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1

The potential of periphyton-based aquaculture production systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Key words : Periphyton; Biofilm; Artificial substrates; Pond productivity; Tropical aquaculture; Monoculture; Polyculture; Fertilization; Proximate composition; Stocking ratio; Stable isotope ratio; Nutrient efficiency; Production economics; Indian major carps; Catla catla ; Labeo rohita ; Labeo gonius ; Labeo calbasu . The overall objective of this study was to determine the technical and economical performance of periphyton-based aquaculture systems in Bangladesh. It thus addressed one of ...

2001-01-01

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Recirculating Systems for Pollution Prevention in Aquaculture Facilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As all other forms of livestock production, fish farming has numerous environmental impacts. Water pollution is one of the most significant outcomes, since aquaculture effluents contain non-ingested food and fish dregs that affect the receiving water bodies when discharged without any treatment. Conventional pollutants (suspended solids, dissolved organic matter and nutrients, as well as pesticides, heavy metals and emerging pollutants (as antibiotics and hormones, are commonly found in these effluents. Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS, systems that integrate the treatment and the reuse of water in the process are an invaluable alternative for preventing water pollution by diminishing both the volume and the eutrophication potential of the effluents. Based on our review of the extant literature in the field, we conclude that activated carbon-based biofilters are a favorable technology to achieve a level of water quality that is compatible with environmentally-sound aquaculture practices.

Maribel Quezada-Cruz

2013-07-01

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Aquaculture Network Information Center  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the declining schools of fish in many of the world's oceans, interest in aquaculture has grown exponentially in the past few years. The Aquaculture Network Information Center (ANIC) serves as an electronic gateway to thousands of online aquaculture-related resources, and is hosted by Purdue University and the University of Illinois through the Illinois - Indiana Sea Grant College Program. ANIC was started in 1994, and currently contains links to hundreds of aquaculture publications from around the globe, visual media (such as Power Point presentations), calendars of germane conferences and events, and specialty sections for species and production systems. From the ANIC home page, visitors may join discussion groups about aquaculture (organized by species), learn about different aquaculture cultivation systems, and peruse recent and archive publications from the relevant federal, state, and international agencies. For aquaculture neophytes, a FAQ section will answer ever quandary possible about the world of pond management, the perplexity of pond construction, and the inevitable debates surrounding which form of aquaculture production is most appropriate for different regions of the world.

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ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF WASTE WATER AQUACULTURE TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

This study attempted to ascertain the economic viability of aquaculture as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment systems for small municipalities in the Southwestern region of the United States. A multiple water quality objective level cost-effectiveness model was ...

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Analysis of nutrient flows in integrated intensive aquaculture systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyses nutrient conversions, which are taking place in integrated intensive aquaculture systems. In these systems fish is cultured next to other organisms, which are converting otherwise discharged nutrients into valuable products. These conversions are analyzed based on nitrogen and phosphorous balances using a mass balance approach. The analytical concept of this review comprises a hypothetical system design with five modules: (1) the conversion of feed nutrients into fish biom...

Schneider, O.; Sereti, V.; Eding, E. H.; Verreth, J. A. J.

2005-01-01

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Solar Thermal Aquaculture System Controller Based on Artificial Neural Network  

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Temperature is one of the most principle factors affects aquaculture system. The water temperature is very important parameter for shrimp growth. It can cause stress and mortality or superior environment for growth and reproduction. The required temperature for optimal growth is 34oC, if temperature increase up to 38oC it causes death of the shrimp, so it is important to control water temperature. Solar thermal water heating system is designed to ...

Atia, Doaa M.; Fahmy, Faten H.; Ahmed, Ninet M.; Dorrah, Hassen T.

2011-01-01

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ALTERNATIVE PRACTICE FROM COASTAL POND TO RECIRCULATION AQUACULTURE SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coastal pond aquaculture used solar energy to produce oxygen via phytoplankton with their cultivation can be extensive such as the culture of low value cultured animals. Pond encompasses a larger culture area for juvenile or grow-out culture which is depending on their carrying capacity of the pond. There is no feeding and the amount of food available depends on pond management which can be increased by manuring. As well as in hatcheries that require a very well environmental control, Recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS tend to occupy a small area to culture high value species at high densities. The key parameter affecting RAS is the biological filtration system that removes metabolic and other waste products. This contains bacteria which break down the ammonia and nitrite in the water. Moreover, the food from RAS is supplied externally from cultured or formulated feed. Recirculation systems offer the advantage over pond aquaculture of being able to control the environment and water quality parameters to optimise fish health. For production of commodity food fish that are low in price, pond aquaculture is better than recirculation system due to their lower overheads and production cost as the environment acts as a natural water reconditioning system compared to money spent on water recirculation technology. In developing countries, pond will still remain dominant due to the ease of culture and the low initial investments. While, in developed countries, the growing concern about environmentally friendly discharges, the high labour costs and the need for controlling niche markets will result in the adoption of recirculation technology and the production of high value species at high densities. In comparison to pond culture, RAS offered more control and independent from the environment influence.

Ludi Parwadani Aji

2012-02-01

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Nutrient reusing capacity of a combined pond aquaculture system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The investigated combined intensive-extensive system (IES as a production system operatedin a close interaction of the intensive and extensive production units. The key element of the properoperation was the treatment capacity of the extensive unit; hence the investigations were focused on theperiphyton application on the nutrient utilisation and water quality of the production system. Resultsproved that combination of intensive aquaculture with extensive fishponds enhances the nutrientutilisation efficiency and fish production in IES. The combined fish production resulted in higher proteinutilisation by 26%; even this ratio can be increased by 40% with periphyton application.

Dénes Gál

2010-12-01

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Exergetic performance analysis of a recirculating aquaculture system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines exergetic aspects of a Recirculation Aquaculture System (RAS) for Black Sea trout (Salmo trutta labrax) fingerling rearing at the Trabzon Central Fisheries Research Institute, Turkey. In its thermodynamic analysis, each component of the RAS is treated as a steady-state steady flow system and its exergetic efficiencies are studied. In addition, the following parameters are measured and recorded in experiments: the mass flow rates, inlet and outlet temperatures and of the system components, surrounding temperatures, and electrical work utilized by the components in the RAS. Based on these experimental data, inlet and outlet exergy values, exergy losses, and exergetic efficiencies of each component in the system are determined to assess their performance. Moreover, the overall system exergy efficiency is determined. The results show that exergy efficiencies of the system components are highly affected by varying input exergy flows as a function of the surrounding temperature and chiller's operating period. (author)

Kucuk, Haydar [Mechanical Engineering Department, Guemueshane University, 29000 Guemueshane (Turkey); Midilli, Adnan [Energy Division, Mechanical Engineering Department. Nigde University, 51000 Nigde (Turkey); Oezdemir, Atilla; Cakmak, Eyuep [Central Fisheries Research Institute, Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs, Trabzon (Turkey); Dincer, Ibrahim [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ont. (Canada)

2010-05-15

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Exergetic performance analysis of a recirculating aquaculture system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines exergetic aspects of a Recirculation Aquaculture System (RAS) for Black Sea trout (Salmo trutta labrax) fingerling rearing at the Trabzon Central Fisheries Research Institute, Turkey. In its thermodynamic analysis, each component of the RAS is treated as a steady-state steady flow system and its exergetic efficiencies are studied. In addition, the following parameters are measured and recorded in experiments: the mass flow rates, inlet and outlet temperatures and of the system components, surrounding temperatures, and electrical work utilized by the components in the RAS. Based on these experimental data, inlet and outlet exergy values, exergy losses, and exergetic efficiencies of each component in the system are determined to assess their performance. Moreover, the overall system exergy efficiency is determined. The results show that exergy efficiencies of the system components are highly affected by varying input exergy flows as a function of the surrounding temperature and chiller's operating period.

2010-05-01

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The Use of Vision in a Sustainable Aquaculture Feeding System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dairy feeding causes significant water pollution. By controlling the proper amount of feed, reducing the waste to minimum will effectively reduce the problem of water contamination. In this project, a Sustainable Aquaculture Feed System (SAFS has been designed and developed. It can automatically feed the fishes by estimating fishes’ appetite through machine vision. The discussion includes design and optimization of the vision system using Labview as well as the integration of various components in the SAFS. With the developed algorithm, the system is able to detect the presence of fishes and count the number of fishes. The outcome is able to estimate and infer the fish appetite. Therefore, the feeding time can be planned ahead. In addition, the system includes a Graphical User Interface (GUI for monitoring, display the feeding status and sensors reading such as pH, turbidity and temperature.

Jer-Vui Lee

2013-10-01

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Aquaculture Industry Potential and Issues: A Case from Cage Culture System Entrepreneurs: Suggestions for Intensification of Aquaculture Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Cage culture has become a popular aquaculture system nowadays. In the recent statistics provided by DOF, the cage culture system has generated almost USD 400 m (RM 1.39 b of income per year. In order to further intensify this economic activity the Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry (MOA through the DOF has zoned the aquaculture industry via Aquaculture Industry Zone (ZIA Programs throughout Malaysia. Cage culture system seems to have the ability to be a catalyst in enhancing the economy level of local people but it is well known that certain problems must be overcome first before the potential can be clearly seen. Thus the main focus of this study is to clarify all the potentials and problems faced by the cage culture system entrepreneurs in running their aquaculture activity. Approach: The research approach for this study was a qualitative case study that provided an in-depth description of potentials and issues in aquaculture industry in the district of Kuala Pahang, Malaysia. Data was gained using a Focus Group Discussion (FGD among the cage culture system entrepreneurs guided by an interview guide. A total of 10 cage culture entrepreneurs were selected as the FGD members. The questions served as a guide, but allowed respondents freedom and flexibility in their answers. The findings were in descriptive analysis. Results: The cage culture system was found to provide better income that lead to a higher quality of life for the entrepreneurs, positive intangible values existed among the entrepreneurs; experiences have taught them to become self independent. There were problems identified such as no independence in selecting the fingerlings, environmental problems seem to burden them, unstable pellet price, no official agreement between them and the government emphasizing the portion of the river is given to them for running their business and lot of bureaucracies that the entrepreneurs need to face. Conclusion/Recommendations: Based on the results gained, it can be concluded that even though cage culture industry proved to enhance the level of income and quality of life, a number of problems must be overcome first to further enhance their level of income and quality of life. Therefore, it is a need that the related agencies to provide more financial supports help to solve the environmental problems and further develop their administration aspects to reduce issues such as bureaucracy and official agreement.

A. N.A. Faiz

2010-01-01

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Effect of Wind-solar Complementary Increasing Oxygen System in Aquaculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to explore a sustainable aquaculture methodology, water was increased oxygen by a wind-solar power which was tested in a production period of the Penaeus vannamei in paper. The result shows that, compareing with the conventional aerating comparison, the system could improve water environment in ponds and dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH value and the content of nitrite stably and uniformly change; make full use of wind energy and solar energy clean energy, save 100% on power consumption, 15.9% on bait, 46.0% on drug; save aquaculture costs, increase income 282%. Using "Wind-solar" complementary increasing oxygen can improve water environment, save power, reduce aquaculture costs, increase aquaculture production and income, provide a new thought and method for green and ecological aquaculture, so it has high value of practical application.

Guodong You

2013-12-01

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Bioeconomic Assessment of a Poultry and Tilapia Aquaculture System.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tilapia aurea are especially suited for use in sewage/aquaculture facilities, since once past fingerling size, they feed directly on phytoplankton. The incorporation of tilapia into ponds whose primary purpose is sewage treatment may actually improve the ...

R. G. Anderson W. L. Griffin R. R. Stickney R. E. Whitson

1978-01-01

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Oxygen mass balance in a recirculation aquaculture system for raising European Wels (Silurus glanis L.)  

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The growth of the European Wels or sheat-fish (Silurus glanis L.) was evaluated in a recirculation aquaculture system situated in a greenhouse. Recirculation aquaculture system components were evaluated in terms of oxygen use and generation. Oxygen gradients revealed the main fault of the originally constructed system elements – mechanical and biological filters. The influence of organic matter accumulation and biofilm formation in the mechanical filter was found to have a strong influence ...

Mongirdas, Viktoras; Kusta, Albinas

2006-01-01

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Nutrient fate in aquacultural systems for waste treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twelve small, recirculating aquacultural systems were operated for livestock waste treatment to determine nutrient fate. Each system consisted of a 730-L fish tank coupled in a recirculating loop with three sand beds (serving as biofilters) in parallel. Fish (Tilapia species) were grown in the tanks while cattails, reed canary grass, and tomatoes were grown in separate sand beds. Swine waste was added to the fish tanks every other day at average rates of 50, 72, 95, and 118 kg-COD/ha/day of fish tank surface (three replications of each loading rate). Water from the fish tanks was filtered through the sand beds three times per day with 20% of the tank volume passing through the sand each day. The systems were operated in a greenhouse for eight months (21 July to 8 March). Aboveground plant matter was harvested at eight-week intervals. The fish were removed after four months and the tanks were restocked with fingerlings. Initial and final nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) contents of the system components, as well as that of the harvested plants and fish, were determined. Nutrient balance calculations revealed that 30 to 68% of added N was lost from the systems, probably via denitrification. Nutrient removal by plants was 6 to 18% for N, 8 to 21% for P, and 25 to 71% for K, with tomatoes (foliage and fruit) accounting for the majority of the removal. Plant growth was limited by growing conditions (particularly day length), not be nutrient availability. Fish growth was limited by temperature; thus nutrient extraction by the fish was minimal. Under the conditions of this experiment, the system required supplemental aeration.

Dontje, J.H.; Clanton, C.J.

1999-08-01

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Geothermal aquaculture project: Real Property Systems Inc. , Harney Basin, Oregon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Real Property Systems Inc., (RPS) owns two parcels in the vicinity of Harney Lake, Oregon. One parcel is 120 acres in size, the other is 200 acres. A study concludes that the 200 acre parcel has the greater potential for geothermal development. RPS is interested in an aquaculture operation that produces fresh water prawns, (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) for the market. To supply the heat necessary to maintain the ideal temperature of 82/sup 0/F desired for these prawns, a geothermal resource having a 150/sup 0/F temperature or higher, is needed. The best estimate is that 150/sup 0/F water can be found from a minimum 1090 feet depth to 2625 feet, with no absolute assurances that sufficient quantities of geothermal waters exist without drilling for the same. This study undertakes the preliminary determination of project economics so that a decision can be made whether or not to proceed with exploratory drilling. The study is based on 10 acres of ponds, with a peak requirement of 2500 gpm of 150/sup 0/F geothermal water.

1981-08-14

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Aquaculture; Acquacoltura  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper attempts an overview of the progress made in the field of aquaculture. Aquaculture is a system of techniques strongly influenced by natural environmental conditions. Aquaculture as a biological technique oriented towards the production of useful aquatic organisms, is reaching a stage of consolidation which will place it on an equal footing which agriculture and animal husbandry. Aquaculture provides important economic and nutritional benefits to many regions of developing world. In 1994, over 90 percent of total aquaculture production was in Asia, with China, India, Japan, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines and Republic of Korea as the seven leader producers. [Italiano] L`acquacoltura, vale a dire l`arte di riprodurre artificialmente pesci, alghe, molluschi e crostacei ed altri organismi acquatici utili all`uomo, si presenta oggi come un`attivita` di assoluto rilievo nell`insieme dei vari comparti di produzione alimentare. L`aumento della produzione e` costante anche se cinque paesi asiatici (Cina, India, Giappone, Filippine e Corea del Sud) contribuiscono per l`80% al volume della produzione mondiale. Nel presente lavoro vengono descritti lo stato dell`acquacoltura e della maricoltura nel mondo e le filiere di allevamento delle principali specie.

De Murtas, I.D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

1998-12-01

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Duckweed Aquaculture: A New Aquatic Farming System for Developing Countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the booklet is to present a group of tiny aquatic plants commonly known as 'duckweeds' as a promising new commercial aquaculture crop. Duckweed species are members of the taxonomic family Lemnaceae. They are ubiquitous, hardy, and grow rapi...

P. Skillicorn W. Spira W. Journey

1993-01-01

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ALTERNATIVE PRACTICE FROM COASTAL POND TO RECIRCULATION AQUACULTURE SYSTEM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coastal pond aquaculture used solar energy to produce oxygen via phytoplankton with their cultivation can be extensive such as the culture of low value cultured animals. Pond encompasses a larger culture area for juvenile or grow-out culture which is depending on their carrying capacity of the pond. There is no feeding and the amount of food available depends on pond management which can be increased by manuring. As well as in hatcheries that require a very well environmental control, Recirc...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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An integrated fish-plankton aquaculture system in brackish water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture takes advantage of the mutualism between some detritivorous fish and phytoplankton. The fish recycle nutrients by consuming live (and dead) algae and provide the inorganic carbon to fuel the growth of live algae. In the meanwhile, algae purify the water and generate the oxygen required by fishes. Such mechanism stabilizes the functioning of an artificially recycling ecosystem, as exemplified by combining the euryhaline tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron heu...

Gilles, S.; Fargier, L.; Lazzaro, X.; Baras, E.; Wilde, Nicolas; Drakides, C.; Amiel, C.; Rispal, B.; Blancheton, Jean-paul

2013-01-01

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Life cycle assessment of food production in integrated agriculture–aquaculture systems of the Mekong Delta  

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This study evaluated the environmental impact of integrated agriculture–aquaculture (IAA) farming systems in the Mekong Delta that differ in types of aquaculture intensification. Daily inputs and outputs for rice, fruits, vegetables, pigs, poultry, and fish were collected on 11 farms over a period of two years: three farms in a rice-based and high input fish system (R-HF); four in a rice-based and medium input fish system (R-MF); and four in an orchard-based and low input fish system (O-LF)...

2011-01-01

23

An agro-ecological evaluation of aquaculture integration into farming systems of the Mekong Delta  

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This study compared ecological sustainability of Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture (IAA) systems with different forms and intensity of aquaculture integration in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: orchard-based and low-input fish (O-LF); rice-based and medium-input fish (R-MF); and rice-based and high-input fish (R-HF) farming systems. We monitored eleven IAA-farms from September 2002 to September 2004. ECOPATH models, based on nitrogen flows, produced 19 agro-ecological system attributes that wer...

Phong, L. T.; Dam, A. A.; Udo, H. M. J.; Mensvoort, M. E. F.; Tri, L. Q.; Steenstra, F. A.; Zijpp, A. J.

2010-01-01

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Development of a seaweed species-selection index for successful culture in a seaweed-based integrated aquaculture system  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) has been proposed as a concept that combines the cultivation of fed aquaculture species ( e.g., finfish/shrimp) with extractive aquaculture species ( e.g., shellfish/seaweed). In seaweed-based integrated aquaculture, seaweeds have the capacity to reduce the environmental impact of nitrogen-rich effluents on coastal ecosystems. Thus, selection of optimal species for such aquaculture is of great importance. The present study aimed to develop a seaweed species-selection index for selecting suitable species in seaweed-based integrated aquaculture system. The index was synthesized using available literature-based information, reference data, and physiological seaweed experiments to identify and prioritize the desired species. Undaria pinnatifida, Porphyra yezoensis and Ulva compressa scored the highest according to a seaweed-based integrated aquaculture suitability index (SASI). Seaweed species with the highest scores were adjudged to fit the integrated aquaculture systems. Despite the application of this model limited by local aquaculture environment, it is considered to be a useful tool for selecting seaweed species in IMTA.

Kang, Yun Hee; Hwang, Jae Ran; Chung, Ik Kyo; Park, Sang Rul

2013-03-01

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Measuring System for Growth Control of the Spirulina Aquaculture  

Science.gov (United States)

It describes the workings of a data-logging instrument that measures growth levels of the Spirulina aquaculture. The Spirulina is a very delicate algae and its culture may be suddenly lost due to overgrowth. This kind of instrument is not at present available in the market. The transduction is a submergible laser device whose measuring margin of error is near to 0.28%. The advantage of this new instrument is the improvement in the measurement and the low cost. The future application of this work is related to the industrial production of food and fuel from micro algae culture, for the growing world population.

Ponce S., Claudio; Ponce L., Ernesto; Bernardo S., Barraza

2008-11-01

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Context-Aware Services in Aquaculture : FiFaMoS - Fish Farm Monitoring System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis focuses on context-aware services that make decisions based on the situation (i.e. context) of the involved entities. Context may in general be based on user input, sensed or derived (e.g. combination of multiple context entities). The type of such services is vast, but in this thesis the system is aimed towards the aquaculture industry. During the last years, aquaculture quality has become more and more important in the fish farming industry. But this importance has not been re...

Grødal, Jon Arne; Paaske, Frank Gjervik

2006-01-01

27

Purification Performance and Production of a Re-circulating Pond Aquaculture System Based on Paddy Field  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developing improved aquaculture systems with a more efficient use of water and less environmental impact is becoming a crying need. A re-circulating aquaculture system consisting of paddy field and fish pond is a new culture mode due to aquaculture combing with agriculture. The present study focused on the purification capacity of the paddy field on nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter, the fluctuation trend of water quality conditions during the whole rearing process and the culture efficacy of the main culture species of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. The results were as follows: under a flow rate of 1.4-5.5 m3/h for the recirculation treatment, the average removal rate of ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and biochemical oxygen demand for the aquaculture effluent amounted to 40.5, 43.5, 31.9, 23.9, 20.7 and 52.4%, respectively, But the dissolved oxygen content in the rice fields increased obviously. During the whole process of fish rearing, the main physicochemical parameters of water quality for the experimental ponds were all maintained at a suitable level for the growth of the grass carp. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05 in DO, TSS, NH4+ -N, NO--N, BOD5 and Chl-&alpha between the experimental and control ponds. As far as the yield per unit and survival rate was concerned, the level of the experimental ponds was obviously higher than that of the control, while the feed conversion ratio displayed the opposite trend. Overall, the new aquaculture system realized the double aims of water reuse and the reduction of waste water discharge.

Gu Li

2012-10-01

28

A participatory approach frame to integrated social aspect in LCA: the case of aquaculture systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Identification of relevant social impact indicators for a Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) is still difficult and poorly documented (Jorgensen, et al, 2009). In aquaculture systems, the studies based on social aspects are essentially focused on manpower or on conflicts with other activities . In the PISCEnLit project**, we aim to broaden the vision of social impacts of fish farming systems using a new approach of SLCA. We studied fish farming pond systems in France (Lorraine and Brenne) an...

Mathe, Syndhia; Aubin, Joel; Wilfart, Aure?lie; Rey-valette, Helene; Slembrouck, Jacques; Ediwarman,; Fontaine, Pascal; Tocqueville, Aure?lien; Blancheton, Jean-paul; Callier, Myriam

2012-01-01

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Degradation and effect of hydrogen peroxide in small-scale recirculation aquaculture system biofilters  

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From an environmental point of view, hydrogen peroxide (HP) has beneficial attributes compared with other disinfectants in terms of its ready degradation and neutral by-products. The rapid degradation of HP can, however, cause difficulties with regard to safe and efficient water treatment when applied in different systems. In this study, we investigated the degradation kinetics of HP in biofilters from water recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). The potential effect of HP on the nitrificat...

2009-01-01

30

A ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network for Monitoring an Aquaculture Recirculating System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A ZigBee wireless sensor network was developed for monitoring an experimental aquaculture recirculating system.Temperature, dissolved oxygen, water and air pressure as well as electric current sensors were included in the setup.The high fish densities required in these systems to become economically viable present a case where sensornetworks can be applied to preserve a healthy livestock and to reduce the risk of failures that end up in the loss ofproduction. Modules for reading and transmitting sensor values through a ZigBee wireless network were developedand tested. The modules were installed in an aquaculture recirculating system to transmit sensor values to thenetwork coordinator. A monitoring program was created in order to display and store sensor values and to comparethem with reference limits. An alert is emitted in case reference limits have been reached. E-mail and an SMSmessage alert can also be sent to the cellular phone of the system administrator, so immediate action can be taken. Aweb interface allows Internet access to the sensor values. The present work demonstrates the applicability of ZigBeewireless sensor network technology to aquaculture recirculating systems.

Francisco J. Espinosa-Faller

2012-06-01

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Use of Barley for the Purification of Aquaculture Wastewater in a Hydroponics System  

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Barley was examined for its ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater. The effects of seed sterilization using ethanol and bleach and seed density on germination and plant growth were investigated. Surface sterilization of barley seeds had a negative impact on germination. Increasing the ethanol concentration and/or the bleach concentration reduced the germination percentage. Barley seeds were first germinated in water in the hydroponics system. The seedlings then received waste...

Snow, A. M.; Ghaly, Abdel E.

2008-01-01

32

Fixed-biofilm reactors applied to waste water treatment and aquacultural water recirculating systems.  

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Fixed-biofilm waste water treatment may be regarded as one of the oldest engineered biological waste water treatment methods. With the recent introduction of modern packing materials, this type of reactor has received a renewed impuls for implementation in a wide field of water treatment.In this thesis the possibilities are presented for fixed-film post-treatment of anaerobically digested domestic sewage and water reconditioning in aquacultural water recirculation systems. Emphasis is put on ...

Bovendeur, J.

1989-01-01

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An economic analysis of the use of recirculating aquaculture systems in the production of Tilapia  

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An economic analysis of tilapia production was conducted using a recirculating aquaculture system facility, situated at the Norwegian University of Life Science (UMB). The goals were; (1) to evaluate and estimate the operational cost involved and from this, estimate the breakeven cost, (2) identify and describe the constraints unique to the RAS, (3) to perform financial feasibility of a (hypothetical) scale-up production, and (4) to conduct sensitivity analysis on some variables to highlight ...

Appiah-kubi, Frank

2012-01-01

34

Water delivery capacity of a vacuum airlift – Application to water recycling in aquaculture systems  

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A study was undertaken to measure the water flow (Qw) delivered by a vacuum airlift designed for recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in fresh (<1‰ of salinity) and sea water (35‰ of salinity). The vacuum airlift consists of two concentric tubes connected at their top to a depression chamber. The water rises in the inner tube as a result of air being injected in its lower section and flows back through the external downcomer tube. The vacuum airlift was adjusted at three different leng...

Barrut, Bertrand; Blancheton, Jean-paul; Champagne, Jean-yves; Grasmick, Alain

2012-01-01

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[Bioremediation potential of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) in coastal bivalve suspension aquaculture system].  

Science.gov (United States)

Suspension aquaculture of filter-feeding bivalves can produce large amount of faeces and pseudofaeces (biodeposits) that may impact aquaculture environment, while deposit-feeding sea cucumbers may effectively utilize such particulate wastes and act as a scavenger in mariculture system. In this paper, the ingestion, growth, and excretion of deposit-feeder Apostichopus japonicus were investigated in situ seasonally to evaluate its bioremediation potential of a suspension aquaculture system of filter-feeding bivalves. The results showed that A. japonicus could grow well in newly designed culture nets, with its maximum specific growth rate being 0.34% d(-1). The A. japonicus could effectively use the biodeposits generated by co-cultured bivalves, and the ingestion rate at 21.2 degrees C in summer, 19.2 degrees C in autumn, and 7.7 degrees C in winter was 0.1746, 0.0989, and 0.0050 g g(-1) d(-1), respectively. A. japonicus could promote the regeneration of nutriens in biodeposits via the excretion of considerable amount of dissolved N and P, and the excretion also showed obvious seasonal fluctuation. The extrapolation based on the in situ investigation results showed that when co-cultivated with bivalves in lantern nets, A. japonicus would ingest 4.5-159.6 kg hm(-2) d(-1) of dry biodeposits and excrete 1,382.5-3,678.1 mmol hm(-2) d(-1) of NH4(+)-N and 74.6-335.7 mmol hm(-2) d(-1) of PO4(3-)-P, indicating that the deposit-feeding A. japonicus had a great bioremediation capability in suspension aquaculture systems. The integrated model of deposit-feeding A. japonicus and filter-feeding bivalve could not only benefit the economy, but also sustain the environment. PMID:18593051

Yuan, Xiu-tang; Yang, Hong-sheng; Zhou, Yi; Mao, Yu-ze; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Li-li

2008-04-01

36

Multidrug-resistance and toxic metal tolerance of medically important bacteria isolated from an aquaculture system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of antimicrobials and toxic metals should be considered carefully in aquaculture and surrounding environments. We aimed to evaluate medically relevant bacteria in an aquaculture system and their susceptibility to antimicrobials and toxic metals. Selective cultures for enterobacteria (ENT), non-fermenting Gram-negative rods (NFR) and Gram-positive cocci (GPC) were obtained from water samples collected in two different year seasons. The isolated bacteria were biochemically identified and antimicrobial and toxic metal susceptibility patterns were determined. Overall, 407 representative strains were recovered. In general, bacteria isolated from fish ponds showed higher multiple antibiotic resistance indices when compared to those isolated from a water-fed canal. Resistance to penicillin and azithromycin was observed more frequently in the GPC group, whereas resistance to ampicillin and ampicillin/sulbactam or gentamicin was observed more frequently in the ENT and NFR groups, respectively. All the isolated bacteria were tolerant to nickel, zinc, chromium and copper at high levels (?1,024 ?g mL(-1)), whereas tolerance to cadmium and mercury varied among the isolated bacteria (2-1,024 ?g mL(-1)). Multidrug-resistant bacteria were more frequent and diverse in fish ponds than in the water-fed canal. A positive correlation was observed between antimicrobial resistance and metal tolerance. The data point out the need for water treatment associated with the aquaculture system. PMID:22972388

Resende, Juliana Alves; Silva, Vânia L; Fontes, Cláudia Oliveira; Souza-Filho, Job Alves; Rocha de Oliveira, Tamara Lopes; Coelho, Cíntia Marques; César, Dionéia Evangelista; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

2012-01-01

37

Bacterial resistance to oxytetracycline in different life stages of Indian freshwater carp aquaculture system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In India antibiotics are frequently used for preventing and controlling bacterial pathogens incarp aquaculture system, yet no studies have been performed to evaluate the ecological impact of itsintensive and prolonged use. In this work the frequency of oxytetracycline-resistant bacteria from water,palletized feed and different life stages of fish from Indian freshwater carp aquaculture system as well asthe level of resistance of selected strains was investigated. Viable as well as antibiotic-resistant bacterialcounts were performed by spread plate method in culture media supplemented with the oxytetracycline.Sixty two resistant Gram negative isolates which represented the oxytetracycline-resistant bacterialpopulation, were randomly selected on nutrient agar supplemented with oxytetracycline (50?g/ml fromcarp farms and feed pellet samples. Among these bacterial isolates Flavobacterium (21%, Alcaligenes(14.5%, Aeromonas (11%, Pseudomonas (10% and Enterobacteriace (19% were the most frequent.The Escherichia, Serratia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Shigella and Proteus from Enterobacteriace wererecovered. Twelve isolates of oxytetracycline resistant bacteria were mainly dominated in adult fishes bythe genus Flavobacterium (23% and Enterobacteriace(41%. Selected strains exhibited high levels ofoxytetracycline resistance with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs ranging from 50 to600?g/ml.This study shows the presence of an important population of oxytetracycline-resistant bacteriain the microflora of Indian carp aquaculture farms. Therefore the environment of these farms might playimportant roles as reservoirs of bacteria carrying genetic determinants for high level tetracyclineresistance, prompting an important risk to public health.

Singh A.K.

2009-06-01

38

Application and analytical verification of peracetic acid use in different types of freshwater aquaculture systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Peracetic acid (PAA) is a highly reactive peroxygen compound with wide-ranging antimicrobial effects. PAA has recently gained substantial attention, due to additional beneficial attributes such as easily degradability and harmless disinfection byproducts. However, PAA is only sporadically used by the aquaculture industry as it is difficult to apply in correct dosages. This study describes the degradation kinetics of PAA when used as an aquaculture disinfectant. Effects of temperature, organic matter content and initial PAA dosage on the chemical fate of PAA is reported. Furthermore, investigations of water sanitation with PAA application were used to analytically verify actual PAA concentration under real conditions at different kinds of aquaculture systems. A characteristic instant disinfection demand was found to be significantly positively related to water COD content, and PAA half-lives were found to be in the order of a few minutes. The study revealed that PAA degrades so rapidly that insufficient disinfection is a likely outcome. The observations have applications for optimizing water treatment strategies with PAA. The investigations also indicated that the rapid degradation and hence swift presence of PAA in RAS made raceway disinfection possible without bypassing the biofilters. Future perspectives, benefits and drawbacks on the use of PAA in RAS are discussed

Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

2011-01-01

39

Use of planted biofilters in integrated recirculating aquaculture-hydroponics systems in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The feasibility of using planted biofilters for purification of recirculated aquaculture water in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam was assessed. The plant trenches were able to clean tilapia aquaculture water and to maintain good water quality in the fish tanks without renewal of the water. NH4-N was removed efficiently in the plant trenches, particularly in the trenches with Canna glauca L., probably because of plant uptake and nitrification-denitrification. Plant uptake constituted 6% of N and 7% of P in the input feed. Approximately 1.0 m3 of water was needed per kg of fish produced, and 370, 97 and 2842 g fresh aboveground biomass of Ipomoea aquatica Forssk., Lactuca sativa L. and C. glauca, respectively, were produced. The leafy vegetables provide some extra income besides fish products, whereas C. glauca provides nice flowers and contributes to a significant nutrient removal with annual uptake rates of 725 kg N and 234 kg P ha-1 year-1. This research demonstrates that integrated recirculating aquaculture-hydroponics (aquaponics) systems provide significant water savings and nutrient recycling as compared with traditional fish ponds. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Trang, N.T.D.; Brix, Hans

2014-01-01

40

Aquaculture, a Component of the Farming Systems among the Fishing Communities in Oil Producing Areas of Delta, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study focused on ascertaining the relative importance of aquaculture in the farming systems of Oil Producing Areas Delta State, Nigeria. A stratified random sample of 598 households from 47 communities was used. Primary data collected between the months of May 2009 and February 2011 by means of structured questionnaire, complemented by oral were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that 69% of the respondents were into fishing/fish farming either as sole enterprise or in combination with other farming activities while 31% were into non-fish farming activities only. Among those involved in fishing activities, 37% were into capture fisheries, while about 32% were involved in aquaculture either as sole enterprise or in combination with other farming enterprises. The average size of fish pond was about 51 m2. The mean household net income from aquaculture per annum was about N91, 542, giving the highest returns on investment of about 45%. The study also found that households practicing aquaculture together with arable cropping generated significantly (P ? 0.05 highest net farm income (N127342 than the rest groups of households. The major constraints to aquaculture development were inadequate finance, high cost of feeds and water pollution problems. It was recommended that the current government efforts at boosting investment in aquaculture through microcredit should be stepped up. Local sourcing of feeds by the farmers is also encouraged.

CHUKWUJI, Christopher Okeleke

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
41

The OMEGA system for marine bioenergy, wastewater treatment, environmental enhancement, and aquaculture  

Science.gov (United States)

OMEGA is an acronym for Offshore Membrane Enclosure for Growing Algae. The OMEGA system consists of photobioreactors (PBRs) made of flexible, inexpensive clear plastic tubes attached to floating docks, anchored offshore in naturally or artificially protected bays [1]. The system uses domestic wastewater and CO2 from coastal facilities to provide water, nutrients, and carbon for algae cultivation [2]. The surrounding seawater maintains the temperature inside the PBRs and prevents the cultivated (freshwater) algae from becoming invasive species in the marine environment (i.e., if a PBR module accidentally leaks, the freshwater algae that grow in wastewater cannot survive in the marine environment). The salt gradient between seawater and wastewater is used for forward osmosis (FO) to concentrate nutrients and facilitate algae harvesting [3]. Both the algae and FO clean the wastewater, removing nutrients as well as pharmaceuticals and personal-care products [4]. The offshore infrastructure provides a large surface area for solar-photovoltaic arrays and access to offshore wind or wave generators. The infrastructure can also support shellfish, finfish, or seaweed aquaculture. The economics of the OMEGA system are supported by a combination of biofuels production, wastewater treatment, alternative energy generation, and aquaculture. By using wastewater and operating offshore from coastal cities, OMEGA can be located close to wastewater and CO2 sources and it can avoid competing with agriculture for water, fertilizer, and land [5]. By combining biofuels production with wastewater treatment and aquaculture, the OMEGA system provides both products and services, which increase its economic feasibility. While the offshore location has engineering challenges and concerns about the impact and control of biofouling [6], large OMEGA structure will be floating marine habitats and will create protected 'no-fishing' zones that could increase local biodiversity and fishery productivity. Potential test sites for the next phase of OMEGA (1-hectare integrated system) will be discussed.

Trent, J. D.

2013-12-01

42

Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn.) recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn.) recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS) has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analys...

Mohd Tanveer; Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair; Sanjib Moulick; Chanchal Kumar Mukherjee

2010-01-01

43

Program to monitor and evaluate a passive solar greenhouse/aquaculture system. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A temperature monitoring program of Amity's solar greenhouse demonstrated that air, soil, and water temperatures can be maintained at optimal levels without supplemental heat. A foil reflector placed in front of the greenhouse glazing at an angle of between 0 and 5/sup 0/ above horizontal enhanced direct light entering the greenhouse by as much as 22%. Aquaculture in the water heat storage of a solar greenhouse has been a success. Fish reached harvest size in about seven months. The two species that were received the best by the public were African perch (Tilapia mossambica) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Although carp (Cyprinus carpio) were the fastest growers they were not well received by the public. Linking hydroponics to greenhouse aquaculture shows a lot of promise. Different support medias were examined and tomatoes and European cucumbers were raised successfully. A savonius windmill was successfully linked to an aquaculture aeration system but because of the wind pattern in the Willamette valley the windmill system did not provide air in the evening when it was needed most. Alternate designs are discussed. Locally grown fish diets were evaluated for their ability to promote fish growth. Diets such as water hyacinth, duckweed, earthworms, beans, and comfrey were raised on the Amity site, pelleted with a hand grinder and solar dried. Duckweed and earthworms appear to hold promise for a nutritous, easy to grow and pelletize, food source. Amity's solar greenhouse, three coldframe designs and a PVC tunnel cloche were compared in a vegetable growing trial. Most impressive was the cloche design because it provided adequate protection, was inexpensive and very easy to build.

1982-01-01

44

The formation of a risk management system for projects in the field of aquaculture innovative development in the Kaliningrad region: a case study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article sets out to develop the concept and the principal scheme of the formation of a risk management system for innovative economic development projects in the field of aquaculture. The research carried out by the authors helps identify the main problems and characteristics of risk management projects for the development of aquaculture in presentday Russia. The authors outline the status and features of aquaculture development projects in the North-western federal district and the Kali...

2012-01-01

45

The formation of a risk management system for projects in the field of aquaculture innovative development in the Kaliningrad region: a case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article sets out to develop the concept and the principal scheme of the formation of a risk management system for innovative economic development projects in the field of aquaculture. The research carried out by the authors helps identify the main problems and characteristics of risk management projects for the development of aquaculture in presentday Russia. The authors outline the status and features of aquaculture development projects in the North-western federal district and the Kaliningrad region. The article formulates and justifies the concept of “risk management projects in innovative development of aquaculture in the region” focusing on the classification of aquaculture risks in relation to innovative development projects, which expands the conceptual framework of risk management in view of the specific risks relating to economic development projects in the field of aquaculture. The authors characterize modern methods and approaches to risk management projects and organizations in the context of their application in the framework of aquaculture development projects and offer mechanisms for risk management of aquaculture development projects, which make it possible to include risk management activity in the general context of activities of parent project organizations. The authors develop the concept and principal scheme of the formation of risk management system for innovative development projects in aquaculture.

Serbulov A. V.

2012-01-01

46

Abundance, diversity and seasonal dynamics of predatory bacteria in aquaculture zero discharge systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Standard aquaculture generates large-scale pollution and strains water resources. In aquaculture using zero discharge systems (ZDS), highly efficient fish growth and water recycling are combined. The wastewater stream is directed through compartments in which beneficial microbial activities induced by creating suitable environmental conditions remove biological and chemical pollutants, alleviating both problems. Bacterial predators, preying on bacterial populations in the ZDS, may affect their diversity, composition and functional redundancy, yet in-depth understanding of this phenomenon is lacking. The dynamics of populations belonging to the obligate predators Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) were analyzed in freshwater and saline ZDS over a 7-month period using QPCR targeting the Bdellovibrionaceae, and the Bacteriovorax and Bacteriolyticum genera in the Bacteriovoracaeae. Both families co-existed in ZDS compartments, constituting 0.13-1.4% of total Bacteria. Relative predator abundance varied according to the environmental conditions prevailing in different compartments, most notably salinity. Strikingly, the Bdellovibrionaceae, hitherto only retrieved from freshwater and soil, also populated the saline system. In addition to the detected BALOs, other potential predators were highly abundant, especially from the Myxococcales. Among the general bacterial population, Flavobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteriaceae and unclassified Bacteria dominated a well mixed but seasonally fluctuating diverse community of up to 238 operational taxonomic units, as revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. PMID:24749684

Kandel, Prem P; Pasternak, Zohar; van Rijn, Jaap; Nahum, Ortal; Jurkevitch, Edouard

2014-07-01

47

The accumulation of substances in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) affects embryonic and larval development in common carp Cyprinus carpio  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The accumulation of substances in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) may impair the growth and welfare of fish. To test the severity of contaminants accumulated in RAS, early-life stages of fish were used. Ultrafiltered water from two Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS), one RAS with a high accumulation of substances (water exchange rate 30 L/kg feed/day) and one RAS with a low accumulation of substances (water exchange rate 1500 L/kg feed/day), was used to incubate eggs and rear lar...

2009-01-01

48

Oxygen Consumption of Tilapia and Preliminary Mass Flows through a Prototype Closed Aquaculture System  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance of NASA's prototype CELSS Breadboard Project Closed Aquaculture System was evaluated by estimating gas exchange quantification and preliminary carbon and nitrogen balances. The total system oxygen consumption rate was 535 mg/hr kg/fish (cv = 30%) when stocked with Tilapia aurea populations (fresh weights of 97 +/- 19 to 147 +/- 36 g/fish for various trials). Oxygen consumption by T. aurea (260 mg/hr kg/fish) contributed to approximately one-half of total system demand. Continuous carbon dioxide quantification methods were analyzed using the,relation of carbon dioxide to oxygen consumption. Overall food conversion rates averaged 18.2 +/- 3.2%. Major pathways for nitrogen and carbon in the system were described with preliminary mass closure of 60-80% and 60% for nitrogen and carbon.

Muller, Matthew S.; Bauer, Clarence F.

1994-01-01

49

Peracetic acid degradation in freshwater aquaculture systems and possible practical implications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Peracetic acid (PAA) is a highly reactive peroxygen compound with wide-ranging antimicrobial effects and is considered an alternative sanitizer to formaldehyde. Products containing PAA are available in solution with acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide to maintain the stability of the chemical, and it decays rapidly when applied to freshwater in aquaculture systems. The rapid decay is beneficial in an environmental context but a challenge to aquaculturists. To assess the impact of organic matter content and temperature on PAA decay, twenty-four batch experiments were set up using PAA doses ranging from 0 to 2.0 mg/l. The results revealed that increasing organic matter content significantly facilitated PAA decay, and positive temperature-decay correlations were found. Instantaneous PAA consumption above 0.2 mg/l was observed, and PAA half-lives were found to be in the order of a few minutes. The relative PAA recovery, calculated as measured PAA concentration over time compared to the PAA concentration applied, decreased with declining dose. Measurements of PAA residuals during water treatment scenarios at three different freshwater fish farms revealed moderate to substantial PAA consumption, documenting a large discrepancy between delivered quantities and realized residuals. Recent investigations of PAA application to manage parasitic diseases in aquaculture are briefly reviewed, and practical implication and guidelines are addressed

Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Meinelt, Thomas

2013-01-01

50

Fate of water borne therapeutic agents and associated effects on nitrifying biofilters in recirculating aquaculture systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent discharge restrictions on antibiotics and chemotherapeutant residuals used in aquaculture have several implications to the aquaculture industry. Better management practices have to be adopted, and documentation and further knowledge of the chemical fate is required for proper administration and to support the ongoing development of a sustainable aquaculture industry. A focal point of this thesis concerns formaldehyde (FA), a commonly used chemical additive with versat...

Pedersen, Lars-flemming

2009-01-01

51

A ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network for Monitoring an Aquaculture Recirculating System  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se desarrolló una red de sensores inalámbrica con el protocolo ZigBee para monitorear un sistema experimental acuícola con recirculación de agua. La red incluye sensores de temperatura, oxígeno disuelto, presión de agua y aire, así como de corriente eléctrica. La alta densidad de organismos requerid [...] a para que estos sistemas sean económicamente viables nos presentan un caso donde las redes de sensores pueden ser aplicadas para preservar un stock de peces saludable reduciendo las probabilidades de fallas que conlleven pérdidas en la producción. Se desarrollaron y probaron módulos para la toma y transmisión de datos a través de una red ZigBee y se implementaron en una granja acuícola experimental. Se desarrolló un programa de monitoreo para desplegar los valores de los sensores y emitir alertas cuando se rebasen los límites de referencia especificados. Una alerta por medio de un mensaje SMS y un correo electrónico pueden ser emitidas. Una interfase WEB permite el acceso a los valores de los sensores. El presente trabajo demuestra la aplicabilidad de las redes inalámbricas ZigBee al monitoreo de sistemas acuícolas. Abstract in english A ZigBee wireless sensor network was developed for monitoring an experimental aquaculture recirculating system. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, water and air pressure as well as electric current sensors were included in the setup. The high fish densities required in these systems to become economical [...] ly viable present a case where sensor networks can be applied to preserve a healthy livestock and to reduce the risk of failures that end up in the loss of production. Modules for reading and transmitting sensor values through a ZigBee wireless network were developed and tested. The modules were installed in an aquaculture recirculating system to transmit sensor values to the network coordinator. A monitoring program was created in order to display and store sensor values and to compare them with reference limits. An alert is emitted in case reference limits have been reached. E-mail and an SMS message alert can also be sent to the cellular phone of the system administrator, so immediate action can be taken. A web interface allows Internet access to the sensor values. The present work demonstrates the applicability of ZigBee wireless sensor network technology to aquaculture recirculating systems.

Espinosa-Faller, Francisco J.; Rendón-Rodríguez, Guillermo E..

52

The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Constructed wetlands improved water qualities and consequently increased the shrimp growth and survival in a recirculating system. - A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO4-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO3-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (P?0.05) lower than those in a control aquaculture system (CAS) that simulated static pond culture without wetland treatment. However, no significant difference (P?0.05) in BOD5, TAN and NO2-N was found between the two systems. At the end of the study, the harvest results showed that shrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8±1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (P?0.01) exceeded those in the CAS (2.3±1.5 g/shrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system

2003-05-01

53

Diurnal particle size distribution of an experimental recirculating aquaculture system - A case study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The particle size distribution (PSD) in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) was investigated duringa 24-h cycle. PSD was analyzed in water sampled at several locations in a recirculation loop containing a60-m drum filter, a submerged fixed-bed biofilter and a trickling filter.In relation to total counts, the system was dominated by micro-particles with particles smaller than20 m comprising >94% of the distribution in all samples. However, the system presented a substantialvolumetric influence of larger particles, reflected by a PSD derivate Ë?-value of 3.40 ± 0.18. Overall Ë?-valuesthroughout the compartments (p = 0.584) and experimental period (p = 0.217) were not significantlydifferent, although specific components seemed to marginally affect the PSD.A high internal water turnover rate (one system passage every 50 min) promoted the rapid removalof large particles from the system. Permanent volumetric particle removal above 60 m (31% reductionin the relative contribution from each size by the drum filter)per passage, but marginal productionand removal of particles throughout the rest of the system further support the Ë?-value stability andconsequent PSD equilibrium.The results showed a stable Ë?-value in the mature RAS. The Ë?-value is influenced by the containedcompartments and system configuration, and may be used as a system performance-predicting tool.Mechanisms of particle influence on system and fish performance should be addressed in future studies,and are herein discussed

Fernandes, Paulo; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

2014-01-01

54

An efficient water conditioning system for land-based abalone aquaculture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data collected from a single grow-out tank in an abalone farm in southern New Zealand has highlighted hygiene maintenance problems in the use of semi-closed water conditioning systems for the aquaculture of New Zealand black foot abalone Haliotis iris. The data shows that semi-closed systems can have high concentrations of un-ionized ammonia, which is harmful to the animals. In this paper an alternative open flow-through system is suggested where energy demand is limited by heat recovery at the grow-out tank outlet. Using temperature data collected over 1 year, and a previously obtained expression for standing losses, a simple energy model is presented for an open system with heat recovery. To compliment the energy model, a function has been established for abalone production with respect to the concentration of un-ionized ammonia and water temperature. The energy model and production function are combined to determine the impact of plant design and tank conditions on the economics of the operation for the southern New Zealand climate. It is demonstrated that temperature control is financially preferable to an open system with no temperature control, and estimates of optimum operating conditions are given. (author)

Davis, C.P. [University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of GeoSciences; Carrington, C.G. [University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand). Dept. of Physics

2005-07-01

55

Aquaculture system diversity and sustainable development: fish farms and their representation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Initiatives for the sustainable development of aquaculture have so far focused on the production of codes of conduct, of best management practices, of standards etc., most of which have been developed by international organisations, the industrial sector and non governmental organisations. They were, to a large extent, produced using a "top down" process and inspired by models from intensive industrial shrimp and sea fish farming (mainly salmon). However, most of global aquaculture production...

Lazard, Jerome; Baruthio, Aurele; Mathe, Syndhia; Rey-valette, Helene; Chia, Eduardo; Clement, Olivier; Aubin, Joel; Morissens, Pierre; Mikolasek, Olivier; Legendre, Marc; Levang, Patrice; Blancheton, Jean-paul; Rene, Francois

2010-01-01

56

Enhancing the resilience of inland fisheries and aquaculture systems to climate change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some of the most important inland fisheries in the World are found in semi-arid regions. Production systems and livelihoods in arid and semi-arid areas are at risk from future climate variability and change; their fisheries are no exception. This paper reviews the importance of fisheries to livelihoods in ‘wetlands in drylands’, with a focus on case-studies in Africa. We examine the threats posed by climate change to the traditional ‘tri-economy’ of fishing, farming and livestock herding. Although both livelihood strategies and local institutions are highly adapted to cope with, and benefit from, climate-induced variability, weaknesses in the wider governance and macro-economic environment mean that the overall adaptive capacity of these regions is low and the farmer-herder-fishers are vulnerable to projected climate change. In order to maintain the important nutritional, economic, cultural and social benefits of fisheries in the face of climate change, planned adaptation at scales from the local to the regional (trans-national is required. We use the concept of resilience in linked social-ecological systems to examine how such responses may be developed and promoted. Key strategies include facilitating people’s geographical and occupational mobility, improving intersectoral water and land-use planning, and promoting forms of aquaculture that help build resilience of farming systems to seasonal and episodic water deficits.

Edward H Allison

2007-12-01

57

Estimation of primary productivity from diel nitrate uptake measurements of the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes in an aquaculture system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary productivity of the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes was estimated from diel measurements of NO/sub 3/-N uptake in an aquaculture system using a continuous, automated nutrient analyzer apparatus. Productivity values obtained by this method agreed favorably with those made by directly harvesting the biomass. Since productivity measurements based on harvesting methods would be impractical on a large scale, the use of diel nutrient uptake measurements would be a significant improvement for proper management of aquatic macrophytes in an aquaculture system. There were few diel changes in NO/sub 3/-N uptake by Eichhornia, a fact which is potentially beneficial to this species not only to its ecological success in its natural ecosystem, but also to its ability to remove nutrients as a component in tertiary sewage treatment.

Hanisak, M.D.

1980-01-01

58

Improving methane production and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of particulate saline sludge from a brackish aquaculture recirculation system.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, batch tests were conducted to examine the effects of trehalose and glycine betaine as well as potassium on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), acid and alkaline phosphatase activity of anaerobic biomass and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of saline sludge from a brackish recirculation aquaculture system. The results of ANOVA and Tukey's HSD (honestly significant difference) tests showed that glycine betaine and trehalose enhanced SMA of anaerobic biomass and reactive phosphorus release from the particulate waste. Moreover, SMA tests revealed that methanogenic sludge, which was long-term acclimatized to a salinity level of 17g/L was severely affected by the increase in salinity to values exceeding 35g/L. Addition of compatible solutes, such as glycine betaine and trehalose, could be used to enhance the specific methane production rate and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion from particulate organic waste produced in marine or brackish aquaculture recirculation systems. PMID:24785791

Zhang, Xuedong; Ferreira, Rui B; Hu, Jianmei; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

2014-06-01

59

The Effects of Some Phytobiotics on Biochemical Composition of Oreochromis Niloticus Meat Reared in a Recirculating Aquaculture System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this experiment is the evaluation of biochemical composition of Nile tilapia meat by administrating  several phytobiotics in feed. Oreochromis niloticus, with an initial average weight of 125.41±34.33 g/exemplar, were reared, during six weeks in a recirculating aquaculture system. The phytobiotics from this experiment were administered in feed in a concentration of 1%/kg feed and consist in: thyme (Thymus vulgaris), fenugreek (Trigonela foenum graecum), neem (Azad...

2013-01-01

60

Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Bacteria and Associated Activity in Fixed-Film Biofilters of a Marine Recirculating Aquaculture System†  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microbial communities in the biological filter and waste sludge compartments of a marine recirculating aquaculture system were examined to determine the presence and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Community DNA was extracted from aerobic and anaerobic fixed-film biofilters and the anaerobic sludge waste collection tank and was analyzed by amplifying 16S rRNA genes by PCR using anammox-selective and universal GC-clamped primers. Separation of amplified PCR product...

Tal, Yossi; Watts, Joy E. M.; Schreier, Harold J.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Managing sea cucumber fisheries and aquaculture : Studies of social-ecological systems in the Western Indian Ocean  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Collecting sea cucumbers to supply the high value Chinese dried seafood market is a livelihood activity available to many people in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), making it an important part of local economies. These fisheries are generally not successfully managed and tropical sea cucumber fisheries show continuing signs of decline. This thesis takes a social-ecological systems approach to guide better management of sea cucumber fisheries and aquaculture in the WIO. Papers 1 and 2 analyse t...

2012-01-01

62

An optimized and simplified method for analysing urea and ammonia in freshwater aquaculture systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study presents a simple urease method for analysis of ammonia and urea in freshwater aquaculture systems. Urea is hydrolysed into ammonia using urease followed by analysis of released ammonia using the salicylate-hypochlorite method. The hydrolysis of urea is performed at room temperature and without addition of a buffer. A number of tests were performed on water samples obtained from a commercial rainbow trout farm to determine the optimal urease concentration and time for complete hydrolysis. One mL of water sample was spiked with 1.3 mL urea at three different concentrations: 50 lg L 1, 100 lg L 1 and 200 lg L 1 urea-N. In addition, five concentrations of urease were tested, ranging from 0.1 U mL 1 to 4 U mL 1. Samples were hydrolysed for various time periods ranging from 5 to 120 min. A urease concentration of 0.4 U mL 1 and a hydrolysis period of 120 min gave the best results, with 99.6â??101% recovery of urea-N in samples spiked with 100 or 200 lg L 1 urea-N. The level of accurate quantification of ammonia using the method is 50 lg L 1 NH4 +-N, and the detection level is 5â??10 lg L 1 NH4 +-N

Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

2013-01-01

63

Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analysis of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen and assuming the trickling filter to be a plug flow reactor, a model was formulated to determine the necessary recirculation flow rate at different times of culture for maintaining the major nutrients, viz., ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen below their permissible limits. The model was calibrated and validated using the real time data obtained from the experimental run. The high values of coefficient of determination and low values of root mean square error show the effectiveness of the model.

Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair

2010-08-01

64

Membrane filtration coupled with chemical precipitation to treat recirculating aquaculture system effluents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effluents from recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) contain high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous wastes and thus often require proper treatment to prevent potential detrimental impacts on receiving water bodies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of membrane filtration coupled with chemical precipitation as a pretreatment step with emphasis on phosphorus removal from RAS effluents. Chemical precipitation tests were conducted by adding magnesium chloride and alum at different chemical concentrations and pH values, respectively. Crossflow, flat-sheet membrane filtration modules were used to examine the effects of transmembrane pressure and crossflow velocity in terms of solid/liquid separation efficiency and permeate flux decline. The results showed that membrane filtration can effectively separate the phosphorus precipitates after chemical precipitation. The total phosphorus in the treated effluent was reduced to less than 0.05 mg L(-1) with a removal efficiency of more than 90%. However, much lower removal efficiencies were obtained for total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, and turbidity. It was concluded that membrane filtration coupled with chemical precipitation can become an effective, compact treatment technology to meet the stringent regulatory requirements for RAS effluent discharge. PMID:17071913

Yang, Ling; Zhou, Hongde; Moccia, Richard

2006-01-01

65

Developing a Water Temperature Observation Network based on a Ubiquitous Buoy System to Support Aquacultures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The authors have been working on the support of the fishery industry using the information and communication technology. A water temperature observation network is proposed for supporting aquacultures, and a ubiquitous buoy system developed for this purpose is described. The ubiquitous buoy system was created by leveraging ubiquitous sensing technology with water temperature observation buoys that can be executed for $1,000, a figure designed to meet the demands of scallop cultivation fishermen. Since there are no base stations and gateways in marine environments, we selected mobile phones for the Internet connection to send the water temperature data by email. The ubiquitous buoys developed are light weight and of a compact design, and can be easily installed in marine fishery environments. Furthermore, the economic cost allows the buoys to be used in multiple point observation systems. Consequently, not only does the system allow water temperature observations in real time, but it can also be used in future applications to build water temperature observation networks using multiple ubiquitous buoys that share water temperature data and allow analysis of multipoint, multi-layer water temperature data, and thus facilitate efforts to visualize the makeup of water temperature distributions below the surface. Forty ubiquitous buoys have been placed in scallop cultivation regions along the coast of Hokkaido, and the water temperature data is starting to be used.

Masashi Toda

2008-10-01

66

[Performance of recirculating aquaculture systems in the intensive farming of Pacú Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characiformes: Characidae)].  

Science.gov (United States)

An alternative to intensify fish production, reducing the environmental impact and production costs are recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). The performance of a RAS was evaluated, as fish growth and water quality conditions, in a culture of Piaractus mesopotamicus reared for ornamental purposes. Two commercial food brands with different protein contents (18%-T1 and 28%-T2), were given to juvenile fishes during an eight weeks period. Growth was measured bi-weekly: standard length (Lp), peak height (A), weight and multiple condition factor (KM). The evaluation of water parameters included: dissolved oxygen, NH3-NH4, pH, NO2, NO3, KH carbonate hardness and PO4. NH3-N rate production was analyzed following Timmons-Ebeling model. Results demonstrated significant differences in weight only, and T2 showed a 7.5% higher value than T1; nevertheless, treatment T1 had a higher KM. In general, water quality values were suitable for growth: OD=T1: 4.23 +/- 1.23; T2: 4.13 +/- 0.86; NH3=T1: 0.02 +/- 0.02; T2: 0.06 +/- 0.10; however, pH was an exception (T1: 6.95 +/- 0.98; T2: 7.11 +/- 1.03), displaying lethal rates (<5) by the fifth week. Systems NH3 removal had a 99.4% to 100% efficiency. Final fish biomass was 22.03kg for T1 and 27.49kg for T2. We concluded that the systems were able to maintain suggested density up to the experimental fifth week. Water quality parameters remained in suitable levels, with the pH exception. Cultured fishes reached their commercial size (10cm) in eight weeks. PMID:22458232

Domínguez Castanedo, Omar; Martínez Espinosa, David Alberto

2012-03-01

67

Is growth retardation present in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus cultured in low water exchange recirculating aquaculture systems?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has been suggested that fish cultured in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) grow less as compared with fish cultured in flow-through systems due to the accumulation of substances. In the Netherlands, the commercial culture of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in 300 and 600 MT's systems is done exclusively in RAS operated at water exchange ratesas low as 30 L/kg feed/day due to nitrate control by single-sludge denitrification reactors. The use of such nearly closed RAS raises the que...

Martins, C. I.; Ochola, D.; Ende, S. S. W.; Eding, E. H.; Verreth, J. A. J.

2009-01-01

68

The influence of pellets quality on the growth of sterlet, in recirculating aquaculture system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents some aspects regarding the influence of food quality on the breeding of sterlet, Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758, in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS. The experiment took place over 30 days, in four pilot breeding units type aquaria of 300 liters in volume. Two kind of variants were compared, with repetition, V1 with 46% crude protein and V2 with 30% crude protein, respectively. The stocking density was of 14 fish/unit. The same feeding level of 8 g/kg metabolic weight (1.5% from total biomass was used in every unit. The technological indicators that showed up at the end of the experiment revealed the following: the mean biomass gain in V1 was of 0.74 kg/m3 compared to 0.39 kg/m3in V2; this was nearly perfectly correlated with the food quality. The growth rate (GR variated from 6.70 to 8.13 g/day in V1 and 3.63-4.17 g/day in V2; the specific growth rate (SGR, calculated as a mean value of the two repetitions of each variant, was of 1.11 g%/day in V1 and 0.63 g%/day in V2; the feed conversion ratio (FCR, calculated as the mean value of the two repetitions from the two variants, was of 1.49 in V1 and of 2.81 in V2. The parameters of fish breeding showed that changing the quality of fodder, the fish growing was positively influenced. This experiment showed also that sterlet is a sturgeon with a moderate growth rate and it is possible to obtain an increase of fish biomass using pellets with 30-46 % crude protein.

Corina Sion

2011-04-01

69

Aquaculture information package  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

1998-08-01

70

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FRESHWATER AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India produced 8.29 million tonnes of fish in 2010-2011. The industry contributes nearly INR 200 trillion to the national economy, forming 1.4 percent of national gross domestic product (GDP and 5.4 percent of Agricultural GDP. At present, almost 84 percent of the total inland fish production, in the country is contributed by freshwater aquaculture amounting to 3.9 million tonnes in 2008-09. Further, the potential of the vast freshwater resources covering 6.7 million hectare is yet to be fully realized. The freshwater aquaculture which began as small scale activity of stocking ponds with fish seed collected from riverine sources during early fifties in rural Bengal has now transformed into a major economic activity in almost all states. There is a further need to make the sector more vibrant so as to achieve the predicted target of 15 kg per capita fish availability in the country by 2030.

H. Kumar

2013-01-01

71

Effect of oxidation–reduction potential on performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in recirculating aquaculture systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The direct impact of oxidation–reduction potential (ORP) on fish welfare and water quality in marine recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) is poorly documented. In this study, the effects of the fish size (S1, S2, S3) and ORP level (normal, four successive levels) on the performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were investigated. Three size fish were distributed into two RAS (RAS and RAS O3). Ozone was injected into RAS O3 to increase the ORP level. The ORP was stabilized t...

Li, Xian; Blancheton, Jean-paul; Liu, Ying; Triplet, Sebastien; Michaud, Luigi

2014-01-01

72

Osnovy formirovanija sistemy upravlenija riskami proektov innovacionnogo razvitija akvakul'tury v regione (Na primere Kaliningradskoj oblasti) [The formation of a risk management system for projects in the field of aquaculture innovative development in the Kaliningrad region: a case study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article sets out to develop the concept and the principal scheme of the formation of a risk management system for innovative economic development projects in the field of aquaculture. The research carried out by the authors helps identify the main problems and characteristics of risk management projects for the development of aquaculture in presentday Russia. The authors outline the status and features of aquaculture development projects in the North-western federal district and the Kali...

2012-01-01

73

Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Bacteria and Associated Activity in Fixed-Film Biofilters of a Marine Recirculating Aquaculture System†  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial communities in the biological filter and waste sludge compartments of a marine recirculating aquaculture system were examined to determine the presence and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Community DNA was extracted from aerobic and anaerobic fixed-film biofilters and the anaerobic sludge waste collection tank and was analyzed by amplifying 16S rRNA genes by PCR using anammox-selective and universal GC-clamped primers. Separation of amplified PCR products by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of the different phylotypes revealed a diverse biofilter microbial community. While Planctomycetales were found in all three communities, the anaerobic denitrifying biofilters contained one clone that exhibited high levels of sequence similarity to known anammox bacteria. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies using an anammox-specific probe confirmed the presence of anammox Planctomycetales in the microbial biofilm from the denitrifying biofilters, and anammox activity was observed in these biofilters, as detected by the ability to simultaneously consume ammonia and nitrite. To our knowledge, this is the first identification of anammox-related sequences in a marine recirculating aquaculture filtration system, and our findings provide a foundation for incorporating this important pathway for complete nitrogen removal in such systems.

Tal, Yossi; Watts, Joy E. M.; Schreier, Harold J.

2006-01-01

74

Osnovy formirovanija sistemy upravlenija riskami proektov innovacionnogo razvitija akvakul'tury v regione (Na primere Kaliningradskoj oblasti [The formation of a risk management system for projects in the field of aquaculture innovative development in the Kaliningrad region: a case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article sets out to develop the concept and the principal scheme of the formation of a risk management system for innovative economic development projects in the field of aquaculture. The research carried out by the authors helps identify the main problems and characteristics of risk management projects for the development of aquaculture in presentday Russia. The authors outline the status and features of aquaculture development projects in the North-western federal district and the Kaliningrad region. The article formulates and justifies the concept of “risk management projects in innovative development of aquaculture in the region” focusing on the classification of aquaculture risks in relation to innovative development projects, which expands the conceptual framework of risk management in view of the specific risks relating to economic development projects in the field of aquaculture. The authors characterize modern methods and approaches to risk management projects and organizations in the context of their application in the framework of aquaculture development projects and offer mechanisms for risk management of aquaculture development projects, which make it possible to include risk management activity in the general context of activities of parent project organizations. The authors develop the concept and principal scheme of the formation of risk management system for innovative development projects in aquaculture.

Serbulov Alexey

2012-01-01

75

Effectiveness of Floating Micro-Bead Bio-Filter for Ornamental Fish in a Re-Circulating Aquaculture System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bio-filtration has been widely used in re-circulating aquaculture system to remove waste and to convert toxic ammonia andnitrite into safe end products ornamental fish and other aquatic organisms. However, the study of micro-bead usage as the filter medium has not yet been broadened and thoroughly developed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to construct a biological filter made from polyethylene micro-bead as the filter medium and to analyze its effectiveness in removingwaste as well as in converting the toxic organic matter into stable substances. The bio-filter was constructed under a rotational molding process. The tubes, hoses, and piping were made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC while the fasteners were made from stainless steel and other non-corrosive materials. The effectiveness of this bio-filter was measured by using biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and total suspended solids (TSS analysis. Results indicated that this bio-filter is efficient enough to remove suspended solids and BOD. Therefore, this floating micro-bead bio-filter can be used in aquaculture systems.

R Fadhil

2011-01-01

76

Phosphatase activity and specific methanogenic activity in an anaerobic reactor treating sludge from a brackish recirculation aquaculture system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic treatment of high salinity sludge from marine/brackish recirculation aquaculture systems is potentially limited by inhibition of enzymatic activities and cell lysis resulting from high osmotic pressures. To further address these limitations the following investigations were conducted: effect of salinity on phosphatase activity (PA), soluble microbial products (SMP) production, and presence of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS); effect of iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) on PA and specific methanogenic activity (SMA); effect of addition of the compatible solute glycine betaine (GB) and potassium on PA, as well as on SMP and EPS production, all under saline conditions. The results show that salinity has different effects on PA of anaerobes under starvation and feeding conditions. FeCl3 increased the SMA of the sludge by 22.5% at 100 mg FeCl3/L compared with a control group (0 mg FeCl3/L). Furthermore, results of analysis of variance tests show that betaine increased the polysaccharide content of EPS and polypeptide content of SMP. However, addition of 1 mM potassium chloride did not show a significant effect on EPS and SMP composition. In conclusion, anaerobic digestion of salty sludges from a brackish aquaculture recirculation system may not be negatively affected by FeCl3 addition to concentrate waste streams, whereas GB boosts the production of SMP and EPS. PMID:23863432

Zhang, Xuedong; Ferreira, Rui B; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

2013-01-01

77

Animal protein production modules in biological life support systems: Novel combined aquaculture techniques based on the closed equilibrated biological aquatic system (C.E.B.A.S.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the experiences made with the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) which was primarily deveoloped for long-term and multi-generation experiments with aquatic animals and plants in a space station highly effective fresh water recycling modules were elaborated utilizing a combination of ammonia oxidizing bacteria filters and higher plants. These exhibit a high effectivity to eliminate phosphate and anorganic nitrogen compounds and arc. in addidition. able to contribute to the oxygen supply of the aquatic animals. The C.E.B.A.S. filter system is able to keep a closed artificial aquatic ecosystem containing teleost fishes and water snails biologically stable for several month and to eliminate waste products deriving from degraded dead fishes without a decrease of the oxygen concentration down to less than 3.5 mg/l at 25 °C. More advanced C.E.B.A.S. filter systems, the BIOCURE filters, were also developed for utilization in semiintensive and intensive aquaculture systems for fishes. In fact such combined animal-plant aquaculture systems represent highly effective productions sites for human food if proper plant and fish species are selected The present papers elucidates ways to novel aquaculture systems in which herbivorous fishes are raised by feeding them with plant biomass produced in the BIOCURE filters and presents the scheme of a modification which utilizes a plant species suitable also for human nutrition. Special attention is paid to the benefits of closed aquaculture system modules which may be integrated into bioregenerative life support systems of a higher complexity for, e. g.. lunar or planetary bases including some psychologiccal aspects of the introduction of animal protein production into plant-based life support systems. Moreover, the basic reproductive biological problems of aquatic animal breeding under reduced gravity are explained leading to a disposition of essential research programs in this context.

Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Kreuzberg, K.; Schreibman, M. P.

78

Public, animal, and environmental health implications of aquaculture.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aquaculture is important to the United States and the world's fishery system. Both import and export markets for aquaculture products will expand and increase as research begins to remove physiologic and other animal husbandry barriers. Overfishing of wild stock will necessitate supplementation and replenishment through aquaculture. The aquaculture industry must have a better understanding of the impact of the "shrouded" public and animal health issues: technology ignorance, abuse, and neglec...

Garrett, E. S.; Dos Santos, C. L.; Jahncke, M. L.

1997-01-01

79

Contamination and growth of the shrimp, Penaeus stylirostris Stimpson, cultured in a seawater/wastewater aquaculture system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many commercial mariculture operations have failed because of the costs associated with rearing animals in high density cultures. One of the most significant costs is feed. The costs of culturing marine animals could be lowered by reducing the stocking densities used in the ponds and substituting nutrient-rich, treated wastewater for commercial feeds. However, an aquaculture system which is based on wastewater may not only have a different production profile than a system based on prepared feeds, but the animals may also be subject to contamination. The authors have monitored the growth of shrimp cultured in a seawater/wastewater system and have analyzed water and tissue samples for several likely organic and inorganic contaminants.

Landau, M.; Pierce, R.H.; Williams, L.D.; Norris, D.R.

1985-10-01

80

Group-selective enrichment and determination of pyrethroid insecticides in aquaculture seawater via molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-electron capture detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two types of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the simultaneous determination of six pyrethroid insecticides have been developed using deltamethrin (D-MIPs) and cypermethrin (C-MIPs) as template molecules. A comparison of the performance of D-MIPs, C-MIPs, and the corresponding non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) were conducted. Stronger group-selective interactions between the C-MIPs and the six pyrethroid insecticides were achieved. The MISPE method based on the C-MIPs displayed higher extraction recoveries (86.4-96.0%) with RSD values ranging from 2.4 to 7.8% for the six pyrethroid insecticides in aquaculture seawater. After the C-MIP cartridge procedure, the limits of detection and quantification for fenvalerate, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, and bifenthrin were in the 16.6-37.0 and 55.3-109.1 ng L?¹ ranges, respectively, and 0.68 and 2.26 ?g L?¹ for phenothrin, respectively. The proposed MISPE method coupled with gas chromatography-electron capture detection was successfully used for the determination of the six pyrethroid insecticides in aquaculture seawater. PMID:22265776

Shi, Xizhi; Liu, Jinghua; Sun, Aili; Li, Dexiang; Chen, Jiong

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
81

[PAHs concentrations in aquatic products and food safety evaluation in the coupled mangrove planting-aquaculture ecological system].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to know about the PAHs concentration in aquatic products from mangrove planting-aquaculture ecological system and to make sure of food quality and food safety, HPLC was used to determine concentrations of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Tilapia mossambica, Mugil cephalu and Concha ostreae from coupled mangrove planting-aquaculture ponds, food safety in aquatic products was also evaluated. The 13 PAHs were Fluorene (Flu), Phenanthrene (Phe), Anthracene (Ant), Fluoranthene (Fla), Pyrene (Pyr), Benz[a] anthraces (BaA), Chrysene (Chr), Benzo[b] fluoranthene (BbF), Benzo[k] fluoranthene (BkF), Benzo[a] Pyrene (BaP), Dibenzo [a, h] anthercene (DahA), Benzo [g, h, i] perylene (BghiP) and Indeno [1,2,3-c, d] pyrene (InP). Concentrations of PAHs were the highest in Concha ostreae which were in the range of 89.79-98.49 microg x kg(-1) dry weight, while those were in the range of 25.97-34.64 microg x kg(-1) in Mugil cephalu and 12.31-14.41 microg x kg(-1) in Tilapia mossambica. The content of fat affected the levels of PAHs content in different aquatic products. The individual composition of PAHs was characterized by 3 rings in samples with the range of 41.58% - 83.35%. Comparing with other areas, PAHs pollution of aquatic products in the studied area was in the mild level. Values of the total BaP(eq) concentration ranged from 0.0689 microg x kg(-1) to 1.0373 microg x kg(-1), which were lower than the maximum level set by European Union. PMID:22946164

Chen, Guan-Qiu; Li, Yao-Chu; Huang, Jin-Mu; Nan, Yan; Lin, Mao-Hong

2012-06-01

82

Desarrollo de Sistemas de Vigilancia Tecnológica en la Acuicultura Española / Development of Technological Vigilance Systems in Spanish Aquaculture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo caracterizamos el proceso de vigilancia tecnológica como respuesta empresarial a la necesaria adaptación a entornos turbulentos y como origen de ventajas competitivas. En este sentido realizamos una recensión teórica, un análisis estratégico de la referida vigilancia como herramient [...] a para el desarrollo competitivo de la empresa en sectores involucrados con la investigación, el desarrollo y la innovación (I+D+i), así como una adaptación secuencial al desarrollo de la acuicultura. Sobre dicha base hemos realizado una aplicación al sector de la acuicultura en España, mediante el contraste de tres hipótesis relacionadas con el nivel global de desarrollo de los sistemas, los factores y agentes del entorno y la utilización de fuentes de información, todas ellas a través del programa estadístico SPSS 18. Como conclusión hemos identificado patrones globales para la vigilancia en el sector y especificidades por subsector, actividad, área geográfica o tipo de cultivo. Abstract in english In this paper we characterize the process of technological monitoring like enterprise answer to the necessary adjustment to turbulent environments and like origin of competitive advantages. In this respect we fulfil a theoretical critique, a strategic analysis of the above-mentioned monitoring like [...] tool for the competitive development of the company in sectors involved with the research, development and innovation (R+D+i), as well as a sequential adjustment to the development of aquaculture. On the above mentioned base we have realized an application to the Spanish Aquaculture, by means of the resistance of three hypotheses related to the global level of development of the systems, the factors and agents of the environment and the use of sources of intelligence, all of them through statistical program SPSS 18. Since conclusion we have identified global patterns for the monitoring in the sector and specificities by subsector, activity, geographical area or type of crop.

Francisco Javier, Sánchez Sellero; Montserrat, Cruz González.

83

Aquaculture-fisheries interactions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Assuming externalities from aquaculture to fisheries, we use a Verhulst-Schaefer model of fish population-dynamics and production, coupled with an aquaculture production model, to investigate effects on open-access and rent-maximising fisheries. Externalities are modelled by letting carrying capacity, intrinsic growth rate or catchability coefficient in the fishery depend on aquaculture production. We find that the different externalities can give opposite effects on steady sta...

Mikkelsen, Eirik

2006-01-01

84

The effect of recirculating aquaculture systems on the concentrations of heavy metals in culture water and tissues of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To date, farming fish in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) is one of the most environmentally friendly ways of producing fish. However, with the trend towards intensification, and consequently decrease in water exchange rates, these systems may accumulate substances, such as heavy metals, in the water and fish. Inductively-coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscope (ICP-MS) were used to determine Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni...

Martins, C. I.; Eding, E. H.; Verreth, J. A. J.

2011-01-01

85

Aquaculture in New Zealand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aquaculture is a relatively new activity in New Zealand. The indigenous rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata ) was the first target for aquaculture in the 1930's although it was not intensively cultured until the 1960's. The faster growing Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas ) appeared in 1969/70 and now comprises virtually all the farmed oysters in New Zealand.

Hayden, B.

1989-01-01

86

Aquaculture activities in Fiji  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fiji has no aquaculture tradition, but the Government is engaged in aquaculture production since 1969, with the help of other countries and international organization like F.A.O. Some species have been tested: Fishes: Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus ) and Tilapia ; Molluscs: Oyster (Crassostrea echinata ) and Mussel (Mytilus viridis ); Crustacean: freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) and shrimps (Penaeus monodon, P. indicus, P. stylirostris ).

Vereivalu, T.

1989-01-01

87

Isotopes in aquaculture research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The applications of isotopes in aquaculture research include areas like aquatic production process, nutrient cycles and food chain dynamics, fish nutrition, fish physiology, genetics and immunology. The radioisotopes commonly used are beta emitters. The use of different radioisotopes in aquaculture research are presented. 2 tabs

1996-10-01

88

Heterotrophic nitrifying and oxygen tolerant denitrifying bacteria from greenwater system of coastal aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, herbivorous fish Mugil cephalus has been cultured to secrete protein rich green slime, which helps nitrifying and oxygen tolerant denitrifying bacteria to grow and colonize. Four strains representing Alcaligenaceae family have been isolated from greenwater system and characterized using biochemical test, fatty acid methyl ester (GC-FAME) analysis, 16S rRNA and functional gene approaches. They were tested for an ability to nitrify ammonia and nitrite aerobically. Two strains showed notable nitrification activity, when grown in a mineral salts medium containing ammonium sulfate and potassium nitrite. Functional gene analysis confirmed the presence of nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) gene showing that they have an oxygen-tolerant denitrification system. It has been proposed that Alcaligenes faecalis strains heterotrophically nitrify ammonia into nitrite via formation of hydroxyl amine, which is oxidized to nitrous oxide using oxygen or nitrite as electron acceptor. These results provide a possible advantage of having nitrification and denitrification capabilities in the same organism, which plays an important role in biological wastewater system. PMID:23354499

Velusamy, Kathiravan; Krishnani, Kishore Kumar

2013-03-01

89

Results regarding growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758) fed with an additive feed, vitamin C, in a recirculating aquaculture system.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to determine the vitamin C status on growth performance, survival rate and biochimical parameters from tissue of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758) with average weight of 93±1,0 g were fed with different dietary vitamin C rations and reared in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). Growth performance , survival rate and biochimical parameters from tissue of Nile tilapia were measured in groups fed diets supplemented with 100, 750, 2000 mg.kg-...

Catalina Ciortan Mirea

2013-01-01

90

The Effects of Some Phytobiotics on Biochemical Composition of Oreochromis Niloticus Meat Reared in a Recirculating Aquaculture System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment is the evaluation of biochemical composition of Nile tilapia meat by administrating  several phytobiotics in feed. Oreochromis niloticus, with an initial average weight of 125.41±34.33 g/exemplar, were reared, during six weeks in a recirculating aquaculture system. The phytobiotics from this experiment were administered in feed in a concentration of 1%/kg feed and consist in: thyme (Thymus vulgaris, fenugreek (Trigonela foenum graecum, neem (Azadirachta indica. Thus, the experimental variants were: V1-control, V2-thyme, V3-fenugreek and V4-neem. Fish were fed with SOPROFISH pelleted feed with 38% crude protein and 7% crude fat. During the experiment, the physico-chemical parameters of technological water were situated in normal range for optimal growth. At the end of the experiment, significant differences (p<0.05 were recorded between the experimental variants, regarding to moisture, protein content, fat content and dry matter; unsignificant differences were recorded regarding the percentage of ash (p>0.05; p=0.68. The highest value of moisture (87.25% was registered in V2; the lowest value of fat content (0.05% was recorded in V4 and the lowest protein content (10.79% in V2. In conclusion, thyme, fenugreek and neem administration, in concentration of 1%/kg feed, influenced significantly the biochemical composition of Oreochromis niloticus.

Alina Antache

2013-05-01

91

Potentials and limitations of biomethane and phosphorus recovery from sludges of brackish/marine aquaculture recirculation systems: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brackish/marine recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) produce a relatively small but concentrated waste stream. The produced waste is perceived as a constraint for sustainable development of brackish/marine RAS. Appropriate disposal of sludge or waste from brackish/marine RAS is of great importance for widespread acceptance and implementation. Anaerobic stabilization of RAS sludge is considered as a potential cost-effective methodology to achieve effective sludge reduction and biogas production. Therefore, this review presents an overview of studies conducted on anaerobic digestion of sludge from brackish/marine RAS. Several researchers have shown that specific methane yield (SMY) of anaerobic digestion of sludges from brackish/marine RAS is relatively low, mainly in the range of 0.001-0.184 m(3) CH4 (STP)/kg COD of sludge added. The possible reasons for low SMY are reviewed in this work and can be mainly attributed to applied experimental set-ups, particularly improper inoculum, and high salinity, mainly resulting from high sodium cation levels. This review also evaluates the potentials and limitations for phosphorus recovery from the waste streams. Additionally, corresponding approaches to enhance specific methanogenic activities are proposed, particularly about the need for further thickening sludges from brackish/marine RAS in order to increase SMY from the wastes and downsize the anaerobic digestion units. PMID:24140486

Zhang, Xuedong; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

2013-12-15

92

Application of CFD modeling to hydrodynamics of CycloBio fluidized sand bed in recirculating aquaculture systems  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve the efficiency of a CycloBio fluidized sand bed (CB FSB) in removal of dissolved wastes in recirculating aquaculture systems, the hydrodynamics of solid-liquid flow was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling tools. The dynamic characteristics of silica sand within the CB FSB were determined using three-dimensional, unsteady-state simulations with the granular Eulerian multiphase approach and the RNG k-? turbulence model, and the simulation results were validated using available lab-scale measurements. The bed expansion of CB FSB increased with the increase in water inflow rate in numerical simulations. Upon validation, the simulation involving 0.55 mm particles, the Gidaspow correlation for drag coefficient model and the Syamlal-O'Brien correlation for kinetic granular viscosity showed the closest match to the experimental results. The volume fraction of numerical simulations peaked as the wall was approached. The hydrodynamics of a pilot-scale CB FSB was simulated in order to predict the range of water flow to avoid the silica sand overflowing. The numerical simulations were in agreement with the experimental results qualitatively and quantitatively, and thus can be used to study the hydrodynamics of solid-liquid multiphase flow in CB FSB, which is of importance to the design, optimization, and amplification of CB FSBs.

Liu, Yao; Song, Xiefa; Liang, Zhenlin; Peng, Lei

2013-11-01

93

Depletion of florfenicol amine in tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) maintained in a recirculating aquaculture system following Aquaflor®-medicated feed therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaflor® [50% w w?1 florfenicol (FFC)], is approved for use in freshwater-reared warmwater finfish which include tilapia Oreochromis spp. in the United States to control mortality from Streptococcus iniae. The depletion of florfenicol amine (FFA), the marker residue of FFC, was evaluated after feeding FFC-medicated feed to deliver a nominal 20 mg FFC kg?1 BW d?1 dose (1.33× the label use of 15 mg FFC kg?1 BW d?1) to Nile tilapia O. niloticus and hybrid tilapia O. niloticus × O. aureus held in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) at production-scale holding densities. Florfenicol amine concentrations were determined in fillets taken from 10 fish before dosing and from 20 fish at nine time points after dosing (from 1 to 240 h post-dosing). Water samples were assayed for FFC before, during and after the dosing period. Parameters monitored included daily feed consumption and biofilter function (levels of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate). Mean fillet FFA concentration decreased from 13.77 ?g g?1 at 1-h post dosing to 0.39 ?g g?1 at 240-h post dosing. Water FFC concentration decreased from a maximum of 1400 ng mL?1 at 1 day post-dosing to 847 ng mL?1 at 240 h post-dosing. There were no adverse effects noted on fish, feed consumption or biofilter function associated with FFC-medicated feed administration to tilapia.

Gaikowski, Mark P.; Whitsel, Melissa K.; Charles, Shawn; Schleis, Susan M.; Crouch, Louis S.; Endris, Richard G.

2013-01-01

94

Environmental constraints and aquaculture development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aquaculture is an economic activit y which is characterised by a great dependence on environmental conditions. Therefore, aquaculture development is subdued to institutional context which defines the rules for use and conservation of natural resources. This paper analyses the impact of marine environment regulations on economic operating of aquaculture enterprises and on industrial d ynamics. Because aquaculture enterprises use common goods, an economic approach of aquaculture has to take int...

Paquotte, Philippe; Bailly, Denis

1994-01-01

95

Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads, were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter were filled as a layer of 10 cm in the water treatment tank of control-2. While in the treatment tank, Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis was planted at 334 plants/m2 in baked clay beads layer. During 35 days of experiment, the average fish wet-weight in control-1, control-2 and treatment systems increased from 16.31±1.49, 15.18±1.28 and 11.31±1.49 g to 29.43±7.06, 28.65±3.12 and 27.20±6.56 g, respectively. It was found that the growth rate of 0.45±0.15 g-wet weight/day in a treatment tank was higher than in those 2 controls, which were rather similar at 0.37±0.16 and 0.38±0.05 g-wet weight/day, respectively. The fish survival rate of all experimental units was 100%. The average Chinese cabbage wet-weight in treatment system increased from 0.15±0.02 g to 1.00±0.38 g. For water quality, all parameters were within the acceptable range for aquaculture. The assimilation inorganic nitrogen in a treatment tank showed a slower rate and lower nitrite accumulation relative to those in control tanks. The nitrogen and phosphorus balance analysis illustrated that most of the nitrogen and phosphorus input in all systems was from feed (82-87% and 21-87% while at the final day of experiments, nitrogen and phosphorus in tilapia culture revealed at 15-19% and 4-13%. The accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus in the water, up to 56% and 70%, was found in control-1 while water in the tank with baked clay beads had substantial lower nitrogen and phosphorus concentration. The most important part was unaccounted nitrogen and phosphorus as high as 60% and 17% in treatment and 53% and 10% in control-2 systems. Nitrogen and phosphorus incorporated in plant (treatment was only 1.31% and 0.11%, respectively. It can be implied from the results that the assimilation in plant was a minor process for nutrient removal in this RAS. On the other hand, the nitrification and denitrification occurred in the sediment layer of baked clay beads tank were the major treatment processes to maintain water quality in the recirculating system. Without baked clay bead, nitrogen waste was accumulated as nitrate in the water while in treatment tank with backed clay beads, nitrogen was significantly removed by denitrification process.

Aeknarin Thanakitpairin

2014-01-01

96

Optimization and evaluation of a bottom substrate denitrification tank for nitrate removal from a recirculating aquaculture system.  

Science.gov (United States)

A bottom substrate denitrification tank for a recirculating aquaculture system was developed. The laboratory scale denitrification tank was an 8 L tank (0.04 m2 tank surface area), packed to a depth of 5 cm with a bottom substrate for natural denitrifying bacteria. An aquarium pump was used for gentle water mixing in the tank; the dissolved oxygen in the water was maintained in aerobic conditions (e.g. > 2 mg/L) while anoxic conditions predominated only at the bottom substrate layer. The results showed that, among the four substrates tested (soil, sand, pumice stone and vermiculite), pumice was the most preferable material. Comparing carbon supplementation using methanol and molasses, methanol was chosen as the carbon source because it provided a higher denitrification rate than molasses. When methanol was applied at the optimal COD:N ratio of 5:1, a nitrate removal rate of 4591 +/- 133 mg-N/m2 tank bottom area/day was achieved. Finally, nitrate removal using an 80 L denitrification tank was evaluated with a 610 L recirculating tilapia culture system. Nitrate treatment was performed by batch transferring high nitrate water from the nitrification tank into the denitrification tank and mixing with methanol at a COD:N ratio of 5:1. The results from five batches of nitrate treatment revealed that nitrate was successfully removed from water without the accumulation of nitrite and ammonia. The average nitrate removal efficiency was 85.17% and the average denitrification rate of the denitrification tank was 6311 +/- 945 mg-N/m2 tank bottom area/day or 126 +/- 18 mg-N/L of pumice packing volume/day. PMID:24520693

Pungrasmi, Wiboonluk; Playchoom, Cholticha; Powtongsook, Sorawit

2013-08-01

97

Towards environmentally sustainable aquaculture: Comparison between two trout farming systems using Life Cycle Assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Life Cycle Assessment(LCA) was applied to evaluate the global environmental impact of two scenarios of trout production systems based on the operational information from an operational farm using a flow through system (FFF) and an experimental pilot low head recirculating system (RSF) located on the same site. The main differences between the environmental balances of the two systems were relative to water use, eutrophication potential and energy use. Independently of the system used, feed is...

2009-01-01

98

Modelling studies of fish production in integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The general objective of this thesis is to formulate a general model for fish production in integrated ponds and ricefields as a means of obtaining a better understanding of these production systems. Integrated culture systems produce fish without large industrial energy inputs and have positive effects on the whole farm system. A main characteristic is their environmental variability, notably dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature. A systems approach using mathematical models is advo...

Dam, A. A.

1995-01-01

99

Mechanical mode floating medium filters for recirculating systems in aquaculture for higher solids retention and lower freshwater usage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to develop a better understanding of a floating medium in a mechanical filtration mode. The experiments were carried out using a commonly available polystyrene floating medium filter with the grain size of 1mm. A sand medium filter with the similar grain size was also tested for the comparison. A short-term trial of 2h and a long-term of 20 days filtration times were conducted with three custom manufactured pressurized filters of 16l. The filters were operated under three different configurations: (i) upflow with floating media (UFMF), (ii) downflow with floating media (DFMF) and (iii) downflow with a sand medium (DSF). The results of the long-term trial indicated that at a flow rate of 22 m/h, the UFMF and DSF had similar solid removal capacity with an average total suspended solids (TSS) removal efficiency of 60%. The DFMF could only remove 33% of TSS. However, during the short-term trial, TSS removal efficiency of the UFMF was better compared to the DSF (e.g., 71%, 56% and 57% of TSS removal in UFMF compared to 66%, 49% and 41% in the DSFF at the flow rates of 20, 25 and 31m/h, respectively). The energy requirements of each filter were compared by measuring the pressure differential across each filter. The long-term trial indicated that the UFMF had a significantly less pressure differential (44 kPa) compared to the DSF (80 kPa) (pfilter was better and more applicable to recirculating aquaculture systems than conventional pressurized sand filter. PMID:17532213

Steicke, C; Jegatheesan, V; Zeng, C

2007-12-01

100

Capacity building improve Malaysia's inspection and monitoring system for aquaculture and fishery products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The project aimed to help build a credible inspection and monitoring system that can guarantee safe quality products of Ministry of Health (MoH) and Department of Fisheries (DoF) by upgrading the analytical capacity of the laboratory staff directly involved in the analysis and detection of forbidden substances. Two training courses were implemented in 2011 in the Bio Security Centre in Kuantan, Malaysia. The first training course on 'Marine lipophilic toxins using LC-MS/MS has been implemente...

Gevers, G. J. M.; Zoontjes, P. W.; Essers, M. L.; Klijnstra, M.; Gerssen, A.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Aquaculture report 1976  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Growth of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and Tilapia zillii in the Reft River Geothermal Area (RRGT) geothermal waters can equal or surpass that in a commercial aquaculture facility. Fish and prawn mortality over the course of the intermediate term preliminary study did not appear to be related to any inherent geothermal water chemistry conditions. Temperature control was a problem but does not appear to be beyond design control. The absence of temperature-related mortality in channel catfish, Tilapia zilli, and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) indicates increased survival and suggests reduced expenditures for disease control. It may also allow higher fish densities in commercial aquaculture operations using geothermal water. Results of this study indicate potential for commercial aquaculture development at the Raft River Geothermal Testing Site.

Campbell, D.K.; Watson, L.; Kent, J.C.; Johnson, D.W.

1977-04-08

102

Certify Sustainable Aquaculture?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic organisms, provides close to 50% of the world's supply of seafood, with a value of U.S. $125 billion. It makes up 13% of the world's animal-source protein (excluding eggs and dairy) and employs an estimated 24 million people (1). With capture (i.e., wild) fisheries production stagnating, aquaculture may help close the forecast global deficit in fish protein by 2020 (2). This so-called â??blue revolutionâ? requires addressing a range of environmental and social problems, including water pollution, degradation of ecosystems, and violation of labor standards.

Bush, Simon; Belton, Ben

2013-01-01

103

Certify Sustainable Aquaculture?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic organisms, provides close to 50% of the world's supply of seafood, with a value of U.S. \\$125 billion. It makes up 13% of the world's animal-source protein (excluding eggs and dairy) and employs an estimated 24 million people (1). With capture (i.e., wild) fisheries production stagnating, aquaculture may help close the forecast global deficit in fish protein by 2020 (2). This so-called “blue revolution” requires addressing a range of environmental and s...

Bush, S. R.; Belton, B.; Hall, D.; Vandergeest, P.; Murray, F. J.; Ponte, S.; Oosterveer, P. J. M.; Islam, M. S.; Mol, A. P. J.; Hatanaka, M.; Kruijssen, F.; Ha, T. T. T.; Little, D. C.; Kusumawati, R.

2013-01-01

104

Preliminary research on the anammox process and control of nitrogen compounds in a recirculating aquaculture system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using anammox process in biological filtration of technological water within recirculatingaquaculture system is an alternative to nitrification / denitrification process which can reduce productioncosts, especially energy by replacing aerobic biological processes that require high oxygen consumption,provided through the addition for optimal function of biofilter (conversion of N-NH4 and N-NO2. Aim ofthis paper is to highlight the first steps in the control of nitrogen compounds in recirculating aquaculturesystems using anammox process. Data shown are obtained after 78 researching days (research stillongoing, the results being encouraging, registering an ammonium removal efficiency of 77% in SC1 andof 32% in SC2. Nitrites registered an increase in SC1 and a decrease in SC2 and there are allprerequisites showing that in SC2 anammox activity is more advanced than in SC1. The average ofoxygen consumption rate was 0.73 mgL-1 in SC1 smaller than 0.99 mgL-1 from SC2, which reinforces theidea that there are anammox process in SC2.

Savin Cristian

2013-01-01

105

Phylogenetic diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in biofilters of recirculating aquaculture systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

We constructed ammonia monooxygenase alpha subunit (amoA) gene clone libraries of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) from three biofiltration tanks used for closed marine fish culture systems. The number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found in any one place was 76%-80% of the total OTUs in each tank for AOA and 100% for AOB when OUTs were defined on the basis of a 5% nucleotide difference. In a phylogenetic tree, all of the AOA amoA sequences fell into a cluster, which contained Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus. All of the AOB amoA sequences were related to the Nitrosospira lineage. These results indicated that different ammonia oxidizers were present in different tanks, but that the dominant phylogenetic types were stable. In a biofiltration tank to which a high concentration of ammonium chloride was added periodically to condition the biofilter materials, most of the AOA amoA sequences were different from the dominant one observed in the fish culture tanks. The AOB amoA sequences were also different, and were similar to those of Nitrosomonas aestuarii. These findings suggest that high concentration ammonia loads have a considerable affect on ammonia-oxidizer community composition. PMID:22897959

Sakami, Tomoko; Andoh, Tadashi; Morita, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

2012-09-01

106

The influence of stocking density on growth performance and hematological profile of stellate sturgeon (A. stellatus, Pallas, 1771, reared in an industrial ,, flow-through’’ aquaculture system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 800x600 The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of four different stocking densities, ranging from 18.7 to 28.6 kg m3, on growth performance and welfare of juvenile stellate sturgeons, reared in an industrial ,,flow-through’’ aquaculture system. At the end of 60 days experimental period, a survival rate of 98% and a stocking density that ranged from 32.5 to 39.8 kg m-3 were registered. The physiological state of biological material is characterized by the values ??of hematological indices, that are not significant from the statistical point of view (p> 0.05, both at the beginning and at the end of experimental period, as well as between experimental variants. To assess the biological material growth performance, feed conversion ratio (FCR, specific growth rate (SGR and profile index were calculated. Regarding the growth performance parameters, better value are encountered at B1 (18.7 kg m-3 and B3 (23.3 kg m-3, appreciable values ??at B2 (20.4 kg m-3 and low values at B4 (28.6 kg m-3. As conclusion, it can be assert that the initial stocking density of 28.6 kg m-3 is not optimal for rearing juvenile stellate sturgeons in an industrial ,,flow-through’’ aquaculture system. Normal 0 21 false false false RO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

Desimira Maria Dicu Stroe

2013-10-01

107

Water and nutrient budgets of ponds in integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A participatory on-farm study analysed water and nutrient budgets of six low and four high water-exchange ponds of integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farms in the Mekong delta. Water, nitrogen (N), organic carbon (OC) and phosphorus (P) flows through the ponds were monitored, and data on fish production and nutrient accumulation in sediments were collected during a fish culture cycle. Results showed that, on average, only 5-6% of total N, OC or P inputs introduced into ponds were recove...

Nhan, D. K.; Verdegem, M. C. J.; Milstein, A.; Verreth, J. A. J.

2008-01-01

108

Bibliography of Important Tilapias (Pisces: Cichlidae) for Aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tilapias, fish of African origin, are now important in warm water aquaculture and fisheries worldwide, with culture systems ranging from rice field culture in Asia to experimental systems using power station waste heat in Europe. The present volume is the...

P. Schoenen

1982-01-01

109

L'aquaculture au Sénégal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aquaculture in Senegal. Different projects of aquaculture in Senegal are reviewed. In Senegal, the productions in aquaculture are : culture of oysters in Joal Fadiouth (about 6, 000 dozens/year a test of shrimp production (Penaeusj in Casamance, the first one in West Africa (0.5 T to 4.5 T/ha/year culture of Tilapia nilotica long the Senegal river in the north and Anambe in the south. Problems about these projects are discussed.

Belot, J.

1988-01-01

110

Direct utilization of geothermal heat in cascade application to aquaculture and greenhouse systems at Navarro College. Final report, March 1, 1979-September 30, 1984  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report documents the Navarro College geothermal use project, which is one of nineteen direct-use geothermal projects funded principally by DOE. The six-year project encompassed a broad range of technical, institutional, and economic activities including: resource and environmental assessment; well drilling and completion; system design, construction, and monitoring; economic analysis; and public awareness programs. Some of the project conclusions are that: (1) the 130/sup 0/F Central Texas geothermal resource can support additional geothermal development; (2) private sector economic incentives currently exist which encourage commercial development of this geothermal resource; (3) potential uses for this geothermal resource include water and space heating, aquacultural and agricultural heating uses, and fruit and vegetable dehydration; (4) high maintenance costs arising from the geofluids' scaling and corrosion characteristics can be avoided through proper analysis and design.

Smith, K.

1984-09-01

111

Aquaculture. Second Edition. Teacher Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This teacher and student guide for aquaculture contains 15 units of instruction that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to aquaculture; (2) the aquatic environment; (3) fundamental fish biology; (4) marketing; (5) site selection; (6) facility design and layout; (7) water quality management; (8) fish health management; (9) commercial…

Walker, Susan S.; Crummett, Dan

112

Aquaculture: global status and trends.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp and catfish has been driven by globalizing trade and favourable economics of larger scale intensive farming. Most aquaculture systems rely on low/uncosted environmental goods and services, so a critical issue for the future is whether these are brought into company accounts and the consequent effects this would have on production economics. Failing that, increased competition for natural resources will force governments to allocate strategically or leave the market to determine their use depending on activities that can extract the highest value. Further uncertainties include the impact of climate change, future fisheries supplies (for competition and feed supply), practical limits in terms of scale and in the economics of integration and the development and acceptability of new bio-engineering technologies. In the medium term, increased output is likely to require expansion in new environments, further intensification and efficiency gains for more sustainable and cost-effective production. The trend towards enhanced intensive systems with key monocultures remains strong and, at least for the foreseeable future, will be a significant contributor to future supplies. Dependence on external feeds (including fish), water and energy are key issues. Some new species will enter production and policies that support the reduction of resource footprints and improve integration could lead to new developments as well as reversing decline in some more traditional systems. PMID:20713392

Bostock, John; McAndrew, Brendan; Richards, Randolph; Jauncey, Kim; Telfer, Trevor; Lorenzen, Kai; Little, David; Ross, Lindsay; Handisyde, Neil; Gatward, Iain; Corner, Richard

2010-09-27

113

Electronic instrumentation timing system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electronic timing system that serves two important functions has been implemented on Nova. First, pulses can be generated at precise, controlled times relative to the Nova system trigger. These pulses simulate experimental signals without the need for laser shots. Transient recorder and streak camera triggers can now be timed independently of the laser system, greatly reducing setup time. The second function of the Nova electronic timing system is to accurately cross time signals on transient recorders. In past experiments, signals were cross-timed assuming common breakout times. Now, fiducial signals that are common to all transient recorders allow them to be independently cross-timed to an accuracy of better than 50 ps

1985-06-01

114

Electron beam processing system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron beam Processing Systems (EPS) are used as useful and powerful tools in many industrial application fields such as the production of cross-linked wire, rubber tire, heat shrinkable film and tubing, curing, degradation of polymers, sterilization and environmental application. In this paper, the feature and application fields, the selection of machine ratings and safety measures of EPS will be described. (author)

2004-06-01

115

Environmental comparison of intensive and integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems for striped catfish production in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, based on two existing case studies using life cycle assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vietnam is the largest producer for the export of striped catfish. Traditionally striped catfish production in the Mekong Delta took place in integrated agriculture–aquaculture systems, but has shifted recently to intensive systems to meet increasing export demands. A recent study quantified the environmental impact of intensive striped catfish production in Vietnam. Another did the same for integrated systems. Both studies used life cycle assessment, covered similar environmental impact ca...

2012-01-01

116

Electron-electron interactions in disordered systems  

CERN Document Server

``Electron-Electron Interactions in Disordered Systems'' deals with the interplay of disorder and the Coulomb interaction. Prominent experts give state-of-the-art reviews of the theoretical and experimental work in this field and make it clear that the interplay of the two effects is essential, especially in low-dimensional systems.

Efros, AL

1985-01-01

117

Granular Electronic Systems  

CERN Document Server

A granular metal is an array of metallic nano-particles imbedded into an insulating matrix. Tuning the intergranular coupling strength a granular system can be transformed into either a good metal or an insulator and, in case of superconducting particles, experience superconductor-insulator transition. The ease of adjusting electronic properties of granular metals makes them most suitable for fundamental studies of disordered solids and assures them a fundamental role for nanotechnological applications. This Review discusses recent important theoretical advances in the study of granular metals, emphasizing on the interplay of disorder, quantum effects, fluctuations and effects of confinement in formation of electronic transport and thermodynamic properties of granular materials.

Beloborodov, I S; Lopatin, A V; Vinokur, V M

2006-01-01

118

Evaluation on Biofilter in Recirculating Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture pays more attention as a bio-integrated food production system that serves as a model of sustainable aquaculture, minimizes waste discharge, increases diversity and yields multiple products. The objectives of this research were to analyze the efficiency of total ammonia nitrogen biofiltration and its effect on carrying capacity of fish rearing units. Pilot-scale bioreactor was designed with eight run-raceways (two meters of each) that assembled in serie...

Sumoharjo, S.; Asfie Maidie

2013-01-01

119

Strongly correlated electron systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010-co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson-followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400(th) anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed during SCES 2010. As we learned, past dogmas about strongly correlated materials and phenomena must be re-examined with an open and inquisitive mind. Invited speakers and respected leaders in the field were invited to contribute to this special issue and we have insisted that they present new data, ideas, or perspectives, as opposed to simply an overview of their past work. As with the conference, this special issue touches upon recent developments of strongly correlated electron systems in d-electron materials, such as Sr(3)Ru(2)O(7), graphene, and the new Fe-based superconductors, but it is dominated by topics in f-electron compounds. Contributions reflect the growing appreciation for the influence of disorder and frustration, the need for organizing principles, as well as detailed investigations on particular materials of interest and, of course, new materials. As this special issue could not possibly capture the full breadth and depth that the conference had to offer, it is being published simultaneously with an issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series containing 157 manuscripts in which all poster presenters at SCES 2010 were invited to contribute. Since this special issue grew out of the 2010 SCES conference, we take this opportunity to give thanks. This conference would not have been possible without the hard work of the SCES 2010 Program Committee, International and National Advisory Committees, Local Committee, and conference organizers, the New Mexico Consortium. We thank them as well as those organizations that generously provided financial support: ICAM-I2CAM, Quantum Design, Lakeshore, the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and the Department of Energy National Laboratories at Argonne, Berkeley, Brookhaven, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge. Of course, we especially thank the participants for bringing new ideas and new results, without which SCES 2010 would not have been possible. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Spin-orbit coupling and k-dependent Zeeman splitting in strontium ruthenate Emil J Rozbicki, James F Annett, Jean-René Souque

Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

2011-02-16

120

Shrimp aquaculture in New Caledonia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In New Caledonia, there is no indigenous shrimp species for commercial aquaculture and it is necessary to control the complete cycle in captivity. Since 1973 and the creation of the Station d'Aquaculture de Saint-Vincent (S.A.S.V.), a joint project between IFREMER, France-Aquaculture and the territory of New Caledonia, nine species have been tested and for one of these, P. stylirostris , (introduced in 1980), we are now in a commercial scale production with the tenth generation obtained in ca...

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

An ecosystem-based approach and management framework for the integrated evaluation of bivalve aquaculture impacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An ecosystem-based approach to bivalve aquaculture management is a strategy for the integration of aquaculture within the wider ecosystem, including human aspects, in such a way that it promotes sustainable development, equity, and resilience of ecosystems. Given the linkage between social and ecological systems, marine regulators require an ecosystem-based decision framework that structures and integrates the relationships between these systems and facilitates communication of aquaculture-en...

Cranford, Peter J.; Kamermans, Pauline; Krause, Gesche; Mazurie, Joseph; Buck, Bela H.; Dolmer, Per; Fraser, David; Nieuwenhove, Kris; O Beirn, Francis X.; Sanchez-mata, Adoracion; Thorarinsdottir, Gudrun G.; Strand, Oivind

2012-01-01

122

An ecosystem-based approach and management framework for the integrated evaluation of bivalve aquaculture impacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An ecosystem-based approach to bivalve aquaculture management is a strategy for the integration of aquaculture within the wider ecosystem, including human aspects, in such a way that it promotes sustainable development, equity, and resilience of ecosystems. Given the linkage between social and ecological systems, marine regulators require an ecosystem-based decision framework that structures and integrates the relationships between these systems and facilitates communication of aquaculture–...

Cranford, P. J.; Kamermans, P.; Krause, G. H. M.; Mazurie, J.

2012-01-01

123

Prevalence and transmission of antimicrobial resistance among Aeromonas populations from a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling system in Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to investigate the influence of a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling plant on the prevalence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance, we made use of an existing collection of 1,315 Aeromonas isolates that were previously typed by the biochemical fingerprinting PhP-AE system. In these treatment plant, hospital raw sewage water is first collected in a settlement pond (referred to as sewage water in this study) and is then transferred to a lagoon, where the duckweed (Lemnaceae) is grown (referred to as lagoon). The duckweed is harvested and used as feed for the fish in a separate pond (referred to as fish pond). From this collection, representatives of 288 PhP types were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing for eight antimicrobials by broth microdilution method. The overall resistance rates among Aeromonas isolates from the treatment plant were highest for ampicillin (87%) and erythromycin (79%) followed by cephalothin (58%), nalidixic acid (52%), streptomycin (51%), tetracycline (31%), chloramphenicol (13%) and gentamicin (8%). A significantly lower prevalence of antibiotic resistance was found in Aeromonas from environmental control water, patient stool samples, duckweed and fish compared to sewage water isolates. The prevalence of resistance in the sewage water was not significantly reduced compared to the lagoon water and fish pond. Throughout the treatment system, the frequencies of resistant strains were found to diminish during the sewage water purification process, i.e. in the lagoon where sewage water is used to grow the duckweed. However, the frequency of resistant strains again increased in the fish pond where sewage grown duckweed is used for aquaculture. Among the selected isolates, two multiresistant clonal groups of Aeromonas caviae HG4 were identified that exhibited indistinguishable PhP and amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprints and shared a common plasmid of approximately 5 kb. Representatives of both groups were recovered from almost every part of the sewage treatment plant but not in the control ponds nor in human samples, which suggests that specific multiresistant Aeromonas clones are able to persist and spread throughout the entire purification process. PMID:19459063

Rahman, Mokhlasur; Huys, Geert; Kühn, Inger; Rahman, Motiur; Möllby, Roland

2009-10-01

124

Efficiency of bioaugmentation in the removal of organic matter in aquaculture systems / Eficiência da bioadição na remoção de matéria orgânica em sistemas aquaculturais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Existem diversas tecnologias para tratamento de efluentes, o processo de bioadição consiste em uma vertente da biorremediação e tem sido empregado na melhoria da qualidade dos efluentes através do tratamento da água de produção. Esta tecnologia consiste basicamente na adição de microrganismos com a [...] capacidade de degradar ou remover compostos poluentes, especialmente matéria orgânica e nutrientes. Este estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de composto bioativo sobre alguns parâmetros de matéria orgânica e de desempenho de juvenis de tilápias em um sistema intensivo de produção aquacultural. Foi empregada a combinação de dois consórcios bacterianos em delineamento inteiramente aleatorizado, em um esquema fatorial com dois fatores. As diferenças estatísticas entre os tratamentos foram analisadas por meio da análise de variância (ANOVA) e do teste de Tukey ao nível de 5%. Verificou-se neste estudo, que a bioadição heterotrófica foi capaz de reduzir em 23% a demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO); em 83,7%, o carbono orgânico dissolvido (COD); e em 43%, a biomassa fitoplanctônica. Por outro lado, não se observou nenhum prejuízo com relação aos parâmetros físico-químicos de qualidade de água bem como ao desempenho de crescimento para juvenis de tilápias avaliados neste estudo. Abstract in english Several techniques are currently used to treat effluents. Bioaugmentation is a new bioremediation strategy and has been employed to improve effluent quality by treating the water during the production process. This technology consists basically of the addition of microorganisms able to degrade or re [...] move polluting compounds, especially organic matter and nutrients. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of bioaugmentation on some parameters of organic matter and on the performance of juvenile tilapias in an intensive aquaculture production system. The combination of two bacterial consortiums in a complete randomized design was employed in a factorial analysis with two factors. Statistical differences between treatments were analyzed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test at the 5% level. One of the treatments, heterotrophic bacterial supplementation, was able to reduce biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) by 23%, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by 83.7% and phytoplanktonic biomass by 43%. On the other hand, no damage was done to either the physical-chemical indicators of water quality or to the growth performance of juvenile tilapias assessed in this study.

RB, Lopes; RA., Olinda; BAI, Souza; JEP, Cyrino; CTS, Dias; JF, Queiroz; LHS, Tavares.

125

Results regarding growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758 fed with an additive feed, vitamin C, in a recirculating aquaculture system.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the vitamin C status on growth performance, survival rate and biochimical parameters from tissue of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758 with average weight of 93±1,0 g were fed with different dietary vitamin C rations and reared in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS. Growth performance , survival rate and biochimical parameters from tissue of Nile tilapia were measured in groups fed diets supplemented with 100, 750, 2000 mg.kg-1L-ascorbic acid (AA and almost ascorbate free diet (Total AA> 5 mg.kg-1 as a control. They were stocked in 12 rearing units at 28 oC water temperature for 30 days. Diet of 33 % protein was offered as feed, 3 times daily. Growth measurements of tilapia were recorded on beginning and at the end of the experiment. Results showed that growth performance for Nile tilapia had not significantly (p>0.05 differences between the control and the tretments . Survival rate was the same for al the treatments. The feed conversio ratio (FCR was not significant (p>0.05 between the control and the treatments. Resuls showed that the feed impoved with AA had no significant differences between treatments and control regarding the  optimum growth performance and survival rate at Nile tilapia.  

Catalina Ciortan Mirea

2013-10-01

126

Ecosystem-based approach to aquaculture management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecosystems have real thresholds and limits which, when exceeded, can affect major system restructuring. Once thresholds and limits have been exceeded, changes can be irreversible. Diversity is important to ecosystem functioning. The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water, and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. The application of the ecosystem approach will help to reach a balance of the three main objectives: conservation, sustainable use, and a fair and equitable sharing of the benefits and use of the natural resources. Aquaculture development needs to be within the carrying capacity of the water resource so that it is sustainable and does not greatly impact the environment. The determination of the carrying capacity needs to be science-based. The planning of development in ecosystems has been done for freshwater ecosystems within the PAMB (Protected Area Management Board framework, but in many cases this does not give the correct significance to the impact of aquaculture on the water resources in the ecosystem. It also needs to be extended to river basins and estuaries, brackishwater areas, and inland bays, and seas. The planning and management of aquaculture needs to be undertaken at the local government unit (LGU level in a coordinated manner by all the LGUs that have a part of the water resource. The co-management of aquaculture, in terms of monitoring of the environment, monitoring of production, and monitoring of licenses, needs to be funded out of license fees and non-compliance fines collected by the LGUs. A number of these management activities need to be undertaken jointly (monitoring the environment and others separately but in a coordinated manner (e.g., checking licenses and checking compliance.

Patrick White

2008-12-01

127

Potential use of power plant reject heat in commercial aquaculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current research and commercial activities in aquaculture operations have been reviewed. An aquaculture system using mostly herbivorous species in pond culture is proposed as a means of using waste heat to produce reasonably priced protein. The system uses waste water streams, such as secondary sewage effluent, animal wastes, or some industrial waste streams as a primary nutrient source to grow algae, which is fed to fish and clams. Crayfish feed on the clam wastes thereby providing a clean effluent from the aquaculture system. Alternate fish associations are presented and it appears that a carp or tilapia association is desirable. An aquaculture system capable of rejecting all the waste heat from a 1000-MW(e) power station in winter can accommodate about half the summer heat rejection load. The aquaculture facility would require approximately 133 ha and would produce 4.1 x 10"5 kg/year of fish, 1.5 x 10"6 kg/year of clam meat, and 1.5 x 10"4 kg/year of live crayfish. The estimated annual pretax profit from this operation is one million dollars. Several possible problem areas have been identified. However, technical solutions appear to be readily available to solve these problems. The proposed system shows considerable economic promise. Small scale experiments have demonstrated the technical feasibility of various components of the system. It therefore appears that a pilot scale experimental facility should be operated

1977-01-01

128

Potential use of power plant reject heat in commercial aquaculture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current research and commercial activities in aquaculture operations have been reviewed. An aquaculture system using mostly herbivorous species in pond culture is proposed as a means of using waste heat to produce reasonably priced protein. The system uses waste water streams, such as secondary sewage effluent, animal wastes, or some industrial waste streams as a primary nutrient source to grow algae, which is fed to fish and clams. Crayfish feed on the clam wastes thereby providing a clean effluent from the aquaculture system. Alternate fish associations are presented and it appears that a carp or tilapia association is desirable. An aquaculture system capable of rejecting all the waste heat from a 1000-MW(e) power station in winter can accommodate about half the summer heat rejection load. The aquaculture facility would require approximately 133 ha and would produce 4.1 x 10/sup 5/ kg/year of fish, 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ kg/year of clam meat, and 1.5 x 10/sup 4/ kg/year of live crayfish. The estimated annual pretax profit from this operation is one million dollars. Several possible problem areas have been identified. However, technical solutions appear to be readily available to solve these problems. The proposed system shows considerable economic promise. Small scale experiments have demonstrated the technical feasibility of various components of the system. It therefore appears that a pilot scale experimental facility should be operated.

Olszewski, M.

1977-01-01

129

World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize th...

Martinez-porchas, Marcel; Martinez-cordova, Luis R.

2012-01-01

130

ISO/TC 234, Fisheries and Aquaculture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The largest standard developing organization, ISO, works these days at International Standards for Fisheries and Aquaculture. They created a technical committee divided in six work groups that will have to establish cage technology, aquaculture environmental management, aquaculture technology, food safety for aquaculture farms, traceability of fishery products and environmental monitoring on the seabed’s impact from marine finfish farms. These standards will promote the sustainable developm...

Costea, Ramona I.

2009-01-01

131

Electronically controlled suspension system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An electronically controlled suspension system is described comprising: a suspension unit interposed between a wheel and vehicle body of a vehicle and having a vehicle height adjusting fluid chamber, a vehicle height sensor, a vehicle height control section for regulating the supply and discharge of fluid to and from the fluid chamber according to a signal from the vehicle height sensor, a mean vehicle height computing section for calculating the mean value of vehicle height changing over a predetermined mean vehicle height computing time based on the detection signal from the vehicle height sensor, a startup sensing section for outputting a startup detection signal of a given time length from the moment an engine key switch is turned on, a group of actuable mean vehicle height computing units comprised of a first mean vehicle height computing unit having a first longer computing time suited for computing the mean vehicle height of a travelling vehicle, a second mean vehicle height computing unit having a second computing time shorter than the first computing time and suited for computing the mean vehicle height of a stationary vehicle, and a third mean vehicle height computing unit having a third computing time shorter than the second computing time and suited for beginning vehicle height adjustment sooner than the usual vehicle height adjustment of the stationary vehicle.

Kumagai, N.; Tatemoto, M.

1986-09-09

132

DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccination is based on the administration of the gene encoding the vaccine antigen, rather than the antigen itself. Subsequent expression of the antigen by cells in the vaccinated hosts triggers the host immune system. Among the many experimental DNA vaccines tested in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important viruses such as infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). DNA vaccines against other types of fish pathogens, however, have so far had limited success. The most efficient delivery route at present is IM injection, and suitable delivery strategies for mass vaccination of small fish have yet to be developed. In terms of safety, no adverse effects in the vaccinated fishhave been observed to date. As DNA vaccination is a relatively new technology, various theoretical and long-term safety issues related to the environment and the consumer remain to be fully addressed, although inherently the risks should not be any greater than with the commercial fish vaccines that are currently used. Present classification systems lack clarity in distinguishing DNA-vaccinated animals from genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which could raise issues in terms of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production conditions has recently been initiated in Canada and Denmark.

Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

2005-01-01

133

Studies on wels catfish (Silurus glanis development during cold season as an auxiliary species in sturgeon recirculated aquaculture systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research had the purpose to establish if the wels catfish is suitable for growing in closedrecirculated system designed for sturgeon farming, because during the cold season the system does notneed to reach high temperatures such as for other fish species. Our studies showed that the wels catfishcan survive during the cold season from a recirculated system, and furthermore they accept feeds attemperatures as low as 17°C, and even have a slight body weight increase during this season. The welscatfish entered the spring in our experiment at a mean body weight of 72.5 grams, while the wels catfishfrom semi-intensive system after wintering in earthern ponds entered the winter at a mean body weighof 30 grams. Our experiments also studied the effect of stocking density on fish development in theseconditions.

Radu Muscalu

2010-12-01

134

Aquaculture, ecological engineering: Lessons from China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Economic development and urbanization worldwide have led to many pollution problems as a result of growing input to the environment of organic wastes and inorganic nutrients. Even the developed countries have not been able to solve this problem satisfactorily. The situation is especially problematical in developing countries where raw wastes are disrupting the coastal ecosystems that are the main source of food protein. This article describes how these problems are addressed in China, using aquaculture and ecological engineering not only to solve waste problems, but also to optimize food and energy production by completely recycling wastes in integrated farming systems. 8 refs, 2 figs

Chan, G.L. (Kowloon, Hong Kong (Hong Kong))

1993-01-01

135

Changes in Bacterial Communities of the Marine Sponge Mycale laxissima on Transfer into Aquaculture? †‡  

Science.gov (United States)

The changes in bacterial communities associated with the marine sponge Mycale laxissima on transfer to aquaculture were studied using culture-based and molecular techniques. M. laxissima was maintained alive in flowthrough and closed recirculating aquaculture systems for 2 years and 1 year, respectively. The bacterial communities associated with wild and aquacultured sponges, as well as the surrounding water, were assessed using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bacterial richness and diversity were measured using DOTUR computer software, and clone libraries were compared using S-LIBSHUFF. DGGE analysis revealed that the diversity of the bacterial community of M. laxissima increased when sponges were maintained in aquaculture and that bacterial communities associated with wild and aquacultured M. laxissima were markedly different than those of the corresponding surrounding water. Clone libraries of bacterial 16S rRNA from sponges confirmed that the bacterial communities changed during aquaculture. These communities were significantly different than those of seawater and aquarium water. The diversity of bacterial communities associated with M. laxissima increased significantly in aquaculture. Our work shows that it is important to monitor changes in bacterial communities when examining the feasibility of growing sponges in aquaculture systems because these communities may change. This could have implications for the health of sponges or for the production of bioactive compounds by sponges in cases where these compounds are produced by symbiotic bacteria rather than by the sponges themselves.

Mohamed, Naglaa M.; Enticknap, Julie J.; Lohr, Jayme E.; McIntosh, Scott M.; Hill, Russell T.

2008-01-01

136

Development of a GIS-Based Tool for Aquaculture Siting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nearshore aquaculture siting requires the integration of a range of physical, environmental, and social factors. As a result, the information demand often presents coastal managers with a range of complex issues regarding where specific types of aquaculture should be ideally located that reduce environmental and social impacts. Here we provide a framework and tool for managers faced with these issues that incorporate physical and biological parameters along with geospatial infrastructure. In addition, the development of the tool and underlying data included was undertaken with careful input and consideration of local population concerns and cultural practices. Using Hawai?i as a model system, we discuss the various considerations that were integrated into an end-user tool for aquaculture siting.

Noelani Puniwai

2014-06-01

137

Electronic Resource Management Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

Mark Ellingsen

2004-09-01

138

Produção do híbrido "cachadia" em diferentes densidades de estocagem em sistema de recirculação de água / Production of cachadia hybrid at different densities in a recirculating aquaculture system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o efeito da densidade de estocagem na produção de "cachadia" (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum x Leiarius marmoratus) em sistema de recirculação de água. Nas duas primeiras fases, com duração de 27 e 40 dias e usando animais com média de peso inicial de 31 e 57g, respectivamente, foram testados [...] 20, 40, 60 e 80 peixes/m³. Na terceira e quarta fase, usando peixes com média de peso de 169 e 399g durante 41 e 99 dias, respectivamente, foram testados 10, 20, 30 e 40 peixes/m³. A taxa de sobrevivência foi acima de 92%, sem diferenças significativas entre tratamentos. Verificou-se redução no ganho de peso diário com redução com o incremento da densidade na segunda e na quarta fase experimental. A biomassa final apresentou relação direta com a densidade em todas as fases. Taxas de conversão alimentar entre 0,8 e 1,3:1 foram registradas. O "cachadia" atingiu 1,1kg em 207 dias de cultivo, mostrando-se promissor para a piscicultura intensiva. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different stocking densities on cachadia production (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum x Leiarius marmoratus) in recirculating aquaculture system. In the two first phases for 27 and 40 days using fish with average weight of 31 and 57g, respectively, de [...] nsities 20, 40, 60, and 80 fish/m³ were tested. In the third and fourth trial, using fish with an average weight of 169 and 399g during 41 and 99 days, respectively, densities 10, 20, 30, and 40 fish/m³ were tested. Survival rate was higher than 92%, without stocking density differences between the treatments. Daily weight gain showed reduction with the increase of the density in the second and fourth trial. However, final biomass presented direct relationship with increase density in all trials. Feed conversion rates ranged 0.8 from 1.3:1 were registered. Cachadia hybrid reached 1.1kg in approximately seven months of rearing indicating promise for intensive production.

P.M.C, Faria; R.K, Luz; S.A, Prado; E.M, Turra; T.B.F, Jorge; A.M.Q, Lana; E.A, Teixeira.

139

Produção do híbrido "cachadia" em diferentes densidades de estocagem em sistema de recirculação de água Production of cachadia hybrid at different densities in a recirculating aquaculture system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da densidade de estocagem na produção de "cachadia" (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum x Leiarius marmoratus em sistema de recirculação de água. Nas duas primeiras fases, com duração de 27 e 40 dias e usando animais com média de peso inicial de 31 e 57g, respectivamente, foram testados 20, 40, 60 e 80 peixes/m³. Na terceira e quarta fase, usando peixes com média de peso de 169 e 399g durante 41 e 99 dias, respectivamente, foram testados 10, 20, 30 e 40 peixes/m³. A taxa de sobrevivência foi acima de 92%, sem diferenças significativas entre tratamentos. Verificou-se redução no ganho de peso diário com redução com o incremento da densidade na segunda e na quarta fase experimental. A biomassa final apresentou relação direta com a densidade em todas as fases. Taxas de conversão alimentar entre 0,8 e 1,3:1 foram registradas. O "cachadia" atingiu 1,1kg em 207 dias de cultivo, mostrando-se promissor para a piscicultura intensiva.The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different stocking densities on cachadia production (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum x Leiarius marmoratus in recirculating aquaculture system. In the two first phases for 27 and 40 days using fish with average weight of 31 and 57g, respectively, densities 20, 40, 60, and 80 fish/m³ were tested. In the third and fourth trial, using fish with an average weight of 169 and 399g during 41 and 99 days, respectively, densities 10, 20, 30, and 40 fish/m³ were tested. Survival rate was higher than 92%, without stocking density differences between the treatments. Daily weight gain showed reduction with the increase of the density in the second and fourth trial. However, final biomass presented direct relationship with increase density in all trials. Feed conversion rates ranged 0.8 from 1.3:1 were registered. Cachadia hybrid reached 1.1kg in approximately seven months of rearing indicating promise for intensive production.

P.M.C Faria

2011-10-01

140

Electronical Health Record's Systems. Interoperability  

CERN Document Server

Understanding the importance that the electronic medical health records system has, with its various structural types and grades, has led to the elaboration of a series of standards and quality control methods, meant to control its functioning. In time, the electronic health records system has evolved along with the medical data change of structure. Romania has not yet managed to fully clarify this concept, various definitions still being encountered, such as "Patient's electronic chart", "Electronic health file". A slow change from functional interoperability (OSI level 6) to semantic interoperability (level 7) is being aimed at the moment. This current article will try to present the main electronic files models, from a functional interoperability system's possibility to be created perspective.

Apostol, Simona Angela; Vernic, Corina

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Aquaculture: global status and trends  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp an...

Bostock, John; Mcandrew, Brendan; Richards, Randolph; Jauncey, Kim; Telfer, Trevor; Lorenzen, Kai; Little, David; Ross, Lindsay; Handisyde, Neil; Gatward, Iain; Corner, Richard

2010-01-01

142

Enfoque sistémico para el diseño de sistemas energéticos acuícolas resilientes: discusión aplicada al caso de una empresa de cultivos Systematic approach to design resilient energy systems to aquaculture: discussion applied in a private hatchery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente trabajo documenta experiencias en la aplicación del enfoque sistémico a un proceso productivo en el campo de la acuicultura. Particularmente, se analiza el modelo de producción de energía, orientado a la resiliencia y baja emisión de carbono, implementado en un hatchery privado. Lo anterior pretende contribuir con una herramienta que apoye a disminuir los impactos ambientales y consecuentemente sociales y económicos, a escala local, regional y global, asociados a la producción y gestión energética, incrementando la eficiencia en el uso de recursos, la competitividad y resiliencia de la actividad acuícola. Adicionalmente, se presenta un enfoque de modelo de negocios sistémico, que podría ser adaptado a cualquier proceso productivo, extendiendo el campo de aplicación a diversos rubros.This paper documents the experiences of applying the systemic approach to a production process in the field of aquaculture. Particularly, we analyze the energy production model, oriented to resilience and low carbon emission, implemented in a private hatchery. This intends to contribute a tool to support lessen environmental, and consequently social and economic impacts at local, regional and global production and associated energy management, increasing efficiency in the use of resources, competitiveness and resilience of aquaculture. Additionally, we present an approach for systemic business model that could be adapted to any production process, extending the scope to diverse areas.

Marcelo Concha

2012-09-01

143

Application of Machine Learning Techniques in Aquaculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we present applications of different machine learning algorithms in aquaculture. Machine learning algorithms learn models from historical data. In aquaculture historical data are obtained from farm practices, yields, and environmental data sources. Associations between these different variables can be obtained by applying machine learning algorithms to historical data. In this paper we present applications of different machine learning algorithms in aquaculture applications.

Akhlaqur Rahman

2014-04-01

144

7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental...Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss crop... (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that...

2010-01-01

145

FTU bolometer electronic system upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Design and realization of a new bolometer electronic system. ? Many improvements over the actual commercial system. ? Architecture based on digital electronic hardware with minimal analog front end. ? Auto off-set correction, real time visualization features and small system size. ? Test results for the electronic system. -- Abstract: The FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) requires a bolometer diagnostic in order to measure the total plasma radiation. The current diagnostic architecture is based on a full analog multichannel AC bolometer system, which uses a carrier frequency amplifier with a synchronous demodulation. Taking into account the technological upgrades in the field of electronics, it was decided to realize an upgrade for the bolometric electronic system by using a hybrid analog/digital implementation. The new system developed at the ENEA Frascati laboratories has many improvements, and mainly a massive system volume reduction, a good measurement linearity and a simplified use. The new hardware system consists of two subsystems: the Bolometer Digital Control and the Bolometer Analog System. The Bolometer Digital Control can control 16 bolometer bridges through the Bolometer Analog System. The Bolometer Digital Control, based on the FPGA architecture, is connected via Ethernet with a PC; therefore, it can receive commands settings from the PC and send the stream of bolometric measurements in real time to the PC. In order to solve the cross-talk between the bridges and the cables, each of the four bridges in the bolometer head receives a different synthesized excitation frequency. Since the system is fully controlled by a PC GUI (Graphic User Interface), it is very user friendly. Moreover, some useful features have been developed, such as: auto off-set correction, bridge amplitude regulation, software gain setting, real time visualization, frequency excitation selection and noise spectrum analyzer embedded function. In this paper, the hardware and software system architectures are described and some tests of the developed system are presented, with a related statistical analysis

2013-10-01

146

FTU bolometer electronic system upgrade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: ? Design and realization of a new bolometer electronic system. ? Many improvements over the actual commercial system. ? Architecture based on digital electronic hardware with minimal analog front end. ? Auto off-set correction, real time visualization features and small system size. ? Test results for the electronic system. -- Abstract: The FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) requires a bolometer diagnostic in order to measure the total plasma radiation. The current diagnostic architecture is based on a full analog multichannel AC bolometer system, which uses a carrier frequency amplifier with a synchronous demodulation. Taking into account the technological upgrades in the field of electronics, it was decided to realize an upgrade for the bolometric electronic system by using a hybrid analog/digital implementation. The new system developed at the ENEA Frascati laboratories has many improvements, and mainly a massive system volume reduction, a good measurement linearity and a simplified use. The new hardware system consists of two subsystems: the Bolometer Digital Control and the Bolometer Analog System. The Bolometer Digital Control can control 16 bolometer bridges through the Bolometer Analog System. The Bolometer Digital Control, based on the FPGA architecture, is connected via Ethernet with a PC; therefore, it can receive commands settings from the PC and send the stream of bolometric measurements in real time to the PC. In order to solve the cross-talk between the bridges and the cables, each of the four bridges in the bolometer head receives a different synthesized excitation frequency. Since the system is fully controlled by a PC GUI (Graphic User Interface), it is very user friendly. Moreover, some useful features have been developed, such as: auto off-set correction, bridge amplitude regulation, software gain setting, real time visualization, frequency excitation selection and noise spectrum analyzer embedded function. In this paper, the hardware and software system architectures are described and some tests of the developed system are presented, with a related statistical analysis.

Pollastrone, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.pollastrone@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Neri, Carlo; Florean, Marco; Ciccone, Giovanni [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

2013-10-15

147

Electronic control systems for teleoperated mining systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Bureau of Mines has been investigating electronic control systems for teleoperated mining since the late 1970s. Electronic control systems used for teleoperated mining promote safety by removing the operator from a hazardous area and placing him/her at a safe distance. The electronic control systems used for the first teleoperated machine were based on a simple eight bit microprocessor. In the mid-eighties, eight bit microcontrollers were integrated into a large, distributed, control system. In the early nineties, the use of multiprocessor systems was started. These control systems use both the thirty-two bit Motorola 68020 microprocessor and the thirty-two bit Intel 80386 microprocessor. The current electronic control system consists of a master and slave controller. With this electronic control system, machine functions are activated about ten times faster than the distributed microcontroller system it replaced. This system provides near real-time control of mining machinery which is out of line of sight. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Monaghan, W.D.; Kwitowski, A.J.; Brautigam, A.L. (US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

1992-01-01

148

Monitoring Bacterial Diversity of the Marine Sponge Ircinia strobilina upon Transfer into Aquaculture? †‡  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine sponges in the genus Ircinia are known to be good sources of secondary metabolites with biological activities. A major obstacle in the development of sponge-derived metabolites is the difficulty in ensuring an economic, sustainable supply of the metabolites. A promising strategy is the ex situ culture of sponges in closed or semiclosed aquaculture systems. In this study, the marine sponge Ircinia strobilina (order Dictyoceratida: family Irciniidae) was collected from the wild and maintained for a year in a recirculating aquaculture system. Microbiological and molecular community analyses were performed on freshly collected sponges and sponges maintained in aquaculture for 3 months and 9 months. Chemical analyses were performed on wild collected sponges and individuals maintained in aquaculture for 3 months and 1 year. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to assess the complexity of and to monitor changes in the microbial communities associated with I. strobilina. Culture-based and molecular techniques showed an increase in the Bacteroidetes and Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria components of the bacterial community in aquaculture. Populations affiliated with Beta- and Deltaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and Planctomycetes emerged in sponges maintained in aquaculture. The diversity of bacterial communities increased upon transfer into aquaculture.

Mohamed, Naglaa M.; Rao, Venkateswara; Hamann, Mark T.; Kelly, Michelle; Hill, Russell T.

2008-01-01

149

Review of Cyanobacterial Odorous and Bioactive Metabolites: Impacts and Management Alternatives in Aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased demand has pushed extensive aquaculture towards intensively operated production systems, commonly resulting in eutrophic conditions and cyanobacterial blooms. This review summarizes those cyanobacterial secondary metabolites that can cause undes...

G. L. Boyer J. L. Smith P. V. Zimba

2008-01-01

150

Computer Aided Control and Monitoring of Aquaculture Plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A computer system for control and monitoring of aquaculture plants has been developed by the Norwegian company NODEC. The system is based on a local area network which interfaces a computer system to the primary instruments located at various sites in the plant. Special software modules have been developed to handle different tasks such as data gathering, automatic control, alarming, logging, trend analysis and reporting. Special effort has been made to develop a user-friendly high level man-...

Erik Hansen

1987-01-01

151

Feed Additives for Aquaculture and Aquarium Culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The presente invention refers of feed additives for aquaculture and aquarium culture. These additives comprise the amino acid, 1-methyl-L-tryptophane, or its isomers with the objective of improving the attractiveness of feeds used in aquaculture and aquaria for fish, as well as other aquatic organisms, under culture conditions. Therefore, this invention has applications in the agriculture-food industry.

2011-01-01

152

The Netherlands: Best practices in managing ecosystem impacts in aquaculture through RAS technologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Dutch finfish aquaculture sector is unique in Europe and worldwide. This innovative sector is based solely on recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). RAS are land based fish production systems in which water from the rearing tanks is re-used after mechanical and biological purification to reduce water and energy consumption and to reduce nutrient emission to the environment. The water consumption in RAS is entirely based on water exchange to compensate for evaporation, incidental losses ...

Schneider, O.; Schram, E.; Poelman, M.; Rothuis, A. J.; Duijn, A. P.

2010-01-01

153

Electron deflector in UHV system: scattered electrons in ebeam evaporation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evaporating electron gun in UHV systems has a side-effect that it gives rise to large quantities of scattered and secondary electrons. These electrons may cause damage to sensitive samples and may yield lift-off problems of resist defined patterns. We designed an electron deflector to deflect the electrons and measured the current caused by the electrons during the evaporation of iron. PMID:18377025

van Veenhuizen, Marc J; Moodera, J

2008-03-01

154

CRT electron-optical system  

Science.gov (United States)

CRT is the most successful electron optical system, commercially. Over a hundred million systems are produced each year, and distributed to the whole world as television sets or personal computers. Therefore, the system has to be extremely cost and power effective, and ergonomics is the important issue at its design. Also, CRT has to be bright enough to be watched in the luminous living or office room. Therefore, electron beam current and anode voltage (CRT screen voltage) are as high as 0.5 to 7 mA and 20 to 33 kV, respectively. These unique restrictions cause unique electron lens design such as in-line rotationally asymmetrical lens or dynamic quadrupole lens and deflection yoke design such as self converging deflection yoke which produces barrel shaped vertical and pin-cushion shaped horizontal magnetic fields. In this paper the recent technical advancement and future trends of the CRT electron optical system will be discussed. The discussion will be restricted only to the picture tube, and other devices such as camera tube, oscilloscope tube will be excluded.

Shirai, Shoji

1995-09-01

155

Sustainable Treatment of Aquaculture Effluents—What Can We Learn from the Past for the Future?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many aquaculture systems generate high amounts of wastewater containing compounds such as suspended solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Today, aquaculture is imperative because fish demand is increasing. However, the load of waste is directly proportional to the fish production. Therefore, it is necessary to develop more intensive fish culture with efficient systems for wastewater treatment. A number of physical, chemical and biological methods used in conventional wastewater treatment have been applied in aquaculture systems. Constructed wetlands technology is becoming more and more important in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS because wetlands have proven to be well-established and a cost-effective method for treating wastewater. This review gives an overview about possibilities to avoid the pollution of water resources; it focuses initially on the use of systems combining aquaculture and plants with a historical review of aquaculture and the treatment of its effluents. It discusses the present state, taking into account the load of pollutants in wastewater such as nitrates and phosphates, and finishes with recommendations to prevent or at least reduce the pollution of water resources in the future.

Ariel E. Turcios

2014-02-01

156

Assessing governability in capture fisheries, aquaculture and coastal zones  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Capture fi sheries, aquaculture and coastal zones are closely-related resource systems with varying representations of diversity, complexity, dynamics and scale. They require different management approaches and appropriate governance structures which, as this paper suggests, can be determined partly through assessments of their governability. The governability of a resource system is defined as its overall capacity for governance, which is assessed by determining the properties, qualities and...

2008-01-01

157

Power electronic systems Walsh analysis with Matlab  

CERN Document Server

A Totally Different Outlook on Power Electronic System AnalysisPower Electronic Systems: Walsh Analysis with MATLAB® builds a case for Walsh analysis as a powerful tool in the study of power electronic systems. It considers the application of Walsh functions in analyzing power electronic systems, and the advantages offered by Walsh domain analysis of power electronic systems. Solves Power Electronic Systems in an Unconventional WayThis book successfully integrates power electronics as well as systems and control. Incorporating a complete orthonormal function set very much unlike the sine-cosin

Deb, Anish

2014-01-01

158

Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture (IMTA): A sustainable, pioneering alternative for marine cultures in Galicia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) is a production strategy that combines culture of different commercial species : fish, crustacean, mollusc or algae. In some countries with a highly developed aquaculture, IMTA generates an added value to marine cultures since its products have access to labelling that certifies to consumers that it has been reared with systems that have a low, zero or even a positive impact on the environment. This book describes some methods of ITMA currently in ...

Guerrero, Salvador; Cremades, Javier

2012-01-01

159

How to measure the economic impacts of changes in growth, feed efficiency and survival in aquaculture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article we introduce a variety of bio-economic models that can be used to calculate the economic benefits associated with improved productivity in aquaculture. In the aquaculture industry, three important biological productivity factors are growth, survival and feed efficiency. The profitability of improving productivity factors, especially growth, is highly dependent upon the cost factor structure, production system, its constraints and other factors within the supply chain. Therefor...

2012-01-01

160

DIFFERENT PLANT DERIVED BY-PRODUCTS USE IN FRESHWATER AQUACULTURE IN INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As aquacultural practices increase in magnitude and hasten the flow ofmaterials and energy through the systems, compared to natural conditions, it stands toreason that many organic wastes can, save both monetary and caloric inputs into themodern aquaculture if these wastes are processed suitably and used as manure inincreasing productivity of the pond or as feed stuff to replace high cost ingredients in theformulation of diet for fish.

KAUSIK MONDAL

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Modelling of interactions between inshore and offshore aquaculture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Offshore aquaculture is the subject of intense debate, focusing on feasibility, sustainability, and the potential for effective expansion in the context of competing uses of the coastal zone, and a world requirement for an additional thirty million tonnes of aquatic products by 2050. A modelling framework that integrates the SWAT model for the watershed, Delft3D for ocean circulation, and the EcoWin model for long-term (10 year) ecological simulations, was developed for integrated analysis of catchment, inshore waters, and offshore aquaculture, providing an approach that addresses production, environmental effects, and disease interactions. This framework was tested using a case study in SE Portugal, for a system-scale modelling domain with an ocean area of 470 km(2) and a coastal watershed area of 627 km(2). This domain contains an inshore area of 184 km(2) (Ria Formosa) subject to multiple (often conflicting) uses, including aquaculture of the high value (farmgate price > 10 epsilon kg(-1)) clam Tapes decussatus, and one of the first offshore aquaculture parks in the world, located at distance of 3.6 nm from the coast, at a water depth of 30-60 m, with an area of 15 km(2). The park contains 60 leases, of which at most 70% are for finfish cage culture, and at least 30% for bivalve longline culture. A substantial part of the dissolved nutrients required to drive primary production that constitutes the food source for clams originates from the coastal catchment. Although stakeholder perception is that nutrients are mainly linked to point-source discharges from wastewater treatment plants, watershed modelling indicates that 55% of the nitrogen and 70% of the phosphorus loads are from diffuse sources. The residence time of waters in the inshore area is low(1-2 days), and consequently pelagic primary production takes place offshore, and drives inshore clam production. The longline culture of Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in the offshore park reduces inshore food availability for clams: simulationssuggest that a 3% decrease in clam yields will occur due to offshore mussel cultivation, at a cost of 1.2 million epsilon. This is offset by revenue from offshore culture, but is a source of stakeholder conflict. Potential disease spread between the offshore and inshore systems was analysed using a particle tracking model, and allowed the development of a risk exposure map. This illustrates the challenges posed by hydrodynamic connectivity with respect to biosecurity of aquaculture and fisheries, both inshore and offshore. The model framework was also used for optimisation of stocking density, and analysis of combined culture of finfish and shellfish, both in terms of production and environmental effects. In the offshore aquaculture park, the models suggest that integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) of gilthead bream (Sparus aurata) and Mediterranean mussels allows for an increased harvestable biomass of mussels, particularly at higher stocking densities, and offsets some of the negative externalities of finfish culture. By quantifying issues such as reduced yields for inshore stakeholders due to offshore activity, and illustrating the need for strong governance to offset disease risks, dynamic models make a valuable contribution in assessing the feasibility of offshore aquaculture, and the general principles that should underpin licensing and regulation of this sector. We stress the need to go beyond the conventional spatial planning toolset in order to ensure an ecosystem approach to aquaculture, and the opportunities that exist for applying a systems framework in an information economy, where the capital costs of software and data have been sharply reduced. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ferreira, J. G.; Saurel, Camille

2014-01-01

162

Biogeochemical ecology of aquaculture ponds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two methods to determine rates of organic matter production and consumption were applied in shrimp aquaculture ponds. Several questions were posed: can net rates of organic matter production and consumption be determined accurately through application of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) mass balance in a pond with high advective through-put? Are organically loaded aquaculture ponds autotrophic? How do rates of organic production vary temporally? Are there diurnal changes in respiration rates? Four marine ponds in Hawaii have been evaluated for a 53 day period through the use of geochemical mass balances. All fluxes of DIC into and out of the ponds were considered. DIC was calculated from hourly pH measurements and weekly alkalinity measurements. Average uptake of DIC from the pond water, equivalent to net community production, revealed net autotrophy in all cases. Hourly and longer period variations in organic matter production rates were examined. The daily cycle dominated the variation in rates of net community production. Maximal rates of net community production were maintained for four to six hours starting in mid-morning. Respiration rates decreased rapidly during the night in two of the ponds and remained essentially constant in the others. A similar pattern of decreasing respiration at night was seen in freshwater shrimp ponds which were studied with incubations. A new method involving isotope dilution of 14C-labeled DIC was used to measure respiration rates in light and dark bottles. This method is an inexpensive and convenient procedure which should also be useful in other environments. The incubations demonstrated that plankton respiration rates peak at or soon after solar noon and vary over the course of the day by about a factor of two

1988-01-01

163

Scenarios for Resilient Shrimp Aquaculture in Tropical Coastal Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We contend there are currently two competing scenarios for the sustainable development of shrimp aquaculture in coastal areas of Southeast Asia. First, a landscape approach, where farming techniques for small-scale producers are integrated into intertidal areas in a way that the ecological functions of mangroves are maintained and shrimp farming diseases are controlled. Second, a closed system approach, where problems of disease and effluent are eliminated in closed recirculation ponds behind...

Bush, S. R.; Zwieten, P. A. M.; Visser, L. E.; Dijk, H.; Bosma, R. H.; Boer, W. F.; Verdegem, M. C. J.

2010-01-01

164

PROBLEMS OF BIOFOULING ON FISH–CAGE NETS IN AQUACULTURE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biofouling on fish–cage netting is a serious technical and economical problem to aquaculture worldwide. Compensation for the effects of biofouling must be included in cage system design and planning, as fouling can dramatically increase both weight and drag. Settlements of sessile plants and animals, with accumulation of the detritus diminish the size of mesh and can rapidly occlude mesh. Negative effect of smaller mesh size is changing in water flow trough the cages. Biofouling problems ne...

Merica Sliškovi?; Gorana Jeli?

2002-01-01

165

Advanced uncooled infrared system electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past two decades, Raytheon Systems Company (RSC), formerly Texas Instruments Defense Systems & Electronics Group, developed a robust family of products based on a low- cost, hybrid ferroelectric (FE) uncooled focal-plane array (FPA) aimed at meeting the needs for thermal imaging products across both military and commercial markets. Over the years, RSC supplied uncooled infrared (IR) sensors for applications such as in combat vehicles, man-portable weaponry, personnel helmets, and installation security. Also, various commercial IR systems for use in automobiles, boats, law enforcement, hand-held applications, building/site security, and fire fighting have been developed. These products resulted in a high degree of success where cooled IR platforms are too bulky and costly, and other uncooled implementations are less reliable or lack significant cost advantage. Proof of this great success is found in the large price reductions, the unprecedented monthly production rates, and the wide diversity of products and customers realized in recent years. The ever- changing needs of these existing and potential customers continue to fuel the advancement of both the primary technologies and the production capabilities of uncooled IR systems at RSC. This paper will describe a development project intended to further advance the system electronics capabilities of future uncooled IR products.

Neal, Henry W.

1998-07-01

166

Prediction of Suitable Harvest Time in Aquaculture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A model is provided to predict the prawn’s harvest in aquaculture through analytical research in agrometeorology, mathematical statistics, synoptic meteorology and et al. It is found out that the Benefit Analysis of the Best Harvest is on...

Zhaotang Shang; Lin Cheng; Mengsen Luo; Lang He; Zhigang Lu

2013-01-01

167

Microsoft Word - 8 Aquaculture 1.doc  

The opinions expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect the current opinion or policy of Environment and Heritage Service STRANGFORD LOUGH ECOLOGICAL CHANGE INVESTIGATION (SLECI) Work Package 8. Aquaculture ...

168

Advances in genomics for flatfish aquaculture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fish aquaculture is considered to be one of the most sustainable sources of protein for humans. Many different species are cultured worldwide, but among them, marine flatfishes comprise a group of teleosts of high commercial interest because of their highly prized white flesh. However, the aquaculture of these fishes is seriously hampered by the scarce knowledge on their biology. In recent years, various experimental ‘omics’ approaches have been applied to farmed flatfishes to increment t...

Cerda?, Joan; Manchado, Manuel

2013-01-01

169

Aquaculture and Poultry Industry, Useful Learned Lessons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The historical development of aquaculture and poultry industry in Egypt was reviewed starting from the 60's of the 20th century up to 2011. Several and different stages of historical development for both sectors were described starting from the late 70's of the 20th century until the year 2011. Production figures, market prices, advantages and disadvantages of poultry industry compared with aquaculture were discussed. Many useful practices applied in poultry industry and could be applied also...

Abdelhadi, Y. M.

2012-01-01

170

Risks of Using Antifouling Biocides in Aquaculture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the ma...

Francisco Antonio Guardiola; Alberto Cuesta; José Meseguer; Maria Angeles Esteban

2012-01-01

171

Economics of aquaculture development in greece  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

(OCR non controlé) General terms of reference for the project and conclusions reached by other consultants point out that Greece offers good opportunities to develop aquaculture to the level of a socially and economically significant industry. Aquaculture development is stated to contribute to Government aims such as food security, preservation of foreign exchange, social and economic development of remote rural areas and contribution to the gross national product by rational use of water re...

Bailly, Denis

1987-01-01

172

Stensund wastewater aquaculture. Studies of key factors for its optimization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is a summary of an in-depth study of key factors in the function of a 7-year-old aquaculture system designed for treatment and recycling of domestic wastewater at Stensund, Trosa, Sweden. The reported areas are: wastewater flows, reduction of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), phosphorus, nitrogen, and fecal bacteria. Plant production is recorded as harvested biomass, and energy results are given as generated heat and electricity consumption. Special studies were conducted on the reduction of copper by anaerobic treatment. Nitrification was studied with different filter media. Microalgal autofocculation of phosphorus was studied in relation to pH and water hardness for the green algal genus Scenedesmus. Limiting factors for the growth of Daphnia magna in the zooplankton step of the constructed aquatic food-web was studied in a specially designed reproduction test. The results are analyzed in order to optimize the function of the wastewater aquaculture

Guterstam, B.; Forsberg, L.E. [Stensund Ecological Center, Stensunds Fold Center, S-61991 Trosa (Sweden); Buczynska, A. [Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Lodz, 175 Wolczanska strasse, PL-90942 Lodz (Poland); Frelek, K. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Medical University of Gdansk, Al. Gen. J. Hallera 107, PL-80416 Gdansk (Poland); Pilkaityte, R. [Natural Science Faculty, University of Klaipeda, LT-5813 Klaipeda (Lithuania); Reczek, L. [Department of Water Supply and Sewage Systems, Warsaw Agricultural University, 166 Nowoursynowska strasse, PL-02787 Warsaw (Poland); Rucevska, I. [Latvian Environmental Data Center, Straumes 2, Jurmala LV 2015 (Latvia)

1998-10-21

173

Direct calculation of electron density in many-electron systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electron density is a very attractive starting point for the construction of models to understand the behaviour of atoms, molecules and solids. It is therefore desirable to have a reliable method for the direct calculation of electron density in such systems, bypassing the many-electron wave function and the Schroedinger equation. Some recent attempts in this direction are briefly reviewed.

Deb, B.M. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Bombay. Dept. of Chemistry)

1981-11-20

174

Characterization and significance of indicator bacteria in commercial aquaculture production facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Catfish production is the single largest segment of the domestic aquaculture industry. Waste discharges from aquaculture operations are regulated at both the federal and state level. The federal government regulates surface water discharges from aquaculture facilities using regulations promulgated under the Clean Water Act. These regulations designate concentrated aquatic animal production facilities as point sources of pollution, thus subjecting them to National Pollution Discharge Elimination Systems (NPDES) permit requirements. Previous studies of aquaculture effluents have primarily characterized the organic, chemical, and physical components of discharged wastewater and have only characterized to a limited extent the microbial component of discharged wastewater. This study was initiated to examine the levels of four wastewater indicator bacteria groups and to examine to the genus level the members of one of these groups in wastewater, or potential wastewater, from aquaculture facilities over the course of the growout season of several different species of fish. This study also examined the relationships between these bacterial levels and other water quality parameters and operational variables and enumerated and characterized Aeromonas hydrophila complex bacteria, members of which are potential water-borne pathogens. The effectiveness of waste stabilization ponds in the treatment of aquaculture wastewaters was also evaluated.

Fiederlein, R.J.; Davis, E.M.; Mathewson, J.J. [Univ. of Texas School of Public Health, Houston, TX (United States)

1996-11-01

175

Electronics 2010: A New Systems Approach to Teaching Electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

These are the slides for the MATEC NetWorks Webinar that was held on May 9, 2008 for Electronics 2010: A New Systems Approach to Teaching Electronics. Presented by Tom McGlew, a thirty year veteran to the electronics field, the presentation discusses new paths for electronics and the changing role of the technician, and the implications for curriculum. The goals of the eSyst project are also discussed, the needed curriculum changes and updates, and ideas for assessment.

2008-11-26

176

Electronic detection systems and methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electronic detection systems and methods are provided for detecting the unauthorized passage of a person or object past a checkpoint defined, for example, by a doorway to a room or building, an entrance or exit gate for a piece of property, a post or pole supporting the detection equipment or hidden detection means. The detection system includes one or more alarms which operate either in the vicinity of the unauthorized object or person detected and/or remote therefrom such as a central monitor station for monitoring a plurality of checkpoint locations. An alarm deactivating device is employed which may be carried by a person or object and which either generates a code or deactivating signal and broadcasts same to a receiver located at the checkpoint or predeterminately affect or alters a radiation field generated in the vicinity of the checkpoint which code, signal or field change is detected and employed to deactivate and alarm or other circuit.

Lemelson, J.H.

1984-09-11

177

Modeling of power electronic systems with EMTP  

Science.gov (United States)

In view of the potential impact of power electronics on power systems, there is need for a computer modeling/analysis tool to perform simulation studies on power systems with power electronic components as well as to educate engineering students about such systems. The modeling of the major power electronic components of the NASA Space Station Freedom Electric Power System is described along with ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) and it is demonstrated that EMTP can serve as a very useful tool for teaching, design, analysis, and research in the area of power systems with power electronic components. EMTP modeling of power electronic circuits is described and simulation results are presented.

Tam, Kwa-Sur; Dravid, Narayan V.

1989-01-01

178

Evaluation of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Health during a Superintensive Aquaculture Growout Using NMR-Based Metabolomics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc). The re...

Schock, Tracey B.; Duke, Jessica; Goodson, Abby; Weldon, Daryl; Brunson, Jeff; Leffler, John W.; Bearden, Daniel W.

2013-01-01

179

Bioactivity of phytochemicals in some lesser-known plants and their effects and potential applications in livestock and aquaculture production systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Livestock and aquaculture production is under political and social pressure, especially in the European Union (EU), to decrease pollution and environmental damage arising due to animal agriculture. The EU has banned the use of antibiotics and other chemicals, which have been shown to be effective in promoting growth and reducing environment pollutants because of the risk caused to humans by chemical residues in food and by antibiotic resistance being passed on to human pathogens. As a result of this, scientists have intensified efforts in exploiting plants, plant extracts or natural plant compounds as potential natural alternatives for enhancing the livestock productivity. This paper discusses work on the effects of various phytochemicals and plant secondary metabolites in ruminant and fish species. The focus is on (i) plants such as Ananas comosus (pine apple), Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) and Azadirachta indica (neem) containing anthelmintic compounds and for their use for controlling internal parasites; (ii) plants containing polyphenols and their applications for protecting proteins from degradation in the rumen, increasing efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in rumen and decreasing methane emission; for using as antioxidants, antibacterial and antihelmintic agents; and for changing meat colour and for increasing n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in meat; (iii) saponin-rich plants such as quillaja, yucca and Sapindus saponaria for increasing the efficiency of rumen fermentation, decreasing methane emission and enhancing growth; for producing desired nutritional attributes such as lowering of cholesterol in monogastric animals; for increasing growth of fish (common carp and Nile tilapia) and for changing male to female ratio in tilapia; and for use as molluscicidal agents; (iv) Moringa oleifera leaves as a source of plant growth factor(s), antioxidants, beta-carotene, vitamin C, and various glucosinolates and their degraded products for possible use as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antipest agents; (v) Jatropha curcas toxic variety with high levels of various phytochemicals such as trypsin inhibitor, lectin, phytate and phorbol esters in seeds limiting the use of seed meal in fish and livestock diets; and the use of phorbol esters as bio-pesticidal agent; and (vi) lesser-known legumes such as Entada phaseoloides seeds containing high levels of trypsin inhibitor and saponins, Sesbania aculeate seeds rich in non-starch polysaccharides and Mucuna pruriens var. utilis seeds rich in l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and their potential as fish feed; Cassia fistula seeds as a source of antioxidants; and the use of Canavalia ensiformis, C. gladiata and C. virosa seeds containing high levels of trypsin inhinitor, lectins and canavanine. The paper also presents some challenges and future areas of work in this field. PMID:22444893

Makkar, H P S; Francis, G; Becker, K

2007-10-01

180

Aquaculture Production Strategy for the State of Maine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Maine State Planning Office and the Department of Marine Resources commissioned the report to assess the economic potential of aquaculture in Maine and to devise a public policy strategy that will help the aquaculture industry meet the research, marke...

F. Schauffler

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

THE STATUS OF AQUACULTURE IN THE WORLD AND IN EUROPE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the past few years, several authors have presented the production data and the problems in Croatian aquaculture and suggested measures for improvements. Some of these authors referred to some sectors of aquaculture in the world. This paper reports basic statistical data of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, United Nations) of the world aquaculture during the period of 1990–1999. The annual growth rate in that period averaged about 10%, and in the year 1999 the aquaculture pr...

Nikola Fijan

2002-01-01

182

A System for Vapor Cooling Electronic Equipment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The patent application pertains generally to heat transfer systems and more particularly to a closed system for cooling electronic equipment. A vapor cooling system comprises a liquid boiled by heat from a magnetron and collected and forced upward by the ...

H. Boehm

1976-01-01

183

Investigation into the sustainability of organic aquaculture of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wild stocks of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua are low. With fisheries in decline, continued demand for cod has led to a fledgling aquaculture industry and current forecasts call for rapid growth. However, critics blame aquaculture of carnivorous species for further depleting fish stocks and for its wider effects on the marine environment. We examine the activities of Johnson Seafarms, a sea-cage organic cod farming facility in the Shetland Islands, to investigate whether “organic” cod farming can be environmentally, economically, and socially sustainable. Data were collected via public questionnaires and interviews with aquaculture experts. The results show that, before it closed in 2008, Johnson Seafarms was addressing the environmental concerns traditionally associated with aquaculture of carnivorous species and that economic viability is possible as a market exists for organically farmed cod at prices higher than for wild fish. We conclude that organic cod farming, as was practiced in the Shetland Islands, is sustainable on that scale. While the industry has room for measured expansion, overexpansion would increase pressure on natural systems, undermining environmental and, ultimately, social and economic sustainability. Producers and regulators should consider alternative techniques, including land-based or integrated aquaculture systems. Any development should be accompanied by further research regarding the industry’s sustainability.

Benjamin Birt

2009-09-01

184

Cultivable intestinal microbiota of yellowtail juveniles (Seriola lalandi) in an aquaculture system / Microbiota intestinal cultivable de juveniles de dorada (Seriola lalandi) en un sistema de acuicultura  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La dorada ("yellowtail", Seriola lalandi) ha sido cultivada durante los últimos años, y su expansión se ha debido al mayor conocimiento científico-técnico así como a la creciente demanda, convirtiéndose en una promisoria especie para la acuicultura. Dado que el conocimiento de la microbiota intestin [...] al de esta especie es muy limitado, el objetivo de este estudio es describir las poblaciones bacterianas asociadas al tracto intestinal de Seriola lalandi cultivada en Chile. La composición de la microbiota fue analizada en dos etapas de crecimiento diferenciadas por peso y parámetros como SGR y FCR. Los juveniles (peso inicial promedio 7.33 ± 0.30 g) y pre-adultos (81.7 ± 19.0 g) fueron alimentados con dieta comercial por 33 y 50 días, respectivamente. Las primeras muestras fueron recolectadas al término del primer ensayo en ejemplares de 50 g app., y la segunda muestra fue tomada al término del segundo ensayo en peces de 370 g app. La composición de la microbiota fue examinada mediante aislamiento convencional en medio de cultivo de Agar Tripticasa Soya (TSA) seguido de secuenciación e identificación por 16S rRNA. Un total de dieciséis géneros fueron identificados, donde Pseudomonas, Vibrio y Staphylococcus fueron los géneros predominantes en peces de 50 g, mientras que Microbacterium y Francisella fueron los géneros predominantes en los peces de 370 g. Se determinó que la composición de la microbiota se ajustó a diferentes arreglos en función del tamaño del hospedero, donde los únicos géneros compartidos fueron Bacillus y Vibrio. El conocimiento de la microbiota intestinal de Seriola lalandi es el primer paso para explorar el adecuado manejo de la misma, así como el desarrollo de probióticos y también obtener referencias de la microbiota de peces sanos en condiciones de cultivo. Abstract in english The yellowtail (Seriola lalandi) has been farmed for many years and is becoming a promising aquaculture species. Knowledge of the intestinal microbiota of this species is very limited. Thus, the aim of this study is to describe the bacterial populations associated with the intestinal tract of Seriol [...] a lalandi reared in Chile. The microbiota composition was analyzed at two growth stages distinguished by weight and parameters such as Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR). Juveniles (mean initial weight 7.33 ± 0.30 g) and pre-adults (81.7 ± 19.0 g) were fed with commercial diet for 33 and 50 days, respectively. The first intestinal samples were collected at the end of Trial 1 from specimens weighing approximately 50 g while the second samples were obtained at the end of Trial 2 from specimens weighing approximately 370 g. The microbiota composition was examined using conventional isolation in Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) followed by 16S rRNA sequencing and identification. In total, 16 genera were identified. Pseudomonas, Vibrio and Staphylococcus were the predominant genera in fish at the 50 g stage, whereas Microbacterium and Francisella were the predominant genera in the 370 g stage. The microbiota composition showed different assemblages, depending on host size, with Bacillus and Vibrio being the only genera that were shared. Knowledge of the intestinal microbiota of Seriola lalandi is the first step in the exploration of microbiota management and the development of probiotics, as well as in the identification of the bacterial populations in healthy fish under cultured conditions.

Aguilera, Eduardo; Yany, Gabriel; Romero, Jaime.

185

Differentiated Use of Electronic Case Management Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ICT is used to support and automate case management practices of courts. This use of ICT is here referred to as electronic case management systems. These systems can be applied at different levels of sophistication, on different types of caseflows and with different components. This article introduces the term "differentiated electronic case management systems", since the development...

Erwin Rooze

2013-01-01

186

X2000 power system electronics development  

Science.gov (United States)

The X2000 Power System Electronics (PSE) is a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) task to develop a new generation of power system building blocks for potential use on future deep space missions. The effort includes the development of electronic components and modules that can be used as building blocks in the design of generic spacecraft power systems.

Carr, Greg; Deligiannis, Frank; Franco, Lauro; Jones, Loren; Lam, Barbara; Nelson, Ron; Pantaleon, Jose; Ruiz, Ian; Treichler, John; Wester, Gene; Sauers, Jim; Giampoli, Paul; Haskell, Russ; Mulvey, Jim; Repp, John

2005-01-01

187

Water budgets for freshwater aquaculture ponds with reference to effluent volume  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the consumptive water use for freshwater pond aquaculture for semi-intensive carps farming practices. The consumptive use of water includes evaporation loss, seepage loss and water exchanges requirements. The water requirement has been estimated to be10.3 m3/Kg of fish production under present study for semi-intensive culture and with supplemental feeding. Out of which7.6 m3/Kg of fish production is system associated requirement. On an average the evaporation loss from the pond is1498.3 mm/year and seepage loss per year is about1182.60 mm/year. Seepage and water exchange losses recharge the ground water aquifers and if they are treated and recycled, the water use in aquaculture can be reduced significantly. A further reduction in fresh water use in pond aquaculture is possible through development of intensive and superintensive culture systems and aqua feeds.

K. K. Sharma

2013-07-01

188

Understanding electronic systems in semiconductor quantum dots  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Systems of confined electrons are found everywhere in nature in the form of atoms where the orbiting electrons are confined by the Coulomb attraction of the nucleus. Advancement of nanotechnology has, however, provided us with an alternative way to confine electrons by using artificial confining potentials. A typical structure of this nature is the quantum dot, a nanoscale system which consists of few confined electrons. There are many types of quantum dots ranging from self-assembled to miniaturized semiconductor quantum dots. In this work we are interested in electrostatically confined semiconductor quantum dot systems where the electrostatic confining potential that traps the electrons is generated by external electrodes, doping, strain or other factors. A large number of semiconductor quantum dots of this type are fabricated by applying lithographically patterned gate electrodes or by etching on two-dimensional electron gases in semiconductor heterostructures. Because of this, the whole structure can be treated as a confined two-dimensional electron system. Quantum confinement profoundly affects the way in which electrons interact with each other, and external parameters such as a magnetic field. Since a magnetic field affects both the orbital and the spin motion of the electrons, the interplay between quantum confinement, electron–electron correlation effects and the magnetic field gives rise to very interesting physical phenomena. Thus, confined systems of electrons in a semiconductor quantum dot represent a unique opportunity to study fundamental quantum theories in a controllable atomic-like setup. In this work, we describe some common theoretical models which are used to study confined systems of electrons in a two-dimensional semiconductor quantum dot. The main emphasis of the work is to draw attention to important physical phenomena that arise in confined two-dimensional electron systems under various quantum regimes. (comment)

2013-11-01

189

Coincidence imaging system with electron optics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a part of multiple-detector system for coincidence instrumental neutron activation analysis (CINAA) a new method which includes a devoted electron optic unit has been built. In order to achieve higher sensitivity, enhanced contrast and higher spatial resolution the new coincidence imaging arrangement newly incorporates to electron optic unit, source, the gamma detector and the Timepix electron detector. The electron optic unit can be configured for different electron energies. The description of the assembled apparatus, calibration and performance for different electron energies are presented.

Kroupa, Martin, E-mail: martin.kroupa@utef.cvut.cz [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Jakubek, Jan; Krejci, Frantisek; Zemlicka, J. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Horacek, M.; Radlicka, T.; Vlcek, I. [Institute of Scientific Instruments AS CR, v.v.i., Kralovopolska 147, 61264 Brno (Czech Republic)

2011-05-15

190

Coincidence imaging system with electron optics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of multiple-detector system for coincidence instrumental neutron activation analysis (CINAA) a new method which includes a devoted electron optic unit has been built. In order to achieve higher sensitivity, enhanced contrast and higher spatial resolution the new coincidence imaging arrangement newly incorporates to electron optic unit, source, the gamma detector and the Timepix electron detector. The electron optic unit can be configured for different electron energies. The description of the assembled apparatus, calibration and performance for different electron energies are presented.

2011-05-01

191

Application of physics technology in aquaculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments show that after hydrobiology stimulation by a certain dosage of a physical field such as electromagnetic, laser, or neutron irradiation, hydorbiological activity can be improved, and consequently yield and quality enhanced. Recent advances in the application of physical fields in aquaculture are summarized, and prospects for future developments presented

2002-09-01

192

Perception of Alabama Science and Career Technology Teachers Concerning Teaching the Alabama Aquaculture Course of Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to improve teachers' ability to effectively use aquaculture as a tool to teach math and science. The study population included Alabama science and career tech teachers that were certified to teach the Alabama aquaculture course of study. The teachers were electronically surveyed regarding their perceptions of the importance of the aquascience elective and aquaculture science course content standards, their knowledge of those topics and how they perceived the quality of available teaching materials. While all of the content standards were rated above average in importance, aquaculture career awareness and safety concerns were rated the highest by teachers. Teachers were most knowledgeable about career opportunities, categorization of aquaculture species, and the adaptations of aquatic organisms. The average materials ratings were below average for all content standards. The highest rated materials were for career opportunities, categorization of species and safety topics. Using Borich's (1980) model of mean weighted discrepancy scores, the control of diseases and pests in the aquatic environment and concepts associated with health management of aquacrops were identified as top priorities for in-service teacher training. Aquaculture industry infrastructure and the effects of the fishing industry were also identified as priority training topics. Teachers were self-divided into 3 categories those that taught science (SCI), career tech (CTE) and those that taught both (BOTH). They were further divided by their level of experience. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed a significant effect between teacher types but there was no significant interaction effect between (a) teacher type and experience level or (b) the two levels of experience. A follow-up analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the science teachers thought significantly less of the available materials than either the CTE or BOTH groups.

Cline, David John

193

Recommendations for practical measures to mitigate the impact of aquaculture on the environment in three areas of the Philippines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An assessment of the severity and extent of aquaculture impact and the estimation of sustainable carrying capacity were undertaken in three areas of the Philippines - Bolinao (marine site, Dagupan, (brackishwater and Taal Lake (freshwater. This paper describes the potential mitigating measures that could be taken to reduce nutrient release from aquaculture, increase nutrient uptake using extractive species, and possible early warning systems for critical states of the tide when there is reduced flushing.

Tarzan Legovi?

2008-12-01

194

Reared fish, farmed escapees and wild fish stocks— a triangle of pathogen transmission of concern to Mediterranean aquaculture management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although aquaculture in the Mediterranean is a relatively young industry, finfish diseases have been reported to cause considerable problems and mortalities among the farmed stocks. In general, the farming activity and the open design of Mediterranean aquaculture systems allow the transmission of infectious pathogens within and among farm facilities. Fish health and biosecurity programmes at farms have focused on the most obvious pathways for transmission of pathogens, i.e. through transport ...

Arechavala Lo?pez, Pablo; Sa?nchez Jerez, Pablo; Bayle Sempere, Just T.; Uglem, Ingebrigt; Mladineo, Ivona

2013-01-01

195

Electronic document management in office systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper summarizes the main aspects concerning the management of electronic documents, that is, documents as they are represented inside the automated office. An electronic document is a multimedia data object which is an aggregation of text, images, attribute, and audio components. A system for the management of electronic documents will be constituted by a number of electronic document servers operating in a network environment together with the user workstations, which are the source of...

1985-01-01

196

NATIONAL ELECTRONIC DISEASE SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NEDSS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) project is a public health initiative to provide a standard-based, integrated approach to disease surveillance and to connect public health surveillance to the burgeoning clinical information systems infrastructure. NEDS...

197

A history of fish vaccination: science-based disease prevention in aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disease prevention and control are crucial in order to maintain a sustainable aquaculture, both economically and environmentally. Prophylactic measures based on stimulation of the immune system of the fish have been an effective measure for achieving this goal. Immunoprophylaxis has become an important part in the successful development of the fish-farming industry. The first vaccine for aquaculture, a vaccine for prevention of yersiniosis in salmonid fish, was licensed in USA in 1976. Since then the use of vaccines has expanded to new countries and new species simultaneous with the growth of the aquaculture industry. This paper gives an overview of the achievements in fish vaccinology with particular emphasis on immunoprophylaxis as a practical tool for a successful development of bioproduction of aquatic animals. PMID:24099805

Gudding, Roar; Van Muiswinkel, Willem B

2013-12-01

198

Electronic Money: A Viable Payment System?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores some of the legal and practical issues related to the implementation of electronic money placed in smart cards as a viable online payment system. This is a subject of particular importance as many there are many hopes from the financial industry about the implementation of an electronic currency system will create a great method for small transactions, both online and offline.

Guadamuz, Andres

2003-01-01

199

Evaluation on Biofilter in Recirculating Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture pays more attention as a bio-integrated food production system that serves as a model of sustainable aquaculture, minimizes waste discharge, increases diversity and yields multiple products. The objectives of this research were to analyze the efficiency of total ammonia nitrogen biofiltration and its effect on carrying capacity of fish rearing units. Pilot-scale bioreactor was designed with eight run-raceways (two meters of each that assembled in series. Race 1-3 were used to stock silky worm (Tubifex sp as detrivorous converter, then race 4-8 were used to plant three species of leaf-vegetable as photoautotrophic converters, i.e; spinach (Ipomoea reptana, green mustard (Brassica juncea and basil (Ocimum basilicum. The three plants were placed in randomized block design based on water flow direction. Mass balance of nutrient analysis, was applied to figure out the efficiency of bio-filtration and its effect on carrying capacity of rearing units. The result of the experiment showed that 86.5 % of total ammonia nitrogen removal was achieved in 32 days of culturing period. This efficiency able to support the carrying capacity of the fish tank up to 25.95 kg/lpm with maximum density was 62.69 kg/m3 of fish biomass productionDoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.80-85 [How to cite this article: Sumoharjo, S.  and Maidie, A. (2013. Evaluation on Biofilter in Recirculating Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture.  International Journal of  Science and Engineering, 4(2,80-85. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.80-85

Asfie Maidie

2013-06-01

200

High perveance electron gun for the electron cooling system  

CERN Multimedia

The cooling time in the electron cooling system is inversely proportional to the beam current. To obtain high current of the electron beam the control electrode of the gun is provided with a positive potential and an electrostatic trap for secondary electrons appears inside the electron gun. This leads to a decrease in the gun perveance. To avoid this problem, the adiabatic high perveance electron gun with the clearing control electrode is designed in JINR (J. Bosser, Y. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, E. Syresin et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 391 (1996) 103. Yu. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, A. Sidorin, A. Smirnov, E. Syresin, The generation of electron beams with perveance of 3-6 mu A/V sup 3 sup / sup 2 , Proceedings of SCHEF'99). The clearing control electrode has a transverse electric field, which clears secondary electrons. Computer simulations of the potential map were made with RELAX3D computer code (C.J. Kost, F.W. Jones, RELAX3D User's Guide and References Manual).

Korotaev, Yu V; Petrov, A; Sidorin, A; Smirnov, A; Syresin, E M; Titkova, I

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

High perveance electron gun for the electron cooling system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cooling time in the electron cooling system is inversely proportional to the beam current. To obtain high current of the electron beam the control electrode of the gun is provided with a positive potential and an electrostatic trap for secondary electrons appears inside the electron gun. This leads to a decrease in the gun perveance. To avoid this problem, the adiabatic high perveance electron gun with the clearing control electrode is designed in JINR (J. Bosser, Y. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, E. Syresin et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 391 (1996) 103. Yu. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, A. Sidorin, A. Smirnov, E. Syresin, The generation of electron beams with perveance of 3-6 ?A/V3/2, Proceedings of SCHEF'99). The clearing control electrode has a transverse electric field, which clears secondary electrons. Computer simulations of the potential map were made with RELAX3D computer code (C.J. Kost, F.W. Jones, RELAX3D User's Guide and References Manual)

2000-02-21

202

High perveance electron gun for the electron cooling system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cooling time in the electron cooling system is inversely proportional to the beam current. To obtain high current of the electron beam the control electrode of the gun is provided with a positive potential and an electrostatic trap for secondary electrons appears inside the electron gun. This leads to a decrease in the gun perveance. To avoid this problem, the adiabatic high perveance electron gun with the clearing control electrode is designed in JINR (J. Bosser, Y. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, E. Syresin et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 391 (1996) 103. Yu. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, A. Sidorin, A. Smirnov, E. Syresin, The generation of electron beams with perveance of 3-6 {mu}A/V{sup 3/2}, Proceedings of SCHEF'99). The clearing control electrode has a transverse electric field, which clears secondary electrons. Computer simulations of the potential map were made with RELAX3D computer code (C.J. Kost, F.W. Jones, RELAX3D User's Guide and References Manual)

Korotaev, Yu.; Meshkov, I.; Petrov, A.; Sidorin, A.; Smirnov, A.; Syresin, E.; Titkova, I. E-mail: kitti@nusun.jinr.ru

2000-02-21

203

Enhancement of existing geothermal resource utilization by cascading to intensive aquaculture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A demonstration high rate aquaculture production system utilizing a cascaded geothermal resource was designed, constructed and operated to fulfill the objectives of this project. Analysis of the energy and water balances for the system indicated that the addition of an Aquaculture Facility expanded the use of the existing resource. This expanded use in no way affected the up- stream processes. Analysis of the system`s energy and water requirements indicated that the present resource was under-utilized and could be expanded. Energy requirements appeared more limiting than water use, but the existing system could be expanded to a culture volume of 72,000 gal. This system would have a potential production capacity of 93,600 lb/yr with a potential market value of $280,00/yr. Based on the results of this study, the heat remaining in the geothermal fluid from one square foot of operating greenhouse is sufficient to support six gallons of culture water for a high density aquaculture facility. Thus, the over 1.5M ft{sup 2} of existing greenhouse space in New Mexico, has the potential to create an aquaculture industry of nearly 9M gal. This translates to an annual production potential of 11.7M lb with a market value of $35.lM.

Zachritz, W.H., II; Polka, R.; Schoenmackers

1996-04-01

204

A simple electron-beam lithography system  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A large number of applications of electron-beam lithography (EBL) systems in nanotechnology have been demonstrated in recent years. In this paper we present a simple and general-purpose EBL system constructed by insertion of an electrostatic deflector plate system at the electron-beam exit of the column of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The system can easily be mounted on most standard SEM systems. The tested setup allows an area of up to about 50 x 50 pm to be scanned, if the upper limit for acceptable reduction of the SEM resolution is set to 10 run. We demonstrate how the EBL system can be used to write three-dimensional nanostructures by electron-beam deposition. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Mølhave, Kristian; Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard

2005-01-01

205

An Electronic System for Home Care Protocols  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is demonstration of an Electronic Tracking System being implemented in several Home Health Agencies in the US. It uses the Home Health Care Classification (HHCC) System, a standardized terminology designed and developed to document patient care. The goal it to take the coded data to design the Electronic Tracking System as a method for predicting resource requirements, tracking care needs, and measuring the outcomes of the care.

Saba, Virginia K.; Irwin, Ruth Galten

2001-01-01

206

Merging remotely sensed data, models and indicators for a sustainable development of coastal aquaculture in Algeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Finfish cage farming is an economically relevant activity, which exerts pressures on coastal systems and thus require a science-based management, based on the Ecosystem Approach, in order to be carry out in a sustainable way. Within MEDINA project (EU 282977), ocean color data and models were used for estimating indicators of pressures of aquaculture installations along the north African coast. These indicators can provide important support for decision makers in the allocation of new zones for aquaculture, by taking into account the suitability of an area for this activity and minimizing negative environmental effects, thus enhancing the social acceptability of aquaculture. The increase in the number of farms represents a strategic objective for the Algerian food production sector, which is currently being supported by different national initiatives. The case-study presented in this work was carried out in the Gulf of Bejaia. Water quality for aquaculture was first screened based on ocean color CDOM data (http://www.globcolour.info/). The SWAN model was subsequently used to propagate offshore wave data and to derive wave height statistics. On this basis, sub-areas of the Gulf were ranked, according their optimality in respect to cage resistance and fish welfare requirements. At the three best sites an integrated aquaculture impact assessment model was therefore applied: this tool allows one to obtain a detailed representation of fish growth and population dynamics inside the rearing cages, and to simulate the deposition of uneaten food and faeces on the sediment and the subsequent mineralization of organic matter. This integrated model was used to produce a set of indicators of the fish cages environmental interaction under different scenarios of forcings (water temperature, feeding, currents). These model-derived indicators could usefully contribute to the implementation of the ecosystem approach for the management of aquaculture activities, also required by the implementation of the UNEP/MAP ecological approach.

Brigolin, Daniele; Venier, Chiara; Amine Taji, Mohamed; Lourguioui, Hichem; Mangin, Antoine; Pastres, Roberto

2014-05-01

207

Productivity in organic and conventional salmon aquaculture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report provides a comparative analysis of productivity in conventional and organic salmon aquaculture. Regulations in organic salmon farming impose several restrictions on production that are not present in conventional salmon farming. We have analysed the effect of a fish density regulation on the economic performance of salmon farms. A fish density regulation has two possible consequences. First, with a given cage volume, it leads to a reduction in total production at the farm. Second,...

Reithe, Siv; Tvetera?s, Ragnar

2000-01-01

208

PCR AS DIAGNOSTIC METHOD IN AQUACULTURE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PCR is an acronym for »polymerase chain reaction«, a technique based on detection and amplification of specific DNA and RNA sequences. It can be applied in diagnostics of hereditary diseases, forensics, population genetics, systematics, bioengineering, evolution biology, and also aquaculture. With this method it is possible to diagnose an array of viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases of fish, shellfish and crustaceans. The advantages of the technique are manifested in rapid obtaining of ...

Ivan?ica Strunjak-Perovi?; Natalija Topi? Popovi?

1999-01-01

209

Probiotics as control agents in aquaculture  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious diseases constitute a limiting factor in the development of the aquaculture production, and control has solely concentrated on the use of antibiotics. However, the massive use of antibiotics for the control of diseases has been questioned by acquisition of antibiotic resistance and the need of alternative is of prime importance. Probiotics, live microorganisms administered in adequate amounts that confer a healthy effect on the host, are emerging as significant microbial food supplements in the field of prophylaxis.

Geovanny D, Gómez R.; Balcázar, José Luis; Ma, Shen

2007-01-01

210

New aquaculture drugs under FDA review  

Science.gov (United States)

Only eight active pharmaceutical ingredients available in 18 drug products have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in aquaculture. The approval process can be lengthy and expensive, but several new drugs and label claims are under review. Progress has been made on approvals for Halamid (chloramine-T), Aquaflor (florfenicol) and 35% PeroxAid (hydrogen peroxide) as therapeutic drugs. Data are also being generated for AQUI-S 20E, a fish sedative.

Bowker, James D.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

2012-01-01

211

Evolution of oyster aquaculture : problems and perspectives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The total marine molluscs produced by aquaculture had increased from 1984 to 1990 by 1 000 000 tons going from 1 993 985 tons to 2 964 688 tons. The oyster production remained constant with 870 000 tons. Crassostrea gigas, the Japanese oyster, represented more than 80 % of the oyster production but high mortalities appeared in different countries connected to end of winter and summer mortalities and development of new diseases. The cultivation of Crassostrea virginica, the American oyster, wa...

Heral, Maurice

1993-01-01

212

Genomics in Eels — Towards Aquaculture and Biology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Freshwater eels (genus Anguilla), especially the species inhabiting the temperate areas such as the European, American and Japanese eels, are important aquaculture species. Although artificial reproduction has been attempted since the 1930s and large numbers of studies have been conducted, it has not yet fully succeeded. Problems in eel artificial breeding are highly diverse, for instance, lack of basic information about reproduction in nature, no appropriate food for larvae, high mortality, ...

2012-01-01

213

Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are ch...

Lakshmi, Bestha; Viswanath, Buddolla; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

2013-01-01

214

PCR AS DIAGNOSTIC METHOD IN AQUACULTURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PCR is an acronym for »polymerase chain reaction«, a technique based on detection and amplification of specific DNA and RNA sequences. It can be applied in diagnostics of hereditary diseases, forensics, population genetics, systematics, bioengineering, evolution biology, and also aquaculture. With this method it is possible to diagnose an array of viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases of fish, shellfish and crustaceans. The advantages of the technique are manifested in rapid obtaining of results, high specificity and sensitivity.

Ivan?ica Strunjak-Perovi?

1999-12-01

215

Graphics System in Vehicle Electronics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis three problems areas are studied related to embedded system and device driver programming: a GPS driver, the CAN Bus and study of graphics libraries suitable for embedded systems. The thesis has two parts: an academic study and an implementation phase based on the academic study. The Freescale i.MX31ADS development board together with ENEA's operating system OSE is used as a basis for the study and it is shown that OpenGL ES is best suited for the platform. Further the system c...

Kjellgren, Andreas

2009-01-01

216

Risks of using antifouling biocides in aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT). The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211(®)), Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine), zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i) predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii) the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF) biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms. PMID:22408407

Guardiola, Francisco Antonio; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, Maria Angeles

2012-01-01

217

Risks of Using Antifouling Biocides in Aquaculture  

Science.gov (United States)

Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT). The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211®), Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine), zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i) predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii) the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF) biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms.

Guardiola, Francisco Antonio; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, Jose; Esteban, Maria Angeles

2012-01-01

218

Risks of Using Antifouling Biocides in Aquaculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT. The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211®, Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine, zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms.

José Meseguer

2012-02-01

219

State of the art of Italian aquaculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to aquaculture production statistics published by FEAP (2007, Italy is the fifth largest fish producer in the European Union having a total quantity for 2006 estimated around 60,000 t. This data is exclusively referred to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, seabream (Sparus aurata, seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax and European eel (Anguilla anguilla but even if we consider the total aquaculture production elaborated by ISMEA (2006 through year 2005 including sturgeons, carps, striped bass, catfish and ornamental fish, Italy ranks fourth with 69,100 t after Norway (655,364 t, Great Britain (141,793 t and Greece (83,600 t. Over the last 15 years, Italian finfish production has known a decrease related to all the species mainly reared (trout, eel, carps, catfish except for the eurhyaline species that have had an important expansion (Table 1. Based on these considerations, in this work we describe the main features of fish aquaculture in Italy focalizing the attention to the single sectors of the farmed species and their trend for the future.

P. Melotti

2010-04-01

220

Electronic Ignition System for Liquid Explosive.  

Science.gov (United States)

An electronic ignition system for liquid explosives such as liquid propellant ammunition, is described. An SCR is used to provide a long life trigger with high reliability. An inductor is used to limit peak current and lengthen the spark.

G. L. Petersen L. L. Liedtke

1977-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

PROBLEMS OF BIOFOULING ON FISH–CAGE NETS IN AQUACULTURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biofouling on fish–cage netting is a serious technical and economical problem to aquaculture worldwide. Compensation for the effects of biofouling must be included in cage system design and planning, as fouling can dramatically increase both weight and drag. Settlements of sessile plants and animals, with accumulation of the detritus diminish the size of mesh and can rapidly occlude mesh. Negative effect of smaller mesh size is changing in water flow trough the cages. Biofouling problems necessitating purchase of a second sets of nets or more, and frequent cleaning and changing of biofouling. Changing and cleaning frequency depend on many factors such as: location of cages (near the coast or off shore, productivity of that location, time of the year, time period in which the cages are placed on that location (cause of loading of phosphorus and nitrogen from the unconsumed food in the sediment. Net changing and cleaning procedures are labor and capital intensive. Process of the cleaning of the nets is inadequate, especially when there isnžt adequate equipment available as it is case in smaller aquaculture industry. Chemical control of biofouling e. g. use of antifoulants is questioningly cause of their possible negative effects on breeding species and environment.

Merica Sliškovi?

2002-09-01

222

Protecting Industrial Control Systems from Electronic Threats  

CERN Document Server

This book is meant to help both the novice and expert in Information Technology (IT) security and industrial control systems (ICS) gain a better understanding of protecting ICSs from electronic threats. The term "ICS" was chosen as ICSs include Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA), Distributed Control Systems (DCS), Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs), field controllers, sensors, and drives, emission controls, building controls including fire suppression, thermostats, and elevator controls, and meters

Weiss, Joseph

2010-01-01

223

Using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for remediation of aquaculture water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Remediation of aquaculture water using microorganisms like Bacillus species is a burgeoning trend for the sustainable development of aquaculture industries. In this work, a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain (namely B. amyloliquefaciens HN), isolated from activated sludge of a polluted river, was evaluated for its potential in water remediation using simulated aquaculture water. B. amyloliquefaciens HN exhibited high tolerance towards 80 mg l-1 of nitrite-N and ammonia-N. It could effectively ...

2013-01-01

224

National activities in the field of Aquaculture: Ireland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This document was prepared in May 1995 by a group of invited aquaculture experts drawn from the Irish aquaculture industry, the Fisheries Research Centre, An Bord Iascaigh Mhara, Salmon Research Agency, Veterinary Research Laboratory, the Marine Institute and from University RTD laboratories. It was drafted as a contribution to the 1995 meeting of Directors of Fisheries Research Organisations of the European Union, and as a response to a review by DG XIV entitled "European Aquaculture Researc...

Griffith, David G.

1996-01-01

225

On the relationship between aquaculture and reduction fisheries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional aquaculture has to a large extent used herbivore species with limited requirements for additional feeding. However, in intensive aquaculture production one farm carnivore species like salmon and also feeds herbivore species with fishmeal as this increase growth. This has lead to a growing concern that increased aquaculture production poses an environmental threat to the species targeted in reduction fisheries as increased demand increase fishing pressure. In this paper we address ...

2000-01-01

226

Corrosion Reliability of Electronic Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Inherently two factors namely multi-material usage and potential bias makes electronic devices susceptible to corrosion if exposed to humid conditions. The problem is compounded today due to miniaturization and contamination effects. The reduction in size of the components and close spacing on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) for high density packing has greatly increased the risk of corrosion under humid conditions. An important issue is the failures due to electrolytic metal migration. This paper describes an investigation of the electrolytic migration of Sn-Pb solder lines on PCBs in humid environments under applied potential conditions. Studies were carried out using two electrode potentiostatic polarization experiments and measuring the resulting current due to electrolytic migration. The surface morphology of the electrodes before and after migration testing was investigates using SEM and EDS. An in-service failure of a Ceramic Capacitor due to electrolytic migration in humid environments is also presented.

Ambat, Rajan; Jensen, Stine G.

2008-01-01

227

Integration of thermal and food processing residuals into a system for commercial culture of freshwater shrimp (power plant waste heat utilization in aquaculture). Volume I. Final report 1 Jul 74-31 Oct 76  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of this study was to establish the bilogical feasibility of rearing the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii and rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri in the thermal effluents from PSEandG's Mercer Generating Station. A new approach in aquaculture involving semiannual grow-out periods, diseasonal aquaculture was the result of the large seasonal variation in Delaware River temperature (0.2 to 29/sup 0/C), since it was determined that no commercially important species could take this wide temperature range. Secondary objectives of this study were to make preliminary evaluations of the engineering and economic feasibility of rearing the above-mentioned species in thermal effluents, and to obtain a preliminary assessment of product quality.

Guerra, C.R.; Godfriaux, B.L.; Eble, A.F.; Farmanfarmian, A.F.

1977-01-01

228

50 CFR 21.47 - Depredation order for double-crested cormorants at aquaculture facilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...double-crested cormorants at aquaculture facilities. ...applies to commercial freshwater aquaculture facilities and...Tennessee, and Texas. (c) What does...State production of freshwater aquaculture stocks to...

2010-10-01

229

Freshwater aquaculture in the United States: Complying with environmental protection law and policy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The author deal with the relations between the freshwater fish culture and the many regulations of the environmental protection in USA. The author develops the federal and state administrative frameworks (federal government administration of aquaculture, the state government administration of aquaculture), the freshwater aquaculture and water rights, the freshwater aquaculture and wetlands regulation, the freshwater aquaculture and water quality regulation, the freshwater aquaculture and wild...

Noble, M.

1993-01-01

230

Quantum-based electronic devices and systems selected topics in electronics and systems, v.14  

CERN Document Server

This volume includes highlights of the theories and experimental findings that underlie essential phenomena occurring in quantum-based devices and systems as well as the principles of operation of selected novel quantum-based electronic devices and systems. A number of the emerging approaches to creating new types of quantum-based electronic devices and systems are also discussed.

Dutta, Mitra

1998-01-01

231

Electronic cooling system. Denshi reikyaku system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an air conditioner driven with an engine, there exists a problem wherein the passengers feel uncomfortable at the initial stage of operation due to the warm wind filled in a dust because an adequate cooling capacity is not attained until the evaporator is sufficiently cooled down. In this invention, there are equippeda means of judgin a cooling capacity at the start of the air conditioner, an electronic cooling element to cool the air in the duct which connects the cabin and the connected chambers, and a cooling aid unit equipped with a blower which feeds the duct air into the carriage. At the initial stage of starting the air conditioner, if the cooling capacity is not adequate, the cooling aid unit, an electronic cooling element of the cooling aid having a good response will effectively cool the air taken from outside which will effectuate the supply of a fresh cool air into the carriage immediately from the start of the air conditioner. 7 figs.

Nakashima, H. (Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan))

1991-01-14

232

Recirculation-aeration: Bibliography for aquaculture. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography includes literature citations through 1992 related to water recirculation and aeration in aquaculture. The focus is on filtration, aeration, and circulation techniques in various aquaculture situations.

Perschbacher, P.W.; Powell, R.V.; Freeman, D.W.; Lorio, W.J.; Hanfman, D.T.

1993-08-01

233

General-Purpose Electronic System Tests Aircraft  

Science.gov (United States)

Versatile digital equipment supports research, development, and maintenance. Extended aircraft interrogation and display system is general-purpose assembly of digital electronic equipment on ground for testing of digital electronic systems on advanced aircraft. Many advanced features, including multiple 16-bit microprocessors, pipeline data-flow architecture, advanced operating system, and resident software-development tools. Basic collection of software includes program for handling many types of data and for displays in various formats. User easily extends basic software library. Hardware and software interfaces to subsystems provided by user designed for flexibility in configuration to meet user's requirements.

Glover, Richard D.

1989-01-01

234

Electron beam dosimetry in aqueous flow systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aqueous solutions of carbon tetrachloride CCl{sub 4} applied in concentrations of 10-50 {mu}g/l can be used for electron beam dosimetry of aqueous flow systems provided the water contains sufficient additional scavengers to scavenge more than 99% of the solvated electrons. Common scavengers are oxygen as well as nitrate usually contained in water as natural solutes. Since the system is rather sensitive to changes in oxygen concentration it is not recommended for routine dosimetry but should be more directed to case by case dosimetry of large water flow systems.

Gehringer, Peter E-mail: peter.gehringer@arcs.ac.at; Eschweiler, Helmut

2002-03-01

235

Diet breadth variation and trophic plasticity behavior of the African bonytongue Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier, 1829 in the Sô River-Lake Hlan aquatic system (Benin, West Africa: Implications for species conservation and aquaculture development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The African bonytongue, Heterotis niloticus (Pisces: Osteoglossidae, is an omnivore foraging mainly on aquatic insects, microcrustacea, seeds and detritus. We examined the diet breadth and the trophic plasticity behavior of this species (1461 specimens in the S? River and Lake Hlan water system located in the southern Benin (West Africa. Overall, the mean diet breadths of the two populations of Heterotis from both habitats were not significantly (p ? 0.05 different and were not associated with seasons. However, in Lake Hlan, mean diet breadths tended to increase with size (r = 0.81 and gut length (r = 0.82 indicating that bonytongues ingest a broader range of food resources as they grow. In both habitats, the positive correlation of both standard length (Log SL and gut length (Log GL with the volumetric proportions of detritus and with the volumetric proportions of seeds suggests that the consumption of these two food resources increased with the size of Heterotis and with the development of the digestive tract. Likewise, the negative correlation of both (Log SL and (Log GL with the volumetric proportions of aquatic insects and with the volumetric proportions of microcrustacea suggests that the consumption of these two food categories decreased as the size and the gut length of Heterotis increased. The differences in the consumption of microcrustacea (13.77% in Lake Hlan versus 2.63% in S? River and mollusks (0.73% in Lake Hlan versus 4.91% in S? River evidenced that Heterotis shifts his trophic structure according to resource availlability in the habitat. This foraging behavior suggests a degree of trophic plasticity in Heterotis. The specialized morphological structure of Heterotis, mainly the presence of a relatively high number of gill rakers (42 - 94 rakers on the first branchial arch during its whole life, allowing sieving of zooplankton and other microcrustacea, and the presence of the gizzard favored this trophic plasticity. The broader diet breadth coupled with the trophic plasticity behavior is probably an advantage because it enables Heterotis not only to colonize and to adapt to unstable and changing aquatic habitats, but also to invade and to well-establish in various ecosystems, such as freshwater lakes, swamps, inundated plains, streams, rivers and fish farming ponds. As a result, the wider diet breadths and the trophic plasticity behavior depicted are useful eco-ethological tool for the conservation and the aquaculture development of H. niloticus.

Alphonse Adite

2013-12-01

236

Electron-optical systems for Mott polarimeters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron-optical systems, forming polarized electron beams from solid and gaseous sources at a Mott detector with operating potentials of 20 and 50 kV, have been theoretically investigated. The integral EOS creates a beam <2.6 nm in diameter at the target of the Mott detector for secondary electrons with energies of 1-20 eV and exit angles of 0 -60 . The differential EOS provides an energy resolution of 2-6% within the range of 3-2000 eV, the illumination being 5-13% for a 4? angle; at the target of the Mott detector it creates a beam of 1-6 mm in diameter. Both systems have been constructed at the laboratory of Spin-polarized Electron Spectroscopy (Department of Experimental Physics) at St. Petersburg State Technical University. ((orig.))

1994-08-21

237

Perception of Aquaculture Education to Support Further Growth of Aquaculture Industry in Victoria, Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The central aim of this study was to determine the perception of aquaculture educational provisions in the state of Victoria, and whether they are sufficient to ultimately support further growth of the industry. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were formulated and distributed to participants in a variety of ways, including via…

Awal, Sadiqul; Christie, Andrew; Watson, Matthew; Hannadige, Asanka G. T.

2012-01-01

238

Tomography system with electronic control device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The system for tomography utilises a source of X-radiation or gamma radiation and an electronic control unit. The radiation source, object carrier, slit forming masks and detector unit are spatially arranged on opposite sides of each other in groups. The electronic control circuit uses a drive mode circuit with a connection to the input window of the video camera. The tube has means for beam deflection in both the horizontal and vertical modes. (G.C.)

1976-01-01

239

Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a research agenda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) are marketed to deliver nicotine and sometimes other substances by inhalation. Some tobacco smokers report that they used ENDS as a smoking cessation aid. Whether sold as tobacco products or drug delivery devices, these products need to be regulated, and thus far, across countries and states, there has been a wide range of regulatory responses ranging from no regulation to complete bans. The empiric...

Etter, Jean-franc?ois; Bullen, Chris; Flouris, Andreas D.; Laugesen, Murray; Eissenberg, Thomas

2011-01-01

240

Radial conical electron-optical systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron-optical systems formed by conical electrodes or pole tips with the internal surfaces made in the from of parts of straight circular cone are investigated. The electric potential distribution in radial conical electron-optical elements is determined analytically. Expressions are obtained for paraxial tra ectories of charged particles as well as focus distances and focus positions of radial lenses. Achromatism conditions are considered

1984-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

Electronic relaxation and dissipation in mesoscopic systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis is concerned with the theoretical study of the transport in small conductors at low temperatures. Our aim is to elucidate the interplay between the statistical environment and mesoscopic systems, and its effect on electronic features in the domain of transport. In a first phenomenological approach based on the Landauer picture of transport, we study de transport properties of a mesoscopic sample connected to electronic reservoirs. The infl...

2000-01-01

242

Electron localization in one-dimensional systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pure regional localization and the global localization have been investigated via the inverse participation ratio and te moment analysis. If the envelop function of a localized state is more complicated than the simple exponential function e sup(-r/xi), the inverse participation ratio is inadequate to describe the localization properties of an electron. This is the case discovered recently in a stereo-irregular chain fo atoms including the electron-electron interaction and the structure disorder. The localization properties in this system are analysed in terms of the moments. (Author)

1982-01-11

243

Water Diagnosis in Shrimp Aquaculture based on Neural Network  

Science.gov (United States)

In many countries, the shrimp aquaculture has not advanced computational systems to supervise the artificial habitat of the farms and laboratories. A computational system of this type helps significantly to improve the environmental conditions and to elevate the production and its quality. The main idea of this study is the creation of a system using an artificial neural network (ANN), which can help to recognize patterns of problems and their evolution in shrimp aquaculture, and thus to respond with greater rapidity against the negative effects. Bad control on the shrimp artificial habitat produces organisms with high stress and as consequence losses in their defenses. It generate low nutrition, low reproduction or worse still, they prearrange to acquire lethal diseases. The proposed system helps to control this problem. Environmental variables as pH, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and turbidity have an important effect in the suitable growth of the shrimps and influence in their health. However, the exact mathematical model of this relationship is unspecified; an ANN is useful for establishing a relationship between these variables and to classify a status that describes a problem into the farm. The data classification is made to recognize and to quantify two states within the pool: a) Normal: Everything is well. b) Risk: One, some or all environmental variables are outside of the allowed interval, which generates problems. The neural network will have to recognize the state and to quantify it, in others words, how normal or risky it is, which allows finding trend of the water quality. A study was developed for designing a software tool that allows recognizing the status of the water quality and control problems for the environment into the pond.

Carbajal Hernández, J. J.; Sánchez Fernández, L. P.

2007-05-01

244

Power electronics system modeling and simulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces control system design based softwares, SIMNON and MATLAB/SIMULINK, for power electronics system simulation. A complete power electronics system typically consists of a rectifier bridge along with its smoothing capacitor, an inverter, and a motor. The system components, featuring discrete or continuous, linear or nonlinear, are modeled in mathematical equations. Inverter control methods,such as pulse-width-modulation and hysteresis current control, are expressed in either computer algorithms or digital circuits. After describing component models and control methods, computer programs are then developed for complete systems simulation. Simulation results are mainly used for studying system performances, such as input and output current harmonics, torque ripples, and speed responses. Key computer programs and simulation results are demonstrated for educational purposes.

Lai, Jih-Sheng

1994-12-31

245

Electronic communications and document management system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work designs document management and communication system for small office or average company. This system operation is based on internet technologies and allows to use it form any remote computer. Also there is drafted reporting to concerned persons about changes via various ways. This electronic communications and document management system is an unique work, originally coming out of a PHP and MySQL web application. It was the first time to directly learn the differences between Mic...

2005-01-01

246

Prediction of Suitable Harvest Time in Aquaculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A model is provided to predict the prawn’s harvest in aquaculture through analytical research in agrometeorology, mathematical statistics, synoptic meteorology and et al. It is found out that the Benefit Analysis of the Best Harvest is one of the most ideal ways. The models for the breeding objects, climate prediction and analysis of market quotation should be set up and perfected continuously. Only when the dynamic numerical simulation of the growth is accurate and the short-term weather forecast and the market quotation are reliable, will the suitable harvest time be predicted precisely. We used to write this paper with the foundation on ideologies.

Zhaotang Shang

2013-05-01

247

Collimation system for electron arc therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electron collimation system for electron arc therapy treatments consists of a slit collimation system which is movable with the electron beam applicator and is designed to allow for dose compensation in the sagittal direction and a hoop-and-clamp assembly for final field shaping. By correctly designing the shape of the slit in the former and properly adjusting the components of the latter, it is possible to accomplish quite uniform shielding without causing any weight of the shielding material to rest on the patient. The slit collimation system has a specially shaped aperture for confining the radiation beam. The hoop-and-clamp assembly has hoops and clamps which locate shielding over the patient's body. The shielding locating clamps are adjustably movable radially with respect to the hoops. (author)

1982-10-04

248

Electron processing systems for environmental applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron Beam processing is widely used in a variety of fields. Examples are: crosslinking of plastics and rubber materials, curing of coatings, and so on. Nissin-High Voltage (NHV) has been supplying many types of EB accelerators for many years for a variety of applications. Recently the demand to use Electron Beam Technology for environmental applications has been increasing. DeSO2 and deNOx treatment plus decontamination of water by Electron Beam appear to be the most promising. Over the past several years, NHV has installed several EB units for deSO2 and deNOx applications. Currently NHV will be supplying two 800KV-300Wx2 heads units to IAEA. This system will be installed in Poland and has been designated ''Demo Plant for deSO2 and deNOx''. This paper describes the requirements for this EB System and also discusses the unique parameters of the system

1998-06-01

249

Application of Medicinal Herbs to Aquaculture in Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aquaculture has increased greatly in Asia, but there are various problems associated with acquacultural production one of which is the use of antimicrobial agents resulting in more resistant bacterial strains which adversely affect human health and the natural environment. This paper presents information on the role and application of herbs for aquaculture in Asia.

Direkbusarakom, Sataporn

2004-01-01

250

Pathogens in aquaculture : specific pathogens or human contamination risks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The vatness of aquaculture ventures worldwide has taken impressive leaps durint the past three decades, and a large portion of this pertains to mariculture. Significant strides have been made in the design and implementation of more efficient and cost effective growing areas, feed, and harvesting techniques. Moreover the economic impact of aquaculture will certainly increase in the years ahead.

Renault, Tristan

1995-01-01

251

Research Progress in Biological Package for Aquaculture Wastewater Treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The classification of biological package was reviewed in the present paper, and the application status of variousfillers for aquaculture wastewater treatment was introduced in detail. The developing direction of biologicalpackage in the field of aquaculture wastewater treatment was also presented.

Xi-dong MU

2010-05-01

252

Chemical and Sensory Quantification of Geosmin and 2-Methylisoborneol in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Recirculated Aquacultures in Relation to Concentrations in Basin Water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Globally, aquaculture systems with water recirculation experience increasing problems with microbial taste and odor compounds (TOCs) such as geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB). This study investigated the content of geosmin and MIB in water and the flesh of 200 rainbow trouts from eight recirculated aquaculture systems in Denmark. TOC content in the fish flesh was measured by a dynamic headspace extraction method and was evaluated by a sensory panel. The results showed significant correlati...

Petersen, Mikael A.; Hyldig, Grethe; Strobel, Bjarne W.; Henriksen, Niels H.; Jørgensen, Niels O. G.

2011-01-01

253

Electronic system of TBR tokamak device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electronics developed as a part of the TBR project, which involves the construction of a small tokamak at the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo, is described. On the basis of tokamak parameter values, the electronics for the toroidal field, ohmic/heating and vertical field systems is presented, including capacitors bank, switches, triggering circuits and power supplies. A controlled power oscilator used in discharge cleaning and pre-ionization is also described. The performance of the system as a function of the desired plasma parameters is discussed. (Author)

1980-01-01

254

Prognostics for Electronics Components of Avionics Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronics components have and increasingly critical role in avionics systems and for the development of future aircraft systems. Prognostics of such components is becoming a very important research filed as a result of the need to provide aircraft systems with system level health management. This paper reports on a prognostics application for electronics components of avionics systems, in particular, its application to the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT). The remaining useful life prediction for the IGBT is based on the particle filter framework, leveraging data from an accelerated aging tests on IGBTs. The accelerated aging test provided thermal-electrical overstress by applying thermal cycling to the device. In-situ state monitoring, including measurements of the steady-state voltages and currents, electrical transients, and thermal transients are recorded and used as potential precursors of failure.

Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Bhaskar; Wysocki, Philip F.; Goebel, Kai F.

2009-01-01

255

The effects of aquaculture production noise on the growth, condition factor, feed conversion, and survival of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss  

Science.gov (United States)

Intensive aquaculture systems, particularly recirculating systems, utilize equipment such as aerators, air and water pumps, blowers, and filtration systems that inadvertently increase noise levels in fish culture tanks. Sound levels and frequencies measured within intensive aquaculture systems are within the range of fish hearing, but species-specific effects of aquaculture production noise are not well defined. Field and laboratory studies have shown that fish behavior and physiology can be negatively impacted by intense sound. Therefore, chronic exposure to aquaculture production noise could cause increased stress, reduced growth rates and feed conversion efficiency, and decreased survival. The objective of this study was to provide an in-depth evaluation of the long term effects of aquaculture production noise on the growth, condition factor, feed conversion efficiency, and survival of cultured rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Rainbow trout were cultured in replicated tanks using two sound treatments: 117??dB re 1????Pa RMS which represented sound levels lower than those recorded in an intensive recycle system and 149??dB re 1????Pa RMS, representing sound levels near the upper limits known to occur in recycle systems. To begin the study mean fish weights in the 117 and 149??dB tanks were 40 and 39??g, respectively. After five months of exposure no significant differences were identified between treatments for mean weight, length, specific growth rates, condition factor, feed conversion, or survival (n = 4). Mean final weights for the 117 and 149??dB treatments were 641 ?? 3 and 631 ?? 10??g, respectively. Overall specific growth rates were equal, i.e. 1.84 ?? 0.00 and 1.84 ?? 0.01%/day. Analysis of growth rates of individually tagged rainbow trout indicated that fish from the 149??dB tanks grew slower during the first month of noise exposure (p aquaculture systems. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

Davidson, J.; Bebak, J.; Mazik, P.

2009-01-01

256

Capturing Ecosystem Services, Stakeholders' Preferences and Trade-Offs in Coastal Aquaculture Decisions: A Bayesian Belief Network Application  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaculture activities are embedded in complex social-ecological systems. However, aquaculture development decisions have tended to be driven by revenue generation, failing to account for interactions with the environment and the full value of the benefits derived from services provided by local ecosystems. Trade-offs resulting from changes in ecosystem services provision and associated impacts on livelihoods are also often overlooked. This paper proposes an innovative application of Bayesian belief networks - influence diagrams - as a decision support system for mediating trade-offs arising from the development of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand. Senior experts were consulted (n?=?12) and primary farm data on the economics of shrimp farming (n?=?20) were collected alongside secondary information on ecosystem services, in order to construct and populate the network. Trade-offs were quantitatively assessed through the generation of a probabilistic impact matrix. This matrix captures nonlinearity and uncertainty and describes the relative performance and impacts of shrimp farming management scenarios on local livelihoods. It also incorporates export revenues and provision and value of ecosystem services such as coastal protection and biodiversity. This research shows that Bayesian belief modeling can support complex decision-making on pathways for sustainable coastal aquaculture development and thus contributes to the debate on the role of aquaculture in social-ecological resilience and economic development.

Schmitt, Laetitia Helene Marie; Brugere, Cecile

2013-01-01

257

Method of fabricating a cooled electronic system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of fabricating a liquid-cooled electronic system is provided which includes an electronic assembly having an electronics card and a socket with a latch at one end. The latch facilitates securing of the card within the socket. The method includes providing a liquid-cooled cold rail at the one end of the socket, and a thermal spreader to couple the electronics card to the cold rail. The thermal spreader includes first and second thermal transfer plates coupled to first and second surfaces on opposite sides of the card, and thermally conductive extensions extending from end edges of the plates, which couple the respective transfer plates to the liquid-cooled cold rail. The extensions are disposed to the sides of the latch, and the card is securable within or removable from the socket using the latch without removing the cold rail or the thermal spreader.

Chainer, Timothy J; Gaynes, Michael A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Schultz, Mark D; Simco, Daniel P; Steinke, Mark E

2014-02-11

258

Electron transfer in weakly interacting systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A recently proposed semiclassical model, in which an electronic transmission coefficient and a nuclear tunneling factor are introduced as corrections to the classical activated-complex expression, is described. The nuclear tunneling corrections are shown to be important only at low temperatures or when the electron transfer is very exothermic. By contrast, corrections for nonadiabaticity may be significant for most outer-sphere reactions of metal complexes. The rate constants for the Fe(H2O)62+-Fe(H2O)63+, Ru(NH3)62+-Ru(NH3)63+ and Ru(bpy)32+-Ru(bpy)33+ electron exchange reactions predicted by the semiclassical model are in very good agreement with the observed values. The implications of the model for optically-induced electron transfer in mixed-valence systems are noted

1981-06-12

259

Immune–potentiators for the Aquaculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aquaculture represents one of the fastest–growing animal food–producing sectors worldwide. One of the main challenges is to obtain high–volume production with the highest possible quality, this leads to reduce the use of antibiotics and chemotherapeutics. A promising solution to these problems is the application of immune– potentiatiors mainly in intensive farming. This article aims to review the main immune–potentiators, as well as the trends and challenges of global use of them. It summarizes the main molecular and functional characteristics with emphasis on those most studied such as levamisole, ß-glucans, lipopolysaccharide, vitamin C, plant extracts and hormones. All these heterogeneous compounds, mostly affect the innate immunity of fish, strengthening and enhancing disease resistance and some of them additionally have anti–stress effect and promote fish growth. We conclude that immune–potentiators are a viable strategy to reduce losses for health problems in aquaculture field, however, aspects such as administration route and appropriate immunization phase for each species remains to be solved.

Rocmira Pérez

2014-04-01

260

Water Quality Monitoring and Control for Aquaculture Based on Wireless Sensor Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have designed and presented a wireless sensor network monitoring and control system for aquaculture. The system can detect and control water quality parameters of temperature, dissolved oxygen content, pH value, and water level in real-time. The sensor nodes collect the water quality parameters and transmit them to the base station host computer through ZigBee wireless communication standard. The host computer is used for data analysis, processing and presentation using LabVIEW software platform. The water quality parameters will be sent to owners through short messages from the base station via the Global System for Mobile (GSM module for notification. The experimental evaluation of the network performance metrics of quality of communication link, battery performance and data aggregation was presented. The experimental results show that the system has great prospect and can be used to operate in real world environment for optimum control of aquaculture environment

Daudi S. Simbeye

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Battlefield Lasers and Opto-electronics Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last four decades or so, there has been an explosive growth in commercial, industrial, medical, scientific, technological, and above all, military usage of laser devices and systems. In fact, lasers have influenced every conceivable area of application during this period. While the expansion of non-military application spectrum of lasers is primarily driven by emergence of a large number of laser wavelengths followed by ever increasing power levels and reducing price tags at which those wavelengths could be generated, the military applications of lasers and related electro-optic devices have grown mainly because of technological maturity of the lasers that were born in the late 1960?s and the early 1970?s. Lasers have been used in various military applications since the early days of development that followed the invention of this magical device. There has been large scale proliferation of lasers and opto-electronic devices and systems for applications like range finding, target designation, target acquisition and tracking, precision guided munitions, etc. during 1970?s and 1980?s. These devices continue to improve in performance and find increased acceptance and usage in the contemporary battle-field scenario. Technological advances in optics, opto-electronics, and electronics, leading to more rugged, reliable, compact and efficient laser devices are largely responsible for making these indispensable in modern warfare. Past one decade or so has seen emergence of some new potential areas of usage. Some of these areas include rapid growth in the usage of lasers and opto-electronics devices and systems for electrooptic countermeasure (EOCM applications, test and evaluation systems that can perform online functionality checks on military opto-electronics systems and also their interoperability. In this paper, an overview of the current and emerging military applications of lasers and opto-electronics systems has been given with an outline on the likely trends leading to performance enhancement of the existing systems and emergence of new application areas. Also, a brief on the developmental activity in the field of laser and opto-electronics devices and systems at Laser Science and Technology Centre (LASTEC, Delhi has been given.

Anil Kumar Maini

2010-03-01

262

A Systems Approach to Electronics Maintenance Training.  

Science.gov (United States)

An Air Force systems-oriented electronics maintenance course for weapon control was developed and evaluated. A behavioral description based upon a task analysis of actual job requirements was first prepared. Based on objectives derived from these behavioral descriptions an experimental 14-week training course was developed. A group of subjects…

Valverde, Horace H.

263

NATIONAL ELECTRONIC INJURY SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NEISS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is collaborating with the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to expand the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) to collect data on all typ...

264

Soft errors in modern electronic systems  

CERN Document Server

This book provides a comprehensive presentation of the most advanced research results and technological developments enabling understanding, qualifying and mitigating the soft errors effect in advanced electronics, including the fundamental physical mechanisms of radiation induced soft errors, the various steps that lead to a system failure, the modelling and simulation of soft error at various levels (including physical, electrical, netlist, event driven, RTL, and system level modelling and simulation), hardware fault injection, accelerated radiation testing and natural environment testing, s

Nicolaidis, Michael

2010-01-01

265

The SLAC polarized electron source laser system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) has operated a polarized photocathode electron source and titanium sapphire laser for high energy physics collisions for over 6,500 hours of nearly continuous operation. The laser system for the source has demonstrated > 98.5% total uptime for the duration of the experiment. The laser system uses a pair of titanium sapphire oscillators pumped by frequency doubled YAG lasers to produce 2ns, 250 microJ pulses at wavelengths from 740nm to 870nm

1995-05-17

266

Quantum decoherence in strongly correlated electron systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Complexity in strongly correlated electron systems is analyzed by considering decoherence process between the localized state, |L> and the itinerant state, |I>. The coherent superposition state of a|I> + b|L> decoheres to the pointer states in the proximity of both extremes of the correlation where the symmetry-breaking ground states of the charge pairing emerge. For maximizing the entropy of the system, the superconducting pairing and the spin density wave coexist within th...

Chae, Byung Gyu

2010-01-01

267

Water withdrawal for brackish and inland aquaculture, and options to produce more fish in ponds with present water use  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews freshwater use in inland and coastal pond aquaculture, and focuses on options to increase productivity while reducing water use. Total freshwater use depends on system-associated and feed-associated water losses. System-associated water losses depend on total area, evaporation, infiltration and water replacement. About 8,750,000 ha freshwater and 2,333,000 ha brackish water ponds are in use today. Total water withdrawal in freshwater aquaculture is estimated at 16.9 m3/kg p...

Verdegem, M. C. J.; Bosma, R. H.

2009-01-01

268

Electron gun system for NSC KIPT linac  

CERN Document Server

In NSC KIPT linac, a neutron source based on a subcritical assembly driven by a 100MeV/100kW electron linear accelerator is under design and development. The linear accelerator needs a new high current electron gun. In this paper, the physical design, mechanical fabrication and beam test of this new electron gun are described. The emission current is designed to be higher than 2A for the pulse width of 3us with repetition rate of 50 Hz. The gun will operate with a DC high voltage power supply which can provide a high voltage up to 150 kV. . Computer simulations and optimizations have been carried out in the design stage, including the gun geometry and beam transport line. The test results of high voltage conditioning and beam test are presented. The operation status of the electron gun system is also included. The basic test results show that the design, manufacture and operation of the new electron system are basically successful.

Zhou, Zusheng; Chi, Yunlong

2013-01-01

269

Enhancement of existing geothermal resource utilization by cascading to intensive aquaculture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aquaculture, the farming and husbandry of freshwater and marine organisms, is the newest and fastest growing US agricultural sector. In New Mexico, low winter temperatures and limited freshwater sources narrow culture production possibilities; however, it has long been recognized that the state has abundant supplies of both saline and geothermal ground waters. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the achievable energy savings and value enhancement of the byproduct geothermal energy by cascading fluids for the production of commercial aquaculture species. Specifically the project involved evaluating the heating systems performance in terms of heating budget for the geothermal assist, determine the total quantity of water used for culture and heating, amount of geothermal byproduct heat extracted, and ability of the system to maintain culture water temperatures during critical heating periods of the year. In addition, an analysis was conducted to determine the compatibility of this new system with existing greenhouse heating requirements.

Zachritz, W.H. II; Polka, R.; Schoenmackers, R.

1995-12-04

270

Gender training in aquaculture in northern Vietnam. A report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Described is a pilot project that integrated gender and technology in training and analysis in Vietnam. Many farmers in Vietnam use the VAC system of fishing, farming, and animal husbandry, which makes efficient use of resources and requires low inputs. Excess products are sold locally. Plants are used for food, fiber, and fuel. Waste products are recycled. Small ponds (under 0.5 ha) are created using rainwater. 2-8 tons/ha/year of fish are produced. The dug-out soil is used to build up gardens and house foundations as protection against flooding. Fresh water for the household comes from wells. Garden plots contain various intercropped species. Fruit trees and tuber crops are cultivated in shady areas. Timber trees and rattan are planted to form tree fences. Taro is planted around the ponds, and marsh lentils are planted on pond surfaces. Various fish feed in the top, middle, and bottom portions of ponds. Gourd is grown on trellises above the ponds. Pig manure is used for plant and fish food. Pond water, which is rich in nutrients and sludge, is used to fertilize gardens. During 1995-96, a pilot program provided training in aquaculture for poor rural women in the villages of My Xa and My Tan in Nam Ha province and Tuan Chinh and Yen Dong in Vihn Phu province in the north. The analysis identified gender relations in management, control of aquaculture, decision-making, and use of benefits. The concept of gender was explained to women in the training program. Women were more concerned with the technical training. The position of women improved in participation, decision-making, and control over benefits. The technical transfer of knowledge was viewed as less important than gender awareness. The aim to improve women's position should be clearly identified. Community participation in the training of trainers was beneficial. Follow-up activities continued during 1997-99. PMID:12179940

Voeten, J; Ottens, B J

1997-01-01

271

Electron dynamics inside short-coherence systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present theoretical results on electron dynamics inside nanometric systems, where the coherence of the electron ensemble is maintained in a very short region. The contacts are supposed to spoil such a coherence, therefore the interference processes between the carrier wavefunction and the internal potential profile can be affected by the proximity of the contacts. The problem has been analysed by using the Wigner-function formalism. For very short devices, transport properties, such as tunnelling through potential barriers, are significantly influenced by the distance between the contacts.

Ferrari, Giulio [National Research Center S3, INFM-CNR and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 213/A, I-41100 Modena (Italy) and Device Modelling Group, Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8LT, Scotland (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: g.ferrari@elec.gla.ac.uk; Bordone, Paolo [National Research Center S3, INFM-CNR and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 213/A, I-41100 Modena (Italy); Jacoboni, Carlo [National Research Center S3, INFM-CNR and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 213/A, I-41100 Modena (Italy)

2006-08-14

272

Electron dynamics inside short-coherence systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present theoretical results on electron dynamics inside nanometric systems, where the coherence of the electron ensemble is maintained in a very short region. The contacts are supposed to spoil such a coherence, therefore the interference processes between the carrier wavefunction and the internal potential profile can be affected by the proximity of the contacts. The problem has been analysed by using the Wigner-function formalism. For very short devices, transport properties, such as tunnelling through potential barriers, are significantly influenced by the distance between the contacts

2006-08-14

273

Laser system for a subpicosecond electron linac.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the Argonne Chemistry Division efforts are underway to develop a sub-picosecond electron beam pulse radiolysis facility for chemical studies. The target output of the accelerator is to generate electron pulses that can be adjusted from 3nC in .6ps to 100nC in 45ps. In conjunction with development of the accelerator a state-of-the-art ultrafast laser system is under construction that will drive the linac's photocathode and provide probe pulses that are tunable from the UV to IR spectral regions.

Crowell, R. A.

1998-09-25

274

The effects of radiation on electronic systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is the first unified treatment of the analysis and design methods for protection of principally electronic systems from the deleterious effects of nuclear and electro-magnetic radiation. Coverage spans from a detailed description of the nuclear radiation sources to pertinent semiconductor physics, then to hardness assurance. This work combines the disciplines of solid state physics, semiconductor physics, circuit engineering, nuclear physics, together with electronics and electromagnetic theory into a book that can be used as a text with problems at the end of the majority of the chapters. Written by veterans in the field, the most significant feature of this book is its comprehensive treatment of the phenomena involved. This treatment includes the analysis and design of the effect of nuclear radiation on electronic systems from the experimental, theoretical, and engineering viewpoints. Unique pedagogical attempts are employed to make the material more understandable from the position of an enlightened engineering and scientific readership whose task is the design and analysis of radiation hardened electronic systems

1986-01-01

275

The Small Explorer power system electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

The power system electronics for the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Small Explorer Satellites are intended to satisfy various planned missions. The selected topology is a direct energy transfer (DET) system with the battery connected directly to the bus. The shunt control technique is a linear sequential full shunt which provides a simple solar array interface and can support both 3 axis stabilized and spinner satellites. In addition, it can meet stringent electromagnetic interference requirements which are expected on some Small Explorer Missions. The Power Systems Electronics (PSE) performs battery charge control using both temperature compensated charge/discharge ratio ampere hour integration and voltage-temperature control. The PSE includes all the circuits needed to perform telemetry and command functions using an optical MIL-STD-1773 interface.

Dakermanji, G.; Carlsson, U.; Temkin, D.; Culver, H.; Rodriguez, G. E.; Ahmad, A.

1991-01-01

276

Custody transfer enhanced by electronic billing system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line (TGPL) Corp. engineers have developed an electronic billing system for custody transfer that can reduce the cost of doing business and improve the accuracy of transfer measurements. The system accurately measures gas flow and quality, transmits gas data to a central facility, provides a capability to review the collected data, prepares bills based upon these data, and reduces staffing associated with the data collection and billing process. On-line flow computers are keys to this electronic billing system. These computers, referred to as remote terminal units (RTU's), are currently in service at TGPL at more than 30 locations with 30 more locations due to be on-line within 6 months and an additional 40 locations due within 15 months. These RTU's will be obtaining gas data from metering stations located in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas.

Knox, R.M.

1986-10-20

277

Application of refrigeration system in electronics cooling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental investigation of the transient response of the vapor compression refrigeration (VCR) system to rapid change in evaporator (simulated electronics) heat load is presented. In this study, the VCR system is designed and constructed specifically for applications to cool high heat flux electronics and high-end computers. Temperature and pressure data were measured at pre-selected locations to study the behavior of the refrigeration system to alterations in evaporator heat load. Results show that the VCR system maintains the junction temperature of the simulated electronics at a much lower temperature compared to conventional air-cooling systems. The maximum temperature was registered near the exit of the evaporator cold plate. Experimental evidence shows an oscillation in temperature with time at the evaporator cold plate and the thermostatic expansion valve prior to attaining steady-state condition, and that the thermostatic expansion valve and the evaporator time constants are equal; and have a value of 70 s. Also, for analytical and numerical models of heat transfer in evaporator cold plate, results shows that the assumption of one-dimensional temperature distribution is unrealistic.

Nnanna, A.G. Agwu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University Calumet, 2200, 169th Street, Hammond, IN 46323-2094 (United States)]. E-mail: nnanna@calumet.purdue.edu

2006-01-01

278

Application of refrigeration system in electronics cooling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental investigation of the transient response of the vapor compression refrigeration (VCR) system to rapid change in evaporator (simulated electronics) heat load is presented. In this study, the VCR system is designed and constructed specifically for applications to cool high heat flux electronics and high-end computers. Temperature and pressure data were measured at pre-selected locations to study the behavior of the refrigeration system to alterations in evaporator heat load. Results show that the VCR system maintains the junction temperature of the simulated electronics at a much lower temperature compared to conventional air-cooling systems. The maximum temperature was registered near the exit of the evaporator cold plate. Experimental evidence shows an oscillation in temperature with time at the evaporator cold plate and the thermostatic expansion valve prior to attaining steady-state condition, and that the thermostatic expansion valve and the evaporator time constants are equal; and have a value of 70 s. Also, for analytical and numerical models of heat transfer in evaporator cold plate, results shows that the assumption of one-dimensional temperature distribution is unrealistic

2006-01-01

279

Causalities between Price, Pond Area and Employment in Aquaculture Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of aquaculture industry is becoming more prominent in order to supplement marine capture in meeting the food need for the growing Malaysian population. In an attempt to minimize depletion of marine fisheries, only traditional vessels are allowed to fish along the coastal area while bigger vessels are relegated to deep-sea fishing. During the 9th Malaysian Plan (2006-2010 aquaculture has been recognized as the engine of growth in the national food sector’s development strategy. Future fisheries policy is expected to focus more on aquaculture production, marketing and technological improvement as an alternative to marine capture. This paper investigates the causalities between the selected freshwater fish prices, aquaculture area and production. The study aspires to establish whether or not market price is a key contributor to a rise in the aquaculture area and production. Aquaculture firms comprising the individual culturists are generally motivated by the economic potential of the industry which is reflected in excess of price over cost of production. Our hypothesis is that government policy and initiation rather than prices had give rise to greater participation of culturists and hence augmented the level of employment. However, production increase has a negative implication on environment degradation. Thus there is a conflicting view as regards to the employment opportunity generated by aquaculture undertakings and the need for sustainable development arising from this growing industry. Multivariate time series analysis was used in this investigation.

Nik Hashim Nik Mustapha

2013-05-01

280

Electron radiographic system with liquid absorber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electron radiographic system is presented for making x-ray pictures by producing an electrostatic image on a dielectric sheet suitable for development by xerographic techniques. A pair of electrodes has a liquid filled gap therebetween, with the liquid taking several forms. A dielectric sheet is positioned at an electrode and x-rays are directed past the object to the liquid for producing electrons and positive ions in the gap. The electrons and positive ions are attracted toward the respective electrodes for deposit on the dielectric sheet to produce the latent electrostatic image. The liquid is x-ray opaque and electrically nonconducting and may be a solvent with a gas or nonionic metallic compounds dissolved therein, or may be a liquified gas. (Auth.)

1974-04-01

 
 
 
 
281

Electron correlations in narrow band systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of the electron correlations in narrow bands, such as d(f) bands in the transition (rare earth) metals and their compounds and the impurity bands in doped semiconductors is studied. The narrow band systems is described, by the Hubbard Hamiltonian. By proposing a local self-energy for the interacting electron, it is found that the results are exact in both atomic and band limits and reduce to the Hartree Fock results for U/? ? 0, where U is the intra-atomic Coulomb interaction and ? is the bandwidth of the noninteracting electrons. For the Lorentzian form of the density of states of the noninteracting electrons, this approximation turns out to be equivalent to the third Hubbard approximation. A simple argument, based on the mean free path obtained from the imaginary part of the self energy, shows how the electron correlations can give rise to a discontinous metal-nonmetal transition as proposed by Mott. The band narrowing and the existence of the satellite below the Fermi energy in Ni, found in photoemission experiments, can also be understood. (Author)

1983-02-01

282

FOULING AS INDICATOR OF AQUACULTURE INFLUENCE ON ENVIRONMENT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

By ecological awarening of the whole community and by the broadening of the aquacultural activity on the Adriatic, the influence of the aquaculture on the environment is more questionable. The opholding of the ecological protection of the natural environment is pointed out as one of the basic goals in the by–coastal aquaculture. The processes of the net fouling, which are used for the construction of the cages, is present to a certain degree at all locations of the fish breeding. By periodi...

Merica Sliškovi?; Gorana Jeli?; Zvonko Hell

2003-01-01

283

Quantum frustrated and correlated electron systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Quantum phases and fluctuations in correlated electron systems with frustration and competing interactions are reviewed. In the localized moment case the S=1/2 J1 - J2 - model on a square lattice exhibits a rich phase diagram with magnetic as well as exotic hidden order phases due to the interplay of frustration and quantum fluctuations. Their signature in magnetocaloric quantities and the high field magnetization are surveyed. The possible quantum phase transitions are discussed and applied to layered vanadium oxides. In itinerant electron systems frustration is an emergent property caused by electron correlations. It leads to enhanced spin fluctuations in a very large region of momentum space and therefore may cause heavy fermion type low temperature anomalies as in the 3d spinel compound LiV2O4 . Competing on-site and inter-site electronic interactions in Kondo compounds are responsible for the quantum phase transition between nonmagnetic Kondo singlet phase and magnetic phase such as observed in many 4f compounds. They may be described by Kondo lattice and simplified Kondo necklace type models. Their quantum phase transitions are investigated by numerical exact diagonalization and analytical bond operator methods respectively.

P Thalmeier

2008-06-01

284

Potential application of microbial phytase in aquaculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phytases are histidine acid phosphatases that catalyze the hydrolysis of phytic acid toinorganic phosphorus and myo-inositol phosphates. The phosphorus that is being released is used invarious metabolic processes. These enzymes are able to promote the growth of animals and plants aswell as increase the nutritional value of feedstuffs through dephytinization. Phytases are widespread innature because they are found in animals, plants and microorganisms. This paper discusses the differentmicrobial phytases that have been characterized and their beneficial roles in aquaculture. In order to beincorporated in the feed, microbial phytases must have the ability to withstand high temperatures duringprocessing, and to be stable in the gastrointestinal tract of the fish, the enzymes must be active at lowpH levels. The various effects of microbial phytases on the bioavailability of phosphorus in fish, ongrowth performance, on the immune responses, on the excretion of phosphorus and on the environmentare also reviewed.

Christopher M. A. Caipang

2011-06-01

285

Raft River aquaculture project. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The commercial potential for geothermal aquaculture was evaluated for 2 years at the Department of Energy's Raft River geothermal site in southcentral Idaho. Common carp '(Cyprinus carpio) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were selected as culture species. Objectives of the study included investigation of: (1) growth rates; (2) nutrition trials; (3) histological and physiological parameters; (4) bioaccumulation of heavy metals; and (5) reproductive capacity. The second year project efforts were primarily studying the effects of geothermal water on the reproductive capacity of common carp by: (1) determining the effects of geothermal water on gonadal development of common carp; and (2) determining the effects of geothermal water on common carp embryogenesis.

Beleau, M.H.; Woiwode, J.G.

1980-07-01

286

Electronic Document Management Using Inverted Files System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The amount of documents increases so fast. Those documents exist not only in a paper based but also in an electronic based. It can be seen from the data sample taken by the SpringerLink publisher in 2010, which showed an increase in the number of digital document collections from 2003 to mid of 2010. Then, how to manage them well becomes an important need. This paper describes a new method in managing documents called as inverted files system. Related with the electronic based document, the inverted files system will closely used in term of its usage to document so that it can be searched over the Internet using the Search Engine. It can improve document search mechanism and document save mechanism.

Suhartono Derwin

2014-03-01

287

Electronic Document Management Using Inverted Files System  

Science.gov (United States)

The amount of documents increases so fast. Those documents exist not only in a paper based but also in an electronic based. It can be seen from the data sample taken by the SpringerLink publisher in 2010, which showed an increase in the number of digital document collections from 2003 to mid of 2010. Then, how to manage them well becomes an important need. This paper describes a new method in managing documents called as inverted files system. Related with the electronic based document, the inverted files system will closely used in term of its usage to document so that it can be searched over the Internet using the Search Engine. It can improve document search mechanism and document save mechanism.

Suhartono, Derwin; Setiawan, Erwin; Irwanto, Djon

2014-03-01

288

Feasibility analysis of the utilization of moderator heat for agricultural and aquacultural purposes, Bruce nuclear power development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study is presented of the feasibility of using moderator reject heat from the Bruce nuclear power development either to heat greenhouses or to aid in a warm water hatchery or aquaculture operation. The study examines heat extraction and delivery plans, reliability of supply, pricing schedules, the Ontario greenhouse industry, site selection criteria, water transmission and distribution, costs, approvals required, and a construction timetable. Total system analysis shows that a greenhouse facility would be viable but the aquaculture/hatchery scheme is more cost-effective. (E.C.B.)

1977-01-01

289

Hydrocyclonic separation of invasive New Zealand mudsnails from an aquaculture water source  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasive New Zealand mudsnails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum, NZMS) have infested freshwater aquaculture facilities in the western United States and disrupted stocking or fish transportation activities because of the risk of transporting NZMS to naive locations. We tested the efficacy of a gravity-fed, hydrocyclonicseparation system to remove NZMS from an aquaculture water source at two design flows: 367 L/min and 257 L/min. The hydrocyclone effectively filtered all sizes of snails (including newly emerged neonates) from inflows. We modeled cumulative recovery of three sizes of snails, and determined that both juvenile and adult sized snails were transported similarly through the filtration system, but the transit of neonates was faster and similar to the transport of water particles. We found that transit times through the filtration system were different between the two flows regardless of snail size, and the hydrocyclone filter operated more as a plug flow system with dispersion, especially when transporting and removing the larger sized adult and juvenile sized snails. Our study supports hydrocyclonic filtration as an important tool to provide snail free water for aquaculture operations that require uninfested water sources.

Nielson, R. Jordan; Moffitt, Christine M.; Watten, Barnaby J.

2012-01-01

290

Research about the electromagnetic interference of BES some electronics system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Authors introduces the influence of environmental temperature on the electromagnetic interference generated during the operation of BES some electronics system. Using EMC test system tests the conducted interference generated by BES shower counter electronics system. (authors)

2004-11-06

291

Chemical alarm cues in juvenile African catfish, Clarias gariepinus Burchell: A potential stressor in aquaculture?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous studies on the effects of stocking density on the behaviour of African catfish have shown that at low densities, especially directly after restocking of tanks, increased aggression might occur. This aggression may directly affect the welfare of the fish. In addition, the resulting skin damage may also lead to the release of chemical alarm cues from the skin of the fish, possibly acting as a secondary stressor in a farming situation. Moreover, in a recirculation aquaculture system, a ...

Nieuwegiessen, P. G.; Zhao, H.; Verreth, J. A. J.; Schrama, J. W.

2009-01-01

292

Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and Pathogen Asset Control System  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific c [...] linical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS. Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

Wahl, Tom G.; Burdakov, Aleksey V.; Oukharov, Andrey O.; Zhilokov, Azamat K..

293

Line-source electron beam annealing system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A line-source electron beam annealing system has been developed for directed-energy beam processing of materials. The electron gun in this system produces a sheet beam which is focused at the sample into a line that can be swept laterally for area annealing. The system provides well-characterized beam dwell times in the range 5 ..mu..s--2 ms, a heretofore neglected time regime. We demonstrate line-source annealing by the system for the case of (100) epitaxial regrowth of 1250 A of amorphous As-implanted Si with dwell times as short as 150 ..mu..s. Calculations of temperature profiles and the corresponding regrowth thicknesses for solid phase epitaxy are presented for Si as a function of beam power density and dwell time. Measured power density and dwell time thresholds for layer regrowth are consistent with solid phase epitaxy of the amorphous layer. The results show the utility of the system in exploring regrowth at temperatures near the melt.

Knapp, J.A.; Picraux, S.T.

1982-03-01

294

Performance of a constructed wetland treating intensive shrimp aquaculture wastewater under high hydraulic loading rate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A water treatment unit, mainly consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetland cells, was integrated into a commercial-scale recirculating aquaculture system for intensive shrimp culture. This study investigated performance of the treatment wetlands for controlling water quality. The results showed that the FWS-SF cells effectively removed total suspended solids (55-66%), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (37-54%), total ammonia (64-66%) and nitrite (83-94%) from the recirculating water under high hydraulic loading rates (1.57-1.95 m/day). This led to a water quality that was suitable for shrimp culture and effluent that always satisfied the discharge standards. The area ratios of wetlands to culture tank being demonstrated (0.43) and calculated (0.096) in this study were both significantly lower than the reported values. Accordingly, a constructed wetland was technically and economically feasible for managing water quality of an intensive aquaculture system. - A constructed wetland was found to be technically and economically feasible for managing water quality of an intensive recirculating aquaculture system.

Lin, Y.-F. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: yflin@ms12.hinet.net; Jing, S.-R. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China); Lee, D.-Y. [Department of Environmental Resources Management, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China); Chang, Y.-F. [Department of Environmental Resources Management, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.-M. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China); Shih, K.-C. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China)

2005-04-01

295

Performance of a constructed wetland treating intensive shrimp aquaculture wastewater under high hydraulic loading rate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A water treatment unit, mainly consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetland cells, was integrated into a commercial-scale recirculating aquaculture system for intensive shrimp culture. This study investigated performance of the treatment wetlands for controlling water quality. The results showed that the FWS-SF cells effectively removed total suspended solids (55-66%), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (37-54%), total ammonia (64-66%) and nitrite (83-94%) from the recirculating water under high hydraulic loading rates (1.57-1.95 m/day). This led to a water quality that was suitable for shrimp culture and effluent that always satisfied the discharge standards. The area ratios of wetlands to culture tank being demonstrated (0.43) and calculated (0.096) in this study were both significantly lower than the reported values. Accordingly, a constructed wetland was technically and economically feasible for managing water quality of an intensive aquaculture system. - A constructed wetland was found to be technically and economically feasible for managing water quality of an intensive recirculating aquaculture system

2005-04-01

296

Feasibility study for aquaculture and space heating, Ft. Bidwell, California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Expansion of the aquaculture facilities and geothermal space heating at Ft. Bidwell, California were investigated. The lack of cold water is the limiting factor for aquaculture expansion and is also a problem for the town domestic water supply. A new cold water well approximately 1200 feet deep would provide for the aquaculture expansion and additional domestic water. A 2900 foot test well can be completed to provide additional hot water at approximately 200/sup 0/F and an estimated artesian flow of 500 gpm. If these wells are completed, the aquaculture facility could be expanded to produce 6000 two pound catfish per month on a continuous basis and provide space heating of at least 20 homes. The design provided allows for heating 11 homes initially with possible future expansion. 9 figs.

Culver, G.

1985-10-01

297

Webinar- Electronics 2010: A New Systems Approach to Teaching Electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

This webinar was presented on September 14, 2007 by MATEC NetWorks to update and discuss the grant Electronics 2010. This is the first one for the grant that was kicked off at SAME-TEC 2007 (Semiconductors, Automated Manufacturing, Electronics Technical Education Conference). Teaching Electronics is changing - ESyst (the name of the program) is bringing that change. This webinar presents the findings and directions of those changes.

2010-08-05

298

Organic accumulation under salmon aquaculture cages in Fossfjördur, Iceland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Marine based salmon aquaculture inputs large amount of organic material into the surrounding environment. This organic material is mainly composed of uneaten salmon feed and faeces. This material often accumulates in the environment under the cages. In Iceland there is no data on organic output coming from aquaculture nets and sparse data on the impacts of accumulation of this organic material. This study will be the first in Iceland to look at the amount of organic material that accumulates ...

Allison, Alexander Mackey

2012-01-01

299

Salmon Aquaculture and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Marine Environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a s...

Buschmann, Alejandro H.; Tomova, Alexandra; Lo?pez, Alejandra; Maldonado, Miguel A.; Henri?quez, Luis A.; Ivanova, Larisa; Moy, Fred; Godfrey, Henry P.; Cabello, Felipe C.

2012-01-01

300

Consumer preferences, aquaculture technology and the sustainability of fisheries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article analyzes the impact of aquaculture on wild fish stocks and on fish consumption, taking into account its dependence on reduction fisheries for the feeding of the farmed species and consumet preferences. The model includes the demand side and three sectors : and edible fish fishery and a reduction fishery, both in open access, and an aquaculture sector. We assume on the one hand that consumer preferences are carnivorous species biased, and on the other hand that the efficiency of t...

Regnier, Esther; Schubert, Katheline

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Quality in aquaculture : a major issue in international competition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite its youth, aquaculture is an activity which is definitely subjected to the rules of international trade. The dependence on natural conditions is the first cause for the existence of national or regional comparative advantages. But both economic and institutional environment have to be taken into account when listing the assets or constraints of a location for implementing aquaculture. Because of little possibilities of economies of scale and because of fast technological spread in aqu...

Paquotte, Philippe

1993-01-01

302

Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798) aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Banglade...

Brojo Gopal Paul; Christian Reinhard Vogl

2012-01-01

303

Aquaculture applications of a thermal effluent and considerations on geothermal water use  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aquaculture may benefit from the use of thermal discharges from power plants or geothermal waters. Fish culture technology applicable to use of heated effluents should also apply generally to geothermal water sources. In the early 1970's the Tennessee Valley Authority and a private cooperator pumped thermal effluent from the discharge canal of the Gallatin Steam Plant near Nashville, TN, through a raceway facility, to evaluate an intensive culture system for catfish. Water tempertures averaged 5/sup 0/C above ambient plant intake water. Results demonstrated the potential of heated water to extend the growing season, enhance growth rates, and increase production. Numerous constraints hindering commercial use of thermal effluents for aquaculture were also identified.

Hubert, W.A.; Meriwether, J.

1977-11-16

304

Electron density profile in multilayer systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) has been used extensively to study the multilayer systems, where the thickness of layers are in the nanometer range. These studies has received considerable attention because of its technological interest, for example in the nanotechnology. On the most fundamental level, its importance is derived from the basic physics that is involved. One key quantities of interest is the response of a many-body system to an external perturbation: How act and how modify the interface between the solid-solid or solid-vacuum the excitations in the solid and in the vicinity of the interfaces. In this work, as a starting point of such investigations we calculated the electron density profile for multilayer systems. Our approach employs the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), that is, the solution of a time-dependent Schroedinger equation in which the potential and forces are determined selfconsistently from the dynamics governed by the Schroedinger equation. We treat the problem in TDDFT at the level of the local-density approximation (LDA). Later, the comparison of experimentally obtained loss functions and the theory, based on our TDDFT calculations can provide deeper understanding of surface physics. We performed the calculations for half-infinite samples characterized by rs=1.642 and rs=1.997. We also performed the calculations for double layer systems. The substrate was characterized by rs=1.997 and the coverage by rs=1.642. Fig. 1. shows the obtained electron density profile in LDA approximation. Because of the sharp cutoff of electronic wave vectors at the Fermi surface, the densities in the interior exhibit slowly decaying Friedel oscillations. To highlight the Friedel oscillation we enlarged the electron density profile in Fig. 1a. and Fig. 1b. The work was supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Found: OTKA No. T038016, the grant 'Bolyai' from the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and TeT Grant Nos. CHN-3/2004,and A-15/04. (author)

2004-01-01

305

Effects of electron-electron interactions on electronic transport in disordered systems  

CERN Document Server

This thesis is concerned with the role of electron-electron interactions on electronic transport in disordered systems. We first consider a novel non-linear sigma model in order to microscopically treat the effects of disorder and electronic interaction. We successfully reproduce the perturbative results for the zero-bias anomaly and the interaction correction to the conductivity in a weakly disordered system, and discuss possible directions for future work. Secondly we consider the fluctuations of the dephasing rate for a closed diffusive and quantum dot system. Using the Keldysh technique we derive an expression for the inelastic scattering rate with which we self-consistently obtain the fluctuations in the dephasing rate. For the diffusive regime we find the relative fluctuations is given by F approx (L subphi/L) sup 2 /g sup 2 , where g is the dimensionless conductance, L subphi is the dephasing length and L is the sample size. For the quantum dot regime we find a perturbative divergence due to the presen...

Foley, S T

2002-01-01

306

Effects of electron-electron interactions on electronic transport in disordered systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis is concerned with the role of electron-electron interactions on electronic transport in disordered systems. We first consider a novel non-linear sigma model in order to microscopically treat the effects of disorder and electronic interaction. We successfully reproduce the perturbative results for the zero-bias anomaly and the interaction correction to the conductivity in a weakly disordered system, and discuss possible directions for future work. Secondly we consider the fluctuations of the dephasing rate for a closed diffusive and quantum dot system. Using the Keldysh technique we derive an expression for the inelastic scattering rate with which we self-consistently obtain the fluctuations in the dephasing rate. For the diffusive regime we find the relative fluctuations is given by F ? (L?/L)2/g2, where g is the dimensionless conductance, L? is the dephasing length and L is the sample size. For the quantum dot regime we find a perturbative divergence due to the presence of the zero mode. By mapping divergent diagrams to those for the two-level correlation function, we conjecture the existence of an exact relation between the two. Finally we discuss the consequences of this relation. (author)

2002-01-01

307

Electron impact ionization of helium isoelectronic systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The electron impact single ionization cross sections, on the helium isoelectronic He, Li1+, B3+, C4+, N5+, O6+, Ne8+, Na9+, Ar+16, Fe24+, Mo41+, Ag45+, and U90+ targets, are calculated modifying the simplified Bell (SBELL) model [Eur. Phys. J. D 46, 281 (2008)]. The results of the present analysis are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data. The modified SBELL (MSBELL) model, incorporating the ionic correction factor in it, produces excellent agreement with the experimental data and theoretical calculations for all the two-electron systems, neutral or ions. This model may be a prudent choice in plasma modeling due to its simple inherent structure.

Talukder, M. R.

2008-09-01

308

SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF ELECTRONIC VOTING SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electronic Voting are now being performed using World Wide Web in many countries of theworld due to this advancement a voter need not to visit the polling place. But has to just logging on thecomputer with an internet connection. Also, this voting requires an access code for the e-voting through theadvance report of a voter. To reduce these disadvantages, we suggest a process in which a voter, who has thewireless certificate issued in advance, uses its own mobile phone for an e-voting without the uniqueregistration for a vote. In this paper, a polling scheme by means of mobile technology is resented as mostfundamental application of GSM based Personal Response System, which allows a voter to cast his vote insimple and convenient way without the limit of time and location by integrating an electronic voting methodwith the GSM infrastructure.

Atiya Parveen

2013-05-01

309

Single and combined genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of two xenobiotics widely used in intensive aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several chemicals are used in aquaculture to prevent or to treat disease outbreaks. These substances are mainly administered by two different routes: by prolonged immersion or by mixing into the diet. In the case of intensive aquaculture, the chemicals that are most frequently applied by immersion are formaldehyde (FA) 37% and oxytetracycline (OTC). The first is highly effective against most protozoa, as well as some of the most common parasites such as monogenetic trematodes. OTC presents a large spectrum of antibacterial activities and is used to treat systemic bacterial infections that affect fish. Under therapeutic use, FA (37%) is applied prophylactically at 200ml/m(3), whereas OTC is used curatively at 40g/m(3). The goal of the present study is to assess genotoxic and cytotoxic effects associated with exposure of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) to FA37% and OTC under the same conditions as those applied in intensive aquaculture systems. To this end the micronucleus (MN) assay was applied in erythrocytes. Our results show that both tested chemicals present genotoxic and cytotoxic potential following a time-dependent pattern. Remarkably, the combined treatment induces a cumulative effect, which is particularly pronounced after 15 days of exposure. This suggests the critical hazards associated with exposure to FA and OTC when applied or released together. PMID:21621636

Jerbi, Mohamed Ali; Ouanes, Zouhour; Besbes, Raouf; Achour, Lotfi; Kacem, Adnen

2011-09-18

310

Power Electronics in Wind Turbine Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. The production, distribution and the use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should be set up. The deregulation of energy has lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources may be very high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power systems, power production and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging renewable energy source, wind energy, which by means of power electronics is changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. By that wind power is also getting an added value in the power system operation.

Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

2006-01-01

311

Electronic readout systems for microchannel plates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The microchannel plate (MCP) is an electron multiplier with a two-dimensional imaging capability. When coupled to a semi-transparent photocathode, the MCP forms a compact image intensifier which is widely used for night vision imaging applications. Alternatively, the MCP can be used in an open-structure configuration to detect high energy photons at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray wavelengths or to directly detect charged particles. The recent development of MCPs which can be operated at high gain in the pulse-counting mode has made it possible to develop position-sensitive electronic systems which can directly detect the charge pulse from the MCP. These digital imaging systems have a large number of applications in astrophysics, plasma physics, and high-energy nuclear physics. The operating characteristics of the different systems which are currently in use or under development and their requirements on the performance characteristics of the high-gain MCPs are described in this paper

1985-02-01

312

Consumer behaviour and preferences for aquaculture products  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During the last decades, the proportion of aquaculture products in the market place has increased dramatically and this trend seems to continue in the future as well. While both the producers of aquaculture products as well as the distribution channels are aware of this change in product composition, still little is known about the effect this has on consumer preferences and product choices. In connection with the SEAFOODplus project CONSUMERSURVEY, which aims at explaining seafood consumption, a major survey has been carried out in five European countries in order to achieve more knowledge about consumer preferences and choice in relation to fish in general as well as preferences for farmed and wild fish. Questionnaires were sent to a representative sample of consumers in 5 European countries: Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Poland and Spain, and a total of 4786 valid questionnaires were returned and analysed. Results show that there is widespread confusion regarding whether fish is wild or farmed. The data disclose large discrepancies in reported total fish consumption frequency as shown in Table 1 and reported consumption of wild and farmed fish as shown in table 2. From the total sample, 2.5% claim to never or seldom eat fish in general. About one third claim never to eat farmed fish, and also one third claims never to eat wild fish. Combining these, it turns out that 24.8% of the total sample claim neither to eat farmed nor wild fish. It seems, however, that the confusion about wild and farmed fish increases with age, since the reported consumption of wild fish decreases with increasing age, which is the opposite trend compared to reported overall fish consumption. The data shows that on average the consumption of fish increases with increasing age in all countries except Poland where differences in consumption frequencies were not significant across age groups. On average fresh wild fish is perceived to be of higher quality compared to farmed fish. On the other hand, fresh farmed fish is perceived to have a more consistent quality compared to fresh wild fish and to be more available and thus easier to purchase. Furthermore, when it comes to safety, consumers do not perceive any difference in relation to the safety of fresh wild fish and fresh farmed fish.

Brunsø, Karen; Scholderer, Joachim

313

Electron scattering in the few nucleon system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculations of inelastic electron scattering on the trinucleon system are reviewed. Final state interaction effects are studied by solving the three-body equations for the continuum states. Kinematics are such that the dynamics can be treated non relativistically. The role of special relativity is examined in the case of the deuteron. Using the Bethe-Salpeter equation framework the elastic form factors are determined and compared with experiments. Within a quasi-potential equation approach relativistic effects on the structure functions of the deuteron electrodisintegration process are discussed. (orig.)

1992-08-24

314

Injectable electronic identification, monitoring, and stimulation systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Historically, electronic devices such as pacemakers and neuromuscular stimulators have been surgically implanted into animals and humans. A new class of implants made possible by advances in monolithic electronic design and implant packaging is small enough to be implanted by percutaneous injection through large-gauge hypodermic needles and does not require surgical implantation. Among these, commercially available implants, known as radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, are used for livestock, pet, laboratory animal, and endangered-species identification. The RFID tag is a subminiature glass capsule containing a solenoidal coil and an integrated circuit. Acting as the implanted half of a transcutaneous magnetic link, the RFID tag is powered by and communicates with an extracorporeal magnetic reader. The tag transmits a unique identification code that serves the function of identifying the animal. Millions of RFID tags have been sold since the early 1980s. Based on the success of the RFID tags, research laboratories have developed injectable medical implants, known as micromodules. One type of micromodule, the microstimulator, is designed for use in functional-neuromuscular stimulation. Each microstimulator is uniquely addressable and could comprise one channel of a multichannel functional-neuromuscular stimulation system. Using bidirectional telemetry and commands, from a single extracorporeal transmitter, as many as 256 microstimulators could form the hardware basis for a complex functional-neuromuscular stimulation feedback-control system. Uses include stimulation of paralyzed muscle, therapeutic functional-neuromuscular stimulation, and neuromodulatory functions such as laryngeal stimulation and sleep apnea. PMID:11701487

Troyk, P R

1999-01-01

315

Wigner-like crystallization of Anderson-localized electron systems with low electron densities  

CERN Document Server

We consider an electron system under conditions of strong Anderson localization, taking into account interelectron long-range Coulomb repulsion. We establish that at sufficiently low electron densities and sufficiently low temperatures the Coulomb electron interaction brings about ordering of the Anderson-localized electrons into a structure that is close to an ideal (Wigner) crystal lattice, provided the dimension of the system is > 1. This Anderson-Wigner glass (AWG) is a new macroscopic electron state that, on the one hand, is beyond the conventional Fermi glass concept, and on the other hand, qualitatively differs from the known 'plain' Wigner glass (inherent in self-localized electron systems) in that the random slight electron displacements from the ideal crystal sites essentially depend on the electron density. With increasing electron density the AWG is found to turn into the plain Wigner glass or Fermi glass, depending on the width of the random spread of the electron levels. It is shown that the res...

Slutskin, A A; Pepper, M

2002-01-01

316

Coaxial monitor for multiparametric analysis of electron-optical systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Device containing semiconducting target and system consisting of three metallic diaphragms placed ahead of it is designed to investigate into electron-optical systems (EOS). Alongside with measurement of electron beam current density distribution and EOS thermocathode thermal emission intensity the device enables to measure distribution of longitudinal and maximal transverse rates of electrons. Experimental verification of the technique was carried out at investigation into structure of electron beam formed by triode electron gun with controlling grid. 3 refs.; 5 figs

1995-01-01

317

NMR study of strongly correlated electron systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various types of ground states in strongly correlated electron systems have been systematically investigated by means of NMR/NQR at low temperatures under high magnetic field and pressure. We focus on two well-known heavy-electron families, CeCu2X2 (X=Si and Ge) (Ce(122)) and UM2Al3 (M=Ni and Pd) (U(123)). The Cu NQR experiments on CeCu2X2 under high pressure indicate that the physical property of CeCu2Ge2 at high pressure, i.e. above the transition at 7.6GPa from antiferromagnetic (AF) to superconductivity, are clearly related to that of CeCu2Si2 at ambient pressure. In addition to the H-T phase diagram established below 7T, NMR and specific heat experiments on polycrystal CeCu2.05Si2 have revealed the presence of a new phase above 7T. In a high-quality polycrystal of UPd2Al3 with a record high-Tc of 2K at ambient pressure and the narrowest Al NQR line width, the nuclear-spin lattice relaxation rate, 27(1/T1) measured in zero field has been found to obey the T3 law down to 0.13K, giving strong evidence that the energy gap vanishes along lines on the Fermi surface. Thus it seems that all heavy-electron superconductors exhibit lines of zero gap, regardless of their different magnetic properties. ((orig.))

1995-02-01

318

Engineering Automotive Electronic Systems: Decision Support for Successful Integration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The electronic system of a modern vehicle is essential to achieve a successful automotive product. Vehicle development is performed by integrating components that include embedded electronics from several suppliers. This thesis present results on the subject of integration of automotive electronic systems. Our studies aim at providing knowledge on how to integrate automotive electronic systems successfully in a setting where vehicles are developed based on existing platforms. We focus on earl...

Fro?berg, Joakim

2007-01-01

319

Power electronics for renewable energy systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a demand to double the power capacity within 20 years. The production, distribution and use of energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources may be very high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss some of the most emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy and photovoltaics, which by means of power electronics are changing from being minor energy sources to be acting as important power sources in the energy system.

Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede

2009-01-01

320

Synthesizing cognition in neuromorphic electronic systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The quest to implement intelligent processing in electronic neuromorphic systems lacks methods for achieving reliable behavioral dynamics on substrates of inherently imprecise and noisy neurons. Here we report a solution to this problem that involves first mapping an unreliable hardware layer of spiking silicon neurons into an abstract computational layer composed of generic reliable subnetworks of model neurons and then composing the target behavioral dynamics as a “soft state machine” running on these reliable subnets. In the first step, the neural networks of the abstract layer are realized on the hardware substrate by mapping the neuron circuit bias voltages to the model parameters. This mapping is obtained by an automatic method in which the electronic circuit biases are calibrated against the model parameters by a series of population activity measurements. The abstract computational layer is formed by configuring neural networks as generic soft winner-take-all subnetworks that provide reliable processing by virtue of their active gain, signal restoration, and multistability. The necessary states and transitions of the desired high-level behavior are then easily embedded in the computational layer by introducing only sparse connections between some neurons of the various subnets. We demonstrate this synthesis method for a neuromorphic sensory agent that performs real-time context-dependent classification of motion patterns observed by a silicon retina.

Neftci, Emre; Binas, Jonathan; Rutishauser, Ueli; Chicca, Elisabetta; Indiveri, Giacomo; Douglas, Rodney J.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Electron-optical systems for planar gyrotrons  

Science.gov (United States)

The methodology of designing an electron-optical system (EOS) that forms sheet helical electron beams (HEBs) for high-power gyrotrons is developed. As an example, we consider the EOS for a 140-GHz gyrotron operated at the first harmonic of the cyclotron frequency with an accelerating voltage of 50 kV, a beam current of 30 A, and a magnetic field compression of 36. A planar geometry of the magnetron-injection gun (MIG) is suggested. The adiabatic theory of MIGs modified for the planar geometry of EOS is used for preliminary estimations of MIG parameters. Numerical simulation of the HEB properties based on the CST STUDIO SUITE 3D code is performed to find the optimal configuration of a planar MIG. The accuracy of the calculated data is discussed. The main factors that affect the HEB quality are considered. It is shown that a sheet HEB with a pitch-factor of 1.3 and velocity spread not exceeding 25%-30% can be formed; this is quite acceptable for high-efficiency operation of modern gyrotrons. Calculation of the beam-wave interaction with the obtained HEB parameters proved that a high output power with a sufficiently good efficiency of about 20% can be reached. Simulations show the feasibility of the experimental implementation of a novel planar EOS and its use in short-wave planar gyrotrons. The developed technique can be used for the study and optimization of planar gyrotrons of different frequency bands and power levels.

Manuilov, V. N.; Zaslavsky, V. Yu.; Ginzburg, N. S.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Kuftin, A. N.; Zotova, I. V.

2014-02-01

322

Electron-optical systems for planar gyrotrons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The methodology of designing an electron-optical system (EOS) that forms sheet helical electron beams (HEBs) for high-power gyrotrons is developed. As an example, we consider the EOS for a 140-GHz gyrotron operated at the first harmonic of the cyclotron frequency with an accelerating voltage of 50?kV, a beam current of 30?A, and a magnetic field compression of 36. A planar geometry of the magnetron-injection gun (MIG) is suggested. The adiabatic theory of MIGs modified for the planar geometry of EOS is used for preliminary estimations of MIG parameters. Numerical simulation of the HEB properties based on the CST STUDIO SUITE 3D code is performed to find the optimal configuration of a planar MIG. The accuracy of the calculated data is discussed. The main factors that affect the HEB quality are considered. It is shown that a sheet HEB with a pitch-factor of 1.3 and velocity spread not exceeding 25%–30% can be formed; this is quite acceptable for high-efficiency operation of modern gyrotrons. Calculation of the beam-wave interaction with the obtained HEB parameters proved that a high output power with a sufficiently good efficiency of about 20% can be reached. Simulations show the feasibility of the experimental implementation of a novel planar EOS and its use in short-wave planar gyrotrons. The developed technique can be used for the study and optimization of planar gyrotrons of different frequency bands and power levels.

Manuilov, V. N.; Zaslavsky, V. Yu.; Ginzburg, N. S.; Glyavin, M. Yu. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ul' yanov St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State University, 23 Gagarin Ave., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Kuftin, A. N.; Zotova, I. V. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ul' yanov St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

2014-02-15

323

Human Health Consequences of Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Aquaculture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Intensive use of antimicrobial agents in aquaculture provides a selective pressure creating reservoirs of drug-resistant bacteria and transferable resistance genes in fish pathogens and other bacteria in the aquatic environment. From these reservoirs, resistance genes may disseminate by horizontal gene transfer and reach human pathogens, or drug-resistant pathogens from the aquatic environment may reach humans directly. Horizontal gene transfer may occur in the aquaculture environment, in the food chain, or in the human intestinal tract. Among the antimicrobial agents commonly used in aquaculture, several are classified by the World Health Organisation as critically important for use in humans. Occurrence of resistance to these antimicrobial agents in human pathogens severely limits the therapeutic options in human infections. Considering the rapid growth and importance of aquaculture industry in many regions of the world and the widespread, intensive, and often unregulated use of antimicrobial agents in thisarea of animal production, efforts are needed to prevent development and spread of antimicrobial resistance in aquaculture to reduce the risk to human health.

Heuer, Ole Eske; Kruse, H.

2009-01-01

324

Possibilities for marker-assisted selection in aquaculture breeding schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

FAO estimates that there are around 200 species in aquaculture. However, only a few species have ongoing selective breeding programmes. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is not used in any aquaculture breeding scheme today. The aim of this chapter, therefore, is to review briefly the current status of aquaculture breeding schemes and to evaluate the possibilities for MAS of aquaculture species. Genetic marker maps have been published for some species in culture. The marker density of these maps is, in general, rather low and the maps are composed of many amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers anchored to few microsatellites. Some quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified for economically important traits, but they are not yet mapped at a high density. Computer simulations of within-family MAS schemes show a very high increase in genetic gain compared with conventional family-based breeding schemes, mainly due to the large family sizes that are typical for aquaculture breeding schemes. The use of genetic markers to identify individuals and their implications for breeding schemes with control of inbreeding are discussed. (author)

2007-01-01

325

Advanced Photonic and Electronic Systems WILGA 2010  

CERN Multimedia

SPIE – PSP WILGA Symposium gathers two times a year in January and in May new adepts of advanced photonic and electronic systems. The event is oriented on components and applications. WILGA Symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering is well known on the web for its devotion to “young research” promotion under the eminent sponsorship of international engineering associations like SPIE and IEEE and their Poland Sections or Counterparts. WILGA is supported by the most important national professional organizations like KEiT PAN and PSP-Photonics Society of Poland. The Symposium is organized since 1998 twice a year. It has gathered over 4000 young researchers and published over 2000 papers mainly internationally, including more than 900 in 10 published so far volumes of Proc. SPIE. This paper is a digest of WILGA Symposium Series and WILGA 2010 summary. Introductory part treats WILGA Photonics Applications characteristics over the period 1998-2010. Following part presents a short report on the XXVth and XXVI...

Romaniuk, R S

2010-01-01

326

CERN Sells its Electronic Document Handling System  

CERN Multimedia

The EDH team. Left to right: Derek Mathieson, Rotislav Titov, Per Gunnar Jonsson, Ivica Dobrovicova, James Purvis. Missing from the photo is Jurgen De Jonghe. In a 1 MCHF deal announced this week, the British company Transacsys bought the rights to CERN's Electronic Document Handling (EDH) system, which has revolutionised the Laboratory's administrative procedures over the last decade. Under the deal, CERN and Transacsys will collaborate on developing EDH over the coming 12 months. CERN will provide manpower and expertise and will retain the rights to use EDH, which will also be available freely to other particle physics laboratories. This development is an excellent example of the active technology transfer policy CERN is currently pursuing. The negotiations were carried out through a fruitful collaboration between AS and ETT Divisions, following the recommendations of the Technology Advisory Board, and with the help of SPL Division. EDH was born in 1991 when John Ferguson and Achille Petrilli of AS Divisi...

2001-01-01

327

Aquaculture investigations with nuclear energy techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The culture of aquatic organisms, especially that of fishes under controlled conditions, up to their harvesting, processing, commercialization and consumption, has been pointed out as an activity that produces a lot of benefits, among them: the obtention high proteic valued food, the incorporation to the economy of lands not usefull for agriculture activities, the increment of fishing resources, the recycling of organic matter produced in the units, the regional development, the generation of employment, technologies and foreign currencies. Several research areas are identified that can be developed, using the nuclear technologies, for example in the reproduction, nutrition, diagnose and control of illnesses, environmental monitoring and quality certification of products. In the concerning to the Venezuelan aquaculture, investigations are required that need to use those techniques. For example: 1) Production of autochthonous inductive agents, by means of radioinmunoenssay (RIA), to determine the gonadotropines coming from the hypophysis of fish cultivated with the purpose of gathering the glands in its best moment, to generate the final maturation and spawn in autochthonous species. 2) Genetic improvement of cultivated species through the knowledge of the genetic load of different lines and breeds found in the natural means, and to achieve its maintenance to solve inbreeding problems, in autochthonous species aswell in as in exotic ones, by the use of marking techniques (ADE, RFLA and microsatellite techniques). 3) Nutritional and feeding studies of species under commertial culture, especially on the effect of the aflatoxins in the inputs or the portions, substances that influence in a negative way the aquatic nutrition. In this case, competitive immunoassays of enzymes bounded (ELISA) and radioinmunoessays. 4) Illness diagnose, by means of the ELISA kit, specifically of the more common illness in fishes cultivated in the country

1997-07-10

328

77 FR 41164 - Joint Subcommittee on Aquaculture Research and Development Strategic Plan  

Science.gov (United States)

...vision is that the aquaculture sector develops in concert with, natural ecosystems that...Advance Integration of Aquaculture Development and...Productivity and Protect Natural Populations. 3...and Develop Novel Feeds. 6. Increase...

2012-07-12

329

Introduccion al Conocimiento Piscicola Geohidrico (Introduction to Soil and Water Science in Aquaculture).  

Science.gov (United States)

The report includes the necessary knowledge on soil and water relations as a factor in aquaculture. It contains description and classification of soils, their profiles for aquaculture, their chemistry and physics as well as water management basics, aquati...

1982-01-01

330

Survey and Alignment of the Fermilab Electron Cooling System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of achieving the Tevatron luminosity of 3 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} requires Electron Cooling in the Recycler Ring to provide an increased flux of antiprotons. The Fermilab Electron Cooling system has been designed to assist accumulation of antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. The installation along with the survey and alignment of the Electron Cooling system in the Recycler Ring were completed in November 2004. The Electron Cooling system was fully commissioned in May 2005 and the first cooling of antiprotons was achieved in July 2005. This paper discusses the alignment methodology employed to survey and align the Electron Cooling system.

Oshinowo, Babatunde O' Sheg; Leibfritz, Jerry

2006-09-01

331

Characteristics of the beam injection system in an electron LINAC  

Science.gov (United States)

The main characteristics of an electron beam injection system are described; the system is used for injecting and focusing electron beams into the acceleration structure of an 10 MeV linear electron accelerator. The beam injection system consists of a Pierce convergent diode-type electron gun with pulse modulator for power supply and a thin axially symmetric lens. The perveance and the capture coefficient were optimized by the analogical resistors network. This type of injection system was used in the linear electron accelerators: ALIN - 3 MeV, ALIN - 10 MeV and ALID - 8 MeV, performed at NILPRP ? Bucharest, Romania.

B?l???eanu, N.; Gheorghiu, A.; Jurb?, M.; Popescu, E.

2011-12-01

332

T-3 electron-beam-excited laser system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A laser system specifically designed to study the kinetics of electron-beam driven systems is described. Details of the system are given along with measurements of the electron-beam uniformity and deposition in the laser medium. Some HF laser results obtained with this system are also given

1981-01-01

333

Using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for remediation of aquaculture water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Remediation of aquaculture water using microorganisms like Bacillus species is a burgeoning trend for the sustainable development of aquaculture industries. In this work, a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain (namely B. amyloliquefaciens HN), isolated from activated sludge of a polluted river, was evaluated for its potential in water remediation using simulated aquaculture water. B. amyloliquefaciens HN exhibited high tolerance towards 80 mg l(-1) of nitrite-N and ammonia-N. It could effectively remove 20 mg l(-1) of nitrite-N, but was inefficient in eliminating ammonia-N when the ammonia-N concentration was below 20 mg l(-1). Further studies showed that the ammonia-N removal by B. amyloliquefaciens HN was more efficient at 30°C and 35°C than 25°C, and that maximum nitrite-N removal rate was achieved at pH 8. PMID:23577299

Xie, Fengxing; Zhu, Taicheng; Zhang, Fengfeng; Zhou, Ke; Zhao, Yujie; Li, Zhenghua

2013-12-01

334

Two-Fraction Electron System on a Thin Helium Film  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A systematic theoretical investigation of microwave absorption of 2-dimensional electron systems above a thin helium film in the presence of a cyclotron resonance magnetic field is presented. To explain the measured data, a two-fraction structure of the electron system is introduced. One component corresponds to the free electron motion, the second one takes into account electron localization near the potential minimum caused by the roughness of the substrate. Within this model the general de...

2001-01-01

335

Photoinduced electron transfer in model systems of photosynthesis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Thesis describes Investigations on photoinduced electron transfer (ET) for several compounds, serving as model systems of the natural photosynthesis. In addition, the properties of the systems, e.g. the conformation in solution and the electronic properties of the photoexcited states are treated.Chapter 2 discusses present theories of photoinduced electron transfer. The following factors appear to effect the electron transfer rate constants:- donor-acceptor distance- nature of the linkin...

Hofstra, U.

1988-01-01

336

Bæreevne i norsk akvakultur – CANO :Carrying Capacity in Norwegian Aquaculture – CANO  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In aquaculture the carrying capacity may be defined as the maximum amount of an aquaculture organism that can be produced in an area without the environmental effects exceeding accepted levels. The CANO project will contribute to determine the carrying capacity and ensure a sustainable aquaculture industry.

Ervik, Arne; Hansen, Pia Kupka; Strand, Øivind; Agnalt, Ann-lisbeth

2009-01-01

337

Nutrient reduction in aquaculture waste by macroalgae production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Danish marine finfish aquaculture wants to increase production and follow the trend of increasing world wide demand for finfish, but restrictions are based on environmental concerns. The demand on seaweeds are also increasing on the market due to its content of vitamins, minerals, gelling agents etc. as well as its potential use for environmental friendly biofuel. Furthermore, seaweeds (macroalgae) assimilate nutrients and can therefore bioremediate wastes in seawater. Linking finfish and seaweed aquaculture together, the seaweed can convert the nutrient waste from the fed aquaculture production into a valuable product and when harvested the environmental footprint from the finfish production will be smaller. This led to the aim of this Ph.D.-project: â??Nutrient reduction in aquaculture waste by macroalgae productionâ?. In this study the three red macroalgae containing gelling agents; Chondrus crispus, Furcellaria lumbricalis and Gracilaria vermiculophylla, were investigated as candidates for polyculture actingas biofilters near two fish farms in the inner Danish waters. In addition, the biofilter potential of C. crispus was investigated in outdoor tank cultures receiving fish effluent or seawater. Furthermore, the sporulation method was examined on C. crispus to only get the most valuable life phase and reduce labor intensity. Finally, thalli of C. crispus were cultivated in a bubble column photobioreactor in the laboratory to examine growth and open up the â??black boxâ? of growth in between inocula- and end-biomass with on-line growth measurements. In the field near the two fish farms, the highest specific growth rates were C. crispus 0.018±0.006 d-1, F. lumbricalis 0.011±0.004 d-1 and G. vermiculophylla 0.039±0.007 d-1. Results showed a small increase in biomass and a decrease in the specific growth rates of the three macroalgae, while the epibios biomass increased during the deployment periods. Decrease of specific growth rates of C. crispus with distance and increase with feed use underline the importance of the nutrient source originating from the fish farm for algal growth. The slow growth of the investigated macroalgal species, however, makes the production of algal biomass too small to reduce the nutrient waste from the fish farms significantly. The biomass of C. crispus cultivated in outdoor tanks reduced nutrients in the received fish effluent and seawater. The biomass increased up to 110 % during 27 days of experiment with specific growth rates of 0.03 d-1 reached in the flow-through cultures and 0.01 d-1 in the batch cultures. Only the seaweed in the flow-through culture with fish effluent had nitrogen content higher than the critical level for growth and furthermore were not bleached, which indicated non-limited growth with respect to nutrients. Whole thalli of C. crispus cultivated in the photobioreactor with nonlimiting temperature, light and carbon dioxide supply reached a specific growth rate of 0.095 d-1 and contamination was kept at a low level, while fragments of freshly formed thalli reached growthrates of 0.12 d-1 without contaminants and epiphytes. On-line data of carbon dioxide addition from the closed system reflected photosynthetic activity, and these results revealed lag-phases and existence of several exponential growth phases in one of the experiments. Germination of the most valuable tetraspores of C. crispus in the photobioreactor and in the field was successful. The specific growth rate of sporelings in the photobioreactor was 0.065 d-1 and sporelings reached an average length of 1.1±0.1 cm in 119 days. In the field, sporelings reached a maximum length of 1.5 cm with low growth of epibios during four months. In conclusion, the investigated species either grow too slowly to be used for polyculture or as a biofilter near Danish fish farms and/or they cannot be sold as a product due to the high degree of epibios coverage. The bubble column photobioreactor method is well suited to characterize the growth of C. crispus and the on-line data identifies the different g

Holdt, Susan Løvstad

2010-01-01

338

Electron-electron interactions in a weakly screened two-dimensional electron system  

CERN Multimedia

We probe the strength of electron-electron interactions using magnetoconductivity measurements of two-dimensional non-degenerate electrons on liquid helium at 1.22 K. Our data extend to electron densities that are two orders of magnitude smaller than previously reported. We span both the independent-electron regime where the data are qualitatively described by the self-consistent Born approximation (SCBA), and the strongly-interacting electron regime. At finite fields we observe a crossover from SCBA to Drude theory as a function of electron density.

Karakurt, I

2002-01-01

339

Many-Electron Systems with Constrained Current  

CERN Document Server

A formulation for transport in an inhomogeneous, interacting electron gas is described. Electronic current is induced by a constraint condition imposed as a vector Lagrange multiplier. Constrained minimization of the total energy functional on the manifold of an arbitrary constant current leads to a many-electron Schroedinger equation with a complex, momentum-dependent potential. Constant current Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham approximations are formulated within the method and application to transport for quantum wires is developed. No appeal is made to near equilibrium conditions or other approximations allowing development of a general ab initio electronic transport formulation.

Kosov, D S

2001-01-01

340

Electron trapping data storage system and applications  

Science.gov (United States)

The advent of digital information storage and retrieval has led to explosive growth in data transmission techniques, data compression alternatives, and the need for high capacity random access data storage. Advances in data storage technologies are limiting the utilization of digitally based systems. New storage technologies will be required which can provide higher data capacities and faster transfer rates in a more compact format. Magnetic disk/tape and current optical data storage technologies do not provide these higher performance requirements for all digital data applications. A new technology developed at the Optex Corporation out-performs all other existing data storage technologies. The Electron Trapping Optical Memory (ETOM) media is capable of storing as much as 14 gigabytes of uncompressed data on a single, double-sided 54 inch disk with a data transfer rate of up to 12 megabits per second. The disk is removable, compact, lightweight, environmentally stable, and robust. Since the Write/Read/Erase (W/R/E) processes are carried out 100 percent photonically, no heating of the recording media is required. Therefore, the storage media suffers no deleterious effects from repeated Write/Read/Erase cycling.

Brower, Daniel; Earman, Allen; Chaffin, M. H.

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Enhancing banking electronic document management system with credit support  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this diploma work is to present upgrading of an operating document system, more precisely introducing credit confirmation into the existent banking document management system. The intention of this system is to enable Banka Volksbank d.d. Ljubljana to use electronic credit confirmation as well as electronic archiving of the related documentation.

2009-01-01

342

Duke Electronic Mail Post Office A Practical Mail Linking System*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes a system designed to integrate the many different electronic mail systems in use throughout Duke University. The Duke Electronic Mail Post Office project is part of Duke University Medical Center's model for Achieving an Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS).

Dryfoos, James D.; Hammond, William E.; Spero, Laurence A.; Rabold, Jean S.; Straube, Mark J.; Stead, William W.

1988-01-01

343

Power electronics system integration for electric and hybrid vehicles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper gives an overview of the basic requiremensts, concepts, and trends regarding a system intergration of power electronics in hybrid (HEV) an electric vehicles (EV). A site-of-action system integration of the various power electronics subsystems minimizes costs and construction space requirements. New technologies that foster a system integration of power electronics and a merging with the mechanical environment are presented. The focus is on power modules and passive components.

Ma?rz, M.; Schletz, A.; Eckardt, B.; Engelkraut, S.; Rauh, H.

2010-01-01

344

Establishment of a mobile electron beam treatment system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main goal of the project was the construction of mobile electron beam treatment system. The system of mobile electron beam was needed against the environmental problem that was not able to be figured out by the conventional treatment technologies. The mobile electron beam system was constructed for the field demonstration of treatment and remediation of various contaminated environments to obtain New Environmental Technology (NET) of Ministry of Environment (MOE)

2010-01-01

345

Fisheries and aquaculture industries involvement to control product health and quality safety to satisfy consumer-driven objectives on retail markets in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the past years the export of agricultural and fishery products from developing countries has substantially increased to markets within the OECD. Retailers and importers are expanding their international operations to meet consumer demands for year-round delivery of products. Moreover, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety of food, including those derived from aquatic resources [FAO/NACA/WHO Joint Study Group, 1999. Report food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture. WHO Technical Report Series No 883: VII, pp. 1-55]. Governments and leading businesses are responding by imposing new safety regulations and standards to the international food system (e.g. HACCP, EUREP-GAP), product liability and labeling [Reilly, A., Howgate, P., Kaeferstein, F., 1997. Safety hazards and the application of HACCP in aquaculture. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fish Inspection and Quality Control: A Global Focus, Arlington, VA, 19-24 May 1996. Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, pp. 353-373]. Initial concerns for imports of aquacultural products from developing to industrialized countries focussed on bacterial contamination [Buras, N. 1993. Microbial safety of produce from wastewater-fed aquaculture. In: Pullin, R.V.C., Rosenthal, H., MacLean, J.L.(Eds.), Proceedings of ICLARM Conferences, vol. 31, pp. 285-295]. Today, if trade opportunities are to be maintained, these countries must adapt to a full array of regulations and standards. This paper describes four scenarios in aquaculture and fishing product trade between developing countries and countries in the European Union.

Roth, Eva [University of South Denmark, Department of Environmental and Business Economics, Niels Bohrs vej 9, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Institute for Marine Research, University Kiel, Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Rosenthal, Harald [University of South Denmark, Department of Environmental and Business Economics, Niels Bohrs vej 9, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Institute for Marine Research, University Kiel, Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel (Germany)

2006-07-01

346

Causalities between Price, Pond Area and Employment in Aquaculture Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The role of aquaculture industry is becoming more prominent in order to supplement marine capture in meeting the food need for the growing Malaysian population. In an attempt to minimize depletion of marine fisheries, only traditional vessels are allowed to fish along the coastal area while bigger vessels are relegated to deep-sea fishing. During the 9th Malaysian Plan (200...

Nik Hashim Nik Mustapha; Azlina Abd Aziz; Nik Mohd Hazrul Hashim

2013-01-01

347

Domestic cultivation of salmon in the Pacific Northwest and aquaculture of Malaysian prawns in controlled environments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aquaculture of salmon and shrimp is discussed. Domsea Farms in the Pacific Northwest has facilities for spawning, hatching, and rearing of coho salmon for U.S. markets. Health management programs operate to keep salmon free from bacterial or viral diseases. Recent developments in technology for the intensive culture of a tropical prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) are considered. Commercial facilities in South Carolina consisting of hatchery, nursery, production, and brood stock phases are described. Designs for very intensive grow-out systems include small earthen pond units, modified Shigueno-type tanks, and aquacells. Major problem areas of commercial shrimp production are identified. (10 diagrams, 1 graph, 11 photos, numerous references)

Friedman, B.A.; Sandifer, P.A.; Smith, T.I.J.

1978-07-01

348

ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF MIXED VALENT SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The electronic structure of Tm and Sm monochalcogenides, SmB6 and Yb4As3 is theoretically investigated from the first principles, using the fully relativistic Dirac LMTO band structure method. The electronic structure is obtained using the local spin-density approximation (LSDA, as well as the so-called LSDA+U approach. While the standard LSDA approach is incapable of correctly describing the electronic structure of such materials due to the strong on-site Coulomb repulsion, the LSDA+U approach is remarkably accurate in providing a detailed agreement with experiment for a number of properties.

V.N.Antonov

2004-01-01

349

NFC-based Electronic Data Capture Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we present a Near Field Communication (NFC)-based electronic data capture prototype for patient self-reported rating scales. Such scales are valuable feedback for medical treatment and care processes. As traditional paper-based questionnaires are time- and cost-consuming and may be affected by low patient compliance, our prototype allows patient monitoring and electronic data acquisition directly from the patient's home. It enables real time representation and analysis of ...

Prinz, A.; Menschner, P.; Jan Marco Leimeister

2012-01-01

350

Electronic systems failures and anomalies attributed to electromagnetic interference  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of electromagnetic interference can be very detrimental to electronic systems utilized in space missions. Assuring that subsystems and systems are electrically compatible is an important engineering function necessary to assure mission success. This reference publication will acquaint the reader with spacecraft electronic systems failures and anomalies caused by electromagnetic interference and will show the importance of electromagnetic compatibility activities in conjunction with space flight programs. It is also hoped that the report will illustrate that evolving electronic systems are increasingly sensitive to electromagnetic interference and that NASA personnel must continue to diligently pursue electromagnetic compatibility on space flight systems.

Leach, R. D. (editor); Alexander, M. B. (editor)

1995-01-01

351

Valley susceptibility of an interacting two-dimensional electron system  

CERN Document Server

We report direct measurements of the valley susceptibility, the change of valley population in response to applied symmetry-breaking strain, in an AlAs two-dimensional electron system. As the two-dimensional density is reduced, the valley susceptibility dramatically increases relative to its band value, reflecting the system's strong electron-electron interaction. The increase has a remarkable resemblance to the enhancement of the spin susceptibility and establishes the analogy between the spin and valley degrees of freedom.

Gunawan, O; Vakili, K; Gokmen, T; De Poortere, E P; Shayegan, M

2006-01-01

352

Programmable electronics in safety-critical systems -- A practical survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many nuclear power plants need to upgrade their old systems for instrumentation and control due to problems with aging. Introducing programmable electronics into safety-critical systems include many uncertainties. Therefore the utility needs clear and precise guidelines, standards, methods for verification and validation, and instructions for maintenance of programmable electronics. In this paper an overview over the problem area and experiences on programmable electronics made through a survey at the Swedish nuclear industry is presented.

Johansson, E. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Control Systems

1995-12-31

353

Modeling and Verification of Dependable Electronic Power System Architecture  

Science.gov (United States)

The electronic power system can be viewed as a system composed of a set of concurrently interacting subsystems to generate, transmit, and distribute electric power. The complex interaction among sub-systems makes the design of electronic power system complicated. Furthermore, in order to guarantee the safe generation and distribution of electronic power, the fault tolerant mechanisms are incorporated in the system design to satisfy high reliability requirements. As a result, the incorporation makes the design of such system more complicated. We propose a dependable electronic power system architecture, which can provide a generic framework to guide the development of electronic power system to ease the development complexity. In order to provide common idioms and patterns to the system *designers, we formally model the electronic power system architecture by using the PVS formal language. Based on the PVS model of this system architecture, we formally verify the fault tolerant properties of the system architecture by using the PVS theorem prover, which can guarantee that the system architecture can satisfy high reliability requirements.

Yuan, Ling; Fan, Ping; Zhang, Xiao-fang

354

Security analysis of electronic voting and online banking systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main focus of this dissertation is on security analysis of electronic voting and online banking systems. Six papers form the basis of the thesis and include the following topics: a model for analysis of voting systems, a case study where we apply the proposed model, a new scheme for remote electronic voting, and three case studies of commercial online banking solutions in Norway.

Tjøstheim, Thomas

2007-01-01

355

Electron paramagnetic resonance and its applications in biophysical systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron paramagnetic resonance is described as a field-swept spectroscopic technique with detection at a constant microwave frequency. The characteristics of the observed spectrum are related to the structure and properties of the sampled system. Some recent studies using electron paramagnetic resonance as a probe of biophysical systems are described. (author)

1988-01-01

356

Seacage aquaculture in a World Heritage Area: the environmental footprint of a Barramundi farm in tropical Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fate of aquaculture wastes from a seacage farm within a pristine mangrove environment was studied. Seasonal and tidal differences were most important in determining water quality within receiving waters and obscured any nutrient enrichment effect by the farm. Farm wastes added significantly to the N budget status of the creek system, but overall water quality conformed to Queensland EPA Water Quality standards. Mangrove trees throughout the creek system contained (15)N signatures traceable to aquaculture feeds, but the footprint of the farm itself was best indicated by the ratio of Zn:Li in sediments. The creek became hypoxic (<2 mgl(-1)) during wet season low tides. Consequently, we recommended monitoring of water-column oxygen concentrations to warn of hypoxic conditions threatening to fish health, as well as Zn:Li ratios in sediment accumulation zones to determine the area of influence of the farm. PMID:20598717

McKinnon, A David; Trott, Lindsay A; Brinkman, Richard; Duggan, Samantha; Castine, Sarah; O'Leary, Rebecca A; Alongi, Daniel M

2010-09-01

357

Denitrification and Anammox in Tropical Aquaculture Settlement Ponds: An Isotope Tracer Approach for Evaluating N2 Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Settlement ponds are used to treat aquaculture discharge water by removing nutrients through physical (settling) and biological (microbial transformation) processes. Nutrient removal through settling has been quantified, however, the occurrence of, and potential for microbial nitrogen (N) removal is largely unknown in these systems. Therefore, isotope tracer techniques were used to measure potential rates of denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in the sediment of settlem...

2012-01-01

358

Electron-nuclear dynamics of molecular systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The content of an ab initio time-dependent theory of quantum molecular dynamics of electrons and atomic nuclei is presented. Employing the time-dependent variational principle and a family of approximate state vectors yields a set of dynamical equations approximating the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. These equations govern the time evolution of the relevant state vector parameters as molecular orbital coefficients, nuclear positions, and momenta. This approach does not impose the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, does not use potential energy surfaces, and takes into account electron-nuclear coupling. Basic conservation laws are fully obeyed. The simplest model of the theory employs a single determinantal state for the electrons and classical nuclei and is implemented in the computer code ENDyne. Results from this ab-initio theory are reported for ion-atom and ion-molecule collisions.

Diz, A.; Oehrn, Y. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1994-12-31

359

Introducing individual transferable quotas on nitrogen in Danish fresh water aquaculture : production and profitability gains  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential gains from changing the existing regulatory framework for fresh water aquaculture production in Denmark. The regulatory framework is changed from an input regulation based on farm-specific feed quotas, to an individual transferable quota system on nitrogen pollution. The regulatory change is analyzed using Data Envelopment Analysis to model the underlying production structure. The effect of allowing trading of nitrogen quotas on production and profitability is analyzed in a joint production model with good and bad output under different behavioral and technical assumptions, whilst keeping the overall pollution level of nitrogen constant. Furthermore, the effect of a catchment area restriction on nitrogen is analyzed to comply with the EU Water Framework Directive. The paper quantifies the gains of a policy change from a command and control system to an incentive based system. The estimated results suggest that the changed regulation could increase Danish aquaculture production by 16 to 55%, whilst actual profitability could be increased 5 to 10 times.

Nielsen, Rasmus

2012-01-01

360

A system for measuring transverse beam of electron gun  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A test system for measuring the transverse beam of a high power electron gun is introduced. This system adopts Matlab to realize the output of 3-D figure and AT89C55, which controls a step motor to drive wires scanning rapidly across the electron beam and collect data at the same time. With the system one can judge the operation conditions of the electron gun. By means of this system, 5 mA beam was measured, and the beam diameter (13-14 mm) and the profile current matrix were obtained. (authors)

2004-04-01

 
 
 
 
361

DNA and microfluidics: Building molecular electronics systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of molecular electronics using DNA molecules as the building blocks and using microfluidics to build nanowire arrays is reviewed. Applications of DNA conductivity to build sensors and nanowire arrays, and DNA conjugation with other nanostructures, offers an exciting opportunity to build extremely small analytical devices that are suitable for single-molecule detection and also target screening

2006-05-24

362

Electron beam irradiation in polymeric systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electron beam applications in the chemistry of polymers, such as the production of acrylamide polymers, which are of great interest in the treatment of waste industrial waters are given. These products have unique properties: the required dose is smaller by a factor of 10 to 50 as compared to the dose requirement for other polymeric materials and they are used in aqueous solutions in a concentration of one or two magnitude orders smaller than the conventional inorganic flocculants. The acrylamide polymers technologies was first developed at semi-industrial scale with IETI 10000 gamma rays source and then transferred to the ALIN-10 electron linear accelerator. The operation of the ALIN-10 built in the Accelerator Laboratory from the Institute of Atomic Physics is presented. An original feature of this accelerator, using an electron gun of the diode type is its capability to obtain programmed beam single shots and pulse trains. It is particularly useful for the automatic control of irradiation processing in order to provide the maximum efficiency of the electron beam application. The preliminary results obtained by ALIN-10 lead to the assumption that the low output power high energy linacs are economically attractive for the commercial production of acrylamide type polymers. (Author) 7 Figs. 2 Tabs., 10 Refs

1995-01-01

363

Dinámica del Carbono en estanques de peces / Carbon dynamics in aquaculture ponds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la dinámica del carbono en estanques dedicados a la piscicultura intervienen actividades físicas, químicas y biológicas las cuales transforman el carbono agregado en forma de alimento o de fertilizaciones orgánicas e inorgánicas. La intensificación de la producción de peces, está acompañada del i [...] ncremento de las entradas de carbono, en forma de alimento. Estas entradas, han excedido la capacidad metabólica del estanque lo que en consecuencia ha derivado en la acumulación de compuestos orgánicos y deterioro de la calidad del agua. Algunas investigaciones muestran que la calidad del agua, ha pasado a constituir la principal limitante en la búsqueda de una mayor intensificación de la producción piscícola. La mayor salida de carbono del sistema productivo está asociada con la evasión gaseosa en forma de CO2, situación que ubica a los sistemas productivos no como sumideros sino como generadores de huella de carbono. El principal medio de retención del CO2 en los estanques de peces, es el fitoplancton. En términos generales el balance de carbono en los sistemas productivos acuícolas es positivo, no obstante es posible lograr una mayor recuperación siendo necesario realizar ajustes a las prácticas de manejo y profundizar en la investigación de la dinámica del mismo. Entre los factores que inciden en la dinámica del Carbono en estanques están las características del alimento y las prácticas de alimentación, la especie cultivada, el recambio de agua, la aireación, la profundidad del estanque y los microorganismos presentes. Abstract in english Aquaculture ponds'carbon dynamicsare dominated by physical, chemical and biological transformations in feed and organic and inorganic fertilisation. Increasedfish productionhas been associated with an increase incarbon inputin the form of fish-feed exceeding ponds'metabolic capacity,thereby leading [...] to water quality deteriorating due toan accumulationof organic compounds. Water quality is a major constraint in terms of increasedfish crop density. The most important carbon loss within aproduction system is associated with CO2evaporation;this makes aquaculture ponds become carbon footprints instead of carbon sinks. Phytoplankton is the major means of CO2 retentionas it captures both that produced by the respiration of all organisms within a particularpond and within the atmosphere. Aquaculture production systemsusually have a negativeorganic carbon balance; however,higher carbon recovery is possible but this involves adjusting management practiceand increasedresearch into the pertinent dynamics. Feed, feedingpractices, the speciesbeing cultivated, water exchange, aeration, pond depth and the microorganisms living in a pondare factorswhich affect the biogeochemical carboncycle in aquaculture ponds.

Guillermo, Ladino-Orjuela.

364

Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources  

Science.gov (United States)

An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employs crossed electric and magnetic fields to separate the electrons from ions as they are extracted from a negative ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full kinetic energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90.degree. to each other, the electrons are separated from the plasma and remain at approximately the electrical potential of the generator in which they were generated. The electrons migrate from the ion beam path in a precessing motion out of the ion accelerating field region into an electron recovery region provided by a specially designed electron collector electrode. The electron collector electrode is uniformly spaced from a surface of the ion generator which is transverse to the direction of migration of the electrons and the two surfaces are contoured in a matching relationship which departs from a planar configuration to provide an electric field component in the recovery region which is parallel to the magnetic field thereby forcing the electrons to be directed into and collected by the electron collector electrode. The collector electrode is maintained at a potential slightly positive with respect to the ion generator so that the electrons are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply voltage energy.

Dagenhart, William K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Stirling, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1982-01-01

365

Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employs crossed electric and magnetic fields to separate the electrons from ions as they are extracted from a negative ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full kinetic energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90* to each other, the electrons are separated from the plasma and remain at approximately the electrical potential of the generator in which they were generated. The electrons migrate from the ion beam path in a precessing motion out of the ion accelerating field region into an electron recovery region provided by a specially designed electron collector electrode. The electron collector electrode is uniformly spaced from a surface of the ion generator which is transverse to the direction of migration of the electrons and the two surfaces are contoured in a matching relationship which departs from a planar configuration to provide an electric field component in the recovery region which is parallel to the magnetic field thereby forcing the electrons to be directed into and collected by the electron collector electrode. The collector electrode is maintained at a potential slightly positive with respect to the ion generator so that the electrons are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply voltage energy

1982-01-01

366

Electron beam sterilization using an integrated systems approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sterilization of medical disposables is a complex process and requires a sophisticated system to meet today's stringent requirements. Such a system is in use today using electron beam sterilization from a Dynamitron accelerator. The process system components are described as is their functionality as part of an integrated system. Certain information is omitted to observe the confidentiality of the user. (orig.)

1987-04-01

367

Seafloor earthquake measurement system. Volume 2. Electronic hardware description  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Seafloor Earthquake Measurement System (SEMS) is a unique instrument system developed and tested by Sandia National Laboratories for collecting seismic motion data from remote ocean floor sites. The electronic systems of the data gathering and the command units are described, as well as the acoustic telemetry systems which provide the communication link.

Ryerson, D.E.

1981-12-01

368

Electron transport in the multi-terminal quantum dot system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The time-dependent electron transport through a multi-terminal quantum dot system is studied. External microwave fields with arbitrary amplitudes, phases and frequencies are applied to different parts of the system considered. The dependence of the average current and average differential conductance on different parameters of the external microwave fields is analyzed. Special attention is paid to the photon–electron pump effect observed for some values of the quantum dot system parameters.

Malgorzata WIERTEL

2005-01-01

369

Implementing Pediatric Growth Charts into an Electronic Health Record System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electronic health record (EHR) systems are increasingly being adopted in pediatric practices; however, requirements for integrated growth charts are poorly described and are not standardized in current systems. The authors integrated growth chart functionality into an EHR system being developed and installed in a multispecialty pediatric clinic in an academic medical center. During a three-year observation period, rates of electronically documented values for weight, stature, and head circumf...

Rosenbloom, S. Trent; Qi, Xiaofeng; Riddle, William R.; Russell, William E.; Donlevy, Susan C.; Giuse, Dario; Sedman, Aileen B.; Spooner, S. Andrew

2006-01-01

370

Strongly correlated electron systems and quantum critical phenomena  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paper is devoted to the 2-nd Workshop on the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems and the Quantum Critical Phenomena. 43 reports were discussed in the course of the Workshop work in the following committees: the Strongly Correlated Electrons and Superconductivity, the Quantum Critical Phenomena (QCP) and Magnetic Features, the Strongly Correlated Systems of Various Nature and the Laboratory Bench Base Reports describing mainly the experiments dealing with the QCP and the correlated systems

2005-10-01

371

Development in Electronic Packaging – Moving to 3D System Configuration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The electronic industry is reducing package dimensions of components as well as complete electronics systems. Surface mount device passives and semiconductor chips have to be mounted together bringing a functional system that must realize the required function with necessary reliability and acceptable price. To make up a reliable and cost effective system, the size and weight is being reduced by employing lower voltages and higher speeds. For example, the typical size of SMD passives 30 years...

Szendiuch, I.

2011-01-01

372

Handbook of power systems engineering with power electronics applications  

CERN Document Server

Formerly known as Handbook of Power System Engineering, this second edition provides rigorous revisions to the original treatment of systems analysis together with a substantial new four-chapter section on power electronics applications. Encompassing a whole range of equipment, phenomena, and analytical approaches, this handbook offers a complete overview of power systems and their power electronics applications, and presents a thorough examination of the fundamental principles, combining theories and technologies that are usually treated in separate specialised fields, in a single u

Hase, Yoshihide

2012-01-01

373

Power plant waste heat utilization in aquaculture. Semi-annual report, No. 2, 1 November 1977--1 June 1978  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The principal objective is to evaluate, at proof-of-concept scale, the potential of intensive aquaculture operations using power plant thermal discharges to enhance productivity. The field experiments involve the rearing of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and American eel (Anguilla rostrata) for successive periods (semi-annual) in accordance with the temperature of the thermal effluents. Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and the freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) are also being tested in smaller, laboratory size culture systems. The above mentioned species were selected because of their economic importance. They will be evaluated for food quality and marketability with the cooperation of potential commercial users. Aquaculture facilities were constructed at a steam electric generating plant for studies determining use for waste heat released into condenser cooling water. Growth rates, food conversion ratios, disease problems and mortality rates are being studied in the project. (Color illustrations reproduced in black and white) (Portions of this document are not fully legible)

Guerra, C.R.; Godfriaux, B.L.

1978-06-01

374

Variational Monte Carlo method for electron-phonon coupled systems  

Science.gov (United States)

We develop a variational Monte Carlo (VMC) method for electron-phonon coupled systems. The VMC method has been extensively used for investigating strongly correlated electrons over the last decades. However, its applications to electron-phonon coupled systems have been severely restricted because of its large Hilbert space. Here, we propose a variational wave function with a large number of variational parameters, which is suitable and tractable for systems with electron-phonon coupling. In the proposed wave function, we implement an unexplored electron-phonon correlation factor, which takes into account the effect of the entanglement between electrons and phonons. The method is applied to systems with diagonal electron-phonon interactions, i.e., interactions between charge densities and lattice displacements (phonons). As benchmarks, we compare VMC results with previous results obtained by the exact diagonalization, the Green function Monte Carlo method and the density matrix renormalization group for the Holstein and Holstein-Hubbard model. From these benchmarks, we show that the present method offers an efficient way to treat strongly coupled electron-phonon systems.

Ohgoe, Takahiro; Imada, Masatoshi

2014-05-01

375

Energy Transformation in Molecular Electronic Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This laboratory has developed many new ideas and methods in the electronic spectroscopy of molecules. This report covers the contract period 1993-1995. A number of the projects were completed in 1996, and those papers are included in the report. The DOE contract was terminated at the end of 1995 owing to a reorganizational change eliminating nationally the projects under the Office of Health and Environmental Research, U. S. Department of Energy.

Kasha, Michael

1999-05-17

376

Variables Affecting Two Electron Transport System Assays  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several methodological variables were critical in two commonly used electron transport activity assays. The dehydrogenase assay based on triphenyl formazan production exhibited a nonlinear relationship between formazan production (dehydrogenase activity) and sediment dilution, and linear formazan production occurred for 1 h in sediment slurries. Activity decreased with increased time of sediment storage at 4°C. Extraction efficiencies of formazan from sediment varied with alcohol type; metha...

Burton, G. Allen; Lanza, Guy R.

1986-01-01

377

The electronic identification, signature and security of information systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The contribution deals with the actual methods and technologies of information and communication systems security. It introduces the overview of electronic identification elements such as static password, dynamic password and single sign-on. Into this category belong also biometric and dynamic characteristics of verified person. Widespread is authentication based on identification elements ownership, such as various cards and authentication calculators. In the next part is specified a definition and characterization of electronic signature, its basic functions and certificate categories. Practical utilization of electronic signature consists of electronic signature acquirement, signature of outgoing email message, receiving of electronic signature and verification of electronic signature. The use of electronic signature is continuously growing and in connection with legislation development it exercises in all resorts.

Horovèák Pavel

2002-12-01

378

Application of solar hot water and geothermal principles to closed-cycle aquaculture  

Science.gov (United States)

The design of an underground silo where warm water food fish could be raised to market size under controlled conditions. The building and solar concept analysis for the closed cycle aquaculture system are described. Energy conservation features of the design include Earth berming and insulation of the production silo and enclosure, a waste water reclaim system and a solar heating system. Much of the water surface area is covered with removable plants to minimize evaporative heat losses. An energy conservation analysis is also reported and the F-Chart computer program is described. The system chosen utilizes single glazed flat plate collectors in a closed loop antifreeze system. Makeup water is introduced during an 8 hour period each day. Solar energy is transferred from the antifreeze solution to the makeup water after it leaves the waste water heat exchanger.

Yanzito, R. A.

1981-04-01

379

Electron Wave Function Distribution Change in Mesoscopic Systems  

CERN Multimedia

We find a new phenomenon, a particle like an electron, which transfers kinetic energy to other subject undergoes a decrease in its wave packet size in space and an electron that gains kinetic energy experiences an enlargement of its wavepacket size. This effect occurs in some amount of degree almost in any physical system. The effect has significance on electron transport in semiconductors, quantum wires, future devices in nanotechnology and quantum optics.

Yahalomi, E M

2003-01-01

380

Microsatellite genotyping of individual abalone larvae: parentage assignment in aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

In aquaculture, microsatellite DNA markers are used to genotype parental broodstock, to assess fertilization success, and to maintain pedigree information for selective breeding. In this study we genotyped individual Haliotis asinina larvae by analyzing a suit of polymorphic microsatellite loci. At least 10 loci can be analyzed from a single abalone veliger larva. We assayed 5 polymorphic loci to identify the parents of individual larvae produced in 3 separate crosses. In all cases, the parents of an individual veliger could be determined from as few as 3 loci. The microsatellite analysis revealed that, in each of our crosses, a single male fathered most of the veligers, despite efforts to normalize the amount of sperm contributed by competing males. These observations suggest that highly controlled breeding practices may be required to ensure that the genetic diversity of an abalone population produced for aquaculture is maintained at the level of diversity of the original broodstock. PMID:14961341

Selvamani, M J; Degnan, S M; Degnan, B M

2001-09-01

 
 
 
 
381

Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) Control System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ECRH Control System was installed on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) in 1980. The system provides approximately 1 MW of 28 GHz microwave power to the TMX-U plasma. The subsystems of ECRH that must be controlled include high-voltage charging supplies, series pass tubes, and magnet supplies. In addition to the devices that must be controlled, many interlocks must be continuously monitored. The previous control system used relay logic and analog controls to operate the system. This approach has many drawbacks such as lack of system flexibility and maintainability. In order to address these problems, it was decided to go with a CAMAC and Modicon based system that uses a Hewlett-Packard 9836C personal computer to replace the previous analog controls. This paper describes the advantages, disadvantages, and the day-to-day operations of this new computer-based control and data acquisition system

1986-01-01

382

Aquaculture and environmental stewardship: Milford shellfish biology seminar—1991  

Science.gov (United States)

For the past 11 years the annual Shellfish Biology Seminar at Milford CT has provided a unique forum for aquaculture scientists and industry officials to exchange information about estuaries facing increased pollution problems, especially Long Island Sound and the Great South Bay. Because these two areas are so rich in productivity and diversity, fish and shellfish farmers utilize their waters, shellfish beds, and shore land for hatcheries and grow-out facilities. These individuals seek better management of the coastal estuarine environment and its resources, providing a working example of environmental stewardship. In aquaculture, good science is required to understand the complex variables and interaction of estuarine currents, tides, temperature, and cycles of reproduction. Aquaculturists are beginning to understand the need for specific nutrients and how the wastes of one species can be utilized for enhanced production of another species. Over the years, this meeting has formed an amalgam of both the aquaculture industry and research scientists where both groups foster mutual environmental concern. Science is able to focus on the theoretical aspects of pollutant damage. while the aquaculture industry is able to define the problem and need for assistance to eliminate pollutants from their crops—shellfish and finfish. Overfishing is not an issue at these meetings, as the group accepts the damage already done to wild resources and seeks new technologies to grow food sources under controlled and stable market conditions. Therefore, it could be said that the seminar serves as a meeting ground where the theoretical knowledge of scientific study finds practical application in the industry and is fueled by the needs of that industry. This ideal blend of the two groups produces better management of the resource and a safer environment—the goal of stewardship.

Blogoslawski, Walter J.

1992-07-01

383

Managing to harvest? Perspectives on the potential of aquaculture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aquaculture has been one of the most rapid and technically innovative of food production sectors globally, with significant investment, scientific and technical development and production growth in many parts of the world over the past two decades. While this has had a significant effect on the global supply of aquatic food products and had an important impact in rural and urban food supply and employment in many developing economies, growth and increasing internationalization has not been wi...

Muir, James

2005-01-01

384

Risk Management in Aquaculture by Controlled Feeding Regimen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fish nutrition researchers often feed fishes at between 3-5% of their body weight daily. Environmental risks associated with excess feed leachate are so enormous in tropical waters leading to algal bloom which can toxify the aquaculture products and threaten their safety. Considering that feed requirements by fishes depend on a number of factors such as size, health status and the general condition of the culture environment; there is every need for the determination of the actual feed desire...

Nwanna, L. C.

2003-01-01

385

Aquaculture Potential of Climbing Perch, Anabas Testudineus, in Brackish Water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Climbing perch, Anabas testudineus, is a freshwater fish species commercially grown in Southeast Asian countries. This study investigated aspects of salinity on hatching viability and growth performance of climbing perch to use as a measure for aquaculture in brackish water. The experiments were carried out under controlled laboratory conditions. The hormonal induction spawned eggs, and farm reared fry fish of an average body weight of 1.51 - 1.54 g were used in ...

Chotipuntu, Piyapong; Avakul, Piyathap

2010-01-01

386

Agricultural and Aquacultural Potential of Olive Pomace A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Olive Pomace (OP) is the main agricultural by-product of olive industry; because of its nature, it is a major environmental issue for all the olive-producing countries. Research on the waste-management issues of OP has been active over the last decade. The data presented in the present review suggest that OP could be exploited as an alternative dietary lipid source in compounded fish feeds resulting in the formulation of functional fish feeds and aquacultured fish according t...

Constantina Nasopoulou; Ioannis Zabetakis

2013-01-01

387

Feeding preferences of mesograzers on aquacultured Gracilaria and sympatric algae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While large grazers can often be excluded effectively from algal aquaculture operations, smaller herbivores such as small crustaceans and gastropods may be more difficult to control. The susceptibility of three Gracilaria species to herbivores was evaluated in multiple-choice experiments with the amphipod Ampithoe ramondi and the crab Acanthonyx lunulatus. Both mesograzers are common along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. When given a choice, the amphipod preferred to consume Gracilaria lem...

Cruz-rivera, Edwin; Friedlander, Michael

2011-01-01

388

Climate change and productivity in the aquaculture industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is anticipated that global warming will increase the future temperature in the waters off Norway. The objective of this report is to analyse the potential economic effect a general increase in sea temperature can have on the Norwegian salmon aquaculture industry. The assessment of the economic impacts of global warming is made possible by estimating a growth function which explicitly includes sea water temperature. The analysis compares the economic effect of a climate change on fish farmi...

Lorentzen, Torbjørn; Hannesson, Ro?gnvaldur

2006-01-01

389

Strategic Review and the Feasibility of Seaweed Aquaculture in Ireland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The National Seaweed Forum, commissioned by the Minister for the Marine and Natural Resources in 1999, evaluated the current status of the Irish Seaweed Industry, investigated the potential uses of seaweeds and identified measures to be undertaken for developing the different industrial sectors. Seaweed aquaculture was identified as a key area for the development of the Irish Seaweed Industry to meet growing market demands and to create attractive and high–skilled jobs in peripheral communi...

Werner, A.; Clarke, D.; Kraan, S.

2004-01-01

390

The electronics readout system for the OPAL Vertex Drift Chamber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Vertex Drift Chamber for the OPAL experiment at LEP provides high quality track co-ordinates using multi-hit sub-nanosecond timing to detect the drifted electrons. This paper explains the electronic techniques that have been devised and implemented for the detector. The overall performance of the system is demonstrated with measurements from the final OPAL chamber. (author)

1989-01-01

391

Chaotic oscillations in an electron-beam and plasma system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An electron plasma oscillation is excited spontaneously in a bounded electron-beam and plasma system. Signals picked up by a coaxial probe were stored in a wave form recorder. From the obtained time series data, power spectra, attracters, Poincare sections, correlation dimensions and Lyapunov exponents are calculated. Bispectrum technique which is a higher-order spectrum is applied to chaotic signals. (author)

Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Watanabe, Takeshi [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan)

1996-09-01

392

Radiative recombination of ions and nuclei in electron cooling systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental data on rates for the radiative recombination of nuclei (from helium to uranium) and various ions in interaction with an electron beam in electron cooling systems are reviewed. An analysis of the experimental data has yielded the dependence of the radiative recombination rate on the relative electron energy appreciably differently than the theoretical models obtained earlier by H. Kramers and R. Schuch. In addition, it is shown that the radiative recombination rate of nuclei in the experiment depends on the transverse electron energy as T {?/-0.82},which is also different from the results of the calculations by the theoretical model proposed by M. Bell and J. Bell. Experimental data on the cooling of ions in intermediate charge states are analyzed and the dependence of the radiative recombination rate on the charge state of the ion (electron-shell configuration) is shown. For some ion charge states, the rate of the process is of a resonance character. Loss to radiative recombination in the electron cooling system of the NICA Booster is evaluated for the Au32+, Au33+, Au50+, and Au51+ ion beams. Limitations imposed on the Au79+ beam lifetime by radiative recombination in the electron cooling system of the NICA Collider are analyzed. Possible ways to decrease the radiative recombination rate of nuclei by selecting the parameters of the electron cooling system for the NICA Collider are proposed.

Kuznetsov, A. B.; Meshkov, I. N.; Philippov, A. V.

2012-07-01

393

Un análisis crítico sobre el uso de macroalgas como base para una acuicultura sustentable / Critical analysis on the use of macroalgae as a base for sustainable aquaculture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo analiza tanto situaciones ambientales y de mercado como las regulaciones legales que actualmente limitan el desarrollo de la acuicultura de algas en Chile y se discute sobre posibles beneficios e incertidumbres ambientales frente al desarrollo de esta actividad. Chile posee condi [...] ciones ambientales extremadamente favorables para fomentar actividades acuícolas, validez demostrada por la exitosa producción de salmonídeos y mejillones así como de otras especies de invertebrados como abalones, ostiones y del alga roja Gracilaria chilensis. Este trabajo señala que, sin embargo, esta oportunidad de negocio y desarrollo de la acuicultura no puede sustentarse en desmedro del patrimonio ambiental del país. Con el fin de balancear el flujo de materia y energía en sistemas costeros utilizados por prácticas de acuicultura, la diversificación acuícola debe estar basada en la incorporación de especies con funciones ecológicas diferentes (productores primarios, detritívoros, herbívoros y carnívoros), lo cual hoy se conoce como Acuicultura Integrada Multi-Trófica (IMTA). Si Chile aborda este tema en profundidad, no solo podría ser un exportador de nuevos productos alimentarios, sino además de tecnologías de producción sustentable para la acuicultura mundial. Abstract in english The current paper analyses the market, environmental and regulation issues limiting the development of alga aquaculture in Chile and we discuss the possible benefits and uncertainties for the future development of this activity. In particular, Chile has extremely favorable environmental conditions f [...] or aquaculture, which allowed that during the past decades the development of a salmon and mussel aquaculture industry and as well as activities with invertebrate species such as abalones and scallops and the red alga Gracilaria chilensis. The benefits and environmental uncertainties for such development are discussed. Chile has extremely favorable environmental conditions for the development of aquaculture, thus we discussed how this business cannot be developed affecting negatively the environmental patrimony of the country. We state that diversification in aquaculture must be based on species with different ecological functions (i.e. primary producers, herbivores, carnivores, and decomposers), which is currently known as Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA). This can allow for the balance in energy and matter in coastal systems used in aquaculture. Chile has the opportunity to address these issues in depth, which can allow the country not only to export food products, but also to be a leader in technology for a sustainable aquaculture production worldwide.

ALEJANDRO H, BUSCHMANN; ROBERT A, STEAD; MARÍA C, HERNÁNDEZ-GONZÁLEZ; SANDRA V, PEREDA; JAVIER E, PAREDES; MIGUEL A, MALDONADO.

394

SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF ELECTRONIC VOTING SYSTEM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electronic Voting are now being performed using World Wide Web in many countries of theworld due to this advancement a voter need not to visit the polling place. But has to just logging on thecomputer with an internet connection. Also, this voting requires an access code for the e-voting through theadvance report of a voter. To reduce these disadvantages, we suggest a process in which a voter, who has thewireless certificate issued in advance, uses its own mobile phone for an e-voting without...

2013-01-01

395

Control electronics of the PEP RF system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The operation of the major components used for controlling the phase and field level of the PEP RF cavities is described. The control electronics of one RF station is composed of several control loops: each cavity has a tuners' servo loop which maintains the frequency constant and also keeps the fields of each cavity balanced; the total gap voltage developed by a pair of cavities is regulated by a gap voltage controller; finally, the phase variation along the amplification chain, the klystron and the cavities are compensated by a phase lock loop. The design criteria of each loop are set forth and the circuit implementation and test results are presented

1981-03-13

396

Molecular markers and their applications in fisheries and aquaculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Genetic variation in a species enhances the capability of organism to adapt to changing environment and is necessary for survival of the species. Genetic variation arises between individuals leading to differentiation at the level of population, species and higher order taxonomic groups. The genetic diversity data has varied application in research on evolution, conservation and management of natural resources and genetic improvement programmes, etc. Development of Molecular genetic markers has powerful ability to detect genetic studies of individuals, populations or species. These molecular markers combined with new statistical developments have revolutionized the analytical power, necessary to explore the genetic diversity. Molecular markers and their statistical analysis revolutionized the analytical power, necessary to explore the genetic diversity. Various molecular markers, protein or DNA (mt-DNA or nuclear DNA such as microsatellites, SNP or RAPD are now being used in fisheries and aquaculture. These markers provide various scientific observations which have importance in aquaculture practice recently such as: 1 Species Identification 2 Genetic variation and population structure study in natural populations 3 Comparison between wild and hatchery populations 4 Assessment of demographic bottleneck in natural population 5 Propagation assisted rehabilitation programmes. In this review article, we have concentrated on the basics of molecular genetics, overview of commonly used markers and their application along with their limitations (major classes of markers in fisheries and aquaculture studies.

Kumar Rajiv

2010-10-01

397

Infrastructures of the System for Developing Electronic Health Record  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The overall objective of a health system is to improve health through reducing disease, disability and death. Accomplishment of this goal depends on the worldwide integrated and coordinated care continuity. Information transmission is a prerequisite to ensure the continuity of care. Widespread acceptance of health information and communication technology (HICT and developing systems such as Electronic Health Record (EHR, have changed the health care industry. Electronic Health Record is the main part of information management in an integrated health care system. Electronic health record provides access to all health information at organizational, regional, national and international levels and allows for the patient's health data [usually with geographical distribution in several health information systems] to become integrated. Since Electronic health record integrates all care events data, it can make data sharing possible between all care providers to consequently minimize the repeated diagnostic tests, and drug and treatment interactions. Furthermore, Also health care professionals can easily access to patient information at any time and this could lead to improving the quality of care and reduce costs. Accordingly, a productive system is required to provide the electronic health record. Given the significance of the electronic health record and its generating system in improvement of care quality and reducing the health care costs, authors decided to study the needs for developing the national EHR system (NHIN The main focus of this paper was on selecting material related to the system developing an EHR and it prerequisites. Electronic health record system is a new source of valuable intelligence of real world for the whole health care industry. Electronic health record system includes people, rules, standards, storage and processing equipments, communication and support facilities. To shape this, existence of components and their coordination is necessary. Electronic health record system are established to enhance patient care and its outcome, increase efficiency, improving the availability of information and minimizing the medical errors. With the Europe union formation that in fact was an important step toward globalization, the electronic health record passed the national borders and turned into a global concept to make possible the worldwide integration and sharing of the health data. Therefore international standards are needed to share patient health information between national health systems and across borders. Infrastructure or national information network existence of proper hardware and software and finally participation of all stakeholders are necessary to develop the system. So it is necessary to prepare the infrastructures needed for development of the system in our country. Since EHR has a universal concept, it is needed to create a lifelong health information record for every individual accessible in every point in the world.

Hamid Moghaddasi

2011-01-01

398

DSP based power electronics interface for alternative /renewable energy systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report is an update on the research project involving the implementation of a DSP-based power electronics interface for alternate/renewable energy systems, that was funded by the Department of Energy under the Inventions and Innovations program.

1999-01-01

399

Electronics for the LAMPF neutrino experiment's veto counter system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A cosmic-ray veto detector has been constructed in the neutrino cave at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This report describes the electronic readout system designed to buffer and compact the data from the detector

1981-01-01

400

Seafloor earthquake measurement system. Volume 2: Electronic hardware description  

Science.gov (United States)

The Seafloor Earthquake Measurement System, a unique instrument for collecting seismic motion data from remote ocean floor sites is described. The electronic systems of the data gathering and the command units are described, as well as the acoustic telemetry systems which provide the communication link.

Ryerson, D. E.

1981-12-01

 
 
 
 
401

Electronic Toll Collection System Using Radio Frequency Technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper focuses on an electronic toll collection(ETC) system using radio frequency (RF) technology. Researchon ETC has been around since 1992, during which RFID tagsbegan to be widely used in vehicles to automate toll processes [1].Next method proposes a very simple method for enhancing theperformance of infrared electronic-toll-collection systems,resulting in longer communication time interval for the datatransmission between the on board unit (OBU) and the road sideunit (RSU). The propos...

2013-01-01

402

Integrating Incident Reporting into an Electronic Patient Record System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Developments in information technology offer new opportunities to design electronic patient record systems (EPR) which integrate a broad range of functions such as clinical decision support, order entry, or electronic alerts. It has been recently suggested that EPR could support new applications for disease surveillance and patient safety. We describe the integration of a voluntary incident reporting system into an EPR used in operating theatres, to allow the reporting of accidents and preven...

Haller, Guy; Myles, Paul S.; Stoelwinder, Johannes; Langley, Mark; Anderson, Hugh; Mcneil, John

2007-01-01

403

Spatial entanglement in two-electron atomic systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, there have been considerable interests to investigate quantum entanglement in two-electron model atoms [1, 2]. Here we investigate quantum entanglement for the ground and excited states of two-electron atomic systems using correlated wave functions, concentrating on the particle-particle entanglement coming from the continuous spatial degrees of freedom. We use the two-electron wave functions constructed by employing B-spline basis to calculate the linear entropy of the reduced density matrix L=1-TrA(?A^2 ) as a measure of the spatial entanglement. Here ?A=TrB(| >AB AB<|) is the one-electron reduced density matrix obtained after tracing the two-electron density matrix over the degrees of freedom of the other electron. Here, we investigate spatial entanglement for two-electron systems with Z=1 to Z=10. When Z is decreased from Z=1.0 to about Z .3ex<=x 0.911, the H^- ion becomes unbound. This would lead in a situation of one electron bound by the nucleus with the other electron being free. Such a wave function would be expected to have a spatial entanglement of L = 1/2. Numerical results will be presented at the meeting. [4pt] [1] J. P. Coe and I. D'Amico, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 254, 012010 (2010) [0pt] [2] D. Manzano et. al., J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43, 275301 (2010)

Ho, Yew Kam; Lin, Y.-C.

2012-02-01

404

The Impact of Architecture on Quality of Electronic Control Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work investigates the impact of system architecture on quality and costs of electric-electronic systems in the automotive domain. In the course of this work a quality model for system architecture is derived from the life-cycle of E/E-systems. The related architecture model distinguishes the functional requirements, their logical realization and the physical resources of in-vehicle E/E systems. The quality goals, described as costs and risks in development, production, operation, service...

Drytkiewicz, Witold

2013-01-01

405

ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC VOTING SYSTEM IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India is the world’s largest democracy with a population of more than 1 billion; India has an electorate of more than 668 million and covers 543 parliamentary constituencies. Voting is the bridge between the governed and government. The last few years have brought a renewed focus on to the technology used in the voting process. The current voting system has many security holes, and it is difficult to prove even simple security properties about them. A voting system that can be proven correct has many concerns. There are some reasons for a government to use electronic systems are to increase elections activities and to reduce the elections expenses. Still there is some scope of work in electronic voting system because there is no way of identification by the electronic voting system whether the user is authentic or not and securing electronic voting machine from miscreants. This paper provides an overview of the experiences of other countries using electronic voting machine. The comparative focus is on the adoption of electronic voting systems adopted at the international level.

Sanjay Kumar,

2011-05-01

406

Synchronized charge oscillations in correlated electron systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strongly correlated phases exhibit collective carrier dynamics that if properly harnessed can enable novel functionalities and applications. In this article, we investigate the phenomenon of electrical oscillations in a prototypical MIT system, vanadium dioxide (VO2). We show that the key to such oscillatory behaviour is the ability to induce and stabilize a non-hysteretic and spontaneously reversible phase transition using a negative feedback mechanism. Further, we investigate the synchronization and coupling dynamics of such VO2 based relaxation oscillators and show, via experiment and simulation, that this coupled oscillator system exhibits rich non-linear dynamics including charge oscillations that are synchronized in both frequency and phase. Our approach of harnessing a non-hysteretic reversible phase transition region is applicable to other correlated systems exhibiting metal-insulator transitions and can be a potential candidate for oscillator based non-Boolean computing. PMID:24825590

Shukla, Nikhil; Parihar, Abhinav; Freeman, Eugene; Paik, Hanjong; Stone, Greg; Narayanan, Vijaykrishnan; Wen, Haidan; Cai, Zhonghou; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Schlom, Darrell G; Raychowdhury, Arijit; Datta, Suman

2014-01-01

407

Synchronized charge oscillations in correlated electron systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Strongly correlated phases exhibit collective carrier dynamics that if properly harnessed can enable novel functionalities and applications. In this article, we investigate the phenomenon of electrical oscillations in a prototypical MIT system, vanadium dioxide (VO2). We show that the key to such oscillatory behaviour is the ability to induce and stabilize a non-hysteretic and spontaneously reversible phase transition using a negative feedback mechanism. Further, we investigate the synchronization and coupling dynamics of such VO2 based relaxation oscillators and show, via experiment and simulation, that this coupled oscillator system exhibits rich non-linear dynamics including charge oscillations that are synchronized in both frequency and phase. Our approach of harnessing a non-hysteretic reversible phase transition region is applicable to other correlated systems exhibiting metal-insulator transitions and can be a potential candidate for oscillator based non-Boolean computing.

Shukla, Nikhil; Parihar, Abhinav; Freeman, Eugene; Paik, Hanjong; Stone, Greg; Narayanan, Vijaykrishnan; Wen, Haidan; Cai, Zhonghou; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Schlom, Darrell G.; Raychowdhury, Arijit; Datta, Suman

2014-05-01

408

Distributed Power Electronics for PV Systems (Presentation)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview of the benefits and applications of microinverters and DC power optimizers in residential systems. Some conclusions from this report are: (1) The impact of shade is greater than just the area of shade; (2) Additional mismatch losses include panel orientation, panel distribution, inverter voltage window, soiling; (3) Per-module devices can help increase performance, 4-12% or more depending on the system; (4) Value-added benefits (safety, monitoring, reduced design constraints) are helping their adoption; and (5) The residential market is growing rapidly. Efficiency increases, cost reductions are improving market acceptance. Panel integration will further reduce price and installation cost. Reliability remains an unknown.

Deline, C.

2011-12-01

409

Antenna systems and electronic warfare applications  

CERN Multimedia

This comprehensive book serves as a one-stop resource for practical EW antenna system know-how. Supported with over 700 illustrations and nearly 1,700 equations, this authoritative reference offers you detailed explanations of all the important foundations and aspects of this technology. Moreover, you get an in-depth treatment of a wide range of antenna system applications. The book presents the key characteristics of each type of antenna, including dipoles, monopoles, loops, arrays, horns, and patches. This authoritative volume enables you to analyze and design broadband communication and rad

Poisel, Richard

2012-01-01