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Sustainable aquaculture systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this paper is to examine and assess the technical feasibility of the integration of plant and/or animal aquaculture systems into a sustainable agriculture. Although most researchers tend to avoid a precise definition of sustainable aquaculture, the implication that one gets from `reading between the lines` is that a sustainable agro-ecosystem is one which recycles materials at maximum energy efficiency. The `unspoken` standard against which comparisons of sustainability are often made is that of a mature natural ecosystem at a steady state. Cost comparisons of alternative systems will be used whenever possible, however, in many cases, conventional cost/benefit analysis will be of limited value in such an analysis. For aquaculture, such an analysis can best be conducted by analyzing the possibilities of integrating nutrients, water, and energy flow from aquaculture systems both to and from, conventional agricultural systems. The various aquaculture options are then qualitatively compared as their potential, limitations, environmental soundness, productivity, socio-economic viability and the availability of supporting technology. It is important to realize that the usefulness or applicability of any sustainable or integrated aquaculture practice is highly site specific.

Brune, D.E.

1994-08-01

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Aquaculture and geothermal heat pump systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to examine the feasibility of aquaculture tank heating with geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems. Both closed- and open-loop GHP systems are examined for heating uncovered and greenhouse-covered tanks at three locations across the U.S. A net present value analysis is conducted for a 20-year life-cycle for various GHP base-load fractions with natural gas-fired boiler peaking. The fraction of GHP capacity to the peak load yielding the lowest life-cycle cost is plotted at various GHP installation costs and natural gas rates. Heating load calculations show that covering aquaculture tanks with a greenhouse-type structure reduces the heating requirements by over 50%. Economic analyses for closed-loop GHP systems show that the lowest life-cycle cost at natural gas rates of $1.00/therm ($0.35/m3), is observed when the GHP system is sized for 10%-20% of the peak load. At that fraction, 30-55% of the total annual heating load could be handled. At low loop installation costs of $4/ft-$6/ft ($13/m-$20/m), approximately 55-70% of the annual heating load could be handled. Open-loop GHP systems show considerably more favorable economics than closed-loop systems. In all situations examined, at natural gas prices of $1.00/therm ($0.35/m3), the lowest life-cycle cost is observed when the open-loop system is sized for about 40% of the peak load. At that size, the GHP system can handle over 80% of the annual heating requirements. At low to moderate installation costs of $200-$700/ton ($57/kW-$200/kW), over 90% of the annual heating load could be handled. Of course, open-loop systems would need to be sited at locations with sufficient ground water supply.

Chiasson, Andrew

2005-01-01

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Recirculating Systems for Pollution Prevention in Aquaculture Facilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As all other forms of livestock production, fish farming has numerous environmental impacts. Water pollution is one of the most significant outcomes, since aquaculture effluents contain non-ingested food and fish dregs that affect the receiving water bodies when discharged without any treatment. Conventional pollutants (suspended solids, dissolved organic matter and nutrients), as well as pesticides, heavy metals and emerging pollutants (as antibiotics and hormones), are commonly found in these effluents. Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS, systems that integrate the treatment and the reuse of water in the process) are an invaluable alternative for preventing water pollution by diminishing both the volume and the eutrophication potential of the effluents. Based on our review of the extant literature in the field, we conclude that activated carbon-based biofilters are a favorable technology to achieve a level of water quality that is compatible with environmentally-sound aquaculture practices.

Juan Ramírez-Godínez; R. Icela Beltrán-Hernández; Claudia Coronel-Olivares; Elizabeth Contreras-López; Maribel Quezada-Cruz; Gabriela Vázquez-Rodríguez

2013-01-01

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Ideotyping integrated aquaculture systems to balance soil nutrients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to growing land scarcity and lack of nutrient inputs, African farmers switched from shifting cultivation to continuous cropping and extended crop area by bringing fragile lands such as river banks and hill slopes into production. This accelerated soil fertility decline caused by erosion, harvesting and insufficient nutrient replenishment. We explored the feasibility to reduce nutrient depletion by increasing nutrient utilization efficiencies, while diversifying and increasing food production through the development of integrated aquaculture – agriculture (IAA). Considering the climatic conditions prevailing in Kenyan highlands, aquaculture production scenarios were ideotyped per agro-ecological zone. These aquaculture production scenarios were integrated into existing NUTrient MONitoring (NUTMON) farm survey data for the area. The nutrient balances and flows of the resulting IAA-systems were compared to present land use. The effects of IAA development on nutrient depletion and total food production were evaluated. With the development of IAA systems, nutrient depletion rates dropped by 23–35%, agricultural production increased by 2–26% and overall farm food production increased by 22–70%. The study demonstrates that from a bio-physical point of view, the development of IAA-systems in Africa is technically possible and could raise soil fertility and total farm production. Further studies that evaluate the economic feasibility and impacts on the livelihood of farming households are recommended.

Patricia Nduku Muendo; Jetse J. Stoorvogel; Marc C. J. Verdegem; Alejandra Mora-Vallejo; Johan A. J. Verreth

2011-01-01

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Nutrient reusing capacity of a combined pond aquaculture system  

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Full Text Available The investigated combined intensive-extensive system (IES) as a production system operatedin a close interaction of the intensive and extensive production units. The key element of the properoperation was the treatment capacity of the extensive unit; hence the investigations were focused on theperiphyton application on the nutrient utilisation and water quality of the production system. Resultsproved that combination of intensive aquaculture with extensive fishponds enhances the nutrientutilisation efficiency and fish production in IES. The combined fish production resulted in higher proteinutilisation by 26%; even this ratio can be increased by 40% with periphyton application.

Dénes Gál; Éva Kerepeczki; Tünde Kosáros; Ferenc Pekár

2010-01-01

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Nutrient removal from aquaculture wastewater using a constructed wetlands system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nutrient removal is essential for aquaculture wastewater treatment to protect receiving waters from eutrophication and for potential reuse of the treated water. A pilot-scale wastewater treatment system consisting of a free water surface (FWS) and a subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetlands arranged in series was operated for around 8 months. The study was conducted to examine system start-up phenomena and to evaluate system performance in removing inorganic nitrogen and phosphate from aquaculture wastewater under various hydraulic loading rates (1.8 to 13.5 cm day(-1)). The wetlands system showed rapid start-up behaviors in which process stabilities were achieved in the following sequence: phosphate removal in the SSF without an adaptation period, nitrogen removal in the SSF after 1 month, nitrogen removal in the FWS after 2 to 3 months, phosphate removal in the FWS after 3 months, and vegetation cover in both wetlands after 7 months of operation. Nitrogen removals were excellent, with efficiencies of 86% to 98% for ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) and 95% to 98% for total inorganic nitrogen (TIN). Removal efficiencies were affected little by the hydraulic loading trials. Phosphate removal of 32% to 71% occurred, with the efficiencies being inversely related to hydraulic loading. The FWS wetland removed most inorganic nitrogen, whereas the SSF wetland removed phosphate at a rate equal to or even greater than the FWS. Removal of ammonium and nitrite (effluent concentrations <0.3 mg NH4-N l(-1) and 0.01 mg NO2-N l(-1)) were sufficient for recycle in the aquaculture system without danger of harming the fish.

Lin YF; Jing SR; Lee DY; Wang TW

2002-06-01

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Exergetic performance analysis of a recirculating aquaculture system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper examines exergetic aspects of a Recirculation Aquaculture System (RAS) for Black Sea trout (Salmo trutta labrax) fingerling rearing at the Trabzon Central Fisheries Research Institute, Turkey. In its thermodynamic analysis, each component of the RAS is treated as a steady-state steady flow system and its exergetic efficiencies are studied. In addition, the following parameters are measured and recorded in experiments: the mass flow rates, inlet and outlet temperatures and of the system components, surrounding temperatures, and electrical work utilized by the components in the RAS. Based on these experimental data, inlet and outlet exergy values, exergy losses, and exergetic efficiencies of each component in the system are determined to assess their performance. Moreover, the overall system exergy efficiency is determined. The results show that exergy efficiencies of the system components are highly affected by varying input exergy flows as a function of the surrounding temperature and chiller's operating period.

2010-01-01

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The Use of Vision in a Sustainable Aquaculture Feeding System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dairy feeding causes significant water pollution. By controlling the proper amount of feed, reducing the waste to minimum will effectively reduce the problem of water contamination. In this project, a Sustainable Aquaculture Feed System (SAFS) has been designed and developed. It can automatically feed the fishes by estimating fishes’ appetite through machine vision. The discussion includes design and optimization of the vision system using Labview as well as the integration of various components in the SAFS. With the developed algorithm, the system is able to detect the presence of fishes and count the number of fishes. The outcome is able to estimate and infer the fish appetite. Therefore, the feeding time can be planned ahead. In addition, the system includes a Graphical User Interface (GUI) for monitoring, display the feeding status and sensors reading such as pH, turbidity and temperature.

Jer-Vui Lee; Joo-Ling Loo; Yea-Dat Chuah; Pek-Yee Tang; Yong-Chai Tan; Wei- Jian Goh

2013-01-01

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Modeling of TAN in recirculating aquaculture systems by AQUASIM  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Modeling of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) contribute to identifying and quantifying the most important processes and their relative contribution to removal of TAN. AQUASIM is a flexible modular simulation system for water quality in natural and technical systems developed by EAWAG (Reichert, 1994). AQUASIM allows simulating complex biological, chemical and physical processes in standardized hydraulic systems. We used AQUASIM to model the steady state TAN concentrations in 12 experimental recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) operated by DTU AQUA in Hirtshals, Denmark (Pedersen et al., 2009). Water from the fish rearing tank is treated in a sedimentation tank and subsequently by biological treatment in a submerged biofilter and in a trickling filter. Generally, the performance of the biological treatment was very well and average TAN concentrations in the RAS were in the range 0.1-0.4 mg TAN/L depending on the cumulative feed load. The average nitrite concentrationswere a little higher than the average TAN concentrations, in the range 0.2-0.6 mg N/L. Our TAN model simulated TAN removal by the following processes: 1 & 2: Nitrification in the biofilm in the submerged biofilter and in the trickling filter, 3. nitrification by suspended nitrifyers (flocs) in all compartments of the RAS, and 4. TAN assimilation associated to biomass growth. The simulation model was able to describe the measured TAN concentration very well after least square optimization of the nitrification rate constants in the biofilm and in the suspended biomass. Thus, it was demonstrated that AQUASIM is a very useful simulation tool that can be applied to improving process understanding as well as to contributing to fish production optimization

Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

2011-01-01

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Aquaculture wastewater treatment system and method of making same  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An aquaculture wastewater treatment system is provided including three wastewater treatment subsystems. The first subsystem is comprised of a fish raceway solids removal channel populated with relatively high densities of a detritivorous fish such as tilapia and/or carp, that have high potential as an efficient means of feeding on, and thereby, removing suspended solids and particulate matter that are present in the primary fish production effluent. The second wastewater treatment subsystem is comprised of an enhanced form of nitrifying reactor termed the Suspended Media Ammonia Removal Technology (SMART) biofilter reactor subsystem. This water treatment component consists of an open ditch bioreactor oxidation vessel in which water is circulated by means of one or more powered paddlewheels.; The water within the SMART subsystem bioreactor vessel contains numerous polyurethane foam particles cut into cubes, spheres or other shapes, and/or plastic extruded pipe cut into various lengths, that provide an increased well-aerated surface area for the support and growth of microorganisms, including nitrifying bacteria. The third wastewater treatment subsystem in the sequential water treatment system includes a series of constructed wetlands ponds. Pre-treated effluent from the SMART subsystem is delivered to numerous large, shallow earthen ponds that are planted with mature climate tolerant bulrush plants (Scirpus sp.). The subsystems are efficient, economical, and readily scalable and adaptable to any wastewater treatment application.

CARLBERG JAMES M; VAN OLST JON C; MASSINGILL MICHAEL J; CHAMBERLAIN RODNEY J

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Participatory Monitoring and Feedback System: An Important Entry Towards Sustainable Aquaculture in Bolinao, Northern Philippines  

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Full Text Available The aquaculture industry in Caquiputan Channel contributed P2.3M to municipal revenues in 1998. However, the uncontrolled construction of fish pens and fish cages have contributed to the deterioration of the water quality in the Caquiputan Channel. Despite monitoring of parameters (e.g. DO, salinity, and temperature), low production was implicated because of limited dissolved oxygen supply.A participatory monitoring of fish pens and fish cages was facilitated to pave the way for sustainable aquaculture. A system for monitoring and disseminating information on water quality, production and zonation of pens and cages, has been pursued to assess the situation and identify mechanisms to regulate aquaculture activities. The feedback system adopted has raised and facilitated environmental awareness, issue identification, and implementation, of solutions to some major issues. Furthermore, the results have resulted in policy reforms, as embodied in the provisions on aquaculture in the Municipal Fisheries Ordinance.

Lailany Verceles; Liana Talaue-McManus; Porfirio Aliño

2000-01-01

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Aquaculture; Acquacoltura  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper attempts an overview of the progress made in the field of aquaculture. Aquaculture is a system of techniques strongly influenced by natural environmental conditions. Aquaculture as a biological technique oriented towards the production of useful aquatic organisms, is reaching a stage of consolidation which will place it on an equal footing which agriculture and animal husbandry. Aquaculture provides important economic and nutritional benefits to many regions of developing world. In 1994, over 90 percent of total aquaculture production was in Asia, with China, India, Japan, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines and Republic of Korea as the seven leader producers. [Italiano] L`acquacoltura, vale a dire l`arte di riprodurre artificialmente pesci, alghe, molluschi e crostacei ed altri organismi acquatici utili all`uomo, si presenta oggi come un`attivita` di assoluto rilievo nell`insieme dei vari comparti di produzione alimentare. L`aumento della produzione e` costante anche se cinque paesi asiatici (Cina, India, Giappone, Filippine e Corea del Sud) contribuiscono per l`80% al volume della produzione mondiale. Nel presente lavoro vengono descritti lo stato dell`acquacoltura e della maricoltura nel mondo e le filiere di allevamento delle principali specie.

De Murtas, I.D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

1998-12-01

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Analysis of nutrient flows in integrated intensive aquaculture systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper analyses nutrient conversions, which are taking place in integrated intensive aquaculture systems. In these systems fish is cultured next to other organisms, which are converting otherwise discharged nutrients into valuable products. These conversions are analyzed based on nitrogen and phosphorous balances using a mass balance approach. The analytical concept of this review comprises a hypothetical system design with five modules: (1) the conversion of feed nutrients into fish biomass, the "Fish-Biomass-Converter"; (2) the separation of solid and dissolved fish waste/nutrients; the "Fish-Waste-Processor"; (3) the conversion of dissolved fish waste/nutrients, the "Phototrophic-herbivore-Converter"; (4 and 5) the conversion of solid fish waste, the "Bacterial-Waste-Converter", or the "Detrivorous-Converter". In the reviewed examples, fish culture alone retains 20-50% feed nitrogen (N) and 15-65% feed phosphorous (P). The combination of fish culture with phototrophic conversion increases nutrient retention of feed N by 15-50% and feed P by up to 53%. If in addition herbivore consumption is included, nutrient retention decreases by 60-85% feed N and 50-90% feed P. This is according to the general observation of nutrient losses from one trophic level to the next. The conversion of nutrients into bacteria and detrivorous worm biomass contributes only in smaller margins (e.g. 7% feed N and 6% feed P and 0.06% feed N 0.03 x 10(-3)% feed P, respectively). All integrated modules have their specific limitations, which are related to uptake kinetics, nutrient preference, unwanted conversion processes and abiotic factors.

Schneider O; Sereti V; Eding EH; Verreth JAJ

2005-04-01

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An integrated fish-plankton aquaculture system in brackish water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture takes advantage of the mutualism between some detritivorous fish and phytoplankton. The fish recycle nutrients by consuming live (and dead) algae and provide the inorganic carbon to fuel the growth of live algae. In the meanwhile, algae purify the water and generate the oxygen required by fishes. Such mechanism stabilizes the functioning of an artificially recycling ecosystem, as exemplified by combining the euryhaline tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron heudelotii and the unicellular alga Chlorella sp. Feed addition in this ecosystem results in faster fish growth but also in an increase in phytoplankton biomass, which must be limited. In the prototype described here, the algal population control is exerted by herbivorous zooplankton growing in a separate pond connected in parallel to the fish-algae ecosystem. The zooplankton production is then consumed by tilapia, particularly by the fry and juveniles, when water is returned to the main circuit. Chlorella sp. and Brachionus plicatilis are two planktonic species that have spontaneously colonized the brackish water of the prototype, which was set-up in Senegal along the Atlantic Ocean shoreline. In our system, water was entirely recycled and only evaporation was compensated (1.5% volume/day). Sediment, which accumulated in the zooplankton pond, was the only trophic cul-de-sac. The system was temporarily destabilized following an accidental rotifer invasion in the main circuit. This caused Chlorella disappearance and replacement by opportunist algae, not consumed by Brachionus. Following the entire consumption of the Brachionus population by tilapias, Chlorella predominated again. Our artificial ecosystem combining S. m. heudelotii, Chlorella and B. plicatilis thus appeared to be resilient. This farming system was operated over one year with a fish productivity of 1.85 kg/m2 per year during the cold season (January to April).

Gilles S; Fargier L; Lazzaro X; Baras E; De Wilde N; Drakidès C; Amiel C; Rispal B; Blancheton JP

2013-02-01

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Nitrogen transformations in intensive aquaculture system and its implication to climate change through nitrous oxide emission.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The rapid development of aquaculture could result in significant environmental concerns such as eutrophication and climate change. However, to date, very few studies have been conducted to investigate nitrogen transformations in aquaculture systems; and specifically the emission of nitrous oxide (N(2)O), which is an important greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting substance. In this study, nitrogen transformations in intensive laboratory-scale Chinese catfish (Clarias fuscus) aquaculture systems were investigated by identifying and quantifying N(2)O emissions. Results indicated that about 1.3% of the nitrogen input was emitted as N(2)O gas. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and feeding rates had significant effects on N(2)O emissions. Higher N(2)O emissions were obtained in aquaculture systems with lower DO concentrations and higher feeding rates. Both nitrification and denitrification appeared to be responsible for the emissions of N(2)O. Key factors which correlated with the N(2)O emission rate in aquaculture systems were NO(2)(-), DO and total ammonia nitrogen concentrations.

Hu Z; Lee JW; Chandran K; Kim S; Sharma K; Brotto AC; Khanal SK

2013-02-01

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Nitrogen transformations in intensive aquaculture system and its implication to climate change through nitrous oxide emission.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid development of aquaculture could result in significant environmental concerns such as eutrophication and climate change. However, to date, very few studies have been conducted to investigate nitrogen transformations in aquaculture systems; and specifically the emission of nitrous oxide (N(2)O), which is an important greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting substance. In this study, nitrogen transformations in intensive laboratory-scale Chinese catfish (Clarias fuscus) aquaculture systems were investigated by identifying and quantifying N(2)O emissions. Results indicated that about 1.3% of the nitrogen input was emitted as N(2)O gas. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and feeding rates had significant effects on N(2)O emissions. Higher N(2)O emissions were obtained in aquaculture systems with lower DO concentrations and higher feeding rates. Both nitrification and denitrification appeared to be responsible for the emissions of N(2)O. Key factors which correlated with the N(2)O emission rate in aquaculture systems were NO(2)(-), DO and total ammonia nitrogen concentrations. PMID:23313675

Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Sharma, Keshab; Brotto, Ariane Coelho; Khanal, Samir Kumar

2012-12-27

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Low-dose hydrogen peroxide application in closed recirculating aquaculture systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present work was to simulate water treatment practice with hydrogen peroxide (HP) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Six identical 1700 L pilot scale RAS were divided into two experimental groups based on daily feed allocation and were operated under constant conditions durin...

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Disinfection of water in recirculating aquaculture systems with peracetic acid (PAA)  

Science.gov (United States)

The disinfection behaviour of peracetic acid (PAA) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) was investigated. Peracetic acid is a strong oxidizing agent found in various concentrations in different products. Three Wofasteril PAA products (E400 (c), Lspecical; AC 150) were tested in vitro for the...

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COMPUTERIZED VISUAL ASSESSMENT AND VALIDATION TECHNIQUE IN AN INTEGRATED AGRICULTURE-AQUACULTURE SYSTEM (IAAS)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laboratory and artificial models are the acceptable way to find and explore the relationship among various compartments in an integrated system which combine many variables and practical results in the same or different condition. The purpose of this study is to improve the available visual IAAS (Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture System) program for evaluation of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and plant (Lactuca sativa) yields. Available data on Macrobrachium rosenbergii yields, survival, nutrient concentration and plant production were compared to the predicted results by IAAS expert program. Results represent higher variation of survival, prawn and plant yields in abnormal culture system. Moreover the evaluation process demonstrated a good performance of IAAS expert program in predicting results for the optimized integrated culture system. In aquaculture, the success estimation of production depends largely on the state of physical and chemical parameters which define optimal culture conditions.

KHODA BAKHSH, H., WAN AZIZUN W. ADNAN, CHRISTIANUS, A., SAAD, C. R., AIZAM, Z. A., MOVASSAGH, S.

2010-01-01

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A ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network for Monitoring an Aquaculture Recirculating System  

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Full Text Available A ZigBee wireless sensor network was developed for monitoring an experimental aquaculture recirculating system.Temperature, dissolved oxygen, water and air pressure as well as electric current sensors were included in the setup.The high fish densities required in these systems to become economically viable present a case where sensornetworks can be applied to preserve a healthy livestock and to reduce the risk of failures that end up in the loss ofproduction. Modules for reading and transmitting sensor values through a ZigBee wireless network were developedand tested. The modules were installed in an aquaculture recirculating system to transmit sensor values to thenetwork coordinator. A monitoring program was created in order to display and store sensor values and to comparethem with reference limits. An alert is emitted in case reference limits have been reached. E-mail and an SMSmessage alert can also be sent to the cellular phone of the system administrator, so immediate action can be taken. Aweb interface allows Internet access to the sensor values. The present work demonstrates the applicability of ZigBeewireless sensor network technology to aquaculture recirculating systems.

Francisco J. Espinosa-Faller; Guillermo E. Rendón-Rodríguez

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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[Bioremediation potential of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) in coastal bivalve suspension aquaculture system].  

Science.gov (United States)

Suspension aquaculture of filter-feeding bivalves can produce large amount of faeces and pseudofaeces (biodeposits) that may impact aquaculture environment, while deposit-feeding sea cucumbers may effectively utilize such particulate wastes and act as a scavenger in mariculture system. In this paper, the ingestion, growth, and excretion of deposit-feeder Apostichopus japonicus were investigated in situ seasonally to evaluate its bioremediation potential of a suspension aquaculture system of filter-feeding bivalves. The results showed that A. japonicus could grow well in newly designed culture nets, with its maximum specific growth rate being 0.34% d(-1). The A. japonicus could effectively use the biodeposits generated by co-cultured bivalves, and the ingestion rate at 21.2 degrees C in summer, 19.2 degrees C in autumn, and 7.7 degrees C in winter was 0.1746, 0.0989, and 0.0050 g g(-1) d(-1), respectively. A. japonicus could promote the regeneration of nutriens in biodeposits via the excretion of considerable amount of dissolved N and P, and the excretion also showed obvious seasonal fluctuation. The extrapolation based on the in situ investigation results showed that when co-cultivated with bivalves in lantern nets, A. japonicus would ingest 4.5-159.6 kg hm(-2) d(-1) of dry biodeposits and excrete 1,382.5-3,678.1 mmol hm(-2) d(-1) of NH4(+)-N and 74.6-335.7 mmol hm(-2) d(-1) of PO4(3-)-P, indicating that the deposit-feeding A. japonicus had a great bioremediation capability in suspension aquaculture systems. The integrated model of deposit-feeding A. japonicus and filter-feeding bivalve could not only benefit the economy, but also sustain the environment. PMID:18593051

Yuan, Xiu-tang; Yang, Hong-sheng; Zhou, Yi; Mao, Yu-ze; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Li-li

2008-04-01

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Multidrug-resistance and toxic metal tolerance of medically important bacteria isolated from an aquaculture system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of antimicrobials and toxic metals should be considered carefully in aquaculture and surrounding environments. We aimed to evaluate medically relevant bacteria in an aquaculture system and their susceptibility to antimicrobials and toxic metals. Selective cultures for enterobacteria (ENT), non-fermenting Gram-negative rods (NFR) and Gram-positive cocci (GPC) were obtained from water samples collected in two different year seasons. The isolated bacteria were biochemically identified and antimicrobial and toxic metal susceptibility patterns were determined. Overall, 407 representative strains were recovered. In general, bacteria isolated from fish ponds showed higher multiple antibiotic resistance indices when compared to those isolated from a water-fed canal. Resistance to penicillin and azithromycin was observed more frequently in the GPC group, whereas resistance to ampicillin and ampicillin/sulbactam or gentamicin was observed more frequently in the ENT and NFR groups, respectively. All the isolated bacteria were tolerant to nickel, zinc, chromium and copper at high levels (?1,024 ?g mL(-1)), whereas tolerance to cadmium and mercury varied among the isolated bacteria (2-1,024 ?g mL(-1)). Multidrug-resistant bacteria were more frequent and diverse in fish ponds than in the water-fed canal. A positive correlation was observed between antimicrobial resistance and metal tolerance. The data point out the need for water treatment associated with the aquaculture system.

Resende JA; Silva VL; Fontes CO; Souza-Filho JA; Rocha de Oliveira TL; Coelho CM; César DE; Diniz CG

2012-01-01

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Bacterial resistance to oxytetracycline in different life stages of Indian freshwater carp aquaculture system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In India antibiotics are frequently used for preventing and controlling bacterial pathogens incarp aquaculture system, yet no studies have been performed to evaluate the ecological impact of itsintensive and prolonged use. In this work the frequency of oxytetracycline-resistant bacteria from water,palletized feed and different life stages of fish from Indian freshwater carp aquaculture system as well asthe level of resistance of selected strains was investigated. Viable as well as antibiotic-resistant bacterialcounts were performed by spread plate method in culture media supplemented with the oxytetracycline.Sixty two resistant Gram negative isolates which represented the oxytetracycline-resistant bacterialpopulation, were randomly selected on nutrient agar supplemented with oxytetracycline (50?g/ml) fromcarp farms and feed pellet samples. Among these bacterial isolates Flavobacterium (21%), Alcaligenes(14.5%), Aeromonas (11%), Pseudomonas (10%) and Enterobacteriace (19%) were the most frequent.The Escherichia, Serratia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Shigella and Proteus from Enterobacteriace wererecovered. Twelve isolates of oxytetracycline resistant bacteria were mainly dominated in adult fishes bythe genus Flavobacterium (23%) and Enterobacteriace(41%). Selected strains exhibited high levels ofoxytetracycline resistance with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 50 to600?g/ml.This study shows the presence of an important population of oxytetracycline-resistant bacteriain the microflora of Indian carp aquaculture farms. Therefore the environment of these farms might playimportant roles as reservoirs of bacteria carrying genetic determinants for high level tetracyclineresistance, prompting an important risk to public health.

Singh A.K.; Rathore G.; Singh V.; Mani I.; Singh R.K.; Mishra S.K.; Mishra B.N.; Verma O.P.

2009-01-01

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Application and analytical verification of peracetic acid use in different types of freshwater aquaculture systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Peracetic acid (PAA) is a highly reactive peroxygen compound with wide-ranging antimicrobial effects. PAA has recently gained substantial attention, due to additional beneficial attributes such as easily degradability and harmless disinfection byproducts. However, PAA is only sporadically used by the aquaculture industry as it is difficult to apply in correct dosages. This study describes the degradation kinetics of PAA when used as an aquaculture disinfectant. Effects of temperature, organic matter content and initial PAA dosage on the chemical fate of PAA is reported. Furthermore, investigations of water sanitation with PAA application were used to analytically verify actual PAA concentration under real conditions at different kinds of aquaculture systems. A characteristic instant disinfection demand was found to be significantly positively related to water COD content, and PAA half-lives were found to be in the order of a few minutes. The study revealed that PAA degrades so rapidly that insufficient disinfection is a likely outcome. The observations have applications for optimizing water treatment strategies with PAA. The investigations also indicated that the rapid degradation and hence swift presence of PAA in RAS made raceway disinfection possible without bypassing the biofilters. Future perspectives, benefits and drawbacks on the use of PAA in RAS are discussed

Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

2011-01-01

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Long term/low dose formalin exposure to small-scale recirculation aquaculture systems  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Repetitive long term formalin application at low dose was investigated to determine the effect on formaldehyde removal rate, biofilter nitrification and the microbial composition in small-scale recirculation aquaculture biofilters. Six pilot-scale recirculation aquaculture systems holding rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were designated to formalin treatments (C ? at 10 and 20mg/L formaldehyde) on a daily or weekly basis. Formaldehyde removal rates were measured over 10 weeks, during which biofilter nitrification rates were measured in terms of standardized NH?Cl spiking events. The rates were positively correlated to the amount and frequency of formalin treatment. In systems with regularly low formalin dosage, the formaldehyde removal rate increased up to tenfold from 0.19±0.05 to 1.81±0.13mg/(Lh). Biofilter nitrification was not impaired in systems treated with formalin on a daily basis as compared to untreated systems. In systems intermittently treated with formalin, increased variation and minor reductions of ammonium and nitrite oxidation rates were observed. Nitrifying bacteria were screened by specific gene probes using fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantified by digital image analysis. The relative abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was up to 5.4% of all Bacteria (EUB) positive cells, predominantly Nitrosomonas oligotropha. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), mainly consisting of Nitrospira sp. were found in all biofilm samples up to 2.9%, whereas Nitrobacter sp. was not detected. The relative abundances of AOB and NOB in the untreated system were generally higher compared to the system exposed to formalin. Low dose formalin in recirculated aquaculture systems proved to be a possible treatment strategy, as the effect on nitrification was minimal. Since formaldehyde was steadily removed by microorganisms, available biofilter surface area, hydraulic retention time and temperature can be used to predict removal and hence estimate e.g. effluent concentration.

Pedersen Lars-Flemming; Pedersen PerB; Nielsen JeppeL; Nielsen PerH

2010-01-01

26

Analysis of river basin of Piarg aquaculture system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this paper the system of dams near vicinity Piarg (on the present Stiavnicke Bane, the Slovak Republic) which was constructed in 18thcentury for drainage of underground mines is described. Basin and water captured by dams are analysed and produced power is calculated. This Piarg system of ponds was capable to produce about 173 kW of power that has spared work of 940 horses in 4 shift operation.

2010-04-28

27

Bioremediation of aquaculture wastes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Environmental impacts of wastes from large-scale, intensive aquaculture are substantial and can lead to complex ecosystem changes. The application of known and new technologies can capture inorganic nitrogen from water and reduce organic enrichment of sediments. Biological methods, including Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture are now gaining interest for increasing in situ removal of nitrogen and other nutrients at sea cage sites. Several studies on biological nitrogen removal through nitrification, denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) have been reported and a number of bacterial groups active in this regard have been described. Nevertheless, additional efforts need to be focused on remediation of aquaculture wastewater and marine sediments. Conventional treatment systems have several disadvantages. Development of more efficient reactor systems and a holistic, integrated approach to waste treatment would allow more environmentally balanced aquaculture practices.

Chávez-Crooker P; Obreque-Contreras J

2010-06-01

28

Low frequency ultrasound and UV-C for elimination of pathogens in recirculating aquaculture systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low frequency ultrasound (LFUS) was evaluated as a novel disinfection technique within recirculating aquaculture systems both individually and combined with UV-C. Dose-dependent inactivation rates were determined for the total viable counts and model organisms representing different taxa of common fish parasites: the ciliate Paramecium sp., second larval stage (L2) of the nematode Anguillicola crassus and metanauplii of Artemia sp. Application of LFUS up to 19 kJ/L did not reduce the number of colony forming units (CFU), whilst UV-C irradiation was highly effective. Pre-treatment with LFUS reduced the mean size of suspended solids in aquaculture water and thus increased the germicidal effect of UV-C by up to 0.6 log units. LFUS was effective against the eukaryotic organisms, and the dose-dependent inactivation could be well described by functions of an exponential decay. However, the efficiency of LFUS differed greatly between species. A LFUS dose of 1.9 kJ/L (consumed energy) was sufficient to inactivate Artemia by 99%, but a ten times higher dose was necessary to inactivate 95% and 81% of Paramecium and Anguillicola larvae, respectively. In clear water, the energetic efficiency of UV-C (emitted by a low pressure lamp) against Paramecium and Anguillicola larvae was higher compared to LFUS, but LFUS was more efficient against Artemia. However, the efficiency of LFUS against ciliates or nematode larvae would be similar or even higher than UV-C in highly turbid water or if less efficient medium pressure lamps are used. This study shows that LFUS can be applied safely at energy densities that are effective against a wide range of parasites like ciliates, nematodes and crustaceans. The combination of LFUS and UV-C could provide an appropriate water treatment with regards to all relevant pathogens in recirculating aquaculture systems. PMID:23434531

Bazyar Lakeh, Amir Abbas; Kloas, Werner; Jung, Rainer; Ariav, Ra'anan; Knopf, Klaus

2013-02-08

29

Low frequency ultrasound and UV-C for elimination of pathogens in recirculating aquaculture systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Low frequency ultrasound (LFUS) was evaluated as a novel disinfection technique within recirculating aquaculture systems both individually and combined with UV-C. Dose-dependent inactivation rates were determined for the total viable counts and model organisms representing different taxa of common fish parasites: the ciliate Paramecium sp., second larval stage (L2) of the nematode Anguillicola crassus and metanauplii of Artemia sp. Application of LFUS up to 19 kJ/L did not reduce the number of colony forming units (CFU), whilst UV-C irradiation was highly effective. Pre-treatment with LFUS reduced the mean size of suspended solids in aquaculture water and thus increased the germicidal effect of UV-C by up to 0.6 log units. LFUS was effective against the eukaryotic organisms, and the dose-dependent inactivation could be well described by functions of an exponential decay. However, the efficiency of LFUS differed greatly between species. A LFUS dose of 1.9 kJ/L (consumed energy) was sufficient to inactivate Artemia by 99%, but a ten times higher dose was necessary to inactivate 95% and 81% of Paramecium and Anguillicola larvae, respectively. In clear water, the energetic efficiency of UV-C (emitted by a low pressure lamp) against Paramecium and Anguillicola larvae was higher compared to LFUS, but LFUS was more efficient against Artemia. However, the efficiency of LFUS against ciliates or nematode larvae would be similar or even higher than UV-C in highly turbid water or if less efficient medium pressure lamps are used. This study shows that LFUS can be applied safely at energy densities that are effective against a wide range of parasites like ciliates, nematodes and crustaceans. The combination of LFUS and UV-C could provide an appropriate water treatment with regards to all relevant pathogens in recirculating aquaculture systems.

Bazyar Lakeh AA; Kloas W; Jung R; Ariav R; Knopf K

2013-09-01

30

Nitrification in brackish water recirculating aquaculture system integrated with activated packed bed bioreactor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) depend on nitrifying biofilters for the maintenance of water quality, increased biosecurity and environmental sustainability. To satisfy these requirements a packed bed bioreactor (PBBR) activated with indigenous nitrifying bacterial consortia has been developed and commercialized for operation under different salinities for instant nitrification in shrimp and prawn hatchery systems. In the present study the nitrification efficiency of the bioreactor was tested in a laboratory level recirculating aquaculture system for the rearing of Penaeus monodon for a period of two months under higher feeding rates and no water exchange. Rapid setting up of nitrification was observed during the operation, as the volumetric total ammonia nitrogen removal rates (VTR) increased with total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) production in the system. The average Volumetric TAN Removal Rates (VTR) at the feeding rate of 160 g/day from 54-60th days of culture was 0.1533+/-0.0045 kg TAN/m(3)/day. The regression between VTR and TAN explained 86% variability in VTR (P<0.001). The laboratory level RAS demonstrated here showed high performance both in terms of shrimp biomass yield and nitrification and environmental quality maintenance. Fluorescent in-situ Hybridization analysis of the reactor biofilm ensured the presence of autotrophic nitrifier groups such as Nitrosococcus mobilis lineage, Nitrobacter spp and phylum Nitrospira, the constituent members present in the original consortia used for activating the reactors. This showed the stability of the consortia on long term operation.

Rejish Kumar VJ; Joseph V; Philip R; Bright Singh IS

2010-01-01

31

Nitrification in brackish water recirculating aquaculture system integrated with activated packed bed bioreactor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) depend on nitrifying biofilters for the maintenance of water quality, increased biosecurity and environmental sustainability. To satisfy these requirements a packed bed bioreactor (PBBR) activated with indigenous nitrifying bacterial consortia has been developed and commercialized for operation under different salinities for instant nitrification in shrimp and prawn hatchery systems. In the present study the nitrification efficiency of the bioreactor was tested in a laboratory level recirculating aquaculture system for the rearing of Penaeus monodon for a period of two months under higher feeding rates and no water exchange. Rapid setting up of nitrification was observed during the operation, as the volumetric total ammonia nitrogen removal rates (VTR) increased with total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) production in the system. The average Volumetric TAN Removal Rates (VTR) at the feeding rate of 160 g/day from 54-60th days of culture was 0.1533+/-0.0045 kg TAN/m(3)/day. The regression between VTR and TAN explained 86% variability in VTR (PNitrobacter spp and phylum Nitrospira, the constituent members present in the original consortia used for activating the reactors. This showed the stability of the consortia on long term operation. PMID:20150717

Rejish Kumar, V J; Joseph, Valsamma; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

2010-01-01

32

METHODS FOR THE CONVERSION OF FISH WASTE FROM AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS TO METHANE VIA A MODIFIED UASB REACTOR  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process for treatment of sludge made up of saline organic solids or organic waste produced in a saltwater or brackish aquaculture system is described. The process includes use of a modified reactor, operating under anaerobic conditions, which yields methane from the digestion of the saline organic solids. Modification of a traditional reactor to include a packing substrate provides for saline waste digestion not previously known. Additionally provided is a process for producing methane from the digestion of organic solids. Inclusion of and use of modified reactors in aquaculture systems is also provided.

TAL YOSSI; SOWERS KEVIN R

33

METHODS FOR THE CONVERSION OF FISH WASTE FROM AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS TO METHANE VIA A MODIFIED UASB REACTOR  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process for treatment of sludge made up of saline organic solids or org anic waste produced in a saltwater or brackish aquaculture system is describ ed. The process includes use of a modified reactor, operating under anaerobi c conditions, which yields methane from the digestion of the saline organic solids. Modification of a traditional reactor to include a packing substrate provides for saline waste digestion not previously known. Additionally prov ided is a process for producing methane from the digestion of organic solids . Inclusion of and use of modified reactors in aquaculture systems is also p rovided.

SOWERS KEVIN R; TAL YOSSI

34

METHODS FOR THE CONVERSION OF FISH WASTE FROM AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS TO METHANE VIA A MODIFIED UASB REACTOR.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process for treatment of sludge made up of saline organic solids or organic waste produced in a saltwater or brackish aquaculture system is described. The process includes use of a modified reactor, operating under anaerobic conditions, which yields methane from the digestion of the saline organic solids. Modification of a traditional reactor to include a packing substrate provides for saline waste digestion not previously known. Additionally provided is a process for producing methane from the digestion of organic solids. Inclusion of and use of modified reactors in aquaculture systems is also provided.

TAL YOSSI; SOWERS KEVIN R

35

Sewage treatment in integrated system of UASB reactor and duckweed pond and reuse for aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a duckweed pond containing Lemna gibba was investigated for suitability for treating effluent for use in aquaculture. While treating low-strength sewage having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of typically less than 200 mg/L, with an increase in hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 10.04 to 33.49 h, COD removal efficiency of the UASB reactor decreased owing to a decrease in organic loading rate (OLR) causing poor mixing in the reactor. However, even at the lower OLR (0.475 kg COD/(m3 x d)), the UASB reactor gave a removal efficiency of 68% for COD and 74% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). The maximum COD, BOD, ammonia-nitrogen and phosphate removal efficiencies of the duckweed pond were 40.77%, 38.01%, 61.87% and 88.57%, respectively. Decreasing the OLR by increasing the HRT resulted in an increase in efficiency of the duckweed pond for removal of ammonia-nitrogen and phosphate. The OLR of 0.005 kg COD/(m2 x d) and HRT of 108 h in the duckweed pond satisfied aquaculture quality requirements. A specific growth rate of 0.23% was observed for tilapia fish fed with duckweed harvested from the duckweed pond. The economic analysis proved that it was beneficial to use the integrated system of a UASB reactor and a duckweed pond for treatment of sewage. PMID:22856320

Mohapatra, D P; Ghangrekar, M M; Mitra, A; Brar, S K

2012-06-01

36

Sewage treatment in integrated system of UASB reactor and duckweed pond and reuse for aquaculture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The performance of a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a duckweed pond containing Lemna gibba was investigated for suitability for treating effluent for use in aquaculture. While treating low-strength sewage having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of typically less than 200 mg/L, with an increase in hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 10.04 to 33.49 h, COD removal efficiency of the UASB reactor decreased owing to a decrease in organic loading rate (OLR) causing poor mixing in the reactor. However, even at the lower OLR (0.475 kg COD/(m3 x d)), the UASB reactor gave a removal efficiency of 68% for COD and 74% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). The maximum COD, BOD, ammonia-nitrogen and phosphate removal efficiencies of the duckweed pond were 40.77%, 38.01%, 61.87% and 88.57%, respectively. Decreasing the OLR by increasing the HRT resulted in an increase in efficiency of the duckweed pond for removal of ammonia-nitrogen and phosphate. The OLR of 0.005 kg COD/(m2 x d) and HRT of 108 h in the duckweed pond satisfied aquaculture quality requirements. A specific growth rate of 0.23% was observed for tilapia fish fed with duckweed harvested from the duckweed pond. The economic analysis proved that it was beneficial to use the integrated system of a UASB reactor and a duckweed pond for treatment of sewage.

Mohapatra DP; Ghangrekar MM; Mitra A; Brar SK

2012-06-01

37

Peracetic acid degradation in freshwater aquaculture systems and possible practical implications  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Peracetic acid (PAA) is a highly reactive peroxygen compound with wide-ranging antimicrobial effects and is considered an alternative sanitizer to formaldehyde. Products containing PAA are available in solution with acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide to maintain the stability of the chemical, and it decays rapidly when applied to freshwater in aquaculture systems. The rapid decay is beneficial in an environmental context but a challenge to aquaculturists. To assess the impact of organic matter content and temperature on PAA decay, twenty-four batch experiments were set up using PAA doses ranging from 0 to 2.0mg/l. The results revealed that increasing organic matter content significantly facilitated PAA decay, and positive temperature-decay correlations were found. Instantaneous PAA consumption above 0.2mg/l was observed, and PAA half-lives were found to be in the order of a few minutes. The relative PAA recovery, calculated as measured PAA concentration over time compared to the PAA concentration applied, decreased with declining dose. Measurements of PAA residuals during water treatment scenarios at three different freshwater fish farms revealed moderate to substantial PAA consumption, documenting a large discrepancy between delivered quantities and realized residuals. Recent investigations of PAA application to manage parasitic diseases in aquaculture are briefly reviewed, and practical implication and guidelines are addressed.

Pedersen LF; Meinelt T; Straus DL

2013-03-01

38

Peracetic acid degradation in freshwater aquaculture systems and possible practical implications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Peracetic acid (PAA) is a highly reactive peroxygen compound with wide-ranging antimicrobial effects and is considered an alternative sanitizer to formaldehyde. Products containing PAA are available in solution with acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide to maintain the stability of the chemical, and it decays rapidly when applied to freshwater in aquaculture systems. The rapid decay is beneficial in an environmental context but a challenge to aquaculturists. To assess the impact of organic matter content and temperature on PAA decay, twenty-four batch experiments were set up using PAA doses ranging from 0 to 2.0 mg/l. The results revealed that increasing organic matter content significantly facilitated PAA decay, and positive temperature-decay correlations were found. Instantaneous PAA consumption above 0.2 mg/l was observed, and PAA half-lives were found to be in the order of a few minutes. The relative PAA recovery, calculated as measured PAA concentration over time compared to the PAA concentration applied, decreased with declining dose. Measurements of PAA residuals during water treatment scenarios at three different freshwater fish farms revealed moderate to substantial PAA consumption, documenting a large discrepancy between delivered quantities and realized residuals. Recent investigations of PAA application to manage parasitic diseases in aquaculture are briefly reviewed, and practical implication and guidelines are addressed

Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Meinelt, Thomas

2013-01-01

39

The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Constructed wetlands improved water qualities and consequently increased the shrimp growth and survival in a recirculating system. - A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO4-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO3-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (P?0.05) lower than those in a control aquaculture system (CAS) that simulated static pond culture without wetland treatment. However, no significant difference (P?0.05) in BOD5, TAN and NO2-N was found between the two systems. At the end of the study, the harvest results showed that shrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8±1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (P?0.01) exceeded those in the CAS (2.3±1.5 g/shrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system

2003-01-01

40

The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Constructed wetlands improved water qualities and consequently increased the shrimp growth and survival in a recirculating system. - A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO{sub 2}-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO{sub 4}-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO{sub 3}-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (P{<=}0.05) lower than those in a control aquaculture system (CAS) that simulated static pond culture without wetland treatment. However, no significant difference (P{<=}0.05) in BOD{sub 5}, TAN and NO{sub 2}-N was found between the two systems. At the end of the study, the harvest results showed that shrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8{+-}1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (P{<=}0.01) exceeded those in the CAS (2.3{+-}1.5 g/shrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system.

Lin, Y.-F.; Jing, S.-R.; Lee, D.-Y

2003-05-01

 
 
 
 
41

Characterization of integrons and tetracycline resistance determinants in Aeromonas spp. isolated from South African aquaculture systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An increasing incidence of multidrug resistance amongst Aeromonas spp. isolates, which are both fish pathogens and emerging opportunistic human pathogens, has been observed worldwide. This can be attributed to the horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements, viz.: plasmids and class 1 integrons. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 37 Aeromonas spp. isolates, from tilapia, trout and koi aquaculture systems, were determined by disc-diffusion testing. The plasmid content of each isolate was examined using the alkaline lysis protocol. Tet determinant type was determined by amplification using two degenerate primer sets and subsequent HaeIII restriction. The presence of integrons was determined by PCR amplification of three integrase genes, as well as gene cassettes, and the qacEDelta1-sulI region. Thirty-seven Aeromonas spp. isolates were differentiated into six species by aroA PCR-RFLP, i.e., A. veronii biovar sobria, A. hydrophila, A. encheleia, A. ichtiosoma, A. salmonicida, and A. media. High levels of resistance to tetracycline (78.3%), amoxicillin (89.2%), and augmentin (86.5%) were observed. Decreased susceptibility to erythromycin was observed for 67.6% of isolates. Although 45.9% of isolates displayed nalidixic acid resistance, majority of isolates were susceptible to the fluoroquinolones. The MAR index ranged from 0.12 to 0.59, with majority of isolates indicating high-risk contamination originating from humans or animals where antibiotics are often used. Plasmids were detected in 21 isolates, with 14 of the isolates displaying multiple plasmid profiles. Single and multiple class A family Tet determinants were observed in 27% and 48.7% of isolates, respectively, with Tet A being the most prevalent Tet determinant type. Class 1 integron and related structures were amplified and carried different combinations of the antibiotic resistance gene cassettes ant(3'')Ia, aac(6')Ia, dhfr1, oxa2a and/or pse1. Class 2 integrons were also amplified, but the associated resistance cassettes could not be identified. Integrons and Tet determinants were carried by 68.4% of isolates bearing plasmids, although it was not a strict association. These plasmids could potentially mobilize the integrons and Tet determinants, thus transferring antimicrobial resistance to other water-borne bacteria or possible human pathogens. The identification of a diversity of resistance genes in the absence of antibiotic selective pressure in Aeromonas spp. from aquaculture systems highlights the risk of these bacteria serving as a reservoir of resistance genes, which may be transferred to other bacteria in the aquaculture environment.

Jacobs L; Chenia HY

2007-03-01

42

Low-dose hydrogen peroxide application in closed recirculating aquaculture systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present work was to simulate water treatment practices with hydrogen peroxide (HP) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Six identical 1,700-L pilot-scale RAS were divided into two experimental groups based on daily feed allocation and operated under constant conditions for a period of 3 months. The organic and nitrogenous loadings of the systems differed fourfold between the two groups and were achieved by predefined constant daily feed loads and constant additions of water. The fixed cumulative feed burden was 1.6 × 103 mg feed/L in the low-intensity RAS and 6.3 × 103 mg/L in the high-intensity RAS. The decay of HP in rearing tanks and disconnected biofilter units was investigated by means of HP spiking experiments. The decay in high-intensity RAS rearing units and biofilters was orders of magnitude faster than that in low-intensity units. The application of HP impaired biofilter nitrite oxidation in low-intensity RAS but not in high-intensity RAS. The impact of HP exposure time on biofilter nitrification capacity was then assessed in biofilter bench-scale experiments with nitrite spiking. Exposure time was found to significantly affect nitrite oxidation. Compared with unexposed biofilter elements, nitrite oxidation was reduced more than 90% following 3 h of exposure to 15 mg HP/L, whereas 30 min of exposure had only minor negative effects on nitrite oxidation. The findings of this study demonstrate the potential for developing HP water treatment practices for RAS and contradict prevailing notions that HP cannot be used safely in RAS that employ biofiltration. The development of effective new HP treatment protocols for recirculating aquaculture could reduce the current dependence on formalin to improve water quality and control parasitic loads

Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Good, C.

2012-01-01

43

Direct utilization of geothermal heat in cascade application to aquaculture and greenhouse systems at Navarro College. Annual report, January 1984-September 1984  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progress is reported on a project to use the 130/sup 0/F geothermal resource in central Texas. The system for cascading geothermal energy through aquaculture and greenhouse systems was completed and the first shrimp harvest was held. (MHR)

Smith, K.

1984-09-01

44

Aquaculture Information Package  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

1998-01-01

45

Escherichia coli contamination of fish raised in integrated pig-fish aquaculture systems in Vietnam.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Integrated livestock-fish aquaculture utilizes animal excreta and urine as pond fertilizers to enhance growth of plankton and other microorganisms eaten by the fish. In Vietnam, pigs are commonly integrated with fish and horticulture in household-based VAC systems (vuon = garden; ao = pond; chuong = pigsty), but the level of fecal contamination in the fish produced is unknown. This study was carried out to assess the level Escherichia coli contamination of fish meat and gut contents of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), and rohu (Labeo rohita) cultured in randomly selected five VAC ponds (with pig manure) and five non-VAC ponds (without pig manure) at sites in periurban Hanoi, Vietnam. Fish muscle tissue samples contained E. coli at <10 or 320 or 820 CFU/g, regardless of the culture system from which they originated. In contrast, the intestinal contents of fish raised in manure-fed ponds contained E. coli at 4.75, 5.25, and 5.07 log CFU/g for silver carp, grass carp, and rohu, respectively, about 100 times higher than the contamination of fish from the control ponds. The results indicate that muscle tissue of fish raised in VAC systems has a low level of fecal contamination despite high levels of E. coli in their gut. Thus, a critical point to control food safety of such fish is the prevention of fecal cross-contamination during degutting and cleaning of the fish at markets and in the home.

Dang ST; Dalsgaard A

2012-07-01

46

Enhancing the resilience of inland fisheries and aquaculture systems to climate change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some of the most important inland fisheries in the World are found in semi-arid regions. Production systems and livelihoods in arid and semi-arid areas are at risk from future climate variability and change; their fisheries are no exception. This paper reviews the importance of fisheries to livelihoods in ‘wetlands in drylands’, with a focus on case-studies in Africa. We examine the threats posed by climate change to the traditional ‘tri-economy’ of fishing, farming and livestock herding. Although both livelihood strategies and local institutions are highly adapted to cope with, and benefit from, climate-induced variability, weaknesses in the wider governance and macro-economic environment mean that the overall adaptive capacity of these regions is low and the farmer-herder-fishers are vulnerable to projected climate change. In order to maintain the important nutritional, economic, cultural and social benefits of fisheries in the face of climate change, planned adaptation at scales from the local to the regional (trans-national) is required. We use the concept of resilience in linked social-ecological systems to examine how such responses may be developed and promoted. Key strategies include facilitating people’s geographical and occupational mobility, improving intersectoral water and land-use planning, and promoting forms of aquaculture that help build resilience of farming systems to seasonal and episodic water deficits.

Edward H Allison; Neil L Andrew; Jamie Oliver

2007-01-01

47

Building and Using a Hydroponic/Aquaculture System in the Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Details for constructing a hydroponic / aquaculture system are shared. I have used the apparatus for the past six years in my class with excellent results. A 100 gallon aquarium serves as our fish farm. Teams of students monitor the change in biomass of the fish population, (usually Tilapia). They also maintain records of the amount of high protein floating fish food consumed. As aquaculturists they try to develop a feeding regime that will maximize the fishes' growth. Water from this tank containing the fishes' metabolic wastes is pumped every thirty minutes through a series of five hydroponic tubes filled with lava rock. Seedlings in Jiffy 7 peat pots are inserted into circular holes in the tubes. This soil-less garden can support about forty plants. We have grown many varieties of lettuce, spinach, herbs, tomatoes, cucumbers, jalapeno peppers, as well as many types of flowers. In addition, climbing plants such as morning glories or four o'clocks or nasturtia are grown directly from the surface of the aquarium by inserting Jiffy 7 pots into floating Styrofoam. These are supported so they arch across the ceiling. While in use the system can be used to visually demonstrate many important scientific principles from a variety of disciplines such as, animal and plant physiology, microbiology, and, of course, ecology.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Ernest Nicol N:Nicol;Ernest ORG:Newton North High School REV:2005-04-15 END:VCARD

1995-06-30

48

Evaluation of nitrifying bacteria product to improve nitrification efficacy in recirculating aquaculture systems  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) rely on nitrification to convert toxic ammonia and nitrite to less toxic nitrate. Nitrification is accomplished using biofilters with nitrifying bacteria and can be inefficient in biofilters that are new or that have been compromised due to stressors. Failure in a biofilter can result in very high levels of ammonia or nitrite, both of which are toxic to aquatic animals and can result in health issues, suppressed growth, and mortalities. For these reasons, a commercially available nitrifying bacterial product (Pond Protect-L®, Novozymes Biologicals Inc., Salem, VA, US) was tested in both a controlled pilot-scale experiment and within production-scale RAS that were experiencing elevated levels of nitrite. Juvenile Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were used as the aquatic species in both the pilot- and production-scale systems. In the pilot-scale experiment, three aquaria received no product (control) and three systems received bacterial product using dosing specification as recommended by the manufacturer. Control systems experienced significantly (P <0.05) higher levels of ammonia and nitrite compared to the tanks that received bacterial product. Quantitative PCR was used as tool to verify the presence of nitrifying bacteria (Nitrobacter winogradskyi strain in the bacterial product) in the systems that received bacterial product. Meanwhile, none of these nitrifiers were detected in the control systems. Similar nitrification benefits were noted in the production systems that received bacterial product. More specifically, improved nitrite-oxidation was observed. Within 2 days of the addition of bacterial product, nitrite levels began to decrease in the production systems and after a steady decrease remained within safe limits for the entire shrimp culture period.

Kuhn DavidD; Drahos DavidD; Marsh Lori; Flick GeorgeJ

2010-09-01

49

Efficiency of bioaugmentation in the removal of organic matter in aquaculture systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several techniques are currently used to treat effluents. Bioaugmentation is a new bioremediation strategy and has been employed to improve effluent quality by treating the water during the production process. This technology consists basically of the addition of microorganisms able to degrade or remove polluting compounds, especially organic matter and nutrients. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of bioaugmentation on some parameters of organic matter and on the performance of juvenile tilapias in an intensive aquaculture production system. The combination of two bacterial consortiums in a complete randomized design was employed in a factorial analysis with two factors. Statistical differences between treatments were analyzed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test at the 5% level. One of the treatments, heterotrophic bacterial supplementation, was able to reduce biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) by 23%, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by 83.7% and phytoplanktonic biomass by 43%. On the other hand, no damage was done to either the physical-chemical indicators of water quality or to the growth performance of juvenile tilapias assessed in this study.

Lopes RB; Olinda RA; Souza BA; Cyrino JE; Dias CT; Queiroz JF; Tavares LH

2011-05-01

50

Errors in experimental design and statistical analysis of aquaculture diet evaluation studies induced by filtration systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While single factor diet studies appear to be of simple design, the space constraints in aquaculture caused by the need to filter the aqueous media often c reate constraints on the implementation of the experimental design. A number of papers have been published in which the experimental design and subsequent analysis is incorrect. This paper reviews the principles of experimental design as it related to single factor diet evaluation studies in aquaculture. By adhering tosimple design principles to ensure that experimental units are independent, the data generated by future experiments will be of high quality and results more robust.

Michael F. Tlusty

2010-01-01

51

[Performance of recirculating aquaculture systems in the intensive farming of Pacú Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characiformes: Characidae)].  

Science.gov (United States)

An alternative to intensify fish production, reducing the environmental impact and production costs are recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). The performance of a RAS was evaluated, as fish growth and water quality conditions, in a culture of Piaractus mesopotamicus reared for ornamental purposes. Two commercial food brands with different protein contents (18%-T1 and 28%-T2), were given to juvenile fishes during an eight weeks period. Growth was measured bi-weekly: standard length (Lp), peak height (A), weight and multiple condition factor (KM). The evaluation of water parameters included: dissolved oxygen, NH3-NH4, pH, NO2, NO3, KH carbonate hardness and PO4. NH3-N rate production was analyzed following Timmons-Ebeling model. Results demonstrated significant differences in weight only, and T2 showed a 7.5% higher value than T1; nevertheless, treatment T1 had a higher KM. In general, water quality values were suitable for growth: OD=T1: 4.23 +/- 1.23; T2: 4.13 +/- 0.86; NH3=T1: 0.02 +/- 0.02; T2: 0.06 +/- 0.10; however, pH was an exception (T1: 6.95 +/- 0.98; T2: 7.11 +/- 1.03), displaying lethal rates (<5) by the fifth week. Systems NH3 removal had a 99.4% to 100% efficiency. Final fish biomass was 22.03kg for T1 and 27.49kg for T2. We concluded that the systems were able to maintain suggested density up to the experimental fifth week. Water quality parameters remained in suitable levels, with the pH exception. Cultured fishes reached their commercial size (10cm) in eight weeks. PMID:22458232

Domínguez Castanedo, Omar; Martínez Espinosa, David Alberto

2012-03-01

52

[Performance of recirculating aquaculture systems in the intensive farming of Pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characiformes: Characidae)].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An alternative to intensify fish production, reducing the environmental impact and production costs are recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). The performance of a RAS was evaluated, as fish growth and water quality conditions, in a culture of Piaractus mesopotamicus reared for ornamental purposes. Two commercial food brands with different protein contents (18%-T1 and 28%-T2), were given to juvenile fishes during an eight weeks period. Growth was measured bi-weekly: standard length (Lp), peak height (A), weight and multiple condition factor (KM). The evaluation of water parameters included: dissolved oxygen, NH3-NH4, pH, NO2, NO3, KH carbonate hardness and PO4. NH3-N rate production was analyzed following Timmons-Ebeling model. Results demonstrated significant differences in weight only, and T2 showed a 7.5% higher value than T1; nevertheless, treatment T1 had a higher KM. In general, water quality values were suitable for growth: OD=T1: 4.23 +/- 1.23; T2: 4.13 +/- 0.86; NH3=T1: 0.02 +/- 0.02; T2: 0.06 +/- 0.10; however, pH was an exception (T1: 6.95 +/- 0.98; T2: 7.11 +/- 1.03), displaying lethal rates (<5) by the fifth week. Systems NH3 removal had a 99.4% to 100% efficiency. Final fish biomass was 22.03kg for T1 and 27.49kg for T2. We concluded that the systems were able to maintain suggested density up to the experimental fifth week. Water quality parameters remained in suitable levels, with the pH exception. Cultured fishes reached their commercial size (10cm) in eight weeks.

Domínguez Castanedo O; Martínez Espinosa DA

2012-03-01

53

Degradation and effect of hydrogen peroxide in small-scale recirculation aquaculture system biofilters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

From an environmental point of view, hydrogen peroxide (HP) has beneficial attributes compared with other disinfectants in terms of its ready degradation and neutral by-products. The rapid degradation of HP can, however, cause difficulties with regard to safe and efficient water treatment when applied in different systems. In this study, we investigated the degradation kinetics of HP in biofilters from water recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). The potential effect of HP on the nitrification process in the biofilters was also examined. Biofilter elements from two different pilot-scale RAS were exposed to various HP treatments in batch experiments, and the HP concentration was found to follow an exponential decay. The biofilter ammonia and nitrite oxidation processes showed quick recuperation after exposure to a single dose of HP up to 30 mg L?1. An average HP concentration of 10–13 mg L?1 maintained over 3 h had a moderate inhibitory effect on the biofilter elements from one of the RAS with relatively high organic loading, while the nitrification was severely inhibited in the pilot-scale biofilters from the other RAS with a relatively low organic loading. A pilot-scale RAS, equipped with two biofilter units, both a moving-bed (Biomedia) and a fixed-bed (BIO-BLOK®) biofilter, was subjected to an average HP concentration of ?12 mg L?1 for 3 h. The ammonium- and nitrite-degrading efficiencies of both the Biomedia and the BIO-BLOK® filters were drastically reduced. The filters had not reverted to pre-HP exposure efficiency after 24 h, suggesting a possible long-term impact on the biofilters.

MØller, Martin Sune; Arvin, Erik

2010-01-01

54

Mass transfer efficiency of a vacuum airlift-Application to water recycling in aquaculture systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In aquaculture, oxygen transfer and carbon dioxide stripping are the first limiting factors to fish rearing intensification. In this study we measured the O-2 and CO2 mass transfer coefficient (K(L)a) for a vacuum airlift in fresh (<1% salinity) and sea water (35 parts per thousand salinity) recircu...

Barrut, Bertrand; Blancheton, Jean-paul; Champagne, Jean-yves; Grasmick, Alain

55

Aquaculture system diversity and sustainable development: fish farms and their representation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Initiatives for the sustainable development of aquaculture have so far focused on the production of codes of conduct, of best management practices, of standards etc., most of which have been developed by international organisations, the industrial sector and non governmental organisations. They were...

Lazard Jerome; Baruthio Aurele; Mathe Syndhia; Rey-valette Helene; Chia Eduardo; Clement Olivier; Aubin Joel; Morissens Pierre

56

The influence of pellets quality on the growth of sterlet, in recirculating aquaculture system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents some aspects regarding the influence of food quality on the breeding of sterlet, Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758, in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). The experiment took place over 30 days, in four pilot breeding units type aquaria of 300 liters in volume. Two kind of variants were compared, with repetition, V1 with 46% crude protein and V2 with 30% crude protein, respectively. The stocking density was of 14 fish/unit. The same feeding level of 8 g/kg metabolic weight (1.5% from total biomass) was used in every unit. The technological indicators that showed up at the end of the experiment revealed the following: the mean biomass gain in V1 was of 0.74 kg/m3 compared to 0.39 kg/m3in V2; this was nearly perfectly correlated with the food quality. The growth rate (GR) variated from 6.70 to 8.13 g/day in V1 and 3.63-4.17 g/day in V2; the specific growth rate (SGR), calculated as a mean value of the two repetitions of each variant, was of 1.11 g%/day in V1 and 0.63 g%/day in V2; the feed conversion ratio (FCR), calculated as the mean value of the two repetitions from the two variants, was of 1.49 in V1 and of 2.81 in V2. The parameters of fish breeding showed that changing the quality of fodder, the fish growing was positively influenced. This experiment showed also that sterlet is a sturgeon with a moderate growth rate and it is possible to obtain an increase of fish biomass using pellets with 30-46 % crude protein.

Corina Sion; Petronela G. C?lin; Lucian Oprea; Aurelia Nica; Gianina M. B?canu

2011-01-01

57

Aquaculture information package  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

1998-08-01

58

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FRESHWATER AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India produced 8.29 million tonnes of fish in 2010-2011. The industry contributes nearly INR 200 trillion to the national economy, forming 1.4 percent of national gross domestic product (GDP) and 5.4 percent of Agricultural GDP. At present, almost 84 percent of the total inland fish production, in the country is contributed by freshwater aquaculture amounting to 3.9 million tonnes in 2008-09. Further, the potential of the vast freshwater resources covering 6.7 million hectare is yet to be fully realized. The freshwater aquaculture which began as small scale activity of stocking ponds with fish seed collected from riverine sources during early fifties in rural Bengal has now transformed into a major economic activity in almost all states. There is a further need to make the sector more vibrant so as to achieve the predicted target of 15 kg per capita fish availability in the country by 2030.

H. Kumar; R. Singh

2013-01-01

59

Evaluation of the giant reed (Arundo donax) in horizontal subsurface flow wetlands for the treatment of recirculating aquaculture system effluent.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Two emergent macrophytes, Arundo donax and Phragmites australis, were established in experimental subsurface flow, gravel-based constructed wetlands (CWs) receiving untreated recirculating aquaculture system wastewater. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The hydraulic loading rate was 3.75 cm day(-1). Many of the monitored water quality parameters (biological oxygen demand [BOD], total suspended solids [TSS], total phosphorus [TP], total nitrogen [TN], total ammoniacal nitrogen [TAN], nitrate nitrogen [NO(3)], and Escherichia coli) were removed efficiently by the CWs, to the extent that the CW effluent was suitable for use on human food crops grown for raw produce consumption under Victorian state regulations and also suitable for reuse within aquaculture systems. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The BOD, TSS, TP, TN, TAN, and E. coli removal in the A. donax and P. australis beds was 94%, 67%, 96%, 97%, 99.6%, and effectively 100% and 95%, 87%, 95%, 98%, 99.7%, and effectively 100%, respectively, with no significant difference (p?>?0.007) in performance between the A. donax and P. australis CWs. In this study, as expected, the aboveground yield of A. donax top growth (stems + leaves) (15.0?±?3.4 kg wet weight) was considerably more than the P. australis beds (7.4?±?2.8 kg wet weight). The standing crop produced in this short (14-week) trial equates to an estimated 125 and 77 t ?ha(-1) year(-1) biomass (dry weight) for A. donax and P. australis, respectively (assuming that plant growth is similar across a 250-day (September-April) growing season and a single-cut, annual harvest). CONCLUSION: The similarity of the performance of the A. donax- and P. australis-planted beds indicates that either may be used in horizontal subsurface flow wetlands treating aquaculture wastewater, although the planting of A. donax provides additional opportunities for secondary income streams through utilization of the energy-rich biomass produced.

Idris SM; Jones PL; Salzman SA; Croatto G; Allinson G

2012-05-01

60

Effects of feed loading on nitrogen balances and fish performance in replicated recirculating aquaculture systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigated the effects of applying four fixed feed loadings to three replicated recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) on water quality changes, nitrogenous balances and growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).Feed loadings ranged from 1.6 to 6.3kgfeed/m3 make-up water, with a constant make-up water renewal of 4.7% of total water volume per day in all twelve RAS. Fish densities ranged from 14 to 92kg/m3 during the prolonged trial of 10weeks. Selected water quality parameters were measured during two intensive sampling campaigns, evaluating biofilter nitrification performance and diurnal patterns of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) and nitrite concentrations. No fish mortality occurred during the study. Feed conversion ratios varied between 0.91±0.04 and 0.95±0.02, and were unaffected by feeding load. Mean nitrate-nitrogen levels ranged from 54±7 to 196±10mg/L at steady state, and the concentration of nitrogenous compounds and organic matter were all positively correlated to feed loading.The TAN loading to the RAS from the specific feed type was assessed in a separate mass-balance study and used as input in a descriptive mathematical model (AQUASIM® software) developed to simulate processes affecting N mass-balances in the RAS. Nitrification kinetic rate constants were applied to the biofilter, and fractions of nitrifiers in suspended solids in the water phase were estimated based on existing information from waste water treatment processes. Two model scenarios successfully simulated the measured TAN concentration in the experimental RAS. The first model scenario applied a first-order area-based nitrification rate (k1a) constant of 0.2m/d, estimating a fraction of active nitrifiers (fN) in the water phase of 4% of the total suspended solids. The second model scenario used a k1a of 0.1, estimating a fN of 8% with similar predictability as in the first scenario. Overall, this study provided new information on fish performance and resulting water quality during steady state RAS operation. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that kinetic modeling can be applied to simulate measured TAN concentrations in experimental RAS.

Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Suhr, Karin Isabel

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Effectiveness of Floating Micro-Bead Bio-Filter for Ornamental Fish in a Re-Circulating Aquaculture System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bio-filtration has been widely used in re-circulating aquaculture system to remove waste and to convert toxic ammonia andnitrite into safe end products ornamental fish and other aquatic organisms. However, the study of micro-bead usage as the filter medium has not yet been broadened and thoroughly developed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to construct a biological filter made from polyethylene micro-bead as the filter medium and to analyze its effectiveness in removingwaste as well as in converting the toxic organic matter into stable substances. The bio-filter was constructed under a rotational molding process. The tubes, hoses, and piping were made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) while the fasteners were made from stainless steel and other non-corrosive materials. The effectiveness of this bio-filter was measured by using biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) analysis. Results indicated that this bio-filter is efficient enough to remove suspended solids and BOD. Therefore, this floating micro-bead bio-filter can be used in aquaculture systems.

R Fadhil

2011-01-01

62

Osnovy formirovanija sistemy upravlenija riskami proektov innovacionnogo razvitija akvakul'tury v regione (Na primere Kaliningradskoj oblasti) [The formation of a risk management system for projects in the field of aquaculture innovative development in the Kaliningrad region: a case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article sets out to develop the concept and the principal scheme of the formation of a risk management system for innovative economic development projects in the field of aquaculture. The research carried out by the authors helps identify the main problems and characteristics of risk management projects for the development of aquaculture in presentday Russia. The authors outline the status and features of aquaculture development projects in the North-western federal district and the Kaliningrad region. The article formulates and justifies the concept of “risk management projects in innovative development of aquaculture in the region” focusing on the classification of aquaculture risks in relation to innovative development projects, which expands the conceptual framework of risk management in view of the specific risks relating to economic development projects in the field of aquaculture. The authors characterize modern methods and approaches to risk management projects and organizations in the context of their application in the framework of aquaculture development projects and offer mechanisms for risk management of aquaculture development projects, which make it possible to include risk management activity in the general context of activities of parent project organizations. The authors develop the concept and principal scheme of the formation of risk management system for innovative development projects in aquaculture.

Serbulov Alexey; Stepanov Alexey; Polyakov Oleg

2012-01-01

63

Direct utilization of geothermal heat in cascade application to aquaculture and greenhouse systems at Navarro College. Annual report, January-December 1983  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progress is reported on a project for the use of the 130/sup 0/F central Texas geothermal resource. The milestones in the construction of the system for cascading the geothermal enenrgy through two enclosed aquaculture ponds, a greenhouse heating system, and a collection catfish reservoir are reported. (MHR)

Smith, K.

1983-12-30

64

Direct utilization of geothermal heat in cascade application to aquaculture and greenhouse systems at Navarro College. Annual report, January-December 1982  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progress is reported on a project for the use of the 130/sup 0/F central Texas geothermal resource. The revised project consists of cascading the geothermal energy through two enclosed aquaculture ponds, a greenhouse heating system, and into a collection catfish reservoir. (MHR)

Smith, K.

1982-12-31

65

Direct utilization of geothermal heat in cascade application to aquaculture and greenhouse systems at Navarro College. Annual report, January-December 1981  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progress is reported on a project for direct use of the 130/sup 0/F central Texas geothermal resource. The limited fluid disposal capacity of the injection well caused the exploration of the feasibility of substituting the hospitals heating load with those of college buildings and/or an aquaculture system. (MHR)

Smith, K.

1981-01-01

66

Ecotoxicity assessment in aquaculture system using the test organism Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (Chlorophyceae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to perform toxicity tests with microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (Chlorophyceae) using inland water samples to evaluate the impact caused by aquaculture. Six field samples were collected ranged November 2006 to March 2007, at Experimental Station, Pindamonhangaba, State of São Paulo. Abiotic factors pointed out to the mesotrophic and eutrophic characteristics already observed at the fish pond and its effluent. The results of ecotoxicological tests carried out with the microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata showed that the fish pond effluent was potential enough to stimulate the algal growth, therefore eutrophication, to the extent that it is naturally diluted to at least 12.5% of its initial concentration. This type of test can be a tool to be used by environmental managers in attempts to measure the extents of the impacts of effluent discharges from fish farming and to propose treatments based on qualitative and quantitative information.  

Luciana Miashiro; Julio Vicente Lombardi; Cacilda Thais Janson Mercante

2012-01-01

67

The influence of stocking density on the growth of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, in a recirculating aquaculture system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents some aspects regarding the influence of stocking density on the breeding of the common carp in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). The experiment covered a 30 dayperiod. It was conducted in four aquaculture tanks, 500 L/tank, in the recirculating aquaculture pilot system of “Dunarea de Jos” University of Gala?i. Two kind of stocking density variants were compared: 64 kg/m3 in V1 (B1, B3) and 32 kg/m3 in V2 (B2, B4). The stocking density was: 491 fish in B1, average weight - 65 g/ fish; 245 fish in B2, average weight - 66 g/ fish; 211 fish in B3, average weight - 152 g/fish; 107 fish in B4, average weight - 150 g/fish. The technological indicators obtained revealed the following: the specific growth rate (SGR), calculated as a mean value on the two repetitions, was 1.28%/day in V1 and 1.49 %/day in V2, indicating better growth in V2; the food conversion ratio (FCR), calculated as the mean value of the two repetitions, was 1.28 in V1 and 1.06 in V2, expressing a higher efficiency in capitalization of food in V2. The mean biomass gain in V1 was 30.46 kg/m3 as compared to 18.55 kg/m3 in V2, almost perfectly correlated with the stocking density. The daily growth rate (DGR) varied in a similar way, from 494.57 to 520.90 g/day in V1 and 302.4 to 315.9 g/day in V2. The experiment demonstrated a remarkable technological plasticity in both experimental variants, whereas, in terms of technological performance indicators, it was found that the application of lower stocking densities lead to higher crop biomass. The high stocking density means, therefore, large amounts of metabolic waste, removed from the breeding units through their effluent, the recirculating flow of which is 4m3/h, enough to ensure the whole volume of water in a growth tank to be changed every half hour.

Ionica Enache; Victor Cristea; Tudor Ionescu; S?ndita Ion

2011-01-01

68

Wastewater utilization for poly-?-hydroxybutyrate production by the cyanobacterium Aulosira fertilissima in a recirculatory aquaculture system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intensive aquaculture releases large quantities of nutrients into aquatic bodies, which can lead to eutrophication. The objective of this study was the development of a biological recirculatory wastewater treatment system with a diazotrophic cyanobacterium, Aulosira fertilissima, and simultaneous production of valuable product in the form of poly-?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). To investigate this possible synergy, batch scale tests were conducted under a recirculatory aquaculture system in fiber-reinforced plastic tanks enhanced by several manageable parameters (e.g., sedimentation, inoculum size, depth, turbulence, and light intensity), an adequate combination of which showed better productivity. The dissolved-oxygen level increased in the range of 3.2 to 6.9 mg liter?¹ during the culture period. Nutrients such as ammonia, nitrite, and phosphate decreased to as low as zero within 15 days of incubation, indicating the system's bioremediation capability while yielding valuable cyanobacterial biomass for PHB production. Maximum PHB accumulation in A. fertilissima was found in sedimented fish pond discharge at 20-cm culture depth with stirring and an initial inoculum size of 80 mg dry cell weight (dcw) liter?¹. Under optimized conditions, the PHB yield was boosted to 92, 89, and 80 g m?², respectively for the summer, rainy, and winter seasons. Extrapolation of the result showed that a hectare of A. fertilissima cultivation in fish pond discharge would give an annual harvest of ?17 tons dry biomass, consisting of 14 tons of PHB with material properties comparable to those of the bacterial polymer, with simultaneous treatment of 32,640 m³ water discharge.

Samantaray S; Nayak JK; Mallick N

2011-12-01

69

The cost and effectiveness of solids thickening technologies for treating backwash and recovering nutrients from intensive aquaculture systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cost and effectiveness of three solids thickening processes, i.e., gravity thickening settlers (GTS), inclined belt filters (IBF), geotextile bag filters (GBF), were individually evaluated with the biosolids backwash produced in intensive aquaculture systems equipped with microscreen drum filters and radial-flow settlers. The IBF produced the cleanest discharge and highest treatment efficiencies, likely reflecting the rapid efficiency with which solids are separated from wastewater. The GBF was the least effective process, i.e., GBF leachate contained the highest concentrations of TP, TN, and cBOD. However, GBF was most effective for sludge volume reduction. Capital cost estimates for an IBF were more than twice that of GTS and GBF of similar treatment capacity. The GTS had the lowest capital and annual operating cost estimates. The estimated annual operating cost of the GBF was orders of magnitude higher than the IBF and GTS, due to the high cost to replace bags. PMID:20395138

Sharrer, Mark; Rishel, Kata; Taylor, Amanda; Vinci, Brian J; Summerfelt, Steven T

2010-04-14

70

Analysis of coastal and offshore aquaculture: Application of the FARM model to multiple systems and shellfish species  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Farm Aquaculture Resource Management (FARM) model has been applied to several shellfish species and aquaculture types. The performance of the FARM model, developed to simulate potential harvest, key financial data, and water quality impacts at the farm-scale, was tested in five systems in the European Union: Loch Creran, Scotland (Pacific oyster), Pertuis Breton, France (blue mussel), Bay of Piran, Slovenia (Mediterranean mussel), Chioggia, Italy (Mediterranean mussel) and Ria Formosa, Portugal (Manila clam). These systems range from open coasts to estuaries, and are used for shellfish aquaculture by means of different cultivation techniques (e.g. oyster bottom culture in Loch Creran and mussel longlines and poles in Pertuis Breton). The drivers for the FARM model were supplied by measured data, outputs of system-scale models or a combination of both. The results (given in total fresh weight) generally show good agreement with reported annual production (shown in brackets) at each farm: simulated production of 134 tons of Pacific oyster in Loch Creran (150 tons, -10%), 2691 tons of blue mussel in Pertuis Breton (2304 tons, +17%), 314 tons of Mediterranean mussel in the Bay of Piran (200 tons, +57%), 545 tons of Mediterranean mussel in Chioggia (660 tons, -17%) and 119 tons of Manila clam in Ria Formosa (104 tons, +15%). The nitrogen mass balance for each farm was also determined with the FARM model. The net removal of nitrogen (N) by the farms was estimated to correspond to 1206 population equivalents per year (PEQ y?¹) in Loch Creran, 93503 PEQ y?¹ in Pertuis Breton, 9196 PEQ y?¹ in the Bay of Piran, 97916 PEQ y?¹ in Chioggia and 8613 PEQ y?¹ in Ria Formosa. The aggregate income due to both the shellfish sale and substitution value of land-based fertilizer reduction or nutrient treatment was estimated to be about 700 k[Euro Sign] y?¹ in Loch Creran, 30,706 k[Euro Sign] y?¹ in Pertuis Breton, 3000 k[Euro Sign] y?¹ in the Bay of Piran, 30,000 k[Euro Sign] y?¹ in Chioggia, and 5000 k[Euro Sign] y?¹in Ria Formosa. Outputs of FARM may be used to analyse the farm production potential and profit maximization according to seeding densities and/or spatial distribution. Results of a marginal analysis for all the study sites were determined. As an example, profit maximization in Loch Creran was obtained with 97 tons of seed, resulting in a total production of 440 tons (profit of 2100 k[Euro Sign] for a culture period of about 2 years). FARM additionally integrates the well-known ASSETS model, for assessment of farm-related eutrophication impacts. The assessment results for the five study sites show that water quality is either maintained or improved in all farms under standard conditions of culture practice. FARM results may be used by farmers to analyse farm production potential and by managers for environmental assessment of farm-related water quality impacts, whether positive or negative. It is a useful tool for all stakeholders for the valuation of nitrogen credits, which may be traded as part of an integrated catchment management plan. The FARM results were scaled up to determine a net value of 11-17 billion [Euro Sign] y?¹ of ecosystem goods and services, provided by shellfish culture towards reducing eutrophication in the coastal waters of the European Union. These numbers highlight the role that extractive organic aquaculture plays in integrated coastal zone and nutrient emissions management.

Ferreira JG; Sequeira A; Hawkins AJS; Newton A; Nickell TD; Pastres R; Forte J; Bodoy A; Bricker SB

2009-04-01

71

Desarrollo de Sistemas de Vigilancia Tecnológica en la Acuicultura Española/ Development of Technological Vigilance Systems in Spanish Aquaculture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este artículo caracterizamos el proceso de vigilancia tecnológica como respuesta empresarial a la necesaria adaptación a entornos turbulentos y como origen de ventajas competitivas. En este sentido realizamos una recensión teórica, un análisis estratégico de la referida vigilancia como herramienta para el desarrollo competitivo de la empresa en sectores involucrados con la investigación, el desarrollo y la innovación (I+D+i), así como una adaptación secuenci (more) al al desarrollo de la acuicultura. Sobre dicha base hemos realizado una aplicación al sector de la acuicultura en España, mediante el contraste de tres hipótesis relacionadas con el nivel global de desarrollo de los sistemas, los factores y agentes del entorno y la utilización de fuentes de información, todas ellas a través del programa estadístico SPSS 18. Como conclusión hemos identificado patrones globales para la vigilancia en el sector y especificidades por subsector, actividad, área geográfica o tipo de cultivo. Abstract in english In this paper we characterize the process of technological monitoring like enterprise answer to the necessary adjustment to turbulent environments and like origin of competitive advantages. In this respect we fulfil a theoretical critique, a strategic analysis of the above-mentioned monitoring like tool for the competitive development of the company in sectors involved with the research, development and innovation (R+D+i), as well as a sequential adjustment to the develop (more) ment of aquaculture. On the above mentioned base we have realized an application to the Spanish Aquaculture, by means of the resistance of three hypotheses related to the global level of development of the systems, the factors and agents of the environment and the use of sources of intelligence, all of them through statistical program SPSS 18. Since conclusion we have identified global patterns for the monitoring in the sector and specificities by subsector, activity, geographical area or type of crop.

Sánchez Sellero, Francisco Javier; Cruz González, Montserrat

2012-10-01

72

Evaluation of osmotic-stress tolerance of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivars in aquaculture system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research was performed in 2011 at University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Iran, to evaluate osmotic-stress tolerance, at seedling stage, of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), as a split plot experiment based on randomized complete blocks design with four replications. Levels of osmotic stress were considered as main factor and twelve rapeseed cultivars were sub-factor, that were evaluated under aquaculture conditions, based on length, volume, area and dry weight of roots, shoot dry weight and biological yield. The results showed that stress levels had signification effect on studied traits (P?0.01). Significant differences were observed between rapeseed cultivars. Effect of osmotic stress on length, volume, area and dry weight of roots, shoot dry weight and biological yield of different cultivars was not the same. The greatest amount of reduction in the studied traits under osmotic-stress conditions was observed in shoot dry weight and biological yield; root length was reduced the least. Based on cluster analysis, at all three levels of drought stress, canola cultivars were placed in three groups. The Licord cultivar, at all three conditions, was located in the group that its traits were higher than other groups. The Okapi, Quantum, Tallaye and Hyola308 cultivars showed lower tolerance to osmotic stress. The Licord cultivar had higher tolerance to osmotic stress as compared to other cultivars.

M. Nemati; A. Asghari

2012-01-01

73

Electron beam focusing system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

1997-09-01

74

Carbon dynamics in aquaculture ponds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aquaculture ponds'carbon dynamicsare dominated by physical, chemical and biological transformations in feed and organic and inorganic fertilisation. Increasedfish productionhas been associated with an increase incarbon inputin the form of fish-feed exceeding ponds'metabolic capacity,thereby leading to water qualitydeteriorating due toan accumulationof organic compounds. Water quality is a major constraint in terms of increasedfish crop density. The most important carbon loss within aproduction system is associated with CO2 evaporation;this makes aquaculture ponds become carbon footprints instead of carbon sinks. Phytoplankton is the major means of CO2 retentionas it captures both that produced by the respiration of all organisms within a particularpond and within the atmosphere. Aquaculture production systemsusually have a negativeorganic carbon balance; however,higher carbon recovery is possible but this involves adjusting management practiceand increasedresearch into the pertinent dynamics. Feed, feedingpractices, the speciesbeing cultivated, waterexchange, aeration, pond depth and the microorganisms living in a pondare factorswhich affect the biogeochemical carboncycle in aquaculture ponds.

Guillermo Ladino-Orjuela

2011-01-01

75

Characterization of microbial communities in minimal-exchange, intensive aquaculture systems and the effects of suspended solids management  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Minimal-exchange, intensive culture systems require little, if any, water exchange and have high animal stocking densities. Intensive nutrient inputs lead to an abundant community of microorganisms. These microbes are partially contained within suspended “biofloc” particles and contribute to water quality maintenance and provision of supplemental nutrition to the culture species. Optimal function of minimal-exchange, intensive systems is likely dependent on the structure of the microbial communities within them. This document offers a short review of microbial groups important for intensive marine aquaculture and descriptions of three methods for quantifying their abundance. The document also describes an experiment during which these methods were used to monitor the effects of partial biofloc removal on microbe abundance. The first method uses light microscopy, with the option of epifluorescence, along with a ranking system to enumerate the abundance of microbial taxa. The second method exclusively uses epifluorescence to illuminate chlorophyll and cyanobacteria pigments. Images are taken of each fluorescing group of pigments and processed using image analysis software to quantify the respective abundance of the two pigment types. Using the third method, changes in bacterial abundance were determined by gas chromatographic measurement of bacteria-specific fatty acids in solvent extracted water column lipids. Using these techniques, it was determined that removing solids from the culture water significantly (P?0.01) reduced the abundance of nematodes, rotifers, cyanobacteria, and bacteria. Understanding microbial composition and the effects that management protocols have on that composition may help system managers make better informed decisions.

Ray AndrewJ; Seaborn Gloria; Leffler JohnW; Wilde SusanB; Lawson Alisha; Browdy CraigL

2010-12-01

76

Aquaculture in New Zealand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aquaculture is a relatively new activity in New Zealand. The indigenous rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata ) was the first target for aquaculture in the 1930's although it was not intensively cultured until the 1960's. The faster growing Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas ) appeared in 1969/70 and now...

Hayden B

77

Impact of water boundary layer diffusion on the nitrification rate of submerged biofilter elements from a recirculating aquaculture system  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) removal by microbial nitrification is an essential process in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). In order to protect the aquatic environment and fish health, it is important to be able to predict the nitrification rates in RAS’s. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of hydraulic film diffusion on the nitrification rate in a submerged biofilter. Using an experimental batch reactor setup with recirculation, active nitrifying biofilter units from a RAS were exposed to a range of hydraulic flow velocities. Corresponding nitrification rates were measured following ammonium chloride, NH4Cl, spikes and the impact of hydraulic film diffusion was quantified. The nitrification performance of the tested biofilter could be significantly increased by increasing the hydraulic flow velocity in the filter. Area based first order nitrification rate constants ranged from 0.065 m d?1 to 0.192 m d?1 for flow velocities between 2.5 m h?1 and 40 m h?1 (18 °C). This study documents that hydraulic film diffusion may have a significant impact on the nitrification rate in fixed film biofilters with geometry and hydraulic flows corresponding to our experimental RAS biofilters. The results may thus have practical implications in relation to the design, operational strategy of RAS biofilters and how to optimize TAN removal in fixed film biofilter systems

Prehn, Jonas; Waul, Christopher Kevin

2012-01-01

78

Potentials and limitations of biomethane and phosphorus recovery from sludges of brackish/marine aquaculture recirculation systems: A review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Brackish/marine recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) produce a relatively small but concentrated waste stream. The produced waste is perceived as a constraint for sustainable development of brackish/marine RAS. Appropriate disposal of sludge or waste from brackish/marine RAS is of great importance for widespread acceptance and implementation. Anaerobic stabilization of RAS sludge is considered as a potential cost-effective methodology to achieve effective sludge reduction and biogas production. Therefore, this review presents an overview of studies conducted on anaerobic digestion of sludge from brackish/marine RAS. Several researchers have shown that specific methane yield (SMY) of anaerobic digestion of sludges from brackish/marine RAS is relatively low, mainly in the range of 0.001-0.184 m(3) CH4 (STP)/kg COD of sludge added. The possible reasons for low SMY are reviewed in this work and can be mainly attributed to applied experimental set-ups, particularly improper inoculum, and high salinity, mainly resulting from high sodium cation levels. This review also evaluates the potentials and limitations for phosphorus recovery from the waste streams. Additionally, corresponding approaches to enhance specific methanogenic activities are proposed, particularly about the need for further thickening sludges from brackish/marine RAS in order to increase SMY from the wastes and downsize the anaerobic digestion units.

Zhang X; Spanjers H; van Lier JB

2013-10-01

79

The Effects of Some Phytobiotics on Biochemical Composition of Oreochromis Niloticus Meat Reared in a Recirculating Aquaculture System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment is the evaluation of biochemical composition of Nile tilapia meat by administrating  several phytobiotics in feed. Oreochromis niloticus, with an initial average weight of 125.41±34.33 g/exemplar, were reared, during six weeks in a recirculating aquaculture system. The phytobiotics from this experiment were administered in feed in a concentration of 1%/kg feed and consist in: thyme (Thymus vulgaris), fenugreek (Trigonela foenum graecum), neem (Azadirachta indica). Thus, the experimental variants were: V1-control, V2-thyme, V3-fenugreek and V4-neem. Fish were fed with SOPROFISH pelleted feed with 38% crude protein and 7% crude fat. During the experiment, the physico-chemical parameters of technological water were situated in normal range for optimal growth. At the end of the experiment, significant differences (p0.05; p=0.68). The highest value of moisture (87.25%) was registered in V2; the lowest value of fat content (0.05%) was recorded in V4 and the lowest protein content (10.79%) in V2. In conclusion, thyme, fenugreek and neem administration, in concentration of 1%/kg feed, influenced significantly the biochemical composition of Oreochromis niloticus.

Alina Antache; Cristea Victor; Grecu Iulia; Dediu Lorena; Mocanu (Cretu) Mirela; Ion (Placinta) Sandita; Petrea Stefan Mihai

2013-01-01

80

Phylogenetic diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in biofilters of recirculating aquaculture systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We constructed ammonia monooxygenase alpha subunit (amoA) gene clone libraries of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) from three biofiltration tanks used for closed marine fish culture systems. The number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found in any one place was 76%-80% of the total OTUs in each tank for AOA and 100% for AOB when OUTs were defined on the basis of a 5% nucleotide difference. In a phylogenetic tree, all of the AOA amoA sequences fell into a cluster, which contained Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus. All of the AOB amoA sequences were related to the Nitrosospira lineage. These results indicated that different ammonia oxidizers were present in different tanks, but that the dominant phylogenetic types were stable. In a biofiltration tank to which a high concentration of ammonium chloride was added periodically to condition the biofilter materials, most of the AOA amoA sequences were different from the dominant one observed in the fish culture tanks. The AOB amoA sequences were also different, and were similar to those of Nitrosomonas aestuarii. These findings suggest that high concentration ammonia loads have a considerable affect on ammonia-oxidizer community composition.

Sakami T; Andoh T; Morita T; Yamamoto Y

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
81

Preliminary research on the anammox process and control of nitrogen compounds in a recirculating aquaculture system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using anammox process in biological filtration of technological water within recirculatingaquaculture system is an alternative to nitrification / denitrification process which can reduce productioncosts, especially energy by replacing aerobic biological processes that require high oxygen consumption,provided through the addition for optimal function of biofilter (conversion of N-NH4 and N-NO2). Aim ofthis paper is to highlight the first steps in the control of nitrogen compounds in recirculating aquaculturesystems using anammox process. Data shown are obtained after 78 researching days (research stillongoing), the results being encouraging, registering an ammonium removal efficiency of 77% in SC1 andof 32% in SC2. Nitrites registered an increase in SC1 and a decrease in SC2 and there are allprerequisites showing that in SC2 anammox activity is more advanced than in SC1. The average ofoxygen consumption rate was 0.73 mgL-1 in SC1 smaller than 0.99 mgL-1 from SC2, which reinforces theidea that there are anammox process in SC2.

Savin Cristian; P?s?rin Benone; Patriche Neculai; Talpe? Marilena; Cristea Victor; Tenciu Magdalena

2013-01-01

82

Certify Sustainable Aquaculture?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic organisms, provides close to 50% of the world's supply of seafood, with a value of U.S. $125 billion. It makes up 13% of the world's animal-source protein (excluding eggs and dairy) and employs an estimated 24 million people (1). With capture (i.e., wild) fisheries production stagnating, aquaculture may help close the forecast global deficit in fish protein by 2020 (2). This so-called “blue revolution” requires addressing a range of environmental and social problems, including water pollution, degradation of ecosystems, and violation of labor standards.

Bush, Simon; Belton, Ben

2013-01-01

83

European aquaculture 1991  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic animals and plants in marine and freshwater, has become a major industry in the Member States of the European Community. It is estimated that total production in 1989 amounted to over 847,000 tonnes and was worth over 7,900 million ECUs. We forecast that in 1991 p...

Shaw S

84

Molecular genetics in aquaculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Great advances in molecular genetics have deeply changed the way of doing research in aquaculture, as it has already done in other fields. The molecular revolution started in the 1980’s, thanks to the widespread use of restriction enzymes and Polymerase Chain Reaction technology, which makes it possible to easily detect the genetic variability directly at the DNA level. In aquaculture, the molecular data are used for several purposes, which can be clustered into two main groups. The first one, focused on individuals, includes the sex identification and parentage assignment, while the second one, focused on populations, includes the wide area of the genetic characterization, aimed at solving taxonomic uncertainties, preserving genetic biodiversity and detecting genetic tags. For the future, the increase in the number of molecular markers and the construction of high density genetic maps, as well as the implementation of genomic resources (including genome sequencing), are expected to provide tools for the genetic improvement of aquaculture species through Marked Assisted Selection. In this review the characteristics of different types of molecular markers, along with their applications to a variety of aquaculture issues are presented.

Rossella Lo Presti; Claudio Lisa; Liliana Di Stasio

2010-01-01

85

Electronics circuits and systems  

CERN Multimedia

The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Ea

Bishop, Owen

2011-01-01

86

An Overview of Aquaculture in the Nordic Countries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The goal of this review was to describe in some detail the Nordic aquaculture industries in order to illuminate the similarities and differences. Information that was gathered for each country includes aquaculture history, aquaculture acts and regulations, production and production systems, environmental concerns, organic aquaculture and outlook for the future. The information will be useful for risk assessments, design of risk-based surveillance programs and for construction of comparative risk profiles for endemic and exotic diseases affecting aquaculture in the Nordic countries. Aquaculture in the Nordic countries has a long history; beginning in the 1850s when hatcheries for restocking of salmon and trout were established in Norway. Nowadays, Atlantic salmon is the dominant cultured species in Norway and the Faroe Islands, whereas rainbow trout dominate in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden. Arctic char and cod are most important in Iceland. Other important cultured species include eel and blue mussels. There is much diversity in Nordic aquaculture industries in terms of production, farmed species, and production systems. Although the vast majority of the Nordic aquaculture production is for human consumption, significant numbers of fish are grown for restocking of rivers, lakes, or other bodies of freshwater or seawater.

Paisley, Larry; Ariel, Ellen

2010-01-01

87

Electronic instrumentation timing system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electronic timing system that serves two important functions has been implemented on Nova. First, pulses can be generated at precise, controlled times relative to the Nova system trigger. These pulses simulate experimental signals without the need for laser shots. Transient recorder and streak camera triggers can now be timed independently of the laser system, greatly reducing setup time. The second function of the Nova electronic timing system is to accurately cross time signals on transient recorders. In past experiments, signals were cross-timed assuming common breakout times. Now, fiducial signals that are common to all transient recorders allow them to be independently cross-timed to an accuracy of better than 50 ps.

1985-01-01

88

Electron beam processing system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron beam Processing Systems (EPS) are used as useful and powerful tools in many industrial application fields such as the production of cross-linked wire, rubber tire, heat shrinkable film and tubing, curing, degradation of polymers, sterilization and environmental application. In this paper, the feature and application fields, the selection of machine ratings and safety measures of EPS will be described. (author)

2004-01-01

89

Direct utilization of geothermal heat in cascade application to aquaculture and greenhouse systems at Navarro College. Final report, March 1, 1979-September 30, 1984  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report documents the Navarro College geothermal use project, which is one of nineteen direct-use geothermal projects funded principally by DOE. The six-year project encompassed a broad range of technical, institutional, and economic activities including: resource and environmental assessment; well drilling and completion; system design, construction, and monitoring; economic analysis; and public awareness programs. Some of the project conclusions are that: (1) the 130/sup 0/F Central Texas geothermal resource can support additional geothermal development; (2) private sector economic incentives currently exist which encourage commercial development of this geothermal resource; (3) potential uses for this geothermal resource include water and space heating, aquacultural and agricultural heating uses, and fruit and vegetable dehydration; (4) high maintenance costs arising from the geofluids' scaling and corrosion characteristics can be avoided through proper analysis and design.

Smith, K.

1984-09-01

90

Electron-electron interactions in disordered systems  

CERN Document Server

``Electron-Electron Interactions in Disordered Systems'' deals with the interplay of disorder and the Coulomb interaction. Prominent experts give state-of-the-art reviews of the theoretical and experimental work in this field and make it clear that the interplay of the two effects is essential, especially in low-dimensional systems.

Efros, AL

1985-01-01

91

Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from aquaculture: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is an important greenhouse gas (GHG) which has a global warming potential 310 times that of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) over a hundred year lifespan. N(2)O is generated during microbial nitrification and denitrification, which are common in aquaculture systems. To date, few studies have been conducted to quantify N(2)O emission from aquaculture. Additionally, very little is known with respect to the microbial pathways through which N(2)O is formed in aquaculture systems. This review suggests that aquaculture can be an important anthropogenic source of N(2)O emission. The global N(2)O-N emission from aquaculture in 2009 is estimated to be 9.30 × 10(10) g, and will increase to 3.83 × 10(11)g which could account for 5.72% of anthropogenic N(2)O-N emission by 2030 if the aquaculture industry continues to increase at the present annual growth rate (about 7.10%). The possible mechanisms and various factors affecting N(2)O production are summarized, and two possible methods to minimize N(2)O emission, namely aquaponic and biofloc technology aquaculture, are also discussed. The paper concludes with future research directions. PMID:22594516

Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Khanal, Samir Kumar

2012-05-29

92

Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from aquaculture: a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is an important greenhouse gas (GHG) which has a global warming potential 310 times that of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) over a hundred year lifespan. N(2)O is generated during microbial nitrification and denitrification, which are common in aquaculture systems. To date, few studies have been conducted to quantify N(2)O emission from aquaculture. Additionally, very little is known with respect to the microbial pathways through which N(2)O is formed in aquaculture systems. This review suggests that aquaculture can be an important anthropogenic source of N(2)O emission. The global N(2)O-N emission from aquaculture in 2009 is estimated to be 9.30 × 10(10) g, and will increase to 3.83 × 10(11)g which could account for 5.72% of anthropogenic N(2)O-N emission by 2030 if the aquaculture industry continues to increase at the present annual growth rate (about 7.10%). The possible mechanisms and various factors affecting N(2)O production are summarized, and two possible methods to minimize N(2)O emission, namely aquaponic and biofloc technology aquaculture, are also discussed. The paper concludes with future research directions.

Hu Z; Lee JW; Chandran K; Kim S; Khanal SK

2012-06-01

93

Granular Electronic Systems  

CERN Multimedia

A granular metal is an array of metallic nano-particles imbedded into an insulating matrix. Tuning the intergranular coupling strength a granular system can be transformed into either a good metal or an insulator and, in case of superconducting particles, experience superconductor-insulator transition. The ease of adjusting electronic properties of granular metals makes them most suitable for fundamental studies of disordered solids and assures them a fundamental role for nanotechnological applications. This Review discusses recent important theoretical advances in the study of granular metals, emphasizing on the interplay of disorder, quantum effects, fluctuations and effects of confinement in formation of electronic transport and thermodynamic properties of granular materials.

Beloborodov, I S; Lopatin, A V; Vinokur, V M

2006-01-01

94

Strongly correlated electron systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010-co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson-followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400(th) anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed during SCES 2010. As we learned, past dogmas about strongly correlated materials and phenomena must be re-examined with an open and inquisitive mind. Invited speakers and respected leaders in the field were invited to contribute to this special issue and we have insisted that they present new data, ideas, or perspectives, as opposed to simply an overview of their past work. As with the conference, this special issue touches upon recent developments of strongly correlated electron systems in d-electron materials, such as Sr(3)Ru(2)O(7), graphene, and the new Fe-based superconductors, but it is dominated by topics in f-electron compounds. Contributions reflect the growing appreciation for the influence of disorder and frustration, the need for organizing principles, as well as detailed investigations on particular materials of interest and, of course, new materials. As this special issue could not possibly capture the full breadth and depth that the conference had to offer, it is being published simultaneously with an issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series containing 157 manuscripts in which all poster presenters at SCES 2010 were invited to contribute. Since this special issue grew out of the 2010 SCES conference, we take this opportunity to give thanks. This conference would not have been possible without the hard work of the SCES 2010 Program Committee, International and National Advisory Committees, Local Committee, and conference organizers, the New Mexico Consortium. We thank them as well as those organizations that generously provided financial support: ICAM-I2CAM, Quantum Design, Lakeshore, the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and the Department of Energy National Laboratories at Argonne, Berkeley, Brookhaven, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge. Of course, we especially thank the participants for bringing new ideas and new results, without which SCES 2010 would not have been possible. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Spin-orbit coupling and k-dependent Zeeman splitting in strontium ruthenate Emil J Rozbicki, James F Annett, Jean-René Souque

Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

2011-02-16

95

Strongly correlated electron systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010-co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson-followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400(th) anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed during SCES 2010. As we learned, past dogmas about strongly correlated materials and phenomena must be re-examined with an open and inquisitive mind. Invited speakers and respected leaders in the field were invited to contribute to this special issue and we have insisted that they present new data, ideas, or perspectives, as opposed to simply an overview of their past work. As with the conference, this special issue touches upon recent developments of strongly correlated electron systems in d-electron materials, such as Sr(3)Ru(2)O(7), graphene, and the new Fe-based superconductors, but it is dominated by topics in f-electron compounds. Contributions reflect the growing appreciation for the influence of disorder and frustration, the need for organizing principles, as well as detailed investigations on particular materials of interest and, of course, new materials. As this special issue could not possibly capture the full breadth and depth that the conference had to offer, it is being published simultaneously with an issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series containing 157 manuscripts in which all poster presenters at SCES 2010 were invited to contribute. Since this special issue grew out of the 2010 SCES conference, we take this opportunity to give thanks. This conference would not have been possible without the hard work of the SCES 2010 Program Committee, International and National Advisory Committees, Local Committee, and conference organizers, the New Mexico Consortium. We thank them as well as those organizations that generously provided financial support: ICAM-I2CAM, Quantum Design, Lakeshore, the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and the Department of Energy National Laboratories at Argonne, Berkeley, Brookhaven, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge. Of course, we especially thank the participants for bringing new ideas and new results, without which SCES 2010 would not have been possible. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Spin-orbit coupling and k-dependent Zeeman splitting in strontium ruthenate Emil J Rozbicki, James F Annett, Jean-René Souque

Ronning F; Batista C

2011-02-01

96

Aquaculture: global status and trends.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp and catfish has been driven by globalizing trade and favourable economics of larger scale intensive farming. Most aquaculture systems rely on low/uncosted environmental goods and services, so a critical issue for the future is whether these are brought into company accounts and the consequent effects this would have on production economics. Failing that, increased competition for natural resources will force governments to allocate strategically or leave the market to determine their use depending on activities that can extract the highest value. Further uncertainties include the impact of climate change, future fisheries supplies (for competition and feed supply), practical limits in terms of scale and in the economics of integration and the development and acceptability of new bio-engineering technologies. In the medium term, increased output is likely to require expansion in new environments, further intensification and efficiency gains for more sustainable and cost-effective production. The trend towards enhanced intensive systems with key monocultures remains strong and, at least for the foreseeable future, will be a significant contributor to future supplies. Dependence on external feeds (including fish), water and energy are key issues. Some new species will enter production and policies that support the reduction of resource footprints and improve integration could lead to new developments as well as reversing decline in some more traditional systems.

Bostock J; McAndrew B; Richards R; Jauncey K; Telfer T; Lorenzen K; Little D; Ross L; Handisyde N; Gatward I; Corner R

2010-09-01

97

Electronic Payment Systems  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As business is moving from face-to-face trading, mail order, and telephone order toelectronic commerce over open networks such as the Internet, crucial security issues arebeing raised. Whereas Electronic Funds Transfer over financial networks is reasonablysecure, securing payments over open networks connecting commercial servers and consumerworkstations poses challenges of a new dimension.This article reviews the state of the art in payment technologies, and sketches emergingdevelopments.KeywordsElectronic commerce, payment systems, open networks, secure transactions,security, privacy.IntroductionSince the dawn of history, there has been trading between two parties exchanginggoods face-to-face. Eventually such trading became complicated and inconvenient;money was invented so that a buyer could acquire something he needed from a sellerwithout necessarily exchanging goods. Security of the monetary systems was guaranteedby the local, regional, national, and event...

N. Asokan; Phil Janson; Michael Steiner; Michael Waidner

98

Electronic Payment Systems  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As business is moving from face-to-face trading, mail order, and telephone order toelectronic commerce over open networks such as the Internet, crucial security issues arebeing raised. Whereas Electronic Funds Transfer over financial networks is reasonablysecure, securing payments over open networks connecting commercial servers and consumerworkstations poses challenges of a new dimension.This article reviews the state of the art in payment technologies, and sketches emergingdevelopments.KeywordsElectronic commerce, payment systems, open networks, secure transactions,security, privacy.IntroductionSince the dawn of history, there has been trading between two parties exchanginggoods face-to-face. Eventually such trading became complicated and inconvenient;money was invented so that a buyer could acquire something he needed from a sellerwithout necessarily exchanging goods. Security of the monetary systems was guaranteedby the local, regional, national, and eventually in...

N. Asokan; Phil Janson; Michael Steiner; Michael Waidner

99

Performance of a sand filter in removal of micro-algae from seawater in aquaculture production systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, a sand filter was used to remove micro-algae from seawater feeding aquaculture ponds. A lab-scale sand filter was used to filter 30,000 cells/mL of Heterocapsa triquetra suspension, a non-toxic micro-alga that has morphological and dimensional (15-20 microm) similarities with Alexandrium sp., one of the smallest toxic micro-algae in seawater. Removal efficiency and capture mechanisms for a fixed superficial velocity (3.5 m/h) were evaluated in relation to size distribution and mean diameter of the sand. Various sands (average diameter ranging between 200 microm and 600 microm) were characterized and used as porous media. The structural parameters of the fixed beds were evaluated for each medium using experimental measurements of pressure drop as a function of superficial velocity over a range of Reynolds numbers covering Darcy's regime and the inertial regime. For a filtration cycle of six hours, the best efficiency (E = 90%) was obtained with the following sand characteristics: sieved sand with a range of grain diameter of 100 and 300 microm and a mean grain diameter equal to 256 microm. Results obtained show the influence of the size distribution of sand on the quality of retention of the micro-algae studied.

Sabiri NE; Castaing JB; Massé A; Jaouen P

2012-02-01

100

Disease and health management in Asian aquaculture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Asia contributes more than 90% to the world's aquaculture production. Like other farming systems, aquaculture is plagued with disease problems resulting from its intensification and commercialization. This paper describes the various factors, providing specific examples, which have contributed to the current disease problems faced by what is now the fastest growing food-producing sector globally. These include increased globalization of trade and markets; the intensification of fish-farming practices through the movement of broodstock, postlarvae, fry and fingerlings; the introduction of new species for aquaculture development; the expansion of the ornamental fish trade; the enhancement of marine and coastal areas through the stocking of aquatic animals raised in hatcheries; the unanticipated interactions between cultured and wild populations of aquatic animals; poor or lack of effective biosecurity measures; slow awareness on emerging diseases; the misunderstanding and misuse of specific pathogen free (SPF) stocks; climate change; other human-mediated movements of aquaculture commodities. Data on the socio-economic impacts of aquatic animal diseases are also presented, including estimates of losses in production, direct and indirect income and employment, market access or share of investment, and consumer confidence; food availability; industry failures. Examples of costs of investment in aquatic animal health-related activities, including national strategies, research, surveillance, control and other health management programmes are also provided. Finally, the strategies currently being implemented in the Asian region to deal with transboundary diseases affecting the aquaculture sector are highlighted. These include compliance with international codes, and development and implementation of regional guidelines and national aquatic animal health strategies; new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques and new information technology; new biosecurity measures including risk analysis, epidemiology, surveillance, reporting and planning for emergency response to epizootics; targeted research; institutional strengthening and manpower development (education, training and extension research and diagnostic services).

Bondad-Reantaso MG; Subasinghe RP; Arthur JR; Ogawa K; Chinabut S; Adlard R; Tan Z; Shariff M

2005-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

ECOLOGICAL CAPABILITY EVALUATION FOR AQUACULTURE ACTIVITIES BY GIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Geographic Information System (GIS) is the best suitable system for land evaluation. In this research, at the first step, the Makhdoum's model is introduced‚ and then Hamadan Province, from aquaculture point of view and capabilities of the lands to fulfill aquaculture activities is evaluated. GIS was used for the mentioned purposes. The software used was Arc View (version 3.2 a), with the UTM projection. For evaluation, Mc Hark method of Maps overlaying was utilized. According to the results, the suitable surface area for aquaculture activities was introduced, which was equal to 13.1 percent of Hamadan Province. According to the evaluations, this province has limited potentials for aquaculture activities. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to these limitations in development plans.

M. Reyahi Khoram, M. Shariat, N. Moharamnejad, A. Azar and H. Mahjub

2005-01-01

102

METHOD OF AQUACULTURE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method of aquaculture is applicable to a novel culture arrangement for diversified farming of generally deep sea fin fishes, shrimps, and shellfishes. A pre-manufactured enclosed cultivation tank is provided and air compressor facility is included for pressurization and oxygenation so as to make the interior of the cultivation tank a pressurized water environment of predetermined high pressure. A low pressure siphon tube is included for sucking and removing excrements from the cultivation tank and to realize water replacement in a natural manner thereby providing a deep sea mimicked clean cultivation environment. The drained water is subjected to multiple steps of filtration and purification for separating the excrements from the water and for purifying water to allow cyclic use of the water. An arrangement of multiple cultivation tanks allows for diversified and multi-species cultivation of fishery products and deep sea fishes.

NIEN TE-CHIH

103

Performance of the seaweeds Gracilaria salicornia and Caulerpa lentillifera as biofilters in a hatchery scale recirculating aquaculture system for juvenile spotted babylons (Babylonia areolata)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using seaweeds as biofilters in a hatchery scale recirculating aquaculture system for juvenile spotted babylons (Babylonia areolata). Two seaweeds Gracilaria salicornia and Caulerpa lentillifera were used with three initial biomass levels of each species (280, 560 and 840 g wet weight m?3). Spotted babylon with an average initial shell length of 1.32 ± 0.01 cm and body weight of 0.37 ± 0.01 g was used with a stocking density of 300 snails m?2. The experiment was carried out in triplicate over a period of 120 days. Results showed that seawater quality (water temperature, conductivity, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and total suspended solids) gradually changed with no significant differences between treatments throughout the experimental period, except alkalinity, total ammonia nitrogen, nitrite–nitrogen, nitrate–nitrogen and phosphate. Growth rates in weight and shell length of the spotted babylon cultured in all seaweed treatments used were not significantly different between seaweeds and density treatments, but significant differences in final survival rate of the spotted babylon were found between seaweed and density treatments. Growth rate and biomass gain of C. lentillifera were significantly higher than those of G. salicornia for all stocking density treatments. This study shows that Gracilaria salicornia and Caulerpa lentillifera can be used as biofilters for regulating water quality in a recirculating culture system for spotted babylons.

Chaitanawisuti N; Santhaweesuk W; Kritsanapuntu S

2011-12-01

104

Efficiency of bioaugmentation in the removal of organic matter in aquaculture systems Eficiência da bioadição na remoção de matéria orgânica em sistemas aquaculturais  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several techniques are currently used to treat effluents. Bioaugmentation is a new bioremediation strategy and has been employed to improve effluent quality by treating the water during the production process. This technology consists basically of the addition of microorganisms able to degrade or remove polluting compounds, especially organic matter and nutrients. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of bioaugmentation on some parameters of organic matter and on the performance of juvenile tilapias in an intensive aquaculture production system. The combination of two bacterial consortiums in a complete randomized design was employed in a factorial analysis with two factors. Statistical differences between treatments were analyzed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test at the 5% level. One of the treatments, heterotrophic bacterial supplementation, was able to reduce biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) by 23%, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by 83.7% and phytoplanktonic biomass by 43%. On the other hand, no damage was done to either the physical-chemical indicators of water quality or to the growth performance of juvenile tilapias assessed in this study.Existem diversas tecnologias para tratamento de efluentes, o processo de bioadição consiste em uma vertente da biorremediação e tem sido empregado na melhoria da qualidade dos efluentes através do tratamento da água de produção. Esta tecnologia consiste basicamente na adição de microrganismos com a capacidade de degradar ou remover compostos poluentes, especialmente matéria orgânica e nutrientes. Este estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de composto bioativo sobre alguns parâmetros de matéria orgânica e de desempenho de juvenis de tilápias em um sistema intensivo de produção aquacultural. Foi empregada a combinação de dois consórcios bacterianos em delineamento inteiramente aleatorizado, em um esquema fatorial com dois fatores. As diferenças estatísticas entre os tratamentos foram analisadas por meio da análise de variância (ANOVA) e do teste de Tukey ao nível de 5%. Verificou-se neste estudo, que a bioadição heterotrófica foi capaz de reduzir em 23% a demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO); em 83,7%, o carbono orgânico dissolvido (COD); e em 43%, a biomassa fitoplanctônica. Por outro lado, não se observou nenhum prejuízo com relação aos parâmetros físico-químicos de qualidade de água bem como ao desempenho de crescimento para juvenis de tilápias avaliados neste estudo.

RB Lopes; RA. Olinda; BAI Souza; JEP Cyrino; CTS Dias; JF Queiroz; LHS Tavares

2011-01-01

105

Efficiency of bioaugmentation in the removal of organic matter in aquaculture systems/ Eficiência da bioadição na remoção de matéria orgânica em sistemas aquaculturais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Existem diversas tecnologias para tratamento de efluentes, o processo de bioadição consiste em uma vertente da biorremediação e tem sido empregado na melhoria da qualidade dos efluentes através do tratamento da água de produção. Esta tecnologia consiste basicamente na adição de microrganismos com a capacidade de degradar ou remover compostos poluentes, especialmente matéria orgânica e nutrientes. Este estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de c (more) omposto bioativo sobre alguns parâmetros de matéria orgânica e de desempenho de juvenis de tilápias em um sistema intensivo de produção aquacultural. Foi empregada a combinação de dois consórcios bacterianos em delineamento inteiramente aleatorizado, em um esquema fatorial com dois fatores. As diferenças estatísticas entre os tratamentos foram analisadas por meio da análise de variância (ANOVA) e do teste de Tukey ao nível de 5%. Verificou-se neste estudo, que a bioadição heterotrófica foi capaz de reduzir em 23% a demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO); em 83,7%, o carbono orgânico dissolvido (COD); e em 43%, a biomassa fitoplanctônica. Por outro lado, não se observou nenhum prejuízo com relação aos parâmetros físico-químicos de qualidade de água bem como ao desempenho de crescimento para juvenis de tilápias avaliados neste estudo. Abstract in english Several techniques are currently used to treat effluents. Bioaugmentation is a new bioremediation strategy and has been employed to improve effluent quality by treating the water during the production process. This technology consists basically of the addition of microorganisms able to degrade or remove polluting compounds, especially organic matter and nutrients. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of bioaugmentation on some parameters of organic matter (more) and on the performance of juvenile tilapias in an intensive aquaculture production system. The combination of two bacterial consortiums in a complete randomized design was employed in a factorial analysis with two factors. Statistical differences between treatments were analyzed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test at the 5% level. One of the treatments, heterotrophic bacterial supplementation, was able to reduce biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) by 23%, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by 83.7% and phytoplanktonic biomass by 43%. On the other hand, no damage was done to either the physical-chemical indicators of water quality or to the growth performance of juvenile tilapias assessed in this study.

Lopes, RB; Olinda, RA.; Souza, BAI; Cyrino, JEP; Dias, CTS; Queiroz, JF; Tavares, LHS

2011-05-01

106

Determinación de distritos de aptitud acuícola mediante la aplicación de sistemas de información geográfica/ Aquaculture site selection using a geographical information system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este artículo se muestra un procedimiento metodológico para la determinación de distritos aptos para el desarrollo de cultivo de salmónidos y moluscos bivalvos, que incluye distintos procedimientos de análisis cartográfico digital y de análisis matricial de bases de datos relacionales en un Sistema de Información Geográfica (SIG). La proposición plantea el diseño de un modelo que integra los criterios ambientales con los requerimientos específicos del recur (more) so. Se considera la construcción de sitios a través del procesamiento de imágenes, cálculo de capacidad de carga y la evaluación de la toma de decisión mediante análisis de multi-criterio y multi-objetivo Abstract in english This paper shows a methodological procedure to aquaculture site selection for the development of salmonid and bivalve mollusk culture. The proposal includes different processes of digital cartographic analysis and management of relational data bases in matrixes work applying a Geographical Information System (GIS). The basis of this procedure is a model design that integrate the environmental criteria with the species requirements. It is considerate the site construction (more) by the processing of images, assessing the carrying capacity and the decision support evaluation through a multi-criteria and multi-objective

Silva G., Claudio; Olivarí M., Rodolfo; Yany G., Gabriel

1999-01-01

107

Potential use of power plant reject heat in commercial aquaculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current research and commercial activities in aquaculture operations have been reviewed. An aquaculture system using mostly herbivorous species in pond culture is proposed as a means of using waste heat to produce reasonably priced protein. The system uses waste water streams, such as secondary sewage effluent, animal wastes, or some industrial waste streams as a primary nutrient source to grow algae, which is fed to fish and clams. Crayfish feed on the clam wastes thereby providing a clean effluent from the aquaculture system. Alternate fish associations are presented and it appears that a carp or tilapia association is desirable. An aquaculture system capable of rejecting all the waste heat from a 1000-MW(e) power station in winter can accommodate about half the summer heat rejection load. The aquaculture facility would require approximately 133 ha and would produce 4.1 x 105 kg/year of fish, 1.5 x 106 kg/year of clam meat, and 1.5 x 104 kg/year of live crayfish. The estimated annual pretax profit from this operation is one million dollars. Several possible problem areas have been identified. However, technical solutions appear to be readily available to solve these problems. The proposed system shows considerable economic promise. Small scale experiments have demonstrated the technical feasibility of various components of the system. It therefore appears that a pilot scale experimental facility should be operated

1977-01-01

108

Reliability of electronic systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reliability techniques have been developed subsequently as a need of the diverse engineering disciplines, nevertheless they are not few those that think they have been work a lot on reliability before the same word was used in the current context. Military, space and nuclear industries were the first ones that have been involved in this topic, however not only in these environments it is that it has been carried out this small great revolution in benefit of the increase of the reliability figures of the products of those industries, but rather it has extended to the whole industry. The fact of the massive production, characteristic of the current industries, drove four decades ago, to the fall of the reliability of its products, on one hand, because the massively itself and, for other, to the recently discovered and even not stabilized industrial techniques. Industry should be changed according to those two new requirements, creating products of medium complexity and assuring an enough reliability appropriated to production costs and controls. Reliability began to be integral part of the manufactured product. Facing this philosophy, the book describes reliability techniques applied to electronics systems and provides a coherent and rigorous framework for these diverse activities providing a unifying scientific basis for the entire subject. It consists of eight chapters plus a lot of statistical tables and an extensive annotated bibliography. Chapters embrace the following topics: 1- Introduction to Reliability; 2- Basic Mathematical Concepts; 3- Catastrophic Failure Models; 4-Parametric Failure Models; 5- Systems Reliability; 6- Reliability in Design and Project; 7- Reliability Tests; 8- Software Reliability. This book is in Spanish language and has a potentially diverse audience as a text book from academic to industrial courses. (author)

2001-01-01

109

Novel electron gas systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We review recent progress on the physics of electrons in the bilayered electron gas, relevant to coupled quantum wells in GaAs/AIGaAs heterostructures. First we focus on the phase diagram of a symmetric bilayer at T = B = 0, obtained by diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) simulations. It is found that inter-layer correlations stabilize crystalline structures at intermediate inter-layer separation, while favoring a liquid phase at smaller distance. Also, the available DMC evidence is in contrast with the recently (Hartree-Fock) predicted total charge transfer (TCT), whereby all the electron spontaneously jump in one layer. In fact, one can show that such a TCT state is never stable in the ideal bilayer with no tunneling. We finally comment on ongoing DMC investigations on the electron-hole bilayer, where excitonic condensation is expected to take place. (Copyright (1998) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd) 32 refs., 2 figs.

Senatore, G. [INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica dell`Universita di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Rapisarda, F. [Institut fur Theoretische Physik, Johannes Kepler Universitat, Altenberper Strasse 69 A-4040 Linz (Austria); Conti, S. [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy)

1998-12-31

110

Novel Electron Gas Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

We review recent progress on the physics of electrons in the bilayered electron gas, relevant to coupled quantum wells in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. First, we focus on the phase diagram of a symmetric bilayer at T=B=0, obtained by diffusion Monte Carlo simulations. It is found that inter-layer correlations stabilize crystalline structures at intermediate inter-layer separation, while favouring a liquid phase at smaller distance. Also, the available DMC evidence is in contrast with the recently (Hartree-Fock) predicted total charge transfer (TCT), whereby all the electron spontaneously jump in one layer. In fact, one can show that such a TCT state is never stable in the ideal bilayer with no tunneling. We finally comment on ongoing DMC investigations on the electron-hole bilayer, where excitonic condensation is expected to take place.

Senatore, Gaetano; Rapisarda, F.; Conti, S.

111

The ALS Gun Electronics system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ALS Gun Electronics system has been designed to accommodate gun with a custom made socket and high speed electronics circuit which is capable of producing single and multiple electron bunches with time jitters measured at better than 50 PS. The system generates the gated RF signal at ground level before sending it up to the 120 KV-biased gun deck via a fiber optic cable. The current pulse width as a function of grid bias, using an Eimac 8847A planar triode simulating an electron gun, was measured to show the relationship between the two parameters

1993-01-01

112

Electronical Health Record's Systems. Interoperability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available #Understanding the importance that the electronic medical health records system has, with its various structural types and grades, has led to the elaboration of a series of standards and quality control methods, meant to control its functioning. In time, the electronic health records system has evolved along with the medical data’s change of structure. Romania has not yet managed to fully clarify this concept, various definitions still being encountered, such as “Patient’s electronic chart”, “Electronic health file”. A slow change from functional interoperability (OSI level 6) to semantic interoperability (level 7) is being aimed at the moment. This current article will try to present the main electronic files models, from a functional interoperability system’s possibility to be created perspective.

Simona Angela Apostol; Catu Cosmin; Corina Vernic

2008-01-01

113

Studies on wels catfish (Silurus glanis) development during cold season as an auxiliary species in sturgeon recirculated aquaculture systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research had the purpose to establish if the wels catfish is suitable for growing in closedrecirculated system designed for sturgeon farming, because during the cold season the system does notneed to reach high temperatures such as for other fish species. Our studies showed that the wels catfishcan survive during the cold season from a recirculated system, and furthermore they accept feeds attemperatures as low as 17°C, and even have a slight body weight increase during this season. The welscatfish entered the spring in our experiment at a mean body weight of 72.5 grams, while the wels catfishfrom semi-intensive system after wintering in earthern ponds entered the winter at a mean body weighof 30 grams. Our experiments also studied the effect of stocking density on fish development in theseconditions.

Radu Muscalu; Cristina Muscalu; Mihai Nagy; Marian Bura; Zoltan-Tibor Szelei

2010-01-01

114

DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccination is based on the administration of the gene encoding the vaccine antigen, rather than the antigen itself. Subsequent expression of the antigen by cells in the vaccinated hosts triggers the host immune system. Among the many experimental DNA vaccines tested in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important viruses such as infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). DNA vaccines against other types of fish pathogens, however, have so far had limited success. The most efficient delivery route at present is IM injection, and suitable delivery strategies for mass vaccination of small fish have yet to be developed. In terms of safety, no adverse effects in the vaccinated fishhave been observed to date. As DNA vaccination is a relatively new technology, various theoretical and long-term safety issues related to the environment and the consumer remain to be fully addressed, although inherently the risks should not be any greater than with the commercial fish vaccines that are currently used. Present classification systems lack clarity in distinguishing DNA-vaccinated animals from genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which could raise issues in terms of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production conditions has recently been initiated in Canada and Denmark.

Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

2005-01-01

115

Status of Irish Aquaculture 2005  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is the third annual report on the status of Irish aquaculture (see Parsons et al., 2003, Parsons et al., 2004). As with the previous reports it has been produced in collaboration with the three main State agencies that provide support services in the areas of research and development to the ind...

Marine Institute; Bord Iascaigh Mhara; Taighde Mara Teo

116

Status of Irish Aquaculture 2006  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is the fourth annual report reviewing the status of Irish aquaculture (see Parsons et al. 2004, Parsons et al. 2005, and Browne et al. 2006). As with the previous reports it has been produced in collaboration with the three main State agencies that provide support services in the areas of resea...

Marine Institute; Bord Iascaigh Mhara; Taighde Mara Teo

117

Electron microscope image recording system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an image recording system, for example an electron microscope, a specimen is scanned by an electron beam and a resulting video signal from a semiconducting photosensitive surface, such as a solar cell, in contact with the specimen is displayed on a monitor in synchronism with the scanning. The solar cell detects both electrons and X-rays produced in the specimen. To produce an entirely X-ray image, the specimen is covered with a thin metal foil. (author)

1981-01-01

118

Overscreening in Hubbard electron systems  

CERN Document Server

We show that doping-induced charge fluctuations in strongly correlated Hubbard electron systems near the 1/2-filled, insulating limit cause overscreening of the electron-electron Coulomb repulsion. The resulting attractive screened interaction potential supports d_{x^2-y^2}-pairing with a strongly peaked, doping dependent pairing strength at lower doping, followed by s-wave pairing at larger doping levels.

Schüttler, H B; Evertz, H G; Hanke, W

1998-01-01

119

Cost analysis of electronic systems  

CERN Multimedia

Understanding the cost ramifications of design, manufacturing and life-cycle management decisions is of central importance to businesses associated with all types of electronic systems. Cost Analysis of Electronic Systems contains carefully developed models and theory that practicing engineers can directly apply to the modeling of costs for real products and systems. In addition, this book brings to light and models many contributions to life-cycle costs that practitioners are aware of but never had the tools or techniques to address quantitatively in the past.Cost Analysis of Electronic Syste

Sandborn, Peter

2012-01-01

120

A Portable Electron Radiography System  

CERN Multimedia

The technique of charged particle radiography has been developed and proven with 800 MeV protons at LANSCE and 24 GeV protons at the AGS. Recent work at Los Alamos National Laboratory in collaboration with the Idaho Accelerator Center has extended this diagnostic technique to electron radiography through the development of an inexpensive and portable electron radiography system. This system has been designed to use 30 MeV electrons to radiograph thin static and dynamic systems. The system consists of a compact 30 MeV pulsed electron linear accelerator coupled to a quadrupole lens magnifier constructed from permanent magnet quadrupoles. The design features and operational characteristics of this radiography system are presented as well as the radiographic performance parameters.

Merrill, Frank E; Harmon, Frank; Hunt, Alan W; King, B J; Morris, Christopher

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Impact of aquaculture on mangrove areas in the northern Pernambuco Coast (Brazil) using remote sensing and geographic information system  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The conversion of mangrove areas into shrimp farming ponds has been indicated as the main activity responsible for the reduction in the area of this ecosystem along the northeastern coast of Brazil. The present study was conducted using remote sensing methods and a geographical information system with the aim of quantifying the participation of this activity in the reduction of the mangrove areas along the northern coast of the State of Pernambuco (northeast, Brazil), where shrimp farming has been implanted in last recent years. From 1973 to 2005, there was reduction of about 2.052 ha of mangrove, 197 ha of which were converted into shrimp ponds. Thus, the real contribution of shrimp farming to this reduction was just 9.6% of the total area. Other anthropogenic activities, such as agriculture, urban expansion and tourism, contributed greatly to the reduction in the mangrove areas along the northern coast of the State of Pernambuco.

Guimarães ArianaSilva; Travassos Paulo; Souza Filho PedroWalfirMartinsE; Gonçalves FabrícioDias; Costa Francisco

2010-05-01

122

Biofloc technology in aquaculture: Beneficial effects and future challenges  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As the human population continues to grow, food production industries such as aquaculture will need to expand as well. In order to preserve the environment and the natural resources, this expansion will need to take place in a sustainable way. Biofloc technology is a technique of enhancing water quality in aquaculture through balancing carbon and nitrogen in the system. The technology has recently gained attention as a sustainable method to control water quality, with the added value of producing proteinaceous feed in situ. In this review, we will discuss the beneficial effects of the technology and identify some challenges for future research.

Crab R; Defoirdt T; Bossier P; Verstraete W

2012-08-01

123

Aquaculture Engineering: Status and Roles in the Growth of Aquaculture Industry in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reviews the role of aquaculture engineering in Nigeria’s aquaculture sub-sector. The focus was on solving site selection problems due to environmental, Climatic and hydrological factors, equipment selection and fabrication, and site specific engineering problems. The poor growth of the aquaculture industry in Nigeria in the past is attributed to the poor status of aquaculture engineering. Also emphasis was placed on the shortage of qualified manpower, aquaculture engineers, in Nigeria, and suggestions were made for the short, medium and long term solutions. It is hoped that this review article will elicit a positive shift in policy towards aquaculture engineering in Nigeria and beyond.

Mrs. Nene A. Jamabo; P.U. Uzukwu and O.S. George

2010-01-01

124

Electron microscopy of pharmaceutical systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the last decades, the focus of research in pharmaceutical technology has steadily shifted towards the development and optimisation of nano-scale drug delivery systems. As a result, electron microscopic methods are increasingly employed for the characterisation of pharmaceutical systems such as nanoparticles and microparticles, nanoemulsions, microemulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles, different types of vesicles, nanofibres and many more. Knowledge of the basic properties of these systems is essential for an adequate microscopic analysis. Classical transmission and scanning electron microscopic techniques frequently have to be adapted for an accurate analysis of formulation morphology, especially in case of hydrated colloidal systems. Specific techniques such as environmental scanning microscopy or cryo preparation are required for their investigation. Analytical electron microscopic techniques such as electron energy-loss spectroscopy or energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy are additional assets to determine the elemental composition of the systems, but are not yet standard tools in pharmaceutical research. This review provides an overview of pharmaceutical systems of interest in current research and strategies for their successful electron microscopic analysis. Advantages and limitations of the different methodological approaches are discussed and recent findings of interest are presented.

Klang V; Valenta C; Matsko NB

2013-01-01

125

Component reliability for electronic systems  

CERN Document Server

The main reason for the premature breakdown of today's electronic products (computers, cars, tools, appliances, etc.) is the failure of the components used to build these products. Today professionals are looking for effective ways to minimize the degradation of electronic components to help ensure longer-lasting, more technically sound products and systems. This practical book offers engineers specific guidance on how to design more reliable components and build more reliable electronic systems. Professionals learn how to optimize a virtual component prototype, accurately monitor product reliability during the entire production process, and add the burn-in and selection procedures that are the most appropriate for the intended applications. Moreover, the book helps system designers ensure that all components are correctly applied, margins are adequate, wear-out failure modes are prevented during the expected duration of life, and system interfaces cannot lead to failure.

Bajenescu, Titu-Marius I

2010-01-01

126

Analytical purpose electron backscattering system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work an analytical purposes electron backscattering system improved at the Center of Applied Studies for Nuclear Development is described. This system can be applied for fast, exact and nondestructive testing of binary and AL/Cu, AL/Ni in alloys and for other applications.

1996-01-01

127

Sustainable aquaculture in brackish and salt water, Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report describes the development of an integrated saltwater aquaculture – agriculture farming system at Wadi El Natroun, Egypt. During the first two years of the project promising salt-tolerant plant species were identified, the methods for seed germination and growing of three salt-tolerant pl...

Heijden, P.G.M., van der; Blom-Zandstra, G.; Sadek, S.; Elsamadony, E.; Eweas, M.; El-Dib, H.; Sabry, M.

128

Use of probiotics in aquaculture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The growth of aquaculture as an industry has accelerated over the past decades; this has resulted in environmental damages and low productivity of various crops. The need for increased disease resistance, growth of aquatic organisms, and feed efficiency has brought about the use of probiotics in aquaculture practices. The first application of probiotics occurred in 1986, to test their ability to increase growth of hydrobionts (organisms that live in water). Later, probiotics were used to improve water quality and control of bacterial infections. Nowadays, there is documented evidence that probiotics can improve the digestibility of nutrients, increase tolerance to stress, and encourage reproduction. Currently, there are commercial probiotic products prepared from various bacterial species such as Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Enterococcus sp., Carnobacterium sp., and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae among others, and their use is regulated by careful management recommendations. The present paper shows the current knowledge of the use of probiotics in aquaculture, its antecedents, and safety measures to be carried out and discusses the prospects for study in this field.

Martínez Cruz P; Ibáñez AL; Monroy Hermosillo OA; Ramírez Saad HC

2012-01-01

129

Enfoque sistémico para el diseño de sistemas energéticos acuícolas resilientes: discusión aplicada al caso de una empresa de cultivos Systematic approach to design resilient energy systems to aquaculture: discussion applied in a private hatchery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente trabajo documenta experiencias en la aplicación del enfoque sistémico a un proceso productivo en el campo de la acuicultura. Particularmente, se analiza el modelo de producción de energía, orientado a la resiliencia y baja emisión de carbono, implementado en un hatchery privado. Lo anterior pretende contribuir con una herramienta que apoye a disminuir los impactos ambientales y consecuentemente sociales y económicos, a escala local, regional y global, asociados a la producción y gestión energética, incrementando la eficiencia en el uso de recursos, la competitividad y resiliencia de la actividad acuícola. Adicionalmente, se presenta un enfoque de modelo de negocios sistémico, que podría ser adaptado a cualquier proceso productivo, extendiendo el campo de aplicación a diversos rubros.This paper documents the experiences of applying the systemic approach to a production process in the field of aquaculture. Particularly, we analyze the energy production model, oriented to resilience and low carbon emission, implemented in a private hatchery. This intends to contribute a tool to support lessen environmental, and consequently social and economic impacts at local, regional and global production and associated energy management, increasing efficiency in the use of resources, competitiveness and resilience of aquaculture. Additionally, we present an approach for systemic business model that could be adapted to any production process, extending the scope to diverse areas.

Marcelo Concha; Claudia Cerda; Mariana Zappi

2012-01-01

130

Enfoque sistémico para el diseño de sistemas energéticos acuícolas resilientes: discusión aplicada al caso de una empresa de cultivos/ Systematic approach to design resilient energy systems to aquaculture: discussion applied in a private hatchery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo documenta experiencias en la aplicación del enfoque sistémico a un proceso productivo en el campo de la acuicultura. Particularmente, se analiza el modelo de producción de energía, orientado a la resiliencia y baja emisión de carbono, implementado en un hatchery privado. Lo anterior pretende contribuir con una herramienta que apoye a disminuir los impactos ambientales y consecuentemente sociales y económicos, a escala local, regional y global, as (more) ociados a la producción y gestión energética, incrementando la eficiencia en el uso de recursos, la competitividad y resiliencia de la actividad acuícola. Adicionalmente, se presenta un enfoque de modelo de negocios sistémico, que podría ser adaptado a cualquier proceso productivo, extendiendo el campo de aplicación a diversos rubros. Abstract in english This paper documents the experiences of applying the systemic approach to a production process in the field of aquaculture. Particularly, we analyze the energy production model, oriented to resilience and low carbon emission, implemented in a private hatchery. This intends to contribute a tool to support lessen environmental, and consequently social and economic impacts at local, regional and global production and associated energy management, increasing efficiency in the (more) use of resources, competitiveness and resilience of aquaculture. Additionally, we present an approach for systemic business model that could be adapted to any production process, extending the scope to diverse areas.

Concha, Marcelo; Cerda, Claudia; Zappi, Mariana

2012-09-01

131

Portable digital electronic radiography system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Radiography is a standard nondestructive technique in the industrial testing of materials and components. It is routinely used during the construction, maintenance and repair of nuclear plants. Traditionally, radiography is performed using photographic film (film radiography, FR). Recent developments in solid-state area imaging radiation detectors, miniature electronics and computer software/hardware techniques have brought electronic alternatives to FR. In recent years various electronic radiography (ER) techniques have served as alternatives to FR, these proved beneficial in some applications. While originally developed to provide real time imaging, ER may offer other advantages over FR, depending on the application. Work was undertaken at CRL to review progress in ER techniques and evaluate the possibility of constructing a portable DER (digital electronic radiography) system, for the inspection of power plant components. A suitable DER technique has been developed and a proof of principle portable system constructed. As this paper demonstrates, a properly designed ER system can be small and compact, while providing radiographic examination with acceptable image quality and the benefits of ER imaging. The CRL DER system can operate with radioactive sources typical of FR. While it does not replace FR, our DER system is expected to be beneficial in specific applications for Candu maintenance, reducing cost, labour and time. Practical, cost saving applications of this system are expected to include valve monitoring and foreign object location during maintenance at Candu reactors

1995-01-01

132

Aquaculture and Poultry Industry, Useful Learned Lessons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The historical development of aquaculture and poultry industry in Egypt was reviewed starting from the 60's of the 20th century up to 2011. Several and different stages of historical development for both sectors were described starting from the late 70's of the 20th century until the year 2011. Production figures, market prices, advantages and disadvantages of poultry industry compared with aquaculture were discussed. Many useful practices applied in poultry industry and could be applied also in aquaculture were highlighted. On the other hand, disadvantages, catastrophes and abusive practices of poultry industry that should be avoided in aquaculture were demonstrated.

Y.M. Abdelhadi

2012-01-01

133

A global review of seahorse aquaculture  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) are flagship species for many issues in marine conservation including overexploitation, incidental bycatch and habitat loss. Aquaculture has been proposed as one solution to address unsustainable trade for traditional medicine, aquarium fishes and curios. Here we review historical and current information on global seahorse aquaculture including characteristics of aquaculture operations, species in culture, contribution to international trade and technical issues associated with raising seahorses in captivity. We found that prior to the 1990s, seahorse aquaculture was plagued by problems with disease and feeding. In the late 1990s and early 2000s there was considerable expansion in the number and size of aquaculture operations and the number of species in culture. This was reflected in an increasing contribution of captive-bred seahorses to the aquarium trade but not in the larger traditional medicine market. Currently, the majority of seahorse aquaculture involves small-scale operations in developed countries, employing relatively few personnel and selling live animals for the home aquarium market. Although, there are still considerable technical problems with diseases and with breeding and raising some species, others are performing successfully in aquaculture. There are currently at least 13 species in commercial culture or under research for their culture potential. However, economic viability remains a concern to many current aquaculture operations including price competition with wild-caught animals. Large-scale aquaculture to supply the traditional medicine market or as a livelihood venture has not yet been demonstrated to be commercially viable, although it is being actively researched.

Koldewey HeatherJ; Martin-Smith KeithM

2010-04-01

134

Electronic control system. Elektronische Regelung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention deals with the simple design of a electronic control system, in particular for Diesel-engines. Operation failures of the control system may not effect mechanical damage of the motor. To achieve this, a controller, related pneumatic actuator is provided. The idle speed of the engine will be adjusted in the case of a control failure. Signals of the electronic controller are converted in forces for actuating the servo system of the injection pump. For this operation a 3-way-valve is provided. The idle speed will be automatically adjusted if a control or a low pressure system is out of order. The injection pump will be controlled by a diaphragm system. For the adjustment of the idle speed the air inlet line is provided with a Venturi-pipe.

Burckhardt, C.

1981-09-10

135

Nitrifying bacterial communities in an aquaculture wastewater treatment system using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), 16S rRNA gene cloning, and phylogenetic analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aquaculture, especially shrimp farming, has played a major role in the growth of Thailand's economy in recent years, as well as in many South East Asian countries. However, the nutrient discharges from these activities have caused adverse impacts on the quality of the receiving waterways. In particular nitrogenous compounds, which may accumulate in aquaculture ponds, can be toxic to aquatic animals and cause environmental problems such as eutrophication. The mineralization process is well known, but certain aspects of the microbial ecology of nitrifiers, the microorganisms that convert ammonia to nitrate, are poorly understood. A previously reported enrichment of nitrifying bacteria (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB)) from a shrimp farm inoculated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was studied by molecular methods. The initial identification and partial quantification of the nitrifying bacteria (AOB and NOB) were carried out by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using previously published 16S rRNA-targeting oligonucleotide probes. The two dominant bacterial groups detected by FISH were from the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides and Proteobacteria (beta subdivision) phyla. Published FISH probes for Nitrobacter and Nitrospira did not hybridize to any of the bacterial cells. Therefore it is likely that new communities of NOBs, differing from previously reported ones, exist in the enrichments. Molecular genetic techniques (cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis) targeting the 16S rRNA genes from the nitrifying enrichments were performed to identify putative AOBs and NOBs.

Paungfoo C; Prasertsan P; Burrell PC; Intrasungkha N; Blackall LL

2007-07-01

136

Nitrifying bacterial communities in an aquaculture wastewater treatment system using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), 16S rRNA gene cloning, and phylogenetic analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaculture, especially shrimp farming, has played a major role in the growth of Thailand's economy in recent years, as well as in many South East Asian countries. However, the nutrient discharges from these activities have caused adverse impacts on the quality of the receiving waterways. In particular nitrogenous compounds, which may accumulate in aquaculture ponds, can be toxic to aquatic animals and cause environmental problems such as eutrophication. The mineralization process is well known, but certain aspects of the microbial ecology of nitrifiers, the microorganisms that convert ammonia to nitrate, are poorly understood. A previously reported enrichment of nitrifying bacteria (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB)) from a shrimp farm inoculated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was studied by molecular methods. The initial identification and partial quantification of the nitrifying bacteria (AOB and NOB) were carried out by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using previously published 16S rRNA-targeting oligonucleotide probes. The two dominant bacterial groups detected by FISH were from the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides and Proteobacteria (beta subdivision) phyla. Published FISH probes for Nitrobacter and Nitrospira did not hybridize to any of the bacterial cells. Therefore it is likely that new communities of NOBs, differing from previously reported ones, exist in the enrichments. Molecular genetic techniques (cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis) targeting the 16S rRNA genes from the nitrifying enrichments were performed to identify putative AOBs and NOBs. PMID:17115448

Paungfoo, Chanyarat; Prasertsan, Poonsuk; Burrell, Paul C; Intrasungkha, Nugul; Blackall, Linda L

2007-07-01

137

Tevatron electron lens magnetic system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the framework of collaboration between IHEP and FNAL, a magnetic system of the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL) has been designed and built. The TEL is currently installed in the superconducting ring of the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider and used for experimental studies of beam-beam compensation [1].

Vladimir Shiltsev et al.

2001-07-12

138

Implementation of Electronic Appraisal System.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research project 9-1523 is a Texas-led study supported by national pooled funds which has developed a prototype Electronic Appraisal System (EAS). The EAS streamlines the review and approval process for real property acquisition by allowing the capture, t...

C. Caldas L. Gao L. Liang Z. Zhang

2009-01-01

139

Vehicle electronic systems: 1999. Proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These conference proceedings present papers on new developments in technologies and tools for the automotive electronics industry. Topics covered include: electric-powered vehicles; energy storage systems; new batteries for future vehicles; propulsion motors for electric hybrid vehicles. Telematics - driver information, looked at future products and services such as digital radio, multimedia and intelligent transportation systems. Telematics - vehicle control, included collision mitigation and headway monitoring sensors. A diagnostic system to analyse any problems on power drive and control systems, and analysis of exhaust gases after treatment to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in diesel engines, is also included. One paper is abstracted.

Anon

1999-07-01

140

EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed during SCES 2010. As we learned, past dogmas about strongly correlated materials and phenomena must be re-examined with an open and inquisitive mind. Invited speakers and respected leaders in the field were invited to contribute to this special issue and we have insisted that they present new data, ideas, or perspectives, as opposed to simply an overview of their past work. As with the conference, this special issue touches upon recent developments of strongly correlated electron systems in d-electron materials, such as Sr3Ru2O7, graphene, and the new Fe-based superconductors, but it is dominated by topics in f-electron compounds. Contributions reflect the growing appreciation for the influence of disorder and frustration, the need for organizing principles, as well as detailed investigations on particular materials of interest and, of course, new materials. As this special issue could not possibly capture the full breadth and depth that the conference had to offer, it is being published simultaneously with an issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series containing 157 manuscripts in which all poster presenters at SCES 2010 were invited to contribute. Since this special issue grew out of the 2010 SCES conference, we take this opportunity to give thanks. This conference would not have been possible without the hard work of the SCES 2010 Program Committee, International and National Advisory Committees, Local Committee, and conference organizers, the New Mexico Consortium. We thank them as well as those organizations that generously provided financial support: ICAM-I2CAM, Quantum Design, Lakeshore, the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and the Department of Energy National Laboratories at Argonne, Berkeley, Brookhaven, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge. Of course, we especially thank the participants for bringing new ideas and new results, without which SCES 2010 would not have been possible. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Spin-orbit coupling and k-dependent Zeeman splitting in strontium ruthenate Emil J Rozbicki, James F Annett, Jean-René Souquet an

Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

Electronic imaging system and technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method and system for viewing objects obscurred by intense plasmas or flames (such as a welding arc) includes a pulsed light source to illuminate the object, the peak brightness of the light reflected from the object being greater than the brightness of the intense plasma or flame; an electronic image sensor for detecting a pulsed image of the illuminated object, the sensor being operated as a high-speed shutter; and electronic means for synchronizing the shutter operation with the pulsed light source.

Bolstad, Jon O. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01

142

Sediment quality and production data of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) culture under Code of Conduct for Responsible Shrimp Aquaculture (CoC) system and ordinary system of intensive shrimp farms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of sediment qualities and production data of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) culture was carried out in 5 ponds practised following CoC guideline (CoC: “Code of Conduct for Responsible Shrimp Aquaculture”) and in 10 ponds practised following common guideline of ordinary intensive farm (OIF). All the ponds were located in Songkhla and Nakhon Si Thammarat provinces and the study period was during March 2003-January 2004. It was found that sediment qualities (organic matter as %ignition loss, TN andTOC and pH) of OIF system were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of the CoC system only during the period 30-60 days of culture which was the most critical period of shrimp culture. This evidence suggests a significant effect on deterioration of the pond bottom causing an unsuitable ecological condition for shrimp living on the pond bottom. Our result on production data showed that the production and variable cost of production were about 794 kg/rai, and 114.6 baht/kg in the CoC system, while those of the OIF were 377 kg/ rai and 185.6 baht/kg, respectively.

Songsangjinda, P.; Limsuwan, C.; Pornpinidvorakul, P.; Keawtawee, T.; Muangyao, P.; Klaysri, S.

2005-01-01

143

Field reliability of electronic systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report investigates, through several examples from the field, the reliability of electronic units in a broader sense. That is, it treats not just random parts failure, but also inadequate reliability design and (externally and internally) induced failures. The report is not meant to be merely an indication of the state of the art for the reliability prediction methods we know, but also as a contribution to the investigation of man-machine interplay in the operation and repair of electronic equipment. The report firmly links electronics reliability to safety and risk analyses approaches with a broader, system oriented view of reliability prediction and with postfailure stress analysis. It is intended to reveal, in a qualitative manner, the existence of symptom and cause patterns. It provides a background for further investigations to identify the detailed mechanisms of the faults and the remedical actions and precautions for achieving cost effective reliability. (author)

1984-01-01

144

Electronic control systems. Elektronische Regelung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention deals with the simple design of an electronic controller for Diesel-engines. A failure of the control system may not effect mechanical damage of the motor. For resolving this task, a hydraulic actuator, related to the controller, is provided. The hydraulic system could be effected by the fuel or oil pressure and controls the fuel injection pump. The injection pump reaches a pre-selected work position if the controller fails. A 3-way-valve acts as regulator. The control system receives many operating signals of the Diesel-engine, converts these signals and transmits control signals to the injection pump actuator.

Burckhardt, C.

1981-09-10

145

Fishing the Future: The Need For Aquaculture  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue-focused, reviewed, student article illustrates how aquaculture, or seafood farming, may be the best solution to dwindling food supplies. Its development is urgently needed because: overpopulation has exceeded Earth's capacity to feed us, fisheries have been exploited to a dangerous level, and aquaculture is a reliable, safe, and inexpensive source of food.

Ronald Hsu (West Shore Jr./Sr. High School in Melbourne, FL;)

2001-07-01

146

Feed Additives for Aquaculture and Aquarium Culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The presente invention refers of feed additives for aquaculture and aquarium culture. These additives comprise the amino acid, 1-methyl-L-tryptophane, or its isomers with the objective of improving the attractiveness of feeds used in aquaculture and aquaria for fish, as well as other aquatic organis...

Barata, Eduardo Nuno; Velez, Zélia

147

Green and technical efficient growth in Danish fresh water aquaculture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aquaculture is the fastest growing animal food processing sector in the world. Nevertheless, growth inside the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development has been stagnating, with few exceptions. The main reason is strict environmental regulations. This study investigates if green growth can be achieved by introducing new environmentally friendly water purification systems in Danish fresh water aquaculture. Data Envelopment Analysis is used to investigate whether different water purification systems and farm size influence technical efficiency. The empirical results indicate that different water purification systems have no significant influence, although it increases with farm size. The policy implications are that green growth is possible by implementing the new water purification systems, but farmers have no incentive to adopt the new systems under the present regulation. If green growth should be achieved, the present regulation needs to be changed, providing the farmers with an incentive to adopt environmentally friendly production methods.

Nielsen, Rasmus

2011-01-01

148

ISO/TC 234, Fisheries and Aquaculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The largest standard developing organization, ISO, works these days at International Standards for Fisheries and Aquaculture. They created a technical committee divided in six work groups that will have to establish cage technology, aquaculture environmental management, aquaculture technology, food safety for aquaculture farms, traceability of fishery products and environmental monitoring on the seabed’s impact from marine finfish farms. These standards will promote the sustainable development of the fisheries and aquaculture sectors, will develop specifications for technical equipment adapted to the local environment, will improve surveillance and management of marine resources, will enable international agreement on sampling methods, will improve the safety of employees and will establish a common terminology.

Ramona I. Costea

2009-01-01

149

Electronic fall surveillance system model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Of primary concern to health care facilities today is the reduction of preventable injuries such as patient falls that often lead to serious and fatal injuries and result in increased lengths of stays, resource demands, costs, and lawsuits. Although all patients have the capacity to fall, a major challenge is to identify the presence of key risk factors exhibited by a patient as soon as possible to reduce the likelihood of an adverse fall event. Currently, fall risk assessment and prevention practices focus on nurses identifying the risk factors for falls with a limited use of technology. This article introduces a preliminary falls risk assessment and prevention model that uses standardized clinical and operational performance indicators linked through the Web to the patient's electronic health record to produce an electronic Fall Surveillance System. The use of an integrated Fall Surveillance System linked directly to the electronic health record allows for the implementation of quick "real-time" preventive intervention that would dramatically improve the quality and costs of patient care.

Falen T; Unruh L; Segal D

2011-10-01

150

DIFFERENT PLANT DERIVED BY-PRODUCTS USE IN FRESHWATER AQUACULTURE IN INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As aquacultural practices increase in magnitude and hasten the flow ofmaterials and energy through the systems, compared to natural conditions, it stands toreason that many organic wastes can, save both monetary and caloric inputs into themodern aquaculture if these wastes are processed suitably and used as manure inincreasing productivity of the pond or as feed stuff to replace high cost ingredients in theformulation of diet for fish.

KAUSIK MONDAL

2013-01-01

151

REVIEW OF AQUACULTURE GENETIC RESEARCHES IN THAILAND  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aquaculture business has been well established in Thailand for more than 40 years. The most recent data indicated a total production of 260 380 tons. Sixty-five percent of the total production came from coastal aquaculture, mainly tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) culture. Other important species for coastal aquaculture are banana prawn (P. merguensis), cockle (Anadara granosa), green mussel (Perna viridis), oyster (Crassostrea belcheri, Saccostrea commercialis), sea bass (Lates calcarifer) and grouper (Epinephelus tauvina). Freshwater aquaculture, although produced only 35% of the annual production, provides major protein source for people in rural areas. Important freshwater species are Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), tawes (Puntius gonionotus), sepat Siam (Trichogasterpectoralis), walking catfish (Glorias spp.), stripped catfish (Pangasius sutchi) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Optimum aquacultural practises, namely stocking density, nutrition requirement and water quality have been obtained in most cultured species. But genetic approach has not been considered, thus resulting in deterioration in economic traits which might be due to excessive inbreeding (reviewed by Uraiwan 1989) and/or negative selection (Wongsangchan 1985). The history of researches on genetics in aquaculture in Thailand started in 1982 when the aquaculture genetic programme in form of a network has been established at the National Inland Fisheries Institute, Department of Fisheries. This programme was supported by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC, Canada) in cooperation with Dalhousie University, Canada (Uraiwan 1989). In the same year a genetic improvement programme aiming at improving economic characters of some economic fish species has been conducted at the Department of Aquaculture, Kasetsart University. Paralelly a course in Fish Genetics has been offered. Since then different approaches of genetics have been applied with final objectives on improving aquaculture production of the country. Researches being conducted are reviewed according to the following fish species.

UTHAIRAT NA-NAKORN

1992-01-01

152

Electronics 2010: A New Systems Approach to Teaching Electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

These are the slides for the MATEC NetWorks Webinar that was held on May 9, 2008 for Electronics 2010: A New Systems Approach to Teaching Electronics. Presented by Tom McGlew, a thirty year veteran to the electronics field, the presentation discusses new paths for electronics and the changing role of the technician, and the implications for curriculum. The goals of the eSyst project are also discussed, the needed curriculum changes and updates, and ideas for assessment.

2008-11-26

153

Aquaculture in the National Sea Grant Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

A brief review of aquaculture projects carried on by the U.S. National Sea Grant Program is presented. The projects dealt with Crustaceans: Shrimp, crabs, lobsters, crayfish; and with Molluscs: oysters, clams, scallops, abalone, octopus and limpets. Other...

R. D. Wildman

1974-01-01

154

A theory of electron baths: One-electron system dynamics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The second-quantized, many-electron, atomic, and molecular Hamiltonian is partitioned both by the identity or labeling of the spin orbitals and by the dynamics of the spin orbitals into a system coupled to a bath. The electron bath is treated by a molecular time scale generalized Langevin equation approach designed to include one-electron dynamics in the system dynamics. The bath is formulated as an equivalent chain of spin orbitals through the introduction of equivalent-chain annihilation and creation operators. Both the dynamics and the quantum grand canonical statistical properties of the electron bath are examined. Two versions for the statistical properties of the bath are pursued. Using a weak bath assumption, a bath statistical average is defined which allows one to achieve a reduced dynamics description of the electron system which is coupled to the electron bath. In a strong bath assumption effective Hamiltonians are obtained which reproduce the dynamics of the bath and which lead to the same results as found in the weak bath assumption. The effective (but exact) Hamiltonian is found to be a one-electron Hamiltonian. A reduced dynamics equation of motion for the system population matrix is derived and found to agree with a previous version. This equation of motion is useful for studying electron transfer in the system when coupled to an electron bath.

McDowell, H.K. (CLS-2 MS K765, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))

1992-02-01

155

Determining and quantifying components of an aquaculture soundscape  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recirculating aquaculture systems have a unique anthropogenic-based soundscape which is characterized by the type of equipment utilized, the structural configuration of walls, tanks, equipment, the substrate the tanks are situated on and even the activities of the personnel operating the facility. The soundscape of recirculation facilities is inadequately understood and remains poorly characterized, although it is generally accepted that the dominant sounds found in such facilities are within the hearing range of fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the soundscape in a recirculating aquaculture facility from an intra-tank perspective and determine how the soundscape is shaped by a range of characteristics within the facility. Sounds were recorded across an operating aquaculture facility including different tank designs. The sounds recorded fell within previously measured pressure level ranges for recirculating systems, with the highest maximum sound pressure level (SPL) recorded at 124dB re 1?Pa²/Hz (with an FFT bin width of 46.9Hz, centered at 187.5Hz). The soundscape within the tanks was stratified and positively correlated with depth, the highest sound pressure occurring at the base of the tanks. Each recording of the soundscape was dominated by a frequency component of 187.5Hz (corresponding centre of the 4th 46.9Hz FFT analysis bin) that produced the highest observed SPL. Analysis of sound recordings revealed that this peak SPL was associated with the acoustic signature of the pump. The soundscape was also evaluated for impacts of tank hood position, time of day, transient sounds and airstone particle size types, all of which were found to appreciably influence sound levels and structure within the tank environment. This study further discusses the distinctiveness of the soundscape, how it is shaped by the various operating components and considers the aquaculture soundscape in relation to natural soundscapes found within aquatic tropical environments.

Craven Andrea; Carton AlexanderG; McPherson CraigR; McPherson Geoff

2009-11-01

156

Computer Aided Control and Monitoring of Aquaculture Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A computer system for control and monitoring of aquaculture plants has been developed by the Norwegian company NODEC. The system is based on a local area network which interfaces a computer system to the primary instruments located at various sites in the plant. Special software modules have been developed to handle different tasks such as data gathering, automatic control, alarming, logging, trend analysis and reporting. Special effort has been made to develop a user-friendly high level man-machine interface. A software library is available for monitoring and control of water quality, water distribution, heating systems, biomass and feeding systems.

Erik Hansen

1987-01-01

157

Current status of federal involvement in US aquaculture. Background paper  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States lacks a strong national aquaculture policy and supporting federal presence. Over the years, levels and focii of agency involvement in aquaculture development have shifted in response to legislation and its differing interpretations. The National Aquaculture Act (NAA), the primary piece of aquaculture-related legislation, is slated for reauthorization of the NAA and related legislation is the federal role in research and regulation of this emerging industry. Congress requested this Background Paper to provide information on technology issues of immediate importance to the U.S. aquaculture industry. This is a companion piece to the Background Paper on Selected Technology Issues in U.S. Aquaculture.

NONE

1995-09-01

158

Bioactivity of phytochemicals in some lesser-known plants and their effects and potential applications in livestock and aquaculture production systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Livestock and aquaculture production is under political and social pressure, especially in the European Union (EU), to decrease pollution and environmental damage arising due to animal agriculture. The EU has banned the use of antibiotics and other chemicals, which have been shown to be effective in promoting growth and reducing environment pollutants because of the risk caused to humans by chemical residues in food and by antibiotic resistance being passed on to human pathogens. As a result of this, scientists have intensified efforts in exploiting plants, plant extracts or natural plant compounds as potential natural alternatives for enhancing the livestock productivity. This paper discusses work on the effects of various phytochemicals and plant secondary metabolites in ruminant and fish species. The focus is on (i) plants such as Ananas comosus (pine apple), Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) and Azadirachta indica (neem) containing anthelmintic compounds and for their use for controlling internal parasites; (ii) plants containing polyphenols and their applications for protecting proteins from degradation in the rumen, increasing efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in rumen and decreasing methane emission; for using as antioxidants, antibacterial and antihelmintic agents; and for changing meat colour and for increasing n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in meat; (iii) saponin-rich plants such as quillaja, yucca and Sapindus saponaria for increasing the efficiency of rumen fermentation, decreasing methane emission and enhancing growth; for producing desired nutritional attributes such as lowering of cholesterol in monogastric animals; for increasing growth of fish (common carp and Nile tilapia) and for changing male to female ratio in tilapia; and for use as molluscicidal agents; (iv) Moringa oleifera leaves as a source of plant growth factor(s), antioxidants, beta-carotene, vitamin C, and various glucosinolates and their degraded products for possible use as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antipest agents; (v) Jatropha curcas toxic variety with high levels of various phytochemicals such as trypsin inhibitor, lectin, phytate and phorbol esters in seeds limiting the use of seed meal in fish and livestock diets; and the use of phorbol esters as bio-pesticidal agent; and (vi) lesser-known legumes such as Entada phaseoloides seeds containing high levels of trypsin inhibitor and saponins, Sesbania aculeate seeds rich in non-starch polysaccharides and Mucuna pruriens var. utilis seeds rich in l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and their potential as fish feed; Cassia fistula seeds as a source of antioxidants; and the use of Canavalia ensiformis, C. gladiata and C. virosa seeds containing high levels of trypsin inhinitor, lectins and canavanine. The paper also presents some challenges and future areas of work in this field. PMID:22444893

Makkar, H P S; Francis, G; Becker, K

2007-10-01

159

Ecotoxicity assessment in aquaculture system using the test organism Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (Chlorophyceae)=Avaliação da ecotoxicidade em sistema de aquicultura utilizando o organismo-teste Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (Chlorophyceae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to perform toxicity tests with microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (Chlorophyceae) using inland water samples to evaluate the impact caused by aquaculture. Six field samples were collected ranged November 2006 to March 2007, at Experimental Station, Pindamonhangaba, State of São Paulo. Abiotic factors pointed out to the mesotrophic and eutrophic characteristics already observed at the fish pond and its effluent. The results of ecotoxicological tests carried out with the microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata showed that the fish pond effluent was potential enough to stimulate the algal growth, therefore eutrophication, to the extent that it is naturally diluted to at least 12.5% of its initial concentration. This type of test can be a tool to be used by environmental managers in attempts to measure the extents of the impacts of effluent discharges from fish farming and to propose treatments based on qualitative and quantitative information.O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar testes ecotoxicológicos com a microalga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (Chlorophyceae) em amostras de água de piscicultura continental, para avaliar impactos gerados pela atividade. Seis campanhas amostrais foram realizadas entre novembro de 2006 e março de 2007 na piscicultura experimental, Pindamonhangaba, Estado de São Paulo. Os fatores abióticos apontaram para características mesotróficas e eutróficas do viveiro e do efluente. Os testes com amostras brutas indicaram que mesmo após o encontro do efluente com o corpo de água receptor, a carga orgânica do viveiro foi capaz de estimular crescimento algáceo. Os resultados obtidos nos ensaios ecotoxicológicos realizados com a microalga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata demonstraram que o efluente do viveiro de piscicultura exerceu um risco de eutrofização do meio até o ponto em que o mesmo estiver naturalmente diluído a 12,5% da sua concentração no corpo hídrico receptor. Ficou demonstrado que este tipo de ensaio pode ser uma ferramenta passível de utilização por gestores ambientais nas tentativas de mensurar as extensões dos impactos dos lançamentos de efluentes de piscicultura e de propor tratamentos com base em informações qualitativas e quantitativas.

Luciana Miashiro; Julio Vicente Lombardi; Cacilda Thais Janson Mercante

2012-01-01

160

Aquaculture and husbandry at the zebrafish international resource center.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This chapter provides an overview of the aquaculture system and the husbandry methods used at the Zebrafish International Resource Center (ZIRC). ZIRC employs a recirculating water system with mechanical and biological filtration for its main facility, and a flow-through water system for its quarantine room. I describe basic husbandry methods for breeding, rearing larvae, and feeding and the extensive in-house health surveillance for the biosafety of the fish population. Whereas the description of these procedures is merely an overview and only the most essential methods are included, it offers several starting points to set up, refine, or troubleshoot other fish facilities.

Varga ZM

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Automotive electric/electronic systems. Second edition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Automotive Electric/Electronic Systems provides comprehensive information on state-of-the-art technical developments of the electrical and electronic engine systems, their design and construction, their status of technical innovation, and the fundamental effects they are having on conventional SI-engine operation. Readers who are interested in automotive electronics technology are provided with detailed descriptions and extensive illustrations and graphs to make complex electronic issues easier to understand. Contents include combustion in the spark-ignition engine, Emissions-control technology, mixture formation, ignition, spark plugs, motronic engine management, vehicle electrical system, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and interference suppression, starter batteries, alternators, and starting systems.

NONE

1995-12-31

162

Screening for negative effects of candidate ascidian antifoulant compounds on a target aquaculture species, Perna canaliculus Gmelin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The natural chemical compounds radicicol, polygodial and ubiquinone-10 (Q10) have previously been identified as inhibitors of metamorphosis in ascidian larvae. Accordingly, they have potential as a specific remedy for the costly problem of fouling ascidians in bivalve aquaculture. In this study, these compounds were screened for their effects on the physiological health of an aquaculture species, the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus Gmelin, at or above the 99% effective dose (IC(99)) in ascidians. Three physiological biomarkers of mussel health were screened: growth (increases in shell height and wet weight), condition (condition index) and mitochondrial respirational function (Complex I-mediated respiration, Complex II-mediated respiration, maximum uncoupled respiration, leak respiration, respiratory control ratios and phosphorylation system control ratios). While polygodial and Q10 had no effect on mussel growth or the condition index, radicicol retarded growth and decreased the condition index. Mitochondrial respirational function was unaffected by radicicol and polygodial. Conversely, Q10 enhanced Complex I-mediated respiration, highlighting the fundamental role of this compound in the electron transport system. The present study suggests that polygodial and Q10 do not negatively affect the physiological health of P. canaliculus at the IC(99) in ascidians, while radicicol is toxic. Moreover, Q10 is of benefit in biomedical settings as a cellular antioxidant and therefore may also benefit P. canaliculus. Accordingly, polygodial and Q10 should be progressed to the next stage of testing where possible negative effects on bivalves will be further explored, followed by development of application techniques and testing in a laboratory and aquaculture setting.

Cahill PL; Heasman K; Hickey A; Mountfort D; Jeffs A; Kuhajek J

2013-01-01

163

'Halophyte filters': the potential of constructed wetlands for application in saline aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

World consumption of seafood continues to rise, but the seas and oceans are already over-exploited. Land-based (saline) aquaculture may offer a sustainable way to meet the growing demand for fish and shellfish. A major problem of aquaculture is nutrient waste, as most of the nutrients added through feed are released into the environment in dissolved form. Wetlands are nature's water purifiers. Constructed wetlands are commonly used to treat contaminated freshwater effluent. Experience with saline systems is more limited. This paper explores the potential of constructed saline wetlands for treating the nutrient-rich discharge from land-based saline aquaculture systems. The primary function of constructed wetlands is water purification, but other ancillary benefits can also be incorporated into treatment wetland designs. Marsh vegetation enhances landscape beauty and plant diversity, and wetlands may offer habitat for fauna and recreational areas. Various approaches can be taken in utilizing plants (halophytes, macro-algae, micro-algae) in the treatment of saline aquaculture effluent. Their strengths and weaknesses are reviewed here, and a conceptual framework is presented that takes into account economic and ecological benefits as well as spatial constraints. Use of the framework is demonstrated for assessing various saline aquaculture systems in the southwestern delta region of the Netherlands. PMID:23488001

De Lange, H J; Paulissen, M P C P; Slim, P A

2013-01-01

164

'Halophyte filters': the potential of constructed wetlands for application in saline aquaculture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

World consumption of seafood continues to rise, but the seas and oceans are already over-exploited. Land-based (saline) aquaculture may offer a sustainable way to meet the growing demand for fish and shellfish. A major problem of aquaculture is nutrient waste, as most of the nutrients added through feed are released into the environment in dissolved form. Wetlands are nature's water purifiers. Constructed wetlands are commonly used to treat contaminated freshwater effluent. Experience with saline systems is more limited. This paper explores the potential of constructed saline wetlands for treating the nutrient-rich discharge from land-based saline aquaculture systems. The primary function of constructed wetlands is water purification, but other ancillary benefits can also be incorporated into treatment wetland designs. Marsh vegetation enhances landscape beauty and plant diversity, and wetlands may offer habitat for fauna and recreational areas. Various approaches can be taken in utilizing plants (halophytes, macro-algae, micro-algae) in the treatment of saline aquaculture effluent. Their strengths and weaknesses are reviewed here, and a conceptual framework is presented that takes into account economic and ecological benefits as well as spatial constraints. Use of the framework is demonstrated for assessing various saline aquaculture systems in the southwestern delta region of the Netherlands.

De Lange HJ; Paulissen MP; Slim PA

2013-01-01

165

Pseudopotentials for correlated electron systems  

CERN Multimedia

A scheme is developed for creating pseudopotentials for use in correlated-electron calculations. Pseudopotentials for the light elements H, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, and F, are reported, based on data from high-level quantum chemical calculations. Results obtained with these correlated electron pseudopotentials (CEPPs) are compared with data for atomic energy levels and the dissociation energies, molecular geometries and zero-point vibrational energies of small molecules obtained from coupled cluster single double triple (CCSD(T)) calculations with large basis sets. The CEPPs give better results in correlated-electron calculations than Hartree-Fock-based pseudopotentials available in the literature.

Trail, J R

2013-01-01

166

Pseudopotentials for correlated electron systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A scheme is developed for creating pseudopotentials for use in correlated-electron calculations. Pseudopotentials for the light elements H, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, and F, are reported, based on data from high-level quantum chemical calculations. Results obtained with these correlated electron pseudopotentials (CEPPs) are compared with data for atomic energy levels and the dissociation energies, molecular geometries, and zero-point vibrational energies of small molecules obtained from coupled cluster single double triple calculations with large basis sets. The CEPPs give better results in correlated-electron calculations than Hartree-Fock-based pseudopotentials available in the literature.

Trail JR; Needs RJ

2013-07-01

167

Cultivable intestinal microbiota of yellowtail juveniles (Seriola lalandi) in an aquaculture system/ Microbiota intestinal cultivable de juveniles de dorada (Seriola lalandi) en un sistema de acuicultura  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La dorada ("yellowtail", Seriola lalandi) ha sido cultivada durante los últimos años, y su expansión se ha debido al mayor conocimiento científico-técnico así como a la creciente demanda, convirtiéndose en una promisoria especie para la acuicultura. Dado que el conocimiento de la microbiota intestinal de esta especie es muy limitado, el objetivo de este estudio es describir las poblaciones bacterianas asociadas al tracto intestinal de Seriola lalandi cultivada en C (more) hile. La composición de la microbiota fue analizada en dos etapas de crecimiento diferenciadas por peso y parámetros como SGR y FCR. Los juveniles (peso inicial promedio 7.33 ± 0.30 g) y pre-adultos (81.7 ± 19.0 g) fueron alimentados con dieta comercial por 33 y 50 días, respectivamente. Las primeras muestras fueron recolectadas al término del primer ensayo en ejemplares de 50 g app., y la segunda muestra fue tomada al término del segundo ensayo en peces de 370 g app. La composición de la microbiota fue examinada mediante aislamiento convencional en medio de cultivo de Agar Tripticasa Soya (TSA) seguido de secuenciación e identificación por 16S rRNA. Un total de dieciséis géneros fueron identificados, donde Pseudomonas, Vibrio y Staphylococcus fueron los géneros predominantes en peces de 50 g, mientras que Microbacterium y Francisella fueron los géneros predominantes en los peces de 370 g. Se determinó que la composición de la microbiota se ajustó a diferentes arreglos en función del tamaño del hospedero, donde los únicos géneros compartidos fueron Bacillus y Vibrio. El conocimiento de la microbiota intestinal de Seriola lalandi es el primer paso para explorar el adecuado manejo de la misma, así como el desarrollo de probióticos y también obtener referencias de la microbiota de peces sanos en condiciones de cultivo. Abstract in english The yellowtail (Seriola lalandi) has been farmed for many years and is becoming a promising aquaculture species. Knowledge of the intestinal microbiota of this species is very limited. Thus, the aim of this study is to describe the bacterial populations associated with the intestinal tract of Seriola lalandi reared in Chile. The microbiota composition was analyzed at two growth stages distinguished by weight and parameters such as Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conve (more) rsion Ratio (FCR). Juveniles (mean initial weight 7.33 ± 0.30 g) and pre-adults (81.7 ± 19.0 g) were fed with commercial diet for 33 and 50 days, respectively. The first intestinal samples were collected at the end of Trial 1 from specimens weighing approximately 50 g while the second samples were obtained at the end of Trial 2 from specimens weighing approximately 370 g. The microbiota composition was examined using conventional isolation in Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) followed by 16S rRNA sequencing and identification. In total, 16 genera were identified. Pseudomonas, Vibrio and Staphylococcus were the predominant genera in fish at the 50 g stage, whereas Microbacterium and Francisella were the predominant genera in the 370 g stage. The microbiota composition showed different assemblages, depending on host size, with Bacillus and Vibrio being the only genera that were shared. Knowledge of the intestinal microbiota of Seriola lalandi is the first step in the exploration of microbiota management and the development of probiotics, as well as in the identification of the bacterial populations in healthy fish under cultured conditions.

Aguilera, Eduardo; Yany, Gabriel; Romero, Jaime

2013-07-01

168

NATIONAL ELECTRONIC DISEASE SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NEDSS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) project is a public health initiative to provide a standard-based, integrated approach to disease surveillance and to connect public health surveillance to the burgeoning clinical information systems infrastructure. NEDS...

169

High perveance electron gun for the electron cooling system  

CERN Multimedia

The cooling time in the electron cooling system is inversely proportional to the beam current. To obtain high current of the electron beam the control electrode of the gun is provided with a positive potential and an electrostatic trap for secondary electrons appears inside the electron gun. This leads to a decrease in the gun perveance. To avoid this problem, the adiabatic high perveance electron gun with the clearing control electrode is designed in JINR (J. Bosser, Y. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, E. Syresin et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 391 (1996) 103. Yu. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, A. Sidorin, A. Smirnov, E. Syresin, The generation of electron beams with perveance of 3-6 mu A/V sup 3 sup / sup 2 , Proceedings of SCHEF'99). The clearing control electrode has a transverse electric field, which clears secondary electrons. Computer simulations of the potential map were made with RELAX3D computer code (C.J. Kost, F.W. Jones, RELAX3D User's Guide and References Manual).

Korotaev, Yu V; Petrov, A; Sidorin, A; Smirnov, A; Syresin, E M; Titkova, I

2000-01-01

170

Water budgets for freshwater aquaculture ponds with reference to effluent volume  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the consumptive water use for freshwater pond aquaculture for semi-intensive carps farming practices. The consumptive use of water includes evaporation loss, seepage loss and water exchanges requirements. The water requirement has been estimated to be10.3 m3/Kg of fish production under present study for semi-intensive culture and with supplemental feeding. Out of which7.6 m3/Kg of fish production is system associated requirement. On an average the evaporation loss from the pond is1498.3 mm/year and seepage loss per year is about1182.60 mm/year. Seepage and water exchange losses recharge the ground water aquifers and if they are treated and recycled, the water use in aquaculture can be reduced significantly. A further reduction in fresh water use in pond aquaculture is possible through development of intensive and superintensive culture systems and aqua feeds.

K. K. Sharma; B. C. Mohapatra; P. C. Das; Bikash Sarkar; S. Chand

2013-01-01

171

PROTEOMICS in aquaculture : Applications and trends  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Over the last forty years global aquaculture presented a growth rate of 6.9% per annum with an amazing production of 52.5million tonnes in 2008, and a contribution of 43% of aquatic animal food for human consumption. In order to meet the world's health requirements of fish protein, a continuous growth in production is still expected for decades to come. Aquaculture is, though, a very competitive market, and a global awareness regarding the use of scientific knowledge and emerging technologies to obtain a better farmed organism through a sustainable production has enhanced the importance of proteomics in seafood biology research. Proteomics, as a powerful comparative tool, has therefore been increasingly used over the last decade to address different questions in aquaculture, regarding welfare, nutrition, health, quality, and safety. In this paper we will give an overview of these biological questions and the role of proteomics in their investigation, outlining the advantages, disadvantages and future challenges. A brief description of the proteomics technical approaches will be presented. Special focus will be on the latest trends related to the aquaculture production of fish with defined nutritional, health or quality properties for functional foods and the integration of proteomics techniques in addressing this challenging issue. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Farm animal proteomics.

Rodrigues, Pedro M.; Silva, Tomé S.

2012-01-01

172

Genomic approaches in aquaculture and fisheries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite the enormous input into the worldwide development of fish and shellfish farming in the recent decades, in part as an attempt to minimize the impact of fishing on already overexploited natural populations, the application of genomics to aquaculture and fisheries remains poorly developed. Impr...

Cancela, M. Leonor; Bargelloni, Luca; Boudry, Pierre; Boulo, Viviane; Dias, Jorge; Huvet, Arnaud; Laize, Vincent

173

Evolution of oyster aquaculture : problems and perspectives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The total marine molluscs produced by aquaculture had increased from 1984 to 1990 by 1 000 000 tons going from 1 993 985 tons to 2 964 688 tons. The oyster production remained constant with 870 000 tons. Crassostrea gigas, the Japanese oyster, represented more than 80 % of the oyster production but ...

Heral Maurice

174

Best Management Practices for Responsible Aquaculture  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaculture has become a significant component of global fish production contributing about 380% in 2003 of fish products for human consumption. The proportion is likely to increase further due to increased demand of fish for food and stagnated capture fishery. Paralleling to the growth of aquacultu...

175

Switched Control of Electron Nuclear Spin Systems  

CERN Document Server

In this article, we study control of electron-nuclear spin dynamics at magnetic field strengths where the Larmor frequency of the nucleus is comparable to the hyperfine coupling strength. The quantization axis for the nuclear spin differs from the static B_0 field direction and depends on the state of the electron spin. The quantization axis can be switched by flipping the state of electron spin, allowing for universal control on nuclear spin states. We show that by performing a sequence of flips (each followed by a suitable delay), we can perform any desired rotation on the nuclear spins, which can also be conditioned on the state of the electron spin. These operations, combined with electron spin rotations can be used to synthesize any unitary transformation on the coupled electron-nuclear spin system. We discuss how these methods can be used for design of experiments for transfer of polarization from the electron to the nuclear spins.

Khaneja, Navin

2007-01-01

176

Recommendations for practical measures to mitigate the impact of aquaculture on the environment in three areas of the Philippines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An assessment of the severity and extent of aquaculture impact and the estimation of sustainable carrying capacity were undertaken in three areas of the Philippines - Bolinao (marine site), Dagupan, (brackishwater) and Taal Lake (freshwater). This paper describes the potential mitigating measures that could be taken to reduce nutrient release from aquaculture, increase nutrient uptake using extractive species, and possible early warning systems for critical states of the tide when there is reduced flushing.

Patrick White; Rune Palerud; Guttorm Christensen; Tarzan Legovi?; Regie Regpala

2008-01-01

177

Management of marine cage aquaculture. Environmental carrying capacity method based on dry feed conversion rate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

GOAL, SCOPE AND BACKGROUND: Marine cage aquaculture produces a large amount of waste that is released directly into the environment. To effectively manage the mariculture environment, it is important to determine the carrying capacity of an aquaculture area. In many Asian countries trash fish is dominantly used in marine cage aquaculture, which contains more water than pellet feed. The traditional nutrient loading analysis is for pellet feed not for trash fish feed. So, a more critical analysis is necessary in trash fish feed culturing areas. METHODS: Corresponding to FCR (feed conversion rate), dry feed conversion rate (DFCR) was used to analyze the nutrient loadings from marine cage aquaculture where trash fish is used. Based on the hydrodynamic model and the mass transport model in Xiangshan Harbor, the relationship between the water quality and the waste discharged from cage aquaculture has been determined. The environmental carrying capacity of the aquaculture sea area was calculated by applying the models noted above. RESULTS: Nitrogen and phosphorus are the water quality parameters considered in this study. The simulated results show that the maximum nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were 0.216 mg/L and 0.039 mg/L, respectively. In most of the sea area, the nutrient concentrations were higher than the water quality standard. The calculated environmental carrying capacity of nitrogen and phosphorus in Xiangshan Harbor were 1,107.37 t/yr and 134.35 t/yr, respectively. The waste generated from cage culturing in 2000 has already exceeded the environmental carrying capacity. DISCUSSION: Unconsumed feed has been identified as the most important origin of all pollutants in cage culturing systems. It suggests the importance of increasing the feed utilization and improving the feed composition on the basis of nutrient requirement. For the sustainable development of the aquaculture industry, it is an effective management measure to keep the stocking density and pollution loadings below the environmental carrying capacity. CONCLUSIONS: The DFCR-based nutrient loadings analysis indicates, in trash fish feed culturing areas, that it is more critical and has been proved to be a valuable loading calculation method. The modeling approach for Xiangshan Harbor presented in this paper is a cost-effective method for assessing the environmental impact and determining the capacity. Carrying capacity information can give scientific suggestions for the sustainable management of aquaculture environments. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: It has been proved that numerical models were convenient tools to predict the environmental carrying capacity. The development of models coupled with dynamic and aquaculture ecology is a requirement of further research. Such models can also be useful in monitoring the ecological impacts caused by mariculture activities.

Cai H; Sun Y

2007-11-01

178

THE STATUS OF AQUACULTURE IN THE WORLD AND IN EUROPE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the past few years, several authors have presented the production data and the problems in Croatian aquaculture and suggested measures for improvements. Some of these authors referred to some sectors of aquaculture in the world. This paper reports basic statistical data of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, United Nations) of the world aquaculture during the period of 1990–1999. The annual growth rate in that period averaged about 10%, and in the year 1999 the aquaculture provided 31.7% of the world needs for aquatic products. The total production and industrialization of aquaculture will continue. Planning of aquaculture development in Croatia and the preparations for joining the European Economic Community must take into account the status of aquaculture and trends in the world, the common fishery policy of EEC (green document), the production in EEC member states and EEC–candidate states and especially the production in neighboring countries. The number, the size and the strength of organizational structures helping the development of aquaculture in EEC are showing these factors to be of decisive importance for the future of sustainable aquaculture in Croatia, too. The very low fish consumption in the country is a negative health factor for the Croatian citizens and it emphasizes the importance of faster development of aquaculture. The paper is intended to stimulate improvements in the aquaculture development strategy, to promote more positive approach towards this food production sector and to speed up its successfulness in Croatia.

Nikola Fijan

2002-01-01

179

Electronic Systems for Vehicles; Elektronik im Kraftfahrzeug  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This conference reflected the increasing importance of electronic sytems in vehicles. Energy conservation and reduction of environmental pollution are key development goals of motor car producers, which receive further impetus by legal regulations and by the self-commitment of motor car producers. In consequence, the 2005 conference focused on hybrid systems and start-stop systems. Further development goals will be driver assistant systems, i.e. parking support, active and passive driver and passenger protection, and pedestrian protection systems. Major contributions are expected here. The reliability of electronic systems is often the focus of discussions. Several papers go into detail about availability, testing, and field diagnosis. Hardware-related subjects were discussed as well. This is important as the Baden-Baden conferences intend to give all motor car electronics experts, both from Germany and abroad, the opportunity to discuss new solutions, exchange experience, and find solutions to problems with motor car developers and electronic components suppliers. (orig.)

NONE

2005-07-01

180

Home-automation electronic systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analysis is made of the technical, industrial and marketing requirements for the optimal introduction of automation systems into the residential building sector. A follow-up analysis is then made of the production status in Italy with regard to intelligent system components. The key element of a home-automation system is the 'domestic bus' which allows the various components to communicate with each other and, eventually, with a central control unit. This paper describes the main design and functional features of this system element and compares relevant technical and safety normatives adopted for home-automation systems in the industrialized countries.

Giuliani, G.; Martina, F. (AVE SpA, Rezzato (Italy))

1990-11-01

 
 
 
 
181

A history of fish vaccination. Science-based disease prevention in aquaculture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disease prevention and control are crucial in order to maintain a sustainable aquaculture, both economically and environmentally. Prophylactic measures based on stimulation of the immune system of the fish have been an effective measure for achieving this goal. Immunoprophylaxis has become an important part in the successful development of the fish-farming industry. The first vaccine for aquaculture, a vaccine for prevention of yersiniosis in salmonid fish, was licenced in USA in 1976. Since then the use of vaccines has expanded to new countries and new species simultaneous with the growth of the aquaculture industry. This paper gives an overview of the achievements in fish vaccinology with particular emphasis on immunoprophylaxis as a practical tool for a successful development of bioproduction of aquatic animals.

Gudding R; Van Muiswinkel WB

2013-10-01

182

Electron-electron and electron-impurity interactions in two dimensional electron systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The work presented in this dissertation focuses on the effect of electron-electron and electron-impurity interactions in two dimensional electron systems (2DES). Employing three different 2DESs, modulation doped quantum wells, HIGFET, and graphene, we are able to explore several distinctive kinds of interactions. We determine the many-body electron mass, m*, and the spin susceptibility chi in the weak interaction regime in two-dimensional (2D) electron systems of GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. The mass m * is measured by performing detailed low-temperature Shubnikov deHaas measurements. Using very high quality transistors with tunable electron densities we measure m* in single, high mobility specimens over a wide range of rs (6 to 0.8), where rs is the interaction parameter defined by the ratio of Coulomb potential to Fermi energy. Toward low-densities we observe a rapid increase of m* by as much as 40%. For 2 > rs > 0.8 the mass values fall ˜ 10% below the band mass of GaAs. Numerical calculations axe in qualitative agreement with our data but differ considerably in detail. The spin susceptibility chi is carefully deduced taking into accounts the band structure effects, modifying mass and g-factor, which become appreciable for the large electron densities of the weak interaction regime. When properly normalized, chi decreases monotonically from 3 to 1.1 with increasing density over our experimental range from 0.1 to 4 x 1011 cm-2. In the high density limit, chi tends correctly towards chi ? 1 and compare well with recent theory. In modulation doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well structures, we have observed very high frequency, highly reproducible magneto oscillations. The oscillations are periodic in inverse magnetic field (1/B) and their amplitude increases with temperature up to T ˜ 700 mK. Being initially most pronounced around half filling of the first Landau level, they move towards higher field with increasing T. Front and back gating data imply that these oscillations require a coupling to a parallel conducting layer. Comparison with existing oscillation models presently renders no explanation. Finally, we investigate the conductivity of graphene samples with various levels of disorder. In the low carrier density limit, the conductivity exhibits values in the range of 2 - 12e2/h , differing considerably from the proposed value of 4e 2/pih. The shape of the conductivity curves versus density indicate that high mobility samples contain short range disorder whereas low mobility samples are dominated by long range scatterers. In general, the short range disorder causes a suppression of weak localization, while samples with long range scatterers exhibit a conventional negative magneto resistance. Besides these properties around zero magnetic field, we also report the observation of an unusual Integer Quantum Hall Effect in graphene. The measurements of effective masses for graphene confirm the relativistic mass versus density behavior implicated by graphene's unique linear band structure.

Tan, Yan-Wen

183

Using Metadata Description for Agriculture and Aquaculture Papers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with the most used metadata formats and thesauri suitable for describing scientific and research papers in the domains agriculture, food industry, aquaculture, environment and rural areas. These include the Dublin Core (DC), Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS), Virtual Open Access Agriculture and Aquaculture Repository Metadata Application Profile (VOA3R AP) and the AGROVOC thesaurus. Having analyzed the metadata formats and research paper lifecycle, the authors would recommend that each paper should entail metadata description as soon as it is published. The metadata are to describe the content and properties of the paper. One of the most suitable metadata formats is the VOA3R AP that is partially patterned on the DC and combined with the AGROVOC thesaurus. As a result, an effective description, availability and automatic data exchange between and among local and central repositories should be attained.The knowledge and data presented in the present paper were obtained as a result of the following research programs and grant schemes: the Grant No. 20121044 of the Internal Grant Agency titled „Using Automatic Metadata Generation for Research Papers“, the Grant agreement No. 250525 funded by the European Commission corresponding to the VOA3R Project (Virtual Open Access Agriculture & Aquaculture Repository: Sharing Scientific and Scholarly Research related to Agriculture, Food, and Environment), http://voa3r.eu and the Research Program titled „Economy of the Czech Agriculture Resources and their Efficient Use within the Framework of the Multifunctional Agrifood Systems“ of the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport number VZ MSM 6046070906.

P. S?imek, J. Vane?k, V. Oc?ena?s?ek, M. Stoc?es, T. Vogeltanzova

2012-01-01

184

Evaluation on Biofilter in Recirculating Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture pays more attention as a bio-integrated food production system that serves as a model of sustainable aquaculture, minimizes waste discharge, increases diversity and yields multiple products. The objectives of this research were to analyze the efficiency of total ammonia nitrogen biofiltration and its effect on carrying capacity of fish rearing units. Pilot-scale bioreactor was designed with eight run-raceways (two meters of each) that assembled in series. Race 1-3 were used to stock silky worm (Tubifex sp) as detrivorous converter, then race 4-8 were used to plant three species of leaf-vegetable as photoautotrophic converters, i.e; spinach (Ipomoea reptana), green mustard (Brassica juncea) and basil (Ocimum basilicum). The three plants were placed in randomized block design based on water flow direction. Mass balance of nutrient analysis, was applied to figure out the efficiency of bio-filtration and its effect on carrying capacity of rearing units. The result of the experiment showed that 86.5 % of total ammonia nitrogen removal was achieved in 32 days of culturing period. This efficiency able to support the carrying capacity of the fish tank up to 25.95 kg/lpm with maximum density was 62.69 kg/m3 of fish biomass productionDoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.80-85 [How to cite this article: Sumoharjo, S.  and Maidie, A. (2013). Evaluation on Biofilter in Recirculating Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture.  International Journal of  Science and Engineering, 4(2),80-85. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.80-85

S. Sumoharjo; Asfie Maidie

2013-01-01

185

Protecting Industrial Control Systems from Electronic Threats  

CERN Multimedia

This book is meant to help both the novice and expert in Information Technology (IT) security and industrial control systems (ICS) gain a better understanding of protecting ICSs from electronic threats. The term "ICS" was chosen as ICSs include Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA), Distributed Control Systems (DCS), Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs), field controllers, sensors, and drives, emission controls, building controls including fire suppression, thermostats, and elevator controls, and meters

Weiss, Joseph

2010-01-01

186

Enhancement of existing geothermal resource utilization by cascading to intensive aquaculture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A demonstration high rate aquaculture production system utilizing a cascaded geothermal resource was designed, constructed and operated to fulfill the objectives of this project. Analysis of the energy and water balances for the system indicated that the addition of an Aquaculture Facility expanded the use of the existing resource. This expanded use in no way affected the up- stream processes. Analysis of the system`s energy and water requirements indicated that the present resource was under-utilized and could be expanded. Energy requirements appeared more limiting than water use, but the existing system could be expanded to a culture volume of 72,000 gal. This system would have a potential production capacity of 93,600 lb/yr with a potential market value of $280,00/yr. Based on the results of this study, the heat remaining in the geothermal fluid from one square foot of operating greenhouse is sufficient to support six gallons of culture water for a high density aquaculture facility. Thus, the over 1.5M ft{sup 2} of existing greenhouse space in New Mexico, has the potential to create an aquaculture industry of nearly 9M gal. This translates to an annual production potential of 11.7M lb with a market value of $35.lM.

Zachritz, W.H., II; Polka, R.; Schoenmackers

1996-04-01

187

An electronic shadowgraph station and control system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A proof-of-principle electronic shadowgraph station has been installed at the Aeroballistic Research Facility, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, with encouraging results. This paper reviews the requirements for replacing a film system for aeroballistics measurements with an electronic imaging and processing system, with particular emphasis on using centroid and second moment of inertia algorithms to improve the accuracy. The proof-of principle electronic shadowgraph station is described and results of comparative measurements at the facility between film and digitized video images show comparable accuracy. 6 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

Holt, D.M.; Winchenbach, G.L.

1988-01-01

188

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ELECTRONIC RECEIPT MANAGEMENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A system and method for electronic interception and management of receipt informationgenerated by retail cash registers. The system intercepts receipt informationwhile it is in electronic format. Typically, the intended target of the electronicinformation is a portable electronic device such as a USB device. In a typicalembodiment, the merchant can take the customer's USB device and place itinto a USB port on the cash register. The receipt data is intercepted and storedon the USB device instead of being printed on a receipt. A consumer can place thedevice into his or hers personal computer and manipulate the receipt data usingmoney management software programs.

BLOODWORTH Williard; OCHOA Richardo

189

Corrosion Reliability of Electronic Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Inherently two factors namely multi-material usage and potential bias makes electronic devices susceptible to corrosion if exposed to humid conditions. The problem is compounded today due to miniaturization and contamination effects. The reduction in size of the components and close spacing on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) for high density packing has greatly increased the risk of corrosion under humid conditions. An important issue is the failures due to electrolytic metal migration. This paper describes an investigation of the electrolytic migration of Sn-Pb solder lines on PCBs in humid environments under applied potential conditions. Studies were carried out using two electrode potentiostatic polarization experiments and measuring the resulting current due to electrolytic migration. The surface morphology of the electrodes before and after migration testing was investigates using SEM and EDS. An in-service failure of a Ceramic Capacitor due to electrolytic migration in humid environments is also presented.

Ambat, Rajan; Jensen, Stine G.

2008-01-01

190

Portable electronic endoscopic imaging system  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents a low-power, inexpensive and portable endoscopic imaging system. A 1.3 million pixels CMOS sensor is considered as an image capture. The sensor and the lens system are designed to minify the cannula diameter of the endoscope and therefore minimize the incision size for insertion. LVDS is used for image data transmission between the sensor and CPU to realize a long distance, high speed and low noise system. An ARM 920T based microcontroller is employed as the control core for the image transmission module, display module and other modules. The camera interface and LCD controller are integrated in the microcontroller and both have a dedicated DMA supports to transmit image data though AHB to or from frame buffer located in system memory without CPU intervention. The image is displayed on an 8 inch LCD screen with 800 × 600 resolution and 16 bits of color depth. With the maximum capture and display rate of 15 fps, this system can provide a clear image enough for laparoscopy or industrial application. And with integrated camera, light source and video display function, it can also be used as a portable, miniature and inexpensive endoscope.

Du, Lihui; Wang, Liqiang; Ye, Bin; Duan, Huilong

2010-11-01

191

Design of an electronic odorant injection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of electronic odorant injection systems is not new, but the improvements in this technique have been dramatic in recent years. An electronic injection system is one that uses direct communication of a flow measurement signal. This signal is {open_quotes}read{close_quotes} by the injection system to accurately inject small volumes of odorant. The injection rate is a prescribed injection rate (lbs/MMCF) and is proportional to the gas flow. The use of an accurate onboard meter to measure the injected odorant provides for a record. This record documents the system`s performance. It is the ability to document system performance that characterizes this type system. The record provides the system user with an audit trail that can be used to interpret the odorization process at a certain location or throughout a system. The primary use is to assure the user that a specific amount of odorant is injected. Troubleshooting within the system is provided for within this audit trail feature. An accurate accounting for total odorant usage within a system is also provided. How much specific data is available, and how it may be used, is dependent upon how the system is designed. Before describing this audit trail feature, a review of a typical electronic odorant injection system would be helpful.

Zeck, P.F. [YZ Industries, Inc., Snyder, TX (United States)

1995-12-01

192

Coral aquaculture to support drug discovery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Marine natural products (NP) are unanimously acknowledged as the 'blue gold' in the urgent quest for new pharmaceuticals. Although corals are among the marine organisms with the greatest diversity of secondary metabolites, growing evidence suggest that their symbiotic bacteria produce most of these bioactive metabolites. The ex hospite culture of coral symbiotic microbiota is extremely challenging and only limited examples of successful culture exist today. By contrast, in toto aquaculture of corals is a commonly applied technology to produce corals for aquaria. Here, we suggest that coral aquaculture could as well be a viable and economically feasible option to produce the biomass required to execute the first steps of the NP-based drug discovery pipeline.

Leal MC; Calado R; Sheridan C; Alimonti A; Osinga R

2013-07-01

193

Coral aquaculture to support drug discovery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine natural products (NP) are unanimously acknowledged as the 'blue gold' in the urgent quest for new pharmaceuticals. Although corals are among the marine organisms with the greatest diversity of secondary metabolites, growing evidence suggest that their symbiotic bacteria produce most of these bioactive metabolites. The ex hospite culture of coral symbiotic microbiota is extremely challenging and only limited examples of successful culture exist today. By contrast, in toto aquaculture of corals is a commonly applied technology to produce corals for aquaria. Here, we suggest that coral aquaculture could as well be a viable and economically feasible option to produce the biomass required to execute the first steps of the NP-based drug discovery pipeline. PMID:23866840

Leal, Miguel C; Calado, Ricardo; Sheridan, Christopher; Alimonti, Andrea; Osinga, Ronald

2013-07-16

194

ARS Research on Harmful Algal Blooms in SE USA Aquaculture Impoundments  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of an EPA sponsored state of knowledge symposium on toxic cyanobacteria, six workgroups were established to assess published literature. A review of ARS research on harmful algal blooms was made by the incumbent. Aquaculture systems have had four types of freshwater toxic algal blooms. De...

195

Probiotics as control agents in aquaculture  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious diseases constitute a limiting factor in the development of the aquaculture production, and control has solely concentrated on the use of antibiotics. However, the massive use of antibiotics for the control of diseases has been questioned by acquisition of antibiotic resistance and the need of alternative is of prime importance. Probiotics, live microorganisms administered in adequate amounts that confer a healthy effect on the host, are emerging as significant microbial food supplements in the field of prophylaxis.

Geovanny D, Gómez R.; Balcázar, José Luis; Ma, Shen

2007-01-01

196

Direct utilization of geothermal heat in cascade application to aquaculture and greenhouse systems at Navarro College. Annual report, January-December 1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progress is reported on a project for direct use of the 130/sup 0/F central Texas geothermal resource. Well drilling and logging are reported. Work was done on a preliminary design for a heating system for a college building and a hospital. (MHR)

Smith, K.

1980-12-30

197

Evaluation of three types of structured floating plastic media in moving bed biofilters for total ammonia nitrogen removal in a low salinity hatchery recirculating aquaculture system  

Science.gov (United States)

Three different commercially available structural plastic media were evaluated in triplicate in moving bed toriod filters under low salinity (11-12 ppt) warm water culture conditions and two different feed loading rates. The culture system consisted of nine separate modules that include a double dra...

198

Risks of using antifouling biocides in aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT). The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211(®)), Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine), zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i) predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii) the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF) biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms. PMID:22408407

Guardiola, Francisco Antonio; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, Maria Angeles

2012-02-02

199

Risks of using antifouling biocides in aquaculture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT). The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211(®)), Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine), zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i) predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii) the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF) biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms.

Guardiola FA; Cuesta A; Meseguer J; Esteban MA

2012-01-01

200

Risks of Using Antifouling Biocides in Aquaculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT). The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211®), Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine), zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i) predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii) the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF) biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms.

Francisco Antonio Guardiola; Alberto Cuesta; José Meseguer; Maria Angeles Esteban

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Bioinspired electron-transfer systems and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bioinspired electron-transfer systems including artificial photosynthesis and respiration are presented herein together with some of their applications. First, multi-step electron-transfer systems composed of electron donor-acceptor ensembles have been developed, mimicking functions of the photosynthetic reaction center. However, a significant amount of energy is lost during the multi-step electron-transfer processes. Then, as an alternative to conventional charge-separation functional molecular models based on multi-step long-range electron transfer within redox cascades, simple donor-acceptor dyads have been developed to attain along-lived and high energy charge-separated state without significant loss of excitation energy, by fine control of the redox potentials and of the geometry of donor-acceptor dyads that have small reorganization energies of electron transfer. Such simple molecular dyads, capable of fast charge separation but extremely slow charge recombination, have significant advantages with regard to synthetic feasibility, providing a variety of applications including construction of organic solar cells and development of efficient photo-catalytic systems for the solar energy conversion. An efficient four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water by one-electron reductants such as ferrocene derivatives as well as by an NADH analog has also been achieved as a respiration model by using a cofacial dicobalt porphyrin that can form the ?-peroxo Co(III)-O2Co(III) complex. The catalytic mechanism of the four-electron reduction of dioxygen has been clarified based on the detailed kinetic study and the detection of the intermediate. (author)

2006-01-01

202

Electron-optical systems for Mott polarimeters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electron-optical systems, forming polarized electron beams from solid and gaseous sources at a Mott detector with operating potentials of 20 and 50 kV, have been theoretically investigated. The integral EOS creates a beam <2.6 nm in diameter at the target of the Mott detector for secondary electrons with energies of 1-20 eV and exit angles of 0 -60 . The differential EOS provides an energy resolution of 2-6% within the range of 3-2000 eV, the illumination being 5-13% for a 4[pi] angle; at the target of the Mott detector it creates a beam of 1-6 mm in diameter. Both systems have been constructed at the laboratory of Spin-polarized Electron Spectroscopy (Department of Experimental Physics) at St. Petersburg State Technical University. ((orig.))

Fishkova, T.Ya. (A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute of RAN, State Technical University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)); Mamaev, Yu.A. (A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute of RAN, State Technical University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)); Ovsyannikova, I.P. (A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute of RAN, State Technical University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)); Petrov, V.N. (A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute of RAN, State Technical University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)); Shpak, E.V. (A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute of RAN, State Technical University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

1994-08-21

203

Commercial land-based farming of European lobster (Homarus gammarus L.) in recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) using a single cage approach  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the past, farming of the European lobster in land-based systems has turned out to be difficult. The ideal system for rearing lobsters individually should be relatively inexpensive to construct and operate, simple to maintain, based on automatic feeding and self-cleaning of tank and cages, maintain ideal water quality conditions, use space in three dimensions, enable high densities, conserve water at high temperatures, ensure good survival and permit easy access to the livestock for inspection and feeding. Several attempts have been made to mass-produce these cannibalistic crustaceans under controlled environments. However, none of the many previous attempts have proved to be successful in incorporating all of these features into a single design. Thus, the development of land-based lobster farming has been severely hampered by lack of suitable technology and production methods. The major constraints have been the need for individual rearing cages to avoid cannibalism, need of heated water, lack of high quality dry food, high labor costs, inadequate technological solutions and high investment costs. Today, Norwegian Lobster Farm operates the world's first land-based RAS farm producing plate sized lobsters. The company also operates its own brood-stock department and a hatchery for production of IV-stage juveniles. The system contains a patented single cage technology with moving bed biofilters where the recirculation system is designed to fit the water management. Automated solutions for accurate feeding, robots supporting mass-rearing of the IV-stage juveniles and image processing programs for daily monitoring of each single individual have been developed and successfully tested.

Drengstig A; Bergheim A

2013-03-01

204

VHDL Model of Electronic-Lock System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper describes the design of an electronic-lock system which wascompleted as part of the Basic VHDL course in the Department of Controland Measurement Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics,Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic in co-operation withthe Department if Electronic Engineering, University of Hull, GreatBritain in the frame of TEMPUS project no. S_JEP/09468-95.

K. Vlcek; B. R. Bannister; D. Miklik; I. M. Bell; E. Bartsch; J. Noga

2000-01-01

205

Power electronics in wind energy conversion systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a brief review of the power electronics techniques in wind energy conversion systems. Utilization of power electronics converters enables to convert the generated power from any form to another and thus control the operation quality and obtain capture optimization. Attention is paid to converters selection and design to satisfy good matching between generator type and size, output form and purpose of control.

Khater, F.M.H. [National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt). Electronics Research Inst.

1996-12-31

206

PROBLEMS OF BIOFOULING ON FISH–CAGE NETS IN AQUACULTURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biofouling on fish–cage netting is a serious technical and economical problem to aquaculture worldwide. Compensation for the effects of biofouling must be included in cage system design and planning, as fouling can dramatically increase both weight and drag. Settlements of sessile plants and animals, with accumulation of the detritus diminish the size of mesh and can rapidly occlude mesh. Negative effect of smaller mesh size is changing in water flow trough the cages. Biofouling problems necessitating purchase of a second sets of nets or more, and frequent cleaning and changing of biofouling. Changing and cleaning frequency depend on many factors such as: location of cages (near the coast or off shore), productivity of that location, time of the year, time period in which the cages are placed on that location (cause of loading of phosphorus and nitrogen from the unconsumed food in the sediment). Net changing and cleaning procedures are labor and capital intensive. Process of the cleaning of the nets is inadequate, especially when there isnžt adequate equipment available as it is case in smaller aquaculture industry. Chemical control of biofouling e. g. use of antifoulants is questioningly cause of their possible negative effects on breeding species and environment.

Merica Sliškovi?; Gorana Jeli?

2002-01-01

207

Scenarios for Resilient Shrimp Aquaculture in Tropical Coastal Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We contend there are currently two competing scenarios for the sustainable development of shrimp aquaculture in coastal areas of Southeast Asia. First, a landscape approach, where farming techniques for small-scale producers are integrated into intertidal areas in a way that the ecological functions of mangroves are maintained and shrimp farming diseases are controlled. Second, a closed system approach, where problems of disease and effluent are eliminated in closed recirculation ponds behind the intertidal zone controlled by industrial-scale producers. We use these scenarios as two ends of a spectrum of possible interactions at a range of scales between the ecological, social, and political dynamics that underlie the threat to the resilience of mangrove forested coastal ecosystems. We discuss how the analytical concepts of resilience, uncertainty, risk, and the organizing heuristic of scale can assist us to understand decision making over shrimp production, and in doing so, explore their use in the empirical research areas of coastal ecology, shrimp health management and epidemiology, livelihoods, and governance in response to the two scenarios. Our conclusion focuses on a series of questions that map out a new interdisciplinary research agenda for sustainable shrimp aquaculture in coastal areas.

Simon R. Bush; Paul A.M. van Zwieten; Leontine Visser; Han van Dijk; Roel Bosma; Willem F. de Boer; Marc Verdegem

2010-01-01

208

Single ionization of two-electron systems by electron  

Science.gov (United States)

The electron impact single ionization cross sections on few two-electron ionic systems, ranging from Li to U, are calculated using the siBED model[1,2]. It is found that the simple siBED model with the same parameters is good for neutral He target but becomes inadequate for ionic targets. We report to important modifications of the siBED model. The first one QIBED that includes ionic corrections [2] and the other one includes both the relativistic corrections[3] and the ionic corrections, and denoted it as RQIBED. The predictions of these methods are in excellent agreement with the available theoretical as well as experimental findings. [1] W. M. Huo, Phys. rev. A 64, 042719 (2001). [2] M. A. Uddin, M. A. K. Fazlul Haque, A. K. Basak and B. C. Saha, Phys. Rev. A ( in press), 2004. [3] M. A. Uddin, A. K. Basak and B. C. Saha, Int. J. Quan. Chem., (in press) 2004.

Saha, Bidhan C.; Basak, Arun K.; Alfaz Uddin, M.

2004-09-01

209

An ecosystem-based approach and management framework for the integrated evaluation of bivalve aquaculture impacts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An ecosystem-based approach to bivalve aquaculture management is a strategy for the integration of aquaculture within the wider ecosystem, including human aspects, in such a way that it promotes sustainable development, equity, and resilience of ecosystems. Given the linkage between social and ecological systems, marine regulators require an ecosystem-based decision framework that structures and integrates the relationships between these systems and facilitates communication of aquaculture–environment interactions and policy-related developments and decisions. The Drivers-Pressures-State Change-Impact-Response (DPSIR) management framework incorporates the connectivity between human and ecological issues and would permit available performance indicators to be identified and organized in a manner that facilitates different regulatory needs. Suitable performance indicators and modeling approaches, which are used to assess DPSIR framework components, are reviewed with a focus on the key environmental issues associated with bivalve farming. Indicator selection criteria are provided to facilitate constraining the number of indicators within the management framework. It is recommended that an ecosystem-based approach for bivalve aquaculture be based on a tiered indicator monitoring system that is structured on the principle that increased environmental risk requires increased monitoring effort. More than 1 threshold for each indicator would permit implementation of predetermined impact prevention and mitigation measures prior to reaching an unacceptable ecological state. We provide an example of a tiered monitoring program that would communicate knowledge to decision-makers on ecosystem State Change and Impact components of the DPSIR framework

Cranford, Peter J.; Kamermans, Pauline

2012-01-01

210

Threat modeling for electronic health record systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The security of electronic health record (EHR) systems is crucial for their growing acceptance. There is a need for assurance that these records are securely protected from attacks. For a system as complex as an EHR system, the number of possible attacks is potentially very large. In this paper, a threat modeling methodology, known as attack tree, is employed to analyze attacks affecting EHR systems. The analysis is based on a proposed generic client-server model of EHR systems. The developed attack tree is discussed along with some system properties that enable quantitative and qualitative analysis. A list of suggested countermeasures are also highlighted.

Almulhem A

2012-10-01

211

Power electronics system modeling and simulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces control system design based softwares, SIMNON and MATLAB/SIMULINK, for power electronics system simulation. A complete power electronics system typically consists of a rectifier bridge along with its smoothing capacitor, an inverter, and a motor. The system components, featuring discrete or continuous, linear or nonlinear, are modeled in mathematical equations. Inverter control methods,such as pulse-width-modulation and hysteresis current control, are expressed in either computer algorithms or digital circuits. After describing component models and control methods, computer programs are then developed for complete systems simulation. Simulation results are mainly used for studying system performances, such as input and output current harmonics, torque ripples, and speed responses. Key computer programs and simulation results are demonstrated for educational purposes.

Lai, Jih-Sheng

1994-12-31

212

Electronic instrumentation system for pulsed neutron measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An essential point of pulsed neutron measurement of thermal neutron parameters for different materials is the registration of the thermal neutron die-away curve after a fast neutron bursts have been injected into the system. An electronic instrumentation system which is successfully applied for pulsed neutron measurements is presented. An important part of the system is the control unit which has been designed and built in the Laboratory of Neutron Parameters of Materials. (author)

1982-01-01

213

Electron processing systems for environmental applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron Beam processing is widely used in a variety of fields. Examples are: crosslinking of plastics and rubber materials, curing of coatings, and so on. Nissin-High Voltage (NHV) has been supplying many types of EB accelerators for many years for a variety of applications. Recently the demand to use Electron Beam Technology for environmental applications has been increasing. DeSO2 and deNOx treatment plus decontamination of water by Electron Beam appear to be the most promising. Over the past several years, NHV has installed several EB units for deSO2 and deNOx applications. Currently NHV will be supplying two 800KV-300Wx2 heads units to IAEA. This system will be installed in Poland and has been designated ''Demo Plant for deSO2 and deNOx''. This paper describes the requirements for this EB System and also discusses the unique parameters of the system

1998-01-01

214

Automatic control variac system for electronic accelerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An automatic control variac system is designed in order to satisfy the controlling requirement of the electronic accelerator developed by the Institute. Both design and operational principles, structure of the system as well as the software of industrial PC and micro controller unit are described. The interfaces of the control module are RS232 and RS485. A fiber optical interface (FOC) could be set up if an industrial FOC network is necessary, which will extend the filed of its application and make the communication of the system better. It is shown in practice that the system can adjust the variac output voltage automatically and assure the accurate and automatic control of the electronic accelerator. The system is designed in accordance with the general design principles and possesses the merits such as easy operation and maintenance, good expansibility, and low cost, thus it could also be used in other industrial branches. (authors)

2006-01-01

215

The impact of level of the stocking density on the haematological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in recirculating aquaculture systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hematological indices are important parameters for the evaluation of fish physiological status.The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate how level of the stocking density influence the bloodphysiology of of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in a recirculating system. Theexperiment was conducted over a period of 33 days. A number of 254 rainbow trout with an averageweight of 29.51 ± 1.32 g were divided into four rearing units in order to create different stockingdensities: in B1-2.64 kg/m3, with an average weight of 31.68 g/ex, B2 – 5.16 kg/m3 with an averageweight of 30.39 g/ex, B3 – 7.12 kg/m3 with an average weight of 28.52 g/ex and B4- 9.42 kg/m3 with anaverage weight of 27.46 g. The sampling of O. mykiss blood from the four variants before and after theexperimental trial allowed determination of hematological indices. Red blood cell counts (RBCc),haematocrit values (Ht), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), meancorpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) weremeasured and analyzed, with routine methods used in fish hematology (Blaxhall & Daisley 1973;Svobodova 2001). Some hematological indicators (Hb, MCV, MCH) had been influenced by the stockingdensity. The results of our research provide a contribution to the knowledge of the hematologicalparameters of the rainbow trout reared in different level of stocking densities, under the recirculatingsystems condition.

Angelica Docan; Victor Cristea; Lorena Dediu; Mirela Mocanu; Iulia Grecu

2011-01-01

216

Electron transfer in weakly interacting systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A recently proposed semiclassical model, in which an electronic transmission coefficient and a nuclear tunneling factor are introduced as corrections to the classical activated-complex expression, is described. The nuclear tunneling corrections are shown to be important only at low temperatures or when the electron transfer is very exothermic. By contrast, corrections for nonadiabaticity may be significant for most outer-sphere reactions of metal complexes. The rate constants for the Fe(H2O)62+-Fe(H2O)63+, Ru(NH3)62+-Ru(NH3)63+ and Ru(bpy)32+-Ru(bpy)33+ electron exchange reactions predicted by the semiclassical model are in very good agreement with the observed values. The implications of the model for optically-induced electron transfer in mixed-valence systems are noted

1981-06-12

217

Electron transfer in weakly interacting systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A recently proposed semiclassical model, in which an electronic transmission coefficient and a nuclear tunneling factor are introduced as corrections to the classical activated-complex expression, is described. The nuclear tunneling corrections are shown to be important only at low temperatures or when the electron transfer is very exothermic. By contrast, corrections for nonadiabaticity may be significant for most outer-sphere reactions of metal complexes. The rate constants for the Fe(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 2 +/-Fe(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 3 +/, Ru(NH/sub 3/)/sub 6//sup 2 +/-Ru(NH/sub 3/)/sub 6//sup 3 +/ and Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +/-Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 3 +/ electron exchange reactions predicted by the semiclassical model are in very good agreement with the observed values. The implications of the model for optically-induced electron transfer in mixed-valence systems are noted.

Sutin, N.; Brunschwig, B.S.

1981-01-01

218

Broodstock management of the fine flounder Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner, 1867) using recirculating aquaculture systems/ Manejo de reproductores del lenguado Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner, 1867) usando sistemas de recirculación en acuicultura  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo, describe la metodología desarrollada en IMARPE para la captura, aclimatación y acondicionamiento de ejemplares adultos de P. adspersus en sistemas de recirculación (SRA), con la finalidad de formar un stock de reproductores. El SRA permitió manejar parámetros medioambientales estables durante el periodo de acondicionamiento, como: temperatura del agua (17,2±1°C), oxígeno disuelto (8,1±0,7 mg L-1), pH (7,3±0,2), amonio (0,004±0,003 mg L-1), (more) nitrito (0,52±0,2 mg L-1) y nitrato (3,45±2,6 mg L-1). Se dio inicio a la alimentación el día 15 post-captura, utilizando alimento vivo (Odonthestes regia regia, Mugil cephalus), crustáceos (Emerita analoga), alimento fresco (Engraulis ringens y Dosidicus gigas) y artificial semihúmedo. Durante los primeros días de acondicionamiento los peces mostraron una disminución en el peso, hasta su adaptación a las condiciones de cultivo, luego de lo cual se produjo un incremento continuo en ambos sexos. La tasa específica de crecimiento fue positiva a partir del tercer mes y la tasa de crecimiento relativo mostró que en agosto 2010, el peso promedio se incrementó 24,5% en machos y 16,2% en hembras. Se realizó un análisis patológico a los ejemplares capturados y se observó la presencia de diferentes parásitos internos y externos, entre ellos predominaron Entobdella sp. y Philometra sp. Abstract in english The present study describes the methodology used at IMARPE for the capture, acclimation and management of P. adspersus broodstock using recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). RAS improved the water quality and maintained the environmental parameters during the acclimation period, temperature (17.2±1°C), oxygen (8.1±0.7 mg L-1), pH (7.3±0.2), ammonia (0.004±0.003 mg L-1), nitrite (0.52±0.2 mg L-1) and nitrate (3.45±2.6 mg L-1). Fish began to be fed normally from d (more) ay 15 post-capture, once or twice a day using live fish (Odonthestes regia regia, Mugil cephalus), crustacean (Emerita analoga), fresh food (Engraulis ringens and Dosidicus gigas) and artificial feed. A significant loss in the weight of the fish was registered during the first days of captivity, followed by a continuous increase in both sexes. The specific growth rate was positive from the third month of captivity, being the relative growth rate 24.5% and 16.2% in August 2010 in males and females, respectively. Different internal and external parasites were detected in the fish, being Entobdella sp. and Philometra sp. the prevailing parasites observed during samplings.

Carrera, Lili; Cota, Noemí; Montes, Melissa; Mateo, Enrique; Sierralta, Verónica; Castro, Teresa; Perea, Angel; Santos, Cristian; Catcoparco, Christian; Espinoza, Carlos

2013-03-01

219

Proteomics and its applications to aquaculture in China: infection, immunity, and interaction of aquaculture hosts with pathogens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

China is the largest fishery producer worldwide in term of its aquaculture output, and plays leading and decisive roles in international aquaculture development. To improve aquaculture output further and promote aquaculture business development, infectious diseases and immunity of fishes and other aquaculture species must be studied. In this regard, aquaculture proteomics has been widely carried out in China to get a better understanding of aquaculture host immunity and microbial pathogenesis as well as host-pathogen interactions, and to identify novel disease targets and vaccine candidates for therapeutic interventions. These proteomics studies include development of novel methods, assays, and advanced concepts in order to characterize proteomics mechanisms of host innate immune defense and microbial pathogenesis. This review article summarizes some recently published technical approaches and their applications to aquaculture proteomics with an emphasis on the responses of aquaculture animals to bacteria, viruses, and other aqua-environmental stresses, and development of broadly cross-protective vaccine candidates. The reviewed articles are those that have been published in international peer reviewed journals.

Peng XX

2013-01-01

220

ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD MANAGEMENT METHOD AND SYSTEM  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An electronic health record management system and a method of creating, maintaining and utilising an electronic health record are provided. The electronic health record management system comprises a communication module to receive patient medical encounter files from at least one third party database server. A record building module parses the received patient medical encounter files thereby to obtain patient data and associated medical encounter data from the medical encounter files in accordance with the rule set. This information associated with a particular patient is stored in predetermined fields of the patient record according to a predefined rule set, thereby to create a current patient database with multiple patient records, each patient record to comprise information on multiple medical encounters of the patient.

DIAS-ALF JESSIE

 
 
 
 
221

The DIAMANT electronics and data acquisition system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe the electronics and data acquisition system of the 4? light particle multidetector array DIAMANT. This system has been conceived to be very modular with regard to both the kind and number of detectors. The whole system is designed to run either with a few additional ancillary detectors (Ge) or linked to 4? ? arrays such as EUROGAM. Part of the electronics has been designed using SMD devices; the acquisition is based on CAMAC ADCs and VME units for data acquisition, data transfer is handled via a 32 bit ECL bus (DT32) used for EUROGAM. The data acquisition, distributed on a network, is based on the VxWorks real time kernel and the UNIX operating system. (orig.)

1997-06-01

222

DESIGN OF ADVANCED ELECTRONIC BIOMEDICAL SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we present a review of some of our projects in the field of biomedical electronics, developed at Electronic Devices Laboratory of Polytechnic University of Bari, Italy, within a research program, with the support of national university medical centre. In particular we have proposed a medical electronic-computerized platform for diagnostic use, which allows the doctor to carry out a complete cardio-respiratory control on remote patients in real time. The system has been patented and has been designed to be employed also to real-time rescue in case of emergency without the necessity for data to be constantly monitored by a medical centre, leaving patients free to move. Then we have also examined a low-cost, electronic medical system, designed for the non-invasive continuous real-time monitoring of breathing functions. At last a new system for cardioholter applications, characterized by the possibility to send ECG by Bluetooth to 6 or 12 leads, has been described. All designed systems are characterized by originality and plainness of use, as they planned with a very high level of automation.

Roberto Marani; Anna Gina Perri

2012-01-01

223

Implementing an electronic health record system  

CERN Document Server

This book illustrates and explains the benefits of the clinician's involvement in setting up their own fully functioning electronic medical records system, the potential pitfalls that may occur (and that can be avoided) and their solutions across a wide range of practices.

Walker, James M; Richards, Frank

2006-01-01

224

NATIONAL ELECTRONIC INJURY SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NEISS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is collaborating with the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to expand the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) to collect data on all typ...

225

Survey of Electronic Payment Methods and Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper an overview of electronic payment methods and systems is given. This survey is done as part of the Moby Dick project: a joint european project (Esprit Long Term Research 20422) to develop and define the architecture of a new generation of mo...

P. J. M. Havinga G. J. M. Smit A. Helme

1996-01-01

226

Soft errors in modern electronic systems  

CERN Multimedia

This book provides a comprehensive presentation of the most advanced research results and technological developments enabling understanding, qualifying and mitigating the soft errors effect in advanced electronics, including the fundamental physical mechanisms of radiation induced soft errors, the various steps that lead to a system failure, the modelling and simulation of soft error at various levels (including physical, electrical, netlist, event driven, RTL, and system level modelling and simulation), hardware fault injection, accelerated radiation testing and natural environment testing, s

Nicolaidis, Michael

2010-01-01

227

Electron gun system for NSC KIPT linac  

CERN Document Server

In NSC KIPT linac, a neutron source based on a subcritical assembly driven by a 100MeV/100kW electron linear accelerator is under design and development. The linear accelerator needs a new high current electron gun. In this paper, the physical design, mechanical fabrication and beam test of this new electron gun are described. The emission current is designed to be higher than 2A for the pulse width of 3us with repetition rate of 50 Hz. The gun will operate with a DC high voltage power supply which can provide a high voltage up to 150 kV. . Computer simulations and optimizations have been carried out in the design stage, including the gun geometry and beam transport line. The test results of high voltage conditioning and beam test are presented. The operation status of the electron gun system is also included. The basic test results show that the design, manufacture and operation of the new electron system are basically successful.

Zhou, Zusheng; Chi, Yunlong

2013-01-01

228

Application of Information Systems in Electronic Insurance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information Systems (IS) and some of the application software are very important for developing electronic insurance. In this research we try to determine and investigate the Inform ation Systems and their application software, which are effective for electronic insurance development. The electronic insurance parameter that we consider in our research are quality of services, human resources, customer benefit, increased customer services, integrated customer information, integrated customer order information, standardized registration processes, speed up registration processes, customer contact, and electronic registration organization management. According to the result of our research, ERP can apply magic effect to the registration organization processes. CRM helps registration organization to use technology and human resources to gain insight into the behaviors of customers and the value of those customers. DSS can help manager to take a good decision about quality of their services and also improve electronic registration organization management. MIS has more effect on integrated customer information, and integrated customer order information, respectively. EDI allows us to send and receive information at any time thereby tremendous improving registration organizations are able to communicate quickly and efficiently. Internet is the most effective on registration organization development parameters. Database application is m ore useful to integrate customer information. According to the results networking is very effective to speed up registration processes in registration organization.

Payman Salami; Hojat Ahmadi

2010-01-01

229

Laser system for a subpicosecond electron linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Argonne Chemistry Division efforts are underway to develop a sub-picosecond electron beam pulse radiolysis facility for chemical studies. The target output of the accelerator is to generate electron pulses that can be adjusted from 3nC in .6ps to 100nC in 45ps. In conjunction with development of the accelerator a state-of-the-art ultrafast laser system is under construction that will drive the linac's photocathode and provide probe pulses that are tunable from the UV to IR spectral regions

1998-01-01

230

Electron dynamics inside short-coherence systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We present theoretical results on electron dynamics inside nanometric systems, where the coherence of the electron ensemble is maintained in a very short region. The contacts are supposed to spoil such a coherence, therefore the interference processes between the carrier wavefunction and the internal potential profile can be affected by the proximity of the contacts. The problem has been analysed by using the Wigner-function formalism. For very short devices, transport properties, such as tunnelling through potential barriers, are significantly influenced by the distance between the contacts

2006-08-14

231

Application of Medicinal Herbs to Aquaculture in Asia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aquaculture has increased greatly in Asia, but there are various problems associated with acquacultural production one of which is the use of antimicrobial agents resulting in more resistant bacterial strains which adversely affect human health and the natural environment. This paper presents information on the role and application of herbs for aquaculture in Asia.

Sataporn DIREKBUSARAKOM

2004-01-01

232

Research Progress in Biological Package for Aquaculture Wastewater Treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The classification of biological package was reviewed in the present paper, and the application status of various
fillers for aquaculture wastewater treatment was introduced in detail. The developing direction of biological
package in the field of aquaculture wastewater treatme...

Xi-dong MU; Yin-chang Hu; Guang-jun Wang; Jun Chen; Jian-ren Luo

233

Research Progress in Biological Package for Aquaculture Wastewater Treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The classification of biological package was reviewed in the present paper, and the application status of variousfillers for aquaculture wastewater treatment was introduced in detail. The developing direction of biologicalpackage in the field of aquaculture wastewater treatment was also presented.

Xi-dong MU; Yin-chang Hu; Guang-jun Wang; Jun Chen; Jian-ren Luo

2010-01-01

234

Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798) aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especiall...

Brojo Gopal Paul; Christian Reinhard Vogl

235

Application of refrigeration system in electronics cooling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental investigation of the transient response of the vapor compression refrigeration (VCR) system to rapid change in evaporator (simulated electronics) heat load is presented. In this study, the VCR system is designed and constructed specifically for applications to cool high heat flux electronics and high-end computers. Temperature and pressure data were measured at pre-selected locations to study the behavior of the refrigeration system to alterations in evaporator heat load. Results show that the VCR system maintains the junction temperature of the simulated electronics at a much lower temperature compared to conventional air-cooling systems. The maximum temperature was registered near the exit of the evaporator cold plate. Experimental evidence shows an oscillation in temperature with time at the evaporator cold plate and the thermostatic expansion valve prior to attaining steady-state condition, and that the thermostatic expansion valve and the evaporator time constants are equal; and have a value of 70 s. Also, for analytical and numerical models of heat transfer in evaporator cold plate, results shows that the assumption of one-dimensional temperature distribution is unrealistic.

2006-01-01

236

The electronic structure of condensed molecular systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have reviewed some of the basic properties of the electronic structure of condensed molecular systems. For the rare-gas solids, we concentrated our discussion on changes in the ground- and excited-state crystal-atomic wave functions as calculated with an approximate theoretical method. Compression of these wave functions leads to a softening of the equation of state at high densities, which seems to account for much of the total many-body effects. This compression is a true many-body effect and cannot be easily decomposable into a sum of 3-body and higher terms. We reviewed the electronic properties of four molecular systems, each manifesting different behavior at high densities. Because of a general lack of theory of the electronic structure of molecular solids, we restricted ourselves to a descriptive account. Solid oxygen, for instance, seems to exhibit the beginnings of covalent bonding between the ..pi..* orbitals on adjacent molecules in its epsilon phase. It was a combination of optical-absorption data and infrared and Raman spectroscopy that led to these conclusions. Iodine is unique in that it becomes metallic as a molecular crystal at pressures easily obtainable experimentally. It is interesting that the x-ray data, which indicates a transition to a monatomic lattice at 21 GPa, and the Moessbauer spectra, which implies that molecular character is retained to 30 GPa, are in such disagreement. The next system discussed, solid acetylene, is a nice example of high-pressure polymerization and study of this system should shed light on the polymerization of more complicated systems. Finally, we briefly discussed the predicted dissociation of solid molecular nitrogen at high pressures. Here, theory has made a prediction and experiment has disproven it. Molecular systems show a diverse range of behavior in electronic structures at high pressures, from metallization to chemistry; theory is lagging. 68 refs., 10 figs.

LeSar, R.A.

1988-01-01

237

On the Reliability of Electronic Payment Systems  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One of the problems facing the builders of the `Information Superhighway' is how to charge for services. The highcosts of billing systems suggest that prepayment mechanisms could play a large part in the solution. Yet how does one goabout making an electronic prepayment system #or indeed any kind of payment system# robust? We describe some recentsystems engineering experience which may berelevant --- the successful introduction of cryptology to protect pre-paymentelectricity meters from token fraud. These meters are used by a number of utilities from Scotland to South Africa, andthey present some interesting reliability challenges.

Ross J. Anderson; S. Johann Bezuidenhoudt; Cambridge Cb Qg Sandton

238

Test software for BESIII MDC electronics system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper presents the design of Test System Software for BESIII MDC Electronics. Two kinds of test systems, SBS VP7 based and PowerPC based systems, and their corresponding test software are introduced. The software is developed in LabVIEW 7.1 and Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0, some test functions of the software, as well as their user interfaces, are described in detail. The software has been applied in hardware debugging, performance test and long term stability test. (authors)

2006-01-01

239

Zope based electronic operation log system - Zlog  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since January 2004, the Zope based electronic operation logging system, named Zlog, has been running at the KEKB and AR accelerator facilities. Since Zope is the python based open source web application server software and python language is familiar for the members in the KEKB accelerator control group, we have developed the Zlog system rapidly. In this paper, we report the development history and the present status of Zlog system. Also we show some general plug-in components, called Zope products, have been useful for our Zlog development. (author)

2004-01-01

240

Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in finfish aquaculture environments  

Science.gov (United States)

Consumer demand for affordable fish drives the ever-growing global aquaculture industry. The intensification and expansion of culture conditions in the production of several finfish species has been coupled with an increase in bacterial fish disease and the need for treatment with antimicrobials. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance prevalent in aquaculture environments is important to design effective disease treatment strategies, to prioritize the use and registration of antimicrobials for aquaculture use, and to assess and minimize potential risks to public health. In this brief article we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in genes found in finfish aquaculture environments and highlight specific research that should provide the basis of sound, science-based policies for the use of antimicrobials in aquaculture.

Miranda, Claudio D.; Tello, Alfredo; Keen, Patricia L.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Advances in thermal modeling of electronic components and systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents chapters on thermal modeling of electronic components and systems. Included are chapters on applications of heat pumps and thermal management of electronic equipment, including supercomputers.

Bar-Cohen, A. (Corporate Research and Engineering, Control Data Corp., Minneapolis, MN (US)); Kraus, A.D. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (US))

1988-01-01

242

Electronic Information Systems Elektronik Bilgi Sistemleri  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Users can retrieve information that is increasing continuously, using new technologies and new systems such as electronic information systems. The aim of electronic information systems is to share accumulation and production of universal information equally within every society. This requires the use of CD-ROM and hypermedia; the new storage and retrieval environments created by developing technologies. The use of these environments creates new problems for the researchers to work on. Electronic information systems can achieve a desired level of performance and service the users appropriately based upon the results of such research. Geli?en teknoloji ve artan bilgi miktar? ile birlikte kullan?c?n?n bilgiye istenilen yerden ve kolayl?kla eri?ebilmesini sa?layacak yeni sistemler gerekmektedir. Bu sistemlerin en önemlilerinden biri elektronik bilgi sistemleridir. Eldeki evrensel bilgi birikimi ve üretiminin bütün toplumlar taraf?ndan e?it ko?ullarda payla??lmas?n? sa?lama amac?nda olan elektronik bilgi sistemleri etkin olabilmek için geli?en teknolojileri kullanmak zorundad?r. Geli?en teknolojilerin yaratt??? yeni kay?t ortamlar? olan CD-ROM ve hipermedya beraberlerinde baz? sorunlar? da getirmekte ve bu sorunlar?n çözümü ile ilgili olarak yeni ara?t?rma konular? ortaya ç?kmaktad?r. Bu ara?t?rmalar sonucunda elektronik bilgi sistemleri istenilen düzeye eri?ebilecek ve kullan?c?ya en iyi hizmeti verebilecek duruma gelecektir.

Birgül Egeli

1995-01-01

243

Capturing Ecosystem Services, Stakeholders' Preferences and Trade-Offs in Coastal Aquaculture Decisions: A Bayesian Belief Network Application  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaculture activities are embedded in complex social-ecological systems. However, aquaculture development decisions have tended to be driven by revenue generation, failing to account for interactions with the environment and the full value of the benefits derived from services provided by local ecosystems. Trade-offs resulting from changes in ecosystem services provision and associated impacts on livelihoods are also often overlooked. This paper proposes an innovative application of Bayesian belief networks - influence diagrams - as a decision support system for mediating trade-offs arising from the development of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand. Senior experts were consulted (n?=?12) and primary farm data on the economics of shrimp farming (n?=?20) were collected alongside secondary information on ecosystem services, in order to construct and populate the network. Trade-offs were quantitatively assessed through the generation of a probabilistic impact matrix. This matrix captures nonlinearity and uncertainty and describes the relative performance and impacts of shrimp farming management scenarios on local livelihoods. It also incorporates export revenues and provision and value of ecosystem services such as coastal protection and biodiversity. This research shows that Bayesian belief modeling can support complex decision-making on pathways for sustainable coastal aquaculture development and thus contributes to the debate on the role of aquaculture in social-ecological resilience and economic development.

Schmitt, Laetitia Helene Marie; Brugere, Cecile

2013-01-01

244

Capturing ecosystem services, stakeholders' preferences and trade-offs in coastal aquaculture decisions: a bayesian belief network application.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaculture activities are embedded in complex social-ecological systems. However, aquaculture development decisions have tended to be driven by revenue generation, failing to account for interactions with the environment and the full value of the benefits derived from services provided by local ecosystems. Trade-offs resulting from changes in ecosystem services provision and associated impacts on livelihoods are also often overlooked. This paper proposes an innovative application of Bayesian belief networks - influence diagrams - as a decision support system for mediating trade-offs arising from the development of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand. Senior experts were consulted (n?=?12) and primary farm data on the economics of shrimp farming (n?=?20) were collected alongside secondary information on ecosystem services, in order to construct and populate the network. Trade-offs were quantitatively assessed through the generation of a probabilistic impact matrix. This matrix captures nonlinearity and uncertainty and describes the relative performance and impacts of shrimp farming management scenarios on local livelihoods. It also incorporates export revenues and provision and value of ecosystem services such as coastal protection and biodiversity. This research shows that Bayesian belief modeling can support complex decision-making on pathways for sustainable coastal aquaculture development and thus contributes to the debate on the role of aquaculture in social-ecological resilience and economic development. PMID:24155876

Schmitt, Laetitia Helene Marie; Brugere, Cecile

2013-10-14

245

FLOATING FRAME AND ITS COMPONENTS FOR AQUACULTURE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The disclosure generally describes a floating frame and its components for aquaculture that is simple to assemble and disassemble, stable, long lasting and environment friendly. It is set up with frame side or some frame sides. Each frame side includes walkway(s), floating structure(s), and appropriate supporting element(s). Each supporting element has an upper groove and lower groove. The upper groove of the supporting element function as a holder holding and supporting the weight of walkway(s) due to gravity and at the same time, the lower groove of the supporting element, holding and resisting the upward buoyancy pressure of the floating structure(s) floating on the water. The compression from the walkway(s) weight due to gravity and the floating structure(s) upward buoyancy pressure on the supporting element(s), form the frame side and eventually the whole floating frame for aquaculture. The space in between the walkway(s) and floating structure(s) allows for water exchange and reduces the impact of sea waves. Walkway (s), floating structure(s), and supporting elements are made of recyclable thermo-forming plastics, and it is non-toxic, rust-free, rot-free, and environment friendly. With cleaner water, the aquatic populations can grow healthier.

HEE SIEN HUI

246

Evaluating the economic potential of horizontally integrated land-based marine aquaculture  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Coastal aquaculture development is frequently associated with negative environmental impacts, competition for resources and conflict. Consequently, a new paradigm of ecologically-sound, socially responsible and economically viable aquaculture development based on systems-thinking, resource use efficiency and joint analysis with stakeholders is needed. Horizontal integration, combining aquaculture production systems to optimise resource use efficiency constitutes a promising approach in this regard. Research shows that an array of horizontally integrated systems are technically viable, however, few studies have combined this with consideration of the managerial, financial and economic demands. A bioeconomic modelling approach was employed here to assess the broader implications of adopting horizontally integrated land-based marine aquaculture in temperate and warm water settings. The temperate system, integrating fish, microalgae and shellfish culture and a polishing lagoon was developed on the Atlantic coast of France. Modelling outcomes predicted that when all costs were considered this approach failed to generate a positive Internal Rate of Return (IRR) over ten years. Subsequent scenarios showed a worthwhile return (ten-year IRR 19.4%) was generated when land and labour opportunity costs were omitted and a 20% premium on products included. The warm water system developed near Eilat, Israel combined sea urchins, shrimp and seaweed culture with a constructed wetland. Assuming baseline production of one million sea urchins annually from year three onwards, modelling outcomes showed a reasonable ten-year IRR of 18%. Reducing sea urchin mortality from 15% to 9% annually resulted in an IRR of 29.4%, while assuming that Salicornia spp. production would reach 33 kg m?² y?¹ in the wetland resulted in an IRR of 133.4%. Findings suggest that bioeconomic modelling can contribute to the optimisation of horizontally integrated aquaculture systems, helping elucidate promising scenarios and identify key constraints and priorities for targeted research and development. Bioeconomic modelling of other horizontal integration strategies, such as shrimp culture with shellfish, macroalgae and mangrove wetlands could elucidate economically viable approaches to much needed ecologically-sound and socially responsible practices. However, modelling should be supplemented by market analysis, including assessment of consumer attitudes, comprehensive risk assessment, ethical review, environmental impact assessment and joint assessment with stakeholders. Moreover, an enabling institutional framework is a prerequisite to more widespread adoption of horizontal integration; policy initiatives and regulatory tools focused on internalising environmental costs of aquaculture development will be critical.

Bunting StuartW; Shpigel Muki

2009-09-01

247

Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

Wahl TG; Burdakov AV; Oukharov AO; Zhilokov AK

2012-01-01

248

Electronic document management systems: an overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

For over a decade, most health care information technology (IT) professionals erroneously learned that document imaging, which is one of the many component technologies of an electronic document management system (EDMS), is the only technology of an EDMS. In addition, many health care IT professionals erroneously believed that EDMSs have either a limited role or no place in IT environments. As a result, most health care IT professionals do not understand documents and unstructured data and their value as structured data partners in most aspects of transaction and information processing systems. PMID:12402630

Kohn, Deborah

2002-08-01

249

Electronic document management systems: an overview.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For over a decade, most health care information technology (IT) professionals erroneously learned that document imaging, which is one of the many component technologies of an electronic document management system (EDMS), is the only technology of an EDMS. In addition, many health care IT professionals erroneously believed that EDMSs have either a limited role or no place in IT environments. As a result, most health care IT professionals do not understand documents and unstructured data and their value as structured data partners in most aspects of transaction and information processing systems.

Kohn D

2002-08-01

250

Enhancement of existing geothermal resource utilization by cascading to intensive aquaculture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aquaculture, the farming and husbandry of freshwater and marine organisms, is the newest and fastest growing US agricultural sector. In New Mexico, low winter temperatures and limited freshwater sources narrow culture production possibilities; however, it has long been recognized that the state has abundant supplies of both saline and geothermal ground waters. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the achievable energy savings and value enhancement of the byproduct geothermal energy by cascading fluids for the production of commercial aquaculture species. Specifically the project involved evaluating the heating systems performance in terms of heating budget for the geothermal assist, determine the total quantity of water used for culture and heating, amount of geothermal byproduct heat extracted, and ability of the system to maintain culture water temperatures during critical heating periods of the year. In addition, an analysis was conducted to determine the compatibility of this new system with existing greenhouse heating requirements.

Zachritz, W.H. II; Polka, R.; Schoenmackers, R.

1995-12-04

251

Halophyte filter beds for treatment of saline wastewater from aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The expansion of aquaculture and the recent development of more intensive land-based marine farms require efficient and cost-effective systems for treatment of highly nutrient-rich saline wastewater. Constructed wetlands with halophytic plants offer the potential for waste-stream treatment combined with production of valuable secondary plant crops. Pilot wetland filter beds, constructed in triplicate and planted with the saltmarsh plant Salicornia europaea, were evaluated over 88 days under commercial operating conditions on a marine fish and shrimp farm. Nitrogen waste was primarily in the form of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (TDIN) and was removed by 98.2 ± 2.2% under ambient loadings of 109-383 ?mol l(-1). There was a linear relationship between TDIN uptake and loading over the range of inputs tested. At peak loadings of up to 8185 ± 590 ?mol l(-1) (equivalent to 600 mmol N m(-2) d(-1)), the filter beds removed between 30 and 58% (250 mmol N m(-2) d(-1)) of influent TDIN. Influent dissolved inorganic phosphorus levels ranged from 34 to 90 ?mol l(-1), with 36-89% reduction under routine operations. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) loadings were lower (11-144 ?mol l(-1)), and between 23 and 69% of influent DON was removed during routine operation, with no significant removal of DON under high TDIN loading. Over the 88-day study, cumulative nitrogen removal was 1.28 mol m(-2), of which 1.09 mol m(-2) was retained in plant tissue, with plant uptake ranging from 2.4 to 27.0 mmol N g(-1) dry weight d(-1). The results demonstrate the effectiveness of N and P removal from wastewater from land-based intensive marine aquaculture farms by constructed wetlands planted with S. europaea. PMID:22818948

Webb, J M; Quintã, R; Papadimitriou, S; Norman, L; Rigby, M; Thomas, D N; Le Vay, L

2012-06-28

252

Halophyte filter beds for treatment of saline wastewater from aquaculture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The expansion of aquaculture and the recent development of more intensive land-based marine farms require efficient and cost-effective systems for treatment of highly nutrient-rich saline wastewater. Constructed wetlands with halophytic plants offer the potential for waste-stream treatment combined with production of valuable secondary plant crops. Pilot wetland filter beds, constructed in triplicate and planted with the saltmarsh plant Salicornia europaea, were evaluated over 88 days under commercial operating conditions on a marine fish and shrimp farm. Nitrogen waste was primarily in the form of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (TDIN) and was removed by 98.2 ± 2.2% under ambient loadings of 109-383 ?mol l(-1). There was a linear relationship between TDIN uptake and loading over the range of inputs tested. At peak loadings of up to 8185 ± 590 ?mol l(-1) (equivalent to 600 mmol N m(-2) d(-1)), the filter beds removed between 30 and 58% (250 mmol N m(-2) d(-1)) of influent TDIN. Influent dissolved inorganic phosphorus levels ranged from 34 to 90 ?mol l(-1), with 36-89% reduction under routine operations. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) loadings were lower (11-144 ?mol l(-1)), and between 23 and 69% of influent DON was removed during routine operation, with no significant removal of DON under high TDIN loading. Over the 88-day study, cumulative nitrogen removal was 1.28 mol m(-2), of which 1.09 mol m(-2) was retained in plant tissue, with plant uptake ranging from 2.4 to 27.0 mmol N g(-1) dry weight d(-1). The results demonstrate the effectiveness of N and P removal from wastewater from land-based intensive marine aquaculture farms by constructed wetlands planted with S. europaea.

Webb JM; Quintã R; Papadimitriou S; Norman L; Rigby M; Thomas DN; Le Vay L

2012-10-01

253

Dynamically programmable electronic pill dispenser system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compliance in medicine dispensation has proven critical for dosage control, diagnosis, and treatment. We have designed, manufactured, and characterized a novel dynamically programmable e-pill dispensing system. Our system is initially programmed remotely through a cell phone. After programming, the system may be reconfigured in order to adapt pill dispensation to new conditions. In this paper we describe the mechanics, electronics, control, and communication protocols implemented. Our dyn-e-pill devices can be actuated for over 350 h with two pill retrievals per hour. We challenged the charging circuit and demonstrated that the system has a lifetime longer than 6 h with a 30 min charging cycle, while it lasts for 14 h of uninterrupted use with a full charge. PMID:20503621

Boquete, Luciano; Rodriguez-Ascariz, Jose Manuel; Artacho, Irene; Cantos-Frontela, Joaquin; Peixoto, Nathalia

2010-06-01

254

Electronic system for Langmuir probe measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A newly developed Langmuir probe system for measurements of current-voltage (IV) characteristics in the tokamak divertor area is presented and discussed. The system is partially controlled by a computer allowing simultaneous and independent feeding and registration of signals. The system is mounted in the COMPASS tokamak, Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. The new electronic circuit boards include also active low-pass filters which smooth the signal before recording by the data acquisition system (DAQ). The signal is thus less noisy and the data processing is much easier. We also designed and built a microcontroller-driven waveform generator with resolution of 1 Ms/s. The power supply is linear and uses a transformer. We avoided the use of a switching power supply because of the noise that it could generate. Examples of measurements of the IV characteristics by divertor probes in the COMPASS tokamak and evaluation of the EEDF are presented.

2012-03-29

255

Low cost modular electronic firing system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the hardware and software design for an inexpensive electronic firing system for pyrotechnic displays that is simple, but sophisticated enough to eliminate the need for the complex electric wire net required to provide connections between the central computer and the switch box unit and the electric fuses which appears to be an inevitable feature of all, but the most expensive traditional systems. The core of the system is a 1-Wire{trademark}``Microlan``{trademark} low cost local area control network, developed by Dallas Semiconductor Corporation, where sensor and activator modules can be chained together and controlled by a simple PC. Since the system consists entirely of standard components, and highly modular hardware and software, it is readily adaptable to any desired configuration according to the user`s needs. 4 refs., 7 figs.

Scchot, K. [Delft Univ. of Technology, (Netherlands); de Jongh, N. [HR and O Univ. of Professional Education, (Netherlands); Webb, R. [TNO Pris Maurits Laboratory, (Netherlands)

1998-12-01

256

Electronics of LHCb calorimeter monitoring system  

CERN Multimedia

All calorimeter sub-detectors in LHCb, the Scintillator Pad Detector (SPD), the Preshower detector (PS), the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) and the Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL) are equipped with the Hamamatsu photomultiplier tubes (PMT) as devices for light to electrical signal conversion [1]. The PMT gain behaviour is not stable in a time, due to changes in the load current and due to ageing. The calorimeter light emitting diode (LED) monitoring system has been developed to monitor the PMT gain over time during data taking. Furthermore the system will play an important role during the detector commissioning and during LHC machine stops, in order to perform tests of the PMTs, cables and FE boards and measurements of relative time alignment. The aim of the paper is to describe the LED monitoring system architecture, some technical details of the electronics implementation based on radiation tolerant components and to summarize the system performance.

Konoplyannikov, A

2008-01-01

257

Electronic notebook for physical system simulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A scientist who sets up and runs experiments typically keeps notes of this process in a lab notebook. A scientist who runs computer simulations should be no different. Experiments and simulations both require a set-up process which should be documented along with the results of the experiment or simulation. The documentation is important for knowing and understanding what was attempted, what took place, and how to reproduce it in the future. Modern simulations of physical systems have become more complex due in part to larger computational resources and increased understanding of physical systems. These simulations may be performed by combining the results from multiple computer codes. The machines that these simulations are executed on are often massively parallelldistributed systems. The output result of one of these simulations can be a terabyte of data and can require months of computing. All of these things contribute to the difficulty of keeping a useful record of the process of setting up and executing a simulation for a physical system. An electronic notebook for physical system simulations has been designed to help document the set up and execution process. Much of the documenting is done automatically by the simulation rather than the scientist running the simulation. Tho simulation knows what codes, data, software libraries, and versions thereof it is drawing together. All of these pieces of information become documented in the electronic notebook. The electronic notebook is designed with and uses the extensible Markup Language (XML). XML facilitates the representation, storage, interchange, and further use of the documented information.

Kelsey, R. L. (Robert L.)

2003-01-01

258

Webinar- Electronics 2010: A New Systems Approach to Teaching Electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

This webinar was presented on September 14, 2007 by MATEC NetWorks to update and discuss the grant Electronics 2010. This is the first one for the grant that was kicked off at SAME-TEC 2007 (Semiconductors, Automated Manufacturing, Electronics Technical Education Conference). Teaching Electronics is changing - ESyst (the name of the program) is bringing that change. This webinar presents the findings and directions of those changes.

2010-08-05

259

Salmon aquaculture and antimicrobial resistance in the marine environment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol) were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments.

Buschmann AH; Tomova A; López A; Maldonado MA; Henríquez LA; Ivanova L; Moy F; Godfrey HP; Cabello FC

2012-01-01

260

Salmon aquaculture and antimicrobial resistance in the marine environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol) were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments. PMID:22905164

Buschmann, Alejandro H; Tomova, Alexandra; López, Alejandra; Maldonado, Miguel A; Henríquez, Luis A; Ivanova, Larisa; Moy, Fred; Godfrey, Henry P; Cabello, Felipe C

2012-08-08

 
 
 
 
261

Causalities between Price, Pond Area and Employment in Aquaculture Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of aquaculture industry is becoming more prominent in order to supplement marine capture in meeting the food need for the growing Malaysian population. In an attempt to minimize depletion of marine fisheries, only traditional vessels are allowed to fish along the coastal area while bigger vessels are relegated to deep-sea fishing. During the 9th Malaysian Plan (2006-2010) aquaculture has been recognized as the engine of growth in the national food sector’s development strategy. Future fisheries policy is expected to focus more on aquaculture production, marketing and technological improvement as an alternative to marine capture. This paper investigates the causalities between the selected freshwater fish prices, aquaculture area and production. The study aspires to establish whether or not market price is a key contributor to a rise in the aquaculture area and production. Aquaculture firms comprising the individual culturists are generally motivated by the economic potential of the industry which is reflected in excess of price over cost of production. Our hypothesis is that government policy and initiation rather than prices had give rise to greater participation of culturists and hence augmented the level of employment. However, production increase has a negative implication on environment degradation. Thus there is a conflicting view as regards to the employment opportunity generated by aquaculture undertakings and the need for sustainable development arising from this growing industry. Multivariate time series analysis was used in this investigation.

Nik Hashim Nik Mustapha; Azlina Abd Aziz; Nik Mohd Hazrul Hashim

2013-01-01

262

Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798) aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Data was collected in 2009 from organic shrimp farmers in the Kaligonj and Shyamnagar sub-districts through questionnaire interviews, transect walks and focus group discussions. The mean productivity of organic shrimp farming in the area is 320 kg ha?1 yr?1 (ranging from 120 to 711 kg ha?1year?1). Organic farmers are more likely to have a higher monthly income and less aquaculture experience. Moreover, suitable landholdings and classified labor distribution have been found to play an important role in the development of organic shrimp aquaculture. The most common assets of organic shrimp aquaculture are high yield, low production cost, available post larvae and high market prices. Small business farmers are likely to earn more income benefits from organic shrimp aquaculture than their larger-scale counterparts. Finally, the paper suggests that more research is needed to stimulate the success of organic shrimp aquaculture.

Brojo Gopal Paul; Christian Reinhard Vogl

2012-01-01

263

Electronic key system using alpha detection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have developed the new electronic key system utilizes random pulse from alpha-particle detection with PIN photo diode. The random pulse by natural decay of alpha source is stable under the every outside environment like as temperature, pressure, an electromagnetic wave, and so on. The stable and un-predicted signals of the random pulses are the most suitable as a source of authentication signal for the electric key system. The program made of manufacture side forms the key code under current electronic key. Therefore, the manufacture must keep the code data secret for long time. The new electronic key always identify between key body and each key by the original pulse data from alpha particles. It is reduce the control cost of security remarkably. Moreover, back ground noise can be ignored in the circuit and it doesn't need to enlarge a total number of activity. The activity of the alpha source is about 10-100 Bq in one module. (author)

2004-01-01

264

Electron impact ionization of helium isoelectronic systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electron impact single ionization cross sections, on the helium isoelectronic He, Li1+, B3+, C4+ N5+ O6+ Ne8+, Na9+. Ar+16, Fe24+, Mo41+ Ag45+, and U90+ targets, are calculated modifying the simplified Bell (SBELL) model [Eur. Phys. J. D 46, 281 (2008)]. The results of the present analysis are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data. The modified SBELL (MSBELL) model, incorporating the ionic correction factor in it, produces excellent agreement with the experimental data and theoretical calculations for all the two-electron systems, neutral or ions. This model may be a prudent choice in plasma modeling due to its simple inherent structure. (authors)

2008-01-01

265

Contact phenomena in 2D electron systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A promising way to investigate 2D contact phenomena is proposed. This method is based on the idea of depositing surface state electrons (SSE) on a thin layer of liquid helium covering the surface of a solid sample containing a 2D-charge carrier system. The density of SSE adjusts to screen contact-induced perturbations of the electrostatic potential across the sample. As a result, the helium layer thickness varies due to the variation of the electrostatic pressure, thus providing a map. This map may be read off interferometrically by a technique already employed for the investigation of multi-electron dimples on helium. We have realized this mapping for a structured electrode as a test sample to demonstrate the resolution of the method. (orig.)

1998-01-01

266

THE FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE COMPONENT OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fisheries and aquaculture can provide a key contribution to food security and poverty alleviation. Fisheries and aquaculture policy is an instrument for the conservation and management of fisheries and aquaculture. It was created with the aims of managing a common resource. Fisheries policies and management strategies the world over is in a state of flux, continued attempts to use fisheriesas the key to solving a complex web of social and economic issues threaten to overwhelm the basic fact that, if this resources are overfished, they will not sustain either social or development.

Adrian ZUGRAVU

2006-01-01

267

[Building and application of hospital's electronic film system].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes the design process and implementation process of electronic film system. The establishment of electronic film system allowed us to aggressively reduce film use and costs and to demonstrate a positive return.

Yao K; Chen K; Pan Z; Bai Z; Shen J; Dong H; Zhao Y

2013-05-01

268

Power Electronics in Wind Turbine Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. The production, distribution and the use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should be set up. The deregulation of energy has lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources may be very high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power systems, power production and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging renewable energy source, wind energy, which by means of power electronics is changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. By that wind power is also getting an added value in the power system operation.

Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

2006-01-01

269

Electronic readout systems for microchannel plates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The microchannel plate (MCP) is an electron multiplier with a two-dimensional imaging capability. When coupled to a semi-transparent photocathode, the MCP forms a compact image intensifier which is widely used for night vision imaging applications. Alternatively, the MCP can be used in an open-structure configuration to detect high energy photons at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray wavelengths or to directly detect charged particles. The recent development of MCPs which can be operated at high gain in the pulse-counting mode has made it possible to develop position-sensitive electronic systems which can directly detect the charge pulse from the MCP. These digital imaging systems have a large number of applications in astrophysics, plasma physics, and high-energy nuclear physics. The operating characteristics of the different systems which are currently in use or under development and their requirements on the performance characteristics of the high-gain MCPs are described in this paper

1984-11-02

270

Electronic readout systems for microchannel plates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The microchannel plate (MCP) is an electron multiplier with a two-dimensional imaging capability. When coupled to a semi-transparent photocathode, the MCP forms a compact image intensifier which is widely used for night vision imaging applications. Alternatively, the MCP can be used in an open-structure configuration to detect high energy photons at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray wavelengths or to directly detect charged particles. The recent development of MCPs which can be operated at high gain in the pulse-counting mode has made it possible to develop position-sensitive electronic systems which can directly detect the charge pulse from the MCP. These digital imaging systems have a large number of applications in astrophysics, plasma physics, and high-energy nuclear physics. The operating characteristics of the different systems which are currently in use or under development and their requirements on the performance characteristics of the high-gain MCPs are described in this paper.

Timothy, J.G.

1985-02-01

271

Feasibility analysis of the utilization of moderator heat for agricultural and aquacultural purposes, Bruce nuclear power development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A study is presented of the feasibility of using moderator reject heat from the Bruce nuclear power development either to heat greenhouses or to aid in a warm water hatchery or aquaculture operation. The study examines heat extraction and delivery plans, reliability of supply, pricing schedules, the Ontario greenhouse industry, site selection criteria, water transmission and distribution, costs, approvals required, and a construction timetable. Total system analysis shows that a greenhouse facility would be viable but the aquaculture/hatchery scheme is more cost-effective. (E.C.B.)

1977-01-01

272

Electron reactions and electron transfer reactions catalyzed by micellar systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The kinetics of the reaction of hydrated electrons with pyrene, pyrene butyric acid, and pyrene sulfonic acid (PSA) have been investigated in aqueous solutions of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). With all three solubilizates the formation of the electron adduct (P-) occurs very rapidly with rate constants greater than 1011 M-1.sec-1. These abnormally high rate constants are shown to be due to fast trapping of e-/sub aq/ in the positive potential field of the middle and subsequent efficient penetration of electrons into the micellar interior. A similar enhancement was observed for electron transfer reactions between CO2- and solutes solubilized in or on the micelle. For example CO2- readily transfers an electron to pyrene sulfonic acid on the surface of the micelle. This reaction does not occur in homogeneous solution but is catalyzed by the positive electrostatic surface potential. Addition of electrolyte drastically reduces the rate of e-/sub aq/ and CO2- with solubilizates. The Debye-Hueckel theory of electrolytes was invoked to elucidate the role of the charged micellar interface in facilitating the penetration of the electron into the micelle and promoting the electron transfer reaction on the surface. Ion distributions were calculated via solution of a Poisson--Boltzmann equation, generalized to take into account the probable change of the microscopic dielectric constant in the vicinity of the micellar interface

1975-03-01

273

Structural dynamics of electronic and photonic systems  

CERN Multimedia

The proposed book will offer comprehensive and versatile methodologies and recommendations on how to determine dynamic characteristics of typical micro- and opto-electronic structural elements (printed circuit boards, solder joints, heavy devices, etc.) and how to design a viable and reliable structure that would be able to withstand high-level dynamic loading. Particular attention will be given to portable devices and systems designed for operation in harsh environments (such as automotive, aerospace, military, etc.)  In-depth discussion from a mechanical engineer's viewpoint will be conducte

Suhir, Ephraim; Steinberg, David S

2011-01-01

274

Research and Design on Navigation Electronic Map System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper puts forward the new definition on the basis of the original concept of the navigation electronic map, designs the structure of the navigation electronic map system which contains three parts: hardware equipment, data system and software system, and analyzes each part of them in detail, finally this paper discusses the functional framework of the navigation electronic map.

Li Wanwu; Lin Liu; Honglei Dai; Chang Qu; Xiaotong Yang

2013-01-01

275

Wigner-like crystallization of Anderson-localized electron systems with low electron densities  

CERN Document Server

We consider an electron system under conditions of strong Anderson localization, taking into account interelectron long-range Coulomb repulsion. We establish that at sufficiently low electron densities and sufficiently low temperatures the Coulomb electron interaction brings about ordering of the Anderson-localized electrons into a structure that is close to an ideal (Wigner) crystal lattice, provided the dimension of the system is > 1. This Anderson-Wigner glass (AWG) is a new macroscopic electron state that, on the one hand, is beyond the conventional Fermi glass concept, and on the other hand, qualitatively differs from the known 'plain' Wigner glass (inherent in self-localized electron systems) in that the random slight electron displacements from the ideal crystal sites essentially depend on the electron density. With increasing electron density the AWG is found to turn into the plain Wigner glass or Fermi glass, depending on the width of the random spread of the electron levels. It is shown that the res...

Slutskin, A A; Pepper, M

2002-01-01

276

FOULING AS INDICATOR OF AQUACULTURE INFLUENCE ON ENVIRONMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By ecological awarening of the whole community and by the broadening of the aquacultural activity on the Adriatic, the influence of the aquaculture on the environment is more questionable. The opholding of the ecological protection of the natural environment is pointed out as one of the basic goals in the by–coastal aquaculture. The processes of the net fouling, which are used for the construction of the cages, is present to a certain degree at all locations of the fish breeding. By periodical investigation of the fouling organisms it is possible, with the earlier set monitoring (chemisms of the sediments, chemisms of the water, benthic biotes and phytoplankton) to follow the influence of the existing aquacultural activity on the environment. Qualitative and quantitative constitution of the fouling organisms can indicate certain changes in the environment. There are also species that can indicate changes by their presence, i. e. they can be used as indicators of the ecological changes.

Merica Sliškovi?; Gorana Jeli?; Zvonko Hell

2003-01-01

277

Status quo of application and study of probiotics in aquaculture  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mechanism and variety of probiotic, and status quo of application of probiotics improving feed additives and water quality in aquaculture are summarized. The influencial factors, existing problems and developing trend of probiotis in the application are also discussed.

Pu Hongyu; Hu Zhaoqun; Wang Fuqiang

2003-01-01

278

The environmental impact of shrimp aquaculture: a global perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A global perspective on the environmental impacts related to the establishment and operation of shrimp aquaculture is presented. Alternatives to reduce the impacts are considered and research priorities are recommended.

Páez-Osuna F

2001-01-01

279

Feasibility study for aquaculture and space heating, Ft. Bidwell, California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Expansion of the aquaculture facilities and geothermal space heating at Ft. Bidwell, California were investigated. The lack of cold water is the limiting factor for aquaculture expansion and is also a problem for the town domestic water supply. A new cold water well approximately 1200 feet deep would provide for the aquaculture expansion and additional domestic water. A 2900 foot test well can be completed to provide additional hot water at approximately 200/sup 0/F and an estimated artesian flow of 500 gpm. If these wells are completed, the aquaculture facility could be expanded to produce 6000 two pound catfish per month on a continuous basis and provide space heating of at least 20 homes. The design provided allows for heating 11 homes initially with possible future expansion. 9 figs.

Culver, G.

1985-10-01

280

Feeding aquaculture in an era of finite resources.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aquaculture's pressure on forage fisheries remains hotly contested. This article reviews trends in fishmeal and fish oil use in industrial aquafeeds, showing reduced inclusion rates but greater total use associated with increased aquaculture production and demand for fish high in long-chain omega-3 oils. The ratio of wild fisheries inputs to farmed fish output has fallen to 0.63 for the aquaculture sector as a whole but remains as high as 5.0 for Atlantic salmon. Various plant- and animal-based alternatives are now used or available for industrial aquafeeds, depending on relative prices and consumer acceptance, and the outlook for single-cell organisms to replace fish oil is promising. With appropriate economic and regulatory incentives, the transition toward alternative feedstuffs could accelerate, paving the way for a consensus that aquaculture is aiding the ocean, not depleting it.

Naylor RL; Hardy RW; Bureau DP; Chiu A; Elliott M; Farrell AP; Forster I; Gatlin DM; Goldburg RJ; Hua K; Nichols PD

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
281

Energy transformation in molecular electronic systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our new optical pumping spectroscopy (steady state, and double-laser pulse) allows the production and study of the unstable rare tautomer in its ground and excited states, including picosecond dynamic studies. Molecules under study here included 7-azaindole (model for biological purines), 3-hydroxyflavone (model for plant flavones), lumichrome, and other heterocyclics. New detailed molecular mechanisms for proton transfer are derived, especially with catalytic assisting molecules. A new proton-transfer laser of extraordinary efficiency has become a side dividend, possibly worth of industrial development. The excited and highly reactive singlet molecular oxygen species 1?/sub g/) has proven to be ubiquitous in chemical peroxide systems and in physically excited sensitizer-oxygen systems. Hyperbaric oxygen mechanisms in biology probably involve singlet oxygen. We have undertaken a spectroscopic study of tris - dibenzoylmethane chelates of Al, Gd, Eu, and Yb trivalent ions. These chelates offer a variety of electronic behaviors, from Z-effects on ?-electron spin-orbital coupling (Al, Gd) to Weissman intramolecular energy transfer to 4f mestable levels (Eu, Gd). Elegant new spectroscopic resolution at 77K permits separation of tautomeric, parasitic self-absorption, dissociation, and cage effects to be resolved. 18 refs., 4 figs

1985-01-01

282

Energy transformation in molecular electronic systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Our new optical pumping spectroscopy allows the production and study of the unstable rate tautomer in its ground and excited states, including picosecond dynamic studies. Molecules under study here included 7-azaindole 3-hydroxyflavone, lumichrome, and other heterocyclics. New detailed molecular mechanisms for proton transfer are derived, especially with catalytic assisting molecules. A new proton-transfer laser of extraordinary efficiency has become a side dividend, possibly worthy of industrial development. The excited and highly reactive singlet molecular oxygen species (1) DELTA sub g has proven to be ubiquitous in chemical peroxide systems and in physically excited sensitizer-oxygen systems. Hyperbaric oxygen mechanisms in biology probably involve singlet oxygen. We have undertaken a spectroscopic study of trisdibenzoylmethane chelates of Al, Gd, Eu, and Yb trivalent ions. These chelates offer a variety of electronic behaviors, from Z-effects on (PI)--electron spin-orbital coupling (Al, Gd) to Weissman intramolecular energy transfer to 4f mestable levels (Eu, Gd). Elegant new spectroscopic resolution at 77K permits separation of tautomeric, parasitic self-absorption, dissociation, and cage effects to be resolved.

Kasha, M.

1985-07-01

283

Energy transformation in molecular electronic systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our new optical pumping spectroscopy (steady state, and double-laser pulse) allows the production and study of the unstable rare tautomer in its ground and excited states, including picosecond dynamic studies. Molecules under study here included 7-azaindole (model for biological purines), 3-hydroxyflavone (model for plant flavones), lumichrome, and other heterocyclics. New detailed molecular mechanisms for proton transfer are derived, especially with catalytic assisting molecules. A new proton-transfer laser of extraordinary efficiency has become a side dividend, possibly worth of industrial development. The excited and highly reactive singlet molecular oxygen species /sup 1/..delta../sub g/) has proven to be ubiquitous in chemical peroxide systems and in physically excited sensitizer-oxygen systems. Hyperbaric oxygen mechanisms in biology probably involve singlet oxygen. We have undertaken a spectroscopic study of tris - dibenzoylmethane chelates of Al, Gd, Eu, and Yb trivalent ions. These chelates offer a variety of electronic behaviors, from Z-effects on ..pi..-electron spin-orbital coupling (Al, Gd) to Weissman intramolecular energy transfer to 4f mestable levels (Eu, Gd). Elegant new spectroscopic resolution at 77K permits separation of tautomeric, parasitic self-absorption, dissociation, and cage effects to be resolved. 18 refs., 4 figs.

Kasha, M.

1985-07-25

284

Performance of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings in a hyper-intensive recirculating aquaculture system with low water exchange/ Rendimiento de juveniles de tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus en un sistema híperintensivo de recirculación acuícola con mínimo recambio de agua  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el rendimiento de juveniles de tilapia del Nilo Oreochromis niloticus sembrados en densidades hiperintensivas en un sistema de recirculación acuícola (SRA) con mínimo remplazo de agua. El sistema experimental consistió en un sistema de precría de cosecha única para obtener peces de 50 g en 60 días. Los peces (2,07 ± 0,14 g) se sembraron por triplicado a densidades de 400 (T1), 500 (T2) y 600 (T3) peces m-3 (0,84; 1,05; 1,22 (more) kg m-3). El SRA funcionó con 12.000 L de agua recirculante y un remplazo diario de 252 L (2,1% por día). La densidad de siembra no afectó significativamente la supervivencia (89,5-93,6%). El biofiltro removió el amonio nitrogenado total con una eficiencia del 46,9 ± 7,0%. La tasa de crecimiento de T1 (0,96 g día-1; 5,01% día-1) y T2 (0,92 g día-1; 4,95% día-1) fue significativamente mayor que T3 (0,83 g día-1; 4,80% día-1). La temperatura influyó 41% en la tasa de crecimiento específico (TCE) de T1. La concentración de oxígeno disuelto (DO) influyó en la variación de peso en T2 (47%) y T3 (44%). La TCE de T3 también se vio afectada por la concentración de nitrógeno amoniacal (31%). El aumento de la densidad de siembra afectó el tamaño y la homogeneidad de tallas de los peces, pero no afectó la relación longitud-peso (L-P). Los datos respaldan la conclusión que los juveniles sembrados a densidades de 400 y 500 peces m-3 tienen alto rendimiento durante nueve semanas consecutivas, siempre y cuando la biomasa no se exceda de 37 kg m-3. En este tiempo los peces alcanzan el peso final esperado de precría (50 g) y pueden ser transferidos hacia las instalaciones de engorde. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was evaluate the performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) raised at hyper intensive stocking density in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) with minimum water replacing. The experimental system was performed in a single-batch nursery system to obtain 50 g fish size in 60 days. Fish (2.07 ± 0.04 g) were stocked in triplicate at 400 (T1), 500 (T2) and 600 (T3) fish m-3 (0.84, 1.05, 1.22 kg m-3). RAS functioned with 12,000 L (more) of recirculating water and 252 L day-1of water replacing (2.1% daily). The efficiency of the biofilter for removing the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was 48 ± 12.5 mg L-1. Stocking density did not affect significantly the survival (89.5 to 93.6%). The growth rate of T1 (0.96 g day-1; 5.01% day-1) and T2 (0.92 g day-1; 4.95 % day-1) was significantly higher than T3 (0.83 g day-1; 4.80% day-1). The specific growth rate (SGR) of T1 was 41% influenced by temperature. For T2 and T3 the SGR were influenced by the variation of dissolved oxygen (DO) that explained 47 and 44% of the fish weight variation, respectively. The SGR from T3 was also affected by the concentration of ammonia nitrogen (31%). The high stocking density affected the overall size of fish and the size homogeneity, but had no negative effect on the length-weight relationship (L-W). Data support the conclusion that fingerling stocked at 400 and 500 fish m-3 shows high performance during 9-weeks when the biomass not exceed 37 kg m-3. At this time fish have reached the desired final nursery weight (50 g) for transfer to grow-out facilities.

Gullian-Klanian, M; Arámburu-Adame, C

2013-03-01

285

Experimental system of ejected electron spectroscopy with ECR ion source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experiment of analyzing energy spectrum of electrons ejected from multiple electron capture process on ion-atom collision is carried out using ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion source. An old collision system using gas atoms as target and a new system using vapour atoms are developed. In this report, the developments and exploitations of the experimental systems for the ejected electron spectroscopy with ECR Ion source are presented. (author).

1995-01-01

286

Experimental system of ejected electron spectroscopy with ECR ion source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The experiment of analyzing energy spectrum of electrons ejected from multiple electron capture process on ion-atom collision is carried out using ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion source. An old collision system using gas atoms as target and a new system using vapour atoms are developed. In this report, the developments and exploitations of the experimental systems for the ejected electron spectroscopy with ECR Ion source are presented. (author).

Kitazawa, Sin-iti [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

1995-09-01

287

Nonlinear Quantum Wave Equation of Radiation Electron and Dissipative Systems  

CERN Multimedia

As well known, an electron will produce radiative reaction force when the electron emits electromagnetism radiation. The electron radiative effect had not been considered in Schr\\"{o}dinger wave equation. In this paper, we give the nonlinear quantum wave equations for the radiative electron and some dissipative systems.

Wu, Xiang-Yao; Zhang, Bai-Jun; Wu, Yi-Heng

2010-01-01

288

Can we get the upper hand on viral diseases in aquaculture of Atlantic salmon  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Viral diseases are a major problem in Atlantic salmon aquaculture. The development of more effective viral vaccines is crucial for a sustained control of viral diseases in salmon farming because the present viral vaccines are much less effective than the bacterial vaccines. On the other hand, research and lessons from Norwegian aquaculture suggest that major progress in the control of viral diseases can still be made through classical combat principles. Improved and enforced strategies for avoidance and control of viral pathogens by breaking horizontal transmission have yielded encouraging results both for the infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) and for the pancreas disease virus (PDV). More emphasis should also be placed on the possible vertical transmission of viral pathogens. Interestingly, salmon appears to have a relatively strong innate immunity against viruses as it possesses a very well-developed interferon system. Interferons protect salmon cells very well against the infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) and PDV and salmon show high resistance against these viruses in challenge experiments. In contrast, these viruses cause high mortality in salmon farming. This suggests that the avoidance of production conditions that result in the suppression of the immune system is of primary importance for the prevention of IPN and PD in the aquaculture industry. Interferons protect salmon cells against the ISAV less effectively, which confirms that ISA must be combated by avoidance and vaccination. Breeding of virus-resistant salmon shows promising results, especially with respect to IPN. Finally, to effectuate the above combat principles, it is important to educate highly competent aquamedicine personnel within the aquaculture industry. In Norway, this is accomplished through a 5-year integrated MSc programme in Aquamedicine.

Robertsen B

2011-02-01

289

Antibiotic resistance and genetic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates from traditional and integrated aquaculture in South China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated antibiotic resistance profiles including antibiotic resistance frequencies, resistance genes and resistance patterns in Escherichia coli strains isolated from traditional and integrated aquaculture systems in South China by using antibiotic susceptibility testing and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The E. coli isolates were found to be resistant to at least one antibiotic among 12 antibiotics. Higher resistance frequencies to ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprime, streptomycin and tetracycline were found compared to the rest antibiotics. Among the 10 tetracycline resistance genes detected in the resistant isolates, the most prevalent tetracycline resistance genes were tetA, tetW and tetB with the frequency of 69.7%, 63.5% and 21.9%, respectively. Three sulfonamide resistance genes were detected in these resistant isolates, with their detection frequencies in the following order: sul2 (55.3%) > sul3 (28.2%) > sul1 (6.2%). Four resistance genes mainly encoding extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) were detected in these resistant isolates, with the detection frequencies of blaTEM (28.4%) > blaOXA (9.7%) > blaCTX (9.3%) > blaCARB (5.2%) > blaSHV (0.0%). It was found that the integrated aquaculture system exhibited generally higher prevalence of antibiotic resistance than the traditional aquaculture system. An integrated aquaculture system could facilitate development of bacterial resistance and spread of the antibiotic resistance genes, and consequently become an important reservoir of resistance genes.

Zhang RQ; Ying GG; Su HC; Zhou LJ; Liu YS

2013-01-01

290

Parallel data acquisition system for electron momentum spectrometer  

CERN Multimedia

A parallel data acquisition system has been developed for the study of electron impact ionization of atoms and molecules. The system has a large data storage capacity providing good experimental resolution and system flexibility. The system is used to collect and analyze data from electron momentum spectroscopy experiment. Results from electron momentum spectroscopy experiments on C sub 4 H sub 1 sub 0 molecules, at an incident energy of 1200 eV, are presented to demonstrate the performance of the system. (author)

Pang, W N

1999-01-01

291

Consumer behaviour and preferences for aquaculture products  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During the last decades, the proportion of aquaculture products in the market place has increased dramatically and this trend seems to continue in the future as well. While both the producers of aquaculture products as well as the distribution channels are aware of this change in product composition, still little is known about the effect this has on consumer preferences and product choices. In connection with the SEAFOODplus project CONSUMERSURVEY, which aims at explaining seafood consumption, a major survey has been carried out in five European countries in order to achieve more knowledge about consumer preferences and choice in relation to fish in general as well as preferences for farmed and wild fish. Questionnaires were sent to a representative sample of consumers in 5 European countries: Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Poland and Spain, and a total of 4786 valid questionnaires were returned and analysed. Results show that there is widespread confusion regarding whether fish is wild or farmed. The data disclose large discrepancies in reported total fish consumption frequency as shown in Table 1 and reported consumption of wild and farmed fish as shown in table 2. From the total sample, 2.5% claim to never or seldom eat fish in general. About one third claim never to eat farmed fish, and also one third claims never to eat wild fish. Combining these, it turns out that 24.8% of the total sample claim neither to eat farmed nor wild fish. It seems, however, that the confusion about wild and farmed fish increases with age, since the reported consumption of wild fish decreases with increasing age, which is the opposite trend compared to reported overall fish consumption. The data shows that on average the consumption of fish increases with increasing age in all countries except Poland where differences in consumption frequencies were not significant across age groups. On average fresh wild fish is perceived to be of higher quality compared to farmed fish. On the other hand, fresh farmed fish is perceived to have a more consistent quality compared to fresh wild fish and to be more available and thus easier to purchase. Furthermore, when it comes to safety, consumers do not perceive any difference in relation to the safety of fresh wild fish and fresh farmed fish.

BrunsØ, Karen; Scholderer, Joachim

292

Synthesizing cognition in neuromorphic electronic systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The quest to implement intelligent processing in electronic neuromorphic systems lacks methods for achieving reliable behavioral dynamics on substrates of inherently imprecise and noisy neurons. Here we report a solution to this problem that involves first mapping an unreliable hardware layer of spiking silicon neurons into an abstract computational layer composed of generic reliable subnetworks of model neurons and then composing the target behavioral dynamics as a "soft state machine" running on these reliable subnets. In the first step, the neural networks of the abstract layer are realized on the hardware substrate by mapping the neuron circuit bias voltages to the model parameters. This mapping is obtained by an automatic method in which the electronic circuit biases are calibrated against the model parameters by a series of population activity measurements. The abstract computational layer is formed by configuring neural networks as generic soft winner-take-all subnetworks that provide reliable processing by virtue of their active gain, signal restoration, and multistability. The necessary states and transitions of the desired high-level behavior are then easily embedded in the computational layer by introducing only sparse connections between some neurons of the various subnets. We demonstrate this synthesis method for a neuromorphic sensory agent that performs real-time context-dependent classification of motion patterns observed by a silicon retina.

Neftci E; Binas J; Rutishauser U; Chicca E; Indiveri G; Douglas RJ

2013-09-01

293

CERN Sells its Electronic Document Handling System  

CERN Document Server

The EDH team. Left to right: Derek Mathieson, Rotislav Titov, Per Gunnar Jonsson, Ivica Dobrovicova, James Purvis. Missing from the photo is Jurgen De Jonghe. In a 1 MCHF deal announced this week, the British company Transacsys bought the rights to CERN's Electronic Document Handling (EDH) system, which has revolutionised the Laboratory's administrative procedures over the last decade. Under the deal, CERN and Transacsys will collaborate on developing EDH over the coming 12 months. CERN will provide manpower and expertise and will retain the rights to use EDH, which will also be available freely to other particle physics laboratories. This development is an excellent example of the active technology transfer policy CERN is currently pursuing. The negotiations were carried out through a fruitful collaboration between AS and ETT Divisions, following the recommendations of the Technology Advisory Board, and with the help of SPL Division. EDH was born in 1991 when John Ferguson and Achille Petrilli of AS Divisi...

2001-01-01

294

Advanced Photonic and Electronic Systems WILGA 2010  

CERN Multimedia

SPIE – PSP WILGA Symposium gathers two times a year in January and in May new adepts of advanced photonic and electronic systems. The event is oriented on components and applications. WILGA Symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering is well known on the web for its devotion to “young research” promotion under the eminent sponsorship of international engineering associations like SPIE and IEEE and their Poland Sections or Counterparts. WILGA is supported by the most important national professional organizations like KEiT PAN and PSP-Photonics Society of Poland. The Symposium is organized since 1998 twice a year. It has gathered over 4000 young researchers and published over 2000 papers mainly internationally, including more than 900 in 10 published so far volumes of Proc. SPIE. This paper is a digest of WILGA Symposium Series and WILGA 2010 summary. Introductory part treats WILGA Photonics Applications characteristics over the period 1998-2010. Following part presents a short report on the XXVth and XXVI...

Romaniuk, R S

2010-01-01

295

New electron beam sterilization systems. Surebeam On-Site System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Titan Scan Systems has recently completed its second generation of electron beam sterilization systems with the introduction of the self contained, Surebeam On-Site System. The system is designed exclusively for the sterilization of medical products and meets all USFDA, ISO and EN certification requirements. This paper will present and discuss: 1. System design elements including the horizontal RF linear accelerator, the material handling system, the conformal shielding, the control system and the safety system. 2. Elements of the radiation shielding design considered include primary bremsstrahlung, scattered radiation, maze design and neutron production. 3. Design requirements for the supporting utilities including electrical power, cooling water and HVAC will be given and discussed. 4. A summary of the installation qualification and system validation process to assure system integrity, reliability and maintainability will be presented. 5. In addition steps taken to protect personnel from the ozone produced during the radiation cycle will be described and the results of a health hazards analysis conducted to asses the environmental impact of exhausting the ozone to the atmosphere will be presented. 6. Finally equipment required to ensure the safety of workers and the general public will be specified and discussed. The paper will include photographs of the first installation at the Guidant Corporation in Temecula, California. (author)

1998-01-01

296

New electron beam sterilization systems. Surebeam On-Site System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Titan Scan Systems has recently completed its second generation of electron beam sterilization systems with the introduction of the self contained, Surebeam On-Site System. The system is designed exclusively for the sterilization of medical products and meets all USFDA, ISO and EN certification requirements. This paper will present and discuss: 1. System design elements including the horizontal RF linear accelerator, the material handling system, the conformal shielding, the control system and the safety system. 2. Elements of the radiation shielding design considered include primary bremsstrahlung, scattered radiation, maze design and neutron production. 3. Design requirements for the supporting utilities including electrical power, cooling water and HVAC will be given and discussed. 4. A summary of the installation qualification and system validation process to assure system integrity, reliability and maintainability will be presented. 5. In addition steps taken to protect personnel from the ozone produced during the radiation cycle will be described and the results of a health hazards analysis conducted to asses the environmental impact of exhausting the ozone to the atmosphere will be presented. 6. Finally equipment required to ensure the safety of workers and the general public will be specified and discussed. The paper will include photographs of the first installation at the Guidant Corporation in Temecula, California. (author)

Calhoun, L.R. [Titan Scan Corporation, San Diego, CA (United States); Lambert, B.; Tang, Fuh-Wei

1998-12-31

297

Characteristics of the beam injection system in an electron LINAC  

Science.gov (United States)

The main characteristics of an electron beam injection system are described; the system is used for injecting and focusing electron beams into the acceleration structure of an 10 MeV linear electron accelerator. The beam injection system consists of a Pierce convergent diode-type electron gun with pulse modulator for power supply and a thin axially symmetric lens. The perveance and the capture coefficient were optimized by the analogical resistors network. This type of injection system was used in the linear electron accelerators: ALIN - 3 MeV, ALIN - 10 MeV and ALID - 8 MeV, performed at NILPRP? Bucharest, Romania.

B?l???eanu, N.; Gheorghiu, A.; Jurb?, M.; Popescu, E.

2011-12-01

298

Survey and Alignment of the Fermilab Electron Cooling System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of achieving the Tevatron luminosity of 3 x 1032 cm-2s-1 requires Electron Cooling in the Recycler Ring to provide an increased flux of antiprotons. The Fermilab Electron Cooling system has been designed to assist accumulation of antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. The installation along with the survey and alignment of the Electron Cooling system in the Recycler Ring were completed in November 2004. The Electron Cooling system was fully commissioned in May 2005 and the first cooling of antiprotons was achieved in July 2005. This paper discusses the alignment methodology employed to survey and align the Electron Cooling system.

2006-01-01

299

Survey and Alignment of the Fermilab Electron Cooling System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of achieving the Tevatron luminosity of 3 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} requires Electron Cooling in the Recycler Ring to provide an increased flux of antiprotons. The Fermilab Electron Cooling system has been designed to assist accumulation of antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. The installation along with the survey and alignment of the Electron Cooling system in the Recycler Ring were completed in November 2004. The Electron Cooling system was fully commissioned in May 2005 and the first cooling of antiprotons was achieved in July 2005. This paper discusses the alignment methodology employed to survey and align the Electron Cooling system.

Oshinowo, Babatunde O' Sheg; Leibfritz, Jerry; /Fermilab

2006-09-01

300

Characteristics of the beam injection system in an electron LINAC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main characteristics of an electron beam injection system are described; the system is used for injecting and focusing electron beams into the acceleration structure of an 10 MeV linear electron accelerator. The beam injection system consists of a Pierce convergent diode-type electron gun with pulse modulator for power supply and a thin axially symmetric lens. The perveance and the capture coefficient were optimized by the analogical resistors network. This type of injection system was used in the linear electron accelerators: ALIN - 3 MeV, ALIN - 10 MeV and ALID - 8 MeV, performed at NILPRP{sup Asterisk-Operator} Bucharest, Romania.

Baltateanu, N., E-mail: nicolaebaltateanu@yahoo.com [Hyperion University, Hyperion Research and Development Institute Bucharest, 169 Calea Calarasilor, Bucharest 3, CP 030615 (Romania); Gheorghiu, A. [Hyperion University, Hyperion Research and Development Institute Bucharest, 169 Calea Calarasilor, Bucharest 3, CP 030615 (Romania); Jurba, M. [Electrooptic Components SRL, 171 A Atomistilor str, Magurele-Ilfov (Romania); Popescu, E., E-mail: elop@elop.ro [Electrooptic Components SRL, 171 A Atomistilor str, Magurele-Ilfov (Romania)

2011-12-15

 
 
 
 
301

Characteristics of the beam injection system in an electron LINAC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main characteristics of an electron beam injection system are described; the system is used for injecting and focusing electron beams into the acceleration structure of an 10 MeV linear electron accelerator. The beam injection system consists of a Pierce convergent diode-type electron gun with pulse modulator for power supply and a thin axially symmetric lens. The perveance and the capture coefficient were optimized by the analogical resistors network. This type of injection system was used in the linear electron accelerators: ALIN – 3 MeV, ALIN – 10 MeV and ALID ? 8 MeV, performed at NILPRP? Bucharest, Romania.

2011-12-15

302

Defeating diplostomoid dangers in USA catfish aquaculture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diplostomoid digenean metacercariae have caused widescale mortalities of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), at aquaculture farms in Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas, USA. Originally, based on a tentative diagnosis, the industry considered the primary harmful agent to be an introduced species from Europe, Bolbophorus confusus (Krause, 1914), frequently reported from the American white pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin. Our group has now shown, using ITS 1-2 plus three more-conservative gene fragments, that two sympatric species of Bolbophorus exist in the American white pelican. One, B. damnificus Overstreet et Curran, 2002, infects the musculature of catfish, and the other, probably not B. confusus, does not infect catfish. However, at least four other pathogenic diplostomoids and a clinostomoid infect the catfish, and they use at least four different snail hosts, including the planorbids Planorbella trivolvis (Say) and Gyraulus parvus (Say), the physid Physella gyrina (Say) and a lymnaeid. Two metacercariae, B. damnificus and Bursacetabulus pelecanus Dronen, Tehrany et Wardle, 1999, infect the catfish and mature in the pelican; two others, Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) and Hysteromorpha cf. triloba (Rudolphi, 1819), mature in cormorants; one, Diplostomum sp., matures in seagulls and at least one, Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819), matures in herons, egrets and other wading birds. Consequently, management of catfish ponds relative to digenean infections requires considerable biological information on the fish, bird, and snail hosts as well as the parasites.

Overstreet RM; Curran SS

2004-06-01

303

Defeating diplostomoid dangers in USA catfish aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diplostomoid digenean metacercariae have caused widescale mortalities of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), at aquaculture farms in Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas, USA. Originally, based on a tentative diagnosis, the industry considered the primary harmful agent to be an introduced species from Europe, Bolbophorus confusus (Krause, 1914), frequently reported from the American white pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin. Our group has now shown, using ITS 1-2 plus three more-conservative gene fragments, that two sympatric species of Bolbophorus exist in the American white pelican. One, B. damnificus Overstreet et Curran, 2002, infects the musculature of catfish, and the other, probably not B. confusus, does not infect catfish. However, at least four other pathogenic diplostomoids and a clinostomoid infect the catfish, and they use at least four different snail hosts, including the planorbids Planorbella trivolvis (Say) and Gyraulus parvus (Say), the physid Physella gyrina (Say) and a lymnaeid. Two metacercariae, B. damnificus and Bursacetabulus pelecanus Dronen, Tehrany et Wardle, 1999, infect the catfish and mature in the pelican; two others, Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) and Hysteromorpha cf. triloba (Rudolphi, 1819), mature in cormorants; one, Diplostomum sp., matures in seagulls and at least one, Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819), matures in herons, egrets and other wading birds. Consequently, management of catfish ponds relative to digenean infections requires considerable biological information on the fish, bird, and snail hosts as well as the parasites. PMID:15357393

Overstreet, Robin M; Curran, Stephen S

2004-06-01

304

Review of occupational hazards associated with aquaculture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aquaculture is an emerging sector that is associated with most of the same hazards that are present in agriculture generally, but many fish farming tasks entail added danger, including working around water and working at night. Comprehensive studies of these hazards have not been conducted, and substantial uncertainty exists as to the extent of these hazards. The question addressed in this investigation was, "What is known about potential hazardous occupational exposures to aquatic plant and animal farmers?" In this review, causes of death included drowning, electrocution, crushing-related injury, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and fatal head injury. Nonfatal injuries were associated with slips, trips, and falls; machines; strains and sprains; chemicals; and fires. Risk factors included cranes (tip over and power line contact), tractors and sprayer-equipped all-terrain vehicles (overturn), heavy loads (lifting), high-pressure sprayers, slippery surfaces, rotting waste (hydrogen sulfide production), eroding levees (overturn hazard), storm-related rushing water, diving conditions (bends and drowning), nighttime conditions, working alone, lack of training, lack of or failure to use personal flotation devices, and all-terrain vehicle speeding. Other hazards included punctures or cuts from fish teeth or spines, needlesticks, exposure to low temperatures, and bacterial and parasitic infections .

Myers ML

2010-10-01

305

Review of occupational hazards associated with aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaculture is an emerging sector that is associated with most of the same hazards that are present in agriculture generally, but many fish farming tasks entail added danger, including working around water and working at night. Comprehensive studies of these hazards have not been conducted, and substantial uncertainty exists as to the extent of these hazards. The question addressed in this investigation was, "What is known about potential hazardous occupational exposures to aquatic plant and animal farmers?" In this review, causes of death included drowning, electrocution, crushing-related injury, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and fatal head injury. Nonfatal injuries were associated with slips, trips, and falls; machines; strains and sprains; chemicals; and fires. Risk factors included cranes (tip over and power line contact), tractors and sprayer-equipped all-terrain vehicles (overturn), heavy loads (lifting), high-pressure sprayers, slippery surfaces, rotting waste (hydrogen sulfide production), eroding levees (overturn hazard), storm-related rushing water, diving conditions (bends and drowning), nighttime conditions, working alone, lack of training, lack of or failure to use personal flotation devices, and all-terrain vehicle speeding. Other hazards included punctures or cuts from fish teeth or spines, needlesticks, exposure to low temperatures, and bacterial and parasitic infections . PMID:20954037

Myers, Melvin L

2010-10-01

306

Use of UASB reactors for brackish aquaculture sludge digestion under different conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Treatment and disposal of high volume of salty waste production in recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) is a major challenge and the sludge is often a source of environmental pollution and salinization of receiving soils and water bodies. Anaerobic digestion is an efficient mean for the treatment of wastes of different origins and might serve a useful tool for the reduction of salty aquaculture discharge load. Use of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for digestion of brackish aquaculture sludge from RASs under different C:N ratios, temperatures, and hydraulic retention times demonstrated high removal efficiencies of over 92% as volatile solids (VS), 98% as chemical oxygen demand and 81% as total suspended solids in all reactors. Methane production topped 7.1 mL/gVS d and was limited by low C:N ratio but was not influenced by temperature fluctuations. The treated liquid effluent from all reactors was of sufficient quality for reuse in the RAS, leading to significant water recycling and saving rates. UASB may be an attractive solution for brackish sludge management in RASs.

Mirzoyan N; Gross A

2013-05-01

307

Use of UASB reactors for brackish aquaculture sludge digestion under different conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatment and disposal of high volume of salty waste production in recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) is a major challenge and the sludge is often a source of environmental pollution and salinization of receiving soils and water bodies. Anaerobic digestion is an efficient mean for the treatment of wastes of different origins and might serve a useful tool for the reduction of salty aquaculture discharge load. Use of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for digestion of brackish aquaculture sludge from RASs under different C:N ratios, temperatures, and hydraulic retention times demonstrated high removal efficiencies of over 92% as volatile solids (VS), 98% as chemical oxygen demand and 81% as total suspended solids in all reactors. Methane production topped 7.1 mL/gVS d and was limited by low C:N ratio but was not influenced by temperature fluctuations. The treated liquid effluent from all reactors was of sufficient quality for reuse in the RAS, leading to significant water recycling and saving rates. UASB may be an attractive solution for brackish sludge management in RASs. PMID:23528783

Mirzoyan, Natella; Gross, Amit

2013-03-13

308

EU sampling strategies for the detection of veterinary drug residues in aquaculture species: are they working?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the past 50 years, the culture of aquatic species in controlled conditions to enhance production has grown in importance and now provides nearly 50% of the world's seafood supply. In part, this expansion has been made possible by the use of antibiotics, antifungals, and other veterinary medicines to control disease and improve welfare. Despite guidelines being available, the sampling programmes for drug residue surveillance of aquaculture products recommended by the CODEX Alimentarius Commission were withdrawn in 2008 and put under review. Directive 96/23/EC sets out legislation to govern how sampling programmes for drug residue surveillance should be conducted within the EU. This directive applies both to produce raised within the EU and also imported products from third countries. This communication examines the existing EU sampling regimen for aquaculture products and comments on its possible application in a global context. We examine UK statutory sampling data that, while indicating the effectiveness of the directive, also suggests that the directive may lead to unnecessary sampling. Regarding imports, examination of the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) database using process control charts and statistical modelling suggests that the sampling regimen described in the directive is effective but not sufficiently flexible for the range of aquaculture practices that exist. Limitations of the directive, datasets, and practices are further discussed.

Morris DJ; Gray AJ; Kay JF; Gettinby G

2012-08-01

309

Cyclotron spin-wave in the 2D electron system  

CERN Document Server

The cyclotron spin-wave mode of a two-dimensional electron system have been investigated by inelastic light scattering. It is observed at small electron filling factors of the Landau level (nu approx 0.1) when the electron system is spin-depolarized. As long as the electron system becomes fully spin-polarized (nu > 0.2) the cyclotron spin-wave disappears from the inelastic light scattering spectra. It reenters at electron filling factors nu > 1. Over the range of electron filling factors of 1 < nu < 2 the cyclotron spin-wave energy is insensitive to both the experimentally accessible momenta and the electron concentration, whereas inelastic light scattering efficiency is strongly influence by the spin polarization of the electron system

Kulik, L V; Kirpichev, V E; Smet, J H; Klitzing, K V; Umansky, V; Wegscheider, W

2001-01-01

310

A Layman's Guide to Geothermal Aquaculture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following paper is designed as an aid to anyone contemplating a venture into commercially raising giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Oregon Institute of Technology has been actively involved in a research program to determine the feasibility of such a venture and results to date have been very encouraging. This aquaculture research was initiated in 1975 and was developed as an effort to utilize excess energy from the school’s geothermal heating system. Therefore, most of the information gathered here, will apply to flow-through systems which use geothermal water to maintain a suitable environment for the animals. A study of the market potential for freshwater prawns has been conducted and a favorable response received from wholesale distributors in the Pacific Northwest. Not only is a good market available, but distributors have suggested paying from $4.50 to $5.00 per pound for whole prawns in the size category of 16 to 20 tails to the pound, for a constant fresh supply. By maintaining constant temperatures of 27 degrees Celsius (80 degrees Fahrenheit) ± 1 degree Celsius in our research ponds, we have been able to produce this size prawn in 6 to 8 months.

Smith, Kenan C.

1981-01-01

311

One nanosecond pulsed electron gun systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At SLAC there has been a continuous need for the injection of very short bunches of electrons into the accelerator. Several time-of-flight experiments have used bursts of short pulses during a normal 1.6 micro-second rf acceleration period. Single bunch beam loading experiments made use of a short pulse injection system which included high power transverse beam chopping equipment. Until the equipment described in this paper came on line, the basic grid-controlled gun pulse was limited to a rise time of 7 nanoseconds and a pulse width of 10 nanoseconds. The system described here has a grid-controlled rise time of less than 500 pico-seconds, and a minimum pulse width of less than 1 nanosecond. Pulse burst repetition rate has been demonstrated above 20 MHz during a 1.6 microsecond rf accelerating period. The order-of-magnitude increase in gun grid switching speed comes from a new gun design which minimizes lead inductance and stray capacitance, and also increases gun grid transconductance. These gun improvements coupled with a newly designed fast pulser mounted directly within the gun envelope make possible subnanosecond pulsing of the gun

1979-03-14

312

Correlation effects in 2-dimensional electron systems : composite fermions and electron liquid crystals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The discovery of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE) and its explanation brought the importance of electron-electron correlation effects in 2-dimensional electron systems into focus. Correlations often dominate the physics of clean 2DES subjected to a strong perpendicular magnetic field, becau...

Göres, Jörn

313

Human Health Consequences of Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Aquaculture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Intensive use of antimicrobial agents in aquaculture provides a selective pressure creating reservoirs of drug-resistant bacteria and transferable resistance genes in fish pathogens and other bacteria in the aquatic environment. From these reservoirs, resistance genes may disseminate by horizontal gene transfer and reach human pathogens, or drug-resistant pathogens from the aquatic environment may reach humans directly. Horizontal gene transfer may occur in the aquaculture environment, in the food chain, or in the human intestinal tract. Among the antimicrobial agents commonly used in aquaculture, several are classified by the World Health Organisation as critically important for use in humans. Occurrence of resistance to these antimicrobial agents in human pathogens severely limits the therapeutic options in human infections. Considering the rapid growth and importance of aquaculture industry in many regions of the world and the widespread, intensive, and often unregulated use of antimicrobial agents in thisarea of animal production, efforts are needed to prevent development and spread of antimicrobial resistance in aquaculture to reduce the risk to human health.

Heuer, Ole Eske; Kruse, H.

2009-01-01

314

Establishment of a mobile electron beam treatment system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main goal of the project was the construction of mobile electron beam treatment system. The system of mobile electron beam was needed against the environmental problem that was not able to be figured out by the conventional treatment technologies. The mobile electron beam system was constructed for the field demonstration of treatment and remediation of various contaminated environments to obtain New Environmental Technology (NET) of Ministry of Environment (MOE)

2010-01-01

315

Use of Geothermal Energy for Aquaculture Purposes - Phase III  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project, financed by the Pacific Northwest Regional Commission (PNRC), was designed to provide information to evaluate the best methods to use for intensive aquaculture of freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, using geothermal energy. The freshwater prawn is a tropical organism and is native to southeast Asia. Earlier projects at Oregon Institute of Technology have shown the feasibility of culturing this aquatic animal in geothermal water. This phase of the project was designed to investigate intensive culture of this animal as well as the advantages of growing rainbow trout, ornamental tropical fin fish, and mosquito fish, Gambusia affnis, for vector control using geothermal energy. The research data collected on the prawns was obtained from the stocking and sampling of two 0.2- ha (half-acre) ponds constructed as a part of the project. The ponds are equipped with recording monitors for temperature and flow. The geothermal energy used is the geothermal effluent from the Oregon Institute of Technology heating system. This water is of potable quality and ranges in temperature from 50 to 70oC. The geothermal water used in the ponds is controlled at 27oC, ± 2oC, by using thermostats and solenoid valves. A small building next to the ponds contains facilities for hatching larvae prawns and tanks for growing post-larvae prawns. The hatchery facility makes the project self-sustaining. The hatchery was obtained as part of an earlier PNRC project.

Johnson, W.C.; Smith, K.C.

1981-09-01

316

Managing to harvest? Perspectives on the potential of aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaculture has been one of the most rapid and technically innovative of food production sectors globally, with significant investment, scientific and technical development and production growth in many parts of the world over the past two decades. While this has had a significant effect on the global supply of aquatic food products and had an important impact in rural and urban food supply and employment in many developing economies, growth and increasing internationalization has not been without concern for natural resource use, environmental impact and social disruption. The expectations for production and diversification are now significant and while the scientific and technical means are already available to meet much of the intended targets, practical constraints of investment, profitability, resource access and system efficiency are likely to become far more important constraints for the future. This review offers a contemporary perspective on the ways in which the sector might develop, its interactions with constraints and the strategies that may be required to ensure that future development is both positive and sustainable. PMID:15713597

Muir, James

2005-01-29

317

Managing to harvest? Perspectives on the potential of aquaculture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aquaculture has been one of the most rapid and technically innovative of food production sectors globally, with significant investment, scientific and technical development and production growth in many parts of the world over the past two decades. While this has had a significant effect on the global supply of aquatic food products and had an important impact in rural and urban food supply and employment in many developing economies, growth and increasing internationalization has not been without concern for natural resource use, environmental impact and social disruption. The expectations for production and diversification are now significant and while the scientific and technical means are already available to meet much of the intended targets, practical constraints of investment, profitability, resource access and system efficiency are likely to become far more important constraints for the future. This review offers a contemporary perspective on the ways in which the sector might develop, its interactions with constraints and the strategies that may be required to ensure that future development is both positive and sustainable.

Muir J

2005-01-01

318

Temperature and salmonid reproduction: implications for aquaculture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fish reproduction is likely to be affected by increasing water temperatures arising from climate change. Normal changes in environmental temperature have the capacity to affect endocrine function and either advance or retard gametogenesis and maturation, but above-normal temperatures have deleterious effects on reproductive processes. In Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, exposure to elevated temperature during gametogenesis impairs both gonadal steroid synthesis and hepatic vitellogenin production, alters hepatic oestrogen receptor dynamics and ultimately results in reduced maternal investment and gamete viability. Exposure to high temperature during the maturational phase impairs gonadal steroidogenesis, delaying or inhibiting the preovulatory shift from androgen to maturation-inducing steroid production. There are also deleterious effects on reproductive development of female broodstock of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus when they are exposed to elevated temperature. Less is known about temperature effects on male fishes but inhibition of spermiation has been observed in S. salar and O. mykiss. Among wild stocks, the response to elevated temperature will involve behavioural thermoregulation with consequent change in geographical ranges and the possibility of local extinctions in some regions. For domesticated stocks, containment in the culture environment precludes behavioural thermoregulation and aquaculturists will be required to develop adaptive strategies in order to maintain productivity. The most direct strategy is to manage the thermal environment using one or more of a range of developing aquaculture technologies. Alternatively, there is potential to mitigate the effects of elevated temperature on reproductive processes through endocrine therapies designed to augment or restore natural endocrine function. Studies largely on S. salar have demonstrated the capacity for synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone to offset the inhibitory effects of elevated temperature on maturational events in both sexes, but the potential for hormone therapy to provide protection during gametogenesis is still largely unexplored.

Pankhurst NW; King HR

2010-01-01

319

Aquaculture investigations with nuclear energy techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The culture of aquatic organisms, especially that of fishes under controlled conditions, up to their harvesting, processing, commercialization and consumption, has been pointed out as an activity that produces a lot of benefits, among them: the obtention high proteic valued food, the incorporation to the economy of lands not usefull for agriculture activities, the increment of fishing resources, the recycling of organic matter produced in the units, the regional development, the generation of employment, technologies and foreign currencies. Several research areas are identified that can be developed, using the nuclear technologies, for example in the reproduction, nutrition, diagnose and control of illnesses, environmental monitoring and quality certification of products. In the concerning to the Venezuelan aquaculture, investigations are required that need to use those techniques. For example: 1) Production of autochthonous inductive agents, by means of radioinmunoenssay (RIA), to determine the gonadotropines coming from the hypophysis of fish cultivated with the purpose of gathering the glands in its best moment, to generate the final maturation and spawn in autochthonous species. 2) Genetic improvement of cultivated species through the knowledge of the genetic load of different lines and breeds found in the natural means, and to achieve its maintenance to solve inbreeding problems, in autochthonous species aswell in as in exotic ones, by the use of marking techniques (ADE, RFLA and microsatellite techniques). 3) Nutritional and feeding studies of species under commertial culture, especially on the effect of the aflatoxins in the inputs or the portions, substances that influence in a negative way the aquatic nutrition. In this case, competitive immunoassays of enzymes bounded (ELISA) and radioinmunoessays. 4) Illness diagnose, by means of the ELISA kit, specifically of the more common illness in fishes cultivated in the country

1997-07-10

320

Diversity of Nitrate-Reducing and Denitrifying Bacteria in a Marine Aquaculture Biofilter and their Response to Sulfide  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

DIVERSITY OF NITRATE-REDUCING AND DENITRIFYING BACTERIA IN A MARINE AQUACULTURE BIOFILTER AND THEIR RESPONSE TO SULFIDE B.U. Krieger 1,5, C. Schwermer 2, N. Rezakhani 5, M.A. Horn 1, A. Gieseke 2, E. Cytryn 3, D. Minz 3, J. van Rijn 4, H.L. Drake 1, A. Schramm 5 1 Dept. of Ecological Microbiology, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany; 2 Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany; 3 Institute for Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, ARO, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel; 4 Faculty of Agricultural, Food And Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel; 5 Dept of Biological Sciences, Microbiology, University of Aarhus, Denmark Conventional aquaculture systems release nitrogen compounds and organic matter into marine environments. As an environmentally-friendly alternative, a zero-discharge mariculture system recently was developed containing a 3-stage biofilter for nitrification, denitrification/anaerobic sludge digestion, and sulfide oxidation. Sulfate reduction in the anaerobic part of the system leads to sulfide concentrations exceeding 5 mM, which may affect nitrate reduction and denitrification. Sulfide can inhibit nitrous oxide reductase, trigger a shift from denitrification to dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), or be used as electron donor for nitrate reduction. The goal of this study was to identify and isolate nitrate-reducing and denitrifying bacteria from the biofilter and to investigate their response to sulfide concentrations relevant for the system. Almost 500 nitrate-consuming isolates were screened by 16S rRNA gene-RFLP; for each RFLP pattern representatives were sequenced. In total, 40 different strains were identified, some of them novel species, mostly affiliating with Alphaproteobacteria but also including Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The diversity of the isolates was compared to the cultivation-independent diversity of nitrate-reducing and denitrifying bacteria based on narG and nosZ as functional marker genes. Growth experiments revealed great differences in sulfide-tolerance among isolates, ranging from < 50 µM to 5 mM; some strains were also able to oxidize sulfide. Increasing sulfide concentrations generally resulted in increased nitrous oxide production. Batch incubations of anaerobic sludge with 15N-nitrate confirmed the in situ relevance of these results and indicated a sulfide-induced shift from denitrification to DNRA.

Krieger, Bärbel; Schwermer, Carsten U.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Electron scattering and few-nucleon systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In these lectures, is discussed a selection of recent electron scattering data which illustrate some of the recent developments of this field. The last five years have seen the emergence of a new generation of electron scattering experiments. These data have clearly shown the limits of the traditional description of nuclear physics

1986-01-01

322

Using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for remediation of aquaculture water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Remediation of aquaculture water using microorganisms like Bacillus species is a burgeoning trend for the sustainable development of aquaculture industries. In this work, a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain (namely B. amyloliquefaciens HN), isolated from activated sludge of a polluted river, was evaluated for its potential in water remediation using simulated aquaculture water. B. amyloliquefaciens HN exhibited high tolerance towards 80 mg l(-1) of nitrite-N and ammonia-N. It could effectively remove 20 mg l(-1) of nitrite-N, but was inefficient in eliminating ammonia-N when the ammonia-N concentration was below 20 mg l(-1). Further studies showed that the ammonia-N removal by B. amyloliquefaciens HN was more efficient at 30°C and 35°C than 25°C, and that maximum nitrite-N removal rate was achieved at pH 8. PMID:23577299

Xie, Fengxing; Zhu, Taicheng; Zhang, Fengfeng; Zhou, Ke; Zhao, Yujie; Li, Zhenghua

2013-03-20

323

Observation of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When an electron beam is injected into a plasma, unstable waves are excited spontaneously near the electron plasma frequency f{sub pe} by the electron beam plasma instability. The experiment on subharmonics in an electron beam plasma system was performed with a glow discharge tube. The bifurcation of unstable waves with the electron plasma frequency f{sub pe} and 1/2 f{sub pe} was observed using a double-plasma device. Furthermore, the period doubling route to chaos around the ion plasma frequency in an electron beam plasma system was reported. However, the physical mechanism of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system has not been clarified so far. We have studied nonlinear behaviors of the electron beam plasma instability. It was found that there are some cases: the fundamental unstable waves and subharmonics of 2 period are excited by the electron beam plasma instability, the fundamental unstable waves and subharmonics of 3 period are excited. In this paper, we measured the energy distribution functions of electrons and the dispersion relation of test waves in order to examine the physical mechanism of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system.

Hayashi, N.; Tanaka, M.; Shinohara, S.; Kawai, Y. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

1995-12-31

324

Epidemiology of the spread of viral diseases under aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaculture production is increasing rapidly worldwide. However, production has been associated with the emergence of several novel diseases, including viral diseases, that have caused serious problems for producers. Using examples largely from salmon farming in Scotland I review briefly the factors that allow transmission to occur in aquaculture. These include transmission through the water, which is relatively local to the infected farm, and anthropogenic transports (such as transport of fish between sites) that may occur over very long distances. A Disease Management Area (DMA) approach, as developed in Scotland to fight infectious salmon anaemia, can be effective at reducing pathogen transmission and hence disease emergence. PMID:23206337

Murray, Alexander G

2012-12-01

325

Epidemiology of the spread of viral diseases under aquaculture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aquaculture production is increasing rapidly worldwide. However, production has been associated with the emergence of several novel diseases, including viral diseases, that have caused serious problems for producers. Using examples largely from salmon farming in Scotland I review briefly the factors that allow transmission to occur in aquaculture. These include transmission through the water, which is relatively local to the infected farm, and anthropogenic transports (such as transport of fish between sites) that may occur over very long distances. A Disease Management Area (DMA) approach, as developed in Scotland to fight infectious salmon anaemia, can be effective at reducing pathogen transmission and hence disease emergence.

Murray AG

2013-02-01

326

Valley susceptibility of an interacting two-dimensional electron system  

CERN Multimedia

We report direct measurements of the valley susceptibility, the change of valley population in response to applied symmetry-breaking strain, in an AlAs two-dimensional electron system. As the two-dimensional density is reduced, the valley susceptibility dramatically increases relative to its band value, reflecting the system's strong electron-electron interaction. The increase has a remarkable resemblance to the enhancement of the spin susceptibility and establishes the analogy between the spin and valley degrees of freedom.

Gunawan, O; Vakili, K; Gokmen, T; De Poortere, E P; Shayegan, M

2006-01-01

327

Additive for aquaculture feed for fish and shellfish and aquaculture feed for fish and shellfish which contains same  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An additive for aquaculture feed for fish and shellfish, which contains L-ascorbic acid-2-glucoside as an active ingredient, an aquaculture feed for fish and shellfish containing said additive, and an aquaculture feed for fish and shellfish, which has been added with said additive and granulated. The additive for feed of the present invention, namely, L-ascorbic acid-2-glucoside 1) does not have reducing ability by itself, and extremely stable, 2) can be decomposed into L-ascorbic acid and D-glucose when taken in fish and shellfish, and can exhibit physiological effects inherent to L-ascorbic acid, and 3) is greatly improved in heat resistance and light resistance in comparison with L-ascorbic acid, and shows markedly small loss of L-ascorbic acid activity during the production and storage of feed.

MITSUHASHI MASAKAZU

328

A control system for a free electron laser experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general layout of a control and data acquisition system for a Free Electron Laser experiment will be discussed. Some general considerations about the requirements and the architecture of the whole system will be developed. (author)

1992-01-01

329

New electronic heating cost distribution system with direct heat assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author deals in this paper with electronic heating cost distribution systems, which allow a direct assessment of the heat which is delivered from the heating element to the room. The Exatron system will be described with preference.

Engelhardt, K.

1981-03-01

330

Atomic-orbital expansion representation of electron transfer in two-electron systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Election transfer in two electron ion-atom collision systems is examined using united-atom orbitals (AO+) basic sets. The Hamiltonian is the sum of H0 (i), the Hamiltonian of electron i with respect to the two nuclei (or atomic cores), and the electron-electron interaction. With the electron wavefunction expanded in the AO+ basis sets, with the Hamiltonian and with a curved-line inter-nuclear trajectory, the time-dependent Schroedinger equation is solved within the basis space without further approximations. 8 refs., 1 fig

1985-01-01

331

Modeling of Power Electronic Systems with EMTP (Electromagnetic Transients Program).  

Science.gov (United States)

In view of the potential impact of power electronics on power systems, there is need for a computer modeling/analysis tool to perform simulation studies on power systems with power electronic components as well as to educate engineering students about suc...

K. Tam N. V. Dravid

1989-01-01

332

Thermodynamic potential of electrons and phonons system of disordered alloy  

CERN Multimedia

The cluster decomposition for the delayed two-time Green functions and the disordered crystal dynamic potential is obtained with an account of the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions. The system electron states are described within the frames of the multizone strong coupling model. The calculations are based on the diagram technique for the Green temperature functions. The coherent potential approximation is chosen as the zero mononode approximation in this cluster decomposition method. It is shown that the processes of the contributions of the elementary excitations scattering on the clusters decrease with the cluster nodes number growth in the cluster in correspondence with certain small parameters. The analytical evaluations of the electron-phonon interaction impact on the electron energy spectrum of the ordering alloy are made in the monozone model. The possibility of applying the obtained results for describing the strong electron correlations impact on the electron structure and propertie...

Repetskij, S P

2002-01-01

333

Method and system for analyzing and classifying electronic information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A data analysis and classification system that reads the electronic information, analyzes the electronic information according to a user-defined set of logical rules, and returns a classification result. The data analysis and classification system may accept any form of computer-readable electronic information. The system creates a hash table wherein each entry of the hash table contains a concept corresponding to a word or phrase which the system has previously encountered. The system creates an object model based on the user-defined logical associations, used for reviewing each concept contained in the electronic information in order to determine whether the electronic information is classified. The data analysis and classification system extracts each concept in turn from the electronic information, locates it in the hash table, and propagates it through the object model. In the event that the system can not find the electronic information token in the hash table, that token is added to a missing terms list. If any rule is satisfied during propagation of the concept through the object model, the electronic information is classified.

McGaffey, Robert W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bell, Michael Allen (Powell, TN); Kortman, Peter J. (Knoxville, TN); Wilson, Charles H. (Etowah, TN)

2003-04-29

334

Optical spectroscopy of strongly correlated electron systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this thesis, both time-resolved, nonlinear optical spectroscopy and linear spectroscopy are used to investigate the interactions and dynamics of elementary excitations in strongly correlated electron systems. In the first part, we investigate the renormalization of magnetic elementary excitations in the transition metal oxide Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. We have created a non-equilibrium population of antiferromagnetic spin waves and characterized its dynamics, using frequency- and time-resolved optical spectroscopy of the exciton-magnon transition. We observed a time-dependent pump-probe line shape, which results from excitation induced renormalization of the spin wave band structure. We present a model that reproduces the basic characteristics of the data, in which we postulate the optical nonlinearity to be dominated by interactions with long-wavelength spin waves, and the dynamics due to spin wave thermalization. Using linear spectroscopy, coherent third-harmonic generation and pump-probe experiments, we measured the optical properties of the charge-transfer (CT) gap exciton in Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, an undoped model compound for high-temperature superconductors. A model is developed which explains the pronounced temperature dependence and newly observed Urbach tail in the linear absorption spectrum by a strong, phonon-mediated coupling between the charge-transfer exciton and ligand field excitations of the Cu atoms. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility within the Cu-O plane of Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} is fully characterized in both amplitude and phase, and symmetry based conclusions are made with respect to the spatial arrangement of the underlying charge distribution. Theoretical considerations ascribe a newly reported resonance in the third-order nonlinear susceptibility at 0.7 eV to a three-photon transition from the ground state to the charge-transfer exciton. An even parity intermediate state of Cudd character, is found to contribute to the transition. Finally, preliminary results of time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy confirm that the CT exciton or one of its constituent parts couples strongly to phonons, and we suggest ultrafast thermalization with the lattice as the dominating mechanism underlying the dynamical properties.

Schumacher, Andreas B.

2001-02-27

335

Electron attachment and ion mobility in hydrocarbons and related systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] During the last two decades, a firm base for the emerging field of liquid state electronics (LSE) has developed through studies of the transport and reaction properties of excess electrons in a variety of liquid-phase systems. Pulse-conductivity techniques were used in many of these studies to measure the mobilities of electrons and ions in pure liquids as well as the rate constants of electron attachment to a wide variety of electron-accepting solutes. Results obtained through such studies have interdisciplinary implications that are described in the discussion that follows which includes examples of the contributions of LSE to physics, chemistry and biology. 42 refs

1988-01-01

336

Core potentials for quasi-one-electron systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have developed a method to calculate core potentials for quasi-one-electron systems and the corresponding single electron orbitals. It is shown that the approximate inclusion of exchange effects between the valence electrons and the core removes the unphysical structure in the potential function that is characteristic for potentials calculated by only including the effect of core polarization due to the valence electrons. Excellent agreement with experimental ionization potentials is achieved, and example results for various systems such as Na, Cs, Ba[sup +], In and Tl are presented. (Author).

Albright, B.J.; Bartschat, K.; Flicek, P.R. (Drake Univ., Des Moines, IA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

1993-02-14

337

Fisheries and aquaculture industries involvement to control product health and quality safety to satisfy consumer-driven objectives on retail markets in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the past years the export of agricultural and fishery products from developing countries has substantially increased to markets within the OECD. Retailers and importers are expanding their international operations to meet consumer demands for year-round delivery of products. Moreover, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety of food, including those derived from aquatic resources [FAO/NACA/WHO Joint Study Group, 1999. Report food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture. WHO Technical Report Series No 883: VII, pp. 1-55]. Governments and leading businesses are responding by imposing new safety regulations and standards to the international food system (e.g. HACCP, EUREP-GAP), product liability and labeling [Reilly, A., Howgate, P., Kaeferstein, F., 1997. Safety hazards and the application of HACCP in aquaculture. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fish Inspection and Quality Control: A Global Focus, Arlington, VA, 19-24 May 1996. Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, pp. 353-373]. Initial concerns for imports of aquacultural products from developing to industrialized countries focussed on bacterial contamination [Buras, N. 1993. Microbial safety of produce from wastewater-fed aquaculture. In: Pullin, R.V.C., Rosenthal, H., MacLean, J.L.(Eds.), Proceedings of ICLARM Conferences, vol. 31, pp. 285-295]. Today, if trade opportunities are to be maintained, these countries must adapt to a full array of regulations and standards. This paper describes four scenarios in aquaculture and fishing product trade between developing countries and countries in the European Union.

2006-01-01

338

International cooperation on the use of peracetic acid in aquaculture  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation will discuss collaborative efforts on research to evaluate the usefulness of peracetic acid (PAA) as a therapeutant in aquaculture. Research has been underway since 2009 with a scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (Berlin, Germany). Ther...

339

[Aquaculture in Italy. An integrated model of product quality control].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aquaculture is becoming increasingly diffuse even in Italy. The increased production introduces new problems such as product quality control and process safety. This article presents the results of a research project, funded by the Ministry of the Environment, whose aim was to evaluate and promote aquaculture product quality and safety in an environmentally responsible way. Four intensive land-based and offshore aquaculture sites were monitored to evaluate microbiological, biological and chemical (i.e. polychlorinated biphenyls and endocrine disruptors) quality of water, products and fish feed. In total 154 samples were analysed, of which 66 were water samples, 55 product samples and 33 feed samples. Salmonella and other enteric pathogens were absent in products and the aquatic environment, while other environmental pathogens of the Vibrio species were detected. Bacterial load and fecal indicators were found to be higher in off-shore products and in mussels from all aquaculture sites. PCBs were detected in all products in concentrations below 2 microg/g fresh product (Food and Drug Administration), but on average, higher concentrations were detected in off-shore products. No estrogen mimetic activity was detected in fish feed, in contrast it was detected in offshore products and water. Product quality was found to be strictly correlated with the quality of the environment. Genetically modified organisms were detected in fish feed but no integration of genetic material in products occurred.

De Giusti M; Cocchieri RA; De Vito E; Grasso GM; Ortaggi G; Reali D; Ricciardi G; Romano-Spica V; Boccia A

2007-01-01

340

[Aquaculture in Italy. An integrated model of product quality control].  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaculture is becoming increasingly diffuse even in Italy. The increased production introduces new problems such as product quality control and process safety. This article presents the results of a research project, funded by the Ministry of the Environment, whose aim was to evaluate and promote aquaculture product quality and safety in an environmentally responsible way. Four intensive land-based and offshore aquaculture sites were monitored to evaluate microbiological, biological and chemical (i.e. polychlorinated biphenyls and endocrine disruptors) quality of water, products and fish feed. In total 154 samples were analysed, of which 66 were water samples, 55 product samples and 33 feed samples. Salmonella and other enteric pathogens were absent in products and the aquatic environment, while other environmental pathogens of the Vibrio species were detected. Bacterial load and fecal indicators were found to be higher in off-shore products and in mussels from all aquaculture sites. PCBs were detected in all products in concentrations below 2 microg/g fresh product (Food and Drug Administration), but on average, higher concentrations were detected in off-shore products. No estrogen mimetic activity was detected in fish feed, in contrast it was detected in offshore products and water. Product quality was found to be strictly correlated with the quality of the environment. Genetically modified organisms were detected in fish feed but no integration of genetic material in products occurred. PMID:17450652

De Giusti, Maria; Cocchieri, Renata Amodio; De Vito, Elisabetta; Grasso, Guido Maria; Ortaggi, Giancarlo; Reali, Daniela; Ricciardi, Gualtiero; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo; Boccia, Antonio

 
 
 
 
341

Application of Medicinal Herbs to Aquaculture in Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aquaculture has increased greatly in Asia, but there are various problems associated with acquacultural production one of which is the use of antimicrobial agents resulting in more resistant bacterial strains which adversely affect human health and the natural environment. This paper presents inform...

Sataporn DIREKBUSARAKOM

342

Selection of finfish species for aquaculture development in Martinique (FWI).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since 1981, in Martinique, a programme of selection of fishes suitable for aquaculture has been conducted. Zootechnical and socio-economical constraints have led to the choice of three species, endemic and exotic: the palometa (Trachinotus goodei ), the red drum (Sciaenops ocellata ) and the red flo...

Thouard Emmanuel; Soletchnik Patrick; Marion J

343

In situ hybridization technique and the applications in aquaculture  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In situ hybridization technique is a new technique rapidly developing. In this paper, the basic principles and a few in situ hybridization techniques were reviewd,and then curent applications of this technique in aquaculture were described, including gene locallization, sex identification, and virus detection and so on. Opinions on the development of the in situ hybridization technique in the future are put forward.

He Yuying; Li Jian; Liu Ping; Wang Qingyin

2005-01-01

344

Bridging the gap between aquaculture and the information sciences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aquaculture industry is traditionally a low technology industry. But as demands on productivity, quality and availability are increasing the application of modern industrial technology is inevitable. After the fundamental problems of biology and of civil, mechanical and chemical engineering have been resolved, major progress may be expected through the application of the tools of the information sciences.

Jens G. Balchen

1986-01-01

345

Aquaculture in Sicily: the state of the art  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aquaculture in Sicily, represented almost exclusively by seabass and sea bream production, together with capture fishery, plays a significant role in the regional economy. On a national basis, the regional production covers about 20% of Italian euryha- line fish production. Fingerling supply is guaranteed by the two hatcheries present on the Island. Twelve floating cage farms and two inshore farms annually produce about 4,000 t of fish. A small extensive production arises from the storage basins of the salt work of Trapani. This niche production could represent an opportunity to realize a new distinctive organic aquaculture, preferred by the consumers respect to intensive produced fish, that could con- tribute to promote the Territory. Two bluefin tuna fattening farms produce about 1,300 t of sashimi grade tuna annually. The aquaculture sector in Sicily faces the same problems of the Italian and Mediterranean sectors. However, Sicily is considered a Convergence Region by the European Union Cohesion Policy and is legible for special funding. The operational program 2007/2013 “European Fishery Found” will be an effective instrument to stimulate investment and technological innovation and to promote sustainable development of fisher- ies and aquaculture in the Region.

Andrea Santulli; Alfonso Modica

2010-01-01

346

Magic Angle Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (MAEELS) of core electron excitation in anisotropic systems  

CERN Multimedia

A general theory for the core-level electron excitation of anisotropic systems using angular integrated electron energy-loss spectroscopy has been derived. We show that it is possible to define a magic angle condition at which the specimen orientation has no effect on the electron energy-loss spectra. We have not only resolved the existing discrepancy between different studies of the magic angle condition, but also extended its applicability to all anisotropic systems. We have demonstrated that magic angle electron energy loss spectroscopy is equivalent to the orientation averaged EELS, although the specimen remains stationary. Our analysis provides the theoretical framework for the comparison between theoretical calculation and experimental measurement of core-level electron excitation spectra in anisotropic systems. In addition to MAEELS, we have also discovered a magic orientation condition which will also give rise to orientationally averaged spectra. It's relation with the magic angle X-ray absorption sp...

Sun, Y K

2004-01-01

347

Electron beam irradiation in polymeric systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electron beam applications in the chemistry of polymers, such as the production of acrylamide polymers, which are of great interest in the treatment of waste industrial waters are given. These products have unique properties: the required dose is smaller by a factor of 10 to 50 as compared to the dose requirement for other polymeric materials and they are used in aqueous solutions in a concentration of one or two magnitude orders smaller than the conventional inorganic flocculants. The acrylamide polymers technologies was first developed at semi-industrial scale with IETI 10000 gamma rays source and then transferred to the ALIN-10 electron linear accelerator. The operation of the ALIN-10 built in the Accelerator Laboratory from the Institute of Atomic Physics is presented. An original feature of this accelerator, using an electron gun of the diode type is its capability to obtain programmed beam single shots and pulse trains. It is particularly useful for the automatic control of irradiation processing in order to provide the maximum efficiency of the electron beam application. The preliminary results obtained by ALIN-10 lead to the assumption that the low output power high energy linacs are economically attractive for the commercial production of acrylamide type polymers. (Author) 7 Figs. 2 Tabs., 10 Refs

1995-01-01

348

Interference effects in strongly correlated electronic systems  

Science.gov (United States)

We compute the order parameter and Josephson tunneling amplitude in a two dimensional model exhibiting topological superconductivity (a generalized anyon model). This model of a topological liquid summarizes the hydrodynamics of the compressible charge and incompressible topological spin liquids and captures the physics of the doped Mott insulator. We show that ground states that differ by an odd number of particles are orthogonal and insertion of two extra electrons is followed by emission of soft modes of transversal spin current. This orthogonality catastrophe makes the physics of superconductivity drastically different from the conventional BCS-theory but similar to the physics of one dimensional electronic liquids. The wave function of a pair of electrons (the order parameter) is dressed by soft modes. As a result the order parameter is in a complex d-wave representation (i.e. changes sign under 90sp° degree rotation), although the gap in the electronic spectrum has no nodes. In contrast to the BCS-theory the amplitude of the order parameter has an asymmetric broad peak (much bigger than the gap) around the Fermi surface. We develop an operator algebra, that allows one to compute other correlation functions. This thesis is based on three papers by the author, P. B. Wiegmann and J. C. Talstra.

Abanov, Alexandre G.

349

DNA and microfluidics: Building molecular electronics systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of molecular electronics using DNA molecules as the building blocks and using microfluidics to build nanowire arrays is reviewed. Applications of DNA conductivity to build sensors and nanowire arrays, and DNA conjugation with other nanostructures, offers an exciting opportunity to build extremely small analytical devices that are suitable for single-molecule detection and also target screening.

Ye Yun [Chemical Sensors Group, Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, University of Toronto at Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road North, Mississauga, Ont., L5L 1C6 (Canada); Chen Lu [Chemical Sensors Group, Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, University of Toronto at Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road North, Mississauga, Ont., L5L 1C6 (Canada); Liu Xuezhu [Chemical Sensors Group, Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, University of Toronto at Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road North, Mississauga, Ont., L5L 1C6 (Canada); Krull, Ulrich J. [Chemical Sensors Group, Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, University of Toronto at Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road North, Mississauga, Ont., L5L 1C6 (Canada)]. E-mail: ukrull@utm.utoronto.ca

2006-05-24

350

Electron transport in the multi-terminal quantum dot system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The time-dependent electron transport through a multi-terminal quantum dot system is studied. External microwave fields with arbitrary amplitudes, phases and frequencies are applied to different parts of the system considered. The dependence of the average current and average differential conductance on different parameters of the external microwave fields is analyzed. Special attention is paid to the photon–electron pump effect observed for some values of the quantum dot system parameters.

Ewa TARANKO; Ryszard TARANKO; Malgorzata WIERTEL

2005-01-01

351

Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources  

Science.gov (United States)

An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employing crossed electric and magnetic fields, separates the electrons from the ions as they are extracted from the ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90/sup 0/ to each other, the electrons remain at approximately the electrical potential at which they were generated. The electromagnetic forces cause the ions to be accelerated to the full accelerating supply voltage energy while being deflected through an angle of less than 90/sup 0/. The electrons precess out of the accelerating field region into an electron recovery region where they are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply energy. It is possible, by this method, to collect > 90% of the electrons extracted along with the negative ions from a negative ion source beam at < 4% of full energy.

Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.

1979-10-25

352

Aquaculture of three phyla of marine invertebrates to yield bioactive metabolites: process developments and economics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Large-scale, renewable supplies of chemical constituents derived from marine invertebrates have limited development of potential new natural product drugs. This paper describes the development of two in-sea aquaculture systems designed and engineered for production of large quantities of biomass for two species of marine invertebrates desired for their natural product chemical constituents. The two invertebrates and their products were: (1) the cosmopolitan, arborescent bryozoan Bugula neritina (Phylum Bryozoa) for its anticancer chemical constituent bryostatin 1; and (2) Ecteinascidia turbinate (Phylum Tunicata) the source of anticancer ecteinascidin 743. For the third invertebrate Phylum Porifera, and its representative sponge Acanthella cavernosa (desired for its anti-parasitic and anti-infective kalihinols) in-sea systems were not developed in favor of controlled environment tank aquaculture systems. For the bryozoan and tunicate, projected economics for commercial-scale in-sea production proved cost effective. This was in contrast to the controlled environment sponge culture tank system, which did not prove to be economical due to inherent slow growth and low natural product yields of the sponge in culture. A non-destructive method for "milking" natural product chemicals from sponges was tested and is described.

Mendola D

2003-07-01

353

Aquaculture of three phyla of marine invertebrates to yield bioactive metabolites: process developments and economics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large-scale, renewable supplies of chemical constituents derived from marine invertebrates have limited development of potential new natural product drugs. This paper describes the development of two in-sea aquaculture systems designed and engineered for production of large quantities of biomass for two species of marine invertebrates desired for their natural product chemical constituents. The two invertebrates and their products were: (1) the cosmopolitan, arborescent bryozoan Bugula neritina (Phylum Bryozoa) for its anticancer chemical constituent bryostatin 1; and (2) Ecteinascidia turbinate (Phylum Tunicata) the source of anticancer ecteinascidin 743. For the third invertebrate Phylum Porifera, and its representative sponge Acanthella cavernosa (desired for its anti-parasitic and anti-infective kalihinols) in-sea systems were not developed in favor of controlled environment tank aquaculture systems. For the bryozoan and tunicate, projected economics for commercial-scale in-sea production proved cost effective. This was in contrast to the controlled environment sponge culture tank system, which did not prove to be economical due to inherent slow growth and low natural product yields of the sponge in culture. A non-destructive method for "milking" natural product chemicals from sponges was tested and is described. PMID:12919831

Mendola, Dominick

2003-07-01

354

Efficiency improvement of an electron collector intended for electron cooling systems using a Wien filter  

Science.gov (United States)

An efficient collector for high-voltage systems of electron cooling is presented. Its efficiency (ratio of the reflected electron current to the current of the main beam) is greatly improved by suppressing the reflected particle flux in the Wien filter. Secondary electrons deflect in crossed transverse electric and magnetic fields and are absorbed by a special receiver plate (secondary collector). The filter is designed so that the whole backward flow of electrons deflects even if the trajectory and main beam profile are distorted insignificantly. Experiments carried out on a special-purpose test bench show that such a filter raises the efficiency of the collector hundredfold (up to 10-6).

Bryzgunov, M. I.; Ivanov, A. V.; Panasyuk, V. M.; Parkhomchuk, V. V.; Reva, V. B.

2013-06-01

355

Conductivity of the electron-impurity system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The free-carrier absorption of electromagnetic radiation due to the presence of static scatterers is examined taking into account the electron-electron interaction, the plasma-phonon polar coupling and the plasma anisotropy. For the case of strong coupling in the isotropic plasma the absorption due to the collective-mode excitation processes is, for frequencies just above the plasmon-like collective mode frequency, shown to be dominant over the absorption due to single-particle excitations. The expression for the frequency-dependent absorptive part of the conductivity due to the long-wavelength collective-mode excitations is derived for the case of multicomponent anisotropic degenerate plasma (e.g. lead chalcogenides). The results are discussed in detail and compared with available experimental data for n-PbSe. The comparison with the previous theories is also given. (author)

1983-01-01

356

Interaction between Electrons and 2-Level Systems in Amorphous Metals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction between electrons and TLS (two level system) is studied in the simplest model. Using scaling arguments, it is shown that the motions of TLS and of the electron screening cloud may be strongly correlated in the ground state. Different measu...

A. Zawadowski

1981-01-01

357

The electronics readout system for the OPAL vertex drift chambers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Vertex Drift Chamber for the OPAL experiment at LEP provides high quality track coordinates using multihit subnanosecond timing to detect the drifted electrons. This paper explains the electronic techniques that have been devised and implemented for the detector. The overall performance of the system is demonstrated with measurements from the final OPAL chamber. (orig.)

1990-01-01

358

The electronics readout system for the OPAL Vertex Drift Chamber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Vertex Drift Chamber for the OPAL experiment at LEP provides high quality track co-ordinates using multi-hit sub-nanosecond timing to detect the drifted electrons. This paper explains the electronic techniques that have been devised and implemented for the detector. The overall performance of the system is demonstrated with measurements from the final OPAL chamber. (author)

1989-01-01

359

Evaluation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) health during a superintensive aquaculture growout using NMR-based metabolomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc). The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production. PMID:23555690

Schock, Tracey B; Duke, Jessica; Goodson, Abby; Weldon, Daryl; Brunson, Jeff; Leffler, John W; Bearden, Daniel W

2013-03-26

360

Evaluation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) health during a superintensive aquaculture growout using NMR-based metabolomics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc). The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production.

Schock TB; Duke J; Goodson A; Weldon D; Brunson J; Leffler JW; Bearden DW

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Review of solutions for 3D hydrodynamic modeling applied to aquaculture in South Pacific atoll lagoons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A workshop organized in French Polynesia in November 2004 allowed reviewing the current methods to model the three-dimensional hydrodynamic circulation in semi-enclosed atoll lagoons for aquaculture applications. Mollusk (e.g. pearl oyster, clam) aquaculture is a major source of income for South Pacific countries such as French Polynesia or Cook Islands. This aquaculture now requires a better understanding of circulation patterns to improve the spatial use of the lagoons, especially to define the best area to set larvae collectors. The pelagic larval duration of the relevant species (<20 days) and the size of the semi-closed lagoons (few hundreds of km2) drive the specifications of the model in terms of the spatial and temporal scale. It is considered that, in contrast with fish, mollusk larvae movements are limited and that their cycle occurs completely in the lagoon, without an oceanic stage. Atolls where aquaculture is productive are generally well-bounded, or semi-closed, without significant large and deep openings to the ocean. Nevertheless part of the lagoon circulation is driven by oceanic water inputs through the rim, ocean swells, tides and winds. Therefore, boundary conditions of the lagoon system are defined by the spatial structure of a very shallow rim (exposition and number of hoas), the deep ocean swell climate, tides and wind regimes. To obtain a realistic 3D numerical model of lagoon circulation with adequate forcing, it is thus necessary to connect in an interdisciplinary way a variety of methods (models, remote sensing and in situ data collection) to accurately represent the different components of the lagoon system and its specific boundary conditions. We review here the current methods and tools used to address these different components for a hypothetical atoll of the Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia), representative of the semi-closed lagoons of the South Pacific Ocean. We hope this paper will serve as a guide for similar studies elsewhere and we provide guidelines in terms of costs for all the different stages involved.

Andréfouët S; Ouillon S; Brinkman R; Falter J; Douillet P; Wolk F; Smith R; Garen P; Martinez E; Laurent V; Lo C; Remoissenet G; Scourzic B; Gilbert A; Deleersnijder E; Steinberg C; Choukroun S; Buestel D

2006-10-01

362

Review of solutions for 3D hydrodynamic modeling applied to aquaculture in South Pacific atoll lagoons.  

Science.gov (United States)

A workshop organized in French Polynesia in November 2004 allowed reviewing the current methods to model the three-dimensional hydrodynamic circulation in semi-enclosed atoll lagoons for aquaculture applications. Mollusk (e.g. pearl oyster, clam) aquaculture is a major source of income for South Pacific countries such as French Polynesia or Cook Islands. This aquaculture now requires a better understanding of circulation patterns to improve the spatial use of the lagoons, especially to define the best area to set larvae collectors. The pelagic larval duration of the relevant species (<20 days) and the size of the semi-closed lagoons (few hundreds of km2) drive the specifications of the model in terms of the spatial and temporal scale. It is considered that, in contrast with fish, mollusk larvae movements are limited and that their cycle occurs completely in the lagoon, without an oceanic stage. Atolls where aquaculture is productive are generally well-bounded, or semi-closed, without significant large and deep openings to the ocean. Nevertheless part of the lagoon circulation is driven by oceanic water inputs through the rim, ocean swells, tides and winds. Therefore, boundary conditions of the lagoon system are defined by the spatial structure of a very shallow rim (exposition and number of hoas), the deep ocean swell climate, tides and wind regimes. To obtain a realistic 3D numerical model of lagoon circulation with adequate forcing, it is thus necessary to connect in an interdisciplinary way a variety of methods (models, remote sensing and in situ data collection) to accurately represent the different components of the lagoon system and its specific boundary conditions. We review here the current methods and tools used to address these different components for a hypothetical atoll of the Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia), representative of the semi-closed lagoons of the South Pacific Ocean. We hope this paper will serve as a guide for similar studies elsewhere and we provide guidelines in terms of costs for all the different stages involved. PMID:16987532

Andréfouët, S; Ouillon, S; Brinkman, R; Falter, J; Douillet, P; Wolk, F; Smith, R; Garen, P; Martinez, E; Laurent, V; Lo, C; Remoissenet, G; Scourzic, B; Gilbert, A; Deleersnijder, E; Steinberg, C; Choukroun, S; Buestel, D

2006-09-20

363

Introducing individual transferable quotas on nitrogen in Danish fresh water aquaculture : production and profitability gains  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential gains from changing the existing regulatory framework for fresh water aquaculture production in Denmark. The regulatory framework is changed from an input regulation based on farm-specific feed quotas, to an individual transferable quota system on nitrogen pollution. The regulatory change is analyzed using Data Envelopment Analysis to model the underlying production structure. The effect of allowing trading of nitrogen quotas on production and profitability is analyzed in a joint production model with good and bad output under different behavioral and technical assumptions, whilst keeping the overall pollution level of nitrogen constant. Furthermore, the effect of a catchment area restriction on nitrogen is analyzed to comply with the EU Water Framework Directive. The paper quantifies the gains of a policy change from a command and control system to an incentive based system. The estimated results suggest that the changed regulation could increase Danish aquaculture production by 16 to 55%, whilst actual profitability could be increased 5 to 10 times.

Nielsen, Rasmus

2012-01-01

364

Infrastructures of the System for Developing Electronic Health Record  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The overall objective of a health system is to improve health through reducing disease, disability and death. Accomplishment of this goal depends on the worldwide integrated and coordinated care continuity. Information transmission is a prerequisite to ensure the continuity of care. Widespread acceptance of health information and communication technology (HICT) and developing systems such as Electronic Health Record (EHR), have changed the health care industry. Electronic Health Record is the main part of information management in an integrated health care system. Electronic health record provides access to all health information at organizational, regional, national and international levels and allows for the patient's health data [usually with geographical distribution in several health information systems] to become integrated. Since Electronic health record integrates all care events data, it can make data sharing possible between all care providers to consequently minimize the repeated diagnostic tests, and drug and treatment interactions. Furthermore, Also health care professionals can easily access to patient information at any time and this could lead to improving the quality of care and reduce costs. Accordingly, a productive system is required to provide the electronic health record. Given the significance of the electronic health record and its generating system in improvement of care quality and reducing the health care costs, authors decided to study the needs for developing the national EHR system (NHIN) The main focus of this paper was on selecting material related to the system developing an EHR and it prerequisites. Electronic health record system is a new source of valuable intelligence of real world for the whole health care industry. Electronic health record system includes people, rules, standards, storage and processing equipments, communication and support facilities. To shape this, existence of components and their coordination is necessary. Electronic health record system are established to enhance patient care and its outcome, increase efficiency, improving the availability of information and minimizing the medical errors. With the Europe union formation that in fact was an important step toward globalization, the electronic health record passed the national borders and turned into a global concept to make possible the worldwide integration and sharing of the health data. Therefore international standards are needed to share patient health information between national health systems and across borders. Infrastructure or national information network existence of proper hardware and software and finally participation of all stakeholders are necessary to develop the system. So it is necessary to prepare the infrastructures needed for development of the system in our country. Since EHR has a universal concept, it is needed to create a lifelong health information record for every individual accessible in every point in the world.

Hamid Moghaddasi; Azamossadat Hosseini; Farkhondeh Asadi; Raheleh Ganjali

2011-01-01

365

Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) Control System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ECRH Control System was installed on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) in 1980. The system provides approximately 1 MW of 28 GHz microwave power to the TMX-U plasma. The subsystems of ECRH that must be controlled include high-voltage charging supplies, series pass tubes, and magnet supplies. In addition to the devices that must be controlled, many interlocks must be continuously monitored. The previous control system used relay logic and analog controls to operate the system. This approach has many drawbacks such as lack of system flexibility and maintainability. In order to address these problems, it was decided to go with a CAMAC and Modicon based system that uses a Hewlett-Packard 9836C personal computer to replace the previous analog controls. 2 figs

1985-01-01

366

Control electronics of the PEP RF system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The operation of the major components used for controlling the phase and field level of the PEP RF cavities is described. The control electronics of one RF station is composed of several control loops: each cavity has a tuners' servo loop which maintains the frequency constant and also keeps the fields of each cavity balanced; the total gap voltage developed by a pair of cavities is regulated by a gap voltage controller; finally, the phase variation along the amplification chain, the klystron and the cavities are compensated by a phase lock loop. The design criteria of each loop are set forth and the circuit implementation and test results are presented.

Pellegrin, J.L.; Schwarz, H.

1981-01-01

367

Electron correlation and Peierls instability of one dimensional systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In order to clarify the effect of electron interaction on the Peierls instability of one-dimensional system with half-filled band, a general description of the electron interaction is required with the screened Coulomb interaction. It is shown that the effect of electron interaction on Peierls instability qualitatively depends on the interaction range: For short-ranged interaction, the Peierls instability is reduced by electron interaction; whereas for longer-ranged interaction, it will be enhanced. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

1988-01-01

368

Design and Development of an Advanced Electron Beam Control System.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prime objective of this program was to expand the overall capabilities of an Electron Beam Recorder Micromap Control System. This was achieved through the development of three software packages, and the procurement of additional hardware to improve th...

J. E. Turek

1975-01-01

369

Power Electronics and Reliability in Renewable Energy Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Power Electronics are needed in almost all kind of renewable energy systems. It is used both for controlling the renewable source and also for interfacing to the load, which can be grid-connected or working in stand-alone mode. More and more efforts are put into making renewable energy systems better in terms of reliability in order to ensure a high availability of the power sources, in this case the knowledge of mission profile of a certain application is crucial for the reliability evaluation/design of power electronics. In this paper an overview on the power electronic circuits behind the most common converter configurations for wind turbine and photovoltaic is done. Next different aspects of improving the system reliability are mapped. Further on examples of how to control the chip temperature in different power electronic configurations as well as operation modes for wind power generation systems are given in order to reduce the temperature cycling.

Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

2012-01-01

370

Quantum Hall Ferromagnetism in a Two-Dimensional Electron System  

CERN Document Server

Experiments on a nearly spin degenerate two-dimensional electron system reveals unusual hysteretic and relaxational transport in the fractional quantum Hall effect regime. The transition between the spin-polarized (with fill fraction $\

Eom, J; Kang, W; Campman, K L; Gossard, A C; Bichler, M; Wegscheider, W

2000-01-01

371

Second User Acceptance Test of the Electronic Document Management System  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

The overall evaluation objective was to determine whether the Electronic Document Management (EDM) system can satisfactorily execute vendor payment workflows while providing adequate security for system and production data. Specifically, we determined whether system performance and control deficiencies identified during the first user acceptance test were corrected.

1997-01-01

372

Role of frustration in strongly correlated itinerant electron systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role of geometric frustration in strongly correlated itinerant electron systems were investigated. It was argued that the frustration gives rise to a quantum spin liquid state even in itinerant electron systems by taking account of spin fluctuations. Paramagnetic neutron scattering and nuclear spin relaxation measurements have revealed that the ground state of paramagnetic YMn{sub 2} can be regarded as the quantum spin liquid. (author)

Shiga, Masayuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

1999-02-28

373

Denitrification and Anammox in Tropical Aquaculture Settlement Ponds: An Isotope Tracer Approach for Evaluating N2 Production  

Science.gov (United States)

Settlement ponds are used to treat aquaculture discharge water by removing nutrients through physical (settling) and biological (microbial transformation) processes. Nutrient removal through settling has been quantified, however, the occurrence of, and potential for microbial nitrogen (N) removal is largely unknown in these systems. Therefore, isotope tracer techniques were used to measure potential rates of denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in the sediment of settlement ponds in tropical aquaculture systems. Dinitrogen gas (N2) was produced in all ponds, although potential rates were low (0–7.07 nmol N cm?3 h?1) relative to other aquatic systems. Denitrification was the main driver of N2 production, with anammox only detected in two of the four ponds. No correlations were detected between the measured sediment variables (total organic carbon, total nitrogen, iron, manganese, sulphur and phosphorous) and denitrification or anammox. Furthermore, denitrification was not carbon limited as the addition of particulate organic matter (paired t-Test; P?=?0.350, n?=?3) or methanol (paired t-Test; P?=?0.744, n?=?3) did not stimulate production of N2. A simple mass balance model showed that only 2.5% of added fixed N was removed in the studied settlement ponds through the denitrification and anammox processes. It is recommended that settlement ponds be used in conjunction with additional technologies (i.e. constructed wetlands or biological reactors) to enhance N2 production and N removal from aquaculture wastewater.

Castine, Sarah A.; Erler, Dirk V.; Trott, Lindsay A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; de Nys, Rocky; Eyre, Bradley D.

2012-01-01

374

Electronic control system TVER for 220 MW steam turbines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electronic turbine output governor is an electronic part of an electronic and hydraulic control system of one pair of 220 MW turbo-set. It consists of the following function assemblies: a turbine output governor, a condenser steam pressure controller, a module for evaluating the temperature stress of the turbine critical point, a pressure controller in gland circuits, a digital speedometer, logic control circuits for safe control of nonsteady-state and accident system conditions, sensors and actuators. The operation of the individual elements is described in detail. The device has fully been proven in practice. (J.B.). 9 figs., 4 refs.

1987-01-01

375

Electronic systems for vehicles; Elektronik im Kraftfahrzeug  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the 14th international congress of the International Federation of Automotive Engineering Societies (London, United Kingdom) between 07th and 08th October, 2009, in Baden-Baden (Federal Republic of Germany) lectures were held to the following themes: (1) Electric drive train; (2) Battery and on-board power supply; (3) Start/stop systems; (4) Energy efficiency; (5) Development processes and tools; (6) Safety and system architecture; (7) Driver assistance systems; (8) HMI and connectivity; (9) Car to X; (10) Standardization and AUTOSAR.

NONE

2009-07-01

376

Intelligent Systems for Self-Healing Electronics.  

Science.gov (United States)

For long duration missions it is imperative to be able to monitor and record critical information. The data acquisition systems used must therefore be fault tolerant. This usually meant having redundant copies of critical channels. Since each channel usua...

C. D. Latino

2001-01-01

377

New electronic phone system speeds customer calls  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Philadelphia Gas Works is the first US gas utility to use Bell Telephone's new multinumber computerized telephone system called ACD/ESS. This system allows emergency calls to be answered on a priority basis yet enables PGW to promptly answer customer calls despite their continually rising number. OGW now has separate phone numbers for each type of call: gas leaks - emergency; appliance service; and billing and other information.

1982-08-01

378

Electronically-controlled, adaptive automatic transmission system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a control system in an automatic transmission having a plurality of gears for transmitting power from a prime mover to a load device over desired ranges of torque and speed, and an assembly of friction elements, with hydraulic fluid associated with the operation of the friction elements. The friction elements for selectively disengaging and engaging the gears from the prime mover. The control system for controlling the selection and engagement of the gears is used.

Leising, M.B.; Benford, H.L.; Holbrook, G.L.

1989-10-24

379

Advanced Power Electronic Interfaces for Distributed Energy Systems Part 1: Systems and Topologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes power electronic interfaces for DE applications and the topologies needed for advanced power electronic interfaces. It focuses on photovoltaic, wind, microturbine, fuel cell, internal combustion engine, battery storage, and flywheel storage systems.

Kramer, W.; Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Thomas, H.

2008-03-01

380

Assessing the suitability of a range of benthic indices in the evaluation of environmental impact of fin and shellfish aquaculture located in sites across Europe  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The European Union-funded ECASA project (Ecosystem Approach for Sustainable Aquaculture) studied the impacts from aquaculture on ecosystems from northern Norway to Greece. The objectives of this investigation were to identify quantitative indicators of the effects of aquaculture on marine communities, and to assess their applicability over a range of ecosystems and aquaculture production systems. The study included 6 Mediterranean and 4 Atlantic sites, 7 of which produced finfish (seabream, seabass, tuna, salmon and cod), and 2 bivalve molluscs (oysters, mussels, and clams); one site produced both fish and bivalves. Cultivation methods included finfish cages, long-lines and trestles. Similar sampling methodologies were employed at the 10 study sites, obtaining sediment, hydrodynamic, and benthic faunal data. The horizontal impact from organic enrichment extended 50 m from the farms, with contradictory responses in several indicators (individual abundance, biomass) and a more consistent response of the Infaunal Trophic Index (ITI) and AZTI's Marine Biotic Index (AMBI). By means of Partial Redundancy Analysis, it was demonstrated that the environmental variables explained 53.2% of the variability in the macrofaunal variables (individual abundance, species richness, diversity, AMBI and ITI), whilst the explained variance was partialled out within three groups of variables: (i) 'hydrography' (depth, distance to farm, average current speed), which explained 11.5% of the variance; (ii) 'sediment' (Eh and percentages of silt and total organic matter), which explained 5.4%; and (iii) 'cages' (years of production and annual production), which explained 15.2%. The shared variance explained by interactions among these groups was 21.1%. These results, together with multiple regression analysis, provide an accurate assessment of the degree of impact from aquaculture. In conclusion, the use of several benthic indicators, in assessing farm impacts, together with the investigation of dynamics of the studied location, water depth, years of farm activity, and total annual production, must be included when interpreting the response of benthic communities to organic enrichment from aquaculture.

Borja A?ngel; Rodri?guez JGerma?n; Black Kenny; Bodoy Alain; Emblow Chris; Fernandes TeresaF; Forte Janez; Karakassis Ioannis; Muxika In?igo; Nickell ThomD; Papageorgiou Nafsika; Pranovi Fabio; Sevastou Katerina; Tomassetti Paolo; Angel Dror

2009-08-01

 
 
 
 
381

The integration of cryogenic cooling systems with superconducting electronic systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need for cryogenic cooling has been critical issue that has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the market place. Even though the performance of the superconducting circuit is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement for cryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a disadvantage. This report will talk about the various methods for refrigerating superconducting devices. Cryocooler types will be compared for vibration, efficiency, and cost. Some solutions to specific problems of integrating cryocoolers to superconducting devices are presented.

Green, Michael A.

2003-07-01

382

Antenna systems and electronic warfare applications  

CERN Document Server

This comprehensive book serves as a one-stop resource for practical EW antenna system know-how. Supported with over 700 illustrations and nearly 1,700 equations, this authoritative reference offers you detailed explanations of all the important foundations and aspects of this technology. Moreover, you get an in-depth treatment of a wide range of antenna system applications. The book presents the key characteristics of each type of antenna, including dipoles, monopoles, loops, arrays, horns, and patches. This authoritative volume enables you to analyze and design broadband communication and rad

Poisel, Richard

2012-01-01

383

Considerations on the aquaculture development and on the use of veterinary drugs: special issue for fluoroquinolones-a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aquaculture has become an important source of fish available for human consumption. In order to achieve greater productivity, intensive fish cultivation systems are employed, which can cause greater susceptibility to diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Antimicrobial substances are compounds used in livestock production with the objectives of inhibiting the growth of microorganisms and treatment or prevention of diseases. It is well recognized that the issues of antimicrobial use in food animals are of global concern about its impact on food safety. This paper present an overview of the aquaculture production in the whole world, raising the particularities in Brazil, highlighting the importance of the use of veterinary drugs in this system of animal food production, and address the potential risks arising from their indiscriminate use and their impacts on aquaculture production as they affect human health and the environment. The manuscript also discusses the analytical methods commonly used in the determination of veterinary drug residues in fish, with special issue for fluroquinolones residues and with emphasis on employment of LC-MS/MS analytical technique.

Quesada SP; Paschoal JA; Reyes FG

2013-09-01

384

Off-flavor by geosmine and 2-methylisoborneol in aquacultureOff-flavor por geosmina e 2-Metilisoborneol na aquicultura  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aquaculture has reached a new age, in which traditional extensive systems are being substituted by technology-intensive aquaculture systems. In order to achieve higher yields, aspects of fish quality have been neglected, a fact that causes or aggravates hitherto tolerable problems, such as off-flavor. The main purpose of this review is to clarify, briefly, the problem of off-flavor in aquaculture, as well as put forward present solutions and future perspectives. A aquicultura entra numa nova era nas últimas décadas, em que os sistemas extensivos tradicionais estão sendo substituídos por criações intensivas e tecnificadas. No intuito de auferir maior lucratividade, a qualidade do pescado tem sido relegada a segundo plano, fato que gera ou agrava problemas antes toleráveis, a exemplo do off-flavor. Assim, a presente revisão tem por objetivo esclarecer, de forma sucinta, o problema do off-flavor na aquicultura, bem como apontar as soluções atuais e as perspectivas futuras para reverter a situação que se apresenta.

Silvia Maria Guimarães de Souza; Vinicius Dias Mathies; Renata Facchin Fioravanzo

2012-01-01

385

Digital Simulation of Power Electronic Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The following paper contains the final report on the NETSIM-Project. The purpose of this project is to develop a special digital simulation system, which could serve as a base for routine application of simulation in planning and development of power elec...

P. Mehring W. Jentsch G. John D. Kraemer

1981-01-01

386

Salmonella and the sanitary quality of aquacultured shrimp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, we examined the prevalence of Salmonella and coliform bacteria on shrimp aquaculture farms to develop guidelines or preventative measures for reducing Salmonella and fecal contamination on products harvested from these farms. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, in conjunction with foreign government regulatory agencies, the aquaculture industry, and academia affiliates, analyzed 1,234 samples from 103 shrimp aquaculture farms representing six countries between July 2001 and June 2003 for fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. A significant relationship was found (P = 0.0342) between the log number of fecal bacteria and the probability that any given sample would contain Salmonella. The likelihood of any given sample containing Salmonella was increased by 1.2 times with each 10-fold increase in either fecal coliform or E. coli concentration. The statistical relationship between Salmonella concentration and that of both fecal coliforms and E. coli was highest in grow-out pond water (P = 0.0042 for fecal coliforms and P = 0.0021 for E. coli). The likelihood of finding Salmonella in grow-out pond water increased 2.7 times with each log unit increase in fecal coliform concentration and 3.0 times with each log unit increase in E. coli concentration. Salmonella is not part of the natural flora of the shrimp culture environment nor is it inherently present in shrimp grow-out ponds. The occurrence of Salmonella bacteria in shrimp from aquaculture operations is related to the concentration of fecal bacteria in the source and grow-out pond water.

Koonse B; Burkhardt W 3rd; Chirtel S; Hoskin GP

2005-12-01

387

Salmonella and the sanitary quality of aquacultured shrimp.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we examined the prevalence of Salmonella and coliform bacteria on shrimp aquaculture farms to develop guidelines or preventative measures for reducing Salmonella and fecal contamination on products harvested from these farms. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, in conjunction with foreign government regulatory agencies, the aquaculture industry, and academia affiliates, analyzed 1,234 samples from 103 shrimp aquaculture farms representing six countries between July 2001 and June 2003 for fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. A significant relationship was found (P = 0.0342) between the log number of fecal bacteria and the probability that any given sample would contain Salmonella. The likelihood of any given sample containing Salmonella was increased by 1.2 times with each 10-fold increase in either fecal coliform or E. coli concentration. The statistical relationship between Salmonella concentration and that of both fecal coliforms and E. coli was highest in grow-out pond water (P = 0.0042 for fecal coliforms and P = 0.0021 for E. coli). The likelihood of finding Salmonella in grow-out pond water increased 2.7 times with each log unit increase in fecal coliform concentration and 3.0 times with each log unit increase in E. coli concentration. Salmonella is not part of the natural flora of the shrimp culture environment nor is it inherently present in shrimp grow-out ponds. The occurrence of Salmonella bacteria in shrimp from aquaculture operations is related to the concentration of fecal bacteria in the source and grow-out pond water. PMID:16355822

Koonse, Brett; Burkhardt, William; Chirtel, Stuart; Hoskin, George P

2005-12-01

388

Detection of electronic and vibrational coherences in molecular systems by 2D electronic photon echo spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two-dimensional optical photon echo spectra are simulated for model systems which exhibit vibrational, electronic and a combination of electronic and vibrational coherent dynamics. The coherent motion manifests itself as periodic beatings of the spectrum cross-peak intensity with the population time. The intensity modulations are compared to evolution of the excited-state population and coordinate expectation value. The advantageous capabilities of the technique as well as possible difficulties in spectra interpretations are outlined. Possibilities for distinguishing electronic and vibrational coherences are discussed.

Egorova, Dassia [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Munich, D-85747 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: egorova@ch.tum.de

2008-05-23

389

Electron-optical properties of multiple magnetic prism systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design concept of multiple magnetic prism systems is discussed. These systems act as deflecting elements with tuneable electron optical properties. A prism system is introduced, consisting of an outer annular sector and inner sectors which can be excited separately. By a suitable choice of prism excitation we can easily vary properties of this system. First-order properties of several prism modes are computed. (orig.).

Mankos, M.; Kolarik, V. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno (Czechoslovakia). Ustav Pristrovoje Techniky); Veneklasen, C.H. (Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany, F.R.). Physikalisches Inst.)

1990-12-01

390

76 FR 9265 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Position Awareness...features include an electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness...The GVI has an electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from...

2011-02-17

391

76 FR 31456 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...  

Science.gov (United States)

...GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Position Awareness...features include an electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness...airplane has an electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from...

2011-06-01

392

Electronic firing systems and methods for firing a device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An electronic firing system comprising a control system, a charging system, an electrical energy storage device, a shock tube firing circuit, a shock tube connector, a blasting cap firing circuit, and a blasting cap connector. The control system controls the charging system, which charges the electrical energy storage device. The control system also controls the shock tube firing circuit and the blasting cap firing circuit. When desired, the control system signals the