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1

Aquaculture Farm Facility Loss Management System  

Science.gov (United States)

The loss of aquaculture farm facilities occurring from natural disasters of accidents can cause not only property damage but also marine environmental pollution and vessel safety accidents. When aquaculture farm facilities have been lost to sink down to the bottom of the water, those should be picked up through direct searches but it is difficult to find them because they cannot be visually identified and they are in the sea. In this study, a system that can efficiently manage aquaculture farm facility loss using a new technology IP-RFID will be presented. By attaching IP-Tags to aquaculture farm facilities, this technology enables the transmission of facility information and locations to diverse users in real time through the IPs and through this, the efficiency of aquaculture farm facility management and supervision can be improved and marine environmental pollution can be reduced.

Choi, Hyung-Rim; Park, Byoung-Kwon; Park, Yong-Sung; Lee, Chang-Sup; Choi, Ki-Nam; Park, Chang-Hyun; Jo, Yong-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ha

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The potential of periphyton-based aquaculture production systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Key words : Periphyton; Biofilm; Artificial substrates; Pond productivity; Tropical aquaculture; Monoculture; Polyculture; Fertilization; Proximate composition; Stocking ratio; Stable isotope ratio; Nutrient efficiency; Production economics; Indian major carps; Catla catla ; Labeo rohita ; Labeo gonius ; Labeo calbasu . The overall objective of this study was to determine the technical and economical performance of periphyton-based aquaculture systems in Bangladesh. It thus addressed one of ...

Ul Azim, M. E.

2001-01-01

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Recirculating Systems for Pollution Prevention in Aquaculture Facilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As all other forms of livestock production, fish farming has numerous environmental impacts. Water pollution is one of the most significant outcomes, since aquaculture effluents contain non-ingested food and fish dregs that affect the receiving water bodies when discharged without any treatment. Conventional pollutants (suspended solids, dissolved organic matter and nutrients, as well as pesticides, heavy metals and emerging pollutants (as antibiotics and hormones, are commonly found in these effluents. Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS, systems that integrate the treatment and the reuse of water in the process are an invaluable alternative for preventing water pollution by diminishing both the volume and the eutrophication potential of the effluents. Based on our review of the extant literature in the field, we conclude that activated carbon-based biofilters are a favorable technology to achieve a level of water quality that is compatible with environmentally-sound aquaculture practices.

Maribel Quezada-Cruz

2013-07-01

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Aquaculture Network Information Center  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the declining schools of fish in many of the world's oceans, interest in aquaculture has grown exponentially in the past few years. The Aquaculture Network Information Center (ANIC) serves as an electronic gateway to thousands of online aquaculture-related resources, and is hosted by Purdue University and the University of Illinois through the Illinois - Indiana Sea Grant College Program. ANIC was started in 1994, and currently contains links to hundreds of aquaculture publications from around the globe, visual media (such as Power Point presentations), calendars of germane conferences and events, and specialty sections for species and production systems. From the ANIC home page, visitors may join discussion groups about aquaculture (organized by species), learn about different aquaculture cultivation systems, and peruse recent and archive publications from the relevant federal, state, and international agencies. For aquaculture neophytes, a FAQ section will answer ever quandary possible about the world of pond management, the perplexity of pond construction, and the inevitable debates surrounding which form of aquaculture production is most appropriate for different regions of the world.

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ALTERNATIVE PRACTICE FROM COASTAL POND TO RECIRCULATION AQUACULTURE SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coastal pond aquaculture used solar energy to produce oxygen via phytoplankton with their cultivation can be extensive such as the culture of low value cultured animals. Pond encompasses a larger culture area for juvenile or grow-out culture which is depending on their carrying capacity of the pond. There is no feeding and the amount of food available depends on pond management which can be increased by manuring. As well as in hatcheries that require a very well environmental control, Recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS tend to occupy a small area to culture high value species at high densities. The key parameter affecting RAS is the biological filtration system that removes metabolic and other waste products. This contains bacteria which break down the ammonia and nitrite in the water. Moreover, the food from RAS is supplied externally from cultured or formulated feed. Recirculation systems offer the advantage over pond aquaculture of being able to control the environment and water quality parameters to optimise fish health. For production of commodity food fish that are low in price, pond aquaculture is better than recirculation system due to their lower overheads and production cost as the environment acts as a natural water reconditioning system compared to money spent on water recirculation technology. In developing countries, pond will still remain dominant due to the ease of culture and the low initial investments. While, in developed countries, the growing concern about environmentally friendly discharges, the high labour costs and the need for controlling niche markets will result in the adoption of recirculation technology and the production of high value species at high densities. In comparison to pond culture, RAS offered more control and independent from the environment influence.

Ludi Parwadani Aji

2012-02-01

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Purification Performance and Production of a Re-circulating Pond Aquaculture System Based on Paddy Field  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Developing improved aquaculture systems with a more efficient use of water and less environmental impact is becoming a crying need. A re-circulating aquaculture system consisting of paddy field and fish pond is a new culture mode due to aquaculture combing with agriculture. The present study focused on the purification capacity of the paddy field on nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter, the fluctuation trend of water quality conditions during the whole rearing process and the culture effic...

Gu Li; Shi-yang Zhang; Ling Tao; Xiao-li Li; Jing-hua Song; Chun-xue Zhang; Jian-qiang Zhu

2012-01-01

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Solar energy system design for a lobster aquaculture facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In aquaculture, as in most manufacturing processes, the operating cost is greatly dependent upon the cost of energy. The objectives were to: (a) analyze the power requirements for a lobster aquaculture plant, and (b) to evaluate the use of solar energy as a cost reduction measure in plant operation. A flat plate collector system capable of supplying heat alone was compared with a total energy system in which both electrical power and heat were supplied. The flat plate collector was not cost effective because when heat was needed in December, the least amount of heat was available from solar radiation. Therefore, the collector area and cost were prohibitive. However, the total energy system was cost effective when the capital investment was amortized over ten or more years. The optimum solar power plant was designed to provide 100% of the average yearly power demands, or 60% of the December power requirement. This plant would consist of 60,000 square feet of mirror surface (3.5 acres of land for 40% packing density) which would concentrate 1500 to 2000 suns on a receiver mounted on an 85 foot tower. In the tower would be the three storage stoves which would contain the heat required to operate a 343 KWe Brayton gas turbine engine and alternator for 27 hours. Equipment to generate 3 million kw-hr annually will cost an estimated $1.3 million.

1977-09-30

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Exergetic performance analysis of a recirculating aquaculture system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines exergetic aspects of a Recirculation Aquaculture System (RAS) for Black Sea trout (Salmo trutta labrax) fingerling rearing at the Trabzon Central Fisheries Research Institute, Turkey. In its thermodynamic analysis, each component of the RAS is treated as a steady-state steady flow system and its exergetic efficiencies are studied. In addition, the following parameters are measured and recorded in experiments: the mass flow rates, inlet and outlet temperatures and of the system components, surrounding temperatures, and electrical work utilized by the components in the RAS. Based on these experimental data, inlet and outlet exergy values, exergy losses, and exergetic efficiencies of each component in the system are determined to assess their performance. Moreover, the overall system exergy efficiency is determined. The results show that exergy efficiencies of the system components are highly affected by varying input exergy flows as a function of the surrounding temperature and chiller's operating period. (author)

Kucuk, Haydar [Mechanical Engineering Department, Guemueshane University, 29000 Guemueshane (Turkey); Midilli, Adnan [Energy Division, Mechanical Engineering Department. Nigde University, 51000 Nigde (Turkey); Oezdemir, Atilla; Cakmak, Eyuep [Central Fisheries Research Institute, Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs, Trabzon (Turkey); Dincer, Ibrahim [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ont. (Canada)

2010-05-15

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Modeling of TAN in recirculating aquaculture systems by AQUASIM  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Modeling of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) contribute to identifying and quantifying the most important processes and their relative contribution to removal of TAN. AQUASIM is a flexible modular simulation system for water quality in natural and technical systems developed by EAWAG (Reichert, 1994). AQUASIM allows simulating complex biological, chemical and physical processes in standardized hydraulic systems. We used AQUASIM to model the steady state TAN concentrations in 12 experimental recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) operated by DTU AQUA in Hirtshals, Denmark (Pedersen et al., 2009). Water from the fish rearing tank is treated in a sedimentation tank and subsequently by biological treatment in a submerged biofilter and in a trickling filter. Generally, the performance of the biological treatment was very well and average TAN concentrations in the RAS were in the range 0.1-0.4 mg TAN/L depending on the cumulative feed load. The average nitrite concentrationswere a little higher than the average TAN concentrations, in the range 0.2-0.6 mg N/L. Our TAN model simulated TAN removal by the following processes: 1 & 2: Nitrification in the biofilm in the submerged biofilter and in the trickling filter, 3. nitrification by suspended nitrifyers (flocs) in all compartments of the RAS, and 4. TAN assimilation associated to biomass growth. The simulation model was able to describe the measured TAN concentration very well after least square optimization of the nitrification rate constants in the biofilm and in the suspended biomass. Thus, it was demonstrated that AQUASIM is a very useful simulation tool that can be applied to improving process understanding as well as to contributing to fish production optimization

Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

2011-01-01

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Aquaculture Industry Potential and Issues: A Case from Cage Culture System Entrepreneurs: Suggestions for Intensification of Aquaculture Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Cage culture has become a popular aquaculture system nowadays. In the recent statistics provided by DOF, the cage culture system has generated almost USD 400 m (RM 1.39 b of income per year. In order to further intensify this economic activity the Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry (MOA through the DOF has zoned the aquaculture industry via Aquaculture Industry Zone (ZIA Programs throughout Malaysia. Cage culture system seems to have the ability to be a catalyst in enhancing the economy level of local people but it is well known that certain problems must be overcome first before the potential can be clearly seen. Thus the main focus of this study is to clarify all the potentials and problems faced by the cage culture system entrepreneurs in running their aquaculture activity. Approach: The research approach for this study was a qualitative case study that provided an in-depth description of potentials and issues in aquaculture industry in the district of Kuala Pahang, Malaysia. Data was gained using a Focus Group Discussion (FGD among the cage culture system entrepreneurs guided by an interview guide. A total of 10 cage culture entrepreneurs were selected as the FGD members. The questions served as a guide, but allowed respondents freedom and flexibility in their answers. The findings were in descriptive analysis. Results: The cage culture system was found to provide better income that lead to a higher quality of life for the entrepreneurs, positive intangible values existed among the entrepreneurs; experiences have taught them to become self independent. There were problems identified such as no independence in selecting the fingerlings, environmental problems seem to burden them, unstable pellet price, no official agreement between them and the government emphasizing the portion of the river is given to them for running their business and lot of bureaucracies that the entrepreneurs need to face. Conclusion/Recommendations: Based on the results gained, it can be concluded that even though cage culture industry proved to enhance the level of income and quality of life, a number of problems must be overcome first to further enhance their level of income and quality of life. Therefore, it is a need that the related agencies to provide more financial supports help to solve the environmental problems and further develop their administration aspects to reduce issues such as bureaucracy and official agreement.

A. N.A. Faiz

2010-01-01

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Effect of Wind-solar Complementary Increasing Oxygen System in Aquaculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to explore a sustainable aquaculture methodology, water was increased oxygen by a wind-solar power which was tested in a production period of the Penaeus vannamei in paper. The result shows that, compareing with the conventional aerating comparison, the system could improve water environment in ponds and dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH value and the content of nitrite stably and uniformly change; make full use of wind energy and solar energy clean energy, save 100% on power consumption, 15.9% on bait, 46.0% on drug; save aquaculture costs, increase income 282%. Using "Wind-solar" complementary increasing oxygen can improve water environment, save power, reduce aquaculture costs, increase aquaculture production and income, provide a new thought and method for green and ecological aquaculture, so it has high value of practical application.

Guodong You

2013-12-01

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Bacterial resistance to oxytetracycline in different life stages of Indian freshwater carp aquaculture system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In India antibiotics are frequently used for preventing and controlling bacterial pathogens incarp aquaculture system, yet no studies have been performed to evaluate the ecological impact of itsintensive and prolonged use. In this work the frequency of oxytetracycline-resistant bacteria from water,palletized feed and different life stages of fish from Indian freshwater carp aquaculture system as well asthe level of resistance of selected strains was investigated. Viable as well as antibiotic-...

Singh A. K.; Rathore G; Singh V; Mani I.; Singh R.K; Mishra S K; Mishra B.N.; Verma O.P.

2009-01-01

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Nutrient fate in aquacultural systems for waste treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twelve small, recirculating aquacultural systems were operated for livestock waste treatment to determine nutrient fate. Each system consisted of a 730-L fish tank coupled in a recirculating loop with three sand beds (serving as biofilters) in parallel. Fish (Tilapia species) were grown in the tanks while cattails, reed canary grass, and tomatoes were grown in separate sand beds. Swine waste was added to the fish tanks every other day at average rates of 50, 72, 95, and 118 kg-COD/ha/day of fish tank surface (three replications of each loading rate). Water from the fish tanks was filtered through the sand beds three times per day with 20% of the tank volume passing through the sand each day. The systems were operated in a greenhouse for eight months (21 July to 8 March). Aboveground plant matter was harvested at eight-week intervals. The fish were removed after four months and the tanks were restocked with fingerlings. Initial and final nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) contents of the system components, as well as that of the harvested plants and fish, were determined. Nutrient balance calculations revealed that 30 to 68% of added N was lost from the systems, probably via denitrification. Nutrient removal by plants was 6 to 18% for N, 8 to 21% for P, and 25 to 71% for K, with tomatoes (foliage and fruit) accounting for the majority of the removal. Plant growth was limited by growing conditions (particularly day length), not be nutrient availability. Fish growth was limited by temperature; thus nutrient extraction by the fish was minimal. Under the conditions of this experiment, the system required supplemental aeration.

Dontje, J.H.; Clanton, C.J.

1999-08-01

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Geothermal aquaculture project: Real Property Systems Inc. , Harney Basin, Oregon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Real Property Systems Inc., (RPS) owns two parcels in the vicinity of Harney Lake, Oregon. One parcel is 120 acres in size, the other is 200 acres. A study concludes that the 200 acre parcel has the greater potential for geothermal development. RPS is interested in an aquaculture operation that produces fresh water prawns, (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) for the market. To supply the heat necessary to maintain the ideal temperature of 82/sup 0/F desired for these prawns, a geothermal resource having a 150/sup 0/F temperature or higher, is needed. The best estimate is that 150/sup 0/F water can be found from a minimum 1090 feet depth to 2625 feet, with no absolute assurances that sufficient quantities of geothermal waters exist without drilling for the same. This study undertakes the preliminary determination of project economics so that a decision can be made whether or not to proceed with exploratory drilling. The study is based on 10 acres of ponds, with a peak requirement of 2500 gpm of 150/sup 0/F geothermal water.

1981-08-14

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Aquaculture; Acquacoltura  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper attempts an overview of the progress made in the field of aquaculture. Aquaculture is a system of techniques strongly influenced by natural environmental conditions. Aquaculture as a biological technique oriented towards the production of useful aquatic organisms, is reaching a stage of consolidation which will place it on an equal footing which agriculture and animal husbandry. Aquaculture provides important economic and nutritional benefits to many regions of developing world. In 1994, over 90 percent of total aquaculture production was in Asia, with China, India, Japan, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines and Republic of Korea as the seven leader producers. [Italiano] L`acquacoltura, vale a dire l`arte di riprodurre artificialmente pesci, alghe, molluschi e crostacei ed altri organismi acquatici utili all`uomo, si presenta oggi come un`attivita` di assoluto rilievo nell`insieme dei vari comparti di produzione alimentare. L`aumento della produzione e` costante anche se cinque paesi asiatici (Cina, India, Giappone, Filippine e Corea del Sud) contribuiscono per l`80% al volume della produzione mondiale. Nel presente lavoro vengono descritti lo stato dell`acquacoltura e della maricoltura nel mondo e le filiere di allevamento delle principali specie.

De Murtas, I.D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

1998-12-01

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Biodiesel Production by the Green Microalga Scenedesmus obliquus in a Recirculatory Aquaculture System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biodiesel production was examined with Scenedesmus obliquus in a recirculatory aquaculture system with fish pond discharge and poultry litter to couple with waste treatment. Lipid productivity of 14,400 liter ha?1 year?1 was projected with 11 cultivation cycles per year. The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced adhered to Indian and international standards.

Mandal, Shovon; Mallick, Nirupama

2012-01-01

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Purification Performance and Production of a Re-circulating Pond Aquaculture System Based on Paddy Field  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developing improved aquaculture systems with a more efficient use of water and less environmental impact is becoming a crying need. A re-circulating aquaculture system consisting of paddy field and fish pond is a new culture mode due to aquaculture combing with agriculture. The present study focused on the purification capacity of the paddy field on nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter, the fluctuation trend of water quality conditions during the whole rearing process and the culture efficacy of the main culture species of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. The results were as follows: under a flow rate of 1.4-5.5 m3/h for the recirculation treatment, the average removal rate of ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and biochemical oxygen demand for the aquaculture effluent amounted to 40.5, 43.5, 31.9, 23.9, 20.7 and 52.4%, respectively, But the dissolved oxygen content in the rice fields increased obviously. During the whole process of fish rearing, the main physicochemical parameters of water quality for the experimental ponds were all maintained at a suitable level for the growth of the grass carp. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05 in DO, TSS, NH4+ -N, NO--N, BOD5 and Chl-&alpha between the experimental and control ponds. As far as the yield per unit and survival rate was concerned, the level of the experimental ponds was obviously higher than that of the control, while the feed conversion ratio displayed the opposite trend. Overall, the new aquaculture system realized the double aims of water reuse and the reduction of waste water discharge.

Gu Li

2012-10-01

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A Decision Support System for Evaluatingquality Safety Risk Contaminated By Water Pollution in Aquaculture Pond  

Science.gov (United States)

Water pollution is becoming the major factor damaging the sustainable development of aquaculture and the quality security of aquatic product in China. This paper introduces a decision support system for evaluating and managing quality risk contaminated by water pollution. The architecture, main components and their functions, especially a series of risk evaluation methods and models are described. At present, the system is in pilot in the city of Beijing in China. The stage achievements in developing the system are summarized.

Tian, Dong; Li, Nan; Huang, Honghui; Fu, Zetian; Zhang, Xiaoshuan

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Recent advances within intensive Recirculated Aquaculture System cultivation of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Danish aquaculture has within recent years focused upon rearing of new marine fish species. A major challenge for rearing of marine fish species is relevant diets for their fish larvae. Copepods and their larvae stage “nauplii” are well documented as the ideal live feed for a variety of marine aquaculture species. Copepodites and nauplii are superior as live feed compared to rotifers and Artemia both in terms of nutritional value, behaviour and prey size. In 1980s the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) was isolated in the Danish strait of Øresund and has been studied and kept in cultures ever since. An interesting trait with the species is that the eggs can be provoked into a resting stage, where the egg can be stored for one year, similar to Artemia cysts. This is the most promising storage technique for distribution of copepod eggs to aquaculture facilities worldwide. The eggs can be hatched and the nauplii can be feed to marine fish larvae. A restriction is that copepod cultures for producing eggs are after 30years of research still not stable and in large enough scale for bulk production of eggs. Recently a unique copepod Recirculated Aquaculture System (RAS) at Roskilde University (Denmark) was constructed as a part of the IMPAQ project “IMProvement of AQuaculture high quality fish fry production”. We present recent advance within RAS culture for copepods, and lesson learned from rearing the specie. Further we present physical and biological culture restrictions in terms of water quality (NH3), chemical and physical copepod densities, and its effects on copepod egg production (fecundity). We found that NH3 affect nauplii cultures negatively at levels above 30 ?g NH3 L-1, and adult cultures at levels above 477 ?g NH3 L-1. In terms of chemical and physical densities egg production was limited at densities above 2000 adults L-1.

Jepsen, Per Meyer; HØjgaard, Jacob Kring

20

Diversity of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in greenwater system of coastal aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduced sulfur compounds produced by the metabolism are the one of the major problems in aquaculture. In the present study, herbivorous fishes have been cultured as biomanipulators for secretions of slime, which enhanced the production of greenwater containing beneficial bacteria. The genes encoding soxB which is largely unique to sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) due to its hydrolytic function has been targeted for examining the diversity of SOB in the green water system of coastal aquaculture. Novel sequences obtained based on the sequencing of metagenomic clone libraries for soxB genes revealed the abundance of SOB in green water system. Phylogenetic tree constructed from aligned amino acid sequences demonstrated that different clusters have only 82-93% match with Roseobacter sp., Phaeobacter sp., Roseovarius sp., Sulfitobacter sp., Ruegeria sp., and Oceanibulbus sp. The level of conservation of the soxB amino acid sequences ranged from 42% to 71%. 16S rRNA gene analyses of enrichment culture from green water system revealed the presence of Pseudoxanthomonas sp., which has 97% similarity with nutritionally fastidious Indian strain of Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana-a sulfur chemolithotrophic gamma-proteobacterium. Our results illustrate the relevance of SOB in the functioning of the green water system of coastal shrimp aquaculture for oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds, which in turn maintain the sulfide concentration well within the prescribed safe levels. PMID:20069462

Krishnani, Kishore Kumar; Kathiravan, V; Natarajan, M; Kailasam, M; Pillai, S M

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
21

Use of Barley for the Purification of Aquaculture Wastewater in a Hydroponics System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Barley was examined for its ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater. The effects of seed sterilization using ethanol and bleach and seed density on germination and plant growth were investigated. Surface sterilization of barley seeds had a negative impact on germination. Increasing the ethanol concentration and/or the bleach concentration reduced the germination percentage. Barley seeds were first germinated in water in the hydroponics system. The seedlings then received wastewater from an aquaculture system stocked with Arctic charr. During the experiment, the crops grew rapidly and fairly uniformly and showed no signs of mineral deficiency or disease. The average crop height at harvest was 25.5 cm and the yield varied from 25 to 59 t ha?1, depending on the seed density. The hydroponically grown barley was able to significantly reduce the pollution load of the aquaculture wastewater. The TS, COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N, and PO43--P reductions ranged from 52.7 to 60.5%, from 72.9 to 83.1%, from 76.0 to 76.0%, from 97.6 to 99.2%, from 76.9 to 81.6% and from 87.1 to 95.1%, respectively. However, the effluent produced from the hydroponics system had slightly higher levels of TS (420-485 mg L?1 than the 480 mg L?1 recommended for aquatic animals. A sedimentation/filtration unit should be added to the hydroponics system.

A. M. Snow

2008-01-01

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Wastewater Utilization for Poly-?-Hydroxybutyrate Production by the Cyanobacterium Aulosira fertilissima in a Recirculatory Aquaculture System?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intensive aquaculture releases large quantities of nutrients into aquatic bodies, which can lead to eutrophication. The objective of this study was the development of a biological recirculatory wastewater treatment system with a diazotrophic cyanobacterium, Aulosira fertilissima, and simultaneous production of valuable product in the form of poly-?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). To investigate this possible synergy, batch scale tests were conducted under a recirculatory aquaculture system in fiber-r...

Samantaray, Shilalipi; Nayak, Jitendra Kumar; Mallick, Nirupama

2011-01-01

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Bacterial resistance to oxytetracycline in different life stages of Indian freshwater carp aquaculture system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In India antibiotics are frequently used for preventing and controlling bacterial pathogens incarp aquaculture system, yet no studies have been performed to evaluate the ecological impact of itsintensive and prolonged use. In this work the frequency of oxytetracycline-resistant bacteria from water,palletized feed and different life stages of fish from Indian freshwater carp aquaculture system as well asthe level of resistance of selected strains was investigated. Viable as well as antibiotic-resistant bacterialcounts were performed by spread plate method in culture media supplemented with the oxytetracycline.Sixty two resistant Gram negative isolates which represented the oxytetracycline-resistant bacterialpopulation, were randomly selected on nutrient agar supplemented with oxytetracycline (50?g/ml fromcarp farms and feed pellet samples. Among these bacterial isolates Flavobacterium (21%, Alcaligenes(14.5%, Aeromonas (11%, Pseudomonas (10% and Enterobacteriace (19% were the most frequent.The Escherichia, Serratia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Shigella and Proteus from Enterobacteriace wererecovered. Twelve isolates of oxytetracycline resistant bacteria were mainly dominated in adult fishes bythe genus Flavobacterium (23% and Enterobacteriace(41%. Selected strains exhibited high levels ofoxytetracycline resistance with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs ranging from 50 to600?g/ml.This study shows the presence of an important population of oxytetracycline-resistant bacteriain the microflora of Indian carp aquaculture farms. Therefore the environment of these farms might playimportant roles as reservoirs of bacteria carrying genetic determinants for high level tetracyclineresistance, prompting an important risk to public health.

Singh A.K.

2009-06-01

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Fate of water borne therapeutic agents and associated effects on nitrifying biofilters in recirculating aquaculture systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recent discharge restrictions on antibiotics and chemotherapeutant residuals used in aquaculture have several implications to the aquaculture industry. Better management practices have to be adopted, and documentation and further knowledge of the chemical fate is required for proper administration and to support the ongoing development of a sustainable aquaculture industry. A focal point of this thesis concerns formaldehyde (FA), a commonly used chemical additive with versatile aquaculture applications. FA is safe for use with fish and has a high treatment efficiency against fungal and parasite infections; however, current treatment practices have proven difficult to comply with existing discharge regulations. Hydrogen peroxide (HP) and peracetic acid (PAA) are potential candidates to replace FA, as they have similar antimicrobial effects and are more easily degradable than FA, but empirical aquaculture experience is limited. The two main objectives of this Ph.D. project were to 1) investigate the fate of FA in nitrifying aquaculture biofilters, focusing on factors influencing degradation rates, and 2) investigate the fate of HP and PAA in nitrifying aquaculture biofilters and evaluate the effects of these agents on biofilter nitrification performance. All experiments were conducted through addition of chemical additives to closed pilot scale recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) with fixed media submerged biofilters under controlled operating conditions with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a factorial design with true replicates. Biofilter nitrification performances were evaluated by changes in chemical processes, and nitrifying populations were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis. FA was degraded at a constant rate immediately after addition, and found to positively correlate to temperature, available biofilter surface-area, and the frequency of FA-exposure. Prolonged biofilter exposure to FA did not negatively affect nitrification, and could therefore be a method to optimize FA treatment in RAS and reduce FA discharge. HP degradation was rapid and could be described as a concentration-dependent exponential decay. HP was found to be enzymatically eliminated by microorganisms, with degradation rates correlated to organic matter content and microbial abundance. Nitrification performance was not affected by HP when applied in dosages less than 30 mg/L, whereas prolonged multiple HP dosages at 10 mg/L were found to inhibit nitrite oxidation in systems with low organic loading. PAA decay was found to be concentration-dependent. It had a considerable negative effect on nitrite oxidation over a prolonged period of time when applied at a dosage ?2 mg/L. PAA and HP decay patterns were significantly affected by water quality parameters, i.e. at low organic matter content HP degradation was impeded due to microbial inhibition. FISH analysis on biofilm samples from two different types of RAS showed that Nitrosomonas oligotropha was the dominant ammonia oxidizing bacteria, whereas abundant nitrite oxidizing bacteria consisted of Nitrospira spp. In conclusion, measures to reduce FA have been documented, and investigations of HP and PAA have reflected a relatively narrow safety margin when applied to biofilters

Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

2009-01-01

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Use of planted biofilters in integrated recirculating aquaculture-hydroponics systems in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The feasibility of using planted biofilters for purification of recirculated aquaculture water in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam was assessed. The plant trenches were able to clean tilapia aquaculture water and to maintain good water quality in the fish tanks without renewal of the water. NH4-N was removed efficiently in the plant trenches, particularly in the trenches with Canna glauca L., probably because of plant uptake and nitrification-denitrification. Plant uptake constituted 6% of N and 7% of P in the input feed. Approximately 1.0 m3 of water was needed per kg of fish produced, and 370, 97 and 2842 g fresh aboveground biomass of Ipomoea aquatica Forssk., Lactuca sativa L. and C. glauca, respectively, were produced. The leafy vegetables provide some extra income besides fish products, whereas C. glauca provides nice flowers and contributes to a significant nutrient removal with annual uptake rates of 725 kg N and 234 kg P ha-1 year-1. This research demonstrates that integrated recirculating aquaculture-hydroponics (aquaponics) systems provide significant water savings and nutrient recycling as compared with traditional fish ponds. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Trang, N.T.D.; Brix, Hans

2014-01-01

26

Application and analytical verification of peracetic acid use in different types of freshwater aquaculture systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Peracetic acid (PAA) is a highly reactive peroxygen compound with wide-ranging antimicrobial effects. PAA has recently gained substantial attention, due to additional beneficial attributes such as easily degradability and harmless disinfection byproducts. However, PAA is only sporadically used by the aquaculture industry as it is difficult to apply in correct dosages. This study describes the degradation kinetics of PAA when used as an aquaculture disinfectant. Effects of temperature, organic matter content and initial PAA dosage on the chemical fate of PAA is reported. Furthermore, investigations of water sanitation with PAA application were used to analytically verify actual PAA concentration under real conditions at different kinds of aquaculture systems. A characteristic instant disinfection demand was found to be significantly positively related to water COD content, and PAA half-lives were found to be in the order of a few minutes. The study revealed that PAA degrades so rapidly that insufficient disinfection is a likely outcome. The observations have applications for optimizing water treatment strategies with PAA. The investigations also indicated that the rapid degradation and hence swift presence of PAA in RAS made raceway disinfection possible without bypassing the biofilters. Future perspectives, benefits and drawbacks on the use of PAA in RAS are discussed

Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

2011-01-01

27

Modeling the soil nutrient balance of integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study quantifies soil nutrient balances of Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture Systems in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Eleven farms were monitored to collect data on farm activities and nutrient inputs and outputs to compute these balances of the rice-based and high input fish system in O Mon district (R-HF); the rice-based and medium input fish system in Tam Binh district (R-MF); and the orchard-based and low input fish system in Cai Be district (O-LF). For the estimation, the Nutmon mod...

Phong, L. T.; Stoorvogel, J. J.; Mensvoort, M. E. F.; Udo, H. M. J.

2011-01-01

28

Long term/low dose formalin exposure to small-scale recirculation aquaculture systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Repetitive long term formalin application at low dose was investigated to determine the effect on formaldehyde removal rate, biofilter nitrification and the microbial composition in small-scale recirculation aquaculture biofilters. Six pilot-scale recirculation aquaculture systems holding rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were designated to formalin treatments (C-0 at 10 and 20mg/L formaldehyde) on a daily or weekly basis. Formaldehyde removal rates were measured over 10 weeks, during which biofilter nitrification rates were measured in terms of standardized NH4Cl spiking events. The rates were positively correlated to the amount and frequency of formalin treatment. In systems with regularly low formalin dosage, the formaldehyde removal rate increased up to tenfold from 0.19 +/- 0.05 to 1.81 +/- 0.13 mg/(L h). Biofilter nitrification was not impaired in systems treated with formalin on a daily basis as compared to untreated systems. In systems intermittently treated with formalin, increased variation and minor reductions of ammonium and nitrite oxidation rates were observed. Nitrifying bacteria were screened by specific gene probes using fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantified by digital image analysis. The relative abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was up to 5.4% of all Bacteria (EUB) positive cells, predominantly Nitrosomonas oligotropha. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), mainly consisting of Nitrospira sp. were found in all biofilm samples up to 2.9%, whereas Nitrobacter sp. was not detected. The relative abundances of AOB and NOB in the untreated system were generally higher compared to the system exposed to formalin. Low dose formalin in recirculated aquaculture systems proved to be a possible treatment strategy, as the effect on nitrification was minimal. Since formaldehyde was steadily removed by microorganisms, available biofilter surface area, hydraulic retention time a:id temperature can be used to predict removal and hence estimate e.g. effluent concentration, (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

2010-01-01

29

Aquaculture, a Component of the Farming Systems among the Fishing Communities in Oil Producing Areas of Delta, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study focused on ascertaining the relative importance of aquaculture in the farming systems of Oil Producing Areas Delta State, Nigeria. A stratified random sample of 598 households from 47 communities was used. Primary data collected between the months of May 2009 and February 2011 by means of structured questionnaire, complemented by oral were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that 69% of the respondents were into fishing/fish farming either as sole enterprise or in combination with other farming activities while 31% were into non-fish farming activities only. Among those involved in fishing activities, 37% were into capture fisheries, while about 32% were involved in aquaculture either as sole enterprise or in combination with other farming enterprises. The average size of fish pond was about 51 m2. The mean household net income from aquaculture per annum was about N91, 542, giving the highest returns on investment of about 45%. The study also found that households practicing aquaculture together with arable cropping generated significantly (P ? 0.05 highest net farm income (N127342 than the rest groups of households. The major constraints to aquaculture development were inadequate finance, high cost of feeds and water pollution problems. It was recommended that the current government efforts at boosting investment in aquaculture through microcredit should be stepped up. Local sourcing of feeds by the farmers is also encouraged.

CHUKWUJI, Christopher Okeleke

2013-06-01

30

A Model for an Intelligent Support Decision System in Aquaculture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper purpose an intelligent software system agents–based to support decision in aquculture and the approach of fish diagnosis with informatics methods, techniques and solutions. A major purpose is to develop new methods and techniques for quick fish diagnosis, treatment and prophyilaxis at infectious and parasite-based known disorders, that may occur at fishes raised in high density in intensive raising systems. But, the goal of this paper is to presents a model of an intelligent agent...

Novac Ududec, Cornelia C.

2009-01-01

31

The OMEGA system for marine bioenergy, wastewater treatment, environmental enhancement, and aquaculture  

Science.gov (United States)

OMEGA is an acronym for Offshore Membrane Enclosure for Growing Algae. The OMEGA system consists of photobioreactors (PBRs) made of flexible, inexpensive clear plastic tubes attached to floating docks, anchored offshore in naturally or artificially protected bays [1]. The system uses domestic wastewater and CO2 from coastal facilities to provide water, nutrients, and carbon for algae cultivation [2]. The surrounding seawater maintains the temperature inside the PBRs and prevents the cultivated (freshwater) algae from becoming invasive species in the marine environment (i.e., if a PBR module accidentally leaks, the freshwater algae that grow in wastewater cannot survive in the marine environment). The salt gradient between seawater and wastewater is used for forward osmosis (FO) to concentrate nutrients and facilitate algae harvesting [3]. Both the algae and FO clean the wastewater, removing nutrients as well as pharmaceuticals and personal-care products [4]. The offshore infrastructure provides a large surface area for solar-photovoltaic arrays and access to offshore wind or wave generators. The infrastructure can also support shellfish, finfish, or seaweed aquaculture. The economics of the OMEGA system are supported by a combination of biofuels production, wastewater treatment, alternative energy generation, and aquaculture. By using wastewater and operating offshore from coastal cities, OMEGA can be located close to wastewater and CO2 sources and it can avoid competing with agriculture for water, fertilizer, and land [5]. By combining biofuels production with wastewater treatment and aquaculture, the OMEGA system provides both products and services, which increase its economic feasibility. While the offshore location has engineering challenges and concerns about the impact and control of biofouling [6], large OMEGA structure will be floating marine habitats and will create protected 'no-fishing' zones that could increase local biodiversity and fishery productivity. Potential test sites for the next phase of OMEGA (1-hectare integrated system) will be discussed.

Trent, J. D.

2013-12-01

32

Aquaculture in bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS): Considerations  

Science.gov (United States)

A significant amount of research has been invested into understanding the effects of including fish culture in bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS) for long duration space habitation. While the benefits of fish culture as a sub-process for waste treatment and food production continue to be identified, other pressing issues arise that affect the overall equivalent system mass associated with fish culture in a BLSS. This paper is meant to provide insight into several issues affecting fish culture in a BLSS that will require attention in the future if fish meant for consumption are to be cultured in a BLSS.

Gonzales, John M.

2009-04-01

33

Background paper on aquaculture research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Board of MISTRA established in 2012 a Working Group (WG) on Aquaculture to provide the Board with background information for its upcoming decision on whether the foundation should invest in aquaculture research. The WG included Senior Advisor Axel Wenblad, Sweden (Chairman), Professor Ole Torrissen, Norway, Senior Advisory Scientist Unto Eskelinen, Finland and Senior Advisory Scientist Alfred Jokumsen, Denmark. The WG performed an investigation of the Swedish aquaculture sector including interviews with a range of stakeholders within aquaculture research, farming organisations, authorities, NGOs and the Ministry of Rural Affairs. The term aquaculture corresponds to the Swedish term Vattenbruk. Aquaculture is the cultivation of fish, shellfish or plants in fresh water (FW) or sea water (SW). Aquaculture has become the fastest growing food producing sector currently producing totally about 80 million tonnes accounting for close to 50 % of all aquatic food destined for the global human consumption. The Swedish aquaculture production currently includes about 11,000 tonnes rainbow trout in FW and SW, 1,100 tonnes arctic char (FW), 90 tonnes eel (FW), 1,500 tonnes mussels (SW) and a few tonnes of crayfish altogether corresponding to a total value of SEK 328 million in 2011. Further about 1,000 tonnes of fish and crustaceans were produced for restocking as well as about 3 million fry of salmon and trout were released into rivers. Swedish aquaculture research was overall assessed to be of very high quality and highly acknowledged at international level. However, integration of the research issues with the main stakeholders in the aquaculture sector needs focus; i.e. integration of the political frameworks, regional administrations, the aquaculture producers and the research groups on aquaculture. A closer connection and dialogue between the stakeholders may be facilitated through the regional aquaculture centres interconnected through the National Competence Centre for Aquaculture, and the National Aquaculture Council being established. These structures may create a common and focused platform for cooperation on research and education, exchange and transfer of knowledge from research to aquaculture practice. Further, integration of biological and technological research combined with education and training of skilled professionals as well as authority staff dealing with aquaculture is strongly called upon. Hence, a strong integration of the stakeholders within the aquaculture sector is assessed to be an important platform for a trans-disciplinary research and development program for strategic and efficient development of Swedish Aquaculture. Sweden has large potentials for aquaculture due to the availability of vast water resources of good quality (both marine and fresh water), a high veterinary status and generally well developed public infrastructure. Swedish aquaculture has the potential to develop into a green business producing environmentally sustainable healthy food with low ecosystem and climate impact. Swedish import of aquaculture products may be reduced by increased domestic production. Further Swedish aquaculture may be a driving force in the development of employment, infrastructures and improvement of economic and social conditions in rural areas. Swedish 4 • mistra aquaculture has the potential to contribute significantly to food security. It is therefore important that aquaculture becomes an integrated part of the food production system, i.e. being accepted as an equal food producing sector in line with the agricultural sector.Innovative development of Swedish aquaculture requires production systems with minimal environmental impact, e.g. recirculation technology, efficient feeds and waste management. Although the nutrient-poor hydropower dams in northern Sweden may tolerate nutrient load the strategy for the required development of Swedish aquaculture has to include technologies and strategies to minimize the environmental impact, in particular to the Baltic Sea. Swedish aquaculture may develop to be an env

Jokumsen, Alfred

2013-01-01

34

Abundance, diversity and seasonal dynamics of predatory bacteria in aquaculture zero discharge systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Standard aquaculture generates large-scale pollution and strains water resources. In aquaculture using zero discharge systems (ZDS), highly efficient fish growth and water recycling are combined. The wastewater stream is directed through compartments in which beneficial microbial activities induced by creating suitable environmental conditions remove biological and chemical pollutants, alleviating both problems. Bacterial predators, preying on bacterial populations in the ZDS, may affect their diversity, composition and functional redundancy, yet in-depth understanding of this phenomenon is lacking. The dynamics of populations belonging to the obligate predators Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) were analyzed in freshwater and saline ZDS over a 7-month period using QPCR targeting the Bdellovibrionaceae, and the Bacteriovorax and Bacteriolyticum genera in the Bacteriovoracaeae. Both families co-existed in ZDS compartments, constituting 0.13-1.4% of total Bacteria. Relative predator abundance varied according to the environmental conditions prevailing in different compartments, most notably salinity. Strikingly, the Bdellovibrionaceae, hitherto only retrieved from freshwater and soil, also populated the saline system. In addition to the detected BALOs, other potential predators were highly abundant, especially from the Myxococcales. Among the general bacterial population, Flavobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteriaceae and unclassified Bacteria dominated a well mixed but seasonally fluctuating diverse community of up to 238 operational taxonomic units, as revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. PMID:24749684

Kandel, Prem P; Pasternak, Zohar; van Rijn, Jaap; Nahum, Ortal; Jurkevitch, Edouard

2014-07-01

35

aquaculture production  

economy and the environment, and sharing the management of risk with the \\industry. ... The number of watersheds available to aquaculture is relatively \\limited in the UK. • Major markets for ... Assessment of the impact of climate \\change.

36

The formation of a risk management system for projects in the field of aquaculture innovative development in the Kaliningrad region: a case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article sets out to develop the concept and the principal scheme of the formation of a risk management system for innovative economic development projects in the field of aquaculture. The research carried out by the authors helps identify the main problems and characteristics of risk management projects for the development of aquaculture in presentday Russia. The authors outline the status and features of aquaculture development projects in the North-western federal district and the Kaliningrad region. The article formulates and justifies the concept of “risk management projects in innovative development of aquaculture in the region” focusing on the classification of aquaculture risks in relation to innovative development projects, which expands the conceptual framework of risk management in view of the specific risks relating to economic development projects in the field of aquaculture. The authors characterize modern methods and approaches to risk management projects and organizations in the context of their application in the framework of aquaculture development projects and offer mechanisms for risk management of aquaculture development projects, which make it possible to include risk management activity in the general context of activities of parent project organizations. The authors develop the concept and principal scheme of the formation of risk management system for innovative development projects in aquaculture.

Serbulov A. V.

2012-01-01

37

Oxygen Consumption of Tilapia and Preliminary Mass Flows through a Prototype Closed Aquaculture System  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance of NASA's prototype CELSS Breadboard Project Closed Aquaculture System was evaluated by estimating gas exchange quantification and preliminary carbon and nitrogen balances. The total system oxygen consumption rate was 535 mg/hr kg/fish (cv = 30%) when stocked with Tilapia aurea populations (fresh weights of 97 +/- 19 to 147 +/- 36 g/fish for various trials). Oxygen consumption by T. aurea (260 mg/hr kg/fish) contributed to approximately one-half of total system demand. Continuous carbon dioxide quantification methods were analyzed using the,relation of carbon dioxide to oxygen consumption. Overall food conversion rates averaged 18.2 +/- 3.2%. Major pathways for nitrogen and carbon in the system were described with preliminary mass closure of 60-80% and 60% for nitrogen and carbon.

Muller, Matthew S.; Bauer, Clarence F.

1994-01-01

38

Peracetic acid degradation in freshwater aquaculture systems and possible practical implications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Peracetic acid (PAA) is a highly reactive peroxygen compound with wide-ranging antimicrobial effects and is considered an alternative sanitizer to formaldehyde. Products containing PAA are available in solution with acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide to maintain the stability of the chemical, and it decays rapidly when applied to freshwater in aquaculture systems. The rapid decay is beneficial in an environmental context but a challenge to aquaculturists. To assess the impact of organic matter content and temperature on PAA decay, twenty-four batch experiments were set up using PAA doses ranging from 0 to 2.0 mg/l. The results revealed that increasing organic matter content significantly facilitated PAA decay, and positive temperature-decay correlations were found. Instantaneous PAA consumption above 0.2 mg/l was observed, and PAA half-lives were found to be in the order of a few minutes. The relative PAA recovery, calculated as measured PAA concentration over time compared to the PAA concentration applied, decreased with declining dose. Measurements of PAA residuals during water treatment scenarios at three different freshwater fish farms revealed moderate to substantial PAA consumption, documenting a large discrepancy between delivered quantities and realized residuals. Recent investigations of PAA application to manage parasitic diseases in aquaculture are briefly reviewed, and practical implication and guidelines are addressed

Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

2013-01-01

39

Recirculating aquaculture system for high density production of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) is one of the most promising copepod species for marine larviculture. This species has a wide tolerance to temperature and salinity, small size, can produce resting eggs. All their nauplii, copepodites and adults can be use as excellent feeds for marine fish larvae. Yet, the biomass and egg production of A. tonsa has been limited mainly due to the challanges to culture them at high density. The development of recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) in recent decades has opened a new culturing system that is expected to provide more stable environmental conditions to favor the production of A. tonsa at high density. The current study was initiated to preliminarily apply a recircultating aquaculture system (RAS) for A. tonsa production. A flow through aquaculture system (FTAS) was also run in parallel to evaluate the capacity of RAS compared to the FTAS. Both RAS and FTAS (3 replicates per system) were set up in the same room to ensure the equal condition. The initial densities of copepods were 20000 nauplii L-1 for investigation of growth and development in the early phase and 5000 ind L-1 in the copepodite and adult stages for testing reproduction capacity. A. tonsa fed the unicellular algae Rhodomonas baltica were registered for four weeks in triplicate 50 L tanks in each system. Water quality parameters were recorded daily for temperature, oxygen, pH, salinity, particles and every five days for nitrogenous waste and bacteria through the experimental period in both systems. Unexpectedly, the hatching ratio of eggs was lower in RAS compared to FTAS that may be explained by a higher concentration of nitrite, nitrate and bacteria including Vibrio spp., haemolytic bacteria and fast growing bacteria. A. tonsa cultured in both RAS and FTAS had the similar survival, growth, and reproduction, yet the nauplii developed into copepodites faster in RAS (110h) compared to FTAS (158h). This can be an indication for the potential for culturing or maintaining A. tonsa nauplii and early copepodite stages at higher densities before feeding larvae of marine species. The RAS also needs a further optimisation of water quality by a denitrifying filter component to stabilize for copepod cultivation and an implementation of disease control treatment is also required.

Vu, Minh Thi Thuy; Øie, Gunvor

40

A ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network for Monitoring an Aquaculture Recirculating System  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se desarrolló una red de sensores inalámbrica con el protocolo ZigBee para monitorear un sistema experimental acuícola con recirculación de agua. La red incluye sensores de temperatura, oxígeno disuelto, presión de agua y aire, así como de corriente eléctrica. La alta densidad de organismos requerid [...] a para que estos sistemas sean económicamente viables nos presentan un caso donde las redes de sensores pueden ser aplicadas para preservar un stock de peces saludable reduciendo las probabilidades de fallas que conlleven pérdidas en la producción. Se desarrollaron y probaron módulos para la toma y transmisión de datos a través de una red ZigBee y se implementaron en una granja acuícola experimental. Se desarrolló un programa de monitoreo para desplegar los valores de los sensores y emitir alertas cuando se rebasen los límites de referencia especificados. Una alerta por medio de un mensaje SMS y un correo electrónico pueden ser emitidas. Una interfase WEB permite el acceso a los valores de los sensores. El presente trabajo demuestra la aplicabilidad de las redes inalámbricas ZigBee al monitoreo de sistemas acuícolas. Abstract in english A ZigBee wireless sensor network was developed for monitoring an experimental aquaculture recirculating system. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, water and air pressure as well as electric current sensors were included in the setup. The high fish densities required in these systems to become economical [...] ly viable present a case where sensor networks can be applied to preserve a healthy livestock and to reduce the risk of failures that end up in the loss of production. Modules for reading and transmitting sensor values through a ZigBee wireless network were developed and tested. The modules were installed in an aquaculture recirculating system to transmit sensor values to the network coordinator. A monitoring program was created in order to display and store sensor values and to compare them with reference limits. An alert is emitted in case reference limits have been reached. E-mail and an SMS message alert can also be sent to the cellular phone of the system administrator, so immediate action can be taken. A web interface allows Internet access to the sensor values. The present work demonstrates the applicability of ZigBee wireless sensor network technology to aquaculture recirculating systems.

Francisco J., Espinosa-Faller; Guillermo E., Rendón-Rodríguez.

 
 
 
 
41

A ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network for Monitoring an Aquaculture Recirculating System  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se desarrolló una red de sensores inalámbrica con el protocolo ZigBee para monitorear un sistema experimental acuícola con recirculación de agua. La red incluye sensores de temperatura, oxígeno disuelto, presión de agua y aire, así como de corriente eléctrica. La alta densidad de organismos requerid [...] a para que estos sistemas sean económicamente viables nos presentan un caso donde las redes de sensores pueden ser aplicadas para preservar un stock de peces saludable reduciendo las probabilidades de fallas que conlleven pérdidas en la producción. Se desarrollaron y probaron módulos para la toma y transmisión de datos a través de una red ZigBee y se implementaron en una granja acuícola experimental. Se desarrolló un programa de monitoreo para desplegar los valores de los sensores y emitir alertas cuando se rebasen los límites de referencia especificados. Una alerta por medio de un mensaje SMS y un correo electrónico pueden ser emitidas. Una interfase WEB permite el acceso a los valores de los sensores. El presente trabajo demuestra la aplicabilidad de las redes inalámbricas ZigBee al monitoreo de sistemas acuícolas. Abstract in english A ZigBee wireless sensor network was developed for monitoring an experimental aquaculture recirculating system. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, water and air pressure as well as electric current sensors were included in the setup. The high fish densities required in these systems to become economical [...] ly viable present a case where sensor networks can be applied to preserve a healthy livestock and to reduce the risk of failures that end up in the loss of production. Modules for reading and transmitting sensor values through a ZigBee wireless network were developed and tested. The modules were installed in an aquaculture recirculating system to transmit sensor values to the network coordinator. A monitoring program was created in order to display and store sensor values and to compare them with reference limits. An alert is emitted in case reference limits have been reached. E-mail and an SMS message alert can also be sent to the cellular phone of the system administrator, so immediate action can be taken. A web interface allows Internet access to the sensor values. The present work demonstrates the applicability of ZigBee wireless sensor network technology to aquaculture recirculating systems.

Francisco J., Espinosa-Faller; Guillermo E., Rendón-Rodríguez.

2012-12-01

42

The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Constructed wetlands improved water qualities and consequently increased the shrimp growth and survival in a recirculating system. - A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO{sub 2}-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO{sub 4}-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO{sub 3}-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (P{<=}0.05) lower than those in a control aquaculture system (CAS) that simulated static pond culture without wetland treatment. However, no significant difference (P{<=}0.05) in BOD{sub 5}, TAN and NO{sub 2}-N was found between the two systems. At the end of the study, the harvest results showed that shrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8{+-}1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (P{<=}0.01) exceeded those in the CAS (2.3{+-}1.5 g/shrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system.

Lin, Y.-F.; Jing, S.-R.; Lee, D.-Y

2003-05-01

43

The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Constructed wetlands improved water qualities and consequently increased the shrimp growth and survival in a recirculating system. - A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO4-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO3-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (P?0.05) lower than those in a control aquaculture system (CAS) that simulated static pond culture without wetland treatment. However, no significant difference (P?0.05) in BOD5, TAN and NO2-N was found between the two systems. At the end of the study, the harvess. At the end of the study, the harvest results showed that shrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8±1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (P?0.01) exceeded those in the CAS (2.3±1.5 g/shrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system

44

Electron beam irradiation, oxygen, and temperature effects on nucleotide degradation in stored aquaculture hybrid striped bass fillets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Skinless fillets from commercially-grown aquaculture hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x M. chrysops) were electron beam-irradiated in the presence of air or vacuum-packaged and stored at 4C and -20C for 14 days. A mean low dose level of 2.0 or 3.0 kGy (+/- 0.5 kGy) and high dose level of 20 kGy (+/- 4 kGy) were used for irradiated samples. Hypoxanthine (Hx) concentrations, Ki-values ([(INO + Hx)/(IMP + INO + Hx)] x 100), and H-values ([(Hx)/(IMP + INO + Hx)] x 100) indicated that irradiation did not influence the rate of nucleotide degradation compared with nonirradiated controls at either refrigerated or frozen temperatures. Vacuum packaging or freezing of stored samples resulted in lower H-values and Hx contents compared with nonirradiated controls regardless of irradiation treatment

45

Low-dose hydrogen peroxide application in closed recirculating aquaculture systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present work was to simulate water treatment practices with hydrogen peroxide (HP) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Six identical 1,700-L pilot-scale RAS were divided into two experimental groups based on daily feed allocation and operated under constant conditions for a period of 3 months. The organic and nitrogenous loadings of the systems differed fourfold between the two groups and were achieved by predefined constant daily feed loads and constant additions of water. The fixed cumulative feed burden was 1.6 × 103 mg feed/L in the low-intensity RAS and 6.3 × 103 mg/L in the high-intensity RAS. The decay of HP in rearing tanks and disconnected biofilter units was investigated by means of HP spiking experiments. The decay in high-intensity RAS rearing units and biofilters was orders of magnitude faster than that in low-intensity units. The application of HP impaired biofilter nitrite oxidation in low-intensity RAS but not in high-intensity RAS. The impact of HP exposure time on biofilter nitrification capacity was then assessed in biofilter bench-scale experiments with nitrite spiking. Exposure time was found to significantly affect nitrite oxidation. Compared with unexposed biofilter elements, nitrite oxidation was reduced more than 90% following 3 h of exposure to 15 mg HP/L, whereas 30 min of exposure had only minor negative effects on nitrite oxidation. The findings of this study demonstrate the potential for developing HP water treatment practices for RAS and contradict prevailing notions that HP cannot be used safely in RAS that employ biofiltration. The development of effective new HP treatment protocols for recirculating aquaculture could reduce the current dependence on formalin to improve water quality and control parasitic loads

Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

2012-01-01

46

Diurnal particle size distribution of an experimental recirculating aquaculture system - A case study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The particle size distribution (PSD) in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) was investigated duringa 24-h cycle. PSD was analyzed in water sampled at several locations in a recirculation loop containing a60-m drum filter, a submerged fixed-bed biofilter and a trickling filter.In relation to total counts, the system was dominated by micro-particles with particles smaller than20 m comprising >94% of the distribution in all samples. However, the system presented a substantialvolumetric influence of larger particles, reflected by a PSD derivate ?-value of 3.40 ± 0.18. Overall ?-valuesthroughout the compartments (p = 0.584) and experimental period (p = 0.217) were not significantlydifferent, although specific components seemed to marginally affect the PSD.A high internal water turnover rate (one system passage every 50 min) promoted the rapid removalof large particles from the system. Permanent volumetric particle removal above 60 m (31% reductionin the relative contribution from each size by the drum filter)per passage, but marginal productionand removal of particles throughout the rest of the system further support the ?-value stability andconsequent PSD equilibrium.The results showed a stable ?-value in the mature RAS. The ?-value is influenced by the containedcompartments and system configuration, and may be used as a system performance-predicting tool.Mechanisms of particle influence on system and fish performance should be addressed in future studies,and are herein discussed

Fernandes, Paulo; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

2014-01-01

47

Direct utilization of geothermal heat in cascade application to aquaculture and greenhouse systems at Navarro College. Annual report, January 1984-September 1984  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progress is reported on a project to use the 130/sup 0/F geothermal resource in central Texas. The system for cascading geothermal energy through aquaculture and greenhouse systems was completed and the first shrimp harvest was held. (MHR)

Smith, K.

1984-09-01

48

Nutrient Discharge from aquaculture operations in function of system design and production enviorment (Online first)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In aquaculture, nutrient loading is defined as the difference between nutrients supplied with fertilizers and feed and nutrients harvested in the form of finfish, crustaceans, molluscs and seaweeds. On average, the production of finfish and crustaceans results in a net nutrient loading, while for the production of molluscs and seaweeds the nutrient loading is negative. In marine and brackish water aquaculture, on a global scale, more nutrients are extracted than added to the environment. Howe...

Verdegem, M. C. J.

2013-01-01

49

Aquaculture Information Package  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

1998-01-01

50

Escherichia coli contamination of fish raised in integrated pig-fish aquaculture systems in Vietnam.  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated livestock-fish aquaculture utilizes animal excreta and urine as pond fertilizers to enhance growth of plankton and other microorganisms eaten by the fish. In Vietnam, pigs are commonly integrated with fish and horticulture in household-based VAC systems (vuon = garden; ao = pond; chuong = pigsty), but the level of fecal contamination in the fish produced is unknown. This study was carried out to assess the level Escherichia coli contamination of fish meat and gut contents of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), and rohu (Labeo rohita) cultured in randomly selected five VAC ponds (with pig manure) and five non-VAC ponds (without pig manure) at sites in periurban Hanoi, Vietnam. Fish muscle tissue samples contained E. coli at rohu, respectively, about 100 times higher than the contamination of fish from the control ponds. The results indicate that muscle tissue of fish raised in VAC systems has a low level of fecal contamination despite high levels of E. coli in their gut. Thus, a critical point to control food safety of such fish is the prevention of fecal cross-contamination during degutting and cleaning of the fish at markets and in the home. PMID:22980016

Dang, Son Thi Thanh; Dalsgaard, Anders

2012-07-01

51

Building and Using a Hydroponic/Aquaculture System in the Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Details for constructing a hydroponic / aquaculture system are shared. I have used the apparatus for the past six years in my class with excellent results. A 100 gallon aquarium serves as our fish farm. Teams of students monitor the change in biomass of the fish population, (usually Tilapia). They also maintain records of the amount of high protein floating fish food consumed. As aquaculturists they try to develop a feeding regime that will maximize the fishes' growth. Water from this tank containing the fishes' metabolic wastes is pumped every thirty minutes through a series of five hydroponic tubes filled with lava rock. Seedlings in Jiffy 7 peat pots are inserted into circular holes in the tubes. This soil-less garden can support about forty plants. We have grown many varieties of lettuce, spinach, herbs, tomatoes, cucumbers, jalapeno peppers, as well as many types of flowers. In addition, climbing plants such as morning glories or four o'clocks or nasturtia are grown directly from the surface of the aquarium by inserting Jiffy 7 pots into floating Styrofoam. These are supported so they arch across the ceiling. While in use the system can be used to visually demonstrate many important scientific principles from a variety of disciplines such as, animal and plant physiology, microbiology, and, of course, ecology.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Ernest Nicol N:Nicol;Ernest ORG:Newton North High School REV:2005-04-15 END:VCARD

1995-06-30

52

Potential and limitations of ozone in marine recirculating aquaculture systems - Guidelines and thresholds for a safe application  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the present thesis was to assess the potential and limitations of ozonation in marine recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) while particularly focussing on the toxicity, formation and removal of ozone-produced oxidants (OPO) in order to develop guidelines and thresholds for a reasonable and safe ozone application. In the first two chapters the toxicity of OPO was investigated for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and turbot (Psetta maxima) and maximum safe exposure leve...

Schro?der, Jan

2011-01-01

53

Impact of water quality on the bacterial populations and off-flavours in recirculating aquaculture systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

A variety of factors affecting water quality in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are associated with the occurrence of off-flavours. In this study, we report the impact of water quality on the bacterial diversity and the occurrence of the geosmin-synthesis gene (geoA) in two RAS units operated for 252 days. Unit 2 displayed a higher level of turbidity and phosphate, which affected the fresh water quality compared with unit 1. In the biofilter, nitrification is one of the major processes by which high water quality is maintained. The bacterial population observed in the unit 1 biofilter was more stable throughout the experiment, with a higher level of nitrifying bacteria compared with the unit 2 biofilter. Geosmin appeared in fish flesh after 84 days in unit 2, whereas it appeared in unit 1 after 168 days, but at a much lower level. The geoA gene was detected in both units, 28 days prior to the detection of geosmin in fish flesh. In addition, we detected sequences associated with Sorangium and Nannocystis (Myxococcales): members of these genera are known to produce geosmin. These sequences were observed at an earlier time in unit 2 and at a higher level than in unit 1. This study confirms the advantages of new molecular methods to understand the occurrence of geosmin production in RAS. PMID:23228051

Auffret, Marc; Yergeau, Étienne; Pilote, Alexandre; Proulx, Émilie; Proulx, Daniel; Greer, Charles W; Vandenberg, Grant; Villemur, Richard

2013-05-01

54

Performance evaluation of the compact aquaculture system integrating submerged fibrousnitrifying biofilters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This experiment assessed the performance of submerged fibrous nitrifying biofilters (SFNBs to carry out the zerowaterexchange tilapia cultivation. Without biofilter cleaning, the SFNBs (21 m of biofilter length were susceptible tohydrogen sulfide production when operating beyond the aquaculture density of 13.62 kg/m3. The SFNBs were able tomaintain total ammonia nitrogen (TAN and nitrite below 1.0 mg N/L throughout the experiment and could handle inorganicnitrogen loading as high as 38.6 mg N/L/day when the solid removal from biofilters was performed biweekly. Ammoniumdegradation rate measured at the end of this study was 380±66 mg N/m2/day for biofilters subjected to cleaning. A significantlylower rate of 41.4±2.86 mg N/m2/day was associated with biofilters without any solid removal. Finally, the SFNBsshould be attractive for budget-limited farmers since they are simple to build and operate and can provide alternatives tocage-cultured systems.

Sorawit Powtongsook

2012-02-01

55

Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analysis of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen and assuming the trickling filter to be a plug flow reactor, a model was formulated to determine the necessary recirculation flow rate at different times of culture for maintaining the major nutrients, viz., ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen below their permissible limits. The model was calibrated and validated using the real time data obtained from the experimental run. The high values of coefficient of determination and low values of root mean square error show the effectiveness of the model.

Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair

2010-08-01

56

Developing a Water Temperature Observation Network based on a Ubiquitous Buoy System to Support Aquacultures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The authors have been working on the support of the fishery industry using the information and communication technology. A water temperature observation network is proposed for supporting aquacultures, and a ubiquitous buoy system developed for this purpose is described. The ubiquitous buoy system was created by leveraging ubiquitous sensing technology with water temperature observation buoys that can be executed for $1,000, a figure designed to meet the demands of scallop cultivation fishermen. Since there are no base stations and gateways in marine environments, we selected mobile phones for the Internet connection to send the water temperature data by email. The ubiquitous buoys developed are light weight and of a compact design, and can be easily installed in marine fishery environments. Furthermore, the economic cost allows the buoys to be used in multiple point observation systems. Consequently, not only does the system allow water temperature observations in real time, but it can also be used in future applications to build water temperature observation networks using multiple ubiquitous buoys that share water temperature data and allow analysis of multipoint, multi-layer water temperature data, and thus facilitate efforts to visualize the makeup of water temperature distributions below the surface. Forty ubiquitous buoys have been placed in scallop cultivation regions along the coast of Hokkaido, and the water temperature data is starting to be used.

Masashi Toda

2008-10-01

57

Identification of Bacterial Community Composition in Freshwater Aquaculture System Farming of Litopenaeus vannamei Reveals Distinct Temperature-Driven Patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

Change in temperature is often a major environmental factor in triggering waterborne disease outbreaks. Previous research has revealed temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial population in several aquatic ecosystems. To date, very little information is available on aquaculture environment. Here, we assessed environmental temperature effects on bacterial community composition in freshwater aquaculture system farming of Litopenaeus vannamei (FASFL). Water samples were collected over a one-year period, and aquatic bacteria were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Resulting DGGE fingerprints revealed a specific and dynamic bacterial population structure with considerable variation over the seasonal change, suggesting that environmental temperature was a key driver of bacterial population in the FASFL. Pyrosequencing data further demonstrated substantial difference in bacterial community composition between the water at higher (WHT) and at lower (WLT) temperatures in the FASFL. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the highest abundant phyla in the FASFL, however, a large number of unclassified bacteria contributed the most to the observed variation in phylogenetic diversity. The WHT harbored remarkably higher diversity and richness in bacterial composition at genus and species levels when compared to the WLT. Some potential pathogenenic species were identified in both WHT and WLT, providing data in support of aquatic animal health management in the aquaculture industry. PMID:25105725

Tang, Yuyi; Tao, Peiying; Tan, Jianguo; Mu, Haizhen; Peng, Li; Yang, Dandan; Tong, Shilu; Chen, Lanming

2014-01-01

58

Identification of bacterial community composition in freshwater aquaculture system farming of Litopenaeus vannamei reveals distinct temperature-driven patterns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Change in temperature is often a major environmental factor in triggering waterborne disease outbreaks. Previous research has revealed temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial population in several aquatic ecosystems. To date, very little information is available on aquaculture environment. Here, we assessed environmental temperature effects on bacterial community composition in freshwater aquaculture system farming of Litopenaeus vannamei (FASFL). Water samples were collected over a one-year period, and aquatic bacteria were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Resulting DGGE fingerprints revealed a specific and dynamic bacterial population structure with considerable variation over the seasonal change, suggesting that environmental temperature was a key driver of bacterial population in the FASFL. Pyrosequencing data further demonstrated substantial difference in bacterial community composition between the water at higher (WHT) and at lower (WLT) temperatures in the FASFL. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the highest abundant phyla in the FASFL, however, a large number of unclassified bacteria contributed the most to the observed variation in phylogenetic diversity. The WHT harbored remarkably higher diversity and richness in bacterial composition at genus and species levels when compared to the WLT. Some potential pathogenenic species were identified in both WHT and WLT, providing data in support of aquatic animal health management in the aquaculture industry. PMID:25105725

Tang, Yuyi; Tao, Peiying; Tan, Jianguo; Mu, Haizhen; Peng, Li; Yang, Dandan; Tong, Shilu; Chen, Lanming

2014-01-01

59

Identification of Bacterial Community Composition in Freshwater Aquaculture System Farming of Litopenaeus vannamei Reveals Distinct Temperature-Driven Patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Change in temperature is often a major environmental factor in triggering waterborne disease outbreaks. Previous research has revealed temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial population in several aquatic ecosystems. To date, very little information is available on aquaculture environment. Here, we assessed environmental temperature effects on bacterial community composition in freshwater aquaculture system farming of Litopenaeus vannamei (FASFL. Water samples were collected over a one-year period, and aquatic bacteria were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Resulting DGGE fingerprints revealed a specific and dynamic bacterial population structure with considerable variation over the seasonal change, suggesting that environmental temperature was a key driver of bacterial population in the FASFL. Pyrosequencing data further demonstrated substantial difference in bacterial community composition between the water at higher (WHT and at lower (WLT temperatures in the FASFL. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the highest abundant phyla in the FASFL, however, a large number of unclassified bacteria contributed the most to the observed variation in phylogenetic diversity. The WHT harbored remarkably higher diversity and richness in bacterial composition at genus and species levels when compared to the WLT. Some potential pathogenenic species were identified in both WHT and WLT, providing data in support of aquatic animal health management in the aquaculture industry.

Yuyi Tang

2014-08-01

60

Degradation and effect of hydrogen peroxide in small-scale recirculation aquaculture system biofilters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

From an environmental point of view, hydrogen peroxide (HP) has beneficial attributes compared with other disinfectants in terms of its ready degradation and neutral by-products. The rapid degradation of HP can, however, cause difficulties with regard to safe and efficient water treatment when applied in different systems. In this study, we investigated the degradation kinetics of HP in biofilters from water recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). The potential effect of HP on the nitrification process in the biofilters was also examined. Biofilter elements from two different pilot-scale RAS were exposed to various HP treatments in batch experiments, and the HP concentration was found to follow an exponential decay. The biofilter ammonia and nitrite oxidation processes showed quick recuperation after exposure to a single dose of HP up to 30 mg L?1. An average HP concentration of 10–13 mg L?1 maintained over 3 h had a moderate inhibitory effect on the biofilter elements from one of the RAS with relatively high organic loading, while the nitrification was severely inhibited in the pilot-scale biofilters from the other RAS with a relatively low organic loading. A pilot-scale RAS, equipped with two biofilter units, both a moving-bed (Biomedia) and a fixed-bed (BIO-BLOK®) biofilter, was subjected to an average HP concentration of ?12 mg L?1 for 3 h. The ammonium- and nitrite-degrading efficiencies of both the Biomedia and the BIO-BLOK® filters were drastically reduced. The filters had not reverted to pre-HP exposure efficiency after 24 h, suggesting a possible long-term impact on the biofilters.

Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

End-of-pipe single-sludge denitrification in pilot-scale recirculating aquaculture systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A step toward environmental sustainability of recirculat aquaculture systems (RAS) is implementation ofsingle-sludge denitrification, a process eliminating nitrate from the aqueous environment while reduc-ing the organic matter discharge simultaneously. Two 1700 L pilot-scale RAS systems each with a 85 Ldenitrification (DN) reactor treating discharged water and hydrolyzed solid waste were setup to testthe kinetics of nitrate and COD removal. Nitrate removal and COD reduction efficiency was measured attwo different DN-reactor sludge ages (high X: 33–42 days and low X: 17–23 days). Nitrate and total N(NO3?+ NO2?+ NH4+) removal of the treated effluent water ranged from 73–99% and 60–95% during theperiods, respectively, corresponding to an overall maximum RAS nitrate removal of approximately 75%.The specific nitrate removal rate increased from 17 to 23 mg NO3?-N (g TVS d)?1and the maximal poten-tial DN rate (measured at laboratory ideal conditions) increased correspondingly from 64–68 mg NO3?-N(g TVS d)?1to 247–294 mg NO3?-N (g TVS d)?1at high and low X, respectively. Quantification of denitri-fiers in the DN-reactors by qPCR showed only minor differences upon the altered sludge removal practice.The hydrolysis unit improved the biodegradability of the solid waste by increasing volatile fatty acid CODcontent 74–76%. COD reductions in the DN-reactors were 64–70%. In conclusion, this study showed thatsingle-sludge denitrification was a feasible way to reduce nitrate discharge from RAS, and higher DN rateswere induced at lower sludge age/increased sludge removal regime. Improved control and optimizationof reactor DN-activity may be achieved by further modifying reactor design and management scheme asindicated by the variation in and between the two DN-reactors.

Suhr, Karin Isabel; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

2014-01-01

62

Aquaculture information package  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

1998-08-01

63

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FRESHWATER AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India produced 8.29 million tonnes of fish in 2010-2011. The industry contributes nearly INR 200 trillion to the national economy, forming 1.4 percent of national gross domestic product (GDP and 5.4 percent of Agricultural GDP. At present, almost 84 percent of the total inland fish production, in the country is contributed by freshwater aquaculture amounting to 3.9 million tonnes in 2008-09. Further, the potential of the vast freshwater resources covering 6.7 million hectare is yet to be fully realized. The freshwater aquaculture which began as small scale activity of stocking ponds with fish seed collected from riverine sources during early fifties in rural Bengal has now transformed into a major economic activity in almost all states. There is a further need to make the sector more vibrant so as to achieve the predicted target of 15 kg per capita fish availability in the country by 2030.

H. Kumar

2013-01-01

64

Performance evaluation of the compact aquaculture system integrating submerged fibrousnitrifying biofilters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This experiment assessed the performance of submerged fibrous nitrifying biofilters (SFNBs) to carry out the zerowaterexchange tilapia cultivation. Without biofilter cleaning, the SFNBs (21 m of biofilter length) were susceptible tohydrogen sulfide production when operating beyond the aquaculture density of 13.62 kg/m3. The SFNBs were able tomaintain total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) and nitrite below 1.0 mg N/L throughout the experiment and could handle inorganicnitrogen loading as high as 38.6 m...

Sorawit Powtongsook; Kasidit Nootong

2012-01-01

65

Effectiveness of Floating Micro-Bead Bio-Filter for Ornamental Fish in a Re-Circulating Aquaculture System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bio-filtration has been widely used in re-circulating aquaculture system to remove waste and to convert toxic ammonia andnitrite into safe end products ornamental fish and other aquatic organisms. However, the study of micro-bead usage as the filter medium has not yet been broadened and thoroughly developed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to construct a biological filter made from polyethylene micro-bead as the filter medium and to analyze its effectiveness in removingwaste as well as in...

Fadhil, R.

2011-01-01

66

Effects of feed loading on nitrogen balances and fish performance in replicated recirculating aquaculture systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigated the effects of applying four fixed feed loadings to three replicated recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) on water quality changes, nitrogenous balances and growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).Feed loadings ranged from 1.6 to 6.3kgfeed/m3 make-up water, with a constant make-up water renewal of 4.7% of total water volume per day in all twelve RAS. Fish densities ranged from 14 to 92kg/m3 during the prolonged trial of 10weeks. Selected water quality parameters were measured during two intensive sampling campaigns, evaluating biofilter nitrification performance and diurnal patterns of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) and nitrite concentrations. No fish mortality occurred during the study. Feed conversion ratios varied between 0.91±0.04 and 0.95±0.02, and were unaffected by feeding load. Mean nitrate-nitrogen levels ranged from 54±7 to 196±10mg/L at steady state, and the concentration of nitrogenous compounds and organic matter were all positively correlated to feed loading.The TAN loading to the RAS from the specific feed type was assessed in a separate mass-balance study and used as input in a descriptive mathematical model (AQUASIM® software) developed to simulate processes affecting N mass-balances in the RAS. Nitrification kinetic rate constants were applied to the biofilter, and fractions of nitrifiers in suspended solids in the water phase were estimated based on existing information from waste water treatment processes. Two model scenarios successfully simulated the measured TAN concentration in the experimental RAS. The first model scenario applied a first-order area-based nitrification rate (k1a) constant of 0.2m/d, estimating a fraction of active nitrifiers (fN) in the water phase of 4% of the total suspended solids. The second model scenario used a k1a of 0.1, estimating a fN of 8% with similar predictability as in the first scenario. Overall, this study provided new information on fish performance and resulting water quality during steady state RAS operation. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that kinetic modeling can be applied to simulate measured TAN concentrations in experimental RAS.

Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Suhr, Karin Isabel

2012-01-01

67

Characterizing the structural diversity of a bacterial community associated with filter materials in recirculating aquaculture systems of Scortum barcoo.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bacterial community structure associated with filter materials in the recirculating aquaculture system of Scortum barcoo was investigated using the 16S rRNA gene clone library method. Preliminary results showed that the clone library constructed from the initial operation condition was characterized by 31 taxa of bacteria belonging to eight phyla including Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Sphingobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobiae, and Actinobacteria. There were 14 taxa of bacteria belonging to four phyla including Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetacia, and Nitrospirae from the stable operation condition where the water quality was well maintained. Nitrospirae was only found under the stable operation condition in this study. Our results further indicated that Nitrospira was dominated by members of the Nitrospira sp. lineages, with a minor fraction related to Nitrospira moscoviensis and an unknown Nitrospira cluster. These great differences of both diversity and composition between two operation conditions suggested that the composition of the microbial community varied with the degree of water quality in the recirculating aquaculture system of S. barcoo. PMID:22339297

Zhu, Peng; Ye, Yangfang; Pei, Fangfang; Lu, Kaihong

2012-03-01

68

Animal protein production modules in biological life support systems: Novel combined aquaculture techniques based on the closed equilibrated biological aquatic system (C.E.B.A.S.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the experiences made with the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) which was primarily deveoloped for long-term and multi-generation experiments with aquatic animals and plants in a space station highly effective fresh water recycling modules were elaborated utilizing a combination of ammonia oxidizing bacteria filters and higher plants. These exhibit a high effectivity to eliminate phosphate and anorganic nitrogen compounds and arc. in addidition. able to contribute to the oxygen supply of the aquatic animals. The C.E.B.A.S. filter system is able to keep a closed artificial aquatic ecosystem containing teleost fishes and water snails biologically stable for several month and to eliminate waste products deriving from degraded dead fishes without a decrease of the oxygen concentration down to less than 3.5 mg/l at 25 °C. More advanced C.E.B.A.S. filter systems, the BIOCURE filters, were also developed for utilization in semiintensive and intensive aquaculture systems for fishes. In fact such combined animal-plant aquaculture systems represent highly effective productions sites for human food if proper plant and fish species are selected The present papers elucidates ways to novel aquaculture systems in which herbivorous fishes are raised by feeding them with plant biomass produced in the BIOCURE filters and presents the scheme of a modification which utilizes a plant species suitable also for human nutrition. Special attention is paid to the benefits of closed aquaculture system modules which may be integrated into bioregenerative life support systems of a higher complexity for, e. g.. lunar or planetary bases including some psychologiccal aspects of the introduction of animal protein production into plant-based life support systems. Moreover, the basic reproductive biological problems of aquatic animal breeding under reduced gravity are explained leading to a disposition of essential research programs in this context.

Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Kreuzberg, K.; Schreibman, M. P.

69

Osnovy formirovanija sistemy upravlenija riskami proektov innovacionnogo razvitija akvakul'tury v regione (Na primere Kaliningradskoj oblasti [The formation of a risk management system for projects in the field of aquaculture innovative development in the Kaliningrad region: a case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article sets out to develop the concept and the principal scheme of the formation of a risk management system for innovative economic development projects in the field of aquaculture. The research carried out by the authors helps identify the main problems and characteristics of risk management projects for the development of aquaculture in presentday Russia. The authors outline the status and features of aquaculture development projects in the North-western federal district and the Kaliningrad region. The article formulates and justifies the concept of “risk management projects in innovative development of aquaculture in the region” focusing on the classification of aquaculture risks in relation to innovative development projects, which expands the conceptual framework of risk management in view of the specific risks relating to economic development projects in the field of aquaculture. The authors characterize modern methods and approaches to risk management projects and organizations in the context of their application in the framework of aquaculture development projects and offer mechanisms for risk management of aquaculture development projects, which make it possible to include risk management activity in the general context of activities of parent project organizations. The authors develop the concept and principal scheme of the formation of risk management system for innovative development projects in aquaculture.

Serbulov Alexey

2012-01-01

70

The influence of different stocking densities on biochemical composition of rainbow trout meat reared in a recirculating aquaculture system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the biochemical composition of rainbow trout meat, reared in a recirculating aquaculture system, at different stocking densities (DS1-2,64 kg/m3, DS2-5,16 kg/m3, DS3-7,12 kg/m3, DS4-9,42 kg/m3. The analyses were performed in the research laboratory of Aquaculture, Environmental Science and Cadastre Department – Faculty of Food Science and Engineering, from ,,Dunarea de Jos’’University of Galati. The content of meat proteins, fats, dry substance and ash was determined. After a 33 days experimental trial, the biochemical analysis of meat from all four experimental variants shows that protein content was higher in DS1 and DS4 variants, while the smallest amount of fats was quantified at DS1 and DS2 variants, without significant differences (p >0.05 for none of the biochemical compounds analyzed, at the mean comparison on experimental variants. Thus, it can be concluded that biochemical composition of rainbow trout meat was not influenced by the tested stocking densities.

Mirela Cretu

2014-05-01

71

Wastewater utilization for poly-?-hydroxybutyrate production by the cyanobacterium Aulosira fertilissima in a recirculatory aquaculture system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intensive aquaculture releases large quantities of nutrients into aquatic bodies, which can lead to eutrophication. The objective of this study was the development of a biological recirculatory wastewater treatment system with a diazotrophic cyanobacterium, Aulosira fertilissima, and simultaneous production of valuable product in the form of poly-?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). To investigate this possible synergy, batch scale tests were conducted under a recirculatory aquaculture system in fiber-reinforced plastic tanks enhanced by several manageable parameters (e.g., sedimentation, inoculum size, depth, turbulence, and light intensity), an adequate combination of which showed better productivity. The dissolved-oxygen level increased in the range of 3.2 to 6.9 mg liter?¹ during the culture period. Nutrients such as ammonia, nitrite, and phosphate decreased to as low as zero within 15 days of incubation, indicating the system's bioremediation capability while yielding valuable cyanobacterial biomass for PHB production. Maximum PHB accumulation in A. fertilissima was found in sedimented fish pond discharge at 20-cm culture depth with stirring and an initial inoculum size of 80 mg dry cell weight (dcw) liter?¹. Under optimized conditions, the PHB yield was boosted to 92, 89, and 80 g m?², respectively for the summer, rainy, and winter seasons. Extrapolation of the result showed that a hectare of A. fertilissima cultivation in fish pond discharge would give an annual harvest of ?17 tons dry biomass, consisting of 14 tons of PHB with material properties comparable to those of the bacterial polymer, with simultaneous treatment of 32,640 m³ water discharge. PMID:21984242

Samantaray, Shilalipi; Nayak, Jitendra Kumar; Mallick, Nirupama

2011-12-01

72

The cost and effectiveness of solids thickening technologies for treating backwash and recovering nutrients from intensive aquaculture systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cost and effectiveness of three solids thickening processes, i.e., gravity thickening settlers (GTS), inclined belt filters (IBF), geotextile bag filters (GBF), were individually evaluated with the biosolids backwash produced in intensive aquaculture systems equipped with microscreen drum filters and radial-flow settlers. The IBF produced the cleanest discharge and highest treatment efficiencies, likely reflecting the rapid efficiency with which solids are separated from wastewater. The GBF was the least effective process, i.e., GBF leachate contained the highest concentrations of TP, TN, and cBOD. However, GBF was most effective for sludge volume reduction. Capital cost estimates for an IBF were more than twice that of GTS and GBF of similar treatment capacity. The GTS had the lowest capital and annual operating cost estimates. The estimated annual operating cost of the GBF was orders of magnitude higher than the IBF and GTS, due to the high cost to replace bags. PMID:20395138

Sharrer, Mark; Rishel, Kata; Taylor, Amanda; Vinci, Brian J; Summerfelt, Steven T

2010-09-01

73

Electron beam focusing system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

1997-09-01

74

Establishment of a real-time PCR method for quantification of geosmin-producing Streptomyces spp. in recirculating aquaculture systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) have been associated with off-flavour problems in fish and seafood products, generating a strong negative impact for aquaculture industries. Although most of the producers of geosmin and MIB have been identified as Streptomyces species or cyanobacteria, Streptomyces spp. are thought to be responsible for the synthesis of these compounds in indoor recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). The detection of genes involved in the synthesis of geosmin and MIB can be a relevant indicator of the beginning of off-flavour events in RAS. Here, we report a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) protocol targeting geoA sequences that encode a germacradienol synthase involved in geosmin synthesis. New geoA-related sequences were retrieved from eleven geosmin-producing Actinomycete strains, among them two Streptomyces strains isolated from two RAS. Combined with geoA-related sequences available in gene databases, we designed primers and standards suitable for qPCR assays targeting mainly Streptomyces geoA. Using our qPCR protocol, we succeeded in measuring the level of geoA copies in sand filter and biofilters in two RAS. This study is the first to apply qPCR assays to detect and quantify the geosmin synthesis gene (geoA) in RAS. Quantification of geoA in RAS could permit the monitoring of the level of geosmin producers prior to the occurrence of geosmin production. This information will be most valuable for fish producers to manage further development of off-flavour events. PMID:22060964

Auffret, Marc; Pilote, Alexandre; Proulx, Emilie; Proulx, Daniel; Vandenberg, Grant; Villemur, Richard

2011-12-15

75

Desarrollo de Sistemas de Vigilancia Tecnológica en la Acuicultura Española / Development of Technological Vigilance Systems in Spanish Aquaculture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo caracterizamos el proceso de vigilancia tecnológica como respuesta empresarial a la necesaria adaptación a entornos turbulentos y como origen de ventajas competitivas. En este sentido realizamos una recensión teórica, un análisis estratégico de la referida vigilancia como herramient [...] a para el desarrollo competitivo de la empresa en sectores involucrados con la investigación, el desarrollo y la innovación (I+D+i), así como una adaptación secuencial al desarrollo de la acuicultura. Sobre dicha base hemos realizado una aplicación al sector de la acuicultura en España, mediante el contraste de tres hipótesis relacionadas con el nivel global de desarrollo de los sistemas, los factores y agentes del entorno y la utilización de fuentes de información, todas ellas a través del programa estadístico SPSS 18. Como conclusión hemos identificado patrones globales para la vigilancia en el sector y especificidades por subsector, actividad, área geográfica o tipo de cultivo. Abstract in english In this paper we characterize the process of technological monitoring like enterprise answer to the necessary adjustment to turbulent environments and like origin of competitive advantages. In this respect we fulfil a theoretical critique, a strategic analysis of the above-mentioned monitoring like [...] tool for the competitive development of the company in sectors involved with the research, development and innovation (R+D+i), as well as a sequential adjustment to the development of aquaculture. On the above mentioned base we have realized an application to the Spanish Aquaculture, by means of the resistance of three hypotheses related to the global level of development of the systems, the factors and agents of the environment and the use of sources of intelligence, all of them through statistical program SPSS 18. Since conclusion we have identified global patterns for the monitoring in the sector and specificities by subsector, activity, geographical area or type of crop.

Francisco Javier, Sánchez Sellero; Montserrat, Cruz González.

2012-10-01

76

Disease in marine aquaculture  

Science.gov (United States)

It has become almost a truism that success in intensive production of animals must be based in part on development of methods for disease diagnosis and control. Excellent progress has been made in methods of diagnosis for major pathogens of cultivated fish, crustacean and molluscan species. In many instances these have proved to be facultative pathogens, able to exert severe effects in populations of animals under other stresses (marginal physical or chemical conditions; overcrowding). The concept of stress management as a critical prophylactic measure is not new, but its significance is being demonstrated repeatedly. The particular relationship of water quality and facultative pathogens such as Vibrio, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas species has been especially apparent. Virus diseases of marine vertebrates and invertebrates — little known two decades ago — are now recognized to be of significance to aquaculture. Virus infections of oysters, clams, shrimps and crabs have been described, and mortalities have been attributed to them. Several virus diseases of fish have also been recognized as potential or actual problems in culture. In some instances, the pathogens seem to be latent in natural populations, and may be provoked into patency by stresses of artificial environments. One of the most promising approaches to disease prophylaxis is through immunization. Fish respond well to various vaccination procedures, and new non-stressing methods have been developed. Vibriosis — probably the most severe disease of ocean-reared salmon — has been controlled to a great extent through use of a polyvalent bacterin, which can be modified as new pathogenic strains are isolated. Prophylactic immunization for other bacterial diseases of cultivated fish has been attempted, especially in Japan, with some success. There is also some evidence that the larger crustaceans may be immunologically responsive, and that at least short-term protection may be afforded to cultured populations. Some progress has been made in marine disease control through chemical treatment in intensive culture systems, principally through application and modification of methods developed for freshwater aquaculture. Major constraints to use of chemicals are restrictions due to public health concerns about food contamination, and the negative effects of some chemicals on biological filters and on algal food production. There is a continuing need, however, for development of specific treatments for acute disease episodes — such as the nitrofurans, developed in Japan, which are effective for some bacterial diseases. The history of aquaculture — freshwater as well as marine — has been characterized by transfers and introductions of species to waters beyond their present ranges. The process continues, and carries with it the possibility of transfers of pathogens to native species and to the recipient culture environments. International groups are attempting to define codes of practice to govern such mass movements, but examples of introductions of real or potential pathogens already exist. The most recent and the most dramatic is the world wide transfer of a virus pathogen of penaeid shrimps. Earlier examples include the introduction of a protozoan pathogen of salmonids to the western hemisphere, and the introduction of a parasitic copepod from the Far East to the west coast of North America and to France. The conclusion is inevitable — diseases are substantial deterrents to aquaculture production. Diagnostic and control procedures are and will be important components of emerging aquaculture technology.

Sindermann, C. J.

1984-03-01

77

RESEARCHES REGARDING THE TECHNOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF CARP REARING DURING WINTER PERIOD IN THE CONDITIONS OF A RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The techniques of carp culture are highly diversified, ranging from the extensive production in pond or open water with no fertilization or supplemental feeding to highly intensive systems in concrete tanks or cages. Among the different carp species, common carp is the best species reared in intensive monoculture, the others (Chinese and Indian carps being usually cultivated in polyculture (P. Kestemont, 1995. An experiment was conducted in inside recirculation system conditions to identify the technological performances on carp growth and survival at the Fishing and Aquaculture Department, Galati, during winter period (February, 2007 – March, 2007. The 1-year-old carp (Cyprinus carpio 4792g; 4594 g; 4561 g and 4525 g (total weight grew to 7384g; 7017g; 6924g and 7125 g in 44 days in aquarium 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. In all aquariums, the fish appeared healthy and no mortality was observed. Feed conversion efficiencies (FCE had similar values among all aquariums, the highest FCE being found in B4 aquarium with 1, 57 value. Water quality parameters were acceptable range for fish culture. Results show that the carp rearing during winter period in the inside recirculation system is a very good economic solution.

G. STEFAN

2013-12-01

78

Chemicals for worldwide aquaculture  

Science.gov (United States)

Regulations and therapeutants or other safe chemicals that are approved or acceptable for use in the aquaculture industry in the US, Canada, Europe and Japan are presented, discussing also compounds that are unacceptable for aquaculture. Chemical use practices that could affect public health are considered and details given regarding efforts to increase the number of registered and acceptable chemicals.

Schnick, R. A.

1991-01-01

79

Ammonia-oxidizing archaea and nitrite-oxidizing nitrospiras in the biofilter of a shrimp recirculating aquaculture system.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study analysed the nitrifier community in the biofilter of a zero discharge, recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for the production of marine shrimp in a low density (low ammonium production) system. The ammonia-oxidizing populations were examined by targeting 16S rRNA and amoA genes of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA). The nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were investigated by targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Archaeal amoA genes were more abundant in all compartments of the RAS than bacterial amoA genes. Analysis of bacterial and archaeal amoA gene sequences revealed that most ammonia oxidizers were related to Nitrosomonas marina and Nitrosopumilus maritimus. The NOB detected were related to Nitrospira marina and Nitrospira moscoviensis, and Nitrospira marina-type NOB were more abundant than N. moscoviensis-type NOB. Water quality and biofilm attachment media played a role in the competitiveness of AOA over AOB and Nitrospira marina-over N. moscoviensis-type NOB. PMID:22775980

Brown, Monisha N; Briones, Aurelio; Diana, James; Raskin, Lutgarde

2013-01-01

80

Impact of water boundary layer diffusion on the nitrification rate of submerged biofilter elements from a recirculating aquaculture system  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) removal by microbial nitrification is an essential process in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). In order to protect the aquatic environment and fish health, it is important to be able to predict the nitrification rates in RAS’s. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of hydraulic film diffusion on the nitrification rate in a submerged biofilter. Using an experimental batch reactor setup with recirculation, active nitrifying biofilter units from a RAS were exposed to a range of hydraulic flow velocities. Corresponding nitrification rates were measured following ammonium chloride, NH4Cl, spikes and the impact of hydraulic film diffusion was quantified. The nitrification performance of the tested biofilter could be significantly increased by increasing the hydraulic flow velocity in the filter. Area based first order nitrification rate constants ranged from 0.065 m d?1 to 0.192 m d?1 for flow velocities between 2.5 m h?1 and 40 m h?1 (18 °C). This study documents that hydraulic film diffusion may have a significant impact on the nitrification rate in fixed film biofilters with geometry and hydraulic flows corresponding to our experimental RAS biofilters. The results may thus have practical implications in relation to the design, operational strategy of RAS biofilters and how to optimize TAN removal in fixed film biofilter systems

Waul, Christopher Kevin; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Effect of Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Hematological Indicators of Allogynogenetic crucian Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A Ditch Constructed Wetland unit (DCW) was integrated into an outdoor RAS with four fishponds. This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) on growth performance, body composition and hematological indicators of the rearing fish. During a 165-days culture period, the DCW effectively reduced the influent concentrations of nutrients and can keep a good water quality at acceptab...

Xiao-li Li; Gu Li; Shi-yang Zhang; Ling Tao

2013-01-01

82

Depletion of florfenicol amine in tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) maintained in a recirculating aquaculture system following Aquaflor®-medicated feed therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaflor® [50% w w?1 florfenicol (FFC)], is approved for use in freshwater-reared warmwater finfish which include tilapia Oreochromis spp. in the United States to control mortality from Streptococcus iniae. The depletion of florfenicol amine (FFA), the marker residue of FFC, was evaluated after feeding FFC-medicated feed to deliver a nominal 20 mg FFC kg?1 BW d?1 dose (1.33× the label use of 15 mg FFC kg?1 BW d?1) to Nile tilapia O. niloticus and hybrid tilapia O. niloticus × O. aureus held in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) at production-scale holding densities. Florfenicol amine concentrations were determined in fillets taken from 10 fish before dosing and from 20 fish at nine time points after dosing (from 1 to 240 h post-dosing). Water samples were assayed for FFC before, during and after the dosing period. Parameters monitored included daily feed consumption and biofilter function (levels of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate). Mean fillet FFA concentration decreased from 13.77 ?g g?1 at 1-h post dosing to 0.39 ?g g?1 at 240-h post dosing. Water FFC concentration decreased from a maximum of 1400 ng mL?1 at 1 day post-dosing to 847 ng mL?1 at 240 h post-dosing. There were no adverse effects noted on fish, feed consumption or biofilter function associated with FFC-medicated feed administration to tilapia.

Gaikowski, Mark P.; Whitsel, Melissa K.; Charles, Shawn; Schleis, Susan M.; Crouch, Louis S.; Endris, Richard G.

2013-01-01

83

Application of CFD modeling to hydrodynamics of CycloBio fluidized sand bed in recirculating aquaculture systems  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve the efficiency of a CycloBio fluidized sand bed (CB FSB) in removal of dissolved wastes in recirculating aquaculture systems, the hydrodynamics of solid-liquid flow was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling tools. The dynamic characteristics of silica sand within the CB FSB were determined using three-dimensional, unsteady-state simulations with the granular Eulerian multiphase approach and the RNG k-? turbulence model, and the simulation results were validated using available lab-scale measurements. The bed expansion of CB FSB increased with the increase in water inflow rate in numerical simulations. Upon validation, the simulation involving 0.55 mm particles, the Gidaspow correlation for drag coefficient model and the Syamlal-O'Brien correlation for kinetic granular viscosity showed the closest match to the experimental results. The volume fraction of numerical simulations peaked as the wall was approached. The hydrodynamics of a pilot-scale CB FSB was simulated in order to predict the range of water flow to avoid the silica sand overflowing. The numerical simulations were in agreement with the experimental results qualitatively and quantitatively, and thus can be used to study the hydrodynamics of solid-liquid multiphase flow in CB FSB, which is of importance to the design, optimization, and amplification of CB FSBs.

Liu, Yao; Song, Xiefa; Liang, Zhenlin; Peng, Lei

2013-11-01

84

The Effects of Some Phytobiotics on Biochemical Composition of Oreochromis Niloticus Meat Reared in a Recirculating Aquaculture System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment is the evaluation of biochemical composition of Nile tilapia meat by administrating  several phytobiotics in feed. Oreochromis niloticus, with an initial average weight of 125.41±34.33 g/exemplar, were reared, during six weeks in a recirculating aquaculture system. The phytobiotics from this experiment were administered in feed in a concentration of 1%/kg feed and consist in: thyme (Thymus vulgaris, fenugreek (Trigonela foenum graecum, neem (Azadirachta indica. Thus, the experimental variants were: V1-control, V2-thyme, V3-fenugreek and V4-neem. Fish were fed with SOPROFISH pelleted feed with 38% crude protein and 7% crude fat. During the experiment, the physico-chemical parameters of technological water were situated in normal range for optimal growth. At the end of the experiment, significant differences (p<0.05 were recorded between the experimental variants, regarding to moisture, protein content, fat content and dry matter; unsignificant differences were recorded regarding the percentage of ash (p>0.05; p=0.68. The highest value of moisture (87.25% was registered in V2; the lowest value of fat content (0.05% was recorded in V4 and the lowest protein content (10.79% in V2. In conclusion, thyme, fenugreek and neem administration, in concentration of 1%/kg feed, influenced significantly the biochemical composition of Oreochromis niloticus.

Alina Antache

2013-05-01

85

Food safety and products from aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaculture is currently one of the fastest growing food production systems in the world with production increasing at an average rate of 9.6% per year over the past decade. As world fish stocks are reaching the limits of exploitation, we shall rely to a far greater extent on products from aquaculture as food sources of high nutritional value. Approximately 90% of global aquaculture production is based in Asia, where it provides an important source of dietary animal protein of the region and income for millions of small-scale farmers. Commercial aquaculture contributes significantly to the economies of many producing countries, where highly valued species are a major source of foreign. Many different aquaculture systems exist world wide, ranging from small family-sized fish ponds to intensive cage culture industries as used in salmon fishing. There has been an expansion in the use of integrated farming systems, especially in Asia, where animal and human faeces are used to fertilise ponds. This paper will review global aquaculture systems used in the production of finfish and crustaceans and will focus on potential hazards arising from biological contamination of products that pose risks to public health. PMID:21182715

Reilly, A; Käferstein, F

1998-12-01

86

Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads, were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter were filled as a layer of 10 cm in the water treatment tank of control-2. While in the treatment tank, Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis was planted at 334 plants/m2 in baked clay beads layer. During 35 days of experiment, the average fish wet-weight in control-1, control-2 and treatment systems increased from 16.31±1.49, 15.18±1.28 and 11.31±1.49 g to 29.43±7.06, 28.65±3.12 and 27.20±6.56 g, respectively. It was found that the growth rate of 0.45±0.15 g-wet weight/day in a treatment tank was higher than in those 2 controls, which were rather similar at 0.37±0.16 and 0.38±0.05 g-wet weight/day, respectively. The fish survival rate of all experimental units was 100%. The average Chinese cabbage wet-weight in treatment system increased from 0.15±0.02 g to 1.00±0.38 g. For water quality, all parameters were within the acceptable range for aquaculture. The assimilation inorganic nitrogen in a treatment tank showed a slower rate and lower nitrite accumulation relative to those in control tanks. The nitrogen and phosphorus balance analysis illustrated that most of the nitrogen and phosphorus input in all systems was from feed (82-87% and 21-87% while at the final day of experiments, nitrogen and phosphorus in tilapia culture revealed at 15-19% and 4-13%. The accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus in the water, up to 56% and 70%, was found in control-1 while water in the tank with baked clay beads had substantial lower nitrogen and phosphorus concentration. The most important part was unaccounted nitrogen and phosphorus as high as 60% and 17% in treatment and 53% and 10% in control-2 systems. Nitrogen and phosphorus incorporated in plant (treatment was only 1.31% and 0.11%, respectively. It can be implied from the results that the assimilation in plant was a minor process for nutrient removal in this RAS. On the other hand, the nitrification and denitrification occurred in the sediment layer of baked clay beads tank were the major treatment processes to maintain water quality in the recirculating system. Without baked clay bead, nitrogen waste was accumulated as nitrate in the water while in treatment tank with backed clay beads, nitrogen was significantly removed by denitrification process.

Aeknarin Thanakitpairin

2014-01-01

87

Mechanical mode floating medium filters for recirculating systems in aquaculture for higher solids retention and lower freshwater usage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to develop a better understanding of a floating medium in a mechanical filtration mode. The experiments were carried out using a commonly available polystyrene floating medium filter with the grain size of 1mm. A sand medium filter with the similar grain size was also tested for the comparison. A short-term trial of 2h and a long-term of 20 days filtration times were conducted with three custom manufactured pressurized filters of 16l. The filters were operated under three different configurations: (i) upflow with floating media (UFMF), (ii) downflow with floating media (DFMF) and (iii) downflow with a sand medium (DSF). The results of the long-term trial indicated that at a flow rate of 22 m/h, the UFMF and DSF had similar solid removal capacity with an average total suspended solids (TSS) removal efficiency of 60%. The DFMF could only remove 33% of TSS. However, during the short-term trial, TSS removal efficiency of the UFMF was better compared to the DSF (e.g., 71%, 56% and 57% of TSS removal in UFMF compared to 66%, 49% and 41% in the DSFF at the flow rates of 20, 25 and 31m/h, respectively). The energy requirements of each filter were compared by measuring the pressure differential across each filter. The long-term trial indicated that the UFMF had a significantly less pressure differential (44 kPa) compared to the DSF (80 kPa) (pfilter was better and more applicable to recirculating aquaculture systems than conventional pressurized sand filter. PMID:17532213

Steicke, C; Jegatheesan, V; Zeng, C

2007-12-01

88

Aquaculture in Sweden : Sustainability of land-based recirculation aquaculture as a future alternative for Swedish fish farmers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the world’s population expanding rapidly and estimated to reach nine billion in 2050, the demand for food will increase. Therefore the need for more sustainable ways of food production, in particular meat, poultry and fish are needed. Aquaculture can significantly contribute to this. This thesis focuses on Swedish aquaculture and in particular the increasingly used method of food fish farming in Recirculation Aquaculture Systems (RAS). The aim of the thesis is to analyze and discern th...

Blom, Daan Wilhelmus

2013-01-01

89

Electronics circuits and systems  

CERN Document Server

The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Ea

Bishop, Owen

2011-01-01

90

Phylogenetic diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in biofilters of recirculating aquaculture systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

We constructed ammonia monooxygenase alpha subunit (amoA) gene clone libraries of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) from three biofiltration tanks used for closed marine fish culture systems. The number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found in any one place was 76%-80% of the total OTUs in each tank for AOA and 100% for AOB when OUTs were defined on the basis of a 5% nucleotide difference. In a phylogenetic tree, all of the AOA amoA sequences fell into a cluster, which contained Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus. All of the AOB amoA sequences were related to the Nitrosospira lineage. These results indicated that different ammonia oxidizers were present in different tanks, but that the dominant phylogenetic types were stable. In a biofiltration tank to which a high concentration of ammonium chloride was added periodically to condition the biofilter materials, most of the AOA amoA sequences were different from the dominant one observed in the fish culture tanks. The AOB amoA sequences were also different, and were similar to those of Nitrosomonas aestuarii. These findings suggest that high concentration ammonia loads have a considerable affect on ammonia-oxidizer community composition. PMID:22897959

Sakami, Tomoko; Andoh, Tadashi; Morita, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

2012-09-01

91

Modular electronics packaging system  

Science.gov (United States)

A modular electronics packaging system includes multiple packaging slices that are mounted horizontally to a base structure. The slices interlock to provide added structural support. Each packaging slice includes a rigid and thermally conductive housing having four side walls that together form a cavity to house an electronic circuit. The chamber is enclosed on one end by an end wall, or web, that isolates the electronic circuit from a circuit in an adjacent packaging slice. The web also provides a thermal path between the electronic circuit and the base structure. Each slice also includes a mounting bracket that connects the packaging slice to the base structure. Four guide pins protrude from the slice into four corresponding receptacles in an adjacent slice. A locking element, such as a set screw, protrudes into each receptacle and interlocks with the corresponding guide pin. A conduit is formed in the slice to allow electrical connection to the electronic circuit.

Hunter, Don J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

92

The influence of stocking density on growth performance and hematological profile of stellate sturgeon (A. stellatus, Pallas, 1771, reared in an industrial ,, flow-through’’ aquaculture system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 800x600 The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of four different stocking densities, ranging from 18.7 to 28.6 kg m3, on growth performance and welfare of juvenile stellate sturgeons, reared in an industrial ,,flow-through’’ aquaculture system. At the end of 60 days experimental period, a survival rate of 98% and a stocking density that ranged from 32.5 to 39.8 kg m-3 were registered. The physiological state of biological material is characterized by the values ??of hematological indices, that are not significant from the statistical point of view (p> 0.05, both at the beginning and at the end of experimental period, as well as between experimental variants. To assess the biological material growth performance, feed conversion ratio (FCR, specific growth rate (SGR and profile index were calculated. Regarding the growth performance parameters, better value are encountered at B1 (18.7 kg m-3 and B3 (23.3 kg m-3, appreciable values ??at B2 (20.4 kg m-3 and low values at B4 (28.6 kg m-3. As conclusion, it can be assert that the initial stocking density of 28.6 kg m-3 is not optimal for rearing juvenile stellate sturgeons in an industrial ,,flow-through’’ aquaculture system. Normal 0 21 false false false RO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

Desimira Maria Dicu Stroe

2013-10-01

93

Molecular genetics in aquaculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Great advances in molecular genetics have deeply changed the way of doing research in aquaculture, as it has already done in other fields. The molecular revolution started in the 1980’s, thanks to the widespread use of restriction enzymes and Polymerase Chain Reaction technology, which makes it possible to easily detect the genetic variability directly at the DNA level. In aquaculture, the molecular data are used for several purposes, which can be clustered into two main groups. The first one, focused on individuals, includes the sex identification and parentage assignment, while the second one, focused on populations, includes the wide area of the genetic characterization, aimed at solving taxonomic uncertainties, preserving genetic biodiversity and detecting genetic tags. For the future, the increase in the number of molecular markers and the construction of high density genetic maps, as well as the implementation of genomic resources (including genome sequencing, are expected to provide tools for the genetic improvement of aquaculture species through Marked Assisted Selection. In this review the characteristics of different types of molecular markers, along with their applications to a variety of aquaculture issues are presented.

Liliana Di Stasio

2010-01-01

94

An Overview of Aquaculture in the Nordic Countries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The goal of this review was to describe in some detail the Nordic aquaculture industries in order to illuminate the similarities and differences. Information that was gathered for each country includes aquaculture history, aquaculture acts and regulations, production and production systems, environmental concerns, organic aquaculture and outlook for the future. The information will be useful for risk assessments, design of risk-based surveillance programs and for construction of comparative risk profiles for endemic and exotic diseases affecting aquaculture in the Nordic countries. Aquaculture in the Nordic countries has a long history; beginning in the 1850s when hatcheries for restocking of salmon and trout were established in Norway. Nowadays, Atlantic salmon is the dominant cultured species in Norway and the Faroe Islands, whereas rainbow trout dominate in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden. Arctic char and cod are most important in Iceland. Other important cultured species include eel and blue mussels. There is much diversity in Nordic aquaculture industries in terms of production, farmed species, and production systems. Although the vast majority of the Nordic aquaculture production is for human consumption, significant numbers of fish are grown for restocking of rivers, lakes, or other bodies of freshwater or seawater.

Paisley, Larry; Ariel, Ellen

2010-01-01

95

MDT DCS Electronics System  

CERN Document Server

This note has the aim to present the Detector Control System for the Monitor- ing of the electronics values of MDT chambers in ATLAS experiment in CERN. This system is decided to be called in short ELTX. The principal task of DCS is to enable and ensure the coherent and safe oper- ation of the detector. The interaction of detector expers, users or shifters to the detector hardware is also done via DCS. This is the responsible system of moni- toring the operational parameters and the overall state of the detector, the alarm generation and handling, the connection of hardware values to databases and the interaction with the DAQ system. Through this thesis, one can see what ELTX system has to offer as a Detector Control System and in detail, what is the hardware to be controlled and monitored. Moreover it is presented the mainstream of central Atlas DCS concerning the active interfaces.ELTX is a system following these standards.

Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Gazis, Evangelos; Tsipolitis, Georgios

96

Strongly correlated electron systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010-co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson-followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400(th) anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed during SCES 2010. As we learned, past dogmas about strongly correlated materials and phenomena must be re-examined with an open and inquisitive mind. Invited speakers and respected leaders in the field were invited to contribute to this special issue and we have insisted that they present new data, ideas, or perspectives, as opposed to simply an overview of their past work. As with the conference, this special issue touches upon recent developments of strongly correlated electron systems in d-electron materials, such as Sr(3)Ru(2)O(7), graphene, and the new Fe-based superconductors, but it is dominated by topics in f-electron compounds. Contributions reflect the growing appreciation for the influence of disorder and frustration, the need for organizing principles, as well as detailed investigations on particular materials of interest and, of course, new materials. As this special issue could not possibly capture the full breadth and depth that the conference had to offer, it is being published simultaneously with an issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series containing 157 manuscripts in which all poster presenters at SCES 2010 were invited to contribute. Since this special issue grew out of the 2010 SCES conference, we take this opportunity to give thanks. This conference would not have been possible without the hard work of the SCES 2010 Program Committee, International and National Advisory Committees, Local Committee, and conference organizers, the New Mexico Consortium. We thank them as well as those organizations that generously provided financial support: ICAM-I2CAM, Quantum Design, Lakeshore, the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and the Department of Energy National Laboratories at Argonne, Berkeley, Brookhaven, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge. Of course, we especially thank the participants for bringing new ideas and new results, without which SCES 2010 would not have been possible. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Spin-orbit coupling and k-dependent Zeeman splitting in strontium ruthenate Emil J Rozbicki, James F Annett, Jean-René Souque

Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

2011-02-16

97

Marketing Netcoatings for Aquaculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Unsustainable harvesting of natural fish stocks is driving an ever growing marine aquaculture industry. Part of the aquaculture support industry is net suppliers who provide producers with nets used in confining fish while they are grown to market size. Biofouling must be addressed in marine environments to ensure maximum product growth by maintaining water flow and waste removal through the nets. Biofouling is managed with copper and organic biocide based net coatings. The aquaculture industry provides a case study for business issues related to entry of improved fouling management technology into the marketplace. Several major hurdles hinder entry of improved novel technologies into the market. The first hurdle is due to the structure of business relationships. Net suppliers can actually cut their business profits dramatically by introducing improved technologies. A second major hurdle is financial costs of registration and demonstration of efficacy and quality product with a new technology. Costs of registration are prohibitive if only the net coatings market is involved. Demonstration of quality product requires collaboration and a team approach between formulators, net suppliers and farmers. An alternative solution is a vertically integrated business model in which the support business and product production business are part of the same company.

Robert J. Martin

2014-10-01

98

Marketing netcoatings for aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unsustainable harvesting of natural fish stocks is driving an ever growing marine aquaculture industry. Part of the aquaculture support industry is net suppliers who provide producers with nets used in confining fish while they are grown to market size. Biofouling must be addressed in marine environments to ensure maximum product growth by maintaining water flow and waste removal through the nets. Biofouling is managed with copper and organic biocide based net coatings. The aquaculture industry provides a case study for business issues related to entry of improved fouling management technology into the marketplace. Several major hurdles hinder entry of improved novel technologies into the market. The first hurdle is due to the structure of business relationships. Net suppliers can actually cut their business profits dramatically by introducing improved technologies. A second major hurdle is financial costs of registration and demonstration of efficacy and quality product with a new technology. Costs of registration are prohibitive if only the net coatings market is involved. Demonstration of quality product requires collaboration and a team approach between formulators, net suppliers and farmers. An alternative solution is a vertically integrated business model in which the support business and product production business are part of the same company. PMID:25329615

Martin, Robert J

2014-01-01

99

Marketing Netcoatings for Aquaculture  

Science.gov (United States)

Unsustainable harvesting of natural fish stocks is driving an ever growing marine aquaculture industry. Part of the aquaculture support industry is net suppliers who provide producers with nets used in confining fish while they are grown to market size. Biofouling must be addressed in marine environments to ensure maximum product growth by maintaining water flow and waste removal through the nets. Biofouling is managed with copper and organic biocide based net coatings. The aquaculture industry provides a case study for business issues related to entry of improved fouling management technology into the marketplace. Several major hurdles hinder entry of improved novel technologies into the market. The first hurdle is due to the structure of business relationships. Net suppliers can actually cut their business profits dramatically by introducing improved technologies. A second major hurdle is financial costs of registration and demonstration of efficacy and quality product with a new technology. Costs of registration are prohibitive if only the net coatings market is involved. Demonstration of quality product requires collaboration and a team approach between formulators, net suppliers and farmers. An alternative solution is a vertically integrated business model in which the support business and product production business are part of the same company. PMID:25329615

Martin, Robert J.

2014-01-01

100

Molecular analysis of bacterial communities and detection of potential pathogens in a recirculating aquaculture system for Scophthalmus maximus and Solea senegalensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study combined a DGGE and barcoded 16S rRNA pyrosequencing approach to assess bacterial composition in the water of a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) with a shallow raceway system (SRS) for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and sole (Solea senegalensis). Barcoded pyrosequencing results were also used to determine the potential pathogen load in the RAS studied. Samples were collected from the water supply pipeline (Sup), fish production tanks (Pro), sedimentation filter (Sed), biofilter tank (Bio), and protein skimmer (Ozo; also used as an ozone reaction chamber) of twin RAS operating in parallel (one for each fish species). Our results revealed pronounced differences in bacterial community composition between turbot and sole RAS, suggesting that in the systems studied there is a strong species-specific effect on water bacterial communities. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in the water supply and all RAS compartments. Other important taxonomic groups included the phylum Bacteriodetes. The saltwater supplied displayed a markedly lower richness and appeared to have very little influence on bacterial composition. The following potentially pathogenic species were detected: Photobacterium damselae in turbot (all compartments), Tenacibaculum discolor in turbot and sole (all compartments), Tenacibaculum soleae in turbot (all compartments) and sole (Pro, Sed and Bio), and Serratia marcescens in turbot (Sup, Sed, Bio and Ozo) and sole (only Sed) RAS. Despite the presence of these pathogens, no symptomatic fish were observed. Although we were able to identify potential pathogens, this approach should be employed with caution when monitoring aquaculture systems, as the required phylogenetic resolution for reliable identification of pathogens may not always be possible to achieve when employing 16S rRNA gene fragments. PMID:24278329

Martins, Patrícia; Cleary, Daniel F R; Pires, Ana C C; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Quintino, Victor; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

L'aquaculture au Sénégal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aquaculture in Senegal. Different projects of aquaculture in Senegal are reviewed. In Senegal, the productions in aquaculture are : culture of oysters in Joal Fadiouth (about 6, 000 dozens/year a test of shrimp production (Penaeusj in Casamance, the first one in West Africa (0.5 T to 4.5 T/ha/year culture of Tilapia nilotica long the Senegal river in the north and Anambe in the south. Problems about these projects are discussed.

Belot, J.

1988-01-01

102

Direct utilization of geothermal heat in cascade application to aquaculture and greenhouse systems at Navarro College. Final report, March 1, 1979-September 30, 1984  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report documents the Navarro College geothermal use project, which is one of nineteen direct-use geothermal projects funded principally by DOE. The six-year project encompassed a broad range of technical, institutional, and economic activities including: resource and environmental assessment; well drilling and completion; system design, construction, and monitoring; economic analysis; and public awareness programs. Some of the project conclusions are that: (1) the 130/sup 0/F Central Texas geothermal resource can support additional geothermal development; (2) private sector economic incentives currently exist which encourage commercial development of this geothermal resource; (3) potential uses for this geothermal resource include water and space heating, aquacultural and agricultural heating uses, and fruit and vegetable dehydration; (4) high maintenance costs arising from the geofluids' scaling and corrosion characteristics can be avoided through proper analysis and design.

Smith, K.

1984-09-01

103

Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from aquaculture: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is an important greenhouse gas (GHG) which has a global warming potential 310 times that of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) over a hundred year lifespan. N(2)O is generated during microbial nitrification and denitrification, which are common in aquaculture systems. To date, few studies have been conducted to quantify N(2)O emission from aquaculture. Additionally, very little is known with respect to the microbial pathways through which N(2)O is formed in aquaculture systems. This review suggests that aquaculture can be an important anthropogenic source of N(2)O emission. The global N(2)O-N emission from aquaculture in 2009 is estimated to be 9.30 × 10(10) g, and will increase to 3.83 × 10(11)g which could account for 5.72% of anthropogenic N(2)O-N emission by 2030 if the aquaculture industry continues to increase at the present annual growth rate (about 7.10%). The possible mechanisms and various factors affecting N(2)O production are summarized, and two possible methods to minimize N(2)O emission, namely aquaponic and biofloc technology aquaculture, are also discussed. The paper concludes with future research directions. PMID:22594516

Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Khanal, Samir Kumar

2012-06-19

104

Aquaculture: global status and trends.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp and catfish has been driven by globalizing trade and favourable economics of larger scale intensive farming. Most aquaculture systems rely on low/uncosted environmental goods and services, so a critical issue for the future is whether these are brought into company accounts and the consequent effects this would have on production economics. Failing that, increased competition for natural resources will force governments to allocate strategically or leave the market to determine their use depending on activities that can extract the highest value. Further uncertainties include the impact of climate change, future fisheries supplies (for competition and feed supply), practical limits in terms of scale and in the economics of integration and the development and acceptability of new bio-engineering technologies. In the medium term, increased output is likely to require expansion in new environments, further intensification and efficiency gains for more sustainable and cost-effective production. The trend towards enhanced intensive systems with key monocultures remains strong and, at least for the foreseeable future, will be a significant contributor to future supplies. Dependence on external feeds (including fish), water and energy are key issues. Some new species will enter production and policies that support the reduction of resource footprints and improve integration could lead to new developments as well as reversing decline in some more traditional systems. PMID:20713392

Bostock, John; McAndrew, Brendan; Richards, Randolph; Jauncey, Kim; Telfer, Trevor; Lorenzen, Kai; Little, David; Ross, Lindsay; Handisyde, Neil; Gatward, Iain; Corner, Richard

2010-09-27

105

Environmental comparison of intensive and integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems for striped catfish production in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, based on two existing case studies using life cycle assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vietnam is the largest producer for the export of striped catfish. Traditionally striped catfish production in the Mekong Delta took place in integrated agriculture–aquaculture systems, but has shifted recently to intensive systems to meet increasing export demands. A recent study quantified the environmental impact of intensive striped catfish production in Vietnam. Another did the same for integrated systems. Both studies used life cycle assessment, covered similar environmental impact ca...

Kluts, I. N.; Potting, J. M. B.; Bosma, R. H.; Phong, L. T.; Udo, H. M. J.

2012-01-01

106

ECOLOGICAL CAPABILITY EVALUATION FOR AQUACULTURE ACTIVITIES BY GIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Geographic Information System (GIS is the best suitable system for land evaluation. In this research, at the first step, the Makhdoum's model is introduced‚ and then Hamadan Province, from aquaculture point of view and capabilities of the lands to fulfill aquaculture activities is evaluated. GIS was used for the mentioned purposes. The software used was Arc View (version 3.2 a, with the UTM projection. For evaluation, Mc Hark method of Maps overlaying was utilized. According to the results, the suitable surface area for aquaculture activities was introduced, which was equal to 13.1 percent of Hamadan Province. According to the evaluations, this province has limited potentials for aquaculture activities. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to these limitations in development plans.

M. Reyahi Khoram, M. Shariat, N. Moharamnejad, A. Azar and H. Mahjub

2005-07-01

107

Economic values of growth and feed efficiency for fish farming in recirculating aquaculture system with density and nitrogen output limitations: a case study with African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).  

Science.gov (United States)

In fish farming, economic values (EV) of breeding goal traits are lacking, even though they are key parameters when defining selection objectives. The aim of this study was to develop a bioeconomic model to estimate EV of 2 traits representing production performances in fish farming: the thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and the feed conversion ratio (FCR). This approach was applied to a farm producing African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). In the RAS, 2 factors could limit production level: the nitrogen treatment capacity of the biofilter or the fish density in rearing tanks at harvest. Profit calculation includes revenue from fish sales, cost of juveniles, cost of feed, cost of waste water treatment, and fixed costs. In the reference scenario, profit was modeled to zero. EV were calculated as the difference in profit per kilogram of fish between the current population mean for both traits (µt) and the next generation of selective breeding (µt + ?t) for either TGC or FCR. EV of TGC and FCR were calculated for three generations of hypothetical selection on either TGC or FCR (respectively 6.8% and 7.6% improvement per generation). The results show that changes in TGC and FCR can affect both the number of fish that can be stocked (number of batches per year and number of fish per batch) and the factor limiting production. The EV of TGC and FCR vary and depend on the limiting factors. When dissolved NH3-N is the limiting factor for both µt and µt + ?t, increasing TGC decreases the number of fish that can be stocked but increases the number of batches that can be grown. As a result, profit remains constant and EVTGC is zero. Increasing FCR, however, increases the number of fish stocked and the ratio of fish produced per kilogram of feed consumed ("economic efficiency"). The EVFCR is 0.14 €/kg of fish, and profit per kilogram of fish increases by about 10%. When density is the limiting factor for both µt and µt + ?t, the number of fish stocked per batch is fixed; therefore, extra profit is obtained by increasing either TGC, which increases the annual number of batches, or by decreasing FCR, which decreases annual feed consumption. EVTGC is 0.03 €/kg of fish and EVFCR is 0.05-0.06 €/kg of fish. These results emphasize the importance of calculating economic values in the right context to develop efficient future breeding programs in aquaculture. PMID:25414104

Besson, M; Komen, H; Aubin, J; de Boer, I J M; Poelman, M; Quillet, E; Vancoillie, C; Vandeputte, M; van Arendonk, J A M

2014-12-01

108

Efficiency of bioaugmentation in the removal of organic matter in aquaculture systems / Eficiência da bioadição na remoção de matéria orgânica em sistemas aquaculturais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Existem diversas tecnologias para tratamento de efluentes, o processo de bioadição consiste em uma vertente da biorremediação e tem sido empregado na melhoria da qualidade dos efluentes através do tratamento da água de produção. Esta tecnologia consiste basicamente na adição de microrganismos com a [...] capacidade de degradar ou remover compostos poluentes, especialmente matéria orgânica e nutrientes. Este estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de composto bioativo sobre alguns parâmetros de matéria orgânica e de desempenho de juvenis de tilápias em um sistema intensivo de produção aquacultural. Foi empregada a combinação de dois consórcios bacterianos em delineamento inteiramente aleatorizado, em um esquema fatorial com dois fatores. As diferenças estatísticas entre os tratamentos foram analisadas por meio da análise de variância (ANOVA) e do teste de Tukey ao nível de 5%. Verificou-se neste estudo, que a bioadição heterotrófica foi capaz de reduzir em 23% a demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO); em 83,7%, o carbono orgânico dissolvido (COD); e em 43%, a biomassa fitoplanctônica. Por outro lado, não se observou nenhum prejuízo com relação aos parâmetros físico-químicos de qualidade de água bem como ao desempenho de crescimento para juvenis de tilápias avaliados neste estudo. Abstract in english Several techniques are currently used to treat effluents. Bioaugmentation is a new bioremediation strategy and has been employed to improve effluent quality by treating the water during the production process. This technology consists basically of the addition of microorganisms able to degrade or re [...] move polluting compounds, especially organic matter and nutrients. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of bioaugmentation on some parameters of organic matter and on the performance of juvenile tilapias in an intensive aquaculture production system. The combination of two bacterial consortiums in a complete randomized design was employed in a factorial analysis with two factors. Statistical differences between treatments were analyzed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test at the 5% level. One of the treatments, heterotrophic bacterial supplementation, was able to reduce biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) by 23%, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by 83.7% and phytoplanktonic biomass by 43%. On the other hand, no damage was done to either the physical-chemical indicators of water quality or to the growth performance of juvenile tilapias assessed in this study.

RB, Lopes; RA., Olinda; BAI, Souza; JEP, Cyrino; CTS, Dias; JF, Queiroz; LHS, Tavares.

2011-05-01

109

Making social sense of aquaculture transitions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resilience deals explicitly with change and provides a middle ground between the social and the environmental sciences. However, a growing critique by social scientists questions the ability of resilience thinking to adequately examine the social dimensions of change. The question that emerges is how social scientists should engage with resilience. We addressed this question by comparing resilience with agrarian change and transitions theory, through the backdrop of the fastest growing global food sector, aquaculture. Our analysis showed that each theoretical perspective provides fundamentally different insights into social and environmental transition inherent in the aquaculture sector. Although resilience thinking is best suited to assessing the ecological aspects of production, its systems ontology limits the inclusion of dynamic social relations or innovation. In contrast, agrarian transition enables a more meaningful understanding of how social relations are reconfigured as agrarian society shifts toward more capitalist modes of production, and transitions theory provides insights into social process of innovation. Given the epistemological differences between these theoretical approaches, we argue against attempts that reify systemic thinking by naturalizing social theories and concepts into resilience thinking. Instead, we argue that social theories such as agrarian change and transition theory should be seen as complimentary and that integration should focus on bridging results and insights. Doing so enables a more robust assessment of the social aspects of social-ecological transitions in the aquaculture sector and beyond.

Simon R. Bush

2014-09-01

110

Results regarding growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758 fed with an additive feed, vitamin C, in a recirculating aquaculture system.  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the vitamin C status on growth performance, survival rate and biochimical parameters from tissue of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758 with average weight of 93±1,0 g were fed with different dietary vitamin C rations and reared in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS. Growth performance , survival rate and biochimical parameters from tissue of Nile tilapia were measured in groups fed diets supplemented with 100, 750, 2000 mg.kg-1L-ascorbic acid (AA and almost ascorbate free diet (Total AA> 5 mg.kg-1 as a control. They were stocked in 12 rearing units at 28 oC water temperature for 30 days. Diet of 33 % protein was offered as feed, 3 times daily. Growth measurements of tilapia were recorded on beginning and at the end of the experiment. Results showed that growth performance for Nile tilapia had not significantly (p>0.05 differences between the control and the tretments . Survival rate was the same for al the treatments. The feed conversio ratio (FCR was not significant (p>0.05 between the control and the treatments. Resuls showed that the feed impoved with AA had no significant differences between treatments and control regarding the  optimum growth performance and survival rate at Nile tilapia.  

Catalina Ciortan Mirea

2013-10-01

111

Effects of spectral composition, photoperiod and light intensity on the gonadal development of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Artificial lighting regimes have been successfully used to inhibit sexual maturity of Atlantic salmon in confinement. However, when these operations are applied in commercial recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) using standard lighting technology, sexual maturation is not suppressed. In this study, an L9 (33) orthogonal design was used to determine the effects of three factors (spectral composition, photoperiod, and light intensity) on the gonadal development of Atlantic salmon in RAS. We demonstrated that the photoperiod at the tested levels had a much greater effect on the gonadosomatic index and female Fulton condition factor than spectral composition and light intensity. The photoperiod had a significant effect on the secretion of sex steroids and melatonin (Pfactors had no significant effects on the survival rate, specific growth rate, relative weight gain, and male Fulton condition factor (P>0.05). The optimum lighting levels in female and male Atlantic salmon were LD 8:16, 455 nm (or 625 nm), 8.60 W/m2; and LD 8:16, 8.60 W/m2, 455 nm respectively. These conditions not only delayed gonadal development, but also had no negative effects on Atlantic salmon growth in RAS. These results demonstrate that a combination of spectral composition, photoperiod and light intensity is effective at delaying the gonadal development of both male and female salmon in RAS.

Qiu, Denggao; Xu, Shihong; Song, Changbin; Chi, Liang; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang; Liu, Baoliang; Liu, Ying

2014-10-01

112

[Electronic poison information management system].  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier. PMID:24466697

Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

2013-01-01

113

Ecosystem-based approach to aquaculture management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecosystems have real thresholds and limits which, when exceeded, can affect major system restructuring. Once thresholds and limits have been exceeded, changes can be irreversible. Diversity is important to ecosystem functioning. The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water, and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. The application of the ecosystem approach will help to reach a balance of the three main objectives: conservation, sustainable use, and a fair and equitable sharing of the benefits and use of the natural resources. Aquaculture development needs to be within the carrying capacity of the water resource so that it is sustainable and does not greatly impact the environment. The determination of the carrying capacity needs to be science-based. The planning of development in ecosystems has been done for freshwater ecosystems within the PAMB (Protected Area Management Board framework, but in many cases this does not give the correct significance to the impact of aquaculture on the water resources in the ecosystem. It also needs to be extended to river basins and estuaries, brackishwater areas, and inland bays, and seas. The planning and management of aquaculture needs to be undertaken at the local government unit (LGU level in a coordinated manner by all the LGUs that have a part of the water resource. The co-management of aquaculture, in terms of monitoring of the environment, monitoring of production, and monitoring of licenses, needs to be funded out of license fees and non-compliance fines collected by the LGUs. A number of these management activities need to be undertaken jointly (monitoring the environment and others separately but in a coordinated manner (e.g., checking licenses and checking compliance.

Patrick White

2008-12-01

114

Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination. The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32% of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993. Government policy needs to devote as much attention to sustainability issues as it has on promoting intensive pond culture. Such a balanced policy would include training and education monitoring and enforcement, rehabilitating abandoned ponds, managing land use within the coastal zone, more community involvement, and government reorganization to eliminate overlapping jurisdictions among agencies. As integrated aquaculture management becomes more the practice than the exception, less risk of crop failure to the industry and reduced discharge loadings from intensively managed shrimp ponds to receiving waters can be expected. Projected limitations on growing and marketing shrimp in the future, such as scarcity of land and broodstock, continued disease outbreaks, negative publicity, regulatory enforcement, water treatment and solids disposal costs, and increased competition from growers in other Asian countries will also drive the government and the industry towards adopting integrated aquaculture management.

Dierberg, Forrest E.; Kiattisimkul, Woraphan

1996-09-01

115

Potential use of power plant reject heat in commercial aquaculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current research and commercial activities in aquaculture operations have been reviewed. An aquaculture system using mostly herbivorous species in pond culture is proposed as a means of using waste heat to produce reasonably priced protein. The system uses waste water streams, such as secondary sewage effluent, animal wastes, or some industrial waste streams as a primary nutrient source to grow algae, which is fed to fish and clams. Crayfish feed on the clam wastes thereby providing a clean effluent from the aquaculture system. Alternate fish associations are presented and it appears that a carp or tilapia association is desirable. An aquaculture system capable of rejecting all the waste heat from a 1000-MW(e) power station in winter can accommodate about half the summer heat rejection load. The aquaculture facility would require approximately 133 ha and would produce 4.1 x 105 kg/year of fish, 1.5 x 106 kg/year of clam meat, and 1.5 x 104 kg/year of live crayfish. The estimated annual pretax profit from this operation is one million dollars. Several possible problem areas have been identified. However, technical solutions appear to be readily available to solve these problems. The proposed system shows considerable economic promise. Small scale experiments have demonstrated the technical feasibility of various components of the system. It therefore appears that a pilot scale experimental facility should be operated

116

Potential use of power plant reject heat in commercial aquaculture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current research and commercial activities in aquaculture operations have been reviewed. An aquaculture system using mostly herbivorous species in pond culture is proposed as a means of using waste heat to produce reasonably priced protein. The system uses waste water streams, such as secondary sewage effluent, animal wastes, or some industrial waste streams as a primary nutrient source to grow algae, which is fed to fish and clams. Crayfish feed on the clam wastes thereby providing a clean effluent from the aquaculture system. Alternate fish associations are presented and it appears that a carp or tilapia association is desirable. An aquaculture system capable of rejecting all the waste heat from a 1000-MW(e) power station in winter can accommodate about half the summer heat rejection load. The aquaculture facility would require approximately 133 ha and would produce 4.1 x 10/sup 5/ kg/year of fish, 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ kg/year of clam meat, and 1.5 x 10/sup 4/ kg/year of live crayfish. The estimated annual pretax profit from this operation is one million dollars. Several possible problem areas have been identified. However, technical solutions appear to be readily available to solve these problems. The proposed system shows considerable economic promise. Small scale experiments have demonstrated the technical feasibility of various components of the system. It therefore appears that a pilot scale experimental facility should be operated.

Olszewski, M.

1977-01-01

117

Avermectin use in aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main indication for use of avermectins in aquaculture-produced fish is infestations with ectoparasitic copepods. The compounds ivermectin and emamectin benzoate are predominantly used as in-feed formulations on salmonid fish against copepods in the family Caligidae: Lepeophtheirus salmonis, Caligus elongatus and C. rogercresseyi. These agents are well-documented as very effective on all developmental stages of the parasites. The duration of effect can be up to 10 weeks. The safety margin for ivermectin is narrow, but better for emamectin benzoate. Environmental impact from these chemicals on bottom-dwelling and sediment-dwelling organisms occurs, but these are restricted to the immediate area around the production site. Avermectins are incompletely absorbed from the intestine of the fish and slowly excreted. They penetrate the blood-brain barrier of the fish, ivermectin more than emamectin benzoate. Resistance has developed against these agents in L. salmonis in almost all major salmon producing areas. The situation must be viewed as serious and can render these agents completely ineffective for salmon lice control. PMID:22039799

Horsberg, Tor E

2012-05-01

118

Electron microscope image recording system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an image recording system, for example an electron microscope, a specimen is scanned by an electron beam and a resulting video signal from a semiconducting photosensitive surface, such as a solar cell, in contact with the specimen is displayed on a monitor in synchronism with the scanning. The solar cell detects both electrons and X-rays produced in the specimen. To produce an entirely X-ray image, the specimen is covered with a thin metal foil. (author)

119

Cost analysis of electronic systems  

CERN Document Server

Understanding the cost ramifications of design, manufacturing and life-cycle management decisions is of central importance to businesses associated with all types of electronic systems. Cost Analysis of Electronic Systems contains carefully developed models and theory that practicing engineers can directly apply to the modeling of costs for real products and systems. In addition, this book brings to light and models many contributions to life-cycle costs that practitioners are aware of but never had the tools or techniques to address quantitatively in the past.Cost Analysis of Electronic Syste

Sandborn, Peter

2012-01-01

120

A Portable Electron Radiography System  

CERN Document Server

The technique of charged particle radiography has been developed and proven with 800 MeV protons at LANSCE and 24 GeV protons at the AGS. Recent work at Los Alamos National Laboratory in collaboration with the Idaho Accelerator Center has extended this diagnostic technique to electron radiography through the development of an inexpensive and portable electron radiography system. This system has been designed to use 30 MeV electrons to radiograph thin static and dynamic systems. The system consists of a compact 30 MeV pulsed electron linear accelerator coupled to a quadrupole lens magnifier constructed from permanent magnet quadrupoles. The design features and operational characteristics of this radiography system are presented as well as the radiographic performance parameters.

Merrill, Frank E; Harmon, Frank; Hunt, Alan W; King, B J; Morris, Christopher

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Application of Machine Learning Techniques in Aquaculture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we present applications of different machine learning algorithms in aquaculture. Machine learning algorithms learn models from historical data. In aquaculture historical data are obtained from farm practices, yields, and environmental data sources. Associations between these different variables can be obtained by applying machine learning algorithms to historical data. In this paper we present applications of different machine learning algorithms in aquaculture...

Rahman, Akhlaqur; Tasnim, Sumaira

2014-01-01

122

Studies on wels catfish (Silurus glanis development during cold season as an auxiliary species in sturgeon recirculated aquaculture systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research had the purpose to establish if the wels catfish is suitable for growing in closedrecirculated system designed for sturgeon farming, because during the cold season the system does notneed to reach high temperatures such as for other fish species. Our studies showed that the wels catfishcan survive during the cold season from a recirculated system, and furthermore they accept feeds attemperatures as low as 17°C, and even have a slight body weight increase during this season. The welscatfish entered the spring in our experiment at a mean body weight of 72.5 grams, while the wels catfishfrom semi-intensive system after wintering in earthern ponds entered the winter at a mean body weighof 30 grams. Our experiments also studied the effect of stocking density on fish development in theseconditions.

Radu Muscalu

2010-12-01

123

FTU bolometer electronic system upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Design and realization of a new bolometer electronic system. ? Many improvements over the actual commercial system. ? Architecture based on digital electronic hardware with minimal analog front end. ? Auto off-set correction, real time visualization features and small system size. ? Test results for the electronic system. -- Abstract: The FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) requires a bolometer diagnostic in order to measure the total plasma radiation. The current diagnostic architecture is based on a full analog multichannel AC bolometer system, which uses a carrier frequency amplifier with a synchronous demodulation. Taking into account the technological upgrades in the field of electronics, it was decided to realize an upgrade for the bolometric electronic system by using a hybrid analog/digital implementation. The new system developed at the ENEA Frascati laboratories has many improvements, and mainly a massive system volume reduction, a good measurement linearity and a simplified use. The new hardware system consists of two subsystems: the Bolometer Digital Control and the Bolometer Analog System. The Bolometer Digital Control can control 16 bolometer bridges through the Bolometer Analog System. The Bolometer Digital Control, based on the FPGA architecture, is connected via Ethernet with a PC; therefore, it can receive commands settings from the PC and send the stream of bolometric measurements in real time to the PC. In order to solve the cross-talk between the bridges and the cables, each of the four bridges in the bolometer head receives a different synthesized excitation frequency. Since the system is fully controlled by a PC GUI (Graphic User Interface), it is very user friendly. Moreover, some useful features have been developed, such as: auto off-set correction, bridge amplitude regulation, software gain setting, real time visualization, frequency excitation selection and noise spectrum analyzer embedded function. In this paper, the hardware and software system architectures are described and some tests of the developed system are presented, with a related statistical analysis

124

DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccination is based on the administration of the gene encoding the vaccine antigen, rather than the antigen itself. Subsequent expression of the antigen by cells in the vaccinated hosts triggers the host immune system. Among the many experimental DNA vaccines tested in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important viruses such as infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). DNA vaccines against other types of fish pathogens, however, have so far had limited success. The most efficient delivery route at present is IM injection, and suitable delivery strategies for mass vaccination of small fish have yet to be developed. In terms of safety, no adverse effects in the vaccinated fish have been observed to date. As DNA vaccination is a relatively new technology, various theoretical and long-term safety issues related to the environment and the consumer remain to be fully addressed, although inherently the risks should not be any greater than with the commercial fish vaccines that are currently used. Present classification systems lack clarity in distinguishing DNA-vaccinated animals from genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which could raise issues in terms of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production conditions has recently been initiated in Canada and Denmark. PMID:16110889

Lorenzen, N; LaPatra, S E

2005-04-01

125

ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS AND THE USE OF ELECTRONIC MONEY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this diploma thesis, we presented the concept of electronic money and electronic payment systems. We presented the advantages and disadvantages of electronic money and the reasons why it has been introduced. We presented and compared various examples of electronic money, technology that provides security and the risks that exist in the web and mobile use of electronic money. We have shown how electronic payment systems are classified and presented the SEPA project, which establishes these ...

Komel, Domen

2012-01-01

126

Component reliability for electronic systems  

CERN Document Server

The main reason for the premature breakdown of today's electronic products (computers, cars, tools, appliances, etc.) is the failure of the components used to build these products. Today professionals are looking for effective ways to minimize the degradation of electronic components to help ensure longer-lasting, more technically sound products and systems. This practical book offers engineers specific guidance on how to design more reliable components and build more reliable electronic systems. Professionals learn how to optimize a virtual component prototype, accurately monitor product reliability during the entire production process, and add the burn-in and selection procedures that are the most appropriate for the intended applications. Moreover, the book helps system designers ensure that all components are correctly applied, margins are adequate, wear-out failure modes are prevented during the expected duration of life, and system interfaces cannot lead to failure.

Bajenescu, Titu-Marius I

2010-01-01

127

Analytical purpose electron backscattering system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work an analytical purposes electron backscattering system improved at the Center of Applied Studies for Nuclear Development is described. This system can be applied for fast, exact and nondestructive testing of binary and AL/Cu, AL/Ni in alloys and for other applications

128

Realization of dynamical electronic systems  

Science.gov (United States)

This article gives an overview of a methodology for building dynamical electronic systems. As an example a part of a system for epileptic seizure prediction is used, which monitors EEG signals and continuously calculates the largest short-term Lyapunov exponents. In dynamical electronic systems, the cost of exploitation, for instance energy consumption, may vary substantially with the values of input signals. In addition, the functions describing the variations are not known at the time the system is designed. As a result, the architecture of the system must accommodate for the worst case exploitation costs, which rapidly exceed the available resources (for instance battery life) when accumulated over time. The presented system scenario methodology solves these challenges by identifying at design time groups of possible exploitation costs, called system scenarios, and implementing a mechanism to detect system scenarios at run time and re-configure the system to cost-efficiently accommodate them. During reconfiguration, the optimized system architecture settings for the active system scenario are selected and the total exploitation cost is reduced. When the dynamic behavior is due to input data variables with a large number of possible values, current techniques for bottom-up scenario identification and detection becomes too complex. A new top-down technique, based on polygonal regions, is presented in this paper. The results for the example system indicate that with 10 system scenarios the average energy consumption of the system can be reduced by 28% and brought within 5% of the theoretically best solution.

Hammari, Elena; Catthoor, Francky; Iasemidis, Leonidas; Kjeldsberg, Per Gunnar; Huisken, Jos; Tsakalis, Konstantinos

2014-04-01

129

Development of a GIS-Based Tool for Aquaculture Siting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nearshore aquaculture siting requires the integration of a range of physical, environmental, and social factors. As a result, the information demand often presents coastal managers with a range of complex issues regarding where specific types of aquaculture should be ideally located that reduce environmental and social impacts. Here we provide a framework and tool for managers faced with these issues that incorporate physical and biological parameters along with geospatial infrastructure. In addition, the development of the tool and underlying data included was undertaken with careful input and consideration of local population concerns and cultural practices. Using Hawai?i as a model system, we discuss the various considerations that were integrated into an end-user tool for aquaculture siting.

Noelani Puniwai

2014-06-01

130

Kerberos Based Electronic Tender system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An electronic tender (e-tender system is a system in which selling, buying and providing contract by the government with the help of online software. In this system the tender data is recorded, stored and processed primarily as digital information. In the modern world e-tender system is increasing speedily and the popularity of e-tender system need quality and security. In this paper a ‘KBETS’ is proposed which provides user to participating in tender nevertheless of the geographic locations and without worrying about security.

NITISH KUMAR SINGH

2014-02-01

131

PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems  

Science.gov (United States)

This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which make use of 'small' electrons packed to the highest possible density. These are by definition 'strongly correlated'. For example: good photovoltaics must be efficient optical absorbers, which means that photons will generate tightly bound electron-hole pairs (excitons) that must then be ionised at a heterointerface and transported to contacts; efficient solid state refrigeration depends on substantial entropy changes in a unit cell, with large local electrical or magnetic moments; efficient lighting is in a real sense the inverse of photovoltaics; the limit of an efficient battery is a supercapacitor employing mixed valent ions; fuel cells and solar to fuel conversion require us to understand electrochemistry on the scale of a single atom; and we already know that the only prospect for effective high temperature superconductivity involves strongly correlated materials. Even novel IT technologies are now seen to have value not just for novel function but also for efficiency. While strongly correlated electron systems continue to excite researchers and the public alike due to the fundamental science issues involved, it seems increasingly likely that support for the science will be leveraged by its impact on energy and sustainability. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Strongly correlated electron systemsSiddharth S Saxena and P B Littlewood Magnetism, f-electron localization and superconductivity in 122-type heavy-fermion metalsF Steglich, J Arndt, O Stockert, S Friedemann, M Brando, C Klingner, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Wirth, S Kirchner and Q Si High energy pseudogap and its evolution with doping in Fe-based superconductors as revealed by optical spectroscopyN L Wang, W Z Hu, Z G Chen, R H Yuan, G Li, G F Chen and T Xiang Structural investigations on YbRh2Si2: from the atomic to the macroscopic length scaleS Wirth, S Ernst, R Cardoso-Gil, H Borrmann, S Seiro, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Kirchner, U Burkhardt, Y Grin and F Steglich Confinement of chiral magnetic modulations in the precursor region of FeGeH Wilhelm, M Baenitz, M Schmidt, C Naylor, R Lortz, U

Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

2012-07-01

132

Issues in Ecology, Issue 08: Effects of Aquaculture on World Fish Supply  

Science.gov (United States)

This report discusses the negative and positive aspects of aquaculture as an alternative to harvesting wild stocks of fish. The report defines aquaculture and describes its recent growth, as well as its ecological impact. Practices to sustain aquaculture operations, such as habitat modification and the use of wild-caught seedstock are discussed. Changes to ocean food webs, the introduction of non-native fish and pathogens, and nutrient pollution from wastes are presented as negative consequences of aquaculture operations. The report discusses strategies to improve aquaculture, such as reducing fish meal and oil in fish feed, integrating production systems, and promoting sustainability within the industry. Issues in Ecology is an ongoing series of reports designed to present major ecological issues in an easy-to-read manner. This Issue summarizes the consensus of a panel of scientific experts based on the information that was current and available at the time of its publication in 2001.

Naylor, Rosamond

2010-02-16

133

EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed during SCES 2010. As we learned, past dogmas about strongly correlated materials and phenomena must be re-examined with an open and inquisitive mind. Invited speakers and respected leaders in the field were invited to contribute to this special issue and we have insisted that they present new data, ideas, or perspectives, as opposed to simply an overview of their past work. As with the conference, this special issue touches upon recent developments of strongly correlated electron systems in d-electron materials, such as Sr3Ru2O7, graphene, and the new Fe-based superconductors, but it is dominated by topics in f-electron compounds. Contributions reflect the growing appreciation for the influence of disorder and frustration, the need for organizing principles, as well as detailed investigations on particular materials of interest and, of course, new materials. As this special issue could not possibly capture the full breadth and depth that the conference had to offer, it is being published simultaneously with an issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series containing 157 manuscripts in which all poster presenters at SCES 2010 were invited to contribute. Since this special issue grew out of the 2010 SCES conference, we take this opportunity to give thanks. This conference would not have been possible without the hard work of the SCES 2010 Program Committee, International and National Advisory Committees, Local Committee, and conference organizers, the New Mexico Consortium. We thank them as well as those organizations that generously provided financial support: ICAM-I2CAM, Quantum Design, Lakeshore, the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and the Department of Energy National Laboratories at Argonne, Berkeley, Brookhaven, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge. Of course, we especially thank the participants for bringing new ideas and new results, without which SCES 2010 would not have been possible. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Spin-orbit coupling and k-dependent Zeeman splitting in strontium ruthenate Emil J Rozbicki, James F Annett, Jean-René Souquet an

Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

2011-03-01

134

Power electronic systems Walsh analysis with Matlab  

CERN Document Server

A Totally Different Outlook on Power Electronic System AnalysisPower Electronic Systems: Walsh Analysis with MATLAB® builds a case for Walsh analysis as a powerful tool in the study of power electronic systems. It considers the application of Walsh functions in analyzing power electronic systems, and the advantages offered by Walsh domain analysis of power electronic systems. Solves Power Electronic Systems in an Unconventional WayThis book successfully integrates power electronics as well as systems and control. Incorporating a complete orthonormal function set very much unlike the sine-cosin

Deb, Anish

2014-01-01

135

Enfoque sistémico para el diseño de sistemas energéticos acuícolas resilientes: discusión aplicada al caso de una empresa de cultivos / Systematic approach to design resilient energy systems to aquaculture: discussion applied in a private hatchery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo documenta experiencias en la aplicación del enfoque sistémico a un proceso productivo en el campo de la acuicultura. Particularmente, se analiza el modelo de producción de energía, orientado a la resiliencia y baja emisión de carbono, implementado en un hatchery privado. Lo anter [...] ior pretende contribuir con una herramienta que apoye a disminuir los impactos ambientales y consecuentemente sociales y económicos, a escala local, regional y global, asociados a la producción y gestión energética, incrementando la eficiencia en el uso de recursos, la competitividad y resiliencia de la actividad acuícola. Adicionalmente, se presenta un enfoque de modelo de negocios sistémico, que podría ser adaptado a cualquier proceso productivo, extendiendo el campo de aplicación a diversos rubros. Abstract in english This paper documents the experiences of applying the systemic approach to a production process in the field of aquaculture. Particularly, we analyze the energy production model, oriented to resilience and low carbon emission, implemented in a private hatchery. This intends to contribute a tool to su [...] pport lessen environmental, and consequently social and economic impacts at local, regional and global production and associated energy management, increasing efficiency in the use of resources, competitiveness and resilience of aquaculture. Additionally, we present an approach for systemic business model that could be adapted to any production process, extending the scope to diverse areas.

Marcelo, Concha; Claudia, Cerda; Mariana, Zappi.

136

Enfoque sistémico para el diseño de sistemas energéticos acuícolas resilientes: discusión aplicada al caso de una empresa de cultivos / Systematic approach to design resilient energy systems to aquaculture: discussion applied in a private hatchery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo documenta experiencias en la aplicación del enfoque sistémico a un proceso productivo en el campo de la acuicultura. Particularmente, se analiza el modelo de producción de energía, orientado a la resiliencia y baja emisión de carbono, implementado en un hatchery privado. Lo anter [...] ior pretende contribuir con una herramienta que apoye a disminuir los impactos ambientales y consecuentemente sociales y económicos, a escala local, regional y global, asociados a la producción y gestión energética, incrementando la eficiencia en el uso de recursos, la competitividad y resiliencia de la actividad acuícola. Adicionalmente, se presenta un enfoque de modelo de negocios sistémico, que podría ser adaptado a cualquier proceso productivo, extendiendo el campo de aplicación a diversos rubros. Abstract in english This paper documents the experiences of applying the systemic approach to a production process in the field of aquaculture. Particularly, we analyze the energy production model, oriented to resilience and low carbon emission, implemented in a private hatchery. This intends to contribute a tool to su [...] pport lessen environmental, and consequently social and economic impacts at local, regional and global production and associated energy management, increasing efficiency in the use of resources, competitiveness and resilience of aquaculture. Additionally, we present an approach for systemic business model that could be adapted to any production process, extending the scope to diverse areas.

Marcelo, Concha; Claudia, Cerda; Mariana, Zappi.

2012-09-01

137

Field reliability of electronic systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report investigates, through several examples from the field, the reliability of electronic units in a broader sense. That is, it treats not just random parts failure, but also inadequate reliability design and (externally and internally) induced failures. The report is not meant to be merely an indication of the state of the art for the reliability prediction methods we know, but also as a contribution to the investigation of man-machine interplay in the operation and repair of electronic equipment. The report firmly links electronics reliability to safety and risk analyses approaches with a broader, system oriented view of reliability prediction and with postfailure stress analysis. It is intended to reveal, in a qualitative manner, the existence of symptom and cause patterns. It provides a background for further investigations to identify the detailed mechanisms of the faults and the remedical actions and precautions for achieving cost effective reliability. (author)

138

Genomic approaches in aquaculture and fisheries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Despite the enormous input into the worldwide development of fish and shellfish farming in the recent decades, in part as an attempt to minimize the impact of fishing on already overexploited natural populations, the application of genomics to aquaculture and fisheries remains poorly developed. Improving state-of-the-art genomics research in various aquaculture systems, as well as its industrial applications, remains one of the major challenges in this area and should be the focus of well developed strategies to be implemented in the next generation of projects. This chapter will first provide an overview of the genomic tools and resources available, then discuss the application of genomic approaches to the improvement of fish and shellfish farming (e.g. breeding, reproduction, growth, nutrition and product quality), including the evaluation of stock diversity and the use of selection procedures. The chapter will also discuss the use of genomic approaches to study and monitor natural fish and shellfish populations and to understand interactions within their ecosystems.

Eg Nielsen, Einar

2010-01-01

139

Aquaculture and Poultry Industry, Useful Learned Lessons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The historical development of aquaculture and poultry industry in Egypt was reviewed starting from the 60's of the 20th century up to 2011. Several and different stages of historical development for both sectors were described starting from the late 70's of the 20th century until the year 2011. Production figures, market prices, advantages and disadvantages of poultry industry compared with aquaculture were discussed. Many useful practices applied in poultry industry and could be applied also in aquaculture were highlighted. On the other hand, disadvantages, catastrophes and abusive practices of poultry industry that should be avoided in aquaculture were demonstrated.

Y.M. Abdelhadi

2012-01-01

140

7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303 Section 1437.303 Agriculture...303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss...consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303 Section 1437...303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is...consumed by humans; and (3) Ornamental fish propagated and reared in an...

2010-01-01

142

Component Based Electronic Voting Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An electronic voting system may be said to be composed by a number of components, each of which has a number of properties. One of the most attractive effects of this way of thinking is that each component may have an attached in-depth threat analysis and verification strategy. Furthermore, the need to include the full system when making changes to a component is minimised and a model at this level can be turned into a lower-level implementation model where changes made can cascade to as few ...

Lundin, David

2008-01-01

143

Component Based Electronic Voting Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

An electronic voting system may be said to be composed of a number of components, each of which has a number of properties. One of the most attractive effects of this way of thinking is that each component may have an attached in-depth threat analysis and verification strategy. Furthermore, the need to include the full system when making changes to a component is minimised and a model at this level can be turned into a lower-level implementation model where changes can cascade to as few parts of the implementation as possible.

Lundin, David

144

Zebrafish as animal model for aquaculture nutrition research  

Science.gov (United States)

The aquaculture industry continues to promote the diversification of ingredients used in aquafeed in order to achieve a more sustainable aquaculture production system. The evaluation of large numbers of diets in aquaculture species is costly and requires time-consuming trials in some species. In contrast, zebrafish (Danio rerio) can solve these drawbacks as an experimental model, and represents an ideal organism to carry out preliminary evaluation of diets. In addition, zebrafish has a sequenced genome allowing the efficient utilization of new technologies, such as RNA-sequencing and genotyping platforms to study the molecular mechanisms that underlie the organism’s response to nutrients. Also, biotechnological tools like transgenic lines with fluorescently labeled neutrophils that allow the evaluation of the immune response in vivo, are readily available in this species. Thus, zebrafish provides an attractive platform for testing many ingredients to select those with the highest potential of success in aquaculture. In this perspective article aspects related to diet evaluation in which zebrafish can make important contributions to nutritional genomics and nutritional immunity are discussed. PMID:25309575

Ulloa, Pilar E.; Medrano, Juan F.; Feijoo, Carmen G.

2014-01-01

145

Sediment quality and production data of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon culture under Code of Conduct for Responsible Shrimp Aquaculture (CoC system and ordinary system of intensive shrimp farms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of sediment qualities and production data of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon culture was carried out in 5 ponds practised following CoC guideline (CoC: “Code of Conduct for Responsible Shrimp Aquaculture” and in 10 ponds practised following common guideline of ordinary intensive farm (OIF. All the ponds were located in Songkhla and Nakhon Si Thammarat provinces and the study period was during March 2003-January 2004. It was found that sediment qualities (organic matter as %ignition loss, TN andTOC and pH of OIF system were significantly higher (p<0.05 than those of the CoC system only during the period 30-60 days of culture which was the most critical period of shrimp culture. This evidence suggests a significant effect on deterioration of the pond bottom causing an unsuitable ecological condition for shrimp living on the pond bottom. Our result on production data showed that the production and variable cost of production were about 794 kg/rai, and 114.6 baht/kg in the CoC system, while those of the OIF were 377 kg/ rai and 185.6 baht/kg, respectively.

Klaysri, S.

2005-02-01

146

Green and technical efficient growth in Danish fresh water aquaculture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aquaculture is the fastest growing animal food processing sector in the world. Nevertheless, growth inside the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development has been stagnating, with few exceptions. The main reason is strict environmental regulations. This study investigates if green growth can be achieved by introducing new environmentally friendly water purification systems in Danish fresh water aquaculture. Data Envelopment Analysis is used to investigate whether different water purification systems and farm size influence technical efficiency. The empirical results indicate that different water purification systems have no significant influence, although it increases with farm size. The policy implications are that green growth is possible by implementing the new water purification systems, but farmers have no incentive to adopt the new systems under the present regulation. If green growth should be achieved, the present regulation needs to be changed, providing the farmers with an incentive to adopt environmentally friendly production methods.

Nielsen, Rasmus

2011-01-01

147

University of Idaho Aquaculture Research Institute  

Science.gov (United States)

Located in Hagerman and Moscow, Idaho, ARI promotes, supports, and coordinates aquaculture research activities at the University of Idaho and throughout the state and region. UI scientists in various disciplines conduct research in both commercial and conservation aquaculture sciences and technologies. Site includes information on facilities, faculty, current research, outreach initiatives, and publications, including access to the institute's newsletter.

2012-04-16

148

Feed Additives for Aquaculture and Aquarium Culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The presente invention refers of feed additives for aquaculture and aquarium culture. These additives comprise the amino acid, 1-methyl-L-tryptophane, or its isomers with the objective of improving the attractiveness of feeds used in aquaculture and aquaria for fish, as well as other aquatic organisms, under culture conditions. Therefore, this invention has applications in the agriculture-food industry.

Barata, Eduardo N.; Velez, Ze?lia

2011-01-01

149

Sustainable Treatment of Aquaculture Effluents—What Can We Learn from the Past for the Future?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many aquaculture systems generate high amounts of wastewater containing compounds such as suspended solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Today, aquaculture is imperative because fish demand is increasing. However, the load of waste is directly proportional to the fish production. Therefore, it is necessary to develop more intensive fish culture with efficient systems for wastewater treatment. A number of physical, chemical and biological methods used in conventional wastewater treatme...

Turcios, Ariel E.; Jutta Papenbrock

2014-01-01

150

Sustainable Treatment of Aquaculture Effluents—What Can We Learn from the Past for the Future?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many aquaculture systems generate high amounts of wastewater containing compounds such as suspended solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Today, aquaculture is imperative because fish demand is increasing. However, the load of waste is directly proportional to the fish production. Therefore, it is necessary to develop more intensive fish culture with efficient systems for wastewater treatment. A number of physical, chemical and biological methods used in conventional wastewater treatment have been applied in aquaculture systems. Constructed wetlands technology is becoming more and more important in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS because wetlands have proven to be well-established and a cost-effective method for treating wastewater. This review gives an overview about possibilities to avoid the pollution of water resources; it focuses initially on the use of systems combining aquaculture and plants with a historical review of aquaculture and the treatment of its effluents. It discusses the present state, taking into account the load of pollutants in wastewater such as nitrates and phosphates, and finishes with recommendations to prevent or at least reduce the pollution of water resources in the future.

Ariel E. Turcios

2014-02-01

151

Modeling of power electronic systems with EMTP  

Science.gov (United States)

In view of the potential impact of power electronics on power systems, there is need for a computer modeling/analysis tool to perform simulation studies on power systems with power electronic components as well as to educate engineering students about such systems. The modeling of the major power electronic components of the NASA Space Station Freedom Electric Power System is described along with ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) and it is demonstrated that EMTP can serve as a very useful tool for teaching, design, analysis, and research in the area of power systems with power electronic components. EMTP modeling of power electronic circuits is described and simulation results are presented.

Tam, Kwa-Sur; Dravid, Narayan V.

1989-01-01

152

DIFFERENT PLANT DERIVED BY-PRODUCTS USE IN FRESHWATER AQUACULTURE IN INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As aquacultural practices increase in magnitude and hasten the flow ofmaterials and energy through the systems, compared to natural conditions, it stands toreason that many organic wastes can, save both monetary and caloric inputs into themodern aquaculture if these wastes are processed suitably and used as manure inincreasing productivity of the pond or as feed stuff to replace high cost ingredients in theformulation of diet for fish.

KAUSIK MONDAL

2013-05-01

153

Modelling of interactions between inshore and offshore aquaculture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Offshore aquaculture is the subject of intense debate, focusing on feasibility, sustainability, and the potential for effective expansion in the context of competing uses of the coastal zone, and a world requirement for an additional thirty million tonnes of aquatic products by 2050. A modelling framework that integrates the SWAT model for the watershed, Delft3D for ocean circulation, and the EcoWin model for long-term (10 year) ecological simulations, was developed for integrated analysis of catchment, inshore waters, and offshore aquaculture, providing an approach that addresses production, environmental effects, and disease interactions. This framework was tested using a case study in SE Portugal, for a system-scale modelling domain with an ocean area of 470 km(2) and a coastal watershed area of 627 km(2). This domain contains an inshore area of 184 km(2) (Ria Formosa) subject to multiple (often conflicting) uses, including aquaculture of the high value (farmgate price > 10 epsilon kg(-1)) clam Tapes decussatus, and one of the first offshore aquaculture parks in the world, located at distance of 3.6 nm from the coast, at a water depth of 30-60 m, with an area of 15 km(2). The park contains 60 leases, of which at most 70% are for finfish cage culture, and at least 30% for bivalve longline culture. A substantial part of the dissolved nutrients required to drive primary production that constitutes the food source for clams originates from the coastal catchment. Although stakeholder perception is that nutrients are mainly linked to point-source discharges from wastewater treatment plants, watershed modelling indicates that 55% of the nitrogen and 70% of the phosphorus loads are from diffuse sources. The residence time of waters in the inshore area is low(1-2 days), and consequently pelagic primary production takes place offshore, and drives inshore clam production. The longline culture of Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in the offshore park reduces inshore food availability for clams: simulationssuggest that a 3% decrease in clam yields will occur due to offshore mussel cultivation, at a cost of 1.2 million epsilon. This is offset by revenue from offshore culture, but is a source of stakeholder conflict. Potential disease spread between the offshore and inshore systems was analysed using a particle tracking model, and allowed the development of a risk exposure map. This illustrates the challenges posed by hydrodynamic connectivity with respect to biosecurity of aquaculture and fisheries, both inshore and offshore. The model framework was also used for optimisation of stocking density, and analysis of combined culture of finfish and shellfish, both in terms of production and environmental effects. In the offshore aquaculture park, the models suggest that integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) of gilthead bream (Sparus aurata) and Mediterranean mussels allows for an increased harvestable biomass of mussels, particularly at higher stocking densities, and offsets some of the negative externalities of finfish culture. By quantifying issues such as reduced yields for inshore stakeholders due to offshore activity, and illustrating the need for strong governance to offset disease risks, dynamic models make a valuable contribution in assessing the feasibility of offshore aquaculture, and the general principles that should underpin licensing and regulation of this sector. We stress the need to go beyond the conventional spatial planning toolset in order to ensure an ecosystem approach to aquaculture, and the opportunities that exist for applying a systems framework in an information economy, where the capital costs of software and data have been sharply reduced. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ferreira, J. G.; Saurel, Camille

2014-01-01

154

REVIEW OF AQUACULTURE GENETIC RESEARCHES IN THAILAND  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aquaculture business has been well established in Thailand for more than 40 years. The most recent data indicated a total production of 260 380 tons. Sixty-five percent of the total production came from coastal aquaculture, mainly tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon culture. Other important species for coastal aquaculture are banana prawn (P. merguensis, cockle (Anadara granosa, green mussel (Perna viridis, oyster (Crassostrea belcheri, Saccostrea commercialis, sea bass (Lates calcarifer and grouper (Epinephelus tauvina. Freshwater aquaculture, although produced only 35% of the annual production, provides major protein source for people in rural areas. Important freshwater species are Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, tawes (Puntius gonionotus, sepat Siam (Trichogasterpectoralis, walking catfish (Glorias spp., stripped catfish (Pangasius sutchi and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Optimum aquacultural practises, namely stocking density, nutrition requirement and water quality have been obtained in most cultured species. But genetic approach has not been considered, thus resulting in deterioration in economic traits which might be due to excessive inbreeding (reviewed by Uraiwan 1989 and/or negative selection (Wongsangchan 1985. The history of researches on genetics in aquaculture in Thailand started in 1982 when the aquaculture genetic programme in form of a network has been established at the National Inland Fisheries Institute, Department of Fisheries. This programme was supported by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC, Canada in cooperation with Dalhousie University, Canada (Uraiwan 1989. In the same year a genetic improvement programme aiming at improving economic characters of some economic fish species has been conducted at the Department of Aquaculture, Kasetsart University. Paralelly a course in Fish Genetics has been offered. Since then different approaches of genetics have been applied with final objectives on improving aquaculture production of the country. Researches being conducted are reviewed according to the following fish species.

UTHAIRAT NA-NAKORN

1992-01-01

155

Microsoft Word - 8 Aquaculture 1.doc  

The opinions expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect the current opinion or policy of Environment and Heritage Service STRANGFORD LOUGH ECOLOGICAL CHANGE INVESTIGATION (SLECI) Work Package 8. Aquaculture ...

156

Risks of Using Antifouling Biocides in Aquaculture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the ma...

José Meseguer; Maria Angeles Esteban; Francisco Antonio Guardiola; Alberto Cuesta

2012-01-01

157

State of the art of Italian aquaculture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to aquaculture production statistics published by FEAP (2007), Italy is the fifth largest fish producer in the European Union having a total quantity for 2006 estimated around 60,000 t. This data is exclusively referred to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), seabream (Sparus aurata), seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla) but even if we consider the total aquaculture production elaborated by ISMEA (2006) through year 2005 including sturgeons, carps, str...

Melotti, P.; Roncarati, A.

2010-01-01

158

Computer Aided Control and Monitoring of Aquaculture Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A computer system for control and monitoring of aquaculture plants has been developed by the Norwegian company NODEC. The system is based on a local area network which interfaces a computer system to the primary instruments located at various sites in the plant. Special software modules have been developed to handle different tasks such as data gathering, automatic control, alarming, logging, trend analysis and reporting. Special effort has been made to develop a user-friendly high level man-machine interface. A software library is available for monitoring and control of water quality, water distribution, heating systems, biomass and feeding systems.

Erik Hansen

1987-01-01

159

Understanding electronic systems in semiconductor quantum dots  

Science.gov (United States)

Systems of confined electrons are found everywhere in nature in the form of atoms where the orbiting electrons are confined by the Coulomb attraction of the nucleus. Advancement of nanotechnology has, however, provided us with an alternative way to confine electrons by using artificial confining potentials. A typical structure of this nature is the quantum dot, a nanoscale system which consists of few confined electrons. There are many types of quantum dots ranging from self-assembled to miniaturized semiconductor quantum dots. In this work we are interested in electrostatically confined semiconductor quantum dot systems where the electrostatic confining potential that traps the electrons is generated by external electrodes, doping, strain or other factors. A large number of semiconductor quantum dots of this type are fabricated by applying lithographically patterned gate electrodes or by etching on two-dimensional electron gases in semiconductor heterostructures. Because of this, the whole structure can be treated as a confined two-dimensional electron system. Quantum confinement profoundly affects the way in which electrons interact with each other, and external parameters such as a magnetic field. Since a magnetic field affects both the orbital and the spin motion of the electrons, the interplay between quantum confinement, electron-electron correlation effects and the magnetic field gives rise to very interesting physical phenomena. Thus, confined systems of electrons in a semiconductor quantum dot represent a unique opportunity to study fundamental quantum theories in a controllable atomic-like setup. In this work, we describe some common theoretical models which are used to study confined systems of electrons in a two-dimensional semiconductor quantum dot. The main emphasis of the work is to draw attention to important physical phenomena that arise in confined two-dimensional electron systems under various quantum regimes.

Ciftja, Orion

2013-11-01

160

Pseudopotentials for correlated electron systems  

CERN Document Server

A scheme is developed for creating pseudopotentials for use in correlated-electron calculations. Pseudopotentials for the light elements H, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, and F, are reported, based on data from high-level quantum chemical calculations. Results obtained with these correlated electron pseudopotentials (CEPPs) are compared with data for atomic energy levels and the dissociation energies, molecular geometries and zero-point vibrational energies of small molecules obtained from coupled cluster single double triple (CCSD(T)) calculations with large basis sets. The CEPPs give better results in correlated-electron calculations than Hartree-Fock-based pseudopotentials available in the literature.

Trail, J R

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Electrons at the surface of quantum systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electrons can be trapped at the surfaces and interfaces of the condensed phases of quantum matter (in particular hydrogen and helium), where they form classical two-dimensional Coulomb systems. Apart from studying the intrinsic properties of these nearly ideal systems, like the transition from an electron gas to a Wigner solid, one can use the electrons also as a sensitive probe to investigate the surface of quantum liquids and solids. The examples presented here include the surface of solid ...

Leiderer, Paul

1992-01-01

162

Electron beam welding complex diagnostics automated system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The structure of the system of technical diagnostics is investigated. The algorithm of technical diagnostic of electron beam welding complex, which serves as the basis for creation of automated system for technical diagnostics, is proposed

?. ?. ?????????

2013-07-01

163

Electron beam welding complex diagnostics automated system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The structure of the system of technical diagnostics is investigated. The algorithm of technical diagnostic of electron beam welding complex, which serves as the basis for creation of automated system for technical diagnostics, is proposed

?????????, ?. ?. ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????

2013-01-01

164

Electronic Money: A Viable Payment System?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores some of the legal and practical issues related to the implementation of electronic money placed in smart cards as a viable online payment system. This is a subject of particular importance as many there are many hopes from the financial industry about the implementation of an electronic currency system will create a great method for small transactions, both online and offline.

Guadamuz, Andres

2003-01-01

165

Analysis of an electronic Boardroom Voting System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study a simple electronic boardroom voting system. While most existing systems rely on opaque electronic devices, a scientific committee of a research institute (the CNRS Section 07) has recently proposed an alternative system. Despite its simplicity (in particular, no use of cryptography), each voter can check that the outcome of the election corresponds to the votes, without having to trust the devices. In this paper, we present three versions of this system, exhibiting potential attacks...

Arnaud, Mathilde; Cortier, Ve?ronique; Wiedling, Cyrille

2013-01-01

166

Biometric identification in electronic voting systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An extension of previous developments of electronic voting and e-government systems carried out at the School of Computer Science of the UNLP is presented, where a digital fingerprint recognition feature is added to the existing system used for faculty elections at this School. The characteristics and performance of the biometric recognition system are analyzed, as well as the modification of the on-site electronic voting system used in La Plata (hardware and software) and the adaptation t...

Iban?ez, Eduardo; Galda?mez, Nicola?s; Estrebou, Ce?sar; Pasini, Ariel C.; Chichizola, Franco; Rodriguez, Ismael P.; Pesado, Patricia

2009-01-01

167

Bioactivity of phytochemicals in some lesser-known plants and their effects and potential applications in livestock and aquaculture production systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Livestock and aquaculture production is under political and social pressure, especially in the European Union (EU), to decrease pollution and environmental damage arising due to animal agriculture. The EU has banned the use of antibiotics and other chemicals, which have been shown to be effective in promoting growth and reducing environment pollutants because of the risk caused to humans by chemical residues in food and by antibiotic resistance being passed on to human pathogens. As a result of this, scientists have intensified efforts in exploiting plants, plant extracts or natural plant compounds as potential natural alternatives for enhancing the livestock productivity. This paper discusses work on the effects of various phytochemicals and plant secondary metabolites in ruminant and fish species. The focus is on (i) plants such as Ananas comosus (pine apple), Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) and Azadirachta indica (neem) containing anthelmintic compounds and for their use for controlling internal parasites; (ii) plants containing polyphenols and their applications for protecting proteins from degradation in the rumen, increasing efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in rumen and decreasing methane emission; for using as antioxidants, antibacterial and antihelmintic agents; and for changing meat colour and for increasing n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in meat; (iii) saponin-rich plants such as quillaja, yucca and Sapindus saponaria for increasing the efficiency of rumen fermentation, decreasing methane emission and enhancing growth; for producing desired nutritional attributes such as lowering of cholesterol in monogastric animals; for increasing growth of fish (common carp and Nile tilapia) and for changing male to female ratio in tilapia; and for use as molluscicidal agents; (iv) Moringa oleifera leaves as a source of plant growth factor(s), antioxidants, beta-carotene, vitamin C, and various glucosinolates and their degraded products for possible use as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antipest agents; (v) Jatropha curcas toxic variety with high levels of various phytochemicals such as trypsin inhibitor, lectin, phytate and phorbol esters in seeds limiting the use of seed meal in fish and livestock diets; and the use of phorbol esters as bio-pesticidal agent; and (vi) lesser-known legumes such as Entada phaseoloides seeds containing high levels of trypsin inhibitor and saponins, Sesbania aculeate seeds rich in non-starch polysaccharides and Mucuna pruriens var. utilis seeds rich in l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and their potential as fish feed; Cassia fistula seeds as a source of antioxidants; and the use of Canavalia ensiformis, C. gladiata and C. virosa seeds containing high levels of trypsin inhinitor, lectins and canavanine. The paper also presents some challenges and future areas of work in this field. PMID:22444893

Makkar, H P S; Francis, G; Becker, K

2007-10-01

168

Dual cathode system for electron beam instruments  

Science.gov (United States)

An electron beam source having a single electron optical axis is provided with two coplanar cathodes equally spaced on opposite sides from the electron optical axis. A switch permits selecting either cathode, and a deflection system comprised of electromagnets, each with separate pole pieces equally spaced from the plane of the cathodes and electron optical axis, first deflects the electron beam from a selected cathode toward the electron optical axis, and then in an opposite direction into convergence with the electron optical axis. The result is that the electron beam from one selected cathode undergoes a sigmoid deflection in two opposite directions, like the letter S, with the sigmoid deflection of each being a mirror image of the other.

Bradley, James G. (inventor); Conley, Joseph M. (inventor); Wittry, David B. (inventor)

1989-01-01

169

High perveance electron gun for the electron cooling system  

CERN Document Server

The cooling time in the electron cooling system is inversely proportional to the beam current. To obtain high current of the electron beam the control electrode of the gun is provided with a positive potential and an electrostatic trap for secondary electrons appears inside the electron gun. This leads to a decrease in the gun perveance. To avoid this problem, the adiabatic high perveance electron gun with the clearing control electrode is designed in JINR (J. Bosser, Y. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, E. Syresin et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 391 (1996) 103. Yu. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, A. Sidorin, A. Smirnov, E. Syresin, The generation of electron beams with perveance of 3-6 mu A/V sup 3 sup / sup 2 , Proceedings of SCHEF'99). The clearing control electrode has a transverse electric field, which clears secondary electrons. Computer simulations of the potential map were made with RELAX3D computer code (C.J. Kost, F.W. Jones, RELAX3D User's Guide and References Manual).

Korotaev, Yu V; Petrov, A; Sidorin, A; Smirnov, A; Syresin, E M; Titkova, I

2000-01-01

170

Sediment quality and production data of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) culture under Code of Conduct for Responsible Shrimp Aquaculture (CoC) system and ordinary system of intensive shrimp farms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study of sediment qualities and production data of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) culture was carried out in 5 ponds practised following CoC guideline (CoC: “Code of Conduct for Responsible Shrimp Aquaculture”) and in 10 ponds practised following common guideline of ordinary intensive farm (OIF). All the ponds were located in Songkhla and Nakhon Si Thammarat provinces and the study period was during March 2003-January 2004. It was found that sediment qualities (organic matter as...

Klaysri, S.; Pornpinidvorakul, P.; Keawtawee, T.; Songsangjinda, P.; Muangyao, P.; Limsuwan, C.

2005-01-01

171

An Electronic System for Home Care Protocols  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is demonstration of an Electronic Tracking System being implemented in several Home Health Agencies in the US. It uses the Home Health Care Classification (HHCC) System, a standardized terminology designed and developed to document patient care. The goal it to take the coded data to design the Electronic Tracking System as a method for predicting resource requirements, tracking care needs, and measuring the outcomes of the care.

Saba, Virginia K.; Irwin, Ruth Galten

2001-01-01

172

Survey of Electronic Payment Methods and Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper an overview of electronic payment methods and systems is given. This survey is done as part of the Moby Dick project. Electronic payment systems can be grouped into three broad classes: traditional money transactions, digital currency and creditdebit payments. Such payment systems have a number of requirements: e.g. security, acceptability, convenience, cost, anonymity, control, traceability and control of encryption methods. Some requirements appear contradictory and tradeoffs ...

Havinga, Paul J. M.; Smit, Gerard J. M.; Helme, Arne

1996-01-01

173

Experiences with electronic personal dosimetry systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IN WAK Betriebsgesellschaft mbH and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, some electronic dosimetry systems from Rados GmbH were installed or upgraded at the end of 1998 and the beginning of 1999. The article describes how the standard operation system of the electronic dosimetry system was expanded to a full radiation protection program with new software products, which were especially developed for the two customers. (orig.)

174

Modelling electronic service systems using UML  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a profile for modelling systems of electronic services using UML. Electronic services encapsulate business services, an organisational unit focused on delivering benefit to a consumer, to enhance communication, coordination and information management. Our profile is based on a formal, workflow-oriented description of electronic services that is abstracted from particular implementation technologies. Resulting models provide the basis for a formal analysis...

Skene, J.; Piccinelli, G.; Stearns, M.

2003-01-01

175

Cultivable intestinal microbiota of yellowtail juveniles (Seriola lalandi) in an aquaculture system / Microbiota intestinal cultivable de juveniles de dorada (Seriola lalandi) en un sistema de acuicultura  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La dorada ("yellowtail", Seriola lalandi) ha sido cultivada durante los últimos años, y su expansión se ha debido al mayor conocimiento científico-técnico así como a la creciente demanda, convirtiéndose en una promisoria especie para la acuicultura. Dado que el conocimiento de la microbiota intestin [...] al de esta especie es muy limitado, el objetivo de este estudio es describir las poblaciones bacterianas asociadas al tracto intestinal de Seriola lalandi cultivada en Chile. La composición de la microbiota fue analizada en dos etapas de crecimiento diferenciadas por peso y parámetros como SGR y FCR. Los juveniles (peso inicial promedio 7.33 ± 0.30 g) y pre-adultos (81.7 ± 19.0 g) fueron alimentados con dieta comercial por 33 y 50 días, respectivamente. Las primeras muestras fueron recolectadas al término del primer ensayo en ejemplares de 50 g app., y la segunda muestra fue tomada al término del segundo ensayo en peces de 370 g app. La composición de la microbiota fue examinada mediante aislamiento convencional en medio de cultivo de Agar Tripticasa Soya (TSA) seguido de secuenciación e identificación por 16S rRNA. Un total de dieciséis géneros fueron identificados, donde Pseudomonas, Vibrio y Staphylococcus fueron los géneros predominantes en peces de 50 g, mientras que Microbacterium y Francisella fueron los géneros predominantes en los peces de 370 g. Se determinó que la composición de la microbiota se ajustó a diferentes arreglos en función del tamaño del hospedero, donde los únicos géneros compartidos fueron Bacillus y Vibrio. El conocimiento de la microbiota intestinal de Seriola lalandi es el primer paso para explorar el adecuado manejo de la misma, así como el desarrollo de probióticos y también obtener referencias de la microbiota de peces sanos en condiciones de cultivo. Abstract in english The yellowtail (Seriola lalandi) has been farmed for many years and is becoming a promising aquaculture species. Knowledge of the intestinal microbiota of this species is very limited. Thus, the aim of this study is to describe the bacterial populations associated with the intestinal tract of Seriol [...] a lalandi reared in Chile. The microbiota composition was analyzed at two growth stages distinguished by weight and parameters such as Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR). Juveniles (mean initial weight 7.33 ± 0.30 g) and pre-adults (81.7 ± 19.0 g) were fed with commercial diet for 33 and 50 days, respectively. The first intestinal samples were collected at the end of Trial 1 from specimens weighing approximately 50 g while the second samples were obtained at the end of Trial 2 from specimens weighing approximately 370 g. The microbiota composition was examined using conventional isolation in Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) followed by 16S rRNA sequencing and identification. In total, 16 genera were identified. Pseudomonas, Vibrio and Staphylococcus were the predominant genera in fish at the 50 g stage, whereas Microbacterium and Francisella were the predominant genera in the 370 g stage. The microbiota composition showed different assemblages, depending on host size, with Bacillus and Vibrio being the only genera that were shared. Knowledge of the intestinal microbiota of Seriola lalandi is the first step in the exploration of microbiota management and the development of probiotics, as well as in the identification of the bacterial populations in healthy fish under cultured conditions.

Eduardo, Aguilera; Gabriel, Yany; Jaime, Romero.

2013-07-01

176

Electron-phonon interaction in Hubbard systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The renormalization of the electron-phonon interaction in a Hubbard system due to the electronic correlations is investigated using different slave-boson mean-field approximations. We find that the renormalization depends strongly on the doping but also on the slave-boson method which is used to describe the correlations.

Keller, J.; Leal, C. E.; Forsthofer, F.

1995-02-01

177

Assessing the Aquaculture Curricula in the Northeastern Region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Survey responses from 70 secondary agriculture teachers who included aquaculture in the curriculum indicated they averaged 4.5 years experience teaching aquaculture. Limited facilities, equipment costs, and low teacher knowledge were barriers. Only eight had used all of the aquaculture curriculum materials from the National Council for…

Wingenbach, Gary J.; Gartin, Stacy A.; Lawrence, Layle D.

2000-01-01

178

Graphics System in Vehicle Electronics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis three problems areas are studied related to embedded system and device driver programming: a GPS driver, the CAN Bus and study of graphics libraries suitable for embedded systems. The thesis has two parts: an academic study and an implementation phase based on the academic study. The Freescale i.MX31ADS development board together with ENEA's operating system OSE is used as a basis for the study and it is shown that OpenGL ES is best suited for the platform. Further the system c...

Kjellgren, Andreas

2009-01-01

179

Actuating electronic systems for turbomolecular pumps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electronic systems for actuation of turbomolecular pumps and their technical characteristics are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantage of any type of system are pointed out. Also, for any of these systems the principle layout, the structural solutions and the obtained experimental results are presented

180

Magnetic system of the Tevatron electron lens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL) system consisting of seven SC and four conventional magnets has been developed and fabricated in IHEP for increase of luminosity in Tevatron. The SC cable tension and preload of SC coils are calculated. The chosen cable design and cooling of the SC magnets ensure sufficient temperature margin for operating of SC magnets and their safety during quench. The system of conventional and SC solenoids create necessary trajectory of magnetic field lines for the TEL electron beam motion. SC dipoles and warm correctors permit to carry out correction of the electron beam motion

 
 
 
 
181

Water budgets for freshwater aquaculture ponds with reference to effluent volume  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the consumptive water use for freshwater pond aquaculture for semi-intensive carps farming practices. The consumptive use of water includes evaporation loss, seepage loss and water exchanges requirements. The water requirement has been estimated to be10.3 m3/Kg of fish production under present study for semi-intensive culture and with supplemental feeding. Out of which7.6 m3/Kg of fish production is system associated requirement. On an average the evaporation loss from the pond is1498.3 mm/year and seepage loss per year is about1182.60 mm/year. Seepage and water exchange losses recharge the ground water aquifers and if they are treated and recycled, the water use in aquaculture can be reduced significantly. A further reduction in fresh water use in pond aquaculture is possible through development of intensive and superintensive culture systems and aqua feeds.

K. K. Sharma

2013-07-01

182

Data base systems in electronic design engineering  

Science.gov (United States)

The concepts of an integrated design data base system (DBMS) as it might apply to an electronic design company are discussed. Data elements of documentation, project specifications, project tracking, firmware, software, electronic and mechanical design can be integrated and managed through a single DBMS. Combining the attributes of a DBMS data handler with specialized systems and functional data can provide users with maximum flexibility, reduced redundancy, and increased overall systems performance. Although some system overhead is lost due to redundancy in transitory data, it is believed the combination of the two data types is advisable rather than trying to do all data handling through a single DBMS.

Williams, D.

1980-01-01

183

PROTEOMICS in aquaculture : Applications and trends  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Over the last forty years global aquaculture presented a growth rate of 6.9% per annum with an amazing production of 52.5million tonnes in 2008, and a contribution of 43% of aquatic animal food for human consumption. In order to meet the world's health requirements of fish protein, a continuous growth in production is still expected for decades to come. Aquaculture is, though, a very competitive market, and a global awareness regarding the use of scientific knowledge and emerging technologies to obtain a better farmed organism through a sustainable production has enhanced the importance of proteomics in seafood biology research. Proteomics, as a powerful comparative tool, has therefore been increasingly used over the last decade to address different questions in aquaculture, regarding welfare, nutrition, health, quality, and safety. In this paper we will give an overview of these biological questions and the role of proteomics in their investigation, outlining the advantages, disadvantages and future challenges. A brief description of the proteomics technical approaches will be presented. Special focus will be on the latest trends related to the aquaculture production of fish with defined nutritional, health or quality properties for functional foods and the integration of proteomics techniques in addressing this challenging issue. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Farm animal proteomics.

Jessen, Flemming

2012-01-01

184

Recommendations for practical measures to mitigate the impact of aquaculture on the environment in three areas of the Philippines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An assessment of the severity and extent of aquaculture impact and the estimation of sustainable carrying capacity were undertaken in three areas of the Philippines - Bolinao (marine site, Dagupan, (brackishwater and Taal Lake (freshwater. This paper describes the potential mitigating measures that could be taken to reduce nutrient release from aquaculture, increase nutrient uptake using extractive species, and possible early warning systems for critical states of the tide when there is reduced flushing.

Tarzan Legovi?

2008-12-01

185

Electron correlation energy in confined two-electron systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radial, angular and total correlation energies are calculated for four two-electron systems with atomic numbers Z=0-3 confined within an impenetrable sphere of radius R. We report accurate results for the non-relativistic, restricted Hartree-Fock and radial limit energies over a range of confinement radii from 0.05-10a{sub 0}. At small R, the correlation energies approach limiting values that are independent of Z while at intermediate R, systems with Z{>=}1 exhibit a characteristic maximum in the correlation energy resulting from an increase in the angular correlation energy which is offset by a decrease in the radial correlation energy.

Wilson, C.L. [Chemistry Program, Centre College, 600 West Walnut Street, Danville, KY 40422 (United States); Montgomery, H.E., E-mail: ed.montgomery@centre.ed [Chemistry Program, Centre College, 600 West Walnut Street, Danville, KY 40422 (United States); Sen, K.D. [School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046 (India); Thompson, D.C. [Chemistry Systems and High Performance Computing, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharamaceuticals Inc., 900 Ridgebury Road, Ridgefield, CT 06877 (United States)

2010-09-27

186

Electron correlation energy in confined two-electron systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radial, angular and total correlation energies are calculated for four two-electron systems with atomic numbers Z=0-3 confined within an impenetrable sphere of radius R. We report accurate results for the non-relativistic, restricted Hartree-Fock and radial limit energies over a range of confinement radii from 0.05-10a0. At small R, the correlation energies approach limiting values that are independent of Z while at intermediate R, systems with Z?1 exhibit a characteristic maximum in the correlation energy resulting from an increase in the angular correlation energy which is offset by a decrease in the radial correlation energy.

187

Quantum-based electronic devices and systems selected topics in electronics and systems, v.14  

CERN Document Server

This volume includes highlights of the theories and experimental findings that underlie essential phenomena occurring in quantum-based devices and systems as well as the principles of operation of selected novel quantum-based electronic devices and systems. A number of the emerging approaches to creating new types of quantum-based electronic devices and systems are also discussed.

Dutta, Mitra

1998-01-01

188

Electron loss processes in three- and four-electron systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, the independent event model (IEVM) is employed to analyze the total electron loss and the loss-ionization processes in intermediate-velocity collisions between multiply-charged projectile ions and neutral targets, for collision systems with three and four electrons in processes where up to three active electrons are involved. The IEVM was applied to the analysis of the single loss of Li+ and Li2+ ions by He atoms with the simultaneous single and double ionization of the target. All the possible ionization mechanisms for both collision partners in each exit channel were considered. The probabilities were calculated using either a straight-line version of the semi-classical approximation or the coupled-channel method. The anti-screening contribution was also taken into account. The calculations describe well the experimental energy dependence and the high-velocity absolute values for the cross sections for single electron loss accompanied or not by the ionization of the target. (orig.)

189

42 CFR 456.722 - Electronic claims management system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Electronic claims management system. 456.722 Section 456.722...Program and Electronic Claims Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.722 Electronic claims management system. (a) Point-of-sale...

2010-10-01

190

Electronics system for transuranic waste assays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A slagging pyrolysis incinerator has been proposed to reduce the volume of stored transuranic (TRU) waste material. This report describes the electronics developed for a fast TRU waste assay system using photon interrogation. The system uses a pulsed electron beam from a linear accelerator to produce a high-energy photon burst, termed the gamma flash, from a metallic converter. The photons induce fission in the TRU. A high-rate counting system is used to relate the production rate of photon induced neutrons to the amount of fissile material present in the waste

191

Debugging at the Electronic System Level  

CERN Document Server

Debugging becomes more and more the bottleneck to chip design productivity, especially while developing modern complex integrated circuits and systems at the Electronic System Level (ESL). Today, debugging is still an unsystematic and lengthy process. Here, a simple reporting of a failure is not enough, anymore. Rather, it becomes more and more important not only to find many errors early during development but also to provide efficient methods for their isolation. In "Debugging at the Electronic System Level" the state-of-the-art of modeling and verification of ESL designs is review

Rogin, Frank

2010-01-01

192

Blind Signatures in Electronic Voting Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic voting systems are created to facilitate the election, accelerate voting and counting votes and increase turnout for the election. The main problems of the electronic systems are related with the assurance of system security (cryptographic security and protection against frauds) and a guarantee that the voters are anonymous. The authorization of voters and the anonymity of them seem to be contradictory, but it is possible to create such a system where the both requirements are met. Some solutions, the most common e-voting systems, are presented in the paper. These models are adjusted to the demands and implemented in the polls system for quality of teaching evaluation where anonymity is very important. The blind signature protocol, model directed to user's anonymity, is a very good solution of the authorization and anonymity problem in the polls system with remote access only, as it was described in the paper.

Kucharczyk, Marcin

193

Nonequilibrium quantum criticality in open electronic systems  

CERN Document Server

A theory is presented of nonequilibrium quantum criticality in open (coupled to reservoirs) electronic systems. Results are given for itinerant Ising and Heisenberg magnets with nonequilibrium provided by current flow across the system. Both departures from equilibrium at conventional (equilibrium) quantum critical points and the physics of phase transitions induced by the nonequilibrium drive are treated.

Mitra, A; Kim, Y B; Millis, A J; Mitra, Aditi; Takei, So; Kim, Yong Baek

2006-01-01

194

Bioinspired electron-transfer systems and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bioinspired electron-transfer systems including artificial photosynthesis and respiration are presented herein together with some of their applications. First, multi-step electron-transfer systems composed of electron donor-acceptor ensembles have been developed, mimicking functions of the photosynthetic reaction center. However, a significant amount of energy is lost during the multi-step electron-transfer processes. Then, as an alternative to conventional charge-separation functional molecular models based on multi-step long-range electron transfer within redox cascades, simple donor-acceptor dyads have been developed to attain along-lived and high energy charge-separated state without significant loss of excitation energy, by fine control of the redox potentials and of the geometry of donor-acceptor dyads that have small reorganization energies of electron transfer. Such simple molecular dyads, capable of fast charge separation but extremely slow charge recombination, have significant advantages with regard to synthetic feasibility, providing a variety of applications including construction of organic solar cells and development of efficient photo-catalytic systems for the solar energy conversion. An efficient four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water by one-electron reductants such as ferrocene derivatives as well as by an NADH analog has also been achieved as a respiration model by using a cofacial dicobalt porphyrin that can form the ?-peroxo Co(III)-O2Co(III) complex. The catalytic mechanism of the four-electron reduction of dioxygen has been clarified based on the detailed kinetic study and the detection of the intermediate. (author)

195

Quantum phase transitions in electronic systems  

CERN Document Server

Quantum phase transitions occur at zero temperature when some non-thermal control-parameter like pressure or chemical composition is changed. They are driven by quantum rather than thermal fluctuations. In this review we first give a pedagogical introduction to quantum phase transitions and quantum critical behavior emphasizing similarities with and differences to classical thermal phase transitions. We then illustrate the general concepts by discussing a few examples of quantum phase transitions occurring in electronic systems. The ferromagnetic transition of itinerant electrons shows a very rich behavior since the magnetization couples to additional electronic soft modes which generates an effective long-range interaction between the spin fluctuations. We then consider the influence of rare regions on quantum phase transitions in systems with quenched disorder, taking the antiferromagnetic transitions of itinerant electrons as a primary example. Finally we discuss some aspects of the metal-insulator transit...

Vojta, T

1999-01-01

196

Electronic systems for vehicles; Elektronik im Kraftfahrzeug  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increasing electronification of motor cars was reflected in the 13th International Conference on Electronic Systems in Motor Vehicles. As mechanical aggregates are bing replaced by electric aggregates, intelligent and demand-dependent operating strategies can be introduced. The trend towards a ''dry vehicle'' is enhanced by increasing pressure to reduce fuel consumption. During the next few years, key areas of development from the view of electronics will be driver assistant systems, e.g. parking assistants, improved active and passive protection of passengers and especially of pedestrians. Enhanced linking of the active systems in vehicles, multiple uses of sensors and communication between vehicles and between vehicles and the environment open up a wide field of additional applications of electronic systems. In these areas, we are just at the beginning and interesting developments can be expected. In 2007, electronic systems in motor vehicles should not be viewed only from the focus of absolute innovation. For the German and European motor car industry, one of the factors to ensure future success will be the development of appropriate electronic concepts for new markets. An analysis of challenges and a presentation of first solutions may lead to interesting discussion. (orig.)

NONE

2007-07-01

197

Induced superconductivity in 2D electronic systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The approach applicable for spatially inhomogeneous and time-dependent problems associated with the induced superconductivity in low dimensional electronic systems is developed. This approach is based on the Fano--Anderson model which describes the decay of a resonance state coupled to a continuum. We consider two types of junctions made of a ballistic 2D electron gas placed in a tunnel finite-length contact with a bulk superconducting leads. We calculate the spectrum of the...

Kopnin, N. B.; Melnikov, A. S.

2011-01-01

198

The Design of an Electronic Voting System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study is to design an electronic voting system based upon the electoral process adopted in Ghana. In recent years, information technology has greatly affected all aspects of life, and to a large extent, this includes politics. In order to choose people to various positions different methods have been set up, with researchers continually trying to find improvement to the existing methods. The most recent method to be devised is electronic voting (e-voting). It is meant to phase...

Ofori-dwumfuo, G. O.; Paatey, E.

2011-01-01

199

VHDL Model of Electronic-Lock System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper describes the design of an electronic-lock system which wascompleted as part of the Basic VHDL course in the Department of Controland Measurement Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics,Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic in co-operation withthe Department if Electronic Engineering, University of Hull, GreatBritain in the frame of TEMPUS project no. S_JEP/09468-95.

J. Noga

2000-04-01

200

76 FR 61956 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)  

Science.gov (United States)

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...11-92] Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS) AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...the Federal Communications Commission...using the Electronic Tariff Filing System...

2011-10-06

 
 
 
 
201

Using Metadata Description for Agriculture and Aquaculture Papers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with the most used metadata formats and thesauri suitable for describing scientific and research papers in the domains agriculture, food industry, aquaculture, environment and rural areas. These include the Dublin Core (DC, Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS, Virtual Open Access Agriculture and Aquaculture Repository Metadata Application Profile (VOA3R AP and the AGROVOC thesaurus. Having analyzed the metadata formats and research paper lifecycle, the authors would recommend that each paper should entail metadata description as soon as it is published. The metadata are to describe the content and properties of the paper. One of the most suitable metadata formats is the VOA3R AP that is partially patterned on the DC and combined with the AGROVOC thesaurus. As a result, an effective description, availability and automatic data exchange between and among local and central repositories should be attained.The knowledge and data presented in the present paper were obtained as a result of the following research programs and grant schemes: the Grant No. 20121044 of the Internal Grant Agency titled „Using Automatic Metadata Generation for Research Papers“, the Grant agreement No. 250525 funded by the European Commission corresponding to the VOA3R Project (Virtual Open Access Agriculture & Aquaculture Repository: Sharing Scientific and Scholarly Research related to Agriculture, Food, and Environment, http://voa3r.eu and the Research Program titled „Economy of the Czech Agriculture Resources and their Efficient Use within the Framework of the Multifunctional Agrifood Systems“ of the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport number VZ MSM 6046070906.

P. S?imek, J. Vane?k, V. Oc?ena?s?ek, M. Stoc?es, T. Vogeltanzova

2012-12-01

202

Evaluation on Biofilter in Recirculating Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture pays more attention as a bio-integrated food production system that serves as a model of sustainable aquaculture, minimizes waste discharge, increases diversity and yields multiple products. The objectives of this research were to analyze the efficiency of total ammonia nitrogen biofiltration and its effect on carrying capacity of fish rearing units. Pilot-scale bioreactor was designed with eight run-raceways (two meters of each that assembled in series. Race 1-3 were used to stock silky worm (Tubifex sp as detrivorous converter, then race 4-8 were used to plant three species of leaf-vegetable as photoautotrophic converters, i.e; spinach (Ipomoea reptana, green mustard (Brassica juncea and basil (Ocimum basilicum. The three plants were placed in randomized block design based on water flow direction. Mass balance of nutrient analysis, was applied to figure out the efficiency of bio-filtration and its effect on carrying capacity of rearing units. The result of the experiment showed that 86.5 % of total ammonia nitrogen removal was achieved in 32 days of culturing period. This efficiency able to support the carrying capacity of the fish tank up to 25.95 kg/lpm with maximum density was 62.69 kg/m3 of fish biomass productionDoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.80-85 [How to cite this article: Sumoharjo, S.  and Maidie, A. (2013. Evaluation on Biofilter in Recirculating Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture.  International Journal of  Science and Engineering, 4(2,80-85. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.80-85

Asfie Maidie

2013-06-01

203

A Flexible Electronic Commerce Recommendation System  

Science.gov (United States)

Recommendation systems have become very popular in E-commerce websites. Many of the largest commerce websites are already using recommender technologies to help their customers find products to purchase. An electronic commerce recommendation system learns from a customer and recommends products that the customer will find most valuable from among the available products. But most recommendation methods are hard-wired into the system and they support only fixed recommendations. This paper presented a framework of flexible electronic commerce recommendation system. The framework is composed by user model interface, recommendation engine, recommendation strategy model, recommendation technology group, user interest model and database interface. In the recommender strategy model, the method can be collaborative filtering, content-based filtering, mining associate rules method, knowledge-based filtering method or the mixed method. The system mapped the implementation and demand through strategy model, and the whole system would be design as standard parts to adapt to the change of the recommendation strategy.

Gong, Songjie

204

Collimation system for electron arc therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electron collimation system for electron arc therapy treatments consists of a slit collimation system which is movable with the electron beam applicator and is designed to allow for dose compensation in the sagittal direction and a hoop-and-clamp assembly for final field shaping. By correctly designing the shape of the slit in the former and properly adjusting the components of the latter, it is possible to accomplish quite uniform shielding without causing any weight of the shielding material to rest on the patient. The slit collimation system has a specially shaped aperture for confining the radiation beam. The hoop-and-clamp assembly has hoops and clamps which locate shielding over the patient's body. The shielding locating clamps are adjustably movable radially with respect to the hoops. (author)

205

Electronic system of TBR tokamak device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electronics developed as a part of the TBR project, which involves the construction of a small tokamak at the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo, is described. On the basis of tokamak parameter values, the electronics for the toroidal field, ohmic/heating and vertical field systems is presented, including capacitors bank, switches, triggering circuits and power supplies. A controlled power oscilator used in discharge cleaning and pre-ionization is also described. The performance of the system as a function of the desired plasma parameters is discussed. (Author)

206

Electron inelastic scattering in multiparticle systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A possibility of studying modulation of loss cross section induced by multiparticle correlations in simple multiparticle systems (gases, liquids, amorphous media) on the base of the plotted statistical expression for the spectrum of energy losses of scattered electrons is analyzed. It is shown that electron spectroscopy in the case of rather discharged systems permits to directly determine the g2 two-particle molecular distribution function passing by the traditional for X-ray and neutron spectroscopy stage of back Furie-transformation of scattering cross section, which, as it has been noted, can result in inaccuracies in g2 determination

207

Automatic control variac system for electronic accelerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An automatic control variac system is designed in order to satisfy the controlling requirement of the electronic accelerator developed by the Institute. Both design and operational principles, structure of the system as well as the software of industrial PC and micro controller unit are described. The interfaces of the control module are RS232 and RS485. A fiber optical interface (FOC) could be set up if an industrial FOC network is necessary, which will extend the filed of its application and make the communication of the system better. It is shown in practice that the system can adjust the variac output voltage automatically and assure the accurate and automatic control of the electronic accelerator. The system is designed in accordance with the general design principles and possesses the merits such as easy operation and maintenance, good expansibility, and low cost, thus it could also be used in other industrial branches. (authors)

208

Method of fabricating a cooled electronic system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of fabricating a liquid-cooled electronic system is provided which includes an electronic assembly having an electronics card and a socket with a latch at one end. The latch facilitates securing of the card within the socket. The method includes providing a liquid-cooled cold rail at the one end of the socket, and a thermal spreader to couple the electronics card to the cold rail. The thermal spreader includes first and second thermal transfer plates coupled to first and second surfaces on opposite sides of the card, and thermally conductive extensions extending from end edges of the plates, which couple the respective transfer plates to the liquid-cooled cold rail. The extensions are disposed to the sides of the latch, and the card is securable within or removable from the socket using the latch without removing the cold rail or the thermal spreader.

Chainer, Timothy J; Gaynes, Michael A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Schultz, Mark D; Simco, Daniel P; Steinke, Mark E

2014-02-11

209

Rectification in one--dimensional electronic systems  

CERN Document Server

Asymmetric current--voltage ($I(V)$) curves, known as the diode or ratchet effect, in one--dimensional electronic conductors can have their origin from scattering off a single asymmetric impurity in the system. We investigate this effect in the framework of the Tomonaga--Luttinger model for electrons with spin. We show that electron interactions strongly enhance the ratchet effect and lead to a pronounced current rectification even if the impurity potential is weak. For strongly interacting electrons and not too small voltages, the ratchet current, $I_r = [I(V)+I(-V)]/2$, measuring the asymmetry in the current--voltage curve, has a power--law dependence on the voltage with a negative exponent, $I_r \\sim V^{-|z|}$, leading to a bump in the current--voltage curve.

Braunecker, B; Marston, J B; Braunecker, Bernd

2005-01-01

210

Electron transfer in weakly interacting systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A recently proposed semiclassical model, in which an electronic transmission coefficient and a nuclear tunneling factor are introduced as corrections to the classical activated-complex expression, is described. The nuclear tunneling corrections are shown to be important only at low temperatures or when the electron transfer is very exothermic. By contrast, corrections for nonadiabaticity may be significant for most outer-sphere reactions of metal complexes. The rate constants for the Fe(H2O)62+-Fe(H2O)63+, Ru(NH3)62+-Ru(NH3)63+ and Ru(bpy)32+-Ru(bpy)33+ electron exchange reactions predicted by the semiclassical model are in very good agreement with the observed values. The implications of the model for optically-induced electron transfer in mixed-valence systems are noted

211

Merging remotely sensed data, models and indicators for a sustainable development of coastal aquaculture in Algeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Finfish cage farming is an economically relevant activity, which exerts pressures on coastal systems and thus require a science-based management, based on the Ecosystem Approach, in order to be carry out in a sustainable way. Within MEDINA project (EU 282977), ocean color data and models were used for estimating indicators of pressures of aquaculture installations along the north African coast. These indicators can provide important support for decision makers in the allocation of new zones for aquaculture, by taking into account the suitability of an area for this activity and minimizing negative environmental effects, thus enhancing the social acceptability of aquaculture. The increase in the number of farms represents a strategic objective for the Algerian food production sector, which is currently being supported by different national initiatives. The case-study presented in this work was carried out in the Gulf of Bejaia. Water quality for aquaculture was first screened based on ocean color CDOM data (http://www.globcolour.info/). The SWAN model was subsequently used to propagate offshore wave data and to derive wave height statistics. On this basis, sub-areas of the Gulf were ranked, according their optimality in respect to cage resistance and fish welfare requirements. At the three best sites an integrated aquaculture impact assessment model was therefore applied: this tool allows one to obtain a detailed representation of fish growth and population dynamics inside the rearing cages, and to simulate the deposition of uneaten food and faeces on the sediment and the subsequent mineralization of organic matter. This integrated model was used to produce a set of indicators of the fish cages environmental interaction under different scenarios of forcings (water temperature, feeding, currents). These model-derived indicators could usefully contribute to the implementation of the ecosystem approach for the management of aquaculture activities, also required by the implementation of the UNEP/MAP ecological approach.

Brigolin, Daniele; Venier, Chiara; Amine Taji, Mohamed; Lourguioui, Hichem; Mangin, Antoine; Pastres, Roberto

2014-05-01

212

The Design of an Electronic Voting System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to design an electronic voting system based upon the electoral process adopted in Ghana. In recent years, information technology has greatly affected all aspects of life, and to a large extent, this includes politics. In order to choose people to various positions different methods have been set up, with researchers continually trying to find improvement to the existing methods. The most recent method to be devised is electronic voting (e-voting. It is meant to phase out outdated paper ballot, punched cards and other mechanical voting systems with paperless electronic or online voting systems. E-voting systems endeavour to make elections simple while reducing the total cost of the election. Designing an air-tight and reliable e-voting system is therefore a great task, in that, the system that must be developed must protect the privacy of the voter, be easily understood and used by the entire voting populace - no matter who they are or where they come from. Based on this, OVIS, an On-line Voting System, has been developed. It came about as a result of the findings of a study of the electoral process of the Electoral Commission of Ghana.

G.O. Ofori-Dwumfuo

2011-03-01

213

14 CFR 221.300 - Discontinuation of electronic tariff system.  

Science.gov (United States)

... § 221.300 Discontinuation of electronic tariff system. In the event that the electronic tariff system is discontinued, or...changed, or a filer discontinues its business, all electronic data records prior to such date...

2010-01-01

214

Coral aquaculture to support drug discovery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine natural products (NP) are unanimously acknowledged as the 'blue gold' in the urgent quest for new pharmaceuticals. Although corals are among the marine organisms with the greatest diversity of secondary metabolites, growing evidence suggest that their symbiotic bacteria produce most of these bioactive metabolites. The ex hospite culture of coral symbiotic microbiota is extremely challenging and only limited examples of successful culture exist today. By contrast, in toto aquaculture of corals is a commonly applied technology to produce corals for aquaria. Here, we suggest that coral aquaculture could as well be a viable and economically feasible option to produce the biomass required to execute the first steps of the NP-based drug discovery pipeline. PMID:23866840

Leal, Miguel C; Calado, Ricardo; Sheridan, Christopher; Alimonti, Andrea; Osinga, Ronald

2013-10-01

215

Electronic Subsystems For Laser Communication System  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic subsystems of free-space laser communication system carry digital signals at 650 Mb/s over long distances. Applicable to general optical communications involving transfer of great quantities of data, and transmission and reception of video images of high definition.

Long, Catherine; Maruschak, John; Patschke, Robert; Powers, Michael

1992-01-01

216

Electron correlations in narrow band systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If is studied the effect of the electron correlations in narrow bands, such as d(f) bands in the transition metals (rare earths) and their compounds and the impurity bands in doped semiconductors. It is described the narrow band systems by the Hubbard Hamiltonian. (A.C.A.S.)

217

Electronic Journal Publishing System - Ciência da Informação  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The journal Ciência da Informação is presented in an entirely electronic version, using as a tool the software Open Journal Systems (OJS), developed by Public Knowledge Project (PKP), translated and customized by the Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology (IBICT).

Coeli Fernandes, Regina; Ma?rdero Arellano, Miguel A?ngel; Mirti?ns Sodoma Da Fonseca, Ramon; Meinert, Carlos Roberto; Reis Da Silva, Ie?da M. Jesus; Palermo, Margaret; Paulo E Oliveira Filho, Francisco

2004-01-01

218

Probiotics as control agents in aquaculture  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious diseases constitute a limiting factor in the development of the aquaculture production, and control has solely concentrated on the use of antibiotics. However, the massive use of antibiotics for the control of diseases has been questioned by acquisition of antibiotic resistance and the need of alternative is of prime importance. Probiotics, live microorganisms administered in adequate amounts that confer a healthy effect on the host, are emerging as significant microbial food supplements in the field of prophylaxis.

Geovanny D, Gómez R.; Balcázar, José Luis; Ma, Shen

2007-01-01

219

Soft errors in modern electronic systems  

CERN Document Server

This book provides a comprehensive presentation of the most advanced research results and technological developments enabling understanding, qualifying and mitigating the soft errors effect in advanced electronics, including the fundamental physical mechanisms of radiation induced soft errors, the various steps that lead to a system failure, the modelling and simulation of soft error at various levels (including physical, electrical, netlist, event driven, RTL, and system level modelling and simulation), hardware fault injection, accelerated radiation testing and natural environment testing, s

Nicolaidis, Michael

2010-01-01

220

Risks of using antifouling biocides in aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT). The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211(®)), Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine), zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i) predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii) the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF) biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms. PMID:22408407

Guardiola, Francisco Antonio; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, Maria Angeles

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Risks of Using Antifouling Biocides in Aquaculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT. The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211®, Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine, zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms.

José Meseguer

2012-02-01

222

State of the art of Italian aquaculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to aquaculture production statistics published by FEAP (2007, Italy is the fifth largest fish producer in the European Union having a total quantity for 2006 estimated around 60,000 t. This data is exclusively referred to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, seabream (Sparus aurata, seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax and European eel (Anguilla anguilla but even if we consider the total aquaculture production elaborated by ISMEA (2006 through year 2005 including sturgeons, carps, striped bass, catfish and ornamental fish, Italy ranks fourth with 69,100 t after Norway (655,364 t, Great Britain (141,793 t and Greece (83,600 t. Over the last 15 years, Italian finfish production has known a decrease related to all the species mainly reared (trout, eel, carps, catfish except for the eurhyaline species that have had an important expansion (Table 1. Based on these considerations, in this work we describe the main features of fish aquaculture in Italy focalizing the attention to the single sectors of the farmed species and their trend for the future.

P. Melotti

2010-04-01

223

Risks of Using Antifouling Biocides in Aquaculture  

Science.gov (United States)

Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT). The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211®), Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine), zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i) predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii) the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF) biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms. PMID:22408407

Guardiola, Francisco Antonio; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, Jose; Esteban, Maria Angeles

2012-01-01

224

Application of Information Systems in Electronic Insurance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information Systems (IS and some of the application software are very important for developing electronic insurance. In this research we try to determine and investigate the Inform ation Systems and their application software, which are effective for electronic insurance development. The electronic insurance parameter that we consider in our research are quality of services, human resources, customer benefit, increased customer services, integrated customer information, integrated customer order information, standardized registration processes, speed up registration processes, customer contact, and electronic registration organization management. According to the result of our research, ERP can apply magic effect to the registration organization processes. CRM helps registration organization to use technology and human resources to gain insight into the behaviors of customers and the value of those customers. DSS can help manager to take a good decision about quality of their services and also improve electronic registration organization management. MIS has more effect on integrated customer information, and integrated customer order information, respectively. EDI allows us to send and receive information at any time thereby tremendous improving registration organizations are able to communicate quickly and efficiently. Internet is the most effective on registration organization development parameters. Database application is m ore useful to integrate customer information. According to the results networking is very effective to speed up registration processes in registration organization.

Payman Salami

2010-05-01

225

Electron gun system for NSC KIPT linac  

CERN Document Server

In NSC KIPT linac, a neutron source based on a subcritical assembly driven by a 100MeV/100kW electron linear accelerator is under design and development. The linear accelerator needs a new high current electron gun. In this paper, the physical design, mechanical fabrication and beam test of this new electron gun are described. The emission current is designed to be higher than 2A for the pulse width of 3us with repetition rate of 50 Hz. The gun will operate with a DC high voltage power supply which can provide a high voltage up to 150 kV. . Computer simulations and optimizations have been carried out in the design stage, including the gun geometry and beam transport line. The test results of high voltage conditioning and beam test are presented. The operation status of the electron gun system is also included. The basic test results show that the design, manufacture and operation of the new electron system are basically successful.

Zhou, Zusheng; Chi, Yunlong

2013-01-01

226

Cooperative phenomena in strongly correlated electron systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this review we present results of our theoretical study of cooperative phenomena in strongly correlated electron systems obtained within various generalizations of the Falicov-Kimball model. The primary goal of this study was to identify crucial interactions that lead to the stabilization of the specific cooperative phenomenon, and then try to elaborate its comprehensive microscopic description. The main attention is devoted to a discussion of valence and metal-insulator transitions, formation of charge and spin ordering, electronic ferroelectricity, itinerant ferromagmetism and mechanisms leading to their stabilization. Among the major mechanisms we examine the effect of local and nonlocal Coulomb interaction between localized and itinerant electrons, local and nonlocal hybridization, long-range and correlated hopping of itinerant electrons and spin-dependent interaction between localized and itinerant electrons, both for zero and nonzero temperatures, as well as for doped and undoped systems. Finally, the relevance of resultant solutions for a description of rare-earth and transition-metal compounds is discussed (Author)

227

Electron gun system for NSC KIPT linac  

Science.gov (United States)

In the NSC KIPT linac, a neutron source based on a subcritical assembly driven by a 100 MeV/100 kW electron linear accelerator is under design and development. The linear accelerator needs a new high current electron gun. In this paper, the physical design, mechanical fabrication and beam test of this new electron gun are described. The emission current is designed to be higher than 2 A for the pulse width of 3 ?s with repetition rate of 50 Hz. The gun will operate with a DC high voltage power supply that can provide a high voltage up to 150 kV. Computer simulations and optimizations have been carried out in the design stage, including the gun geometry and beam transport line. The test results of high voltage conditioning and beam test are presented. The operation status of the electron gun system is also included. The basic test results show that the design, manufacture, and operation of the new electron system are basically successful.

Zhou, Zu-Sheng; He, Da-Yong; Chi, Yun-Long

2014-06-01

228

Beta-glucan: an ideal immunostimulant in aquaculture (a review).  

Science.gov (United States)

The major hindrance in the development and sustainability of aquaculture industry is the occurrence of various diseases in the farming systems. Today, preventive and management measures are central concern to overcome such outbreak of diseases. Immunostimulants are considered as an effective tool for enhancing immune status of cultured organisms. Among different immunostimulants used in aquaculture practices, ?-glucan is one of the promising immunostimulant, which is a homopolysaccharide of glucose molecule linked by the glycoside bond. It forms the major constituents of cell wall of some plants, fungi, bacteria, mushroom, yeast, and seaweeds. Major attention on ?-glucan was captivated with the gain in knowledge on its receptors and the mechanism of action. The receptor present inside the animal body recognizes and binds to ?-glucan, which in turn renders the animal with high resistance and enhanced immune response. This review highlights ?-glucan as an immunostimulant, its effective dosages, and route of administration and furthermore provides an outline on role of ?-glucan in enhancing growth, survival, and protection against infectious pathogens pertaining to fishes and shellfishes. Study also summarizes the effect of ?-glucan on its receptors, recognition of proteins, immune-related enzymes, immune-related gene expression and their mechanisms of action. PMID:22965949

Meena, D K; Das, Pronob; Kumar, Shailesh; Mandal, S C; Prusty, A K; Singh, S K; Akhtar, M S; Behera, B K; Kumar, Kundan; Pal, A K; Mukherjee, S C

2013-06-01

229

Integration of thermal and food processing residuals into a system for commercial culture of freshwater shrimp (power plant waste heat utilization in aquaculture). Volume I. Final report 1 Jul 74-31 Oct 76  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of this study was to establish the bilogical feasibility of rearing the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii and rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri in the thermal effluents from PSEandG's Mercer Generating Station. A new approach in aquaculture involving semiannual grow-out periods, diseasonal aquaculture was the result of the large seasonal variation in Delaware River temperature (0.2 to 29/sup 0/C), since it was determined that no commercially important species could take this wide temperature range. Secondary objectives of this study were to make preliminary evaluations of the engineering and economic feasibility of rearing the above-mentioned species in thermal effluents, and to obtain a preliminary assessment of product quality.

Guerra, C.R.; Godfriaux, B.L.; Eble, A.F.; Farmanfarmian, A.F.

1977-01-01

230

Design for Reliability of Power Electronic Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Advances in power electronics enable efficient and flexible processing of electric power in the application of renewable energy sources, electric vehicles, adjustable-speed drives, etc. More and more efforts are devoted to better power electronic systems in terms of reliability to ensure high availability, long lifetime, sufficient robustness, low maintenance cost and low cost of energy. However, the reliability predictions are still dominantly according to outdated models and terms, such as MIL-HDBK-217F handbook models, Mean-Time-To-Failure (MTTF), and Mean-Time-Between-Failures (MTBF). A collection of methodologies based on Physics-of-Failure (PoF) approach and mission profile analysis are presented in this paper to perform reliability-oriented design of power electronic systems. The corresponding design procedures and reliability prediction models are provided. Further on, a case study on a 2.3 MW wind power converter is discussed with emphasis on the reliability critical components IGBTs. Different aspects of improving the reliability of the power converter are mapped. Finally, the challenges and opportunities to achieve more reliable power electronic systems are addressed.

Wang, Huai; Ma, Ke

2012-01-01

231

THE FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE COMPONENT OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fisheries and aquaculture can provide a key contribution to food security and poverty alleviation. Fisheries and aquaculture policy is an instrument for the conservation and management of fisheries and aquaculture. It was created with the aims of managing a common resource. Fisheries policies and management strategies the world over is in a state of flux, continued attempts to use fisheriesas the key to solving a complex web of social and economic issues threaten to overwhelm the basic fact t...

Zugravu, Adrian

2006-01-01

232

Using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for remediation of aquaculture water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Remediation of aquaculture water using microorganisms like Bacillus species is a burgeoning trend for the sustainable development of aquaculture industries. In this work, a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain (namely B. amyloliquefaciens HN), isolated from activated sludge of a polluted river, was evaluated for its potential in water remediation using simulated aquaculture water. B. amyloliquefaciens HN exhibited high tolerance towards 80 mg l-1 of nitrite-N and ammonia-N. It could effectively ...

Xie, Fengxing; Zhu, Taicheng; Zhang, Fengfeng; Zhou, Ke; Zhao, Yujie; Li, Zhenghua

2013-01-01

233

The electronic structure of condensed molecular systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have reviewed some of the basic properties of the electronic structure of condensed molecular systems. For the rare-gas solids, we concentrated our discussion on changes in the ground- and excited-state crystal-atomic wave functions as calculated with an approximate theoretical method. Compression of these wave functions leads to a softening of the equation of state at high densities, which seems to account for much of the total many-body effects. This compression is a true many-body effect and cannot be easily decomposable into a sum of 3-body and higher terms. We reviewed the electronic properties of four molecular systems, each manifesting different behavior at high densities. Because of a general lack of theory of the electronic structure of molecular solids, we restricted ourselves to a descriptive account. Solid oxygen, for instance, seems to exhibit the beginnings of covalent bonding between the ..pi..* orbitals on adjacent molecules in its epsilon phase. It was a combination of optical-absorption data and infrared and Raman spectroscopy that led to these conclusions. Iodine is unique in that it becomes metallic as a molecular crystal at pressures easily obtainable experimentally. It is interesting that the x-ray data, which indicates a transition to a monatomic lattice at 21 GPa, and the Moessbauer spectra, which implies that molecular character is retained to 30 GPa, are in such disagreement. The next system discussed, solid acetylene, is a nice example of high-pressure polymerization and study of this system should shed light on the polymerization of more complicated systems. Finally, we briefly discussed the predicted dissociation of solid molecular nitrogen at high pressures. Here, theory has made a prediction and experiment has disproven it. Molecular systems show a diverse range of behavior in electronic structures at high pressures, from metallization to chemistry; theory is lagging. 68 refs., 10 figs.

LeSar, R.A.

1988-01-01

234

Temperature measurement systems in wearable electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to present the concept of temperature measurement system, adapted to wearable electronics applications. Temperature is one of the most commonly monitored factor in smart textiles, especially in sportswear, medical and rescue products. Depending on the application, measured temperature could be used as an initial value of alert, heating, lifesaving or analysis system. The concept of the temperature measurement multi-point system, which consists of flexible screen-printed resistive sensors, placed on the T-shirt connected with the central unit and the power supply is elaborated in the paper.

Walczak, S.; Go?ebiowski, J.

2014-08-01

235

Zope based electronic operation log system - Zlog  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since January 2004, the Zope based electronic operation logging system, named Zlog, has been running at the KEKB and AR accelerator facilities. Since Zope is the python based open source web application server software and python language is familiar for the members in the KEKB accelerator control group, we have developed the Zlog system rapidly. In this paper, we report the development history and the present status of Zlog system. Also we show some general plug-in components, called Zope products, have been useful for our Zlog development. (author)

236

An electronic location safety support system.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed an electronic safety support system to assist in the care of elderly people. The system uses a low power mobile phone (PHS) and a server computer. The PHS is carried by the subjects, and their location is identified within 100 m from the PHS antenna ID. The caregiver sets the patient's movement area with specialized computer software. When the patient leaves the area, the system automatically informs the caregiver via voice mode and sends the patient's location map by e-mail. The caregiver can monitor the current location and prior movement by the map displayed on server computer. PMID:17487068

Ogawa, Hidekuni; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromichi; Hahn, Allen W; Caldwell, W Morton

2007-01-01

237

Solar aquaculture: A wintering technique for parent prawns  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new method of providing the warm water needed for parent prawn wintering using solar energy is described. Using solar energy for prawn wintering involves heat collection, heat storage and temperature maintenance. The system designed provides sufficient energy for the safe wintering of prawns with suitable water temperatures. The temperature control facilities consist of three parts: a salt gradient solar pond, a shallow solar pond and a plastic house. The technique involves use of a shallow solar pond for collection and storage of heat. The average temperature in the wintering pond plastic house was 11 degrees C and the minimum temperature in January was 5.4 degrees C. This system allowed the wintering process to be conducted using solar energy alone and may extend aquaculture to higher latitudes. The ratio of net profit with the solar energy system over investment is 1.5 which makes it economically viable.

Cao Jin Long [Aquaculture Res. Inst., Shandong Province (China)

1994-09-01

238

Electronic Information Systems Elektronik Bilgi Sistemleri  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Users can retrieve information that is increasing continuously, using new technologies and new systems such as electronic information systems. The aim of electronic information systems is to share accumulation and production of universal information equally within every society. This requires the use of CD-ROM and hypermedia; the new storage and retrieval environments created by developing technologies. The use of these environments creates new problems for the researchers to work on. Electronic information systems can achieve a desired level of performance and service the users appropriately based upon the results of such research. Geli?en teknoloji ve artan bilgi miktar? ile birlikte kullan?c?n?n bilgiye istenilen yerden ve kolayl?kla eri?ebilmesini sa?layacak yeni sistemler gerekmektedir. Bu sistemlerin en önemlilerinden biri elektronik bilgi sistemleridir. Eldeki evrensel bilgi birikimi ve üretiminin bütün toplumlar taraf?ndan e?it ko?ullarda payla??lmas?n? sa?lama amac?nda olan elektronik bilgi sistemleri etkin olabilmek için geli?en teknolojileri kullanmak zorundad?r. Geli?en teknolojilerin yaratt??? yeni kay?t ortamlar? olan CD-ROM ve hipermedya beraberlerinde baz? sorunlar? da getirmekte ve bu sorunlar?n çözümü ile ilgili olarak yeni ara?t?rma konular? ortaya ç?kmaktad?r. Bu ara?t?rmalar sonucunda elektronik bilgi sistemleri istenilen düzeye eri?ebilecek ve kullan?c?ya en iyi hizmeti verebilecek duruma gelecektir.

Birgül Egeli

1995-09-01

239

Microfluidic system for transmission electron microscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a microfluidic system that maintains liquid flow in a specimen chamber for scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) imaging. The specimen chamber consists of two ultrathin silicon nitride windows supported by silicon microchips. They are placed in a specimen holder that seals the sample from the vacuum in the electron microscope and incorporates tubing to and from the sample connected to a syringe pump outside the microscope. Using results obtained from fluorescence microscopy of microspheres flowing through the system, an equation to characterize the liquid flow through the system was calibrated. Gold nanoparticles of diameters of 30 and 100 nm moving in liquid were imaged with a 200 kV STEM. It was concluded that despite strong influences from Brownian motion, and sensitivity to small changes in the depth of the bypass channel, the electron microscopy flow data matched the calculated flow speed within an order of magnitude. The system allows for rapid (within a minute) liquid exchange, which can potentially be used, for example, to investigate the response of specimens, e.g., eukaryotic or bacterial cells, to certain stimuli. PMID:20804635

Ring, Elisabeth A; de Jonge, Niels

2010-10-01

240

Diet breadth variation and trophic plasticity behavior of the African bonytongue Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier, 1829 in the Sô River-Lake Hlan aquatic system (Benin, West Africa: Implications for species conservation and aquaculture development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The African bonytongue, Heterotis niloticus (Pisces: Osteoglossidae, is an omnivore foraging mainly on aquatic insects, microcrustacea, seeds and detritus. We examined the diet breadth and the trophic plasticity behavior of this species (1461 specimens in the S? River and Lake Hlan water system located in the southern Benin (West Africa. Overall, the mean diet breadths of the two populations of Heterotis from both habitats were not significantly (p ? 0.05 different and were not associated with seasons. However, in Lake Hlan, mean diet breadths tended to increase with size (r = 0.81 and gut length (r = 0.82 indicating that bonytongues ingest a broader range of food resources as they grow. In both habitats, the positive correlation of both standard length (Log SL and gut length (Log GL with the volumetric proportions of detritus and with the volumetric proportions of seeds suggests that the consumption of these two food resources increased with the size of Heterotis and with the development of the digestive tract. Likewise, the negative correlation of both (Log SL and (Log GL with the volumetric proportions of aquatic insects and with the volumetric proportions of microcrustacea suggests that the consumption of these two food categories decreased as the size and the gut length of Heterotis increased. The differences in the consumption of microcrustacea (13.77% in Lake Hlan versus 2.63% in S? River and mollusks (0.73% in Lake Hlan versus 4.91% in S? River evidenced that Heterotis shifts his trophic structure according to resource availlability in the habitat. This foraging behavior suggests a degree of trophic plasticity in Heterotis. The specialized morphological structure of Heterotis, mainly the presence of a relatively high number of gill rakers (42 - 94 rakers on the first branchial arch during its whole life, allowing sieving of zooplankton and other microcrustacea, and the presence of the gizzard favored this trophic plasticity. The broader diet breadth coupled with the trophic plasticity behavior is probably an advantage because it enables Heterotis not only to colonize and to adapt to unstable and changing aquatic habitats, but also to invade and to well-establish in various ecosystems, such as freshwater lakes, swamps, inundated plains, streams, rivers and fish farming ponds. As a result, the wider diet breadths and the trophic plasticity behavior depicted are useful eco-ethological tool for the conservation and the aquaculture development of H. niloticus.

Alphonse Adite

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Magnetic impurity in correlated electrons system  

CERN Document Server

We study a magnetic impurity embedded in a correlated electron system using the density-matrix renormalization group method. The correlated electron system is described by the one-dimensional Hubbard model. At half filling, we confirm that the binding energy of the singlet bound state increases exponentially in the weak-coupling regime and decreases inversely proportional to the correlation in the strong-coupling regime. The spin-spin correlation shows an exponential decay with distance from the impurity site. The correlation length becomes smaller with increasing the correlation strength. We find discontinuous reduction of the binding energy and of spin-spin correlations with hole doping. The binding energy is reduced by hole doping; however, it remains of the same order of magnitude as for the half-filled case.

Nishimoto, S

2007-01-01

242

42 CFR 456.722 - Electronic claims management system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Electronic claims management system. 456.722 Section 456.722 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID...Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.722 Electronic claims management system. (a)...

2010-10-01

243

Electronic circuits for communications systems: A compilation  

Science.gov (United States)

The compilation of electronic circuits for communications systems is divided into thirteen basic categories, each representing an area of circuit design and application. The compilation items are moderately complex and, as such, would appeal to the applications engineer. However, the rationale for the selection criteria was tailored so that the circuits would reflect fundamental design principles and applications, with an additional requirement for simplicity whenever possible.

1972-01-01

244

Synthesizing cognition in neuromorphic electronic systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The quest to implement intelligent processing in electronic neuromorphic systems lacks methods for achieving reliable behavioral dynamics on substrates of inherently imprecise and noisy neurons. Here we report a solution to this problem that involves first mapping an unreliable hardware layer of spiking silicon neurons into an abstract computational layer composed of generic reliable subnetworks of model neurons and then composing the target behavioral dynamics as a “soft state machine” r...

Neftci, E.; Binas, J.; Rutishauser, U.; Chicca, Elisabetta; Indiveri, G.; Douglas, R. J.

2013-01-01

245

Design of the BEPCII electron gun system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BEPCII upgrading project needs a new high current electron gun. The design stage such as physical design, mechanical design and control system design of this new electron gun is described. The emission current is designed to be higher than 10 A for the pulse width of 1 ns with repetition rate of 50 Hz. The gun will operate with a pulsed high voltage power supply which can provide up to 200 kV high voltage. Computer simulations and optimizations have been carried out in the design stage, including the gun geometry and beam transport. EGUN and DGUN codes are used to simulate the gun geometry, and the results show that the perveance is about 0.22 ?A·V-3/2, and the emittance at gun exit is about 16 ?·mm·mrad. PARMELA code shows that the electron beam can be easily transported to the end of the first accelerating tube with a capture efficiency of 67% and root mean square emittance of 25 mm·mrad. New scheme of the gun control system based on EPICS is also presented. Two-bunch operation mode and 2.5 ?s long pulse operation mode are available in the control system. (authors)

246

Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). PMID:23327375

Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

2012-01-01

247

Electronic System for Preventing Airport Runway Incursions  

Science.gov (United States)

A proposed system of portable illuminated signs, electronic monitoring equipment, and radio-communication equipment for preventing (or taking corrective action in response to) improper entry of aircraft, pedestrians, or ground vehicles onto active airport runways is described. The main overall functions of the proposed system would be to automatically monitor aircraft ground traffic on or approaching runways and to generate visible and/or audible warnings to affected pilots, ground-vehicle drivers, and control-tower personnel when runway incursions take place.

Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan

2009-01-01

248

Developments in electronic portal imaging systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Verification of geometric accuracy at the time of treatment delivery has always been a necessary part of the radiotherapy process. Since the introduction of conformal and intensity-modulated radiotherapy, the consequences of patient positioning errors are more serious. Portal imaging has played a large part in fulfilling the need for improved geometric accuracy. This review examines how portal imaging has progressed through the development and evolution of electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs). Changes in technology, including the current commercial systems, and how image quality has changed are presented. The clinical usage of EPIDs and the technological innovations being devised for further improvements in image quality and systems are considered. PMID:16980685

Kirby, M C; Glendinning, A G

2006-09-01

249

Water Diagnosis in Shrimp Aquaculture based on Neural Network  

Science.gov (United States)

In many countries, the shrimp aquaculture has not advanced computational systems to supervise the artificial habitat of the farms and laboratories. A computational system of this type helps significantly to improve the environmental conditions and to elevate the production and its quality. The main idea of this study is the creation of a system using an artificial neural network (ANN), which can help to recognize patterns of problems and their evolution in shrimp aquaculture, and thus to respond with greater rapidity against the negative effects. Bad control on the shrimp artificial habitat produces organisms with high stress and as consequence losses in their defenses. It generate low nutrition, low reproduction or worse still, they prearrange to acquire lethal diseases. The proposed system helps to control this problem. Environmental variables as pH, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and turbidity have an important effect in the suitable growth of the shrimps and influence in their health. However, the exact mathematical model of this relationship is unspecified; an ANN is useful for establishing a relationship between these variables and to classify a status that describes a problem into the farm. The data classification is made to recognize and to quantify two states within the pool: a) Normal: Everything is well. b) Risk: One, some or all environmental variables are outside of the allowed interval, which generates problems. The neural network will have to recognize the state and to quantify it, in others words, how normal or risky it is, which allows finding trend of the water quality. A study was developed for designing a software tool that allows recognizing the status of the water quality and control problems for the environment into the pond.

Carbajal Hernández, J. J.; Sánchez Fernández, L. P.

2007-05-01

250

Electronics of LHCb calorimeter monitoring system  

CERN Document Server

All calorimeter sub-detectors in LHCb, the Scintillator Pad Detector (SPD), the Preshower detector (PS), the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) and the Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL) are equipped with the Hamamatsu photomultiplier tubes (PMT) as devices for light to electrical signal conversion [1]. The PMT gain behaviour is not stable in a time, due to changes in the load current and due to ageing. The calorimeter light emitting diode (LED) monitoring system has been developed to monitor the PMT gain over time during data taking. Furthermore the system will play an important role during the detector commissioning and during LHC machine stops, in order to perform tests of the PMTs, cables and FE boards and measurements of relative time alignment. The aim of the paper is to describe the LED monitoring system architecture, some technical details of the electronics implementation based on radiation tolerant components and to summarize the system performance.

Konoplyannikov, A

2008-01-01

251

An electronic notebook for physical system simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

A scientist who sets up and runs experiments typically keeps notes of this process in a lab notebook. A scientist who runs computer simulations should be no different. Experiments and simulations both require a set-up process which should be documented along with the results of the experiment or simulation. The documentation is important for knowing and understanding what was attempted, what took place, and how to reproduce it in the future. Modern simulations of physical systems have become more complex due in part to larger computational resources and increased understanding of physical systems. These simulations may be performed by combining the results from multiple computer codes. The machines that these simulations are executed on are often massively parallel/distributed systems. The output result of one of these simulations can be a terabyte of data and can require months of computing. All of these things contribute to the difficulty of keeping a useful record of the process of setting up and executing a simulation for a physical system. An electronic notebook for physical system simulations has been designed to help document the set up and execution process. Much of the documenting is done automatically by the simulation rather than the scientist running the simulation. The simulation knows what codes, data, software libraries, and versions thereof it is drawing together. All of these pieces of information become documented in the electronic notebook. The electronic notebook is designed with and uses the eXtensible Markup Language (XML). XML facilitates the representation, storage, interchange, and further use of the documented information.

Kelsey, Robert L.

2003-09-01

252

Effects of electron-electron interactions on electronic transport in disordered systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis is concerned with the role of electron-electron interactions on electronic transport in disordered systems. We first consider a novel non-linear sigma model in order to microscopically treat the effects of disorder and electronic interaction. We successfully reproduce the perturbative results for the zero-bias anomaly and the interaction correction to the conductivity in a weakly disordered system, and discuss possible directions for future work. Secondly we consider the fluctuations of the dephasing rate for a closed diffusive and quantum dot system. Using the Keldysh technique we derive an expression for the inelastic scattering rate with which we self-consistently obtain the fluctuations in the dephasing rate. For the diffusive regime we find the relative fluctuations is given by F ? (L?/L)2/g2, where g is the dimensionless conductance, L? is the dephasing length and L is the sample size. For the quantum dot regime we find a perturbative divergence due to the presence of the zero mode. By mapping divergent diagrams to those for the two-level correlation function, we conjecture the existence of an exact relation between the two. Finally we discuss the consequences of this relation. (author)

253

Effects of electron-electron interactions on electronic transport in disordered systems  

CERN Document Server

This thesis is concerned with the role of electron-electron interactions on electronic transport in disordered systems. We first consider a novel non-linear sigma model in order to microscopically treat the effects of disorder and electronic interaction. We successfully reproduce the perturbative results for the zero-bias anomaly and the interaction correction to the conductivity in a weakly disordered system, and discuss possible directions for future work. Secondly we consider the fluctuations of the dephasing rate for a closed diffusive and quantum dot system. Using the Keldysh technique we derive an expression for the inelastic scattering rate with which we self-consistently obtain the fluctuations in the dephasing rate. For the diffusive regime we find the relative fluctuations is given by F approx (L subphi/L) sup 2 /g sup 2 , where g is the dimensionless conductance, L subphi is the dephasing length and L is the sample size. For the quantum dot regime we find a perturbative divergence due to the presen...

Foley, S T

2002-01-01

254

Advanced Electronic Systems. Curriculum Guide for Technology Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

This curriculum for a 1-semester or 1-year course in electronics is designed to take students from basic through advanced electronic systems. It covers several electronic areas, such as digital electronics, communication electronics, industrial process control, instrumentation, programmable controllers, and robotics. The guide contains…

Patrick, Dale R.

255

Concepts of Highly Excited Electronic Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge of the excitation characteristics of matter is decisive for the descriptions of a variety of dynamical processes, which are of significant technological interest. E.g. transport properties and the optical response are controlled by the excitation spectrum. This self-contained work is a coherent presentation of the quantum theory of correlated few-particle excitations in electronic systems. It begins with a compact resume of the quantum mechanics of single particle excitations. Particular emphasis is put on Green function methods, which offer a natural tool to unravel the relations between the physics of small and large electronic systems. The book contains explicit expressions for the Coulomb Green function of two charge particles and a generalization to three-body systems. Techniques for the many-body Green function of finite systems are introduced and some explicit calculations of the Green functions are given. Concrete examples are provided and the theories are contrasted with experimental data, when available. The second volume presents an up-to-date selection of applications of the developed concepts and a comparison with available experiments is made

Berakdar, Jamal

2003-05-01

256

Electronic Blocks for Multichannel Data Acquisition Systems  

CERN Document Server

The paper presents the results of development of the electronic apparatus for multichannel data acquisition systems, obtained in the Division III at the Laboratory of Particle Physics in 1998-2000. The main technical characteristics and properties of the developed blocks are given in the description. A special attention is paid to an opportunity of reaching the maximal number of channels, a high data transmission rate and reliability. The application of fast logic chips and the corresponding constructive solutions allowed the authors to achieve the opportunity of registering the signals of 4-8 ns duration, with the frequency up to 100 MHz. All the principle solutions have been illustrated and possible applications of the constructed electronic blocks have been considered for a wide range of physical experiments.

Bespalova, T V; Smolin, D A

2001-01-01

257

Architecture for networked electronic patient record systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

There have been two major approaches to the development of networked electronic patient record (EPR) architecture. One uses object-oriented methodologies for constructing the model, which include the GEHR project, Synapses, HL7 RIM and so on. The second approach uses document-oriented methodologies, as applied in examples of HL7 PRA. It is practically beneficial to take the advantages of both approaches and to add solution technologies for network security such as PKI. In recognition of the similarity with electronic commerce, a certificate authority as a trusted third party will be organised for establishing networked EPR system. This paper describes a Japanese functional model that has been developed, and proposes a document-object-oriented architecture, which is-compared with other existing models. PMID:11154967

Takeda, H; Matsumura, Y; Kuwata, S; Nakano, H; Sakamoto, N; Yamamoto, R

2000-11-01

258

SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF ELECTRONIC VOTING SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electronic Voting are now being performed using World Wide Web in many countries of theworld due to this advancement a voter need not to visit the polling place. But has to just logging on thecomputer with an internet connection. Also, this voting requires an access code for the e-voting through theadvance report of a voter. To reduce these disadvantages, we suggest a process in which a voter, who has thewireless certificate issued in advance, uses its own mobile phone for an e-voting without the uniqueregistration for a vote. In this paper, a polling scheme by means of mobile technology is resented as mostfundamental application of GSM based Personal Response System, which allows a voter to cast his vote insimple and convenient way without the limit of time and location by integrating an electronic voting methodwith the GSM infrastructure.

Atiya Parveen

2013-05-01

259

Boundary conditions for many-electron systems  

CERN Document Server

It is shown that natural boundary conditions for non-relativistic wave functions are of periodic or of homogeneous Robin type. Using theory of singular differential equations and asymptotic central symmetry of Hamiltonian the many-electron wave function is expanded in series both in the vicinity of Coulomb singularities and at infinity. Hydrogenic angular dependence of three leading terms of expansion about Coulomb singularities is found. Exact first and second order cusp conditions are obtained demonstrating redundancy of spherical average in Kato's cusp condition. A confluent hypergeometric series defining arbitrarily high order cusp conditions for the spherically averaged Hamiltonian is presented. Homogeneous Robin boundary conditions are obtained for aperiodic many-electron systems from the expansions. Use of our explicit boundary conditions improves both speed and accuracy of numerical calculations.

Toth, Peter V

2010-01-01

260

Electronic journal management systems experiences from the field  

CERN Document Server

Discover how to manage your library's electronic journals?with tips from those who've already met the challenge!The explosive growth of electronic journals presents unique challenges for libraries. Electronic Journal Management Systems: Experiences from the Field comprehensively examines these complex topics, including explanations of the automated systems libraries have developed or adopted, licensing issues, and the provision of access to electronic journals. Respected library professionals discuss their own experiences in the implementation and use of electronic journal management systems,

Ives, Gary W

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Fisheries And Aquaculture Resources And Their Interactions With Environment in Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

Turkey, with 8333 km of coast line, 151 080 sq. km economic sea area, many rivers with 177 714 total length, nearly, 1 million ha of natural lakes, 500 000 ha of dam reservoirs has rich marine and inland aquatic resource potential. Despite of these large resources, Turkish fisheries has the characteristics of small-scale fisheries and in general it can be considered as coastal fisheries. There is also great potential for inland fisheries and aquaculture. Being in half closed position, these seas have different characteristics in respect of biological, physical, chemical and ecological points. In addition; Turkey has favourable geographic position between the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea. Nevertheless, this potential seems not to be fully utilised and therefore fisheries is not a major sector in the economy. According to the statistics of the fisheries for 2000 published by the Turkish government, Turkey's total fisheries production was 582.376 tons. Total catch consists sea fish (441 690 tons, crustaceans and molluscs (18 831 tons), freshwater fish (42.824 tons) and aquaculture (79. 031 tons). The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) is the Ministry responsible for the overall fisheries and aquaculture development, administration, regulation, promotion and technical assistance. In the past two decades, marine fish farming using net cages has developed in the coastal waters throughout Turkey. Such fish farming has allowed the production of large amounts of valuable fish and their supply to the internal and external markets on a regular basis. However, fish farming is sometimes fallowed by organic pollution of the water and bottom sediment in the vicinity of the cages. A comprehensive land and coastal planning survey of almost the whole coast of Turkey is currently being conducted. This master plan designates areas to be developed for forestry, agriculture, industry, urbanisation, environmentally protected areas, etc. The plan was undertaken before the potential of aquaculture was fully realised and there were, therefore, no areas specifically designated for aquaculture. Aquaculture development is therefore being restricted by the loss of access to some of the best sites. The most common conflicts occur with environmental protection, tourism, recreation, urbanisation, archaeology and navigation. In order to prevent such conflicts and minimise the environmental impacts the open sea fishery, offshore mariculture systems, and echo-friendly technologies have to be adopted. In addition to that integrated coastal management models must be developed and implemented. Key words: fisheries and aquaculture resources, environment, interaction, tourism, protected areas, mangement and sustainability.

Deniz, H.

2003-04-01

262

DIAGNOSIS OF AQUACULTURE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ALVARADO VERACRUZ, MEXICO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the current situation of aquaculture farms in the Municipality of Alvarado, Veracruz, Mexico. During this study, 29 interviews were conducted aimed to the units of aquaculture producers; 24 variables were analyzed within the aspects of the socio-economic, technical, marketing and legal framework. The most relevant results within the legal framework: 21% of units has “National Registration of Fisheries and Aquaculture” (RNPyA and 7% has “Federal Taxpayer Register” (RFC; in the socio-economic aspects: 187 jobs are generated; on technical aspects: the average area for cultivation is 410.11 ha, 79% of production is Tilapia (Oreochromis spp.. The aquaculture activity on Alvarado, Veracruz, it is in a learning process, therefore strategies are needed in order to the development of the activity and increasing production; improving cultivation methodologies and training producers on managing their aquaculture units.

Lenin Rangel-López

2014-07-01

263

Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in finfish aquaculture environments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consumer demand for affordable fish drives the ever-growing global aquaculture industry. The intensification and expansion of culture conditions in the production of several finfish species has been coupled with an increase in bacterial fish disease and the need for treatment with antimicrobials. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance prevalent in aquaculture environments is important to design effective disease treatment strategies, to prioritize the use and registration of antimicrobials for aquaculture use, and to assess and minimize potential risks to public health. In this brief article we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in finfish aquaculture environments and highlight specific research that should provide the basis of sound, science-based policies for the use of antimicrobials in aquaculture.

PatriciaL.Keen

2013-08-01

264

New Electron Gun System for BEPCII  

CERN Document Server

The new electron gun system for BEPCII has been put into operation since Nov. 2004. The article describes the design, experiment and operation of this new system. The design current of the gun is 10 A for the pulse lengths of 1 ns, 2.5 ns and 1 ?s with repetition rate of 50 Hz. The gun is operated with a pulsed high voltage power supply which can provide up to 200 kV high voltage. Computer simulations have been carried out in the design stage, including simulation of the gun geometry and beam transportation. Some important relation curves are obtained during the experiment. Two-bunch operation is available and some elementary tests have been performed. New scheme of the gun control system based on EPICS is also presented. The real operation shows that the design and manufacturing is basically successful.

Liu, Bo; Long Chi, Yun; Zhang, Chuang

2005-01-01

265

Role and functions of beneficial microorganisms in sustainable aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper aims to review the development of scientific concepts of microecology and ecology of microbes and the role and functions of beneficial microorganisms in aquaculture and mariculture. Beneficial microorganisms play a great role in natural and man-made aquatic ecosystems based on the co-evolution theory in living biosphere on earth. Their functions are to adjust algal population in water bodies so as to avoid unwanted algal bloom; to speed up decomposition of organic matter and to reduce CODmn, NH3-N and NO2-N in water and sediments so as to improve water quality; to suppress fish/shrimp diseases and water-borne pathogens; to enhance immune system of cultured aquatic animals and to produce bioactive compounds such as vitamins, hormones and enzymes that stimulate growth, thus to decrease the FCR of feed. PMID:19261470

Zhou, Qunlan; Li, Kangmin; Jun, Xie; Bo, Liu

2009-08-01

266

Capturing ecosystem services, stakeholders' preferences and trade-offs in coastal aquaculture decisions: a Bayesian belief network application.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaculture activities are embedded in complex social-ecological systems. However, aquaculture development decisions have tended to be driven by revenue generation, failing to account for interactions with the environment and the full value of the benefits derived from services provided by local ecosystems. Trade-offs resulting from changes in ecosystem services provision and associated impacts on livelihoods are also often overlooked. This paper proposes an innovative application of Bayesian belief networks - influence diagrams - as a decision support system for mediating trade-offs arising from the development of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand. Senior experts were consulted (n?=?12) and primary farm data on the economics of shrimp farming (n?=?20) were collected alongside secondary information on ecosystem services, in order to construct and populate the network. Trade-offs were quantitatively assessed through the generation of a probabilistic impact matrix. This matrix captures nonlinearity and uncertainty and describes the relative performance and impacts of shrimp farming management scenarios on local livelihoods. It also incorporates export revenues and provision and value of ecosystem services such as coastal protection and biodiversity. This research shows that Bayesian belief modeling can support complex decision-making on pathways for sustainable coastal aquaculture development and thus contributes to the debate on the role of aquaculture in social-ecological resilience and economic development. PMID:24155876

Schmitt, Laetitia Helene Marie; Brugere, Cecile

2013-01-01

267

Hy914, an electronic equipment test system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article introduced the needs for thorough testing of electronic equipment with comparison between manual testing and automatic testing. An electronic equipment test system -HY914- which was used to test one network communication system was discussed in detail. HY914, which is able to do both black box testing and white box testing, is a integrated automatic test platform that provides rich features including test script, function testing, load testing, abnormal behaviour checking, application status monitoring, hardware resource monitoring and etc. HY914 also provides capability for doing complicated testing in short period and it helps to cut both labour cost and hours spent greatly. In between testing of the network communication system, engineers found and fixed a lot of software bugs such as device hanging, downgrading of voice quality and etc. By just doing minor changes of the test scripts, HY914 also provides the capability for users to test the device with minimum effort before a new software version is released. HY914 is designed to be used as a generic test platform and automatic testing of various products can be done by customising the test scripts, platform virtual machine, and virtual device driver. (authors)

268

Water Quality Monitoring and Control for Aquaculture Based on Wireless Sensor Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have designed and presented a wireless sensor network monitoring and control system for aquaculture. The system can detect and control water quality parameters of temperature, dissolved oxygen content, pH value, and water level in real-time. The sensor nodes collect the water quality parameters and transmit them to the base station host computer through ZigBee wireless communication standard. The host computer is used for data analysis, processing and presentation using LabVIEW software platform. The water quality parameters will be sent to owners through short messages from the base station via the Global System for Mobile (GSM module for notification. The experimental evaluation of the network performance metrics of quality of communication link, battery performance and data aggregation was presented. The experimental results show that the system has great prospect and can be used to operate in real world environment for optimum control of aquaculture environment

Daudi S. Simbeye

2014-04-01

269

Antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial resistance genes in marine bacteria from salmon aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antimicrobial resistance (AR) detected by disc diffusion and antimicrobial resistance genes detected by DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction with amplicon sequencing were studied in 124 marine bacterial isolates from a Chilean salmon aquaculture site and 76 from a site without aquaculture 8 km distant. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was present in 81% of the isolates regardless of site. Resistance to tetracycline was most commonly encoded by tetA and tetG; to trimethoprim, by dfrA1, dfrA5 and dfrA12; to sulfamethizole, by sul1 and sul2; to amoxicillin, by blaTEM ; and to streptomycin, by strA-strB. Integron integrase intl1 was detected in 14 sul1-positive isolates, associated with aad9 gene cassettes in two from the aquaculture site. intl2 Integrase was only detected in three dfrA1-positive isolates from the aquaculture site and was not associated with gene cassettes in any. Of nine isolates tested for conjugation, two from the aquaculture site transferred AR determinants to Escherichia coli. High levels of AR in marine sediments from aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites suggest that dispersion of the large amounts of antimicrobials used in Chilean salmon aquaculture has created selective pressure in areas of the marine environment far removed from the initial site of use of these agents. PMID:24612265

Shah, Syed Q A; Cabello, Felipe C; L'abée-Lund, Trine M; Tomova, Alexandra; Godfrey, Henry P; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Sørum, Henning

2014-05-01

270

Genomic Approaches in Marine Biodiversity and Aquaculture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have now established the new standard in medical and biotechnological research. The introduction of next-generation sequencing, NGS,has resulted in the generation of thousands of genomes from all domains of life, including the genomes of compl [...] ex uncultured microbial communities revealed through metagenomics. Although the application of genomics to marine biodiversity remains poorly developed overall, some noteworthy progress has been made in recent years. The genomes of various model marine organisms have been published and a few more are underway. In addition, the recent large-scale analysis of marine microbes, along with transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to the study of teleost fishes, mollusks and crustaceans, to mention a few, has provided a better understanding of phenotypic variability and functional genomics. The past few years have also seen advances in applications relevant to marine aquaculture and fisheries. In this review we introduce several examples of recent discoveries and progress made towards engendering genomic resources aimed at enhancing our understanding of marine biodiversity and promoting the development of aquaculture. Finally, we discuss the need for auspicious science policies to address challenges confronting smaller nations in the appropriate oversight of this growing domain as they strive to guarantee food security and conservation of their natural resources.

Jorge A, Huete-Pérez; Fernando, Quezada.

271

Structural dynamics of electronic and photonic systems  

CERN Document Server

The proposed book will offer comprehensive and versatile methodologies and recommendations on how to determine dynamic characteristics of typical micro- and opto-electronic structural elements (printed circuit boards, solder joints, heavy devices, etc.) and how to design a viable and reliable structure that would be able to withstand high-level dynamic loading. Particular attention will be given to portable devices and systems designed for operation in harsh environments (such as automotive, aerospace, military, etc.)  In-depth discussion from a mechanical engineer's viewpoint will be conducte

Suhir, Ephraim; Steinberg, David S

2011-01-01

272

Electron scattering and few nucleon systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent result obtained by electron scattering in the few-nucleon systems (A 3He charge and magnetic form factors are discussed. New theoretical results indicate that three body forces improve considerably the saturation properties of 3He, 4He and nuclear matter, but are not able to reconcile experiment and theory for the charge form factors of 3He and 4He. Calculations of meson exchange effects with different theoretical approaches bring the theory into reasonable agreement with the experimental charge and magnetic form factor fo 3He. Recent results of the measurements of the two and three body break-up of 3He are discussed

273

Electron-beam evaporator for superhighvacuum systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A small-size electron-beam evaporator with power of 1 kW for sputtering thin films of refractory metals in superhigh vacuum on vertical substrates is described. Main parts of the evaporator are the following: a cathode, shaping electrode, anode, copper unit, cooled with water and an evaporating sample placed on it in a small conical recess, which is previously flashed to make it approximately spherical. Such construction permits to reduce heat transfer from the sample to the water-cooled unit and to use an electron beam of low power for the evaporation. A compact electron gun with electron beam of about 3 mm diameter and power of 1 kW at an accelerating voltage up to 10 kV is developed for the evaporator. It consists of three electrodes arranged according to the Piers system, these electrodes are: tungsten foil cathode 20 mcm thick and 3.5 mm broad, shaping electrode with an opening 3.2 mm in diameter extruded of a tantalum foil and a copper anode. Evaporator performance testing have shown that when evaporating the refractory metals (Mo, W, Nb) the vacuum of an order of (2-7)x10-8 Pa is obtained. At that the maximum sputtering rate is reached at 0.5-1 kW power and constitutes about 20 A/s for Mo and W and 3-4 A/s for Nb when sputtering on substrates located at a distance of 100 mm from the sample

274

The Indiana University cyclotron facility electron cooling system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall design of the electron beam cooling system for the Indiana University Cooler-Storage ring is described and the desired properties of the variable energy and intensity, low temperature electron beam are presented. The general layout of the electron beam system is described and the designs of the gun, collector, drift and clearing electrode, vacuum, and magnetic guide field systems are discussed. The paper concludes with a report on the present status of the electron beam system. (author)

275

Water withdrawal for brackish and inland aquaculture, and options to produce more fish in ponds with present water use  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews freshwater use in inland and coastal pond aquaculture, and focuses on options to increase productivity while reducing water use. Total freshwater use depends on system-associated and feed-associated water losses. System-associated water losses depend on total area, evaporation, infiltration and water replacement. About 8,750,000 ha freshwater and 2,333,000 ha brackish water ponds are in use today. Total water withdrawal in freshwater aquaculture is estimated at 16.9 m3/kg p...

Verdegem, M. C. J.; Bosma, R. H.

2009-01-01

276

Electronics systems test laboratory testing of shuttle communications systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Shuttle communications and tracking systems space to space and space to ground compatibility and performance evaluations are conducted in the NASA Johnson Space Center Electronics Systems Test Laboratory (ESTL). This evaluation is accomplished through systems verification/certification tests using orbiter communications hardware in conjunction with other shuttle communications and tracking external elements to evaluate end to end system compatibility and to verify/certify that overall system performance meets program requirements before manned flight usage. In this role, the ESTL serves as a multielement major ground test facility. The ESTL capability and program concept are discussed. The system test philosophy for the complex communications channels is described in terms of the major phases. Results of space to space and space to ground systems tests are presented. Several examples of the ESTL's unique capabilities to locate and help resolve potential problems are discussed in detail.

Stoker, C. J.; Bromley, L. K.

1985-01-01

277

BPM System for Electron Cooling in the Fermilab Recycler Ring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a VXI based system used to acquire and process BPM data for the electron cooling system in the Fermilab Recycler ring. The BPM system supports acquisition of data from 19 BPM locations in five different sections of the electron cooling apparatus. Beam positions for both electrons and anti-protons can be detected simultaneously with a resolution of ±50 ?m. We calibrate the system independently for each beam type at each BPM location. We describe the system components, signal processing and modes of operation used in support of the electron-cooling project and present experimental results of system performance for the developmental electron cooling installation at Fermilab

278

Injectable electronic identification, monitoring, and stimulation systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Historically, electronic devices such as pacemakers and neuromuscular stimulators have been surgically implanted into animals and humans. A new class of implants made possible by advances in monolithic electronic design and implant packaging is small enough to be implanted by percutaneous injection through large-gauge hypodermic needles and does not require surgical implantation. Among these, commercially available implants, known as radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, are used for livestock, pet, laboratory animal, and endangered-species identification. The RFID tag is a subminiature glass capsule containing a solenoidal coil and an integrated circuit. Acting as the implanted half of a transcutaneous magnetic link, the RFID tag is powered by and communicates with an extracorporeal magnetic reader. The tag transmits a unique identification code that serves the function of identifying the animal. Millions of RFID tags have been sold since the early 1980s. Based on the success of the RFID tags, research laboratories have developed injectable medical implants, known as micromodules. One type of micromodule, the microstimulator, is designed for use in functional-neuromuscular stimulation. Each microstimulator is uniquely addressable and could comprise one channel of a multichannel functional-neuromuscular stimulation system. Using bidirectional telemetry and commands, from a single extracorporeal transmitter, as many as 256 microstimulators could form the hardware basis for a complex functional-neuromuscular stimulation feedback-control system. Uses include stimulation of paralyzed muscle, therapeutic functional-neuromuscular stimulation, and neuromodulatory functions such as laryngeal stimulation and sleep apnea. PMID:11701487

Troyk, P R

1999-01-01

279

Electronic systems associated with radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article deals with the instrumentation used for the detection of radiations in nuclear reactors and fuel reprocessing plants. In power reactors, the control of nuclear fissions is performed with the measurement of the neutron flux emitted by the pressure vessel. In fuel reprocessing plants the quantities of nuclear material are controlled all along the process by the measurement of the neutrons and gamma photons emitted. The measurement systems use the information contained in the series of electrical pulses delivered by the detectors. The number of pulses and the particular characteristics of each pulse are the methods used in the two different classes of measurements performed in nuclear facilities. Measurement systems are particularly sensible to the signal/noise ratio which is a determining factor in the quality of measurements: 1 - sources of error and filtering of detector pulses: detectors and processing of pulses; sources of errors (electronic noise, thermal drift, electromagnetic disturbances, piling up effects, ballistic deficit); optimum estimation and filtering (optimum energy estimation, counting optimization); 2 - measurement chains associated with detectors: counting and measurement of weak currents (effect of the connection cable, effects of high counting rates, method of fluctuations and advantage of a numerical processing of the signal, measurement of weak currents, effect of radiations on electronic components); energy measurement (filter for energy measurements, design of low-noise preamplifiers, high counting rate measurements). (J.S.)

280

Broodstock management of the fine flounder Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner, 1867) using recirculating aquaculture systems / Manejo de reproductores del lenguado Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner, 1867) usando sistemas de recirculación en acuicultura  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo, describe la metodología desarrollada en IMARPE para la captura, aclimatación y acondicionamiento de ejemplares adultos de P. adspersus en sistemas de recirculación (SRA), con la finalidad de formar un stock de reproductores. El SRA permitió manejar parámetros medioambientales es [...] tables durante el periodo de acondicionamiento, como: temperatura del agua (17,2±1°C), oxígeno disuelto (8,1±0,7 mg L-1), pH (7,3±0,2), amonio (0,004±0,003 mg L-1), nitrito (0,52±0,2 mg L-1) y nitrato (3,45±2,6 mg L-1). Se dio inicio a la alimentación el día 15 post-captura, utilizando alimento vivo (Odonthestes regia regia, Mugil cephalus), crustáceos (Emerita analoga), alimento fresco (Engraulis ringens y Dosidicus gigas) y artificial semihúmedo. Durante los primeros días de acondicionamiento los peces mostraron una disminución en el peso, hasta su adaptación a las condiciones de cultivo, luego de lo cual se produjo un incremento continuo en ambos sexos. La tasa específica de crecimiento fue positiva a partir del tercer mes y la tasa de crecimiento relativo mostró que en agosto 2010, el peso promedio se incrementó 24,5% en machos y 16,2% en hembras. Se realizó un análisis patológico a los ejemplares capturados y se observó la presencia de diferentes parásitos internos y externos, entre ellos predominaron Entobdella sp. y Philometra sp. Abstract in english The present study describes the methodology used at IMARPE for the capture, acclimation and management of P. adspersus broodstock using recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). RAS improved the water quality and maintained the environmental parameters during the acclimation period, temperature (17.2 [...] ±1°C), oxygen (8.1±0.7 mg L-1), pH (7.3±0.2), ammonia (0.004±0.003 mg L-1), nitrite (0.52±0.2 mg L-1) and nitrate (3.45±2.6 mg L-1). Fish began to be fed normally from day 15 post-capture, once or twice a day using live fish (Odonthestes regia regia, Mugil cephalus), crustacean (Emerita analoga), fresh food (Engraulis ringens and Dosidicus gigas) and artificial feed. A significant loss in the weight of the fish was registered during the first days of captivity, followed by a continuous increase in both sexes. The specific growth rate was positive from the third month of captivity, being the relative growth rate 24.5% and 16.2% in August 2010 in males and females, respectively. Different internal and external parasites were detected in the fish, being Entobdella sp. and Philometra sp. the prevailing parasites observed during samplings.

Lili, Carrera; Noemí, Cota; Melissa, Montes; Enrique, Mateo; Verónica, Sierralta; Teresa, Castro; Angel, Perea; Cristian, Santos; Christian, Catcoparco; Carlos, Espinoza.

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
281

Gender training in aquaculture in northern Vietnam. A report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Described is a pilot project that integrated gender and technology in training and analysis in Vietnam. Many farmers in Vietnam use the VAC system of fishing, farming, and animal husbandry, which makes efficient use of resources and requires low inputs. Excess products are sold locally. Plants are used for food, fiber, and fuel. Waste products are recycled. Small ponds (under 0.5 ha) are created using rainwater. 2-8 tons/ha/year of fish are produced. The dug-out soil is used to build up gardens and house foundations as protection against flooding. Fresh water for the household comes from wells. Garden plots contain various intercropped species. Fruit trees and tuber crops are cultivated in shady areas. Timber trees and rattan are planted to form tree fences. Taro is planted around the ponds, and marsh lentils are planted on pond surfaces. Various fish feed in the top, middle, and bottom portions of ponds. Gourd is grown on trellises above the ponds. Pig manure is used for plant and fish food. Pond water, which is rich in nutrients and sludge, is used to fertilize gardens. During 1995-96, a pilot program provided training in aquaculture for poor rural women in the villages of My Xa and My Tan in Nam Ha province and Tuan Chinh and Yen Dong in Vihn Phu province in the north. The analysis identified gender relations in management, control of aquaculture, decision-making, and use of benefits. The concept of gender was explained to women in the training program. Women were more concerned with the technical training. The position of women improved in participation, decision-making, and control over benefits. The technical transfer of knowledge was viewed as less important than gender awareness. The aim to improve women's position should be clearly identified. Community participation in the training of trainers was beneficial. Follow-up activities continued during 1997-99. PMID:12179940

Voeten, J; Ottens, B J

1997-01-01

282

Halophyte filter beds for treatment of saline wastewater from aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The expansion of aquaculture and the recent development of more intensive land-based marine farms require efficient and cost-effective systems for treatment of highly nutrient-rich saline wastewater. Constructed wetlands with halophytic plants offer the potential for waste-stream treatment combined with production of valuable secondary plant crops. Pilot wetland filter beds, constructed in triplicate and planted with the saltmarsh plant Salicornia europaea, were evaluated over 88 days under commercial operating conditions on a marine fish and shrimp farm. Nitrogen waste was primarily in the form of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (TDIN) and was removed by 98.2 ± 2.2% under ambient loadings of 109-383 ?mol l(-1). There was a linear relationship between TDIN uptake and loading over the range of inputs tested. At peak loadings of up to 8185 ± 590 ?mol l(-1) (equivalent to 600 mmol N m(-2) d(-1)), the filter beds removed between 30 and 58% (250 mmol N m(-2) d(-1)) of influent TDIN. Influent dissolved inorganic phosphorus levels ranged from 34 to 90 ?mol l(-1), with 36-89% reduction under routine operations. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) loadings were lower (11-144 ?mol l(-1)), and between 23 and 69% of influent DON was removed during routine operation, with no significant removal of DON under high TDIN loading. Over the 88-day study, cumulative nitrogen removal was 1.28 mol m(-2), of which 1.09 mol m(-2) was retained in plant tissue, with plant uptake ranging from 2.4 to 27.0 mmol N g(-1) dry weight d(-1). The results demonstrate the effectiveness of N and P removal from wastewater from land-based intensive marine aquaculture farms by constructed wetlands planted with S. europaea. PMID:22818948

Webb, J M; Quintã, R; Papadimitriou, S; Norman, L; Rigby, M; Thomas, D N; Le Vay, L

2012-10-15

283

Causalities between Price, Pond Area and Employment in Aquaculture Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of aquaculture industry is becoming more prominent in order to supplement marine capture in meeting the food need for the growing Malaysian population. In an attempt to minimize depletion of marine fisheries, only traditional vessels are allowed to fish along the coastal area while bigger vessels are relegated to deep-sea fishing. During the 9th Malaysian Plan (2006-2010 aquaculture has been recognized as the engine of growth in the national food sector’s development strategy. Future fisheries policy is expected to focus more on aquaculture production, marketing and technological improvement as an alternative to marine capture. This paper investigates the causalities between the selected freshwater fish prices, aquaculture area and production. The study aspires to establish whether or not market price is a key contributor to a rise in the aquaculture area and production. Aquaculture firms comprising the individual culturists are generally motivated by the economic potential of the industry which is reflected in excess of price over cost of production. Our hypothesis is that government policy and initiation rather than prices had give rise to greater participation of culturists and hence augmented the level of employment. However, production increase has a negative implication on environment degradation. Thus there is a conflicting view as regards to the employment opportunity generated by aquaculture undertakings and the need for sustainable development arising from this growing industry. Multivariate time series analysis was used in this investigation.

Nik Hashim Nik Mustapha

2013-05-01

284

Salmon Aquaculture and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Marine Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol) were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments. PMID:22905164

Buschmann, Alejandro H.; Tomova, Alexandra; Lopez, Alejandra; Maldonado, Miguel A.; Henriquez, Luis A.; Ivanova, Larisa; Moy, Fred; Godfrey, Henry P.; Cabello, Felipe C.

2012-01-01

285

Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798 aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Data was collected in 2009 from organic shrimp farmers in the Kaligonj and Shyamnagar sub-districts through questionnaire interviews, transect walks and focus group discussions. The mean productivity of organic shrimp farming in the area is 320 kg ha?1 yr?1 (ranging from 120 to 711 kg ha?1year?1. Organic farmers are more likely to have a higher monthly income and less aquaculture experience. Moreover, suitable landholdings and classified labor distribution have been found to play an important role in the development of organic shrimp aquaculture. The most common assets of organic shrimp aquaculture are high yield, low production cost, available post larvae and high market prices. Small business farmers are likely to earn more income benefits from organic shrimp aquaculture than their larger-scale counterparts. Finally, the paper suggests that more research is needed to stimulate the success of organic shrimp aquaculture.

Christian Reinhard Vogl

2012-05-01

286

Influence of environmental variables in the efficiency of phage therapy in aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaculture facilities worldwide continue to experience significant economic losses because of disease caused by pathogenic bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. This scenario drives the search for alternative methods to inactivate pathogenic bacteria. Phage therapy is currently considered as a viable alternative to antibiotics for inactivation of bacterial pathogens in aquaculture systems. While phage therapy appears to represent a useful and flexible tool for microbiological decontamination of aquaculture effluents, the effect of physical and chemical properties of culture waters on the efficiency of this technology has never been reported. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of physical and chemical properties of aquaculture waters (e.g. pH, temperature, salinity and organic matter content) on the efficiency of phage therapy under controlled experimental conditions in order to provide a basis for the selection of the most suitable protocol for subsequent experiments. A bioluminescent genetically transformed Escherichia coli was selected as a model microorganism to monitor real-time phage therapy kinetics through the measurement of bioluminescence, thus avoiding the laborious and time-consuming conventional method of counting colony-forming units (CFU). For all experiments, a bacterial concentration of ? 10(5) CFU ml(-1) and a phage concentration of ? 10(6-8) plaque forming unit ml(-1) were used. Phage survival was not significantly affected by the natural variability of pH (6.5-7.4), temperature (10-25 °C), salinity (0-30 g NaCl l(-1) ) and organic matter concentration of aquaculture waters in a temperate climate. Nonetheless, the efficiency of phage therapy was mostly affected by the variation of salinity and organic matter content. As the effectiveness of phage therapy increases with water salt content, this approach appears to be a suitable choice for marine aquaculture systems. The success of phage therapy may also be enhanced in non-marine systems through the addition of salt, whenever this option is feasible and does not affect the survival of aquatic species being cultured. PMID:24841213

Silva, Yolanda J; Costa, Liliana; Pereira, Carla; Cunha, Ângela; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M; Almeida, Adelaide

2014-09-01

287

Experimental system of ejected electron spectroscopy with ECR ion source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experiment of analyzing energy spectrum of electrons ejected from multiple electron capture process on ion-atom collision is carried out using ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion source. An old collision system using gas atoms as target and a new system using vapour atoms are developed. In this report, the developments and exploitations of the experimental systems for the ejected electron spectroscopy with ECR Ion source are presented. (author)

288

NMR study of strongly correlated electron systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various types of ground states in strongly correlated electron systems have been systematically investigated by means of NMR/NQR at low temperatures under high magnetic field and pressure. We focus on two well-known heavy-electron families, CeCu{sub 2}X{sub 2} (X=Si and Ge) (Ce(122)) and UM{sub 2}Al{sub 3} (M=Ni and Pd) (U(123)). The Cu NQR experiments on CeCu{sub 2}X{sub 2} under high pressure indicate that the physical property of CeCu{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} at high pressure, i.e. above the transition at 7.6GPa from antiferromagnetic (AF) to superconductivity, are clearly related to that of CeCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} at ambient pressure. In addition to the H-T phase diagram established below 7T, NMR and specific heat experiments on polycrystal CeCu{sub 2.05}Si{sub 2} have revealed the presence of a new phase above 7T. In a high-quality polycrystal of UPd{sub 2}Al{sub 3} with a record high-T{sub c} of 2K at ambient pressure and the narrowest Al NQR line width, the nuclear-spin lattice relaxation rate, {sup 27}(1/T{sub 1}) measured in zero field has been found to obey the T{sup 3} law down to 0.13K, giving strong evidence that the energy gap vanishes along lines on the Fermi surface. Thus it seems that all heavy-electron superconductors exhibit lines of zero gap, regardless of their different magnetic properties. ((orig.)).

Kitaoka, Y. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Material Physics; Tou, H. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Material Physics; Zheng, G.Q. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Material Physics; Ishida, K. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Material Physics; Asayama, K. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Material Physics; Kobayashi, T.C. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Material Physics; Kohda, A. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Material Physics; Takeshita, N. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Material Physics; Amaya, K. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Material Physics; Onuki, Y. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560 (Japan); Geibel, G. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Hochschule, Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Schank, C. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Hochschule, Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Steglich, F. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Hochschule, Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

1995-02-01

289

THE FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE COMPONENT OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fisheries and aquaculture can provide a key contribution to food security and poverty alleviation. Fisheries and aquaculture policy is an instrument for the conservation and management of fisheries and aquaculture. It was created with the aims of managing a common resource. Fisheries policies and management strategies the world over is in a state of flux, continued attempts to use fisheriesas the key to solving a complex web of social and economic issues threaten to overwhelm the basic fact that, if this resources are overfished, they will not sustain either social or development.

Adrian ZUGRAVU

2006-01-01

290

Power electronics for renewable energy systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a demand to double the power capacity within 20 years. The production, distribution and use of energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources may be very high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss some of the most emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy and photovoltaics, which by means of power electronics are changing from being minor energy sources to be acting as important power sources in the energy system.

Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede

2009-01-01

291

Electron-optical systems for planar gyrotrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methodology of designing an electron-optical system (EOS) that forms sheet helical electron beams (HEBs) for high-power gyrotrons is developed. As an example, we consider the EOS for a 140-GHz gyrotron operated at the first harmonic of the cyclotron frequency with an accelerating voltage of 50?kV, a beam current of 30?A, and a magnetic field compression of 36. A planar geometry of the magnetron-injection gun (MIG) is suggested. The adiabatic theory of MIGs modified for the planar geometry of EOS is used for preliminary estimations of MIG parameters. Numerical simulation of the HEB properties based on the CST STUDIO SUITE 3D code is performed to find the optimal configuration of a planar MIG. The accuracy of the calculated data is discussed. The main factors that affect the HEB quality are considered. It is shown that a sheet HEB with a pitch-factor of 1.3 and velocity spread not exceeding 25%–30% can be formed; this is quite acceptable for high-efficiency operation of modern gyrotrons. Calculation of the beam-wave interaction with the obtained HEB parameters proved that a high output power with a sufficiently good efficiency of about 20% can be reached. Simulations show the feasibility of the experimental implementation of a novel planar EOS and its use in short-wave planar gyrotrons. The developed technique can be used for the study and optimization of planar gyrotrons of different frequency bands and power levels

292

Electron-optical systems for planar gyrotrons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The methodology of designing an electron-optical system (EOS) that forms sheet helical electron beams (HEBs) for high-power gyrotrons is developed. As an example, we consider the EOS for a 140-GHz gyrotron operated at the first harmonic of the cyclotron frequency with an accelerating voltage of 50?kV, a beam current of 30?A, and a magnetic field compression of 36. A planar geometry of the magnetron-injection gun (MIG) is suggested. The adiabatic theory of MIGs modified for the planar geometry of EOS is used for preliminary estimations of MIG parameters. Numerical simulation of the HEB properties based on the CST STUDIO SUITE 3D code is performed to find the optimal configuration of a planar MIG. The accuracy of the calculated data is discussed. The main factors that affect the HEB quality are considered. It is shown that a sheet HEB with a pitch-factor of 1.3 and velocity spread not exceeding 25%–30% can be formed; this is quite acceptable for high-efficiency operation of modern gyrotrons. Calculation of the beam-wave interaction with the obtained HEB parameters proved that a high output power with a sufficiently good efficiency of about 20% can be reached. Simulations show the feasibility of the experimental implementation of a novel planar EOS and its use in short-wave planar gyrotrons. The developed technique can be used for the study and optimization of planar gyrotrons of different frequency bands and power levels.

Manuilov, V. N.; Zaslavsky, V. Yu.; Ginzburg, N. S.; Glyavin, M. Yu. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ul' yanov St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State University, 23 Gagarin Ave., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Kuftin, A. N.; Zotova, I. V. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ul' yanov St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

2014-02-15

293

Potential application of microbial phytase in aquaculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phytases are histidine acid phosphatases that catalyze the hydrolysis of phytic acid toinorganic phosphorus and myo-inositol phosphates. The phosphorus that is being released is used invarious metabolic processes. These enzymes are able to promote the growth of animals and plants aswell as increase the nutritional value of feedstuffs through dephytinization. Phytases are widespread innature because they are found in animals, plants and microorganisms. This paper discusses the differentmicrobial phytases that have been characterized and their beneficial roles in aquaculture. In order to beincorporated in the feed, microbial phytases must have the ability to withstand high temperatures duringprocessing, and to be stable in the gastrointestinal tract of the fish, the enzymes must be active at lowpH levels. The various effects of microbial phytases on the bioavailability of phosphorus in fish, ongrowth performance, on the immune responses, on the excretion of phosphorus and on the environmentare also reviewed.

Christopher M. A. Caipang

2011-06-01

294

Raft River aquaculture project. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The commercial potential for geothermal aquaculture was evaluated for 2 years at the Department of Energy's Raft River geothermal site in southcentral Idaho. Common carp '(Cyprinus carpio) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were selected as culture species. Objectives of the study included investigation of: (1) growth rates; (2) nutrition trials; (3) histological and physiological parameters; (4) bioaccumulation of heavy metals; and (5) reproductive capacity. The second year project efforts were primarily studying the effects of geothermal water on the reproductive capacity of common carp by: (1) determining the effects of geothermal water on gonadal development of common carp; and (2) determining the effects of geothermal water on common carp embryogenesis.

Beleau, M.H.; Woiwode, J.G.

1980-07-01

295

Advanced Photonic and Electronic Systems WILGA 2010  

CERN Document Server

SPIE – PSP WILGA Symposium gathers two times a year in January and in May new adepts of advanced photonic and electronic systems. The event is oriented on components and applications. WILGA Symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering is well known on the web for its devotion to “young research” promotion under the eminent sponsorship of international engineering associations like SPIE and IEEE and their Poland Sections or Counterparts. WILGA is supported by the most important national professional organizations like KEiT PAN and PSP-Photonics Society of Poland. The Symposium is organized since 1998 twice a year. It has gathered over 4000 young researchers and published over 2000 papers mainly internationally, including more than 900 in 10 published so far volumes of Proc. SPIE. This paper is a digest of WILGA Symposium Series and WILGA 2010 summary. Introductory part treats WILGA Photonics Applications characteristics over the period 1998-2010. Following part presents a short report on the XXVth and XXVI...

Romaniuk, R S

2010-01-01

296

Analysis of an Electronic Voting System  

Science.gov (United States)

A potential flaw in a kind of electronic voting machine used in several U.S. states was discovered and publicized by researchers from Johns Hopkins and Rice Universities. It purportedly can make the machine vulnerable to security breaches that would allow a single individual to cast multiple votes. The conclusions of the researchers are outlined in a 24-page study. After providing an overview of the voting system in question, which requires users to insert a smart card to cast a vote, the report suggests that homemade smart cards could be used to gain an unacceptable level of access. Examples of violations include, as was mentioned above, the ability to submit multiple ballots, as well as "viewing partial results and terminating the election early."

Kohno, Tadayoshi; Rubin, Aviel D.; Stubblefield, Adam; Wallach, Dan S.

297

Simulation of the electron acoustic instability for a finite-size electron beam system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Satellite observations at midlatitudes (?20,000 km) near the earth's dayside polar cusp boundary layer indicate that the upward electron beams have a narrow latitudinal width up to 0.10. In the cusp boundary layer where the electron population consists of a finite-size electron beam in a background of uniform cold and hot electrons, the electron acoustic mode is unstable inside the electron beam but damped outside the electron beam. Simulations of the electron acoustic instability for a finite-size beam system are carried out with a particle-in-cell code to investigate the heating phenomena associated with the instability and the width of the heating region. The simulations show that the finite-size electron beam radiates electrostatic electron acoustic waves. The decay length of the electron acoustic waves outside the beam in the simulation agrees with the spatial decay length derived from the linear dispersion equation

298

Greening the Blue Revolution: How History Can Inform a Sustainable Aquaculture Movement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Paper traces the history of aquaculture from ancient China until the present, highlighting the various degrees of, and reasons for, aquaculture’s popularity at different points throughout history. The history of aquaculture demonstrates that the industry is largely a manifestation of concern over environmental and economic costs of the capture fishery industry; yet the current practice of aquaculture has begun to resemble the tortured past of wild-caught fish, with mono-culture fish f...

Smith, Turner

2014-01-01

299

Feasibility analysis of the utilization of moderator heat for agricultural and aquacultural purposes, Bruce nuclear power development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study is presented of the feasibility of using moderator reject heat from the Bruce nuclear power development either to heat greenhouses or to aid in a warm water hatchery or aquaculture operation. The study examines heat extraction and delivery plans, reliability of supply, pricing schedules, the Ontario greenhouse industry, site selection criteria, water transmission and distribution, costs, approvals required, and a construction timetable. Total system analysis shows that a greenhouse facility would be viable but the aquaculture/hatchery scheme is more cost-effective. (E.C.B.)

300

Survey and Alignment of the Fermilab Electron Cooling System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of achieving the Tevatron luminosity of 3 x 1032 cm-2s-1 requires Electron Cooling in the Recycler Ring to provide an increased flux of antiprotons. The Fermilab Electron Cooling system has been designed to assist accumulation of antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. The installation along with the survey and alignment of the Electron Cooling system in the Recycler Ring were completed in November 2004. The Electron Cooling system was fully commissioned in May 2005 and the first cooling of antiprotons was achieved in July 2005. This paper discusses the alignment methodology employed to survey and align the Electron Cooling system

 
 
 
 
301

Characteristics of the beam injection system in an electron LINAC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main characteristics of an electron beam injection system are described; the system is used for injecting and focusing electron beams into the acceleration structure of an 10 MeV linear electron accelerator. The beam injection system consists of a Pierce convergent diode-type electron gun with pulse modulator for power supply and a thin axially symmetric lens. The perveance and the capture coefficient were optimized by the analogical resistors network. This type of injection system was used in the linear electron accelerators: ALIN - 3 MeV, ALIN - 10 MeV and ALID - 8 MeV, performed at NILPRP{sup Asterisk-Operator} Bucharest, Romania.

Baltateanu, N., E-mail: nicolaebaltateanu@yahoo.com [Hyperion University, Hyperion Research and Development Institute Bucharest, 169 Calea Calarasilor, Bucharest 3, CP 030615 (Romania); Gheorghiu, A. [Hyperion University, Hyperion Research and Development Institute Bucharest, 169 Calea Calarasilor, Bucharest 3, CP 030615 (Romania); Jurba, M. [Electrooptic Components SRL, 171 A Atomistilor str, Magurele-Ilfov (Romania); Popescu, E., E-mail: elop@elop.ro [Electrooptic Components SRL, 171 A Atomistilor str, Magurele-Ilfov (Romania)

2011-12-15

302

Development of the electron gun control system of SSRF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electron gun is the key part of a linac, the beam quality of which depends on beam quality of the electron gun, hence the need of a stable control system of the electron gun to ensure its safe operation.In this paper, we report our progresses in developing the linac's electron gun control system of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). It uses PLC as the device controllers, with the monitoring software developed on EPICS. The whole system is connected by Ethernet. The PLC and Ethernet technology ensures good reliability and easy maintenance of the electron gun control system. (authors)

303

Characteristics of the beam injection system in an electron LINAC  

Science.gov (United States)

The main characteristics of an electron beam injection system are described; the system is used for injecting and focusing electron beams into the acceleration structure of an 10 MeV linear electron accelerator. The beam injection system consists of a Pierce convergent diode-type electron gun with pulse modulator for power supply and a thin axially symmetric lens. The perveance and the capture coefficient were optimized by the analogical resistors network. This type of injection system was used in the linear electron accelerators: ALIN - 3 MeV, ALIN - 10 MeV and ALID - 8 MeV, performed at NILPRP ? Bucharest, Romania.

B?l???eanu, N.; Gheorghiu, A.; Jurb?, M.; Popescu, E.

2011-12-01

304

Survey and Alignment of the Fermilab Electron Cooling System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of achieving the Tevatron luminosity of 3 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} requires Electron Cooling in the Recycler Ring to provide an increased flux of antiprotons. The Fermilab Electron Cooling system has been designed to assist accumulation of antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. The installation along with the survey and alignment of the Electron Cooling system in the Recycler Ring were completed in November 2004. The Electron Cooling system was fully commissioned in May 2005 and the first cooling of antiprotons was achieved in July 2005. This paper discusses the alignment methodology employed to survey and align the Electron Cooling system.

Oshinowo, Babatunde O' Sheg; Leibfritz, Jerry

2006-09-01

305

T-3 electron-beam-excited laser system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A laser system specifically designed to study the kinetics of electron-beam driven systems is described. Details of the system are given along with measurements of the electron-beam uniformity and deposition in the laser medium. Some HF laser results obtained with this system are also given

306

INFORMATION SYSTEMS OF ELECTRONIC PAY INSTRUMENTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Business is electronic urgently for further development and existence of certain organization today. Innovations on field of electronic money are increasing from day on day. Presence of always new pay instruments is visible, we only get being used to which. Electronic manners of business replaced classical shapes of paying, this is cash and paying wiht checks. Presence of pay mean isn’t visible at electronic business. New pay instruments are encouraging replacement of cash, they lower costs...

Divjak, S?pela

2009-01-01

307

42 CFR 456.722 - Electronic claims management system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Electronic claims management system...456.722 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...DUR) Program and Electronic Claims...

2010-10-01

308

A strategic review of the potential for aquaculture ... - ARCHIVE: Defra  

aquaculture in England placing this in a UK and EU context. ..... considered as a \\business activity that must be inherently financially sustainable, i.e. ...... this is \\Japanese kelp culture, which has the largest share of production (41% in 2002).

309

76 FR 9209 - Draft NOAA National Aquaculture Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...content that meets the following criteria: Contains vulgar language, personal attacks of any kind, threats, obscenity, or...aquaculture is vital to the U.S. seafood supply, the economic vitality of coastal communities, and the maintenance of working...

2011-02-16

310

FOULING AS INDICATOR OF AQUACULTURE INFLUENCE ON ENVIRONMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By ecological awarening of the whole community and by the broadening of the aquacultural activity on the Adriatic, the influence of the aquaculture on the environment is more questionable. The opholding of the ecological protection of the natural environment is pointed out as one of the basic goals in the by–coastal aquaculture. The processes of the net fouling, which are used for the construction of the cages, is present to a certain degree at all locations of the fish breeding. By periodical investigation of the fouling organisms it is possible, with the earlier set monitoring (chemisms of the sediments, chemisms of the water, benthic biotes and phytoplankton to follow the influence of the existing aquacultural activity on the environment. Qualitative and quantitative constitution of the fouling organisms can indicate certain changes in the environment. There are also species that can indicate changes by their presence, i. e. they can be used as indicators of the ecological changes.

Merica Sliškovi?

2003-03-01

311

Feasibility study for aquaculture and space heating, Ft. Bidwell, California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Expansion of the aquaculture facilities and geothermal space heating at Ft. Bidwell, California were investigated. The lack of cold water is the limiting factor for aquaculture expansion and is also a problem for the town domestic water supply. A new cold water well approximately 1200 feet deep would provide for the aquaculture expansion and additional domestic water. A 2900 foot test well can be completed to provide additional hot water at approximately 200/sup 0/F and an estimated artesian flow of 500 gpm. If these wells are completed, the aquaculture facility could be expanded to produce 6000 two pound catfish per month on a continuous basis and provide space heating of at least 20 homes. The design provided allows for heating 11 homes initially with possible future expansion. 9 figs.

Culver, G.

1985-10-01

312

What Shapes Food Value Chains? : Lessons from Aquaculture in Asia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this article, we explain what shapes food value chains through the analysis of selected aquaculture industries in four key Asian producing countries. Worldwide production of aquatic resources has grown rapidly in the past few decades, and aquaculture production in Asia has played a decisive role in this growth. We examine the main forms of coordination found along these value chains and the role that institutional frameworks play in governing them. We observe that negative publicity, driven by NGO and media campaigns, has led to increased use of third-party certification and the adoption of public and private standards. We find that the most sophisticated aquaculture operations in Asia are found in value chains led by retailers and branded processors and where the quality of domestic institutional frameworks has facilitated compliance with increasing demands from buyers overseas. Finally, we reflect on the sustainability challenges of aquaculture and provide four broad observations on the governance of food value chains.

Jespersen, Karen Sau; Kelling, Ingrid

2014-01-01

313

Impact on electron velocity of hollow electron beam in HIRFL-CSR e-cooler system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cooling efficiency in electron cooling systems is closely related to the velocity of electron. The velocity of electron has offset due to the space charge of the intense electron beam in the drift tube of the cooling section and thus increases the temperature of electrons. In order to minimize this effect, a new type of electron gun is adopted to produce a hollow electron beam in HIRFL-CSR e-cooler project. The hot ion beam is cooled by Coulomb interaction with intense and cold hollow electron beams. Using typical parameters of the CSRm e-cooler, theoretical calculations comparing the impact of the space charge field on electron velocity for solid and hollow electron beam are carried out

314

Impact on electron velocity of hollow electron beam in HIRFL-CSR e-cooler system  

Science.gov (United States)

Cooling efficiency in electron cooling systems is closely related to the velocity of electron. The velocity of electron has offset due to the space charge of the intense electron beam in the drift tube of the cooling section and thus increases the temperature of electrons. In order to minimize this effect, a new type of electron gun is adopted to produce a hollow electron beam in HIRFL-CSR e-cooler project. The hot ion beam is cooled by Coulomb interaction with intense and cold hollow electron beams. Using typical parameters of the CSRm e-cooler, theoretical calculations comparing the impact of the space charge field on electron velocity for solid and hollow electron beam are carried out.

Xia, G. X.; Xia, J. W.; Yang, J. C.; Liu, W.; Wu, J. X.; Yin, X. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Wei, B. W.

2003-08-01

315

Impact on electron velocity of hollow electron beam in HIRFL-CSR e-cooler system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cooling efficiency in electron cooling systems is closely related to the velocity of electron. The velocity of electron has offset due to the space charge of the intense electron beam in the drift tube of the cooling section and thus increases the temperature of electrons. In order to minimize this effect, a new type of electron gun is adopted to produce a hollow electron beam in HIRFL-CSR e-cooler project. The hot ion beam is cooled by Coulomb interaction with intense and cold hollow electron beams. Using typical parameters of the CSRm e-cooler, theoretical calculations comparing the impact of the space charge field on electron velocity for solid and hollow electron beam are carried out.

Xia, G.X. E-mail: xiagx@impcas.ac.cn; Xia, J.W.; Yang, J.C.; Liu, W.; Wu, J.X.; Yin, X.J.; Zhao, H.W.; Wei, B.W

2003-08-11

316

36 CFR 1236.20 - What are appropriate recordkeeping systems for electronic records?  

Science.gov (United States)

...appropriate recordkeeping systems for electronic records? 1236.20 Section...appropriate recordkeeping systems for electronic records? (a) General ...electronic information system or records can be transferred...

2010-07-01

317

36 CFR 1236.26 - What actions must agencies take to maintain electronic information systems?  

Science.gov (United States)

...agencies take to maintain electronic information systems? 1236.26 ...agencies take to maintain electronic information systems? (a) Agencies must maintain inventories of electronic information systems and...

2010-07-01

318

Performance of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings in a hyper-intensive recirculating aquaculture system with low water exchange / Rendimiento de juveniles de tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus en un sistema híperintensivo de recirculación acuícola con mínimo recambio de agua  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el rendimiento de juveniles de tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus sembrados en densidades hiperintensivas en un sistema de recirculación acuícola (SRA) con mínimo remplazo de agua. El sistema experimental consistió en un sistema de precría de cosecha única [...] para obtener peces de 50 g en 60 días. Los peces (2,07 ± 0,14 g) se sembraron por triplicado a densidades de 400 (T1), 500 (T2) y 600 (T3) peces m-3 (0,84; 1,05; 1,22 kg m-3). El SRA funcionó con 12.000 L de agua recirculante y un remplazo diario de 252 L (2,1% por día). La densidad de siembra no afectó significativamente la supervivencia (89,5-93,6%). El biofiltro removió el amonio nitrogenado total con una eficiencia del 46,9 ± 7,0%. La tasa de crecimiento de T1 (0,96 g día-1; 5,01% día-1) y T2 (0,92 g día-1; 4,95% día-1) fue significativamente mayor que T3 (0,83 g día-1; 4,80% día-1). La temperatura influyó 41% en la tasa de crecimiento específico (TCE) de T1. La concentración de oxígeno disuelto (DO) influyó en la variación de peso en T2 (47%) y T3 (44%). La TCE de T3 también se vio afectada por la concentración de nitrógeno amoniacal (31%). El aumento de la densidad de siembra afectó el tamaño y la homogeneidad de tallas de los peces, pero no afectó la relación longitud-peso (L-P). Los datos respaldan la conclusión que los juveniles sembrados a densidades de 400 y 500 peces m-3 tienen alto rendimiento durante nueve semanas consecutivas, siempre y cuando la biomasa no se exceda de 37 kg m-3. En este tiempo los peces alcanzan el peso final esperado de precría (50 g) y pueden ser transferidos hacia las instalaciones de engorde. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was evaluate the performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) raised at hyper intensive stocking density in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) with minimum water replacing. The experimental system was performed in a single-batch nursery system to obtain [...] 50 g fish size in 60 days. Fish (2.07 ± 0.04 g) were stocked in triplicate at 400 (T1), 500 (T2) and 600 (T3) fish m-3 (0.84, 1.05, 1.22 kg m-3). RAS functioned with 12,000 L of recirculating water and 252 L day-1of water replacing (2.1% daily). The efficiency of the biofilter for removing the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was 48 ± 12.5 mg L-1. Stocking density did not affect significantly the survival (89.5 to 93.6%). The growth rate of T1 (0.96 g day-1; 5.01% day-1) and T2 (0.92 g day-1; 4.95 % day-1) was significantly higher than T3 (0.83 g day-1; 4.80% day-1). The specific growth rate (SGR) of T1 was 41% influenced by temperature. For T2 and T3 the SGR were influenced by the variation of dissolved oxygen (DO) that explained 47 and 44% of the fish weight variation, respectively. The SGR from T3 was also affected by the concentration of ammonia nitrogen (31%). The high stocking density affected the overall size of fish and the size homogeneity, but had no negative effect on the length-weight relationship (L-W). Data support the conclusion that fingerling stocked at 400 and 500 fish m-3 shows high performance during 9-weeks when the biomass not exceed 37 kg m-3. At this time fish have reached the desired final nursery weight (50 g) for transfer to grow-out facilities.

M, Gullian-Klanian; C, Arámburu-Adame.

319

Performance of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings in a hyper-intensive recirculating aquaculture system with low water exchange / Rendimiento de juveniles de tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus en un sistema híperintensivo de recirculación acuícola con mínimo recambio de agua  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el rendimiento de juveniles de tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus sembrados en densidades hiperintensivas en un sistema de recirculación acuícola (SRA) con mínimo remplazo de agua. El sistema experimental consistió en un sistema de precría de cosecha única [...] para obtener peces de 50 g en 60 días. Los peces (2,07 ± 0,14 g) se sembraron por triplicado a densidades de 400 (T1), 500 (T2) y 600 (T3) peces m-3 (0,84; 1,05; 1,22 kg m-3). El SRA funcionó con 12.000 L de agua recirculante y un remplazo diario de 252 L (2,1% por día). La densidad de siembra no afectó significativamente la supervivencia (89,5-93,6%). El biofiltro removió el amonio nitrogenado total con una eficiencia del 46,9 ± 7,0%. La tasa de crecimiento de T1 (0,96 g día-1; 5,01% día-1) y T2 (0,92 g día-1; 4,95% día-1) fue significativamente mayor que T3 (0,83 g día-1; 4,80% día-1). La temperatura influyó 41% en la tasa de crecimiento específico (TCE) de T1. La concentración de oxígeno disuelto (DO) influyó en la variación de peso en T2 (47%) y T3 (44%). La TCE de T3 también se vio afectada por la concentración de nitrógeno amoniacal (31%). El aumento de la densidad de siembra afectó el tamaño y la homogeneidad de tallas de los peces, pero no afectó la relación longitud-peso (L-P). Los datos respaldan la conclusión que los juveniles sembrados a densidades de 400 y 500 peces m-3 tienen alto rendimiento durante nueve semanas consecutivas, siempre y cuando la biomasa no se exceda de 37 kg m-3. En este tiempo los peces alcanzan el peso final esperado de precría (50 g) y pueden ser transferidos hacia las instalaciones de engorde. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was evaluate the performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) raised at hyper intensive stocking density in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) with minimum water replacing. The experimental system was performed in a single-batch nursery system to obtain [...] 50 g fish size in 60 days. Fish (2.07 ± 0.04 g) were stocked in triplicate at 400 (T1), 500 (T2) and 600 (T3) fish m-3 (0.84, 1.05, 1.22 kg m-3). RAS functioned with 12,000 L of recirculating water and 252 L day-1of water replacing (2.1% daily). The efficiency of the biofilter for removing the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was 48 ± 12.5 mg L-1. Stocking density did not affect significantly the survival (89.5 to 93.6%). The growth rate of T1 (0.96 g day-1; 5.01% day-1) and T2 (0.92 g day-1; 4.95 % day-1) was significantly higher than T3 (0.83 g day-1; 4.80% day-1). The specific growth rate (SGR) of T1 was 41% influenced by temperature. For T2 and T3 the SGR were influenced by the variation of dissolved oxygen (DO) that explained 47 and 44% of the fish weight variation, respectively. The SGR from T3 was also affected by the concentration of ammonia nitrogen (31%). The high stocking density affected the overall size of fish and the size homogeneity, but had no negative effect on the length-weight relationship (L-W). Data support the conclusion that fingerling stocked at 400 and 500 fish m-3 shows high performance during 9-weeks when the biomass not exceed 37 kg m-3. At this time fish have reached the desired final nursery weight (50 g) for transfer to grow-out facilities.

M, Gullian-Klanian; C, Arámburu-Adame.

2013-03-01

320

Aquaculture applications of a thermal effluent and considerations on geothermal water use  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aquaculture may benefit from the use of thermal discharges from power plants or geothermal waters. Fish culture technology applicable to use of heated effluents should also apply generally to geothermal water sources. In the early 1970's the Tennessee Valley Authority and a private cooperator pumped thermal effluent from the discharge canal of the Gallatin Steam Plant near Nashville, TN, through a raceway facility, to evaluate an intensive culture system for catfish. Water tempertures averaged 5/sup 0/C above ambient plant intake water. Results demonstrated the potential of heated water to extend the growing season, enhance growth rates, and increase production. Numerous constraints hindering commercial use of thermal effluents for aquaculture were also identified.

Hubert, W.A.; Meriwether, J.

1977-11-16

 
 
 
 
321

Power electronic converter systems for direct drive renewable energy applications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter presents power electronic conversion systems for wind and marine energy generation applications, in particular, direct drive generator energy conversion systems. Various topologies are presented and system design optimization and reliability are briefly discussed.

Chen, Zhe

2013-01-01

322

Nonlinear electron-acoustic rogue waves in electron-beam plasma system with non-thermal hot electrons  

Science.gov (United States)

The properties of nonlinear electron-acoustic rogue waves have been investigated in an unmagnetized collisionless four-component plasma system consisting of a cold electron fluid, non-thermal hot electrons obeying a non-thermal distribution, an electron beam and stationary ions. It is found that the basic set of fluid equations is reduced to a nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The dependence of rogue wave profiles on the electron beam and energetic population parameter are discussed. The results of the present investigation may be applicable in auroral zone plasma.

Elwakil, S. A.; El-hanbaly, A. M.; Elgarayh, A.; El-Shewy, E. K.; Kassem, A. I.

2014-11-01

323

Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

Whitfield, Sharon

2011-01-01

324

Control System of Electron Linac LU-40  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reconstruction of a two-section electron LU-40 linac was finished in 2004. The accelerator consists of two accelerating sections and an injector, the latter includes a diode electron gun, a klystron type buncher and an accelerating cavity. Pulse current at the accelerator exit is up to 200 ?A, the beam energy is up to 100 MeV

325

Electron gun design study for the IUCF beam cooling system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design of a low temperature electron beam cooling system for the Indiana University electron-cooled storage ring is in progress. The storage ring, which will accept the light ion beams from the existing k=200, multi-stage cyclotron facility, requires an electron beam variable in energy from about 7 to 275 keV. The electron beam system consists of a high perveance electron gun with Pierce geometry and a flat cathode. The gun and a 28 element accelerating column are immersed in a uniform longitudinal magnetic guide field. A computer modeling study of the system was conducted to determine electron beam density and transverse temperature variations as a function of anode region and accelerator column design parameters. Transverse electron beam temperatures (E /SUB t/ = mc2?2?(/theta/ /SUB H/ +/theta/ /SUB v/ )) of less than a few tenths of an electron volt at a maximum current density of 0.4 A/cm2 are desired over the full energy range. This was achieved in the calculations without the use of resonant focusing for a 2 Amp, 275 keV electron beam. Some systematics of the electron beam temperature variations with system design parameters are presented. A short discussion of the mechanical design of the proposed electron beam system is also given

326

Use of UASB reactors for brackish aquaculture sludge digestion under different conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatment and disposal of high volume of salty waste production in recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) is a major challenge and the sludge is often a source of environmental pollution and salinization of receiving soils and water bodies. Anaerobic digestion is an efficient mean for the treatment of wastes of different origins and might serve a useful tool for the reduction of salty aquaculture discharge load. Use of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for digestion of brackish aquaculture sludge from RASs under different C:N ratios, temperatures, and hydraulic retention times demonstrated high removal efficiencies of over 92% as volatile solids (VS), 98% as chemical oxygen demand and 81% as total suspended solids in all reactors. Methane production topped 7.1 mL/gVS d and was limited by low C:N ratio but was not influenced by temperature fluctuations. The treated liquid effluent from all reactors was of sufficient quality for reuse in the RAS, leading to significant water recycling and saving rates. UASB may be an attractive solution for brackish sludge management in RASs. PMID:23528783

Mirzoyan, Natella; Gross, Amit

2013-05-15

327

Economic valuation of a mangrove ecosystem threatened by shrimp aquaculture in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mangrove ecosystems in Sri Lanka are increasingly under threat from development projects, especially aquaculture. An economic assessment is presented for a relatively large (42 ha) shrimp culture development proposed for the Rekawa Lagoon system in the south of Sri Lanka, which involved an extended cost-benefit analysis of the proposal and an estimate of the "total economic value" (TEV) of a mangrove ecosystem. The analysis revealed that the internal benefits of developing the shrimp farm are higher than the internal costs in the ratio of 1.5:1. However, when the wider environmental impacts are more comprehensively evaluated, the external benefits are much lower than the external costs in a ratio that ranges between 1:6 and 1:11. In areas like Rekawa, where agriculture and fisheries are widely practiced at subsistence levels, shrimp aquaculture developments have disproportionately large impacts on traditional livelihoods and social welfare. Thus, although the analysis retains considerable uncertainties, more explicit costing of the environmental services provided by mangrove ecosystems demonstrates that low intensity, but sustainable, harvesting has far greater long-term value to local stakeholders and the wider community than large shrimp aquaculture developments. PMID:16151655

Gunawardena, M; Rowan, J S

2005-10-01

328

Review of occupational hazards associated with aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaculture is an emerging sector that is associated with most of the same hazards that are present in agriculture generally, but many fish farming tasks entail added danger, including working around water and working at night. Comprehensive studies of these hazards have not been conducted, and substantial uncertainty exists as to the extent of these hazards. The question addressed in this investigation was, "What is known about potential hazardous occupational exposures to aquatic plant and animal farmers?" In this review, causes of death included drowning, electrocution, crushing-related injury, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and fatal head injury. Nonfatal injuries were associated with slips, trips, and falls; machines; strains and sprains; chemicals; and fires. Risk factors included cranes (tip over and power line contact), tractors and sprayer-equipped all-terrain vehicles (overturn), heavy loads (lifting), high-pressure sprayers, slippery surfaces, rotting waste (hydrogen sulfide production), eroding levees (overturn hazard), storm-related rushing water, diving conditions (bends and drowning), nighttime conditions, working alone, lack of training, lack of or failure to use personal flotation devices, and all-terrain vehicle speeding. Other hazards included punctures or cuts from fish teeth or spines, needlesticks, exposure to low temperatures, and bacterial and parasitic infections . PMID:20954037

Myers, Melvin L

2010-10-01

329

Defeating diplostomoid dangers in USA catfish aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diplostomoid digenean metacercariae have caused widescale mortalities of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), at aquaculture farms in Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas, USA. Originally, based on a tentative diagnosis, the industry considered the primary harmful agent to be an introduced species from Europe, Bolbophorus confusus (Krause, 1914), frequently reported from the American white pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin. Our group has now shown, using ITS 1-2 plus three more-conservative gene fragments, that two sympatric species of Bolbophorus exist in the American white pelican. One, B. damnificus Overstreet et Curran, 2002, infects the musculature of catfish, and the other, probably not B. confusus, does not infect catfish. However, at least four other pathogenic diplostomoids and a clinostomoid infect the catfish, and they use at least four different snail hosts, including the planorbids Planorbella trivolvis (Say) and Gyraulus parvus (Say), the physid Physella gyrina (Say) and a lymnaeid. Two metacercariae, B. damnificus and Bursacetabulus pelecanus Dronen, Tehrany et Wardle, 1999, infect the catfish and mature in the pelican; two others, Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) and Hysteromorpha cf. triloba (Rudolphi, 1819), mature in cormorants; one, Diplostomum sp., matures in seagulls and at least one, Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819), matures in herons, egrets and other wading birds. Consequently, management of catfish ponds relative to digenean infections requires considerable biological information on the fish, bird, and snail hosts as well as the parasites. PMID:15357393

Overstreet, Robin M; Curran, Stephen S

2004-06-01

330

Magic Angle Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (MAEELS) of core electron excitation in anisotropic systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A general theory for the core-level electron excitation of anisotropic systems using angular integrated electron energy-loss spectroscopy has been derived. We show that it is possible to define a magic angle condition at which the specimen orientation has no effect on the electron energy-loss spectra. We have not only resolved the existing discrepancy between different studies of the magic angle condition, but also extended its applicability to all anisotropic systems. We ha...

Sun, Y. K.; Yuan, J.

2004-01-01

331

I. Concepts of Highly Excited Electronic Systems / II. Electronic Correlation Mapping from Finite to Extended Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge of the excitation characteristics of matter is decisive for the descriptions of a variety of dynamical processes, which are of significant technological interest. E.g. transport properties and the optical response are controlled by the excitation spectrum. This self-contained work is a coherent presentation of the quantum theory of correlated few-particle excitations in electronic systems. It begins with a compact resume of the quantum mechanics of single particle excitations. Particular emphasis is put on Green function methods, which offer a natural tool to unravel the relations between the physics of small and large electronic systems. The book contains explicit expressions for the Coulomb Green function of two charge particles and a generalization to three-body systems. Techniques for the many-body Green function of finite systems are introduced and some explicit calculations of the Green functions are given. Concrete examples are provided and the theories are contrasted with experimental data, when available. A complimentary volume presents an up-to-date selection of applications of the developed concepts and a comparison with available experiments is made

Berakdar, Jamal

2006-02-01

332

A Layman's Guide to Geothermal Aquaculture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following paper is designed as an aid to anyone contemplating a venture into commercially raising giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Oregon Institute of Technology has been actively involved in a research program to determine the feasibility of such a venture and results to date have been very encouraging. This aquaculture research was initiated in 1975 and was developed as an effort to utilize excess energy from the school’s geothermal heating system. Therefore, most of the information gathered here, will apply to flow-through systems which use geothermal water to maintain a suitable environment for the animals. A study of the market potential for freshwater prawns has been conducted and a favorable response received from wholesale distributors in the Pacific Northwest. Not only is a good market available, but distributors have suggested paying from $4.50 to $5.00 per pound for whole prawns in the size category of 16 to 20 tails to the pound, for a constant fresh supply. By maintaining constant temperatures of 27 degrees Celsius (80 degrees Fahrenheit) ± 1 degree Celsius in our research ponds, we have been able to produce this size prawn in 6 to 8 months.

Smith, Kenan C.

1981-01-01

333

Diagnostic Neural Network Systems for the Electronic Circuits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neural Networks is one of the most important artificial intelligent approaches for solving the diagnostic processes. This research concerns with uses the neural networks for diagnosis of the electronic circuits. Modern electronic systems contain both the analog and digital circuits. But, diagnosis of the analog circuits suffers from great complexity due to their nonlinearity. To overcome this problem, the proposed system introduces a diagnostic system that uses the neural network to diagnose both the digital and analog circuits. So, it can face the new requirements for the modern electronic systems. A fault dictionary method was implemented in the system. Experimental results are presented on three electronic systems. They are: artificial kidney, wireless network and personal computer systems. The proposed system has improved the performance of the diagnostic systems when applied for these practical cases

334

High quality flux control system for electron gun evaporation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on a high quality flux control system for electron gun evaporation developed and tested for the MBE growth of high temperature superconductors. The system can be applied to any electron gun without altering the electron gun itself. Essential elements of the system are a high bandwidth mass spectrometer, control electronics and a high voltage modulator to sweep the electron beam over the melt at high frequencies. the sweep amplitude of the electron beam is used to control the evaporation flux at high frequencies. The feedback loop of the system has a bandwidth of over 100 Hz, which makes it possible to grow superlattices and layered structures in a fast and precisely controlled manner

335

NFC-based Electronic Data Capture Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we present a Near Field Communication (NFC)-based electronic data capture prototype for patient self-reported rating scales. Such scales are valuable feedback for medical treatment and care processes. As traditional paper-based questionnaires are time- and cost-consuming and may be affected by low patient compliance, our prototype allows patient monitoring and electronic data acquisition directly from the patient's home. It enables real time representation and analysis of ...

Prinz, A.; Menschner, P.; Jan Marco Leimeister

2012-01-01

336

Web Content Processing Method for Electronic Business Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The given article is devoted to the development of standardized methods and software Web content processing in e-business systems. The model of electronic content commerce systems is developed. The models of commercial Web content processing subsystems are constructed. A new approach of business processes application and implementation for the construction of electronic content commerce systems is formulated. Complex methods of formation, management and support commercial content are developed. Software for information resources processing in electronic content commerce systems is developed. The methods of e-business systems designing and implementation are presented as example on online newspaper and online magazine that reflect the theoretical studies results.

Victoria Vysotska

2013-12-01

337

Integrated measurement systems for electronic devices operating in radiation environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electronic systems in High Energy Physics experiments are exposed to radiation. Such hard environment provokes damages and errors in electronic devices. This M.Sc. thesis describes the radiation effects on different types of electronic components. Three measurement systems are presented, for irradiation experiments on Light Emitting Diodes, semiconductor memories (SDRAM and FLASH) and FPGA chips. Results of several tests that have been done are included and discussed. (orig.)

Rybka, D.K.

2005-09-01

338

Programmable electronics in safety-critical systems -- A practical survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many nuclear power plants need to upgrade their old systems for instrumentation and control due to problems with aging. Introducing programmable electronics into safety-critical systems include many uncertainties. Therefore the utility needs clear and precise guidelines, standards, methods for verification and validation, and instructions for maintenance of programmable electronics. In this paper an overview over the problem area and experiences on programmable electronics made through a survey at the Swedish nuclear industry is presented

339

Content formation method in the electronic content commerce systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the given article content is forming method as the content life cycle stage in electronic commerce systems is proposed. The method implements the information resources processing in electronic content commerce systems and automation technology simplifies the commercial content formation. In the given article the main problems of electronic content commerce and functional services of commercial content forming are analyzed. The proposed method gives an opportunity to create an instrument of...

Berko, Andriy; Vysotska, Victoria; Chyrun, Lyubomyr

2013-01-01

340

Valley susceptibility of an interacting two-dimensional electron system  

CERN Document Server

We report direct measurements of the valley susceptibility, the change of valley population in response to applied symmetry-breaking strain, in an AlAs two-dimensional electron system. As the two-dimensional density is reduced, the valley susceptibility dramatically increases relative to its band value, reflecting the system's strong electron-electron interaction. The increase has a remarkable resemblance to the enhancement of the spin susceptibility and establishes the analogy between the spin and valley degrees of freedom.

Gunawan, O; Vakili, K; Gokmen, T; De Poortere, E P; Shayegan, M

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Valley susceptibility of an interacting two-dimensional electron system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report direct measurements of the valley susceptibility, the change of valley population in response to applied symmetry-breaking strain, in an AlAs two-dimensional electron system. As the two-dimensional density is reduced, the valley susceptibility dramatically increases relative to its band value, reflecting the system's strong electron-electron interaction. The increase has a remarkable resemblance to the enhancement of the spin susceptibility and establishes the anal...

Gunawan, O.; Shkolnikov, Y. P.; Vakili, K.; Gokmen, T.; Poortere, E. P.; Shayegan, M.

2006-01-01

342

A control system for a free electron laser experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general layout of a control and data acquisition system for a Free Electron Laser experiment will be discussed. Some general considerations about the requirements and the architecture of the whole system will be developed. (author)

343

Qualitative evaluation of an electronic prescribing and administration system.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To provide a formative socio-technical evaluation of a pilot implementation of an integrated electronic prescribing, automated dispensing, barcode patient identification and electronic medication administration record (EMAR) system on one ward. Design: A qualitative observational approach using discourse analysis within a socio-technical evaluation framework addressing systems functions, human perspectives and organisational context. Setting: Surgical ward in a teaching hos...

Barber, Nick; Cornford, Tony; Klecun, Ela

2007-01-01

344

Possibilities for marker-assisted selection in aquaculture breeding schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

FAO estimates that there are around 200 species in aquaculture. However, only a few species have ongoing selective breeding programmes. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is not used in any aquaculture breeding scheme today. The aim of this chapter, therefore, is to review briefly the current status of aquaculture breeding schemes and to evaluate the possibilities for MAS of aquaculture species. Genetic marker maps have been published for some species in culture. The marker density of these maps is, in general, rather low and the maps are composed of many amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers anchored to few microsatellites. Some quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified for economically important traits, but they are not yet mapped at a high density. Computer simulations of within-family MAS schemes show a very high increase in genetic gain compared with conventional family-based breeding schemes, mainly due to the large family sizes that are typical for aquaculture breeding schemes. The use of genetic markers to identify individuals and their implications for breeding schemes with control of inbreeding are discussed. (author)

345

Use of Geothermal Energy for Aquaculture Purposes - Phase III  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project, financed by the Pacific Northwest Regional Commission (PNRC), was designed to provide information to evaluate the best methods to use for intensive aquaculture of freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, using geothermal energy. The freshwater prawn is a tropical organism and is native to southeast Asia. Earlier projects at Oregon Institute of Technology have shown the feasibility of culturing this aquatic animal in geothermal water. This phase of the project was designed to investigate intensive culture of this animal as well as the advantages of growing rainbow trout, ornamental tropical fin fish, and mosquito fish, Gambusia affnis, for vector control using geothermal energy. The research data collected on the prawns was obtained from the stocking and sampling of two 0.2- ha (half-acre) ponds constructed as a part of the project. The ponds are equipped with recording monitors for temperature and flow. The geothermal energy used is the geothermal effluent from the Oregon Institute of Technology heating system. This water is of potable quality and ranges in temperature from 50 to 70oC. The geothermal water used in the ponds is controlled at 27oC, ± 2oC, by using thermostats and solenoid valves. A small building next to the ponds contains facilities for hatching larvae prawns and tanks for growing post-larvae prawns. The hatchery facility makes the project self-sustaining. The hatchery was obtained as part of an earlier PNRC project.

Johnson, W.C.; Smith, K.C.

1981-09-01

346

Managing to harvest? Perspectives on the potential of aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaculture has been one of the most rapid and technically innovative of food production sectors globally, with significant investment, scientific and technical development and production growth in many parts of the world over the past two decades. While this has had a significant effect on the global supply of aquatic food products and had an important impact in rural and urban food supply and employment in many developing economies, growth and increasing internationalization has not been without concern for natural resource use, environmental impact and social disruption. The expectations for production and diversification are now significant and while the scientific and technical means are already available to meet much of the intended targets, practical constraints of investment, profitability, resource access and system efficiency are likely to become far more important constraints for the future. This review offers a contemporary perspective on the ways in which the sector might develop, its interactions with constraints and the strategies that may be required to ensure that future development is both positive and sustainable. PMID:15713597

Muir, James

2005-01-29

347

Thermodynamic potential of electrons and phonons system of disordered alloy  

CERN Document Server

The cluster decomposition for the delayed two-time Green functions and the disordered crystal dynamic potential is obtained with an account of the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions. The system electron states are described within the frames of the multizone strong coupling model. The calculations are based on the diagram technique for the Green temperature functions. The coherent potential approximation is chosen as the zero mononode approximation in this cluster decomposition method. It is shown that the processes of the contributions of the elementary excitations scattering on the clusters decrease with the cluster nodes number growth in the cluster in correspondence with certain small parameters. The analytical evaluations of the electron-phonon interaction impact on the electron energy spectrum of the ordering alloy are made in the monozone model. The possibility of applying the obtained results for describing the strong electron correlations impact on the electron structure and propertie...

Repetskij, S P

2002-01-01

348

NASAwide electronic publishing system: Electronic printing and duplicating, stage-2 evaluation report (GSFC)  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA Scientific and Technical Information Office was assigned the responsibility to continue with the expansion of the NASAwide networked electronic duplicating effort by including the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) as an additional node to the existing configuration of networked electronic duplicating systems within NASA. The subject of this report is the evaluation of a networked electronic duplicating system which meets the duplicating requirements and expands electronic publishing capabilities without increasing current operating costs. This report continues the evaluation reported in 'NASA Electronic Publishing System - Electronic Printing and Duplicating Evaluation Report' (NASA TM-106242) and 'NASA Electronic Publishing System - Stage 1 Evaluation Report' (NASA TM-106510). This report differs from the previous reports through the inclusion of an external networked desktop editing, archival, and publishing functionality which did not exist with the previous networked electronic duplicating system. Additionally, a two-phase approach to the evaluation was undertaken; the first was a paper study justifying a 90-day, on-site evaluation, and the second phase was to validate, during the 90-day evaluation, the cost benefits and productivity increases that could be achieved in an operational mode. A benchmark of the functionality of the networked electronic publishing system and external networked desktop editing, archival, and publishing system was performed under a simulated daily production environment. This report can be used to guide others in determining the most cost effective duplicating/publishing alternative through the use of cost/benefit analysis and return on investment techniques. A treatise on the use of these techniques can be found by referring to 'NASA Electronic Publishing System -Cost/Benefit Methodology' (NASA TM-106662).

Tuey, Richard C.; Lane, Robert; Hart, Susan V.

1995-01-01

349

Aquaculture investigations with nuclear energy techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The culture of aquatic organisms, especially that of fishes under controlled conditions, up to their harvesting, processing, commercialization and consumption, has been pointed out as an activity that produces a lot of benefits, among them: the obtention high proteic valued food, the incorporation to the economy of lands not usefull for agriculture activities, the increment of fishing resources, the recycling of organic matter produced in the units, the regional development, the generation of employment, technologies and foreign currencies. Several research areas are identified that can be developed, using the nuclear technologies, for example in the reproduction, nutrition, diagnose and control of illnesses, environmental monitoring and quality certification of products. In the concerning to the Venezuelan aquaculture, investigations are required that need to use those techniques. For example: 1) Production of autochthonous inductive agents, by means of radioinmunoenssay (RIA), to determine the gonadotropines coming from the hypophysis of fish cultivated with the purpose of gathering the glands in its best moment, to generate the final maturation and spawn in autochthonous species. 2) Genetic improvement of cultivated species through the knowledge of the genetic load of different lines and breeds found in the natural means, and to achieve its maintenance to solve inbreeding problems, in autochthonous species aswell in as in exotic ones, by the use of marking techniques (ADE, RFLA and microsatellite techniques). 3) Nutritional and feeding studies of species under commertial culture, especially on the effect of the aflatoxins in the inputs or the portions, substances that influence in a negative way the aquatic nutrition. In this case, competitive immunoassays of enzymes bounded (ELISA) and radioinmunoessays. 4) Illness diagnose, by means of the ELISA kit, specifically of the more common illness in fishes cultivated in the country

350

Method and system for analyzing and classifying electronic information  

Science.gov (United States)

A data analysis and classification system that reads the electronic information, analyzes the electronic information according to a user-defined set of logical rules, and returns a classification result. The data analysis and classification system may accept any form of computer-readable electronic information. The system creates a hash table wherein each entry of the hash table contains a concept corresponding to a word or phrase which the system has previously encountered. The system creates an object model based on the user-defined logical associations, used for reviewing each concept contained in the electronic information in order to determine whether the electronic information is classified. The data analysis and classification system extracts each concept in turn from the electronic information, locates it in the hash table, and propagates it through the object model. In the event that the system can not find the electronic information token in the hash table, that token is added to a missing terms list. If any rule is satisfied during propagation of the concept through the object model, the electronic information is classified.

McGaffey, Robert W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bell, Michael Allen (Powell, TN); Kortman, Peter J. (Knoxville, TN); Wilson, Charles H. (Etowah, TN)

2003-04-29

351

Biologically Induced Deposition of Fine Suspended Particles by Filter-Feeding Bivalves in Land-Based Industrial Marine Aquaculture Wastewater  

Science.gov (United States)

Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67±0.99 cm) and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43±0.98 cm) was 77.84±7.77 and 6.37±0.67 mg ind?1•d?1, respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS) deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73±0.27 and 2.76±0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (Porganic matter and C, N in the sediments of bivalve treatments were significantly lower than those in the sediments of the control (P<0.05). It was suggested that the filter feeders C. gigas and M. galloprovincialis had considerable potential to filter and accelerate the deposition of suspended particles from industrial aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products. PMID:25250730

Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng

2014-01-01

352

Virtual Electronic Heritage System: Digital Content and Electronic Services for Lithuania and Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article introduces the national project “Development of the Virtual Electronic Heritage System”, and overviews the development of a common methodological approach to digitization of the cultural heritage reflected in legislative documents on digitization, creation of a system for digital heritage content based on shared standards and providing universal access to cultural heritage objects. Further improvement of the Virtual Electronic Heritage System will involve enrichment of the dig...

Varniene?-janssen, Regina

2011-01-01

353

Electron Emission boundary in cavity system generate electromagnetic pulse simulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The setting method of electron emission boundary in cavity system generate electromagnetic pulse (SGEMP) simulation is researched. The electron emission boundary in bottom incidence cavity SGEMP simulation is introduced, and the peculiarity of the boundary in side incidence cavity SGEMP simulation is analyzed. By the employment of virtual-emission-surface, the electron emission boundary in side incidence cavity SGEMP simulation is realized. It is indicated that by using the method mentioned here one can achieve the electron emission boundary efficiently, both in flat and curved surface boundary condition, and the parameters and emission sequence of electron on the boundary obey the corresponding physical laws. (authors)

354

78 FR 5403 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf, and South Atlantic; Aquaculture  

Science.gov (United States)

...programmatic environmental impact statement (SFPEIS...Regulating Offshore Marine Aquaculture in the [[Page 5404...Management Plans for Offshore Aquaculture) on September 2, 2004...programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) was...potential changes to the environment linked to the DWH...

2013-01-25

355

Electron beam irradiation in polymeric systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electron beam applications in the chemistry of polymers, such as the production of acrylamide polymers, which are of great interest in the treatment of waste industrial waters are given. These products have unique properties: the required dose is smaller by a factor of 10 to 50 as compared to the dose requirement for other polymeric materials and they are used in aqueous solutions in a concentration of one or two magnitude orders smaller than the conventional inorganic flocculants. The acrylamide polymers technologies was first developed at semi-industrial scale with IETI 10000 gamma rays source and then transferred to the ALIN-10 electron linear accelerator. The operation of the ALIN-10 built in the Accelerator Laboratory from the Institute of Atomic Physics is presented. An original feature of this accelerator, using an electron gun of the diode type is its capability to obtain programmed beam single shots and pulse trains. It is particularly useful for the automatic control of irradiation processing in order to provide the maximum efficiency of the electron beam application. The preliminary results obtained by ALIN-10 lead to the assumption that the low output power high energy linacs are economically attractive for the commercial production of acrylamide type polymers. (Author) 7 Figs. 2 Tabs., 10 Refs

356

Magic Angle Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (MAEELS) of core electron excitation in anisotropic systems  

CERN Document Server

A general theory for the core-level electron excitation of anisotropic systems using angular integrated electron energy-loss spectroscopy has been derived. We show that it is possible to define a magic angle condition at which the specimen orientation has no effect on the electron energy-loss spectra. We have not only resolved the existing discrepancy between different studies of the magic angle condition, but also extended its applicability to all anisotropic systems. We have demonstrated that magic angle electron energy loss spectroscopy is equivalent to the orientation averaged EELS, although the specimen remains stationary. Our analysis provides the theoretical framework for the comparison between theoretical calculation and experimental measurement of core-level electron excitation spectra in anisotropic systems. In addition to MAEELS, we have also discovered a magic orientation condition which will also give rise to orientationally averaged spectra. It's relation with the magic angle X-ray absorption sp...

Sun, Y K

2004-01-01

357

Limited amount electronic money circulation system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fast developing and growing of e-commerce determined the coming of modern payment systems. Intention of users to pay safely on the internet impacted the decrease of use of traditional payment system such as credit cards. It’s started to look for and design alternative ways of payment, such as smart cards systems or systems using software for saving monetary value. Traditional payment systems currently used by most e-commerce sites are not suitable for high volume, tiny valued transactions. ...

S?e?z?a, Vygintas

2010-01-01

358

Electron beam sterilization using an integrated systems approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sterilization of medical disposables is a complex process and requires a sophisticated system to meet today's stringent requirements. Such a system is in use today using electron beam sterilization from a Dynamitron accelerator. The process system components are described as is their functionality as part of an integrated system. Certain information is omitted to observe the confidentiality of the user. (orig.)

359

Handbook of power systems engineering with power electronics applications  

CERN Document Server

Formerly known as Handbook of Power System Engineering, this second edition provides rigorous revisions to the original treatment of systems analysis together with a substantial new four-chapter section on power electronics applications. Encompassing a whole range of equipment, phenomena, and analytical approaches, this handbook offers a complete overview of power systems and their power electronics applications, and presents a thorough examination of the fundamental principles, combining theories and technologies that are usually treated in separate specialised fields, in a single u

Hase, Yoshihide

2012-01-01

360

Variational Monte Carlo method for electron-phonon coupled systems  

Science.gov (United States)

We develop a variational Monte Carlo (VMC) method for electron-phonon coupled systems. The VMC method has been extensively used for investigating strongly correlated electrons over the last decades. However, its applications to electron-phonon coupled systems have been severely restricted because of its large Hilbert space. Here, we propose a variational wave function with a large number of variational parameters, which is suitable and tractable for systems with electron-phonon coupling. In the proposed wave function, we implement an unexplored electron-phonon correlation factor, which takes into account the effect of the entanglement between electrons and phonons. The method is applied to systems with diagonal electron-phonon interactions, i.e., interactions between charge densities and lattice displacements (phonons). As benchmarks, we compare VMC results with previous results obtained by the exact diagonalization, the Green function Monte Carlo method and the density matrix renormalization group for the Holstein and Holstein-Hubbard model. From these benchmarks, we show that the present method offers an efficient way to treat strongly coupled electron-phonon systems.

Ohgoe, Takahiro; Imada, Masatoshi

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
361

Electron Bernstein wave heating in Heliotron systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron Bernstein wave heating is studied theoretically and experimentally in heliotron configurations. A ray tracing code for ordinary (O)-extraordinary (X)-electron Bernstein (B) and X-B conversion heating has been developed, in which the three-dimensional magnetic field structure is taken into account. In the O-X-B heating, the deposition condition is strongly Doppler-shifted because of the high parallel refractive index caused by the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field. The slow X-B heating is also possible by launching the slow X-mode from the low field side because of the peculiar magnetic field structure. An effective heating has been observed in the helical-axis heliotron device, Heliotron J, when no electromagnetic resonance exists in the core region. The obtained stored energy is comparable with that in the conventional second harmonic ECH. A possible explanation for this effective heating is presented using the slow X-B mode conversion process. (authors)

362

Energy Transformation in Molecular Electronic Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This laboratory has developed many new ideas and methods in the electronic spectroscopy of molecules. This report covers the contract period 1993-1995. A number of the projects were completed in 1996, and those papers are included in the report. The DOE contract was terminated at the end of 1995 owing to a reorganizational change eliminating nationally the projects under the Office of Health and Environmental Research, U. S. Department of Energy.

Kasha, Michael

1999-05-17

363

Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach  

CERN Document Server

To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM.

Anderson, Elsa K

2014-01-01

364

f-electron systems: pushing band theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The f-electron orbitrals have always been the ''incomplete atomic shells acting as local moments, and weakly interacting with the remaining electronic structure'' in the minds of most people. So examining them using a band theory where one views them as itinerant was once - and to some extent even today still is - considered with some skepticism. Nonetheless, a very significant community has successfully utilized band theory as a probe of the electronic structure of the appropriate actinides and rare earths. Those people actually using the approach would be the first to declare that it is not the whole solution. Instead, one is pushing and even exceeding its limit of applicability. However, the apropriate procedure is to push the model consistently to its limits, patch where possible, and then look to see where discrepancies remain. I propose to offer a selected review of past developments (emphasizing the career to data of A.J. Freeman in this area), offer a list of interesting puzzles for the future, and then make some guesses as to the techniques one might want to use. (orig.)

365

Nutrient reduction in aquaculture waste by macroalgae production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Danish marine finfish aquaculture wants to increase production and follow the trend of increasing world wide demand for finfish, but restrictions are based on environmental concerns. The demand on seaweeds are also increasing on the market due to its content of vitamins, minerals, gelling agents etc. as well as its potential use for environmental friendly biofuel. Furthermore, seaweeds (macroalgae) assimilate nutrients and can therefore bioremediate wastes in seawater. Linking finfish and seaweed aquaculture together, the seaweed can convert the nutrient waste from the fed aquaculture production into a valuable product and when harvested the environmental footprint from the finfish production will be smaller. This led to the aim of this Ph.D.-project: “Nutrient reduction in aquaculture waste by macroalgae production”. In this study the three red macroalgae containing gelling agents; Chondrus crispus, Furcellaria lumbricalis and Gracilaria vermiculophylla, were investigated as candidates for polyculture actingas biofilters near two fish farms in the inner Danish waters. In addition, the biofilter potential of C. crispus was investigated in outdoor tank cultures receiving fish effluent or seawater. Furthermore, the sporulation method was examined on C. crispus to only get the most valuable life phase and reduce labor intensity. Finally, thalli of C. crispus were cultivated in a bubble column photobioreactor in the laboratory to examine growth and open up the “black box” of growth in between inocula- and end-biomass with on-line growth measurements. In the field near the two fish farms, the highest specific growth rates were C. crispus 0.018±0.006 d-1, F. lumbricalis 0.011±0.004 d-1 and G. vermiculophylla 0.039±0.007 d-1. Results showed a small increase in biomass and a decrease in the specific growth rates of the three macroalgae, while the epibios biomass increased during the deployment periods. Decrease of specific growth rates of C. crispus with distance and increase with feed use underline the importance of the nutrient source originating from the fish farm for algal growth. The slow growth of the investigated macroalgal species, however, makes the production of algal biomass too small to reduce the nutrient waste from the fish farms significantly. The biomass of C. crispus cultivated in outdoor tanks reduced nutrients in the received fish effluent and seawater. The biomass increased up to 110 % during 27 days of experiment with specific growth rates of 0.03 d-1 reached in the flow-through cultures and 0.01 d-1 in the batch cultures. Only the seaweed in the flow-through culture with fish effluent had nitrogen content higher than the critical level for growth and furthermore were not bleached, which indicated non-limited growth with respect to nutrients. Whole thalli of C. crispus cultivated in the photobioreactor with nonlimiting temperature, light and carbon dioxide supply reached a specific growth rate of 0.095 d-1 and contamination was kept at a low level, while fragments of freshly formed thalli reached growthrates of 0.12 d-1 without contaminants and epiphytes. On-line data of carbon dioxide addition from the closed system reflected photosynthetic activity, and these results revealed lag-phases and existence of several exponential growth phases in one of the experiments. Germination of the most valuable tetraspores of C. crispus in the photobioreactor and in the field was successful. The specific growth rate of sporelings in the photobioreactor was 0.065 d-1 and sporelings reached an average length of 1.1±0.1 cm in 119 days. In the field, sporelings reached a maximum length of 1.5 cm with low growth of epibios during four months. In conclusion, the investigated species either grow too slowly to be used for polyculture or as a biofilter near Danish fish farms and/or they cannot be sold as a product due to the high degree of epibios coverage. The bubble column photobioreactor method is well suited to characterize the growth of C. crispus and the on-line data identifies the different growth phases during

Holdt, Susan LØvstad

2010-01-01

366

The effects of aquaculture production noise on the growth, condition factor, feed conversion, and survival of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss  

Science.gov (United States)

Intensive aquaculture systems, particularly recirculating systems, utilize equipment such as aerators, air and water pumps, blowers, and filtration systems that inadvertently increase noise levels in fish culture tanks. Sound levels and frequencies measured within intensive aquaculture systems are within the range of fish hearing, but species-specific effects of aquaculture production noise are not well defined. Field and laboratory studies have shown that fish behavior and physiology can be negatively impacted by intense sound. Therefore, chronic exposure to aquaculture production noise could cause increased stress, reduced growth rates and feed conversion efficiency, and decreased survival. The objective of this study was to provide an in-depth evaluation of the long term effects of aquaculture production noise on the growth, condition factor, feed conversion efficiency, and survival of cultured rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Rainbow trout were cultured in replicated tanks using two sound treatments: 117??dB re 1????Pa RMS which represented sound levels lower than those recorded in an intensive recycle system and 149??dB re 1????Pa RMS, representing sound levels near the upper limits known to occur in recycle systems. To begin the study mean fish weights in the 117 and 149??dB tanks were 40 and 39??g, respectively. After five months of exposure no significant differences were identified between treatments for mean weight, length, specific growth rates, condition factor, feed conversion, or survival (n = 4). Mean final weights for the 117 and 149??dB treatments were 641 ?? 3 and 631 ?? 10??g, respectively. Overall specific growth rates were equal, i.e. 1.84 ?? 0.00 and 1.84 ?? 0.01%/day. Analysis of growth rates of individually tagged rainbow trout indicated that fish from the 149??dB tanks grew slower during the first month of noise exposure (p < 0.05); however, fish acclimated to the noise thereafter. This study further suggests that rainbow trout growth and survival are unlikely to be affected over the long term by noise levels common to intensive aquaculture systems. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

Davidson, J.; Bebak, J.; Mazik, P.

2009-01-01

367

Implementation of a pedagogically efficient system for electronic testing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays online learning is a very common process. Together with online learning there has been strong development of online assessment systems. Time is money and online assessment or electronic tests save us exactly that - time. For a teacher and for a student it enables fast feedback information. The diploma thesis at first presents information and communications technology (ICT) and the role of ICT in development of electronic tests and standardisation of records of electronic tests. I...

Preskar, Peter

2012-01-01

368

Low-dimensional electron systems at liquid helium surface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of theoretical and experimental investigations into the properties of two-dimensional electron systems on the liquid helium surface are reviewed. Such known problems as the description of electron states over the flat liquid-vapour boundary and the interaction with surface helium excitations have been considered in short. Collective effects are described in more details: two-dimensional plasma waves, Wigner crystallization, crystallization of electron systems with the screened interaction, instability of the charged helium surface and macroscopic structures. New interesting systems on the liquid helium surface available for experimental investigation are described as well

369

Electronic health records : managing the transformation from a paper-based to an electronic system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

South Africa has taken the first steps in implementing a National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme. An electronic health record (EHR) system will form a vital component of the infrastructure that needs to be put into place for managing healthcare services. Even a brief review of the literature reveals that managing the transformation from a paper-based to an electronic based system is complex in nature, as it entails a fundamental change in the healthcare culture. Consequently, in many instances...

Weeks, R. V.

2013-01-01

370

Electron-acoustic waves in a beam-plasma system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The instability of the electron-acoustic wave in a beam-plasma system, in which the plasma consists of an admixture of hot and cold electrons, is investigated. New types of hydrodynamics and kinetic instabilities have been found. (author). 5 refs

371

SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF ELECTRONIC VOTING SYSTEM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electronic Voting are now being performed using World Wide Web in many countries of theworld due to this advancement a voter need not to visit the polling place. But has to just logging on thecomputer with an internet connection. Also, this voting requires an access code for the e-voting through theadvance report of a voter. To reduce these disadvantages, we suggest a process in which a voter, who has thewireless certificate issued in advance, uses its own mobile phone for an e-voting without...

Atiya Parveen; Sobia Habib; Saoud Sarwar?

2013-01-01

372

Linking R&D Activities with Teaching: Water Quality Monitoring in Aquaculture as a Remote Laboratory Proxy for Environmental Studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work presents a system for on-line study purposes and for demonstrative operation of water quality monitoring based on previous full-scale trials in a commercial aquaculture facility under the scope of a R&D project. This system is still under development, and was designed for sharing resources in R&D activities and later in distance learning blended courses. An application developed in LabVIEW is responsible for receiving information from physical and chemical data (water level,...

Maria Teresa Borges; Joaquim Gabriel Mendes; Maria Teresa Restivo; Carlos Manuel Pereira

2011-01-01

373

Infrastructures of the System for Developing Electronic Health Record  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The overall objective of a health system is to improve health through reducing disease, disability and death. Accomplishment of this goal depends on the worldwide integrated and coordinated care continuity. Information transmission is a prerequisite to ensure the continuity of care. Widespread acceptance of health information and communication technology (HICT and developing systems such as Electronic Health Record (EHR, have changed the health care industry. Electronic Health Record is the main part of information management in an integrated health care system. Electronic health record provides access to all health information at organizational, regional, national and international levels and allows for the patient's health data [usually with geographical distribution in several health information systems] to become integrated. Since Electronic health record integrates all care events data, it can make data sharing possible between all care providers to consequently minimize the repeated diagnostic tests, and drug and treatment interactions. Furthermore, Also health care professionals can easily access to patient information at any time and this could lead to improving the quality of care and reduce costs. Accordingly, a productive system is required to provide the electronic health record. Given the significance of the electronic health record and its generating system in improvement of care quality and reducing the health care costs, authors decided to study the needs for developing the national EHR system (NHIN The main focus of this paper was on selecting material related to the system developing an EHR and it prerequisites. Electronic health record system is a new source of valuable intelligence of real world for the whole health care industry. Electronic health record system includes people, rules, standards, storage and processing equipments, communication and support facilities. To shape this, existence of components and their coordination is necessary. Electronic health record system are established to enhance patient care and its outcome, increase efficiency, improving the availability of information and minimizing the medical errors. With the Europe union formation that in fact was an important step toward globalization, the electronic health record passed the national borders and turned into a global concept to make possible the worldwide integration and sharing of the health data. Therefore international standards are needed to share patient health information between national health systems and across borders. Infrastructure or national information network existence of proper hardware and software and finally participation of all stakeholders are necessary to develop the system. So it is necessary to prepare the infrastructures needed for development of the system in our country. Since EHR has a universal concept, it is needed to create a lifelong health information record for every individual accessible in every point in the world.

Hamid Moghaddasi

2011-01-01

374

Electronic readout system in L3 Cosmics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The L3 Cosmics experiment will use the unique muon spectrometer of L3 at CERN to measure cosmic muon. the read-out system of this experiment is a advanced system. It is designed with VHDL, and uses EPLD, FPGA, the special TDC chip and JTAG technology

375

Single-element Electron-transfer Optical Detector System  

Science.gov (United States)

An optical detector system includes an electrically resistive screen that is substantially transparent to radiation energy having a wavelength of interest. An electron transfer element (e.g., a low work function photoactive material or a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based element) has a first end and a second end with its first end spaced apart from the screen by an evacuated gap. When radiation energy passes through the screen with a bias voltage being applied thereto, transfer of electrons through the electron transfer element is induced from its first to its second end such that a quantity indicative of the electrons transferred can be detected.

Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

376

Determination of radiation resistant of electronic components in robot system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigated the characteristic change for the electronic components of the systems which were used in radiation area, when those were exposured by gamma rays. Bipolar transistor, FET, TTL, CMOS, operational amplifier, some capacitors, and several electronic components were selected for experiment. We applied irradiated gamma ray to the electronic components in the range of 10{sup 6} rad, by {sup 6}0Co(KAERI). We made up appropriate assessment circuit for each electronic component during the performance test, and assessed the reliability and radiation-resistance of them for the each radiation irradiation. (author). 59 refs., 35 figs., 8 tabs.

Kang, Hee Dong [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea); Kim, Do Sung [Taegu University, Taegu (Korea); Woo, Hong [Kyungsan University, Kyungsan (Korea)

1998-04-01

377

Automotive mechatronics automotive networking, driving stability systems, electronics  

CERN Document Server

As the complexity of automotive vehicles increases this book presents operational and practical issues of automotive mechatronics. It is a comprehensive introduction to controlled automotive systems and provides detailed information of sensors for travel, angle, engine speed, vehicle speed, acceleration, pressure, temperature, flow, gas concentration etc. The measurement principles of the different sensor groups are explained and examples to show the measurement principles applied in different types. Contents Basics of mechatronics.- Architecture.- Electronic control unit.- Software development.- Basic principles of networking.- Automotive networking.- Bus systems.- Automotive sensors.- Sensor measuring principles.- Sensor types.- Electric actuators.- Electrohydraulic actuators.- Electronic transmission control.- Electronic transmission control unit.- Modules for transmission control.- Antilock braking system.- Traction control system.- Electronic stability program.- Automatic brake functions.- Hydraulic modu...

2015-01-01

378

Power Electronics and Reliability in Renewable Energy Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Power Electronics are needed in almost all kind of renewable energy systems. It is used both for controlling the renewable source and also for interfacing to the load, which can be grid-connected or working in stand-alone mode. More and more efforts are put into making renewable energy systems better in terms of reliability in order to ensure a high availability of the power sources, in this case the knowledge of mission profile of a certain application is crucial for the reliability evaluation/design of power electronics. In this paper an overview on the power electronic circuits behind the most common converter configurations for wind turbine and photovoltaic is done. Next different aspects of improving the system reliability are mapped. Further on examples of how to control the chip temperature in different power electronic configurations as well as operation modes for wind power generation systems are given in order to reduce the temperature cycling.

Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

2012-01-01

379

Large magnetocapacitance in electronic ferroelectric manganite systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have observed a sizable positive magnetocapacitance (?5%–90%) in perovskite Pr{sub 0.55}Ca{sub 0.45}MnO{sub 3} and bilayer Pr(Sr{sub 0.1}Ca{sub 0.9}){sub 2}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} system under 5?T magnetic field across 20–100?K below the magnetic transition point T{sub N}. The magnetodielectric effect, on the other hand, exhibits a crossover: (a) from positive to negative for the perovskite system and (b) from negative to positive for the bilayer system over the same temperature range. The bilayer Pr(Sr{sub 0.1}Ca{sub 0.9}){sub 2}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} system exhibits a sizable anisotropy as well. We have also noticed the influence of magnetic field on the dielectric relaxation characteristics of these systems. These systems belong to a class of improper ferroelectrics and are expected to exhibit charge/orbital order driven ferroelectric polarization below the transition point T{sub CO}. Large magnetocapacitance in these systems shows a typical multiferroic behavior even though the ferroelectric polarization is small in comparison to that of other ferroelectrics.

Chowdhury, Ujjal; Goswami, Sudipta; Bhattacharya, Dipten, E-mail: dipten@cgcri.res.in [Nanostructured Materials Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700032 (India); Midya, Arindam; Mandal, P. [Experimental Condensed Matter Physics, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Das, Pintu [Institute of Physics, J.W. Goethe University, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Mukovskii, Ya. M. [National Research Technological University, “MISiS,” Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation)

2013-11-21

380

Intelligent Systems for Self-Healing Electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

For long duration missions it is imperative to be able to monitor and record critical information. The data acquisition systems used must therefore be fault tolerant. This usually meant having redundant copies of critical channels. Since each channel usually consists of various components, the parts count, cost, weight and complexity of the system could be very high. The Advanced Data Acquisition System (ADAS) has been developed as a proof of concept. The purpose was to demonstrate an architecture where individual spare parts can replace defective ones to repair a channel. By so doing entire channels do not need replication. This reduces the need of total redundancy and reduces the parts count. This has the added feature that in addition to spare parts, good components of a failed channel can be used as spares in another channel. In addition to reducing parts count and cost, this configuration, with an intelligent decision maker, can improve the reliability of the overall system. Another unique feature of ADAS is that it uses reconfigurable analog filters. These components can be programmed, by the smart system to meet the specific needs of the part they are to replace. This way one part can serve as spare for many different components. The hardware was built and now serves as a platform for developing intelligent algorithms. Another related project was a wireless data acquisition system. I was invited to participate in the meetings and issue suggestions. A brief description of this system will also be included.

Latino, Carl D.

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Patient opportunities in the Estonian Electronic Health Record System.  

Science.gov (United States)

Estonia is the first country which has implemented a nationwide electronic health record system and gives full access to its citizens. This provides new opportunities to citizens, healthcare providers and e-health developers. Combining health data, citizens' self added health and welfare data, decision support and possibilities of service oriented architecture of the Estonian Electronic Health Record System - a new era of e-health services can begin. PMID:20543352

Tiik, Madis; Ross, Peeter

2010-01-01

382

Emergent Geometry Fluctuation in Quantum Confined Electron Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The intrinsic geometric degree of freedom that was proposed to determine the optimal correlation energy of the fractional quantum Hall states, is analyzed for quantum confined planar electron systems. One major advantage in this case is that the role of various unimodular metrics resulting from the absence of rotational symmetry can be investigated independently or concurrently. For interacting electrons in our system, the confinement metric due to the anisotropy shifts the ...

Ghazaryan, Areg; Chakraborty, Tapash

2014-01-01

383

An Electronic Voting System Using GSM Mobile Technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electronic voting systems have the potential to improve traditional voting procedures by providing added convenience and flexibility to the voter. Numerous electronic voting schemes have been proposed in the past, but most of them have failed to provide voter authentication in an efficient and transparent way. On the other hand, GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is the most widely used mobile networking standard. There are more than one billion GSM users worldwid...

Feng, Yang; Ng, Siaw-lynn; Schwiderski-grosche, Scarlet

2008-01-01

384

Simulations of fluctuations of quantum statistical systems of electrons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The random matrix ensembles (RMT) of quantum statistical Hamiltonian operators, e.g.Gaussian random matrix ensembles (GRME) and Ginibre random matrix ensembles (Ginibre RME), are applied to following quantum statistical systems: nuclear systems, molecular systems, and two-dimensional electron systems (Wigner-Dyson's electrostatic analogy). The Ginibre ensemble of nonhermitean random Hamiltonian matrices $K$ is considered. Each quantum system described by $K$ is a dissipative...

Duras, Maciej M.

2005-01-01

385

Fluctuations of Quantum Statistical Two-Dimensional Systems of Electrons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The random matrix ensembles (RME) of quantum statistical Hamiltonian operators, {\\em e.g.} Gaussian random matrix ensembles (GRME) and Ginibre random matrix ensembles (Ginibre RME), are applied to following quantum statistical systems: nuclear systems, molecular systems, and two-dimensional electron systems (Wigner-Dyson electrostatic analogy). Measures of quantum chaos and quantum integrability with respect to eigenergies of quantum systems are defined and calculated. Quant...

Duras, Maciej M.

2005-01-01

386

Theoretical investigation of local electron temperature in quantum Hall systems  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work we solve thermo-hydrodynamical equations considering a two dimensional electron system in the integer quantum Hall regime, to calculate the spatial distribution of the local electron temperature. We start from the self-consistently calculated electrostatic and electrochemical potentials in equilibrium. Next, by imposing an external current, we investigate the variations of the electron temperature in the linear-response regime. Here a local relation between the electron density and conductivity tensor elements is assumed. Following the Ohm's law we obtain local current densities and by implementing the results of the thermo-hydrodynamical theory, calculate the local electron temperature. We observe that the local electron temperature strongly depends on the formation of compressible and incompressible strips.

Boz Yurda?an, N.; Akgüngör, K.; Siddiki, A.; Sökmen, I.

2012-04-01

387

Test system electronic reference signal injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A concept for a method of injecting reference signals into waveform monitoring systems which has negligible effect on measurement accuracy is presented. Equations are provided which allow a test system designer to tailor the injection design to meet specific requirements. Examples of typical use are included. The signal injection concept presented has been successfully employed at GE Neutron Devices. It has been incorporated in quality assurance test systems to provide a fiducial or time zero reference marker for time correlation of waveforms monitored by independent digital oscilloscopes. It has also been found to be useful for the injection of simulated product waveforms employed for automatic test system calibration and/or operational verification just prior to product testing.

Roubik, J.C.

1991-06-01

388