers per year will be recruited, including 600 per year by EDF (a fourfold increase). In many countries, the recruitment of engineers has remained at a very low level for the past 15 years and consequently education programs have been cut back. Furthermore, teaching positions have not been renewed and only a few qualified individuals remain, most of whom are nearing retirement age. The revival of nuclear education is a key point for the success of the nuclear renaissance. In 2007-2008, the High Commissioner for Atomic Energy conducted a census of existing French nuclear teaching programs. By this time, capacity in France was

  3. [Adaptive radiotherapy in routine: The radiation oncologist's point of view].

    Henriques de Figueiredo, B; Petit, A; Sargos, P; Kantor, G; Pouypoudat, C; Saut, O; Zacharatou, C; Antoine, M


    Adaptive radiotherapy is defined as all processes leading to the modification of a treatment plan on the basis of patient-specific variations observed during the course of a treatment. This concept is currently of particular relevance due to the development of onboard volumetric imaging systems, which allow for daily viewing of variations in both tumour and organs at risk in terms of position, shape or volume. However, its application in routine clinical practice is limited due to the demanding nature of the processes involved (re-delineation and replanning) and increased dependence on available human resources. Even if "online" strategies, based on deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms, could lead to a reduction in both work and calculation time, for the moment their use is limited to the research field due to uncertainties surrounding the validity of results gathered. Other strategies without DIR can be used as "offline" or "hybrid offline-online" strategies that seem to offer a compromise between time consumption and therapeutic gain for the patient. PMID:26337475

  4. Technology learning from the lawmaker's point of view

    The paper gives an overview over the German energy policy in the area of renewable energy sources. It focuses on the Renewable Energies Act (REA) of April 1, 2000, which has shown to be the main stimulus for the upswing of the market of renewable energies in Germany. One of the key features of the REA is the declining compensation schedule that aims at generating and stimulating learning curve effects. The paper shows the key findings of a report to the German Bundestag on the market and on the cost trend of installations for the use of photovoltaics, wind power, biomass and hydropower. (author)

  5. Sizing up earthquake damage: Differing points of view

    Hough, S.; Bolen, A.


    When a catastrophic event strikes an urban area, many different professionals hit the ground running. Emergency responders respond, reporters report, and scientists and engineers collect and analyze data. Journalists and scientists may share interest in these events, but they have very different missions. To a journalist, earthquake damage is news. To a scientist or engineer, earthquake damage represents a valuable source of data that can help us understand how strongly the ground shook as well as how particular structures responded to the shaking.

  6. A rotating Michelson interferometer from the co-rotating point of view

    Maraner, Paolo


    The phase shift induced by a uniform rotation in a Michelson interferometer is re-derived in the geometrical framework of the coordinate-free formalism of general relativity from the co-rotating point of view. The effect is second order in the ratio of the interferometer's speed to the speed of light and further suppressed by the ratio of the length of the interferometer's arms to the radius of rotation. The relation of the effect to gravitational time dilation is discussed.

  7. Institutional system response mechanism towards corruption: a point of view

    Ciprian Tudurachi


    Full Text Available In Romania, a lot of practices proper to corruption became widely common and are integrated in a real national bureaucratic culture. Romanian citizens seem to accept and tolerate informal payments in order to obtain the desired or the necessary services. Public officials are doing well, impersonal and they don’t realize they affect social welfare. That’s why fight against corruption must involve complex actions performed on many areas. Such action must be focused on measures that reduce the opportunities for corruption and increase the probability of detection and punish the offences.

  8. Multi-points of view semantic enrichment of folksonomies

    Limpens, Freddy


    Cette thèse, au croisement du Web Social et du Web Sémantique, vise à rapprocher folksonomies et représentations structurées de connaissances telles que les thesauri ou les ontologies informatiques. Les folksonomies, résultant de l'usage de plateformes de social tagging, souffrent d'un manque de précision qui les rend difficile à exploiter pour la naviguation. Cette thèse présente notre approche multi-points de vue de l'enrichissement sémantique des folksonomies. L'amorçage est assuré par des...

  9. University studies of Teaching subject for nursery school from combined study students point of view

    HOLÁ, Zuzana


    The main aim of the bachelor thesis is to find out the point of view on educated preparation of kindergarten teachers from the point of view of a student who studies combined form. The notion of professional development is defined and the history of teacher's profession is briefly introduced. Then the strategy for teacher education is described and compared with a situation in foreign countries. The personal and professional requests about kindergarten teachers are spefied in the theoretical ...

  10. Deep tissue injury from a bioengineering point of view.

    Gefen, Amit


    The phrasing of the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel's (NPUAP) definition of deep tissue injury (DTI) was based on case reports, clinical observations, and experience. Although etiological studies of DTI, primarily related to characterizing biomechanical factors affecting onset and progression, support and strengthen parts of the NPUAP's definition, some recent findings suggest a need to re-evaluate the wording and perhaps refine future definitions of DTI. Application of existing bioengineering research to underlying biological, physical, biomechanical, and biochemical mechanisms involved in the definition of DTI suggests the following: 1) changes in skin color - ie, deviation of the local skin color from the surroundings - may indicate a DTI might be present, but color is not useful for quantifying the severity of injury; 2) the pressure and/or shear definition is inaccurate because it creates an artificial distinction between pressure and shear, which are physically coupled, and because it ignores tensional loads; 3) palpating tissue firmness at the wound site provides limited assessment information because tissue firmness will depend on the point in time along the course of DTI development. Damaged tissues might appear stiffer than surrounding tissues if examined when muscle tissue is locally contracted due to local rigor mortis but at a later stage damage might manifest as tissues that are softer than their surroundings when digestive enzymes start decomposing necrotic tissues; 4) skin temperature changes near the DTI site may reflect inflammatory response, causing local heating, or ischemic perfusion, causing local cooling; and 5) rapid deterioration of DTI is likely occurring due to muscle tissue stiffening at the rigor mortis phase; stiffened tissues abnormally deform adjacent tissues and this effect is amplified if muscles are atrophied. The application of interdisciplinary research may help clinicians and researchers move from evolving jargons

  11. The ViewPoint radioprotection supervision workstation

    The author briefly presents the ViewPoint supervision global solution which incorporates audio and video advanced technologies to manage radioprotection operational measurements. Data can be transmitted by-wire or wireless. It can integrate a large number of radioprotection measurement instruments, such as a belt for the monitoring of physiological parameters (body temperature, breathing rhythm, body posture)

  12. POINT/CounterPOINT: The View from the Trenches of Education Policy Research

    Dale Ballou; Matthew G. Springer; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Lockwood, J. R.; Brian M. Stecher; Laura Hamilton; Matthew Pepper


    The Project on Incentives in Teaching (POINT) was a three-year study testing the hypothesis that rewarding teachers for improved student scores on standardized tests would cause scores to rise. Results, as described in Springer et al. (2010b), did not confirm this hypothesis. In this article we provide additional information on the POINT study that may be of particular interest to researchers contemplating their own studies of similar policies. Our discussion focuses on the policy environment...

  13. Implementation of area optimized Floating Point Units in Hybrid FPGA

    Ankit Kumar Kusumakar#1 , Utsav Malviya


    Full Text Available The “Implementation of area optimized Floating Point Unit in Hybrid FPGA” is gradually replacing the conventional slower FPUs which have lower speed while computing complex calculations includes Digital Signal Processing. Existing FPGA devices are not optimized for floating-point computations, and for this reason, floating-point operators consume a significant amount of FPGA resources. I will try to implement area optimized FPU on a hybrid Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs with new feature division, multiplication and addition which is designed with VHDL, synthesized using Xilinx ISE 9.2i Webpack, simulated using ModelSim simulator and then implemented on Xilinx Virtex 2E FPGA.

  14. Basic realizability of the fuel cycle centre from the point of view of safety

    The SSB (Sachverstaendigen-Kommission fuer Fragen der Sicherung des Brennstoffkreislaufs) concludes that the necessary protection of the fuel cycle centre against interference or other intervention by third persons (sect. 7, sub-section 2, no. 5 Atomic Energy Act) can be warranted by applying the technical means available nowadays and by suitable organizational measures. However, the concept presented by the applicant must and can be improved upon in some major details in the course of the licensing procedure. Thus, the SSB comes to the conclusion that, in principle, the fuel cycle centre from the point of view of protection is realizable. (orig.)

  15. Dark matter as seen from the physical point of view

    Krasnoholovets, Vlodymyr


    It is shown that the Newton's law of universal gravitation can be derived from first submicroscopic principles inherent in the very nature of real space that is constituted as a tessellattice of primary topological balls. The submicroscopic concept determines the notion of mass in the tessellattice and introduces excitations of space, which appear at the motion of particles (mass particles are determined as local deformations of the tessellattice). These excitations are associated with carriers of the field of inertia. In the universe the gravitation is induced by standing inerton waves of mass objects, which oscillate around the objects with the speed of light. An overlapping of these standing inerton waves generates an elastic interaction between masses bringing them to a formation of clusters in which masses are characterised by both the Newtonian and elastic interaction. It is this elastic interaction that cancels the necessity of introduction of mystical dark matter. At the same time, inertons, carriers ...

  16. Evolution, Learning, and Semiotics from a Peircean Point of View

    Otte, Michael Friedrich


    One of the most salient arguments in favor of a semiotic approach, put forward on various occasions among others by Luis Radford, claims that semiotics is most appropriate to treat the interaction between socio-cultural and objective aspects of knowledge problems. But if we want to take such claims seriously, we have to undertake revisions of our…

  17. The library from the nursing educator's point of view.

    Treece, E W


    Libraries are accessible to faculties of schools of nursing but tend not to be fully utilized by them. The author describes the results of her surveys of nursing literature concerning libraries and one faculty's opinions and knowledge about its school library. Suggestions are made for assisting nurse educators and students to use the library to its fullest extent. PMID:5146768

  18. Aspects of working psychology from the operator's point of view

    Psychological factors which may influence the vigilance of the monitoring personnel in man-machine-systems will be treated. The influence of such factors on the safety standard of the technical systems in nuclear power plants is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Glycolipids from a colloid chemical point of view.

    Thiesen, P H; Rosenfeld, H; Konidala, P; Garamus, V M; He, L; Prange, A; Niemeyer, B


    Glycolipids are a group of compounds with a broad range of applications. Two types of glycolipids (alkylpolyglycosides and gangliosides) were examined with regard to their physicochemical properties. Despite their structural differences, they have in common that they are amphiphilic molecules and able to aggregate to form monolayers, bilayers, micelles, lyothropic mesophases or vesicles. The structures of glycolipid micelles were investigated by different experimental techniques in addition to molecular dynamic simulations. The knowledge of the physicochemical properties of gangliosides enables a better understanding of their biological functions. Structural features were obtained for the monosialogangliosides GM1, GM2 and GT1b from bovine brain by means of mass spectrometry. Further the aggregation behaviour was determined by small-angle neutron and dynamic light scattering experiments. Interaction studies of these compounds were carried out by means of surface plasmon resonance using gangliosides incorporated liposomes. They were used as model membranes that interact with the lectins WGA, RCA and HPA. The interaction of lectins immobilized to a modified silicon surface was investigated by in-situ ellipsometry. PMID:16707183

  20. Race and History: Comments from an Epistemological Point of View

    Müller-Wille, Staffan


    The historiography of race is usually framed by two discontinuities: The invention of race by European naturalists and anthropologists, marked by Carl Linnaeus’s Systema naturae (1735); and the demise of racial typologies after WWII in favor of population-based studies of human diversity. This framing serves a similar function as the quotation marks that almost invariably surround the term. “Race” is placed outside of rational discourse as a residue of outdated essentialist and hierarchical thinking. I will throw doubt on this underlying assumption, not in order to re-legitimate race, but in order to understand better why race has been, and continues to be, such a politically powerful and explosive concept. PMID:25684833

  1. Radiation mutagenesis from molecular and genetic points of view

    Chen, D.J.C.; Park, M.S.; Okinaka, R.T.; Jaberaboansari, A.


    An important biological effect of ionizing radiation on living organisms is mutation induction. Mutation is also a primary event in the etiology of cancer. The chain events, from induction of DNA damage by ionizing radiation to processing of these damages by the cellular repair/replication machinery, that lead to mutation are not well understood. The development of quantitative methods for measuring mutation-induction, such as the HPRT system, in cultured mammalian cells has provided an estimate of the mutagenic effects of x- and [gamma]-rays as wen as of high LET radiation in both rodent and human cells. A major conclusion from these mutagenesis data is that high LET radiation induces mutations more efficiently than g-rays. Molecular analysis of mutations induced by sparsely ionizing radiation have detected major structural alterations at the gene level. Our molecular results based on analysis of human HPRT deficient mutants induced by [gamma]-rays, [alpha]-particles and high energy charged particles indicate that higher LET radiation induce more total and large deletion mutations than [gamma]-rays. Utilizing molecular techniques including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Direct DNA sequencing, mutational spectra induced by ionizing radiation have been compared in different cell systems. Attempts have also been made to determine the mutagenic potential and the nature of mutation induced by low dose rate [gamma]-rays. Defective repair, in the form of either a diminished capability for repair or inaccurate repair, can lead to increased risk of heritable mutations from radiation exposure. Therefore, the effects of DNA repair deficiency on the mutation induction in mammalian cells is reviewed.

  2. Radiation mutagenesis from molecular and genetic points of view

    Chen, D.J.C.; Park, M.S.; Okinaka, R.T.; Jaberaboansari, A.


    An important biological effect of ionizing radiation on living organisms is mutation induction. Mutation is also a primary event in the etiology of cancer. The chain events, from induction of DNA damage by ionizing radiation to processing of these damages by the cellular repair/replication machinery, that lead to mutation are not well understood. The development of quantitative methods for measuring mutation-induction, such as the HPRT system, in cultured mammalian cells has provided an estimate of the mutagenic effects of x- and {gamma}-rays as wen as of high LET radiation in both rodent and human cells. A major conclusion from these mutagenesis data is that high LET radiation induces mutations more efficiently than g-rays. Molecular analysis of mutations induced by sparsely ionizing radiation have detected major structural alterations at the gene level. Our molecular results based on analysis of human HPRT deficient mutants induced by {gamma}-rays, {alpha}-particles and high energy charged particles indicate that higher LET radiation induce more total and large deletion mutations than {gamma}-rays. Utilizing molecular techniques including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Direct DNA sequencing, mutational spectra induced by ionizing radiation have been compared in different cell systems. Attempts have also been made to determine the mutagenic potential and the nature of mutation induced by low dose rate {gamma}-rays. Defective repair, in the form of either a diminished capability for repair or inaccurate repair, can lead to increased risk of heritable mutations from radiation exposure. Therefore, the effects of DNA repair deficiency on the mutation induction in mammalian cells is reviewed.

  3. Radiation mutagenesis from molecular and genetic points of view

    An important biological effect of ionizing radiation on living organisms is mutation induction. Mutation is also a primary event in the etiology of cancer. The chain events, from induction of DNA damage by ionizing radiation to processing of these damages by the cellular repair/replication machinery, that lead to mutation are not well understood. The development of quantitative methods for measuring mutation-induction, such as the HPRT system, in cultured mammalian cells has provided an estimate of the mutagenic effects of x- and γ-rays as wen as of high LET radiation in both rodent and human cells. A major conclusion from these mutagenesis data is that high LET radiation induces mutations more efficiently than g-rays. Molecular analysis of mutations induced by sparsely ionizing radiation have detected major structural alterations at the gene level. Our molecular results based on analysis of human HPRT deficient mutants induced by γ-rays, α-particles and high energy charged particles indicate that higher LET radiation induce more total and large deletion mutations than γ-rays. Utilizing molecular techniques including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Direct DNA sequencing, mutational spectra induced by ionizing radiation have been compared in different cell systems. Attempts have also been made to determine the mutagenic potential and the nature of mutation induced by low dose rate γ-rays. Defective repair, in the form of either a diminished capability for repair or inaccurate repair, can lead to increased risk of heritable mutations from radiation exposure. Therefore, the effects of DNA repair deficiency on the mutation induction in mammalian cells is reviewed

  4. Ego in Lacan’s and Husserl's Point of View

    H. Fathzadeh


    Full Text Available Husserl - at least in his third intellectual career - was convinced that subject is placed at the heart of philosophy and philosophy is nothing but egology. This Cartesian character makes Husserl one of the greatest figures of modern thought. But in contemporary period, this central ego and, accompanied with that, the modern thought have been challenged by poststructuralists. Because of their focus on psychoanalysis and their priority to other poststructuralist writings, Lacan's argumeats are significant. In this article, at first, we proceed with the Lacan's central idea against the Cartesian subject, and then by explaining Husserl's thoughts we will see what his defence is. Husserl, by phenomenological reduction of natural attitude inherent in natural sciences (among them psychoanalysis, places phenomenology in a different dimension and prefers it to other sciences. The process of raising empirical ego to transcendental ego supports such defence.

  5. [Pharmaco-economics: a point of view of the mutualities].

    Legrand, D; Simon, I


    In Belgium, the mutualities are responsible for their budgets. They are playing an important role in drug pricing and reimbursement procedures. This document aims at explaining our line of arguments for a critical evaluation and the place for a pharmacoeconomic evaluation in the Belgian social security system. The available economic data for each molecule or pathology are essential but insufficient. Economic evaluations could help to reveal the costs and benefits of different uses of medical therapies and could thereby enhance the resources allocation in a health care system. But this science is still in its infancy, and in practice, the methodological quality of this kind of study is often weak. Furthermore it is not easy to transfer those evaluations to the Belgian reimburse systems. The clinical efficacy and the transparency is price setting should remain the two most important criterions to build reimbursement rules in order to ensure right price, rational use of medicine and accessibility for all. PMID:9689875

  6. Tissue engineering of bone: the reconstructive surgeon's point of view

    Kneser, U; Schaefer, D. J.; Polykandriotis, E; Horch, R E


    Bone defects represent a medical and socioeconomic challenge. Different types of biomaterials are applied for reconstructive indications and receive rising interest. However, autologous bone grafts are still considered as the gold standard for reconstruction of extended bone defects. The generation of bioartificial bone tissues may help to overcome the problems related to donor site morbidity and size limitations. Tissue engineering is, according to its historic definition, an “interdisciplin...

  7. Habitability on Mars from a Microbial Point of View

    Westall, Frances; Loizeau, Damien; Foucher, Frédéric; Bost, Nicolas; Betrand, Marylène; Vago, Jorge; Kminek, Gerhard


    Extraterrestrial habitability is a complex notion. We briefly review what is known about the origin of life on Earth, that is, life based on carbon chemistry and water. We then discuss habitable conditions (past and present) for established life and for the survival of microorganisms. Based on these elements, we propose to use the term habitable only for conditions necessary for the origin of life, the proliferation of life, and the survival of life. Not covered by this term would be conditio...

  8. The Definition of Planet: A Dynamicist's Point of View

    Valsecchi, G.B.


    It is here argued that the problem of a meaningful defininition of"planet" is best addressed on a dynamical basis; we show that in this way it is possible to obtain a planet definition that is both unambiguous and useful.

  9. Nuclear energy from the point of view of the population

    The present study refers mainly to an empirical attitude investigation carried out in 1975 and 1976 in a suburb of Cologne. In order to remain up-to-date, new research results have been included in the analysis. The aim of the publication at hand is to deal with the nuclear controversy in its sociological and social-psychological dimensions, and also to elucidate motives and reasons behind the protests against nuclear energy. The report has been written for sociologists, nuclear engineers and scientists, journalists, political decision-finding authorities and interested laymen alike, and is to offer a general orientation in contradicting statements as regards the stance of the population. The central statement of this very detailed investigation is, that the population has a mainly positive attitude towards the construction of a nuclear power plant - even then when antipathy and uneasiness towards a new energy source prevent emotional identification. (orig./HP)

  10. Accelerator driven systems from the radiological safety point of view

    P K Sarkar; Maitreyee Nandy


    In the proposed accelerator driven systems (ADS) the possible use of several milliamperes of protons of about 1 GeV incident on high mass targets like the molten lead–bismuth eutectic is anticipated to pose radiological problems that have so far not been encountered by the radiation protection community. Spallation reaction products like high energy gammas, neutrons, muons, pions and several radiotoxic nuclides including Po-210 complicate the situation. In the present paper, we discuss radiation safety measures like bulk shielding, containment of radiation leakage through ducts and penetration and induced activity in the structure to protect radiation workers as well as estimation of sky-shine, soil and ground water activation, release of toxic gases to the environment to protect public as per the stipulations of the regulatory authorities. We recommend the application of the probabilistic safety analysis technique by assessing the probability and criticality of different hazard-initiating events using HAZOP and FMECA.

  11. Diabetic foot syndrome--dermatological point of view.

    Troskot, Nina; Duvancić, Tomislav; Kolić, Maja


    Patients with diabetes mellitus often suffer from diabetic foot syndrome, a condition leading to foot ulceration or even amputation of lower extremity. Peripheral neuropathy combined with repetitive trauma to the foot and peripheral vascular disease are the main etiological factors in the development of foot ulcers. Other major contributive factors include the effects of callus, increased plantar pressures, and local infections. Patient education concerning their disease has a central role in the prevention of foot ulcers. Ordinary preventive measures taken by the patient include regular self-inspections, appropriate daily hygiene of the feet, appropriate footwear to reduce plantar pressures, and medical pedicure performed by a pedicurist experienced in diabetic foot patients. The importance of callus in diabetic patients has been shown in several studies by high predictability of subsequent ulcer development in patients with plantar calluses. For removing callus, urea based preparations are considered to be the treatment of choice. In case of local bacterial and fungal diabetic foot infections, systemic antibiotic and systemic antimycotic therapy is indicated, respectively. Wound dressings of various types are the mainstay in the treatment of chronic foot ulcers with avoidance of occlusive dressings in infected ulcers. Since the vast majority of ulcers and amputations can be prevented in diabetic patients, proper diagnosis and multidisciplinary approach are essential. PMID:23837279

  12. Downsizing from the merging model point of view (preliminary discussion

    In the four-particle scattering processes with mass transfer, unlike mergers in which mass can only increase, an essential role are played the processes, when the mass of the most massive galaxies can be decreased. Elementary model describing such a process is considered. In this respect, it is supposed to explain the observed phenomenon of ''downsizing'' when with cosmological time the growth of characteristic mass of the heaviest galaxies is followed by its decrease

  13. Quantum Theory from Observer's Mathematics Point of View

    This work considers the linear (time-dependent) Schrodinger equation, quantum theory of two-slit interference, wave-particle duality for single photons, and the uncertainty principle in a setting of arithmetic, algebra, and topology provided by Observer's Mathematics, see [1]. Certain theoretical results and communications pertaining to these theorems are also provided.

  14. Implementation of POPBL Seen From the Administational Point of View

    Moesby, Egon


    Based Learning carried out in teams. Once then, when a decision is made to change the educational model towards POPBL, the executives, academic directors, teachers and the supporting staff face the challenge of actually plan it, implement it, make it work and create a steady state situation. The author...

  15. A point of view about the US energy policy

    This paper gives a short analysis of the evolution of the US energy sector and of the challenges and energy problems the US society has to face. The US primary energy consumption per habitant and automotive fuel prices and taxes are compared with those of the other OECD countries. Differences are explained by considering the US energy policy and the 'American way of life'. This analysis gives also some examples of US energy practices which can explain the behaviour of consumers: reduction of electricity tariffs for consumers with low incomes, promotion of electricity produced from renewable energies (financial incentives), enforcement of reforms concerning the deregulation of the electric power market and the restructuring of the electric power industry. Finally, the author questions the compatibility between the increase of competition in the US energy sector with the environmental requirements of the Kyoto agreements. (J.S.)

  16. Dark matter as seen from the physical point of view

    Krasnoholovets, Volodymyr


    It is shown that the Newton's law of universal gravitation can be derived from first submicroscopic principles inherent in the very nature of real space that is constituted as a tessel-lattice of primary topological balls. The submicroscopic concept determines the notion of mass in the tessel-lattice and introduces excitations of space, which appear at the motion of particles (mass particles are determined as local deformations of the tessel-lattice). These excitations are associated with carriers of the field of inertia. In the universe the gravitation is induced by standing inerton waves of mass objects, which oscillate around the objects with the speed of light. An overlapping of these standing inerton waves generates an elastic interaction between masses bringing them to a formation of clusters in which masses are characterized by both the Newtonian and elastic interaction. It is this elastic interaction that cancels the necessity of introduction of mystical dark matter. At the same time, inertons, carriers of inert properties of objects, can be treated as an analogous of hypothetic weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP) or axions, which some astronomers try to associated with dark matter particles.


    Mihaela Ungureanu


    Despite the developments which tend to relax the relationship between financial analysis and accounting, property information provided by the latter irreplaceable render its use for diagnostic approaches financial foundation. An efficient information system can provide relevant indicators to users based on accurate and real information and financial analysis results are based on a diagnosis of return and risk. The aim of this article is to present primarily the origin and evolution of the rel...

  18. The Konrad safety case: licensee point of view

    The protection of man and environment is the most important principle with regard to radioactive waste disposal. This fundamental principle is reflected in the licensing prerequisites for a repository. Since it is intended to dispose of radioactive waste in deep geological formations in the Federal Republic of Germany, possible releases via the water path must be investigated and assessed in particular with regard to the safety of a repository during the post-closure phase. Thus, respective investigations comprise the radiological long-term effects (radionuclide-specific radiation exposures) as well as the possible pollution of near-surface groundwater by organic and inorganic chemo-toxic substances. (author)

  19. TEVA new cooling system from the point of view electric

    The objective of the project is to ensure that TEVA temperature reservoir discharge cooling Arrocampo the Torrejon-Tajo does not exceed the limit value 30 degree centigrade. To do this, we have installed a cooling system based on a cooling tower to which water is supplied by four main pumps 1100kW.

  20. Pernicious anemia: New insights from a gastroenterological point of view

    Edith Lahner; Bruno Annibale


    Pernicious anemia (PA) is a macrocytic anemia that is caused by vitamin B_(12) deficiency, as a result of intrinsic factor deficiency. PA is associated with atrophic body gastritis (ABG), whose diagnosis is based on histological confirmation of gastric body atrophy. Serological markers that suggest oxyntic mucosa damage are increased fasting gastrin and decreased pepsinogen Ⅰ. Without performing Schilling's test,intrinsic factor deficiency may not be proven, and intrinsic factor and parietal cell antibodies are useful surrogate markers of PA, with 73% sensitivity and 100% specificity. PA is mainly considered a disease of the elderly, but younger patients represent about 15% of patients. PA patients may seek medical advice due to symptoms related to anemia, such as weakness and asthenia. Less commonly, the disease is suspected to be caused by dyspepsia. PA is frequently associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (40%) and other autoimmune disorders, such as diabetes mellitus (10%), as part of the autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. PA is the end-stage of ABG. Longstanding Helicobacter pylori infection probably plays a role in many patients with PA, in whom the active infectious process has been gradually replaced by an autoimmune disease that terminates in a burned-out infection and the irreversible destruction of the gastric body mucosa. Human leucocyte antigen-DR genotypes suggest a role for genetic susceptibility in PA. PA patients should be managed by cobalamin replacement treatment and monitoring for onset of iron deficiency. Moreover, they should be advised about possible gastrointestinal long-term consequences, such as gastric cancer and carcinoids.

  1. Siquieros accidental painting technique: a fluid mechanics point of view

    Zetina, Sandra


    This is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 65th Annual Meeting of the APS-DFD (fluid dynamics video). This video shows an analysis of the 'accidental painting' technique developed by D.A. Siqueiros, a famous Mexican muralist. We reproduced the technique that he used: pouring layers of paint of different colors on top of each other. We found that the layers mix, creating aesthetically pleasing patterns, as a result of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Due to the pigments used to give paints their color, they can have different densities. When poured on top of each other, if the top layer is denser than the lower one, the viscous gravity current undergoes unstable as it spread radially. We photograph the process and produced slowed-down video to visualize the process.

  2. Young physicians' competences from different points of view.

    Schober, Barbara; Spiel, Christiane; Reimann, Ralph


    This paper describes a baseline evaluation of medical education focusing on the competences of young physicians. It was conducted in the context of a reform mandated for medical programs at Austrian state universities. The study investigated the goals of medical education (ideal situation) as well as the real situation. Furthermore, learning methods used by medical students were analyzed. A multiple-perspective procedure was applied and questionnaire data from students, graduates, university teachers, and clinical supervisors of young graduates were collected at the University of Graz. A high discrepancy was found between the goals of medical teaching and the educational effectiveness of achieving them. Competences of young physicians were rated to be relatively low -- thereby external ratings were systematically lower than self-ratings by students and graduates. Reading passages from required textbooks is the dominant learning behavior among students. Based on the results, a gap between the ideal and the actual medical competences imparted at university can be identified. With regard to the generally low-rated competences of young physicians, the precondition for practical requirements hardly seems to be optimal. PMID:15369886

  3. Friction in macroscopic thermodynamics: A kinetic point of view

    Bizarro, João P. S.


    To provide a solid support to a macroscopic framework developed to explicitly account for friction in thermodynamics, a kinetic description of frictional dissipation is developed. Using either a dissipative Fokker-Planck equation for Brownian motion or a Boltzmann equation with a friction-force term added, it is shown that both approaches lead to the emergence of the macroscopic thermodynamic relations that state the first and second laws with friction. The analysis is directly applied to the problem of determining the minimum amount of heating generated by memory erasure, known in computer science as Landauer's bound, and leads to a better understanding of the energetics behind the latter. A generalisation of Boltzmann's H theorem to include friction explicitly is also recovered, and the thermodynamics of granular rotators acted by a frictional torque and of radio-frequency (RF) current drive of fusion plasmas, in which collisional drag is present, are addressed as well. Various physics results are revisited employing the first and second laws with friction that have been derived from the appropriate dissipative kinetic equations, lower bounds for entropy production rates being derived both for granular rotators and for RF current drive.

  4. Heritage, Memory and Education: a Museological Point of View

    Camilo de Mello Vasconcellos


    Full Text Available This article presents a reflection on the relationship between heritage, memory and the educational aspect of museums. For this purpose, it analyzes the development of a museological project carried out between 2006 and 2010 in a school with low-income students, aged between 4 and 6 years old, located near the Museum of Ar chaeology and Ethnologyat the University of São Paulo. This project was inspired by the principles of social inclusion and a participatory methodology was used. It counted on the development of different strategies including specific workshops conducted in the school and in the Museum. These strategies generated positive results that led the children to appreciate their local heritage. They also demonstrated that inclusive education projects reinforce ties between museums and poor communities as well as improve self-esteem issues and promote notions of belonging.


    Leila Mariza Hildebrandt


    Full Text Available A lot of people live situations of mental sickness, from psychotic character, that can cause sufferingboth for the sick and his family. We believe that try this situation means to live with limitations and wearings in thefamiliar everyday, what makes difficult the living with the psychotic person. Considering these aspects, thisresearch has the purpose of knowing the familiar perception about his living with a psychotic bearer person. It isabout a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study, developed in a northwest city of Rio Grande do Sul state,called Ijuí. The people of the investigation are composed of five psychotic’s parents, which frequent the socioterapygroup in Gloria district. The information collection happened trough open interviews, recorded and wrote out at all.The analysis of the obtained data followed MINAYO’s (2002 methodological proposition. By the containedinformation in the stud’s social actor’s declarations, emerged three thematic with a similar nucleus of thoughts. Onfirst thematic, we discussed about the difficulties faced by the familiars in the living with the psychotic in themoment he has the acute symptoms. On the second thematic, we talked about the medical question as bring atherapeutic element that helps the mental sick to keep stable., becoming better the familiars life. The third thematicshows the family conception about mental sickness. With this research we concluded that the living with a mentalsick person is taxing for the familiar and, sometimes, there are difficulties to understand the symptoms showed bythe sick person. Besides that, the family considers the medication one of the most important possibilities ofintervention in the psychotic’s therapy, what is reinforced by the health team that leads with these people.

  6. Test and acceptance from the AE point of view

    The power industry has undergone the transition from utilizing construction engineers for startup activities to utilizing test engineers who are responsible for the preparation or execution of a formal test program. This has come about because testing has been given sufficient importance to justify those participating within the industry to establish it as a specialty phase apart from engineering/design and construction. Presently testing is being conducted by those organizations that have either engineered and/or constructed the unit which may be a position of conflict in regards to unbiased test. The tester (third party) concept promotes the repetition, independence, and expertise of a test organization responsible to the utility for certifying that each system has been tested to the design criteria established by others. A move to this concept should result in better generating stations with higher availability because it has been completely tested by an organization with this sole contractual responsibility. The AE, NSSS, and utility would all benefit with possibly no additional costs incurred

  7. Thin Film Substrates from the Raman spectroscopy point of view

    Gasparov, Lev; Jegorel, Theo; Loetgering, Lars; Middey, Srimanta; Chakhalian, Jak


    We have investigated ten standard single crystal substrates of complex oxides on the account of their applicability in the Raman spectroscopy based thin film research. In this study we suggest a spectra normalization procedure that utilises a comparison of the substrate's Raman spectra to those of well-established Raman reference materials. We demonstrate that MgO, LaGaO3, (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.7 (LSAT), DyScO3, YAlO3, and LaAlO3 can be of potential use for a Raman based thin film research. At the same time TiO2 (rutile), NdGaO3, SrLaAlO4, and SrTiO3 single crystals exhibit multiple phonon modes accompanied by strong Raman background that substantially hinder the Raman based thin film experiments. L.G. acknowledges the support from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Grants DMR-0805073, DMR-0958349, Office of Naval Research award N00014-06-1-0133 and the UNF Terry Presidential Professorship. J. C. was supported by DOD-ARO under Grant No. 0402-172.

  8. [Drug interchangeability: clinical approach and consumer's point of view].

    Rumel, Davi; Nishioka, Sérgio de Andrade; Santos, Adélia Aparecida Marçal dos


    The rational construction of an essential drug list, considering the patient's need, drug safety, availability and the best cost-benefit ratio, is based on drug safety, efficacy and quality. However, in daily practice, the prescriber's decision is mostly influenced by drug effectiveness, following criteria that increase adherence to the treatment, such as relative drug toxicity, convenience, cost and prescriber's experience. In addition, frequent launching of new molecules for the same therapeutic indication, together with wide publicity targeting prescribers, interferes with the decision-making process. Similarly, the bonuses offered by the industry for over-the-counter drug sales interfere with the consumer's choice. The confrontation between known human biological variability and the knowledge that there is no absolute similarity between drugs of the same therapeutic class, or even generic drugs, has an impact on the prescriber's drug list, which should include the concept of first and second choice drugs. Prescribers' unfamiliarity with these subjects is a determinant factor for irrational drug use: a public health issue. The objective of this study was to introduce to drug prescribers information that can help them building up a rational drug list for their patients, based on the National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa) experience of drug regulation. PMID:17301916

  9. Multi-View Point Clouds Registration without Feature Extraction for Use in Reverse Engineering of CAD Models

    Huang Xiaoping; Xiong Youlun


    For reverse engineering a CAD model, it is necessary to integrate measured points from several views of an object into a common reference frame. Given a rough initial alignment of point cloud in different views with point-normal method, further refinement is achieved by using an improved iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm. Compared with other methods used for multi-view registration, this approach is automatic because no geometric feature, such as line, plane or sphere needs to be extracted from the original point cloud manually. A good initial alignment can be acquired automatically and the registration accuracy and efficiency is proven better than the normal point-point ICP algorithm both experimentally and theoretically.

  10. A swedish dose passport - contractors point of view

    Westinghouse Atom is situated in Vasteras approximately 100 km west from Stockholm. The company is owned by BNFL. The two largest divisions are the Nuclear Fuel Operations and The Global Reactor Services division. The Nuclear fuel operations manufacture fuel for BWR and PWR reactors. The raw material used is Uranium hexafluoride, which is converted to Uranium dioxide powder through wet AUC-process. The concession is 600 tonnes of UO2, per year. Last year the production. was approximately 900 fuel elements. There is also a control rod production line within the fuel factory. Last year the production of control rods was approximately 160. The Global Reactor Services Division performs tests on different types of equipments used in nuclear power plants. In addition there is also a well-established service structure that provides a wide range of field services, for instance sipping of fuel elements. The total amount of people working in Vasteras is currently around 800. The majority of those, work at the fuel factory. The purpose of this paper is to describe the somewhat awkward situation for our employees when working as external personnel on German nuclear installations. Our Swedish personnel are currently using German dose passports. Since Sweden joined the European Union in 1995 this is in contradiction to the EU-directives. Hence, Westinghouse Atom has applied for a license for the use of Swedish dose passports in Germany. The amount of people performing service jobs in Germany is approximately 80 persons. (authors)

  11. Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors:A surgical point of view

    Anton Stift; Josef Friedl; Michael Gnant; Friedrich Herbst; Raimund Jakesz; Etienne Wenzl


    AIM: Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors are uncommon stromal tumors of the intestinal tract. Their histological appearance is similar to that of other gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We report two cases and performed an analysis of the literature by comparing our findings with the available case reports in the medical literature.METHODS: Two patients were admitted with abdominal tumor masses. One occurred in the stomach with large multiple liver metastases and the second originated in Meckel's diverticulum. The latter site has never been reported previously. Both patients underwent surgery. In one patient gastrectomy, right liver resection and colon transversum resection were performed to achieve aggressive tumor debulking. In the other patient the tumor bearing diverticulum was removed.RESULTS: Postoperative recovery of both patients was uneventful. Histological examination, immunohistochemical analysis and electron microscopy revealed the diagnosis of a gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumor. The patient with the tumor in Meckel's diverticulum died 6 mo after surgery because of pneumonia. The patient with liver metastases have been alive 13 years after initial tumor diagnosis and 7 years after surgery with no evidence of tumor progression. In light of our results, we performed a thorough comparison with available literature reports.CONCLUSION: Radical surgical resection of gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors seems to be the only available curative approach to date, and long term survival is possible even in large metastasized tumors.ACKNOWLEDGMENTWe thank Christine Brostjan, PhD for critical review of the manuscript.


    Mihaela Ungureanu


    Full Text Available Despite the developments which tend to relax the relationship between financial analysis and accounting, property information provided by the latter irreplaceable render its use for diagnostic approaches financial foundation. An efficient information system can provide relevant indicators to users based on accurate and real information and financial analysis results are based on a diagnosis of return and risk. The aim of this article is to present primarily the origin and evolution of the relationship between financial analysis and accounting, and the fundamental role which accounting holds, through the information it produces, into analysts’ work. The used research method is the bibliographic one, being studied timely books and articles of the domain. Literature does not provide concrete answers to this problem, resolutions being expected especially from practitioners.

  13. Esophageal cancer management controversies: Radiation oncology point of view

    Patricia; Tai; Edward; Yu


    Esophageal cancer treatment has evolved from single modality to trimodality therapy.There are some controversies of the role,target volumes and dose of radiotherapy(RT)in the literature over decades.The present review focuses primarily on RT as part of the treatment modalities,and highlight on the RT volume and its dose in the management of esophageal cancer.The randomized adjuvant chemoradiation(CRT)trial,intergroup trial(INT 0116)enrolled 559 patients with resected adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction.They were randomly assigned to surgery plus postoperative CRT or surgery alone.Analyses show robust treatment benefit of adjuvant CRT in most subsets for postoperative CRT.The Chemoradiotherapy for Oesophageal Cancer Followed by Surgery Study(CROSS)used a lower RT dose of41.4 Gray in 23 fractions with newer chemotherapeutic agents carboplatin and paclitaxel to achieve an excellent result.Target volume of external beam radiation therapy and its coverage have been in debate for years among radiation oncologists.Pre-operative and postoperative target volumes are designed to optimize for disease control.Esophageal brachytherapy is effective in the palliation of dysphagia,but should not be given concomitantly with chemotherapy or external beam RT.The role of brachytherapy in multimodality management requires further investigation.On-going studies of multidisciplinary treatment in locally advanced cancer include:ZTOG1201 trial(a phaseⅡtrial of neoadjuvant and adjuvant CRT)and QUINTETT(a phaseⅢtrial of neoadjuvant vs adjuvant therapy with quality of life analysis).These trials hopefully will shed more light on the future management of esophageal cancer.

  14. Main post-accident management stakes: IRSN's point of view

    Full text of publication follows: Off site management of a radiological crisis covers two phases which need to be clearly distinguished even if there are links between them: emergency phase and recovery phase (also called late or post-accident phase). The presentation will deal with the latter, rather neglected up until recently, but conveying special attention from now on in France and at the international level. It is clear now that the long term management of a radiological or nuclear crisis cannot be reduced to merely site decontamination. Actually, environmental decontamination considerations would be only one amongst other essential economical, social, health, psychological, cultural, and symbolical concerns. This is why off site management of a radiological crisis requires innovative governance, in order to challenge such a complexity. This need for challenge led IRSN to have on the go technical developments and new governance modes reflection. 1) Technical developments: they deal with implementing an organisation, a set of methods, a platform of technical tools which would allow the stakeholders to carry out efficiently their mission during the recovery phase. For example, countermeasures for agricultural and urban rehabilitation are developed within the framework of the 6. PCRDT EURANOS programme. Teams from several countries are involved in common elaboration of rehabilitation strategies based on the best available knowledge. Besides this, simple operational decision aiding tools for the stakeholders (local administration, elected representatives, professional agricultural groups, etc.) are currently developed by IRSN within the framework of the nuclear post-accident exercises. IRSN is also involved in doctrinal reflections about the respective roles of radioactive measurements in the environment and radiological consequences calculation during emergency and recovery phases. Criteria for emergency countermeasures withdrawal are also currently under

  15. $QCD_{4}$ From a Five-Dimensional Point of View

    Baulieu, L; Baulieu, Laurent; Zwanziger, Daniel


    We propose a 5-dimensional definition for the physical 4D-Yang-Mills theory. The fifth dimension corresponds to the Monte-Carlo time of numerical simulations of QCD_4. The 5-dimensional theory is a well-defined topological quantum field theory that can be renormalized at any given finite order of perturbation theory. The relation to non-perturbative physics is obtained by expressing the theory on a lattice, a la Wilson. The new fields that must be introduced in the context of a topological Yang-Mills theory have a simple lattice expression. We present a 5-dimensional critical limit for physical correlation functions and for dynamical auto-correlations, which allows new Monte-Carlo algorithm based on the time-step in lattice units given by $\\e = g_0^{-13/11}$ in pure gluodynamics. The gauge-fixing in five dimensions is such that no Gribov ambiguity occurs. The weight is strictly positive, because all ghost fields have parabolic propagators and yield trivial determinants. We indicate how our 5-dimensional descr...

  16. Candida vaccines development from point view of US patent application.

    Wang, Shyh-Jen


    Candidiasis is the fourth most common bloodstream infection in hospitalized patients in the United States. Moreover, the mortality rate from Candida infections remains high, even after treatment with antifungal therapy. Vaccination would be a promising strategy for prevention of invasive fungal infections. In order to examine the main trends in anticandidal vaccine patenting activity, we conducted an analysis for anticandidal vaccine patents. We find 190 issued patent and 940 patent application documents containing the keywords Candida and vaccine within claims in the USA. Candida vaccines development, as evidenced by the numbers of issued patents, has decreased since the year 2002. Furthermore, the number of patent applications in Candida vaccines may indicate the strength of engaged resources were also in the status of stagnation during 2005-2007 and even a decline in 2008. Academic and nonprofit research institutions not only account for a large share of Candida vaccines patents but also apply for patents continually. Based on this analysis, the strength of Candida vaccines resources seems to remain stagnant in recent years due to patent prosecution or technical barrier in the filed of Candida vaccines. Therefore, we consider that Candida vaccines technology to still be under development and the researchers are still looking for scientific breakthrough in the filed. PMID:22048114


    Meral ÖZEL


    Full Text Available In this study, solar absorptance of external surfaces of buildings has been numerically investigated from the heat gain and losses point of view. For this purpose, external surface solar absorptance was icreased from 0 to 1with an ratio of 0.1 and, for the summer and winter conditions, heat fluxs was calculated by considering orientations of the wall and its roof for brick and concrete structure materials. Besides, external surface absorptance was assumed as 0.2, 0.5 and 0.9, respectively. Than, heat gain and losses were calculated to insulation thickness increasing on the outdoor surface of wall. Results obtained were presented as graphics

  18. Ethics in Sport: Socio - Political Point of View

    Robert C. S CHNEIDER


    Full Text Available Sport is a natural medium for bringing together people of different backgrounds throughout the world. If grounded in ethics and if participants follow the rules and cooperate, sport can be a conduit for world harmony (Sport great for human bonding, 2010.A s international relationships are developed through sport, those relationships can help support larger global endeavors in pursuit of a better world. If international sport based relationships are grounded in Mill’s utilitarianism that calls for actions re sulting in the most long - term happiness for the most amount of people (Mill, 1863/1969 those relationships are well positioned to transition to the domain of governmental politics, where meaningful attempts to resolve large world issues can be addressed, under the same utilitarian premise. In pursuit of a better world, identifying common groundamong the many differences held by people throughout the world is a magnanimous challenge. Beauchamp’s (1982 practical suggestion that common sense, habits, and pas t experience are most helpful when attempting to select actions that will determine long - term happiness. Moving beyond sport and transferring the application of Beauchamp’s practical utilitarian approach to larger global conflicts, can help guide governmen ts as they engage in the necessary politics, to move toward improving global problems in the interest of world harmony.

  19. Spatial orientation of cross-sectional images of coronary arteries: point of view in intracoronary imaging

    Thim Troels


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In studies where cross-sectional images of coronary arteries obtained with different imaging modalities are compared, the importance of correct co-localization and matching of images along the coronary artery longitudinal axis is obvious. However, it appears neglected that correct spatial orientation of the cross-sectional plane may not be obtainable just by rotating the images to ensure co-localization of identifiable landmarks such as sidebranches. A cross-section has two sides, one facing proximally and the other distally, and pairs of images reconstructed corresponding to these opposite points of view are mirror images of each other and not superimposable. This may be difficult if not impossible to recognize and unrecognized it will give rise to flawed results in the development and validation of imaging technologies aimed at plaque characterization (tissue mapping. We determined the imagined point of view for three commercially available intracoronary imaging systems used by invasive cardiologists and illustrate its importance in imaging modality validation. Methods and Results We made an asymmetric phantom and investigated it with two different intravascular ultrasound (IVUS systems and one optical coherence tomography (OCT system. The asymmetry of the phantom allowed determination of the spatial orientation of the cross-sectional images. On all tested systems, an observer should imagine herself/himself standing proximal to the cross-section when looking at the intravascular images. Conclusions The tested intracoronary imaging modalities displayed cross-sectional images with a spatial orientation corresponding to a proximal point of view. Knowledge of the spatial orientation is mandatory when comparing and validating different imaging modalities aimed at plaque characterization.

  20. Understanding the Miocene-Pliocene - The Mediterranean Point of View

    Simon, D.; Marzocchi, A.; Lunt, D. J.; Flecker, R.; Hilgen, F. J.; Meijer, P. T.


    During the Miocene-Pliocene the Mediterranean region experienced major changes in paleogeography. Today, its only connection to the global ocean is the Strait of Gibraltar. This restricted nature causes the Mediterranean basin to react more sensitive to climatic and tectonic related phenomena than the global ocean: Not just eustatic sea-level and regional river run-off, but also gateway tectonics and connectivity between sub-basins are leaving an enhanced fingerprint in its geological record. To understand its evolution, it is crucial to understand how these different effects are coupled. The Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary record of the Mediterranean alternates in composition and colour. Around the Miocene-Pliocene Boundary the most extreme changes occur in the Mediterranean Sea: About 6% of the salt in the global ocean got deposited in the Mediterranean Region, forming an approximately 2km thick salt layer, which is still present today. This extreme event is named the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.97-5.33Ma). Before (and also after) the MSC, the sedimentary record demonstrates "marl dominated" alternations with variations in organic content (e.g. higher organic content = sapropel). During the MSC these change to mainly "evaporite (e.g. gypsum or halite) dominated" alternations, but also to brackish Black Sea-type of deposits towards the end of the crisis. Due to its relative short geological time span, the period before, during and after the MSC is ideal to study these extreme changes in sedimentation. We are investigating these couplings and evolutions in a box/budget model. With such a model we can study the responses to basin water exchange dynamics under the effect of different regional and global climatic and tectonic forcings, to predict the evolution of basin properties (e.g. salinity). By doing so we can isolate certain climatic and tectonic effects, to better understand their individual contribution, their interaction, but also the consequences due to

  1. Problem solving and writing I: The point of view of physics

    Jorge Barojas


    Full Text Available In this first paper, of a series of two, we relate the skills of problem solving and writing referring to two types of systems, those called physical and those concerning human learning. Then, the notion of semiotic representation registers is connected to the building of learning cycles. All these elements serve to propose a protocol for problem solving that contains four steps of cognitive nature and another one that is metacognitive. This protocol is applied by interpreting in detail the steps of the solution of a physics problem from the point of view of a physicist. Finally, some mplications on science and technology education are discussed.


    Luminita Rus


    Nowadays it is vital to stay informed. But why is the information so important? The following will present the role and the importance of accounting information in decision-making regarding economic entity. Is accounting information a want or a need? Can accounting information be interpreted correctly indifferent of the accounting model used? Decisions made by the consumers of accounting information would be the same in terms of using the "cash" or "accrual" method? Based on these questions, ...


    Luminita Rus


    Full Text Available Nowadays it is vital to stay informed. But why is the information so important? The following will present the role and the importance of accounting information in decision-making regarding economic entity. Is accounting information a want or a need? Can accounting information be interpreted correctly indifferent of the accounting model used? Decisions made by the consumers of accounting information would be the same in terms of using the "cash" or "accrual" method? Based on these questions, this paper presents data as a whole for everyone and from where each consumer of information can extract only the part that they are interested in and which is useful for them. This paper follows the interests of users of accounting information regarding the interest, the need for information and the decisions they may take as a result of the information received, and also of the accounting model used by the entity from which the information is expected. This paper does not include all users of the accounting information that have interest in the economic entity, nor does it take into account all the information that are affected by the use of a model of accounting or the other one of the economic entity, but we can conclude that there are situations in which users ' decisions are influenced by the accounting model used, and others where there is no influence. We can't rule on any model to be the best; it is good that provides useful information showing the true reality of the economic entity.




    Full Text Available Because of their potential merits, the parallel mechanisms are more popular than serial mechanisms based robot manipulators in specific applications. One of the ways of classifying the parallel manipulatorsis according to their platform types and connection between them. Methods for designing different types of parallel manipulators with one or more platforms are presented. The classification of parallel mechanism based manipulators and synthesis of them from structural point of view are presented in this paper. The step by step procedure is presented with help of examples.

  5. Ontogeny and Phylogeny from an Epigenetic Point of View.

    Lovtrup, Soren


    The correlation between ontogeny and phylogeny is analyzed through the discussion of four theories on the reality, history, epigenetic, and ecological aspects of the mechanism of evolution. Also discussed are historical and creative aspects of evolution and three epigenetic mechanisms instantiated in the case of the amphibian embryo. (Author/RH)

  6. Universities: a Geographer’s Point of View

    Anatoly Yakobson


    Full Text Available Since the XIIIth century the number of universities in Europe has been constantly growing. During the XXth century similar growth was in the countries of the USSR, but its character changed. Until the 1950s universities appeared in big cities on a well-prepared staffing and organizational ground. In the last quarter of the XXth century there were tendencies towards inflation of the higher education, decrease of its prestige and its formalization. In the 1990s and up to the present time, bureaucratization of universities extended so much that it put the system of Russian universities on the edge of survival.

  7. [Identity and aging. A metapsychological point of view].

    Péruchon, Marion


    After having outlined the concept of identity which refers to the psyche and narcissism, the author analyses the normal and pathological defensive mechanisms of the people facing the afflictions of aging. These defensive mechanisms are aimed to the maintain of identity, its consolidation, but can also lead to its self-destruction. PMID:15683975


    Ramona Maria CHIVU


    Full Text Available The current situation of the environment is a direct consequence of history, especially of economic history. The article analyzes the relationship between economy and environment, in order to determine the main causes that led to the ecological crisis. The article argues that despite the close relationship between environment and economy, the economy did not take into account the environmental protection, until there appeared serious environmental impacts. Including the environment in economic thinking led, first, to the application of conventional techniques to economy to try to solve problems. The article also examines some priorities for improving the relationship between economy and environment conducive to move towards a model of sustainable development. The conclusion is that sustainable development is the goal to be achieved. In search of sustainability, companies should play an important role, as in all phases of the life cycle of their products, there are environmental risks and, therefore, they are a major source of environmental degradation of the planet.


    Bal, Ayten Pınar


    This study aims at identifying teacher candidates’ perspectives about the process of portfolio (the file of product) preparation. The quantitative data of this study was based on 110 first-year students at the primary school teacher education department (teacher candidates) and the qualitative data was composed of 15 teacher candidates’ semi-structured interviews. As data collection tools, “The Inventory of Portfolio Preparation (PPI)” and semi-structured interview forms were used. The data w...

  10. Risk Assessment from the Ecotoxicological Point of View

    TUTKUN, Engin


    People can be exposed to chemicals in the environment in nmerous ways, including inhalation, ingestion and dermal. Toxic chemicals in the environment contributes to the development of acute and chronic diseases and play a key role in burden of chronic diseases. “Risk” can be defined as the probability of an adverse effect of a spesific magnitude. Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA), as a scientific process, targets to identify the quantity of a chemical in the environment, the inherent toxici...

  11. Open Access... from the librarian’s point of view

    Subirats-Coll, Imma; Melinščak-Zlodi, Iva; Pavelić, Damir


    1.INTRODUCTION During the last decade of 20th century the dissatisfaction with the current situation in scholarly communication and publication has grown continuously. Although the fast development of information technology has brought the promise of instant and low-barrier access to all kind of information, including scholarly information, the reality was different. The number of online available information has risen, but their prices and subscriptions continued to rise as well. The so-c...

  12. Epilepsy through the ages: An artistic point of view.

    Ladino, Lady Diana; Rizvi, Syed; Téllez-Zenteno, Jose Francisco


    The historical allure of epilepsy transcends academic circles and serves as fascinating critique of the state of the times-its values, judgments, mythos, and people. Immortalized and laid bare in artistic renderings of epilepsy are societal truths, at times both disparately grandiose and grotesque. During the middle ages and Renaissance, the European discourse on epilepsy assumed religious fervor. Epilepsy was considered a demonic machination and its cure an act of divine intercession. A similar theme is found in the artistic depiction of epilepsy from the Inca and Aztec civilizations of that time. After the 19th century drew to a close, the ascendency of empiricism coincided with waning creative interest in epilepsy, with few paintings or pieces to capture insightful perspectives on the illness. In this paper, we review the relationship between art and epilepsy and present two contemporary paintings that convey current western perceptions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity". PMID:26874992

  13. Child supplementary feeding from primiparas’ point of view

    Mirna de Albuquerque Frota


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate mothers’ knowledge of infant feeding. Methods: Descriptive study with a qualitative approach, developed in a Primary Health Unit located in the city of Maranguape-CE, with 14 first-time mothers of children aged 6 to 24 months, who were receiving complementary feeding and were resident in the District of Tabatinga between the months of July and October 2009, through participant observation and semi-structured interview. After reading, careful description of the interviews and classification of speech, the following categories emerged: complementary feeding and breastfeeding; food offered to children; and determinants of the healthy infant feeding. Results: Although mothers have basics knowledge of how a healthy diet should be, they continued introducing harmful foods to children, showing lack of control over food education. Mothers are aware that feeding the child could be based on nutritious foods; nevertheless, they prefer choosing those that feature ease of supply. Conclusion: The introduction of new foods was performed incorrectly and nutritional quality is inadequate for children. The mother appears in charge of the child development; however, for this process to be successful, she must become conscious of this subject, since a healthy diet directly influences the child’s organism, as it acts in all body systems.

  14. Plant Sucrose Transporters from a Biophysical Point of View

    Dietmar Geiger


    T The majority of higher plants use sucrose as their main mobile carbohydrate. Proton-driven sucrose transporters play a crucial role in cell-to-cell and long-distance distribution of sucrose throughout the plant. A very negative plant membrane potential and the ability of sucrose transporters to accumulate sucrose concentrations of more than 1 M indicate that plants evolved transporters with unique structural and functional features. The knowledge about the transport mechanism and structural/functional domains of these nano-machines is, however, still fragmentary. In this review,the current knowledge about the biophysical properties of plant sucrose transporters is summarized and discussed.

  15. Representation theory a homological algebra point of view

    Zimmermann, Alexander


      Introducing the representation theory of groups and finite dimensional algebras, this book first studies basic non-commutative ring theory, covering the necessary background of elementary homological algebra and representations of groups to block theory. It further discusses vertices, defect groups, Green and Brauer correspondences and Clifford theory. Whenever possible the statements are presented in a general setting for more general algebras, such as symmetric finite dimensional algebras over a field. Then, abelian and derived categories are introduced in detail and are used to explain stable module categories, as well as derived categories and their main invariants and links between them. Group theoretical applications of these theories are given – such as the structure of blocks of cyclic defect groups – whenever appropriate. Overall, many methods from the representation theory of algebras are introduced. Representation Theory assumes only the most basic knowledge of linear algebra, groups, rings ...

  16. Electromechanics vs. Mechatronics –Points of View

    Andrei Andras


    Full Text Available Mechatronics–this emerging boundary subject is largely disputed among scientific, business, and engineering collectivities both in the plane of methods and applications, and in the plane of concepts and approaches. From ideas which consider it as a make-up form of electromechanics or deny its scientific emerging character, until apologizing concepts declaring it as a philosophy of intelligent machines engineering of 21st century, a few dozen of concepts and opinions exist in formal and no formal debates among interested collectivities. The paper deals with an overview of these ideas, with pro and contra augments emerged from a particular topic- equipment for mining industry, the latest beneficiary of the topic.

  17. The problems from the public utilities' point of view

    The author gives a short review on the development of the primary energy demand of the FRG and analyzes the nuclear fuel market until 1985. With regard to article 86 of the EURATOM treaty, he calls for a civil-law interpretation which enables the industry to offer the economic value of nuclear fuel as a security for loans legally, irreproachably, safely, dependently or independently. (HP/AK)




    This paper begins with two questions: Is Psychology a profession? Is Psychology a science? The answerto the first one is that it should not be a profession; to the second, that we are still far from becoming ascience. On the basis of 19 statements, a series of queries and doubts on the scientific status of contemporaryPsychology are suggested. It is proposed that Psychology must necessarily consider neurosciencesand ethology as sources of knowledge; that philosophical reflection allowing conc...

  19. Considerations on English synonyms from a semantic point of view

    Camelia BOARCê


    This paper aims at analyzing the behaviour of semantic relations in context. We started our research considering G. Leech’s definition according to which synonyms are the result of intuition, on the one hand, but also of social, behavioural and psychological context, on the other. Context becomes very important in structuring the types of synonyms and in analyzing them at semantic level. The basic idea is that the synonymic relation cannot be total, but it depends on the context; two lexical ...

  20. Nuclear Astrophysics from View Point of Few-Body Problems

    Few-body systems provide very useful tools to solve different problems for nuclear astrophysics. This is the case of indirect techniques, developed to overcome some of the limits of direct measurements at astrophysical energies. Here the Coulomb dissociation, the asymptotic normalization coefficient and the Trojan Horse method are discussed. (author)

  1. QED in external fields: A functional point of view

    A functional partial differential equation is set for the proper graphs generating functionals of QED in external electromagnetic fields. This equation leads to the evolution of the proper graphs with the external field amplitude and the external field gauge dependence of the complete fermion propagator and vertex is derived nonperturbatively

  2. Thin Film Substrates from the Raman spectroscopy point of view

    Gasparov, L.; Jegorel, T.; Loetgering, L.; Middey, S.; Chakhalian, J.


    We have investigated ten standard single crystal substrates of complex oxides on the account of their applicability in the Raman spectroscopy based thin film research. In this study we suggest a spectra normalization procedure that utilizes a comparison of the substrate Raman spectra to those of well-established Raman reference materials. We demonstrate that MgO, LaGaO3, (LaAlO3)_0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)_0.7 (LSAT), DyScO3, YAlO3, and LaAlO3 can be of potential use for a Raman based thin film research....

  3. Pre-irradiation from the surgeon's point of view

    If we compare the possibilities of radiotherapy to the causes of surgical failure we see that, provided a tolerable side effect rate, both disciplines complete each other in a natural way. I tried to show that increasing the efficiency of surgical measures can be expected especially from pre-irradiation. This partnership can be expressed in a simple equation: the kinetic part of the therapy, radiation treatment, fights against tumour kinetics, its expansion; while the mechanical part, the operation, eliminates the static, i.e. the radiation-resistent tumour nucleus. On the other side of this equation, increased healing and more qualitative life prolongation should appear. (orig.)

  4. The partitioning and transmutation issue: an industrial point of view

    Greneche, D. [Cogema, 78 - Saint Quentin en Yvelines (France); Rance, P.; Zimmerman, C. [BNFL, British Nuclear Fuels, Company Research Lab., Cumbria (United Kingdom)


    P and T is a set of technologies which are mostly at the research stage. However, it is considered that enough information is available at present in order to carry out a preliminary investigation of its potential industrialization. This paper considers P and T in terms of technological feasibility, cost, timing and environmental impact. The paper concludes that there are enough uncertainties in the benefits of P and T to warrant a comprehensive evaluation of its cost and socio-economic impact, and its impact on repository design and safety before pushing ahead with large-scale development programmes. (author)

  5. The partitioning and transmutation issue: an industrial point of view

    P and T is a set of technologies which are mostly at the research stage. However, it is considered that enough information is available at present in order to carry out a preliminary investigation of its potential industrialization. This paper considers P and T in terms of technological feasibility, cost, timing and environmental impact. The paper concludes that there are enough uncertainties in the benefits of P and T to warrant a comprehensive evaluation of its cost and socio-economic impact, and its impact on repository design and safety before pushing ahead with large-scale development programmes. (author)

  6. Cancer treatment in elderly patients from radiotherapeutical point of view

    The indications for oncological treatment and thus for radio- and chemotherapy are clearly defined. However, there are mostly changes of the otherwise usual procedure to be discussed in radiotherapy of aged persons: In decision on the kind of therapy, in medical and physical treatment planning, in the performance of radiotherapy, and in concomitant internal treatment. The physician may encounter ethical conflicts if only palliative therapy is possible. In this regard, it is the principal aim to alleviate the patient's life, to render endurable, worth living the last stage of his disease. (orig.)

  7. Transplantation ethics from the Islamic point of view.

    Golmakani, Mohammad Mehdi; Niknam, Mohammad Hussein; Hedayat, Kamyar M


    Organ transplantation has been transformed from an experimental procedure at Western academic centers to an increasingly common procedure in private and public hospitals throughout the world. Attendant with advancements in organ harvesting, preservation, and transplantation come moral issues. Islam is a holistic religion that takes into account social affairs of man as well as spiritual ones. Islam has a long history of ethics literature including the subgenre of medical ethics. Historical considerations are discussed as to why Muslim thinkers were late to consider contemporary medical issues such as organ donation. Islam respects life and values the needs of the living over the dead, thus allowing organ donation to be considered in certain circumstances. The sources of Islamic law are discussed in brief in order for non-Muslims to appreciate how the parameters of organ transplantation are derived. The Islamic viewpoint, both Shiite and Sunni, is examined in relation to organ donation and its various sources. The advantages and disadvantages of brain dead and cadaveric donation is reviewed with technical and ethical considerations. The Islamic concept of brain death, informed and proxy consent are also discussed. We discuss the concept of rewarded donation as a way to alleviate the current shortage of organs available for transplantation and consider secular and religious support for such a program. Suggestions are made for greater discussion and exchange of ideas between secular and religious thinkers in the Islamic world and between the Islamic world and secular Western countries. PMID:15795706

  8. Experience in developing countries from the vendor's point of view

    The construction of nuclear power plants calls for a wide sphere of industrial activities, nuclear as well as conventional. For a specific country the ways and methods of developing an industrial nuclear power program and reaching the target of independence, will widely differ, depending on the size of the country, the economic situation, the already existing industrial manufacturing and engineering capacities, the time schedule of the program and the type of contracting. The supply of nuclear power stations from an industrial country to a developing country is normally combined with an obligation for an effective technology transfer for the strengthening and setting up of a national industry, and the engineering capacities, needed for the construction of nuclear power plants. The German nuclear power industry gained considerable experience in connection with the turn-key supply of the first units in various countries. The prerequisites and national nuclear power programs were different. Based on a successful technological development, including standardization, the German nuclear power industry could meet the demand and different approaches in these countries for nuclear power plants up to the largest size existing today. The specific situation and practices followed will be described for three different cases, namely Argentina, Brazil and Iran. (orig.)

  9. Exchange Rate Risk : From a Portfolio Investors Point of View

    Stålstedt, Erik


    Due to globalization investors have increasing opportunities to invest on international markets for diversification purposes. This thesis illustrates the added risks of investing internationally due to volatile exchange rates. The purpose is to analyze how a volatile exchange rate affect the risk and return of a portfolio invested in Sweden, when the investor is located in Japan, United Kingdom or the USA. To analyze the effect of exchange rate volatility the focus is on a portfolio consistin...

  10. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Genetic Point Of View.

    Carlesi, C; CaldarazzoIenco, E; Mancuso, M; Siciliano, G


    In the last twenty years the rapid advances in neurogenetic have revolutionized not only the molecular, pathological inheritance but also the clinical concept of ALS. Here we review the current genetic breakthrough in familial and sporadic ALS, considering how this knowledge has allowed widening of the scenario on the possible pathogenic disease mechanisms and better understanding of the relationship between the genetic, pathological and clinical subtypes. PMID:25323864


    Ramona Maria CHIVU


    The current situation of the environment is a direct consequence of history, especially of economic history. The article analyzes the relationship between economy and environment, in order to determine the main causes that led to the ecological crisis. The article argues that despite the close relationship between environment and economy, the economy did not take into account the environmental protection, until there appeared serious environmental impacts. Including the environment in economi...

  12. Generalized Quantum Relativistic Kinematics: a Stability Point of View

    Chryssomalakos, C.; Okon, E


    We apply Lie algebra deformation theory to the problem of identifying the stable form of the quantum relativistic kinematical algebra. As a warm up, given Galileo's conception of spacetime as input, some modest computer code we wrote zeroes in on the Poincare-plus-Heisenberg algebra in about a minute. Further ahead, along the same path, lies a three dimensional deformation space, with an instability double cone through its origin. We give physical as well as geometrical arguments supporting o...

  13. Investment portfolio management from cybernetic point of view

    Marchev, Angel, Jr.; Marchev, Angel


    The theory of investment portfolios is a well defined component of financial science. While sound in principle, it faces some setbacks in its real-world implementation. In this paper the authors propose a reformulation of the investment portfolio problem as a cybernetic system where the Investor is the controlling system and the portfolio is the controlled system. Also the portfolio controlling process should be dissected in several ordered phases, so that each phase is represented as a subsystem within the structure of the controlling system Investor.

  14. Securing medical research: a cybersecurity point of view.

    Schneier, Bruce


    The problem of securing biological research data is a difficult and complicated one. Our ability to secure data on computers is not robust enough to ensure the security of existing data sets. Lessons from cryptography illustrate that neither secrecy measures, such as deleting technical details, nor national solutions, such as export controls, will work. PMID:22723410

  15. Informatics Teaching from the Students' Point of View

    Zahorec, Jan; Haskova, Alena


    Branches of science and technical/engineering study have for a long time been the less favoured disciplines and students have not been interested in studying them. Informatics/computer education, based on its character, belongs to these disciplines, but on the contrary it belongs rather to the group of popular school subjects. The paper presents…

  16. Introduction: Food Allergy - A Toxicologists Point Of View

    Incorporation of new proteins into crops to promote resistance to pests and other stressors, improve nutrition, or otherwise modify phenotype is a technology that has many advantages over conventional approaches. There is concern however, that introduction of a novel protein into...

  17. A Common Core in Science? Two Points of View.

    Waring, Mary; And Others


    Presents one viewpoint supporting the adoption of a core curriculum in science based upon social, egalitarian ideas and concerns for the basics, and another viewpoint opposing a core curriculum based upon the inability of classical sciences as taught to meet general societal and industrial needs. (DC)

  18. Islam's Point of View on Women's Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Al-Hariri, Rafeda


    Shows links between Islamic doctrine and girls' education in Saudi Arabia providing examples of ways in which the Islamic attitude towards women and social life is applied to educational policy. Summarizes educational opportunities available for girls and women and notes milestones in the 26-year history of girls' education. (JHZ)

  19. The Konrad safety case: regulator point of view

    On 22 May 2002 the plan approval (i.e. licensing) decision for the KONRAD repository (located near Salzgitter in Lower Saxony, Germany) for the disposal of radioactive waste with negligible heat generation was assigned after almost 20 year duration of the licensing procedure. According to the German regulations, the only quantitative radiological criterion for the long-term safety assessment is the limit for the individual dose, e.g. 0.3 mSv/y effective dose. An additional criterion was the limitation of chemo-toxical components in groundwater given in the 'regulations for drinking water' in Lower Saxony. The licensing authority required the limitations of radioactive dose and chemo-toxical elements to be used as assessment criterion over the whole calculated time span until reaching the concentration maximum of the radionuclides, i.e. up to some 100 000 or even to 1000 000 years. (author)

  20. Friction laws from dimensional-analysis point of view

    Hatano, Takahiro


    Friction laws, which are a key to the understanding of the diversity of earthquakes, are considered theoretically. Using dimensional analysis, the logarithmic dependence of the friction coefficient on the slip velocity and the state variable is derived without any knowledge of the underlying physical processes on the frictional surface. This is based on a simple assumption that the friction coefficient is expressed as the difference from a reference state. Therefore, the functional form of the rate and state dependent friction law itself does not necessarily mean that thermal activation processes dominate friction. It is also shown that, if there are two (or more) state variables having the same dimension, we need not assume the logarithmic dependence on the state variables.




    Full Text Available This paper begins with two questions: Is Psychology a profession? Is Psychology a science? The answerto the first one is that it should not be a profession; to the second, that we are still far from becoming ascience. On the basis of 19 statements, a series of queries and doubts on the scientific status of contemporaryPsychology are suggested. It is proposed that Psychology must necessarily consider neurosciencesand ethology as sources of knowledge; that philosophical reflection allowing conceptual definitionsmust be a priority; that the abusive glorification of experimental method has to come to an end becausethe tool cannot solve the conceptual difficulties; that the traditional emphasis on the factual dimension ofresearch and the minute attention to the theoretical and conceptual dimensions are detrimental to Psychology;and that it is urgent to create new research methods allowing access to the most refined forms ofhuman behavior, such as art.

  2. Ads/cft Correspondence From The Supergravity Point Of View

    Deger, N S


    In this dissertation we explore various supergravity aspects of the AdS/CFT duality. According to this correspondence, string/M theory on AdSd+1 is dual to a CFTd on its boundary. Taking the supergravity limit of the string/M theory one can do perturbative calculations in the bulk which gives information about strongly coupled CFT's. In Chapter I we review the AdS/CFT correspondence. In Chapter II the complete spectrum of D = 6, N = 4b supergravity with n tensor multiplets compactified on AdS3 × S3 is determined. The spectrum contains more than one tower of supermultiplets. In Chapter III we couple n copies of N = (2, 0) scalar multiplets to a gauged N = (2, 0) supergravity in 2 + 1 dimensions which admits AdS3 as a vacuum. The scalar fields are charged under the R-symmetry group U(1) and parametrize certain Kahler manifolds with compact or non-compact isometries. We also find black string solutions of our model. In Chapter IV the boundary behaviour of this model is examined. It is shown that re...

  3. Environment and nuclear law from the lawyer point of view

    This work has a two-fold purpose: first, to enunciate the characteristics of Environmental and Nuclear Law; and second, to take a glance at the lawyer's interest on these subjects. The beginnings of both subjects are different. Environmental law has evolved slower than Nuclear Law. Nuclear Law presents the following characteristics: strong state intervention, strong international cooperation, emphasis on the prevention of risks, and effective responsibility for nuclear risk. Environmental Law has as characteristics: a constitutional rank, horizontal authority, and diversified risk. A comparison between both laws could be undertaken on: state participation, legislative activity, institutional set up and organization, as well as on public participation through information. (author)

  4. Editorial - Wikipedia popularity from a citation analysis point of view

    Alireza Noruzi


    This study aims to provide an overview of the citation rate of Wikipedia since its launch in 2004. It is worth noting that since its inception Wikipedia, the free international multi-lingual encyclopedia, has been subject to criticism (Fasoldt, 2004; Orlowski, 2005; Lipczynska, 2005). Wikipedia as a popular web resource appears in response to every keyword search on Google. One way to test the popularity of a web resource is to use citation analysis method to predict to what extend it is cite...

  5. A point of view on Gowers uniformity norms

    Host, Bernard


    Gowers norms have been studied extensively both in the direct sense, starting with a function and understanding the associated norm, and in the inverse sense, starting with the norm and deducing properties of the function. Instead of focusing on the norms themselves, we study associated dual norms and dual functions. Combining this study with a variant of the Szemeredi Regularity Lemma, we give a decomposition theorem for dual functions, linking the dual norms to classical norms and indicating that the dual norm is easier to understand than the norm itself. Using the dual functions, we introduce higher order algebras that are analogs of the classical Fourier algebra, which in turn can be used to further characterize the dual functions.

  6. Ethics in Sport: Socio-Political Point of View

    Robert C. S CHNEIDER


    Sport is a natural medium for bringing together people of different backgrounds throughout the world. If grounded in ethics and if participants follow the rules and cooperate, sport can be a conduit for world harmony (Sport great for human bonding, 2010).A s international relationships are developed through sport, those relationships can help support larger global endeavors in pursuit of a better world. If international sport based relation...

  7. Optoelectronic Organic MaterialsFrom Synthetic Point of View

    LUH; Tien-Yau


    Most organic materials for optoelectronic applications are conjugated organic system. The burgeoning synthetic methodologies using organometallic catalysts or reagents have provided a powerful arsenal to design and synthesize new conjugated organic materials. It is particularly noteworthy that carbon-carbon bond formation involving a Csp2 or Csp at the reaction center can readily be achieved. For examples, cross-coupling reactions (e.g. Kumada-Corriu reaction, Stille reaction, and Suzuki reaction) are extremely powerful for the synthesis of Csp2-Csp2 single bond. Sonogashira reaction, on the other hand, serves as a useful entry for the preparation of alkynylarenes or conjugated enynes. Heck reaction furnishes a coupling between an aryl halide and an alkene. Alternatively, olefination reactions provides a practical route for the synthesis of carbon-carbon double bond. In the past decade, we have uncovered four new kinds of transformations staring from the dithioacetal functionality (Scheme).1,2 Three of them have been employed in the synthesis of conjugated small molecules as well as conjugated oligomers/polymers. Their syntheses, photophysical as well as electroluminescent properties will briefly be discussed.  ……

  8. A Teacher's Point of View on Family Life (Sex) Education

    Gawlinski, Judy R.


    As a Family and Consumer Science educator at Union City High School in Union City, Pennsylvania, I have heard and seen a great deal. I have been teaching for 24 years at this rural Pennsylvania Middle/High School where teen pregnancy has always been a problem. Teaching students abstinence as the only method of birth control has been a major…

  9. Spreadsheets for Thermodynamics Instruction: Another Point of View.

    Sandler, Stanley I.


    Responds to the suggestion that computational tools be used in undergraduate thermodynamics courses. Argues that instead of using spreadsheets or specially prepared programs, students can quickly develop their own worksheets and solve problems using an equation-solving software program such as MATHCAD. Emphasis is on understanding the fundamentals…

  10. Point of View: Taking a Cue from Neuroscience

    Miele, Eleanor A.


    This column shares reflections or thoughtful opinions on issues of broad interest to the community. This article encourages teachers to use emerging scientific evidence to change classroom culture--accept the evidence from neuroscience and find ways to make classrooms less stressful and more successful.


    Risa Rumentha Simanjuntak


    Full Text Available This paper aims to make a critique to a chapter in Samuelsson-Browns (2010 A Practical Guide for Translators. The focus is on communication with clients for successful translation negotiations and decisions need to be fairly made. Following clients recommendations may result in intervening translators professionalism and impartiality. The paper argued that balance should be maintained between considering the needs of the clients and maintaining fidelity and impartiality, including ethics and morality aspects that often intertwined with the text.

  12. New Dirac equation from the view point of particle

    According to the classical approach, especially the Lorentz Invariant Dirac Equation, when particles are bound to each other, the interaction term appears as a quantity belonging to the “field”. In this work, as a totally new approach, we propose to alter the rest masses of the particles due to their interaction, as much as their respective contributions to the static binding energy. Thus we re-write and solve the Dirac Equation for the hydrogen atom, and amazingly, obtain practically the same numerical results for the ground states, as those obtained from the Dirac Equation.

  13. Network Regulation from an Investor's point of view

    As an investor, the easiest way to gain value from networks is to invest in newly incentivised wires companies. This is when the scope to 'out-fox' the regulator is at its highest. The only caveat is that the companies should have enough sense not to beat the Regulator's targets so soundly that the whole system is brought into disrepute. However, a far more difficult task is to judge how network regulation will develop once the regulatory regimes have matured and the 'easy wins' have been made. Disquiet over the tendency for the RPI-X regimes to control just operating costs, not total cost (opex plus capex) are likely to grow, as well as the Regulator's tendency to micro-manage. In addition, the system operation aspects of networks are likely to increase in importance as distribution networks become 'active' owing to the growth in small-scale green power. Investors should ensure that commercial reality prevails over theoretical purity and that nodal pricing is avoided. Sometimes, a properly regulated monopoly can be the most effective way of creating value for customers and shareholders alike.

  14. Flood Management and Protection from the Social Point of View: Case Study from Ukraine

    Manukalo, V.; Gerasymenko, H.


    Defining Issue According to the statistics presented by the Ministry of Emergencies of Ukraine, river floods have imposed the most severe damages to the sectors of economy and the human communities in Ukraine. But, an adaptability and a vulnerability of Ukrainian society to floods are still poorly understood. Results Presentation In the response to increasing flood losses in the country between 1998 and 2008, the State Hydrometeorological Service of Ukraine, which is subordinate to the Ministry of Emergencies, in the cooperation with the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine have carried out the research study focusing on public views on the problem of river floods for Ukraine. Aims of this study were: a) exploring the main sources of information on water-related hazards and the level of knowledge useful in a flood crisis situation in different groups of peoples; b) learning what the various population groups think of the most significant causes and consequences of flood damages and the role of various central/governmental/ and local authorities in an elaboration and implementation of mitigation measures. Public attitudes towards various prevention and mitigation strategies, as well as sources of emerging conflict were also revealed. The results of study have given a possibility to compare points of view of population groups which: a) living in the low- and high- flood risk areas; b) living in the urban and rural areas; c) having the different levels of education. The responses from 2550 residents have been analyzed and summarized. Among the most important findings of this study can be indicated following: a) on the one hand, the level of knowledge of some aspects of flood problem (impact of climate variation and change, adaptation measures) of the general public should be improved, on the other hand, the most of peoples understand that floods are the significant economical and ecological problem; b) views of the public on the problem differ very much with regard

  15. The effects of riding therapy from client’s point of view

    Koivuniemi, Jenni


    The purpose of this thesis was to find out what kind of effects riding therapy clients experience and how those effect on their everyday lives. This thesis also aims to ex-plain the concept of riding therapy and its benefits from the physiotherapy point of view. Its implementation and requirements are also explained. This study’s main aim was to figure the clients’ point of view about the effects of riding therapy, and to gain knowledge of how they experience them, via a question-naire. ...

  16. Some Considerations on Six Degrees of Separation from A Theoretical Point of View

    Toyota, Norihito


    In this article we discuss six degrees of separation, which has been proposed by Milgram, from a theoretical point of view. Simply if one has $k$ friends, the number $N$ of indirect friends goes up to $\\sim k^d$ in $d$ degrees of separation. So it would easily come up to population of whole world. That, however, is unacceptable. Mainly because of nonzero clustering coefficient $C$, $N$ does not become $\\sim k^d$. In this article, we first discuss relations between six degrees of separation and the clustering coefficient in the small world network proposed by Watt and Strogatz\\cite{Watt1},\\cite{Watt2}. Especially, conditions that $(N)>$ (population of U.S.A or of the whole world) arises in the WS model is explored by theoretical and numerical points of view. Secondly we introduce an index that represents velocity of propagation to the number of friends and obtain an analytical formula for it as a function of $C$, $K$, which is an average degree over all nodes, and some parameter $P$ concerned with network topo...

  17. Participation of the national industry within a nuclear power plant program by technology transfer from the point of view of the main contractor

    The broad scope of components needed in a nuclear power plant with various technical requirements offer a big opportunity for the participation of local industries in the construction of such plants. Depending on the existing capability of the industrial enterprises, the scope of national participation can be increased by technology transfer on all technical areas to be applied for the construction of NPPs. Such technology requires as basis a nuclear program of the country determined and supported by the government and the utilities. This program has to be defined as realistic as even possible adjoined to the future energy demand of the country. Furthermore the available capability, existing qualifications and equipment of the national industry have to be considered. On the basis of these fundamental requirements a tailormade technology transfer program has to be elaborated in close cooperation with an experienced main contractor of the plant and his partners for such technology transfer and should be established afterwards. This program has to consider not only the goal to achieve finally the independent production of components and equipment for NPPs or the construction of complete power plant units itself, but also the economic benefit of such a program for the country. The costs of technology transfer and the necessary investment of the national industry required for the manufacture of nuclear components have to be thoroughly investigated, based on the expected scope of products to be manufactured for the nuclear power plants according to the nuclear program. Furthermore the application of the technology transferred for other components e.g. for conventional power stations, mineral-oil or chemical industrial plants has to be considered. By a tailormade nuclear technology transfer program, executed by qualified and experienced partners not only the quality of the products of the national industry for NPPs will be improved, but also the general standard regarding

  18. Feature-based fusion of TomoSAR point clouds from multi-view TerraSAR-X data stacks

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Xiao Xiang


    This article presents a technique of fusing point clouds from multiple view angles generated using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) tomography. Using TerraSAR-X high resolution spotlight data stacks, one such point has a population of about 2×107 points, with a density of around 10^6 points / km2. Such large point population leads to a high computational cost while doing the fusion in 3D space. Therefore, we introduce a feature-based unsupervised technique for point clouds fusion by detectin...

  19. Organisational climate from view point of motivation in district hospital, India

    Ashok Wadhwa; Bhaskar Purohit


    Organisational Climate (OC) has been an important topic of research in Organisational Development. There are several frameworks and approaches to study OC. One such framework focuses on the effect of OC on motivation. Although studying OC from viewpoint of motivetion is an important one, there is very limited research in Indian public health system on assessing OC from the view point of motivation. The present study uses a comprehensive framework that focuses on assessing OC from the view poi...

  20. Blogging for the Record: A Study of Blogging from an Archival Point of View

    Paulus, Michael J., Jr.


    This article examines the current phenomenon of blogging from an archival point of view. To better understand the nature of blogs, the author conducted an informal survey of bloggers at Princeton Theological Seminary. The results of this survey show that blogs represent a dynamic but ephemeral new form of electronic record and writing practice.…

  1. Competence as a Key Concept of Educational Theory: A Semiotic Point of View

    Pikkarainen, Eetu


    In this article, the concept of competence is studied from the point of view of the semiotics of education. It will be claimed that it is a central key concept when we are trying to analyse the meaning of education. Educational action can be reasonably understood as an insecure and complicatedly mediated trial to affect another person's…

  2. Seafloor character--Offshore of Point Reyes Map Area, California

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Point Reyes, California (raster data file is included in "," which is...

  3. A novel point of view on the conformal anomaly for quantised Dirac fields

    One of the main and many lessons we learned from the study of scalar fields on globally hyperbolic backgrounds, is that we can account for the so-called quantum trace anomaly employing a modified version of the classical stress-energy tensor as well as a point-splitting regularization by means of an Hadamard bidistribution. In this talk we show that such approach can be traded to Dirac fields yielding a similar result. Particularly we shall try to emphasize, that, although we are reproducing already known results, this point of view is, on the one hand, conceptually rigorous and clear while, on the other hand, it opens the road to possible applications in a cosmological scenario

  4. The distribution of the burden of taxation from the point of view of equity

    Mateusz Langer


    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to clarify the basic point of view of equity from a perspective of modern finance theory. The author strives to determine whether, and if so, what role does the equity at distribution of the burden of taxation in the state. In particular, research has shown in a broader context the basic approach to get the point of equity, and innovative conceptuality as a reflex of the values and postulates of law. The material in this article is an interdisciplinary investigation of equity as a quite important and complex issue of theory, philosophy and practice of law.

  5. "The Student Personnel Point of View" as a Catalyst for Dialogue: 75 Years and beyond

    Roberts, Dennis C.


    "The Student Personnel Point of View" (American Council on Education, 1937) has been a catalyst for dialogue on the purposes of student personnel and student affairs work for 75 years. Through analysis of the writings of Esther Lloyd-Jones and E. G. Williamson, two of the most prolific scholars of the early years of student personnel work, the…

  6. Teaching the Geographies of Urban Areas: Views and Visions

    Beneker, Tine; Sanders, Rickie; Tani, Sirpa; Taylor, Liz; van der Vaart, Rob


    This paper reports on empirical research in four countries on the growing interest in the perceived "gap" between school and university human geography. Focusing on urban geography, we investigated the views of teachers and academic geographers about key elements of the field and those that were important for geography education. These views were…

  7. Current status of spallation product data. Nuclear engineering view-point

    Proton induced isotopic transformation in spallation targets of accelerator-driven systems (ADS) is becoming a key factor in selecting the reference target material design options. The present paper gives an outlook of the current status of data on spallation products from the view-point of nuclear engineering stressing the isotopes whose accumulation would significantly effect the target performance. (author)

  8. Understanding Youth Development from the Practitioner's Point of View: A Call for Research on Effective Practice

    Larson, Reed W.; Walker, Kathrin C.; Rusk, Natalie; Diaz, Lisa B.


    This article calls for research on the expertise of youth development practitioners. We argue for studies focused on understanding youth practice from practitioners' points of view--as they experience and enact it--with the aim of contributing findings and frameworks that are helpful to their work and learning. To improve youth programs, first, it…

  9. Acceptance, Usability and Usefulness of WebLab-Deusto from the Students Point of View

    Jaime Irurzun


    Full Text Available In the engineering curriculum, remote labs are becoming a popular learning tool. The advantages of these laboratories and the different deployments have been analyzed many times, but in this paper we want to show the results of the students’ opinion about WebLab-Deusto as a learning tool. This work is focused on the subjects Programmable Logic (PL in the third year of Electronics Engineering and in Electronics Design (ED of the fifth year of the same degree. The paper presents the results of the surveys done by students since 2004. This survey consists of fifteen questions and its main objective is to measure the acceptance, usability and usefulness of the remote laboratory developed at University of Deusto from the students point of view.

  10. Power nad weakness in Japanese landscape: A European point of view

    Lapka, Miloslav; Cudlínová, Eva

    Tsukuba : National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 2005 - (Aoki, Y.), s. 35-38 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : landscape * Japan * European point of view Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography