Robertson, Toni; Simonsen, Jesper
The aim of this book is to provide a current account of the commitments and contributions of research and practice in the Participatory Design of information technologies. An overview of the central concepts that have defined and shaped the field is provided as an introduction to the more detailed...... focus of later chapters. The target audience is identified, and the structure of the book explained. A short description of each chapter highlights its particular contributions as well as the associated challenges facing designers and researchers engaged in participatory approaches. The chapter...... engagement. The structure of the book is described, individual chapters introduced and further relevant publications listed. Essentially this chapter introduces, motivates, and grounds the book and the chapters that follow. It provides basic definitions of the core concepts of Participatory Design and...
case involving the design and implementation of a new mixing technology in an industrial plant. The case showed how the WSD concept can contribute to an engineering design process. The WSD team took the role as workspace designer and by the participatory workshops achieved an impact on the technology...... project. In the role as workspace designer it was important for the WSD team to make sure that the achievements in the workshops were “transmitted” to and sustained in the ordinary engineering design process. In this case, it turned out that the artefacts such as a layout game board and documents with...
Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga
This paper presents our research efforts to develop digital technologies for undergraduate university mathematics. We employ participatory design methods in order to involve teachers and students in the design of such technologies. The results of the first round of our design are included in this...
Dau, Susanne; Falk, Lars; Jensen, Louise Bach
This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus.......This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus....
In this chapter, the field of Participatory Design is introduced, including the description of a number of its specific approaches. After an introduction in some of the issues in Participatory Design, approaches within the field of Participatory Design and relevant for the field of Participatory ...
Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer
This paper positions relation expertise as a core competence in participatory design. It is an expertise that demands the participatory designer to stimulate the emergence of loosely coupled knotworks, and obtain symbiotic agreement between participants disregarding their professional and social...
Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian
While many participatory design (PD) projects succeed in establishing new organisational initiatives or creating technology that is attuned to the people affected, the issue of how such results are sustained after the project ends remains an important challenge. We explore the challenge...
This article offers a way forward for educators and researchers interested in drawing on the principles of "queer theory" to inform participatory design. In this article, I aim to achieve two related goals: To introduce new concepts within a critical conceptual practice of questioning and challenging the "heterosexual matrix"…
Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Kjærsgaard, Mette Gislev
This focus section explores the opportunities of design anthropology in participatory design as an approach to research and design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in Participatory design to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... to involve people in defining user-needs and design opportunities. As the boundaries between diverse – material, digital and networked – spaces and experiences become increasingly blurred, so do the conventional distinctions between research and design. The papers presented in this focus section...... explore opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to addressing societal challenges and change, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in participatory research and design that extend beyond the empirical....
The Danish Workspace Design (WSD) research program is aimed to develop and trial a potential new concept for ergonomists and other workplace consultants who are to engage in socio-technical design processes. The objective of this paper is to report on the trial of the workspace design concept in a...... project. In the role as workspace designer it was important for the WSD team to make sure that the achievements in the workshops were “transmitted” to and sustained in the ordinary engineering design process. In this case, it turned out that the artefacts such as a layout game board and documents with...... compilations of ideas and requirements from use scenarios served as appropriate transmitter devices or inscriptions....
Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten
iterative process of mutual learning by designers and domain experts (users), who aim to change the users’ work practices through the introduction of information systems. We provide an illustrative case example with an ethnographic study of clinicians experimenting with a new electronic patient record...... system, focussing on emergent and opportunity-based change enabled by appropriating the system into real work. The contribution to a general core of design research is a reconstruction of the iterative prototyping approach into a general model for sustained participatory design....
Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Gislev Kjærsgaard, Mette
In this workshop we explore the opportunities of ethnography and design anthropology in Participatory Design (PD) as an approach to design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in PD to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways to...... involve people in defining user-needs and design opportunities. As the boundaries between physical, digital and hybrid spaces and experiences become increasingly blurred, so do conventional distinctions between research and design. This half-day workshop invites participant to discuss and explore...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to societal challenges, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in design that extends beyond the empirical....
flexible technical infrastructure is needed to support Participatory Design. The technical base as infrastructure both enables and constrains the design of local software support, as well as the application of Participatory Design methods. (3) Users on the shop floor need to participate in organizational...... IT management in order to relate the development of their local software support in an integrated infrastructure. The results of the action research report four interlinked improvements to sustain Participatory Design in the organization concerning structuring end-user influence in the organizational......Modern organizations need to be able to change to seize opportunities and meet challenges, which are ever more rapidly presenting themselves. In doing so, they need to make use of the creativity and innovations of their employees. At the same time Information Technology applications today are...
flexible technical infrastructure is needed to support Participatory Design. The technical base as infrastructure both enables and constrains the design of local software support, as well as the application of Participatory Design methods. (3) Users on the shop floor need to participate in organizational...... the following contributions: (1) Shop floor IT management is a core capability for innovation, and is a driver for sustained PD in the organization. Users on the shop floor trigger infrastructure development when their IT applications need to be technically and organizationally integrated. (2) A...
This article gives an introduction to (participatory) design games in three rounds. Firstly it argues that designing design games is a particular and very productive genre for formatting participation and design dialogues during ongoing design projects. Secondly it presents some of the main...... contributions to the development of design games in a historical perspective, and thirdly it introduces three recent PhD dissertations that all but in very different ways have investigated design games in more detail....
Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim; Leong, Tuck Wah
The widespread use of participatory design (PD) has meant that different approaches and conceptualisations exist in this field today. In this article, it is argued that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in design, focusing upon values as the engine that drives activities i...
Rank, Stephen; O'Coill, Carl; Boldyreff, Cornelia; Doughty, Mark
Much work in software architecture has been inspired by work in physical architecture, in particular Alexander's work on `design patterns'. By contrast, Alexander's work is little-used in town planning and architecture. In this paper, we examine some of the reasons that this is so, describe some parallels and differences between the fields of physical and software architecture, and identify areas in which future collaboration may be fruitful. The notion of `participatory design' is important ...
Seim, Rikke; Broberg, Ole
based methods such as workbooks, layout workshops and use scenarios. Employees, management and external design engineers alike took actively part in the design process. The general outcome of the inter-vention was some very concrete changes in the proposed design layout, an enhanced clarity of the...... production procedures in the new plant, and an identification of potential future ergonomic problems. This case study indi-cates that workspace design can be a new approach for OHS consultants....
Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte
, project evaluation and the final outcome of the project. We conclude that the end goal of Scandinavian PD is not necessarily the final research prototype. Rather, in Scandinavian PD, designers strive to provide children with meaningful alternatives to existing technologies. It is to help children realize......, that when it comes to the design of future technologies, they actually have a choice....
Iglesias de La Vega, Pedro
En este proyecto miraremos como los campos de Diseño Participativo de las tecnologías de la información (DP, Participatory IT Design) y el diseño empresarial de modelos de negocio interactúan entre sí. Exploraremos el hueco que existe en los asuntos que aborda un proyecto de DP señalado por Kyng (2010). DP es una forma de enfocar el diseño para diseñar sistemas informáticos que tiene su propia ideología, haciendo mucho hincapié en la participación de los usuarios en el proceso. Esta ideolo...
Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian; Hansen, Elin
Engaging children in the design of digital technology is one of the core strands in Child-Computer Interaction literature. Nevertheless, only few studies explore how teenagers as a distinct user group are engaged in Participatory Design activities. Based on a case study comprising ten Participatory......-established PD tools and techniques, a deeper understanding of teenagers’ motivation and motives is essential to understand how tools and techniques can made to support teenagers motivation. We outline a Cultural Historical Activity Theoretical approach to teenagers’ motives and motivation as a frame for...
Sander van den Burg
Full Text Available European oceans are subject to rapid development. New activities such as aquaculture and ocean energy have gained importance. This triggers interest in “multi-use platforms at sea” (MUPS, i.e., areas at sea in which different activities are combined. MUPS are complex features with regards to technology, governance, and financial, socioeconomic, and environmental aspects. To identify realistic and sustainable solutions and designs for MUPS, the MERMAID project applied a participatory design process (PDP involving a range of stakeholders representing companies, authorities, researchers, and NGOs. This paper evaluates if and how the participatory design process contributed to the design of multi-use platforms. It is based on interviews with the managers of the case study sites and a questionnaire administered to all stakeholders participating in the PDP workshops. Analyzing the four case studies, we conclude that the participatory design process has had a valuable contribution to the development of the four different designs of MUPS, even though the preconditions for carrying out a participatory design process differed between sites. In all four cases, the process has been beneficial in generating new and shared knowledge. It brought new design issues to the table and increased knowledge and understanding among the different stakeholders.
Kensing, Finn; Simonsen, Jesper; Bødker, Keld
realistic, design practice, that provides a sound basis for organisational decision making and for technical and organizational development and implementation. We focus on cooperative aspects within and among the editorial units, and between editorial units and the editorial board. We discuss technical and......We address design of computer support for work and its coordination at the Danish Broadcasting Corporation. We propose design solutions based upon participatory design techniques and ethnographically inspired analysis within a full scale design project. The project exemplifies an ambitious, yet...... organisational aspects of the design, seen in light of recent CSCW concepts, including coordination and computational coordination mechanisms, technologies of accountability, and workflow from within and without....
The general theme is democratic urban innovation and participatory design processes. The project aims at examining and assessing the possibi-lities for increa-sing public participation and citizenship in the urban development. Furthermore, the project aims at strengthening the understanding of th...... (Tokyo). Theoretical inspiration comes from, e.g., Richard Sennett, Raymond Williams, Iris Marion Young, Johan Asplund, Oskar Negt, Hannah Arendt, Carole Pateman, Donald Schön, and Peter Checkland....
Full Text Available In order to promote pedagogically informed use of technology, educators need to develop an active, inquisitive, design-oriented mindset. Design Patterns have been demonstrated as powerful mediators of theory-praxis conversations yet widespread adoption by the practitioner community remains a challenge. Over several years, the authors and their colleagues have facilitated many workshops in which participants shared experiences, captured these as design narratives, extracting design patterns, and applied them to novel teaching challenges represented as design scenarios. This paper presents the core elements of the methodology that emerged from these workshops: the Participatory Patterns Workshops (PPW methodology.
Simonsen, Jesper; Scheuer, John Damm; Hertzum, Morten
We reconsider the role of participatory design approaches emphasizing the current context of the accreditation regime imposed on the Danish healthcare sector. We describe effects-driven IT development as an instrument supporting sustained participatory design. Effects-driven IT development includes......-based thinking. We describe and compare effects- driven IT development with accreditation and discuss the prospects and challenges for this approach to participatory design within the healthcare domain....
Kristensen, Margit; Kyng, Morten; Palen, Leysia Ann
We describe our research—its approach, results and prod-ucts—on Danish emergency medical service (EMS) field or “pre-hospital” work in minor and major incidents. We dis-cuss how commitments to participatory design and attention to the qualitative differences between minor and major incidents...... address challenges identified by disaster sociologists when designing for major incidents. Through qualitative research and participatory design, we have ex-amined the features of EMS work and technology use in different emergency situations from the perspective of mul-tiple actors. We conceptualize...... victims in incidents—and particularly in major incidents, where on-site medical as-sessments is highly incomplete—as boundary objects over which the complex and imperfect work of coordination is done. As an outcome of our participatory design approach, we describe a set of designs in support of future EMS...
In this contribution, the design game as a method in Participatory Design is discussed. The focus lies on the organizational design game. For using the design game relations of power, socio-technical textures and forms of work and organization are treated as concerns that need to be addressed...... carefully. Cases from student projects are used as illustrating examples; work environments were redesigned and design games played. It turns out that degrees of freedom are present for the choice of (gaming) method as well as the ways of using the selected method. These degrees of freedom should be used...... in a way that will be labeled as »interested«, rather than in a way labeled as »taking for granted«. It is not possible to guarantee an interested and beneficial approach; yet the paper argues on the grounds that reflective gaming practice can be supportive in this direction....
Ertner, Sara Marie; Kragelund, Anne Mie; Malmborg, Lone
Participatory design has been defined as having 'user's democratic participation and empowerment at its core' (Correia and Yusop, 2008). The PD discourse has a strong moral and rhetorical claim by its emphasis on users' empowerment. This paper is a result of a student project, guided by a curiosity...... about how empowerment is enunciated in the PD field today. In a literature-review of academic papers from the proceedings of PDC 2008 we found that empowerment is enunciated in five different ways which can be translated into 5 categories: 1) Specific user groups 2) Direct democracy 3) The users......' position 4) Researchers' practice 5) Reflexive practice. These categories exist conjointly in the literature and suggest that empowerment is not just a moral and politically correct design goal, but a challenged and complex activity....
Connors, Susan C.; Magilvy, Joan K.
Evaluation research has been in progress to clarify the concept of participatory evaluation and to assess its impact. Recently, two theoretical frameworks have been offered--Daigneault and Jacob's participatory evaluation measurement index and Champagne and Smits' model of practical participatory evaluation. In this case report, we apply these…
Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Hedvall, Per-Oluf
Participatory design (PD) has taken as its ideal that designers and users should engage in an equal language game. When we apply PD in contexts where some of the users involved are weak, ill, or have impairments, this assumed equality can no longer be an ideal. The workshop explores new ideals fo...... participatory design in non-work settings with highly heterogeneous user constellations....
Full Text Available Motivational aspects are core to successful knowledge sharing and collaborative learning experiences. However, it still remains one of the great challenges to overcome motivational barriers when it comes to introducing information systems for collaborative learning at the workplace. In the context of an international research project we have taken motivational aspects into account during the design phase and started a participatory process involving researchers, end-users, managers, designers and developers. As initial findings show, a continuous dialogue with end-users may contribute to creating a sense of ownership amongst them and become a motivational driver for the future use of the system.
Ampatzidou, Christina; Gugerell, Katharina; Diephuis, Jeremiah
With the increasing interest of local governments in civic participation, it becomes important to explore the available methods for orchestrating participatory processes and evaluate how different tools address some of the common issues associated with participatory processes. Game design is an expa
Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten
In this article we discuss how to engage in large-scale information systems development by applying a participatory design (PD) approach that acknowledges the unique situated work practices conducted by the domain experts of modern organizations. We reconstruct the iterative prototyping approach...... into a PD process model that (1) emphasizes PD experiments as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporates improvisational change management including anticipated, emergent, and opportunity-based change; and (3) extends...... discuss three challenges to address when dealing with large-scale systems development....
Zewge, Amanuel; Dittrich, Yvonne; Bekele, Rahel
In a developing country like Ethiopia, marketing of agricultural products is influenced by local, socioeconomic, cultural and IT infrastructure characteristics. ICT-based agriculture information systems have been proposed to support farmers with market information. However, such initiatives have...... often failed to provide useful information in an adequate form for farmers in remote areas. Participatory Design (PD) assumes to be effective approach to overcome these challenges. However, due to its origin in the western countries, the capability of users, motivation and desire to participate and...... availability of resources are often taken for granted. This work identifies challenges for applying PD in rural Ethiopia and proposes method for ‘Early-Stage’ of PD....
Khaled, Rilla; vanden Abeele, Vero; Van Mechelen, Maarten; Vasalau, Asimini
While the importance of participatory design has been acknowledged broadly within the field of HCI, its use in serious games is less frequent. This workshop will explore the underpinning reasons for this gap and advance the identification of philosophical, methodological and pragmatic opportunities as well as challenges. The workshop will serve as a venue for synthesizing productive practices and a future agenda that will be nefit serious game design processes.
Providing a critical view on user participation in design, disentangling decision making and power in design, this book uses fieldwork material from two large participatory design projects: one experimental in the field of urban planning, the other a product development project within health care. Addressing power issues in participatory design is critical to providing a realistic view of the possibilities and limitations of participation. Design is decision-making: during a design process a huge number of decisions?taken before the designers end up with a design result - an artefact or system
Chin, George, Jr.
Educational technology research studies have found computer and software technologies to be underutilized in U.S. classrooms. In general, many teachers have had difficulty integrating computer and software technologies into learning activities and classroom curriculums because specific technologies are ill-suited to their needs, or they lack the ability to make effective use of these technologies. In the development of commercial and business applications, participatory design approaches have been applied to facilitate the direct participation of users in system analysis and design. Among the benefits of participatory design include mutual learning between users and developers, envisionment of software products and their use contexts, empowerment of users in analysis and design, grounding of design in the practices of users, and growth of users as designers and champions of technology. In the context of educational technology development, these similar consequences of participatory design may lead to more appropriate and effective education systems as well as greater capacities by teachers to apply and integrate educational systems into their teaching and classroom practices. We present a case study of a participatory design project that took place over a period of two and one half years, and in which teachers and developers engaged in the participatory analysis and design of a collaborative science learning environment. A significant aspect of the project was the development methodology we followed---Progressive Design. Progressive Design evolved as an integration of methods for participatory design, ethnography, and scenario-based design. In this dissertation, we describe the Progressive Design approach, how it was used, and its specific impacts and effects on the development of educational systems and the social and cognitive growth of teachers.
Vink, P.; Imada, A.S.; Zink, K.J.
A participatory approach could be used to implement work place or organizational improvements. However, the question is which participants should be involved and how. In this paper the theoretical involvement in different steps of a linear stepwise approach is described and compared with the latest
In this essay several virtues are discussed that are needed in people who work in participatory design (PD). The term PD is used here to refer specifically to an approach in designing information systems with its roots in Scandinavia in the 1970s and 1980s. Through the lens of virtue ethics and base
notion of fictional space is traced through design theory and developed within the scope of participatory design. Fictional space and the notions presented within this perspective are not ready-made methods or techniques for conducting design inquiries. Rather, I suggest that they enable critical......This dissertation addresses the topic of designing engaging interactive environments and is positioned in the intersection between participatory design, design theory, and interaction design. This topic has been addressed through a research program on designing engaging interactive exhibition...... spaces for museums and science centres. The dissertation is composed of seven research papers framed by a general overview that summarises the arguments made in the papers and outlines related work and research method. The contribution reflects a dual yet intertwined concern for understanding engagement...
Barcellini, Flore; Prost, Lorène; Cerf, Marianne
This research deals with an analysis of forms of participation in a participatory design (PD) process of a software that assesses the sustainability of agricultural cropping systems. We explore the actual forms of participation of designers and users by adapting an Actual Role Analysis in Design approach (Barcellini et al., 2013) to capture the levels of abstraction (conceptual, functional and operational) of participants' discussions. We show that: (1) the process does not only concern the design of the artifact itself, but also the design of the concept of sustainability; (2) all participants (users & designers) have a role in co-designing the concept (in our case, sustainability); (3) some roles and profiles are key to this co-design. We discuss our contributions to both the research and the practices of participatory design. These contributions deal with the production of a method and related knowledge about actual activities in participatory design situations. They may support the development of relevant training programs regarding participatory situations, or be reflexive activities that can help those who are involved in designing and leading in participatory situations, to make improvements. PMID:25959315
Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten
With its 10th biannual anniversary conference, Participatory Design (PD) is leaving its teens and must now be considered ready to join the adult world. In this article we encourage the PD community to think big: PD should engage in large-scale information-systems development and opt for a PD...
O'Coill, Carl; Doughty, Mark
This paper reviews existing research into real-time visualisation in architecture, urban design and landscape architecture and describes a University of Lincoln research project exploring the application of this technology to participatory design in a community-based, urban landscaping project. Staff at the School of Architecture have used ‘Virtools Development’, a computer game prototyping package, to help residents in Hull, UK, to visualise and interact with a design proposal for a ‘home zo...
Boef, de W.S.; Thijssen, M.H.
Outline to the guide Within our training programmes on local management of agrobiodiversity, participatory crop improvement and the support of local seed supply participatory tools get ample attention. Tools are dealt with theoretically, are practised in class situations, but are also applied in fie
Scanlon, Eileen; Kerawalla, Lucinda; Twiner, Alison; Mulholland, Paul; Collins, Trevor; Jones, Ann; Gaved, Mark; Littleton, Karen; Blake, Canan; Conole, Grainne
This paper focuses on the participatory design processes during a project concerned with supporting children aged 12 – 15 to carry out personal scientific inquiries and in particular how the process varied between two case studies conducted in very different settings but within the same school. The context for the case studies is a three year project on Personal Inquiry: Designing for Evidence-Based Inquiry Learning across Formal and Informal Settings which is being jointly conducted by the O...
In this contribution, the design game as a method in Participatory Design is discussed. The focus lies on the organizational design game. For using the design game relations of power, socio-technical textures and forms of work and organization are treated as concerns that need to be addressed carefully. Cases from student projects are used as illustrating examples; work environments were redesigned and design games played. It turns out that degrees of freedom are present for the choice of (ga...
Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Nakatani, Momoko; Ohno, Takehiko
Historically, Participatory Design (PD) was introduced and applied in the Scandinavian and American context as a practical design method for collective creativity and stakeholder involvement. In this paper, by fusing game elements into PD, we suggest a first step towards a culturally independent PD...... method called the ICT Service Design Game to ease the prevailing concern that PD has limited applicability in other cultural settings. We conduct four experiments on ICT Service Design Game in Scandinavia and Asia to evaluate its feasibility. The experiments identify some differences in the PD process...... and the created Persona characteristics, probably due to cultural differences. Of more interestingly, despite these process differences, the game elements of our PD variant were found to promote the key values of PD in culturally diverse settings by stimulating idea creation and participation. Our experiments...
Bødker, Susanne; Iversen, Ole Sejer
Use and users have an important and acknowledged role to most designers of interactive systems. Nevertheless any touch of user hands does not in itself secure development of meaningful artifacts. In this article we stress the need for a professional PD practice in order to yield the full potentia......Use and users have an important and acknowledged role to most designers of interactive systems. Nevertheless any touch of user hands does not in itself secure development of meaningful artifacts. In this article we stress the need for a professional PD practice in order to yield the full...
Brandon Daveler, MS
Full Text Available The design of the mobility enhancement robotic wheelchair (MEBot was based on input from electric powered wheelchair (EPW users regarding the conditions they encounter when driving in both indoor and outdoor environments that may affect their safety and result in them becoming immobilized, tipping over, or falling out of their wheelchair. Phase I involved conducting a participatory design study to understand the conditions and barriers EPW users found to be difficult to drive in/over. Phase II consisted of creating a computer-aided design (CAD prototype EPW to provide indoor and outdoor mobility that addressed these conditions with advanced applications. Phase III involved demonstrating the advanced applications and gathering feedback from end users about the likelihood they would use the advanced applications. The CAD prototype incorporated advanced applications, including self-leveling, curb climbing, and traction control, that addressed the challenging conditions and barriers discussed with EPW users (n = 31 during the participatory design study. Feedback on the CAD design and applications in phase III from end users (n = 12 showed a majority would use self-leveling (83%, traction control (83%, and curb climbing (75%. The overall design of MEBot received positive feedback from EPW users. However, these opinions will need to be reevaluated through user trials as the design advances.
Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke; Seim, Rikke
The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of boundary objects in order to better understand the role of objects in participatory ergonomics (PE) design processes. The research question is: What characterizes boundary objects in PE processes? Based on two case studies, we identify eight...... enable workers’ participation and collaborative design in different ways. The framework developed may serve to provide criteria to guide practitioners and intervention researchers in the selection of objects to facilitate a PE process. The paper concludes with a list of recommendations for ergonomic...
Andersen, Lars Bo; Danholt, Peter; Halskov, Kim;
This article starts from the paradox that, although participation is a defining trait of participatory design (PD), there are few explicit discussions in the PD literature of what constitutes participation. Thus, from a point of departure in Actor-Network Theory (ANT), this article develops an...... individuals and (2) that participation partially exists in all elements of a project. These traits are explicated in a design project called ‘Teledialogue’, where the participants are unfolded as networks of reports, government institutions, boyfriends, social workers and so on. The argument is synthesised as...
which the future work processes and ergonomics were simulated. These workshops succeeded in reframing the engineering design project to include ergonomics and work processes. A layout game board, documents with schematic representations and a production manager turned out to be appropriate transmitters...... of insights and results from the workshop to the engineering design process.......The Danish Workspace Design research program has developed and tested a new concept for ergonomists to intervene in design processes. In the case of an industrial manufacturer two sets of workshops were applied. The first set was based on a layout design game. The second set was use scenarios in...
user involvement and participatory design. This is highlighted through explaining ongoing research in the creation of a 3D visualization knowledge management system to support preservation of indigenous knowledge (IK) in Africa. Through the sharing of experiences from the field I underpin the......Designers face a number of challenges in terms of when and how to design interactive systems with indigenous groups. Every layer of development faces obstacles from designing localized interfaces to facilitating prototype evaluations in the wild. This article argues for the importance of continuous...... importance of acknowledging users' expertise and knowledge about the design context. Through presentation of a selection of these challenges in localizing systems development I wish to raise awareness of an required sensitivity to cultural differences in IT....
Grönvall, Erik; Kyng, Morten
Participatory design (PD) activities in private homes challenge how we relate to the PD process, compared to PD in professional settings. Grounded in a project related to chronic dizziness among older people, we identified four challenges when performing PD with ill, weak users in their private...... homes. The challenges are (1) designing for, and negotiating knowledge about, the home, (2) ill, weak users and their participation in PD, (3) divergent interests of participants and (4) usable and sustainable post-project solutions. These challenges have to be carefully addressed, and we use them to...... reflect upon differences between a home-based PD process with non-workers, such as ours, and work-place projects, such as Utopia. Through this reflection, the paper contributes to a more general discussion on PD in non-work settings with weak users. Indeed, differences do exist between traditional PD...
Full Text Available Within the Participatory Design community as well as the Computer Supported Cooperative Work tradition, a lot of effort has been put into the question of letting field studies inform design. In this paper, we describe how game-like approaches can be used as a way of exploring a practice from a design point of view. Thinking of ethnographic fieldwork as a base for sketching, rather than descriptions, creates openness that invites collaborative authoring. The concept of playful collaborative exploration suggests certain ways of interacting with material from field studies so that it becomes a design material for an open-ended design process. We have carried out field studies, transformed the field material into design material, and set up a design game for working with it together with the people we followed in the field. The design game builds on an idea about the power of narratives and the benefits of constraining rules. We believe that this framework for collaboration opens for playfulness, experimentation, and new design ideas.
Applied ethnobotany is a nev subject in ethnobiological sciences referring to the transferring, reviving and cultivating ethnobotanical knowledge among different social groups within intra-and-inter-communities. Much research related to biodiversity in many countries is largely devoted to the gathering of more academic information, rather than to more incise studies focusing on finding answers to pressing challenges related to the use of plants by communities. China is a country possessing rich biodiversity and cultural diversity. The long history of Chinese traditional medicine, diversity of cultivated crops and utilization of wild plant species are great cultural traditions to the country. Today, many societies of the country are still intricately linked to the natural environment economically as well as societies and groups within China. However, China is facing major changes in modernization of the country's economy, and globalization to form part of the world exchange system. Increasingly high levels of consumptions of natural plants, as well as national and international trades on plant products have resulted, space in over-harvesting of wild resources and accelerated environmental degradation. Local social structures and cultural traditions have also changed in order to cope with policy changes. In this background, over the last decade, applied ethnobotany for rural community development and conservation has been employed in different field projects and ethnic minority communities in Yunnan province of China. The applied ethnobotany has focused on work at community level to achieve sustainable use of natural resources and conservation. This presentation discusses findings and lessons learned from the projects on alternatives and innovations to shifting cultivation in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China.
Marlei Pozzebon; Sonia Tello Rozas; Natalia Aguilar Delgado
This paper seeks to understand the use and the consequences of Participatory Geographic Information System (PGIS) in a Mexican local community. A multilevel framework was applied, mainly influenced by two theoretical lenses – structurationist view and social shaping of technology – structured in three dimensions – context, process and content – according to contextualist logic. The results of our study have brought two main contributions. The first is the refinement of the theoretical framewo...
Büscher, Monika; Hartswood, Mark; Mogensen, Preben Holst;
While participatory design crosses the boundaries between technology production and use, it does not erase them. In accounts of participatory projects, the work of negotiating and changing these boundaries often recedes into the background, yet it is crucial in shaping the very nature and scope of...
Full Text Available This paper seeks to understand the use and the consequences of Participatory Geographic Information System (PGIS in a Mexican local community. A multilevel framework was applied, mainly influenced by two theoretical lenses – structurationist view and social shaping of technology – structured in three dimensions – context, process and content – according to contextualist logic. The results of our study have brought two main contributions. The first is the refinement of the theoretical framework in order to better investigate the implementation and use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT artifacts by local communities for social and environmental purposes.The second contribution is the extension of existing IS (Information Systems literature on participatory practices through identification of important conditions for helping the mobilization of ICT as a tool for empowering local communities.
Ankara : Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent University, 1999. Thesis (Ph.D.) -- Bilkent University, 1999 Includes bibliographical references leaves 113-131 This work presents a conceptual model involving the elderly users into the design process by means of participatory design sessions, where the expertise of designers and the real requirements and opinions of elderly end-users, related to how objects, environments and equipment should be designed to allow ageing ...
Hansen, Sandra Burri Gram; Ryberg, Thomas
. These are principles that practitioners may consider when planning e.g. workshops in order to ensure that the activities facilitate both the design process and establish an ethical foundation for the design process. In addition to the theoretical contribution of the paper, the notion of constructive......This paper explores, analyses and discusses the potential of applying Danish theologian and philosopher K.E. Løgstrup’s ontological approach to ethics, when planning and conducting participatory design activities. By doing so, ethical considerations, will transform from being a summative evaluation...... perspective typically included at the end of a design process, to becoming a more formative and constructive perspective which influences the entire process. The approach presented in this paper will support on-going research within the field of Value Sensitive Design with theoretically based principles...
Mahmoud, Magdi S
Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...
Könings, Karen; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen
Könings, K. D., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). An approach to participatory instructional design in secondary education: an exploratory study. Educational Research, 52(1), 45-59.
Binder, Thomas; Brandt, Eva
The notion of laboratory or simply 'lab' has become popular in recent years in areas outside science and technology development. Learning Labs, Innovation Labs, Usability Labs, Media and Communication Labs and even Art Labs designate institutions or fora dedicated to change and experimentation...... collaborative inquiries and knowledge production based on design experiments. Udgivelsesdato: June...
SEAMLESS. System for Environmental and Agricultural Modelling; Linking European Science and Society. D7.3.1: Participatory methods, guidelines and good practice guidance to be applied throughout the project to enhance problem definition, co learning, synthesis and dissemination.
Bousset, J.P.; Macombe, C.; Taverne, M.
The objective of this deliverables is to provide SEAMLESS teams with participatory methods, guidelines and good practice guidance to be applied throughout the project to enhance problem definition, co learning, synthesis and dissemination. Five methodological key issues that should be taken into account in the design of participatory methods for problem definition, co-learning, synthesis and dissemination have been pointed out and discussed. They are: definition of the subject matter for disc...
Full Text Available This study used observation and interviews with participants in “PunCar Action” to understand how participatory design methods can be applied to the education of rural individuals in information and communication technology (ICT. PunCar Action is a volunteer program in which ICT educators tour the rural communities of Taiwan, offering courses on the use of digital technology. This paper makes three contributions: First, we found that participatory design is an excellent way to teach ICT and Web 2.0 skills, co-create community blogs, and sustain intrinsic motivation to use Web applications. Second, PunCar Action provides an innovative bottom-up intergenerational ICT education model with high penetrability capable of enhancing the confidence of rural residents in the use of ICT. Third, the content of basic courses was based on applications capable of making the lives of elderly individuals more convenient, and the advanced course was based on the co-creation of community blogs aimed at reviving the core functions of communities and expanding local industry. Our research was conducted with the use of a non-quantitative index to measure ICT learning performance of participants from a rural community. The results show that PunCar Action emphasizes interpersonal communication and informational applications and creates a collaborative process that encourages rural residents to take action to close the digital divide.
Full Text Available Aim of the study: Forest management planning in a region typically involves multiple stakeholders. Decisions processes are idiosyncratic, driven by individual goals and supported by segmented forest-based information. Nevertheless, stakeholders’ decisions do impact one another leading to complex interaction networks where communication, cooperation and negotiation play a key role. This research addresses the need to develop decision tools to support these roles. Emphasis is on the integration of participatory planning tools and techniques in the architecture of a regional decision support toolbox.Area of the study: The proposed approach was applied in the Chamusca County in Central Portugal although it is easily extended to other regions.Material and methods: This research proposes an Enterprise Architecture methodological approach to design a toolbox that may address distinct stakeholders’ interests and decision processes, while enabling communication, cooperation, negotiation and information sharing among all those involved in the regional interactions network.Main results: the proposed approach was tested in a regional network involving decision processes and information shared by 22 entities clustered into 13 stakeholders groups, including industrial owners, and non-industrial private forestland owners (NIPF - acting individually or grouped into associations and federations -, national and regional offices of the forest authority, forest services providers, non-governmental organizations and research centers. Results suggest that the proposed approach may provide a toolbox that may effectively address stakeholders’ decision processes and goals and support the regional interaction network.Key-words: forest management; multiple stakeholders; decision support systems; enterprise architecture; participatory process.
Ratcliffe, Hannah L; Sando, David; Mwanyika-Sando, Mary; Chalamilla, Guerino; Langer, Ana; McDonald, Kathleen P
Disrespect and abuse (D&A) during facility-based childbirth is a topic of growing concern and attention globally. Several recent studies have sought to quantify the prevalence of D&A, however little evidence exists about effective interventions to mitigate disrespect and abuse, and promote respectful maternity care. In an accompanying article, we describe the process of selecting, implementing, and evaluating a package of interventions designed to prevent and reduce disrespect and abuse in a large urban hospital in Tanzania. Though that study was not powered to detect a definitive impact on reducing D&A, the results showed important changes in intermediate outcomes associated with this goal. In this commentary, we describe the factors that enabled this effect, especially the participatory approach we adopted to engage key stakeholders throughout the planning and implementation of the program. Based on our experience and findings, we conclude that a visible, sustained, and participatory intervention process; committed facility leadership; management support; and staff engagement throughout the project contributed to a marked change in the culture of the hospital to one that values and promotes respectful maternity care. For these changes to translate into dignified care during childbirth for all women in a sustainable fashion, institutional commitment to providing the necessary resources and staff will be needed. PMID:27424514
societal challenges at various levels. Sharing economy, crowdfunding and participatory cultures create new forms of engagement that challenge traditional ideas of participation. Public engagement in radical social innovation is used to address shrinking finances to public services, which has resulted...... and large-scale infrastructuring challenge the core democratic ideals of PD. The Participatory Design Conferences (PDC) continue to be the main gathering point of the PD community and an important venue for international discussion of the collaborative, social and political dimensions of technology......), design anthropology, design psychology, design Industry and the arts. The conference has helped to broaden participatory approaches in design around a variety of arenas including information and communication technologies, work, healthcare, learning, new media and digital culture, community settings...
Song, Donggil; Oh, Eun Young
This study reports on a participatory design approach including the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of a mobile app-based personal response system (PRS). The first cycle formulated initial design principles through context and needs analysis; the second utilized the collaboration with instructors and experts embodying specific…
Leong, Tuck Wah; Iversen, Ole Sejer
Participatory Design (PD) is inherently concerned with inquiring into and supporting human values when designing IT. We argue that a PD approach that is led by a focus upon participants' values can allow participants to discover meaningful alternatives -- alternative uses and alternative conceptu...
Valtolina, Stefano; Barricelli, Barbara Rita; Dittrich, Yvonne
semiotic perspective to computer application and human–computer interaction. From a semiotic perspective, the computer application is both a message from the designer to the user about the structure of the problem domain, as well as about interaction with it, and a structured channel for the user......The aim of this paper is to present a design strategy for collaborative knowledge-management systems based on a semiotic approach. The contents and structure of experts' knowledge is highly dependent on professional or individual practice. Knowledge-management systems that support cooperation...... between experts from different (sub-)fields need to be situated and tailored to provide effective support even if the common aspects of the data need to be described by ontologies that are generic in respect to the sub-disciplines involved. To understand and approach this design problem, we apply a...
. • In “Expanding the ‘How’ of Participatory Design”, five papers provide insights into techniques and methods that support novel perspectives on how participatory design activities might be practiced or reflected upon. This includes examples that should benefit practitioners and researchers who wish to think...... encourage you to read and engage with each of these individual contributions in their own right. 14 workshops were selected from 31 submitted ideas for pre-conference activities, and they cover a wide range of topics. All the accepted proposals involve interaction and participation, but there is a variation...
Rezaee, S.A.; Oey, M.A.; Nevejan, C.I.M.; Brazier, F.M.
Introducing the notion of Participatory Demand-Supply (PDS) systems as socio-technical systems, this paper focuses on a new approach to coordinating demand and supply in dynamic environments. A participatory approach to demand and supply provides a new frame of reference for system design, for which the engagement of all stakeholders plays an important role, as does distributed ICT. This approach has been applied to an industrial case to explore new opportunities enabled by distributed ICT fo...
Pollock, Mica; Amaechi, Uche
Most school districts are out to regulate and restrict student texting and fear student-teacher texting as particularly inappropriate. But might this youth-dominated channel in fact be a twenty-first century portal to personalized support for youth struggling in school? This article shares first findings from participatory design research on…
Könings, Karen; Van Zundert, Marjo; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen
Könings, K. D., Van Zundert, M. J. Brand-Gruwel, S. & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2007). Participatory design in secondary education: Its desirability and feasibility according to teachers and students. Educational Studies, 33, 445-465.
This article showcases a virtual interactive participatory design activity for building a digital entomology lab. Conceptualized as a virtual complement to a general entomology course at Kansas State University, the lab would allow learners to explore morphological aspects of insects--their various forms and functions--in order to understand…
This book is for developers who are already proficient in programming and capable of designing systems using traditional databases, but are new to Redis. It is assumed that you understand the basics of Redis and are familiar with the various data structures. You are also expected to be proficient in one or more programming languages through which you want to use Redis.
Full Text Available Generative design processes have been the focus of current architectural research and practice largely due to the phenomenon of emergence explored within self-organisation, generative grammars and evolutionary techniques.These techniques have been informing participatory urban design modalities, which are investigated in this paper by critically reviewing theories, practices, and (software applications that explore multi-player online urban games, with respect to not only their abilities to facilitate online trans-disciplinary expert collaboration and user participation but also to support implementation of democratic ideals in design practice.The assumption is that even if generative and participatory parametric frameworks for multi-player design games may not replace politics as a discipline concerned with the study of government and policies of government, they may reduce the bureaucratic apparatus supporting government by establishing a direct interface between experts such as politicians, urban planners, designers, and users.
Chen, Yee Ming
The design of multi-agent based simulations (MABS) is up to now mainly done in laboratories and based on designers' understanding of the activities to be simulated. Domain experts have little chance to directly validate agent behaviors. To fill this gap, we are investigating participatory methods of design, which allow users to participate in the design the pickup and delivery problem (PDP) in the taxi planning problem. In this paper, we present a participatory process for designing new socio-technical architectures to afford the taxi dispatch for this transportation system. The proposed dispatch architecture attempts to increase passenger satisfaction more globally, by concurrently dispatching multiple taxis to the same number of passengers in the same geographical region, and vis-avis human driver and dispatcher satisfaction.
Chukwudozie, Oge; Feinstein, Clare; Jensen, Celina;
While the principles behind community-based participatory research are firmly established, the process of taking community-based participatory research with children and youth to scale and integrating it into the programming of non-governmental organizations has been scarcely documented. This...... article reflects on the experiences of Save the Children in implementing a multicountry community-based participatory research program to increase understanding of kinship care in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. The article discusses challenges faced and lessons learned and...... highlights how the research process enabled action and advocacy initiatives at different levels-leading to an increase in support and policy attention for children living in kinship care....
Marques, A. F.; Borges, J. G.; Garcia-Gonzalo, J.; Lucas, B.; Melo, I.
Aim of the study: Forest management planning in a region typically involves multiple stake holders. Decisions processes are idiosyncratic, driven by individual goals and supported by segmented forest-based information. Nevertheless, stake holders' decisions do impact one another leading to complex interaction networks where communication, cooperation and negotiation play a key role. This research addresses the need to develop decision tools to support these roles. Emphasis is on the integration of participatory planning tools and techniques in the architecture of a regional decision support toolbox. Area of the study: The proposed approach was applied in the Chamusca County in Central Portugal although it is easily extended to other regions. Material and methods: This research proposes an Enterprise Architecture methodological approach to design a toolbox that may address distinct stake holders' interests and decision processes, while enabling communication, cooperation, negotiation and information sharing among all those involved in the regional interactions network. Main results: the proposed approach was tested in a regional network involving decision processes and information shared by 22 entities clustered into 13 stake holders groups, including industrial owners, and non-industrial private forest land owners (NIPF) acting individually or grouped into associations and federations, national and regional offices of the forest authority, forest services providers, non-governmental organizations and research centers. Results suggest that the proposed approach may provide a toolbox that may effectively address stake holders decision processes and goals and support the regional interaction network. (Author)
Simonsen, Jesper; Scheuer, John Damm
This paper presents a soft project management paradigm approach based on participatory design to assuring values and benefits in public projects. For more than a decade, quality development in the Danish healthcare sector has been managed with an accreditation system known as the Danish Quality......-driven IT development and suggest how this approach may form a cornerstone of project management in a new quality-assurance program for the Danish healthcare sector....... Model (DQM). In 2015, in an attempt to reduce “bureaucratic process requirements” and “focus on specific goals and results,” the Danish government decided to discontinue this system (The Danish Ministry of Health, 2015, p. 2). In this paper, we introduce a participatory design approach known as effects...
BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R.; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J.
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems…
Pietro Baroni; Daniela Fogli; Massimiliano Giacomin; Giovanni Guida; Loredana Parasiliti Provenza; Michele Rossi; Marko Bohanec; Martin Å½nidarÅ¡iÄ
This article presents a participatory design approach to Decision Support Systems, which is specifically built to face the socio-technical gap that often impedes DSS acceptability by end-users in real work environments. The approach has been experimented in two case studies in the field of health-related emergencies, namely earthquake and pandemic flu. The application of the approach and the results obtained are described with specific focus on the phases of requirement analysis and system ev...
Simonsen, Jesper; Scheuer, John Damm
This paper presents a soft project management paradigm approach based on participatory design to assuring values and benefits in public projects. For more than a decade, quality development in the Danish healthcare sector has been managed with an accreditation system known as the Danish Quality......-driven IT development and suggest how this approach may form a cornerstone of project management in a new quality-assurance program for the Danish healthcare sector....
Mor, Yishay; Warburton, Steven; Winters, Niall
In order to promote pedagogically informed use of technology, educators need to develop an active, inquisitive, design-oriented mindset. Design Patterns have been demonstrated as powerful mediators of theory-praxis conversations yet widespread adoption by the practitioner community remains a challenge. Over several years, the authors and their colleagues have facilitated many workshops in which participants shared experiences, captured these as design narratives, extracting design patterns, a...
FRANCOIS, Mathilde; Osiurak, François; Fort, Alexandra; CRAVE, Philippe; Navarro, Jordan
Automotive human-machine interface (HMI) design is facing new challenges due to the technological advances of the last decades. The design process has to be adapted in order to address human factors and road safety challenges. It is now widely accepted that user involvement in the HMI design process is valuable. However, the current form of user involvement in industry remains at the stages of concept assessment and usability tests. Moreover, the literature in other fields (e.g. information s...
The concept of Workspace Design is presented as a potential new approach for ergonomists and consultants in the occupational health service. The concept is aimed as an intervention and facilitation strategy in the early stages of design processes leading to new workplaces. Preliminary results fro...
Buur, Jacob; Matthews, Ben
In this paper we discuss the potential for Participatory Design (PD) to make a fundamental contribution to the business-oriented field of user-driven innovation, taking note of where we find PD can best benefit from interaction with this other field. We examine some of the challenges that must...... be addressed if PD is to contribute to innovation processes in companies. We conclude by presenting a research agenda comprising of six promising topics to shape a new discipline of Participatory Innovation....
Poulsen, Signe; Ipsen, Christine; Gish, Liv
intervention studies. The method was tested in three small and medium-sized companies. Four to six employees participated in each chronicle workshop, which was the last activity of the participatory preventive intervention program PoWRS. The program aims at creating changes which have a positive effect on both...... intervention, the factors affecting it, and the outcome evaluation based on a summary view of the company and intervention-related factors that influence the intervention program and results....
van Besouw, R.M.; Oliver, B.R.; Hodkinson, S; Polfreman, R.; Grasmeder, M.L.
Objectives: Many cochlear implant (CI) users wish to enjoy music but are dissatisfied by its quality as perceived through their implant. Although there is evidence to suggest that training can improve CI users’ perception and appraisal of music, availability of interactive music-based aural rehabilitation for adults is limited. In response to this need, an ‘Interactive Music Awareness Programme’ (IMAP) was developed with and for adult CI users. Methods: An iterative design and evaluation ...
Pennington, D. D.; Gates, A. Q.
collaborative research design process and illustrate their application in designing and developing useful end-to-end data solutions for scientists. Lastly, we will outline areas of future investigation within CyberShARE that we believe have the potential for high impact.
Gao, Wei; Lu, Haoyang
Mobile phone sensing is a critical underpinning of pervasive mobile computing, and is one of the key factors for improving people's quality of life in modern society via collective utilization of the on-board sensing capabilities of people's smartphones. The increasing demands for sensing services and ambient awareness in mobile environments highlight the necessity of active participation of individual mobile users in sensing tasks. User incentives for such participation have been continuously offered from an application-centric perspective, i.e., as payments from the sensing server, to compensate users' sensing costs. These payments, however, are manipulated to maximize the benefits of the sensing server, ignoring the runtime flexibility and benefits of participating users. This paper presents a novel framework of user-centric incentive design, and develops a universal sensing platform which translates heterogenous sensing tasks to a generic sensing plan specifying the task-independent requirements of sensing performance. We use this sensing plan as input to reduce three categories of sensing costs, which together cover the possible sources hindering users' participation in sensing.
Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Rosenqvist, Tanja Schultz
Participatory design (PD) methods are currently of little use in the textile industry, even though the need for multiple stakeholder involvement in the industry is growing. In this paper, we argue that PD represents a potential for innovation in the textile industry, due to PD’s collaborative...... nature facilitating dialogue between different stakeholders and its ability to move stakeholder participation to the early stages of the design process. We have explored PD tools in a design process engaging architects and textile designers in designing textile products for Danish hospitals. From this we...... have realized a potential in dividing the materials into three types with different attributes, which should consequently be staged differently in a PD process. We have thereby seen that exploring PD in a textile design process improves the understanding of the role of tangible working materials in PD...
Simonsen, Jesper; Scheuer, John Damm
Quality development in the Danish healthcare sector has for more than a decade been managed with an accreditation system known as the Danish Quality Model (DQM). In 2015, the Danish government decided to discontinue this system in an attempt to reduce “bureaucratic process requirements” and “focus...... on specific goals and results” (The Danish Ministry of Health 2015, p. 2). In this paper, we introduce a participatory design approach known as ‘effects-driven IT development’, and we argue how this approach may form a cornerstone for project management in a new quality-assurance program for the...
BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems science refers to a field of study that posits a holistic framework that is focused on component parts of a system in the context of relationships with each other and with other systems. Systems thinking tools can assist in intervention planning by allowing all CBPR stakeholders to visualize how community factors are interrelated and by potentially identifying the most salient intervention points. To demonstrate the potential utility of systems science tools in CBPR, the authors show the use of causal loop diagrams by a community coalition engaged in CBPR activities regarding youth drinking reduction and prevention. PMID:22467637
Serious digital games can be effective at changing healthy lifestyles, but large differences in their effectiveness exist. The extent of user involvement in game design may contribute to game effectiveness by creating a better fit with user preferences. Participatory design (PD), which represents ac...
Giesbrecht, Edward M; Miller, William C; Mitchell, Ian M; Woodgate, Roberta L
Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population. PMID:25276768
de Vente, Joris; Reed, Mark; Stringer, Lindsay; Valente, Sandra; Newig, Jens
balancing power dynamics between participants; and the provision of information and decision-making power to all participants. Participatory processes initiated or facilitated by government bodies led to significantly less trust, information gain, learning, and flexible solutions. However, in these processes, decisions were more acceptable to and likely to be implemented by governments and by those who had to apply them on the ground. These findings provide a solid empirical basis for best practice in the design of participatory processes in SLM in a number of contexts internationally, which if followed, increase the likelihood of providing beneficial environmental and social outcomes for those involved.
Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille
Beyond the initial phases of systems design Participatory Design has potentiality to include operation and maintenance of IT systems in organizations. The paper presents this argument through reports from case studies of local IT-support coined ‘participatory IT-support’. The paper presents...
Perez Toralla, M S; Falzon, P; Morais, A
The proponents of lean production have pointed to the positive effects of the work organization on employees in terms of autonomy, enhanced skills and empowerment mainly by their participation into the continuous improvement of work process. But studies that have examined this issue suggest that the increase in autonomy is not sufficient to compensate for increases work intensity. Participatory design has grown extensively in manufacturing since the 1980's under the impulsion of the Scandinavian socio-technical system approach and it's central in the model of lean production performance. Its main objectives are to improve quality, increase productivity and safety through employee's participation to the reduction of non-value added activities, such as defined by lean production. In the line of the studies on participatory design and continuous improvement the present study examines the functioning of work groups, based on the kaizen model, the aim of which was to improve the proportion of "value-added activities" and working conditions, essentially physical constraints. The main results are consistent with the literature and show that accelerated forms of re-conception activities give employees limited room for maneuver to elaborate solutions based on the analysis of the real activity. This study is part of a broader initiative that goes in the direction of continuous improvement of the design process itself so that it integrates the real constraints of work and propose changes bases on work as it actually takes place, beyond pre-established performance goals bases on the reduction of "non added value activities". PMID:22317130
Booker, Angela; Goldman, Shelley
Success and failure in formal mathematics education has been used to legitimize stratification. We describe participatory design research as a methodology for systemic repair. The analysis describes epistemic authority--exercising the right or the power to know--as a form of agency in processes of mathematical problem solving and learning. We…
This book investigates the notion of beauty in participatory art, an interdisciplinary form that necessitates the audience’s agential participation and that is often seen in interactive art and technology-driven media installations. After considering established theories of beauty, for example......, Plato, Alison, Hume, Kant, Gadamer and Santayana through to McMahon and Sartwell, Heinrich argues that the experience of beauty in participatory art demands a revised notion of beauty; a conception that accounts for the performative and ludic turn within various art forms and which is, in a broader...... sense, a notion of beauty suited to a participatory and technology-saturated culture. Through case studies of participatory art, he provides an art-theoretical approach to the concept of performative beauty; an approach that is then applied to the wider context of media and design artefacts....
Andersen, Tariq Osman
This paper introduces the concept of the “participatory patient” as a vehicle to promote attention to patients¿ dual enactment of participation on participatory design (PD) projects in healthcare. By an empirical case-story from an ongoing PD project in healthcare, I illustrate the relationship...
Full Text Available Although there has been a growing body of literature on post-disaster participatory reconstruction, a shared understanding on a participatory approach is insufficient. A design charrette is a participatory planning that is particularly suitable for situations in which multidisciplinary professionals and non-professional stakeholders collaborate to accomplish target tasks in a short period of time. The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of design charrette as a methodology in the context of post-disaster reconstruction in Japan. This will be achieved through a participatory observation on a design charrette in Minamisoma City, Japan, after the Fukushima accident. The charrette includes the participation of multiple stakeholders in intercultural, intergenerational and interdisciplinary exchanges. The contributions and constraints of the charrette are analyzed on the basis of the authors’ observation, and a strategy to improve post-disaster reconstruction charrette is thereby proposed. This study shows that the charrette is a useful method for communication and collaboration in the post-disaster context. Furthermore, it also demonstrates that assuring the participation of all key stakeholders, improving the training of participants and introducing resource analysis during the charrette’s preparatory stage are the essential conditions for the legitimacy and policy compliance of the final result.
This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical...... experiences document that participatory communication adds value to a development project or program? Many communication practitioners and development workers face obstacles and challenges in their practical work. A participatory communication strategy offers a very specific perspective on how to articulate......, tools, and experiences on how to implement participatory communications strategies. It is targeted toward government officials, World Bank staff, develompent workers in the field, and civil society....
Baggs, Rhoda; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali
Refactoring software design is a method of changing software design while explicitly preserving its unique design functionalities. Presented approach is to utilize design patterns as the basis for refactoring software design. Comparison of a design solution will be made through C++ programming language examples to exploit this approach. Developing reusable component will be discussed, the paper presents that the construction of such components can diminish the added burden of both refactoring and the use of design patterns.
Torkildsby, Anne Britt
The critical design method aims to discuss ways of opening up the (design) brief when planning, designing, building, operating and maintaining the future of the built environment - public as well as private, indoor as well as outdoor. Focusing on "designials" (fundamental forms of design being), the methodology intends to illustrate the fact that objects; including buildings, parks, transportation systems, etc. may directly encroach upon certain "existentials" (fundamental forms of human being) - thus shed light on how a design process is normally conducted, and furthermore, how that affects people's existential well-being. PMID:27534284
The focus of this study is community-based forest management (CBFM) in Packwood, Washington. I employed participatory action research and grounded theory to address the challenge of designing a strategy for successful community-based collaboration to manage natural resources. My findings suggest that Packwood is in the formative stages of CBFM, with several local organizations exhibiting some characteristics of CBFM, but lacking a planned and coordinated strategy to sustain CBFM. Packwood’s c...
East, J. Philip
The premise of this paper is that computer science has much to offer the endeavor of instructional improvement. Software design processes employed in computer science for developing software can be used for planning instruction and should improve instruction in much the same manner that design processes appear to have improved software. Techniques…
Conrady, A E
""For the optical engineer it is an indispensable work."" - Journal, Optical Society of America""As a practical guide this book has no rival."" - Transactions, Optical Society""A noteworthy contribution,"" - Nature (London)Part I covers all ordinary ray-tracing methods, together with the complete theory of primary aberrations and as much of higher aberration as is needed for the design of telescopes, low-power microscopes and simple optical systems. Chapters: Fundamental Equations, Spherical Aberration, Physical Aspect of Optical Images, Chromatic Aberration, Design of Achromatic Object-Glass
Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom; Palmeira, Antonio; Verloigne, Maïté
Background Serious digital games can be effective at changing healthy lifestyles, but large differences in their effectiveness exist. The extent of user involvement in game design may contribute to game effectiveness by creating a better fit with user preferences. Participatory design (PD), which represents active user involvement as informant (ie, users are asked for input and feedback) or codesigner (ie, users as equal partners in the design) early on and throughout the game development, may be associated with higher game effectiveness, as opposed to no user involvement or limited user involvement. Objective This paper reports the results of a meta-analysis examining the moderating role of PD in the effectiveness of serious digital games for healthy lifestyle promotion. Methods Four databases were searched for peer-reviewed papers in English that were published or in press before October 2014, using a (group-) randomized controlled trial design. Effectiveness data were derived from another meta-analysis assessing the role of behavior change techniques and game features in serious game effectiveness. Results A total of 58 games evaluated in 61 studies were included. As previously reported, serious digital games had positive effects on healthy lifestyles and their determinants. Unexpectedly, PD (g=0.075, 95% CI 0.017 to 0.133) throughout game development was related to lower game effectiveness on behavior (Q=6.74, PGames developed with PD (g=0.171, 95% CI 0.061 to 0.281, Pgame effectiveness on self-efficacy (Q=7.83, Pgame design (g=0.384, 95% CI 0.283 to 0.485, Pgame design element. Games developed with PD were more effective in changing behavioral determinants when they included users in design elements on game dynamics (beta=.215, 95% CI .075 to .356, Pgame levels was also related to higher game effectiveness (Q=7.02, Peffectiveness when used to create the game challenge (Q=11.23, Pgame effectiveness when used to create characters (Q=4.36, Pgame world (Q=3
李智兴; Paolo Vincenzo Genovese
本文尝试对生态村空间的参与性设计策略进行必要性的分析。以列斐伏尔的空间生产理论以及大卫哈维所建立的辩证乌托邦为理论基础，解释了生态环境破坏与生产扩张，全球化发展的关系。在这一过程中，正如福柯所言“‘支配我们大脑的法西斯’远比任何建造在外面的东西要阴险许多。”作者分析经济发展模式，以建筑师的角度来阐述，怎样通过参与式设计方法来营造适宜的生存与居住空间，由此逐步推进城市的环境改善。%In this paper, participation is regarded as an essential strategy in the process of eco-vilage design. I try to research the theory of space production from Lefebvre and dialectical utopia from David Harvey while explaining the relationship among environment contamination, production expansion and globalisation. In this process, as Foucault said, " the 'fascism that reigns in our heads' is far more insidious than anything that gets constructed outside". Thus, I analyse economic development approach in this day and age and study how to apply participatory strategy to construct an appropriate living space and how to apply this principle to improve urban environmental quality.
Full Text Available ToSIA (Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment offers a transparent and consistent methodological framework to assess impacts of changes (technological, policy, management, etc. in the forest-based sector. This tool is able to facilitate the decision making process within and between diverse groups of stakeholders (e.g., forest managers and policymakers as it provides a neutral, transparent and data-driven platform for stakeholder interaction and communication. To test these capabilities of ToSIA, a practical approach to test if a decision support system is suitable for participatory processes was developed based on a set of evaluation criteria for participatory processes. ToSIA’s performance was assessed and discussed in different categories against a selection of criteria for successful participatory processes: six criteria were fulfilled by ToSIA, in nine, ToSIA is potentially helpful, in two, criteria ToSIA has no influence, and for three criteria, no experiences exist until now. As a result, ToSIA’s conceptual suitability as a participatory decision support system was confirmed for two interlinked roles: as a decision support system to assess alternative scenarios, and as a communication platform for stakeholder interaction.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizations that collect substantial data for decision-making purposes are often characterized as being 'data rich' but 'information poor'. Maps and mapping tools can be very useful for research transfer in converting locally collected data into information. Challenges involved in incorporating GIS applications into the decision-making process within the non-profit (public health sector include a lack of financial resources for software acquisition and training for non-specialists to use such tools. This on-going project has two primary phases. This paper critically reflects on Phase 1: the participatory design (PD process of developing a collaborative web-based GIS tool. Methods A case study design is being used whereby the case is defined as the data analyst and manager dyad (a two person team in selected Ontario Early Year Centres (OEYCs. Multiple cases are used to support the reliability of findings. With nine producer/user pair participants, the goal in Phase 1 was to identify barriers to map production, and through the participatory design process, develop a web-based GIS tool suited for data analysts and their managers. This study has been guided by the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU conceptual framework. Results Due to wide variations in OEYC structures, only some data analysts used mapping software and there was no consistency or standardization in the software being used. Consequently, very little sharing of maps and data occurred among data analysts. Using PD, this project developed a web-based mapping tool (EYEMAP that was easy to use, protected proprietary data, and permit limited and controlled sharing between participants. By providing data analysts with training on its use, the project also ensured that data analysts would not break cartographic conventions (e.g. using a chloropleth map for count data. Interoperability was built into the web-based solution; that is, EYEMAP can read many different
Innovation for Development and South-South Cooperation, IDEASS
This book provides an overview of the principles underlying participatory budgeting. It analyzes the merits and demerits of participatory budgeting practices around the world with a view to guiding policy makers and practitioners on improving such practices in the interest of inclusive governance. This publication includes five regional surveys, and seven country case studies can be found ...
Escobar, Oliver; Harkins, Chris
Participatory Budgeting (PB) is a process of involving citizens in deciding how to spend public money. At its core PB is about community members shaping local services to more effectively meet local priorities. PB is motivated by the desire to democratically reallocate public money at a community level to priority services and initiatives identified by residents. PB started in Brazil in 1989 and has now spread to over 1,500 localities across the globe with around 2,700 processes taking place....
Calba, Clémentine; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Charrier, François; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Peyre, Marisa; Goutard, Flavie L
The implementation of regular and relevant evaluations of surveillance systems is critical in improving their effectiveness and their relevance whilst limiting their cost. The complex nature of these systems and the variable contexts in which they are implemented call for the development of flexible evaluation tools. Within this scope, participatory tools have been developed and implemented for the African swine fever (ASF) surveillance system in Corsica (France). The objectives of this pilot study were, firstly, to assess the applicability of participatory approaches within a developed environment involving various stakeholders and, secondly, to define and test methods developed to assess evaluation attributes. Two evaluation attributes were targeted: the acceptability of the surveillance system and its the non-monetary benefits. Individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups were implemented with representatives from every level of the system. Diagramming and scoring tools were used to assess the different elements that compose the definition of acceptability. A contingent valuation method, associated with proportional piling, was used to assess the non-monetary benefits, i.e., the value of sanitary information. Sixteen stakeholders were involved in the process, through 3 focus groups and 8 individual semi-structured interviews. Stakeholders were selected according to their role in the system and to their availability. Results highlighted a moderate acceptability of the system for farmers and hunters and a high acceptability for other representatives (e.g., private veterinarians, local laboratories). Out of the 5 farmers involved in assessing the non-monetary benefits, 3 were interested in sanitary information on ASF. The data collected via participatory approaches enable relevant recommendations to be made, based on the Corsican context, to improve the current surveillance system. PMID:26489602
Rezaee, S.A.; Oey, M.A.; Nevejan, C.I.M.; Brazier, F.M.
Introducing the notion of Participatory Demand-Supply (PDS) systems as socio-technical systems, this paper focuses on a new approach to coordinating demand and supply in dynamic environments. A participatory approach to demand and supply provides a new frame of reference for system design, for which
Full Text Available The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier water. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents an approach for participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change. It combines in an innovative manner participatory design with physical measurements, modeling and a vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability to drought is made operational for households in a catchment of the Ocoña River basin in Peru. On the basis of a household survey (n = 94 we explore how a vulnerability index (risk divided by response efficacy can be used to assess the distribution of vulnerability over households, and how socio-economic factors determine this vulnerability. Water entitlement, area of irrigated land, income and education are all significantly correlated with vulnerability to drought. The research showed that the main source of spring water is local rainwater, and that water use efficiency is low. The selected adaptation measures aimed to increase water availability close to farmland, and increase water use efficiency of farmers and households.
The model of learning adopted within this paper is the 'spreading ripples' (SR) model proposed by Race (1994). This model was chosen for two important reasons. First, it makes use of accessible ideas and language, .and is therefore simple. Second, .Race suggests that the model can be used in the design, of educational and training programmes (and can thereby be applied to the design of computer-based learning materials).DOI:10.1080/0968776960040303
This thesis applies game theory to study optimal toehold bidding strategies during takeover competition, the problem of optimal design of voting rules and the design of package bidding mechanism to implement the core allocations. It documents three different research questions that are all related to auction theory. Chapter 2 develops a two-stage takeover game to explain toehold puzzle in the context of takeover. Potential bidders are allowed to acquire target shares in the open market, subje...
Full Text Available Abstract Background With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates
Johnson, Andrew; Kuglitsch, Rebecca; Bresnahan, Megan
This study used participatory and service design methods to identify emerging research needs and existing perceptions of library services among science and engineering faculty, post-graduate, and graduate student researchers based at a satellite campus at the University of Colorado Boulder. These methods, and the results of the study, allowed us…
Davies, Emma C; Chandler, Clare I R; Innocent, Simeon H S; Kalumuna, Charles; Terlouw, Dianne J; Lalloo, David G; Staedke, Sarah G; Haaland, Ane
The wide-scale roll-out of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of malaria should be accompanied by continued surveillance of their safety. Post-marketing pharmacovigilance (PV) relies on adverse event (AE) reporting by clinicians, but as a large proportion of treatments are provided by non-clinicians in low-resource settings, the effectiveness of such PV systems is limited. To facilitate reporting, AE forms should be easily completed; however, most are challenging for lower-level health workers and non-clinicians to complete. Through participatory research, we sought to develop user-friendly AE report forms to capture information on events associated with ACTs.Following situation analysis, we undertook workshops with community medicine distributors and health workers in Jinja, Uganda, to develop a reporting form based on experiences and needs of users, and communication and visual perception principles. Participants gave feedback for revisions of subsequent versions. We then conducted 8 pretesting sessions with 77 potential end users to test and refine passive and active versions of the form.The development process resulted in a form that included a pictorial storyboard to communicate the rationale for the information needed and facilitate rapport between the reporter and the respondent, and a diary format to record the drug administration and event details in chronological relation to each other. Successive rounds of pretesting used qualitative and quantitative feedback to refine the form, with the final round showing over 80% of the form completed correctly by potential end users.We developed novel AE report forms that can be used by non-clinicians to capture pharmacovigilance data for anti-malarial drugs. The participatory approach was effective for developing forms that are intuitive for reporters, and motivating for respondents. The forms, or their key components, could be adapted for use in other low-literacy settings to improve quality
Emma C Davies
Full Text Available The wide-scale roll-out of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs for the treatment of malaria should be accompanied by continued surveillance of their safety. Post-marketing pharmacovigilance (PV relies on adverse event (AE reporting by clinicians, but as a large proportion of treatments are provided by non-clinicians in low-resource settings, the effectiveness of such PV systems is limited. To facilitate reporting, AE forms should be easily completed; however, most are challenging for lower-level health workers and non-clinicians to complete. Through participatory research, we sought to develop user-friendly AE report forms to capture information on events associated with ACTs.Following situation analysis, we undertook workshops with community medicine distributors and health workers in Jinja, Uganda, to develop a reporting form based on experiences and needs of users, and communication and visual perception principles. Participants gave feedback for revisions of subsequent versions. We then conducted 8 pretesting sessions with 77 potential end users to test and refine passive and active versions of the form.The development process resulted in a form that included a pictorial storyboard to communicate the rationale for the information needed and facilitate rapport between the reporter and the respondent, and a diary format to record the drug administration and event details in chronological relation to each other. Successive rounds of pretesting used qualitative and quantitative feedback to refine the form, with the final round showing over 80% of the form completed correctly by potential end users.We developed novel AE report forms that can be used by non-clinicians to capture pharmacovigilance data for anti-malarial drugs. The participatory approach was effective for developing forms that are intuitive for reporters, and motivating for respondents. The forms, or their key components, could be adapted for use in other low-literacy settings
Paulson, Daryl S
Showcasing a discussion of the experimental process and a review of basic statistics, this volume provides methodologies to identify general data distribution, skewness, and outliers. It features a unique classification of the nonparametric analogs of their parametric counterparts according to the strength of the collected data. Applied Statistical Designs for the Researcher discusses three varieties of the Student t test, including a comparison of two different groups with different variances; two groups with the same variance; and a matched, paired group. It introduces the analysis of variance and Latin Square designs and presents screening approaches to comparing two factors and their interactions.
De Cristofaro, Emiliano
Participatory Sensing is an emerging computing paradigm that enables the distributed collection of data by self-selected participants. It allows the increasing number of mobile phone users to share local knowledge acquired by their sensor-equipped devices, e.g., to monitor temperature, pollution level or consumer pricing information. While research initiatives and prototypes proliferate, their real-world impact is often bounded to comprehensive user participation. If users have no incentive, or feel that their privacy might be endangered, it is likely that they will not participate. In this article, we focus on privacy protection in Participatory Sensing and introduce a suitable privacy-enhanced infrastructure. First, we provide a set of definitions of privacy requirements for both data producers (i.e., users providing sensed information) and consumers (i.e., applications accessing the data). Then, we propose an efficient solution designed for mobile phone users, which incurs very low overhead. Finally, we di...
Kristiansen, Marianne; Bloch-Poulsen, Jørgen
is to show that a participatory approach can unintentionally create new hierarchies or reinforce existing ones, thus leading to the exclusion of certain employees (or action researchers) in terms of voice and/or choice. Second, the theoretical purpose is to show how participation in OAR projects can...
Lasage, Ralph; Muis, Sanne; Sardella, Carolina; van Drunen, Michiel; Verburg, Peter; Aerts, Jeroen
The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier meltwater during the growing season. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents the implementation of an approach for the participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change, which was implemented jointly by the local community and by a team consisting of an NGO, Peruvian ministry of environment, research organisations and a private sector organisation. It bases participatory design on physical measurements, modelling and a vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability to drought is made operational for households in a catchment of the Ocoña river basin in Peru. On the basis of a household survey we explore how a vulnerability index (impacts divided by the households' perceived adaptive capacity) can be used to assess the distribution of vulnerability over households in a sub catchment. The socio-economic factors water entitlement, area of irrigated land, income and education are all significantly correlate with this vulnerability to drought. The index proved to be appropriate for communicating about vulnerability to climate change and its determining factors with different stakeholders. The water system research showed that the main source of spring water is local rainwater, and that water use efficiency in farming is low. The adaptation measures that were jointly selected by the communities and the project team aimed to increase water availability close to farmland, and increase water use efficiency, and these will help to reduce the communities vulnerability to drought.
Lee, Lun-Hui; Huang, Pei-Hsiang; Pan, Shing-Tai; Wijaya Lie, Handra; Chiang, Tung-Chien; Chang, Cheng-Yuan
Encoders are generally used to track the motion of industrial mechanisms. However, the information obtained by encoders may have errors due to encoder aging or mechanism-design problem. Therefore, information by visual feedback is a better way to track the movement of industrial mechanisms. However, image information costs lots of computing effort so it is not easy to be used in real-time control applications. This manuscript derives a simple but effective visual feedback method to follow the target and the image information is obtained only by a general handy camcorder. Besides, the proposed method can track multi-locations in a meantime. Fast image pattern recognition and localisation of the colour histogram by using a moving tracking block is applied to increase the calculation speed. Finally, the obtained locations information by the proposed visual feedback method is applied in an industrial crane control system to verify the effectiveness.
Over the past twenty years a wide range of organisations, with very different ideological agendas, has started involving local people in their own development (Peet and Watts, 1996). This chapter begins by looking at different definitions of participatory development and goes onto examine through what sorts of organisations it is achieved. As there are a myriad possible approaches I have included case studies which demonstrate different facets of participation. This brings us onto a critique ...
Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.
We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.
Bös, Joachim; Moritz, Karsten; Skowronek, Adam; Thyes, Christian; Tschesche, Johannes; Hanselka, Holger
This paper describes a series of student projects which are intended to complement theoretical education in acoustics and engineering noise control with practical experience. The projects are also intended to enhance the students' ability to work in a team, to manage a project, and to present their results. The projects are carried out in close cooperation with industrial partners so that the students can get a taste of the professional life of noise control engineers. The organization of such a project, its execution, and some of the results from the most recent student project are presented as a demonstrative example. This latest project involved the creation of noise maps of a production hall, the acoustic analysis of a packaging machine, and the acoustic analysis of a spiral vibratory conveyor. Upon completion of the analysis, students then designed, applied, and verified some simple preliminary noise reduction measures to demonstrate the potential of these techniques. PMID:22423803
Wakil, Nahid; Dalsgaard, P.
the challenges that arise from employing participatory methods in a different socio-cultural setting with participants who have had comparatively limited exposure to digital technologies. We offer a comparative study of two PD projects carried out with school classes in Scandinavia and India. While the setup...... is the ways in which abstract and manifest participatory methods led to different outcomes in the two settings....
Kenichi HORIE; Yoshiharu MAENO; Yukio OHSAWA
It is only the observable part of the real world that can be stored in data.For such incomplete and ill-structured data,data crystallizing aims at presenting the hidden structure among events including unobservable events.This is realized by data crystallization,where dummy items,corresponding to potential existence ofunobservable events,are inserted to the given data.These dummy items and their relations with observable events are visualized by applying KeyGraph to the data with dummy items,like the crystallization of snow where dusts are involved in the formation of crystallization of water molecules.For tuning the granularity level of structure to be visualized,the tool of data crystallization is integrated with human's process of understanding significant scenarios in the real world.This basic method is expected to be applicable for various real world domains where previous methods of chance-discovery lead human to successful decision making.In this paper,we apply the data crystallization with human-interactive annealing (DCHA) to the design of products in a real company.The results show its effect to industrial decision making.
Full Text Available Lori MacCallum,1,2 Heather McGaw,1 Nazanin Meshkat,3 Alissia Valentinis,4 Leslie Beard Ashley,5 Rajan Sacha Bhatia,3,6,7 Kaye Benson,7 Noah Ivers,6,8 Kori Leblanc,2,7 Dante Morra3,5,7 1Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, 2Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 3Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, 4Taddle Creek Family Health Team, Toronto, 5Trillium Health Partners, Mississauga, 6Women's College Hospital, Toronto, 7Centre for Innovation in Complex Care, University Health Network, Toronto, 8Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: After identifying that significant care gaps exist within the management of atrial fibrillation (AF, a patient-focused tool was developed to help patients better assess and manage their AF. This tool aims to provide education and awareness regarding the management of symptoms and stroke risk associated with AF, while engaging patients to identify if their condition is optimally managed and to become involved in their own care. An interdisciplinary group of health care providers and designers worked together in a participatory design approach to develop the tool with input from patients. Usability testing was completed with 22 patients of varying demographics to represent the characteristics of the patient population. The findings from usability testing interviews were used to further improve and develop the tool to improve ease of use. A physician-facing tool was also developed to help to explain the tool and provide a brief summary of the 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society atrial fibrillation guidelines. By incorporating patient input and human-centered design with the knowledge, experience, and medical expertise of health care providers, we have used an approach in developing the tool that tries to more effectively meet patients' needs. Keywords: patient education, atrial fibrillation, care gaps
Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Kamihira, Takahito
Last few years, we have witnessed of an increased value of stakeholder participation on service design. In spite of the attention to the participation on design, we have only a limited common ground what participation means. Participants, definition, process, purpose and expectation of...
Kim, Beaumie; Tan, Lynde; Bielaczyc, Katerine
In this special issue, the authors purport to interrogate and further their understanding of the commonly cited term, "design," specifically "learner-generated designs." This issue brings together scholars from multiple disciplines, including learning sciences, literacy studies, science education, digital media, and pedagogy,…
Boer, Laurens; Donovan, Jared
across stakeholders. In this paper we map how provotyping contributes to four related areas of contemporary Interaction Design practice. Through a case study that brings together stakeholders from the field of indoor climate, we provide characteristics of design provocations and design guidelines for......Central to multi-stakeholder processes of participatory innovation is to generate knowledge about ‘users’ and to identify business opportunities accordingly. In these processes of collaborative analysis and synthesis, conflicting perceptions within and about a field of interest are likely to...
Joris de Vente
Full Text Available Although the design of participatory processes to manage social-ecological systems needs to be adapted to local contexts, it is unclear which elements of process design might be universal. We use empirical evidence to analyze the extent to which context and process design can enable or impede stakeholder participation and facilitate beneficial environmental and social outcomes. To explore the role of design and minor variations in local context on the outcomes of participatory processes, we interviewed participants and facilitators from 11 case studies in which different process designs were used to select sustainable land management options in Spain and Portugal. We analyzed interview data using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Results showed that although some aspects of local context affected process outcomes, factors associated with process design were more significant. Processes leading to more beneficial environmental and social outcomes included the following: the legitimate representation of stakeholders; professional facilitation including structured methods for aggregating information and balancing power dynamics among participants; and provision of information and decision-making power to all participants. Although processes initiated or facilitated by government bodies led to significantly less trust, information gain, and learning, decisions in these processes were more likely to be accepted and implemented. To further test the role of context in determining the outcomes of participation, we interviewed facilitators from a process that was replicated across 13 dryland study sites around the world, reflecting much greater national variations in context. The similarity of outcomes across these sites suggested that the socio-cultural context in which the process was replicated had little impact on its outcomes, as long as certain design principles were fulfilled. Overall, our findings provide a solid empirical basis for good
The purpose of this study is to discuss the design of new tourism information services through a case of the Hiraizumi world heritage site in Japan that was registered in 2011. As it promotes tourism through the world heritage registration, Hiraizumi is operating on the major premise that it will safeguard its cultural heritage while also placing importance on developing systems for accepting a diverse range of tourists using the universal design perspective. When doing so there are limits to...
Bibas, Ruben; Mathy, Sandrine; Fink, Meike
The implementation of climate policies is often hindered by a lack of acceptability as well as the lack of long-term vision of stakeholders. Mitigation scenarios exercises allow the debate; however the scenario design process lacks transparency and stakeholders' (and citizens') involvement, which leads to a lack of credibility, legitimacy and ownership of mitigation scenarios. This paper presents a process for the collaborative design of an "acceptable" mitigation scenario through a public di...
Anastasia Stratigea; Chrysaida – Aliki Papadopoulou
The focus of the present paper is on the potential of participatory scenario planning as a tool for regional future studies. More specifically, a methodological framework for participatory scenario planning is presented, integrating an analytical participatory scenario planning approach (the LIPSOR model) with the Focus Groups and Future Workshop participatory tools. This framework is applied to a Greek rural region, for building scenarios and structuring policies for its future rural develop...
Ece Ceylan Baba
Full Text Available This article examines the relationship of society and architecture under the context of participative approaches in design processes. Participation methodologies are described as democratic enterprises in design process and user participation is a notion which can be realized by the collaboration of designer – city dweller (user – local authorities. In this study the demand of user participation in contemporary life-style is emphasized and different participation methods are assessed together. Participative approaches strengthen the relations between society and architecture in spatial organizations. In this context, city dwellers (society may have the right to have place in designing their environment by the contemporary participation methods and media. User participation approaches gained different dimensions with parallel to the changing of world. In the article, new understandings of user participation in design process are re-evaluated with historical and contemporary epochs. In this study, contemporary participation models will be analyzed by the help of theoretic postulations. Then the issue will be discussed in concern to Istanbul. Relation between city and city dweller in Istanbul will be introduced by a "case study in Levent" (globally developing region. Results of public survey in Levent regarding user participation will be presented. Article concludes with a participation proposal for Levent which discusses the methods of participation in pilot region and the social Dynamics of city-dwellers in Levent.
Buur, Jacob; Matthews, Ben
An increasing number of corporations engage with users in co-innovation of products and services. But there are a number of competing perspectives on how best to integrate these understandings into existing corporate innovation development processes. This paper maps out three of the dominant...... approaches, compares them in terms of goals, methods and basic philosophy, and shows how they may beneficially enrich one another. We will present an industrial innovation case that has been instrumental to the development of what we have termed ‘Participatory Innovation’. Based on this we will list...... the challenges such an approach sets to innovation management, and discuss research directions we see as fundamental to the development of the field of user-driven innovation. Udgivelsesdato: September...
In the design phase of a test site in Indonesia computational fluid dynamics has been used to design the construction of the plastic greenhouse. Greenhouses in Indonesia are built to protect the crop from heavy rain and insects. The climate in four different greenhouse designs is calculated without
Maceli, Monica Grace
Meta-design theory emphasizes that system designers can never anticipate all future uses of their system at design time, when systems are being developed. Rather, end users shape their environments in response to emerging needs at use time. Meta-design theory suggests that systems should therefore be designed to adapt to future conditions in the…
M. N. Murty
This paper examines the possibility of using economic instruments, especially pollution taxes and bargaining approaches, as a means to encourage or improve people's participation in environmental management in India. It provides an intuitive description of methods for designing economic instruments and bargaining approaches. A case study describes the estimation of pollution taxes for controlling air pollution in thermal power generation in India. Another case study examining some bargaining ...
Troy D. Abel
Full Text Available Concepts of Human Computer Interaction have crossed disciplinary boundaries allowing the discovery of underlying stakeholder affordances to emerge during the design research phase of system design. For the current scenario, middle school mathematics teachers as data-driven decision makers are inundated with diagnostic and assessment data, resulting in data deluge. The situation is unlikely to subside as digital technologies and media are broadly adopted for instruction and learning. Teachers could benefit from tools to quickly sift through this data to inform classroom instruction. Data should be visualized in a way that teachers can make real-time formative and summative assessments of student progress. The purpose of this article is to introduce a mixed-method mode of discovery to uncover affordances innate to classroom teachers during the design of an iPad data visualization application. These technology-assisted “dashboard” platforms could serve as efficient and effective interventions to deal with the copious amounts of data streams now available to teachers.
Di Paolo Emilio, Maurizio
This book serves as a practical guide for practicing engineers who need to design analog circuits for microelectronics. Readers will develop a comprehensive understanding of the basic techniques of analog modern electronic circuit design, discrete and integrated, application as sensors and control and data acquisition systems,and techniques of PCB design. · Describes fundamentals of microelectronics design in an accessible manner; · Takes a problem-solving approach to the topic, offering a hands-on guide for practicing engineers; · Provides realistic examples to inspire a thorough understanding of system-level issues, before going into the detail of components and devices; · Uses a new approach and provides several skills that help engineers and designers retain key and advanced concepts.
Su-Hua Wang; Che-Hung Lin
Due to increasing popularity of the World Wide Web, web-based systems are widely used. Most corporate web sites try to enhance their usability by providing artistic web presentations. However, the design of web sites is not judged solely on an artistic basis. Two of the most important design criteria for web sites are access to web content and navigation architecture. This research proposes a platform for automatically evaluating the quality of web navigation architecture. Because of the hier...
Given the guidelines such as the Q8 document published by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH), that describe the “Quality by Design” paradigm for the Pharmaceutical Development, the aim of this work is to provide a complete methodology addressing this problematic. As a result, various Design Spaces were obtained for different analytical methods and a manufacturing process. In Q8, Design Space has been defined as the “the multidimensional combination and interaction of input...
Dit proefschrift presenteert twee theoretische kaders voor het ontwerpen van games en beschrijft hoe game designers deze kunnen inzetten om het game ontwerpproces te stroomlijnen. Er bestaan op dit moment meerdere ontwerptheorie¨en voor games, maar geen enkele kan rekenen op een breed draagvlak binnen de game industrie. Vooral academische ontwerptheorie¨en hebben regelmatig een slechte reputatie. Het eerste kader dat game designers inzicht biedt in spelregels en hun werking heet Machinations ...
Radiation chemistry can contribute to drug design by quantifying redox properties of drugs and where free radicals are suspected intermediates in drug action, radiation can be used to generate these putative species and help characterise relevant reactions. Steady radiolysis produces radicals at a readily-varied but quantified rate; pulse radiolysis with fast spectrophotometric and/or conductimetric detection enables the kinetic properties of radicals to be monitored directly. Using these methods, radical intermediates from drugs with specific cytotoxicity towards hypoxic cells have been shown to react rapidly with oxygen. Radical oxidants from activated neutrophils include superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, and radiation-chemical methods have an important role to play in rational drug design to exploit such oxidative chemistry. Antioxidants can also be evaluated quantitatively by radiolysis methods; the conjugation reactions of thiyl radicals with thiolate and oxygen are now recognised to be major contributions of pulse radiolysis to thiol biochemistry. (author)
Wardman, P.; Candeias, L.P.; Everett, S.A. (Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood (United Kingdom). Cancer Research Campaign Gray Lab.); Tracy, M. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States))
Radiation chemistry can contribute to drug design by quantifying redox properties of drugs and where free radicals are suspected intermediates in drug action, radiation can be used to generate these putative species and help characterise relevant reactions. Steady radiolysis produces radicals at a readily-varied but quantified rate; pulse radiolysis with fast spectrophotometric and/or conductimetric detection enables the kinetic properties of radicals to be monitored directly. Using these methods, radical intermediates from drugs with specific cytotoxicity towards hypoxic cells have been shown to react rapidly with oxygen. Radical oxidants from activated neutrophils include superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, and radiation-chemical methods have an important role to play in rational drug design to exploit such oxidative chemistry. Antioxidants can also be evaluated quantitatively by radiolysis methods; the conjugation reactions of thiyl radicals with thiolate and oxygen are now recognised to be major contributions of pulse radiolysis to thiol biochemistry. (author).
Scha, R.J.H.; Brunekreef, J.J.; Dormans, J.
Joris Dormans ontwikkelde softwaretools om het ontwerpen van games te ondersteunen en naar een hoger plan te tillen. Toegepaste theorie voor game design, zoals Dormans die voorstelt, is er op gericht om creativiteit te ondersteunen, het ontwerpproces te versnellen, en de kwaliteit van games te verhogen. Hierbij spelen twee theoretische kaders een rol. Het eerste kader beschrijft games als systemen van spelregels, waarbij de onderlinge structuur van doorslaggevend belang is in het onvoorspelba...
Brian J. McNely
Full Text Available This article—a collaborative exploration between instructors, students, and members of the broader, digital classroom community—explores how the strategic incorporation of sociotechnical networks and digital technologies facilitates literate practices that extend the classroom in productive ways. The article builds toward coauthors’ reflective practices (Schön, 1983, or “participatory perspectives”, had during an undergraduate English Studies course at a mid-sized, public, American university. Specifically, participants argue that these literate practices afforded not just information sharing, but the opening up of a traditional classroom to include broader digital publics and collaborative knowledge work (Spinuzzi, 2006. Toward this end, we ground literate practice in scholarship that attends to public writing in online spaces, and theoretically frame our argument using Jenkins et al.’s (2006 principles of participatory education. We then detail the specific curricular approach deliberately designed to create digitally connected publics and end with generalizable significance of coauthors’ participatory perspectives.
Ralph Lasage; Sanne Muis; Carolina S. E. Sardella; Michiel A. van Drunen; Peter H. Verburg; Aerts, Jeroen C.J.H.
The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier water. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents an approach for participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change. It combines in an innovative manner participa...
The beginning of the twenty-first century has been described as a time of development for social innovations through which people use, share, and create knowledge in ways that differ fundamentally from those of previous eras. The topical and widely accepted focus of education should be toward twenty-first-century skills. However, there is no…
Kensing, Finn; Bødker, Keld; Simonsen, Jesper
This full-day invitational pre-conference workshop is devoted to sharing experiences from teaching PD methods, approaches, issues and concerns to students and practitioners. Our experiences stem from teaching and coaching IT practitioners as well as students studying computer science or IT. However......, people with experiences gained from working with other professions are also welcome. Short presentations from each of the participants form the starting point of the discussion to which most of the time will be devoted. The intend is not to suggest the way of teaching PD, rather we hope that each...... participant will receive valuable inspiration to help improve his or her own teaching....
Yukich, Josh; Soonthorndhada, Amara; Giron, Maziel; Apperson, Charles S.; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Schal, Coby; Morrison, Amy C.; Keating, Joseph; Wesson, Dawn M.
Background Dengue virus (and Chikungunya and Zika viruses) is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes and causes considerable human morbidity and mortality. As there is currently no vaccine or chemoprophylaxis to protect people from dengue virus infection, vector control is the only viable option for disease prevention. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the design and placement process for an attractive lethal ovitrap to reduce vector populations and to describe lessons learned in the development of the trap. Methods This study was conducted in 2010 in Iquitos, Peru and Lopburi Province, Thailand and used an iterative community-based participatory approach to adjust design specifications of the trap, based on community members’ perceptions and feedback, entomological findings in the lab, and design and research team observations. Multiple focus group discussions (FGD) were held over a 6 month period, stratified by age, sex and motherhood status, to inform the design process. Trap testing transitioned from the lab to within households. Results Through an iterative process of working with specifications from the research team, findings from the laboratory testing, and feedback from FGD, the design team narrowed trap design options from 22 to 6. Comments from the FGD centered on safety for children and pets interacting with traps, durability, maintenance issues, and aesthetics. Testing in the laboratory involved releasing groups of 50 gravid Ae. aegypti in walk-in rooms and assessing what percentage were caught in traps of different colors, with different trap cover sizes, and placed under lighter or darker locations. Two final trap models were mocked up and tested in homes for a week; one model was the top choice in both Iquitos and Lopburi. Discussion The community-based participatory process was essential for the development of novel traps that provided effective vector control, but also met the needs and concerns of community
Andrews, M L; Sánchez, V; Carrillo, C; Allen-Ananins, B; Cruz, Y B
We present the collaborative development of a web-based data collection and monitoring plan for thirty-two county councils within New Mexico's health council system. The monitoring plan, a key component in our multiyear participatory statewide evaluation process, was co-developed with the end users: representatives of the health councils. Guided by the Institute of Medicine's Community, Health Improvement Process framework, we first developed a logic model that delineated processes and intermediate systems-level outcomes in council development, planning, and community action. Through the online system, health councils reported data on intermediate outcomes, including policy changes and funds leveraged. The system captured data that were common across the health council system, yet was also flexible so that councils could report their unique accomplishments at the county level. A main benefit of the online system was that it provided the ability to assess intermediate, outcomes across the health council system. Developing the system was not without challenges, including creating processes to ensure participation across a large rural state; creating shared understanding of intermediate outcomes and indicators; and overcoming technological issues. Even through the challenges, however, the benefits of committing to using participatory processes far outweighed the challenges. PMID:24184843
Kangas, Jyrki; Loikkanen, Teppo; Pukkala, Timo; PykÃ€lÃ€inen, Jouni
The paper examines the needs, premises and criteria for effective public participation in tactical forest planning. A method for participatory forest planning utilizing the techniques of preference analysis, professional expertise and heuristic optimization is introduced. The techniques do not cover the whole process of participatory planning, but are applied as a tool constituting the numerical core for decision support. The complexity of multi-resource management is addressed by hierarchica...
Rao, Kavita; Edelen-Smith, Patricia; Wailehua, Cat-Uyen
Universal design (UD) educational frameworks provide useful guidelines for designing accessible learning environments with the intention of supporting students with and without disabilities. This article describes how one university instructor defined and applied the principles of Universal Instructional Design (UID) to pedagogy, while designing…
This paper makes a case for the use of participatory ergonomics by and for ergonomists. A strategy for using participatory ergonomics in a conference workshop format is described. The process could be used as a tool for issues of common concern among ergonomists. it would also offer an experience of the participatory ergonomics process. An example workshop on quantifying costs and benefits of ergonomics is discussed.
Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn; Jensen, Christian Schou; Broberg, Ole
Employee-driven innovation has the potential to improve product innovation by involving employees as innovative resources. However, it can be a challenge to turn the potential into a reality of collaboration practices across organizational structures and culture. Through an interactive research...... approach that we apply to two case companies, this paper presents an empirical study of how to initiate involvement of manufacturing employees in R&D activities. We have used participatory methods from design thinking that has the ability to create relations between employees from different backgrounds and...... through a series of facilitated workshops we have investigated how these methods can initiate employee involvement. We see that participatory methods can improve understanding and relation between R&D and manufacturing departments, and thereby support a creative collaboration and emergence of employee...
While heuristic optimization is applied in environmental applications, ad-hoc algorithm configuration is typical. We use a multi-layer sorptive barrier design problem as a benchmark for an algorithm-tuning procedure, as applied to three heuristics (genetic algorithms, simulated ...
Landscape and Participation: Construction of a PhD Research Problem and an Analysis Method. Towards the Comparative Analysis of Participatory Processes of Landscape Management Projects Design on a Local Scale in the Walloon Region (Belgium).
A preliminary reflection to the definition of a PhD research problem on the concepts of participation, landscape and project, led the student to be interested in the participatory processes of landscape management projects design, and in the inhabitants landscapes representations. The method includes the comparative analysis of local processes of projects design, and the direct observation of two Walloon landscape management projects design (investigation conducted with stakeholders implied i...
Κάβουρα, Ανδρονίκη; Andersson, Tuula; Kavoura, Androniki
This paper aims to examine the strategic design for entrepreneurial activity. This study examines and evaluates a qualitative Delphi methodology used in a research for the strategy development needs of entrepreneurship counselling and education. The strategic design presented may well apply to non-profit organisations due to the fact that limited resources in funding of non-profit organisations exist. Design/methodology/approach – This paper introduces methodological considerations of applyin...
This paper describes persuasive design methods and compares this to an application currently under development for diabetes mellitus patients. Various elements of persuasion and a categorization of persuasion types are mentioned. Also discussed are principles of how successful persuasion should be designed, as well as the practical applications and ethics of persuasive design. This paper is not striving for completeness of theories on the topic, but uses the theories to compare it to an appli...
Efimov, Denis; Perruquetti, Wilfrid
The problem of oscillating system design applying the homogeneity approach is studied. The Anti-control Lyapunov Function (ALF) is introduced as a counterpart of Control Lyapunov Function (CLF) for the control design that destabilizes a nonlinear system. A universal anti-control formula is proposed. Next, the universal control formulas based on ALF and CLF are used to design an oscillating system. Efficiency of the proposed approach is demonstrated on example.
Teram, Eli; Schachter, Candice L; Stalker, Carol A
Grounded theory and participatory action research methods are distinct approaches to qualitative inquiry. Although grounded theory has been conceptualized in constructivist terms, it has elements of positivist thinking with an image of neutral search for objective truth through rigorous data collection and analysis. Participatory action research is based on a critique of this image and calls for more inclusive research processes. It questions the possibility of objective social sciences and aspires to engage people actively in all stages of generating knowledge. The authors applied both approaches in a project designed to explore the experiences of female survivors of childhood sexual abuse with physical therapy and subsequently develop a handbook on sensitive practice for clinicians that takes into consideration the needs and perspectives of these clients. Building on this experience, they argue that the integration of grounded theory and participatory action research can empower clients to inform professional practice. PMID:16221884
In 2003, Peru adopted the "Framework Law on participatory budgeting". It requires all the municipal and regional governments to institutionalize a yearly "participatory budgeting process". The Peruvian Participatory Budgeting (PB) is inspired on the PB-experiment in Porto Alegre, Brazil, but differs on a number of important principles of design. Building on the existing evaluations of the Peruvian nation-wide implementation of PB (2003-2007), this article addresses both the pitfalls and the t...
Bibiana Margarita Vallejo Díaz
Full Text Available Some conceptual elements regarding the axiomatic design method were applied to a specific case-study regarding developing modified liberation compressed product (CLM-UN, for use in the agricultural sector as pH regulating agent in solil. The study was orientated towards defining functional requeriments, design parameters and process variables for manufacturing the product. Independence and information were evaluated, supporting axiomatic design as an alternative for integral product and process design (as a rational and systemic exercise, facilitating producing products having the quality which future users expect from them.
Sproedt, Henrik; Boer, Laurens
perspective we study how a game that addresses these dynamics can be designed. We describe a case of a game, designed for the Participatory Innovation Conference of 2011 in Sønderborg, Denmark. The game was particularly designed around the themes of conflict and interdependence, captured by the dilemma of co-opetition...
Day, Dennis; Sharma, Nishant; Punekar, Ravi
In order to inspire and inform designers with the users data from participatory research, it may be important to represent data in a visual format that is easily understandable to the designers. For a case study in vehicle design, the paper outlines visual representation of data and the use of the...
Manrique, A. [TECNATOM SA, BWR General Electric Business Manager, Madrid (Spain); Valdivia, J.C. [TECNATOM SA, Operation Engineering Project Manager, Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, A. [TECNATOM SA, Operation Engineering Div. Manager, Madrid (Spain)
For the design and construction of new nuclear power plants as well as for maintenance and operation of the existing ones new man-machine interface designs and modifications are been produced. For these new designs Human Factor Engineering must be applied the same as for any other traditional engineering discipline. Advantages of implementing adequate Human Factor Engineering techniques in the design of nuclear reactors have become not only a fact recognized by the majority of engineers and operators but also an explicit requirement regulated and mandatory for the new designs of the so called advanced reactors. Additionally, the big saving achieved by a nuclear power plant having an operating methodology which significantly decreases the risk of operating errors makes it necessary and almost vital its implementation. The first step for this is preparing a plan to incorporate all the Human Factor Engineering principles and developing an integral design of the Instrumentation and Control and Man-machine interface systems. (author)
For the design and construction of new nuclear power plants as well as for maintenance and operation of the existing ones new man-machine interface designs and modifications are been produced. For these new designs Human Factor Engineering must be applied the same as for any other traditional engineering discipline. Advantages of implementing adequate Human Factor Engineering techniques in the design of nuclear reactors have become not only a fact recognized by the majority of engineers and operators but also an explicit requirement regulated and mandatory for the new designs of the so called advanced reactors. Additionally, the big saving achieved by a nuclear power plant having an operating methodology which significantly decreases the risk of operating errors makes it necessary and almost vital its implementation. The first step for this is preparing a plan to incorporate all the Human Factor Engineering principles and developing an integral design of the Instrumentation and Control and Man-machine interface systems. (author)
Hunger, M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.
In order to comply with current trends concerning sustainability, saving of primary materials and energy savings, this paper addresses Eco-concrete. The major focus thereby is on the increased efficiency of cement use. Applying a new mix design method for concrete, cement contents can be decreased a
Wang, C. T.; Chang, C. P.
A character of fuel cell with high potency and low pollution was known well and considered as a new generation of power technology. In this study a novel design of flow slab addressed and originated from bionic concept will be applied to improve the performance of PEMFC. Simulation results executed at Re = 100 show that the bionic flow type will possess a better uniformity of velocity and lower pressure drop. Besides, the integral performance concerned at SDR and PDR will also show the bionic flow type to be an outstanding design. Hence, this novel flow design addressed will be useful to promotion of PEMFC.
In this work a comparison of three techniques of optimization is presented applied to the design of the recharge of fuel in reactors of water in boil. In short, the techniques were applied to the design of a recharge of a cycle of balance of 18 months of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central. The used techniques were Genetic Algorithms, Taboo Search and Neural Nets. The conditions to apply the different techniques were the same ones. The comparison of the results quality and the computational resources required to obtain them, it indicates that with the Taboo Search better results are achieved but the computational cost is very big. On the other hand the neural net with low computational cost obtains acceptable results. Additionally to this comparison, in this work a summary of the works that have been carried out for the fuel recharges optimization from the years 60 until the present time is presented. (Author)
Green, Lawrence L.; Lin, Hong-Zong; Khalessi, Mohammad R.
Three methods of probabilistic uncertainty propagation and quantification (the method of moments, Monte Carlo simulation, and a nongradient simulation search method) are applied to an aircraft analysis and conceptual design program to demonstrate design under uncertainty. The chosen example problems appear to have discontinuous design spaces and thus these examples pose difficulties for many popular methods of uncertainty propagation and quantification. However, specific implementation features of the first and third methods chosen for use in this study enable successful propagation of small uncertainties through the program. Input uncertainties in two configuration design variables are considered. Uncertainties in aircraft weight are computed. The effects of specifying required levels of constraint satisfaction with specified levels of input uncertainty are also demonstrated. The results show, as expected, that the designs under uncertainty are typically heavier and more conservative than those in which no input uncertainties exist.
Hsiao, Shih-Wen; Chen, Rong-Qi; Leng, Wan-Lee
Customization design is a trend for developing a bicycle in recent years. Thus, the comfort of riding a bike is an important factor that should be paid much attention to while developing a bicycle. From the viewpoint of ergonomics, the concept of "fitting object to the human body" is designed into the bicycle frame in this study. Firstly, the important feature points of riding posture were automatically detected by the image processing method. In the measurement process, the best riding posture was identified experimentally, thus the positions of feature points and joint angles of human body were obtained. Afterwards, according to the measurement data, three key points: the handlebar, the saddle and the crank center, were identified and applied to the frame design of various bicycle types. Lastly, this study further proposed a frame size table for common bicycle types, which is helpful for the designer to design a bicycle. PMID:26154206
王俊; 刘凤英; 石安萍; 胡世云
This paper introduced the definition of participatory Training,and briefly reviewed the concept,operation steps of the seven kinds of tools of participatory training that applied in the Program of Maternal and Child Health Poverty Alleviation fund (MCHPAF)in China. At last,the authors briefly described the evaluation and the key issues should be attention of the participatory training.%给出了参与式培训的定义，并简要介绍了在世界银行－云南省妇幼卫生扶贫资金项目培训中所采用的7种具体方法的定义及其具体步骤，最后对培训的效果评估及组织参与式培训的注意事项进行的阐述。
Accreditation and Participatory Design: An Effects-Driven Road to Quality Development Projects : in J. Pries Heje and P. Svejvig (Eds),: Project Management for Achieving Change, Roskilde University Press, pp. 11-31.
Simonsen, Jesper; Scheuer, John Damm
This paper presents a soft project management paradigm approach based on participatory design to assuring values and benefits in public projects. For more than a decade, quality development in the Danish healthcare sector has been managed with an accreditation system known as the Danish Quality Model (DQM). In 2015, in an attempt to reduce “bureaucratic process requirements” and “focus on specific goals and results,” the Danish government decided to discontinue this system (The Danish Ministr...
Some time series applications require data which are either expensive or technically difficult to obtain. In such cases scheduling the points in time at which the information should be collected is of paramount importance in order to optimize the resources available. In this paper time series models are studied from a new perspective, consisting in the use of Optimal Experimental Design setup to obtain the best times to take measurements, with the principal aim of saving costs or discarding useless information. The model and the covariance function are expressed in an explicit form to apply the usual techniques of Optimal Experimental Design. Optimal designs for various approaches are computed and their efficiencies are compared. The methods working in an application of industrial maintenance of a critical piece of equipment at a petrochemical plant are shown. This simple model allows explicit calculations in order to show openly the procedure to find the correlation structure, needed for computing the optimal experimental design. In this sense the techniques used in this paper to compute optimal designs may be transferred to other situations following the ideas of the paper, but taking into account the increasing difficulty of the procedure for more complex models. - Highlights: • Optimal experimental design theory is applied to AR models to reduce costs. • The first observation has an important impact on any optimal design. • Either the lack of precision or small starting observations claim for large times. • Reasonable optimal times were obtained relaxing slightly the efficiency. • Optimal designs were computed in a predictive maintenance context
Gunsing Jos; Gijselhart Fons; Hagemans Nyke; Jonkers Hans; Kivits Eric; Klijn Peter; Kapteijns Bart; Kroeske Diederich; Langen Hans; Oerlemans Bart; Oostindie Jan; van Stuijvenberg Joost
In the industry for highly specialized machine building (small series with high variety and high complexity) and in healthcare a demand for adaptive robotics is rapidly coming up. Technically skilled people are not always available in sufficient numbers. A lot of know how with respect to the required technologies is available but successful adaptive robotic system designs are still rare. In our research at the university of applied sciences we incorporate new available technologies in our edu...
Mondragón Donés, Salvador; Company, Pedro; Vergara Monedero, Margarita
In this article, a study is presented showing that Product Semantics (PS) can be used to study the design of machine tools. Nowadays, different approaches to PS (Semantic Differential, Kansei Engineering, etc.) are being applied to consumer products with successful results, but commercial products have generally received less attention and machine tools in particular have not yet been studied. Our second objective is to measure the different sensitivities that the different groups of the popu...
Industrial robots are available in a large variety of mechanical alternatives regarding size, motor power, link length ratio or payload. The four major types of serial kinematics dominating the market are complemented by various parallel kinematics for special purpose. In contrast, few other path planning alternatives are applied in industrial robotics which are based on similar analytic solution principles. The objective of this thesis is to develop a systematic design method for artifacts in motion, to integrate motion design and mechanical design to enable new processes for production. For each design, a theoretical benchmark is developed, which cannot be attained by conventional robots in principle. A key performance indicator enables to measure the degree of goal achievement towards the benchmark during all design phases. Motion behaviors are identified on a local level by dynamic systems modeling and are integrated into new global behavior featuring a new quality, suitable for exceeding the design benchmark in industrial processes. Two exemplary handling robot designs are presented. The first concept enables motion behavior to consume less electrical power than kinetic energy transferred to and from its payload during motion. The second concept enables motion with four degrees of freedom by single motor stimulation, reducing idle power consumption on factor 4 towards conventional robots.
Siozos, Panagiotis; Palaigeorgiou, George; Triantafyllakos, George; Despotakis, Theofanis
In this paper, we identify key challenges faced by computer-based assessment (CBA) in secondary education and we put forward a framework of design considerations: design with the students and teachers, select the most appropriate media platform and plan an evolution rather than a revolution of prior practices. We present the CBA application…
Recent experiences in using participatory methods for ergonomic workplace improvement are reviewed to know how these methods can be effective in different settings. The review covered participatory programmes for managers and workers in small enterprises, home workers, construction workers and farmers in Asian countries. To meet diversifying ergonomic needs, participatory steps reviewed are found to usually follow a good-practice approach easily adjustable according to local needs. These steps are found to usually focus on low-cost improvements. They can thus lead to concrete results particularly by addressing multiple technical areas together. Typical areas include materials handling, workstation design, physical environment and work organization. Further, the review confirms that the participatory methods are always modified according to each local situation. This is done by developing a group-work toolkit comprising action checklists and illustrated manuals and by building a support network of trained trainers. It is suggested that participatory methods taking a good-practice approach by multi-area low-cost improvements through the group use of locally adjusted toolkits are effective for improving small-scale workplaces including those in developing countries. PMID:16756940
Full Text Available In the industry for highly specialized machine building (small series with high variety and high complexity and in healthcare a demand for adaptive robotics is rapidly coming up. Technically skilled people are not always available in sufficient numbers. A lot of know how with respect to the required technologies is available but successful adaptive robotic system designs are still rare. In our research at the university of applied sciences we incorporate new available technologies in our education courses by way of research projects; in these projects students will investigate the application possibilities of new technologies together with companies and teachers. Thus we are able to transfer knowledge to the students including an innovation oriented attitude and skills. Last years we developed several industrial binpicking applications for logistics and machining-factories with different types of 3D vision. Also force feedback gripping has been developed including slip sensing. Especially for healthcare robotics we developed a so-called twisted wire actuator, which is very compact in combination with an underactuated gripper, manufactured in one piece in polyurethane. We work both on modeling and testing the functions of these designs but we work also on complete demonstrator systems. Since the amount of disciplines involved in complex product and machine design increases rapidly we pay a lot of attention with respect to systems engineering methods. Apart from the classical engineering disciplines like mechanical, electrical, software and mechatronics engineering, especially for adaptive robotics more and more disciplines like industrial product design, communication … multimedia design and of course physics and even art are to be involved depending on the specific application to be designed. Design tools like V-model, agile/scrum and design-approaches to obtain the best set of requirements are being implemented in the engineering studies from
discuss and validate contributions from each others - across different criteria for each discipline, and crosswise different agendas for stakeholders, politicians, practitioners and researchers. Participatory research and social experiments are methodologies which have been developed to cope with this...... practice-based methods where "social experiments with technology" and "dialogue research" are the key-words. ...... kind of complexity in regards to technology development and design projects. Based on experiences and lessons learned from the project "The Digital North Denmark (DDN), the chapter reflects on participatory research in a complex organizational setting of researchers, stakeholders and users emphasising...
Full Text Available This issue of Footprint examines the recent participatory turn in urban planning and urban design. It discusses the co-opting of participatory processes by planning departments, the systematic disregard of inequalities, and the empowering of the market resulting from the ‘anti-statism’ present in many participatory schemes.What is the relationship between the institutionalisation of participation and the practices of autonomy, self-organisation, and inclusion? When and how does genuine empowerment of collectives take place? Does the demand for the empowerment of local organisations and communities strengthen the market forces at the expense of central government?This issue attempts to problematise ‘participation’, to call attentions to some of its shortcomings, deficits, and limitations, not in order to necessarily bypass the demand for the democratisation of the urban, but in order to rectify and strengthen it.
FAN B.T.; CHEN H. F.; XIE L.; YUAN S. G.; A. PANAYE; J-P. DOUCET
The methods of computer-aided drug design can be divided into two categories according to whether or not the structures of receptors are known1, corresponding to two principal strategies:(1) searching the bio-active ligands against virtual combinatorial libraries and calculating the affinity energy between ligand and receptor by docking ; (2) QSAR and 3D-structure data-mining.3D-QSAR method is now applied widely to drug discovery, but this method is generally limited to refine the structures of known bio-active compounds. During the process of drug design, we have usually the prejudice that certain groups or structural fragments will play or not important roles on the activity. This will sometimes be misleading, and prevent us from obtaining expected results.The method of generating firstly diverse structures, then screening out the promising structures by means of a computational method or QSAR model, is an efficient way for drug discovery. We developed an efficient virtual and rational drag design method. It combines virtual bioactive compound generation using genetic algorithms with 3D-QSAR model and docking. Using this method can generate a lot of highly diverse molecules and find virtual active lead compounds. The method was validated by the study on a set of anti-tumor drugs, colchicine analogs2. With the constraints of pharmacophore obtained determined by DISCO, 97 virtual bioactive compounds were generated,and their anti-tumor activities were predicted by CoMFA. 8 structures with high activity were selected and screened by 3D-QSAR model. The most active generated structure was further investigated by modifying its structure in order to increase the activity (see fig.1). This drug design method could also avoid the conflict between the insufficiency of active structures and the great quantity of compounds needed for high-throughput screening. This method has been also applied to anti-HIV drug design.We have developed equally another approach of virtual
A genetic algorithm is a powerful search technique that simulates natural evolution in order to fit a population of computational structures to the solution of an optimization problem. This technique presents several advantages over classical ones such as linear programming based techniques, often used in nuclear engineering optimization problems. However, genetic algorithms demand some extra computational cost. Nowadays, due to the fast computers available, the use of genetic algorithms has increased and its practical application has become a reality. In nuclear engineering there are many difficult optimization problems related to nuclear reactor design. Genetic algorithm is a suitable technique to face such kind of problems. This chapter presents applications of genetic algorithms for nuclear reactor core design optimization. A genetic algorithm has been designed to optimize the nuclear reactor cell parameters, such as array pitch, isotopic enrichment, dimensions and cells materials. Some advantages of this genetic algorithm implementation over a classical method based on linear programming are revealed through the application of both techniques to a simple optimization problem. In order to emphasize the suitability of genetic algorithms for design optimization, the technique was successfully applied to a more complex problem, where the classical method is not suitable. Results and comments about the applications are also presented. (orig.)
Full Text Available The use of participatory sensing in relation to the capture of health-related data is rapidly becoming a possibility due to the widespread consumer adoption of emerging mobile computing technologies and sensing platforms. This has the potential to revolutionize data collection for population health, aspects of epidemiology, and health-related e-Science applications and as we will describe, provide new public health intervention capabilities, with the classifications and capabilities of such participatory sensing platforms only just beginning to be explored. Such a development will have important benefits for access to near real-time, large-scale, up to population-scale data collection. However, there are also numerous issues to be addressed first: provision of stringent anonymity and privacy within these methodologies, user interface issues, and the related issue of how to incentivize participants and address barriers/concerns over participation. To provide a step towards describing these aspects, in this paper we present a first classification of health participatory sensing models, a novel contribution to the literature, and provide a conceptual reference architecture for health participatory sensing networks (HPSNs and user interaction example case study.
A Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA) was undertaken by the World Bank in collaboration with the Government of Kenya to complement previous statistical studies of poverty in Kenya. While the PPA confirmed many findings of the Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS), it also revealed significant new data concerning poverty, female-headed households, access by the poor to water, education and hea...
Driessen, M.T.; Anema, J.R.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J.van der
Background. Low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP) are a major public health problem with considerable costs for individuals, companies and society. Therefore, prevention is imperative. The Stay@Work study investigates the (cost-)effectiveness of Participatory Ergonomics (PE) to prevent LBP and NP a
Participatory scenario modeling – an interactive method for visualizing the future – is one of the most promising tools for achieving sustainable land use agreements amongst diverse stakeholder groups. The method has the potential to bridge the gap between the high...
Full Text Available The instructional intervention in this design case is a self-directed online tutorial that applies the case-based method to teach educators how to design and conduct entrepreneurship programs for elementary school students. In this article, the authors describe the major decisions made in each phase of the design and development process, explicate the rationales behind them, and demonstrate their effect on the production of the tutorial. Based on such analysis, the guidelines for designing case-based online instruction are summarized for the design case.
Full Text Available Introduction: In India, medical undergraduates think that statistics is difficult to understand. Often, it is taught just before final assessment examination using didactic lectures, with little use of medical examples and less focus on application. Hence, we prepared interactive, participatory sessions for teaching biostatistics to medical undergraduate. Methods: The sessions were delivered by a facilitator. It had clearly specified objectives and teaching learning strategies. A needs assessment was done by interviewing the students who had undergone traditional biostatistics teaching methodology. Specific learning objectives for the sessions were finalized using the Delphi technique and review of University syllabus. Two trained Community Medicine faculties designed the lesson plans ‘backwards’ from desired outcome to content, teaching/learning strategies, assessment and evaluation process (Outcomes-based lesson planning. Forty, third-semester (Para-clinical phase of the second year medical undergraduates undertook these seven teaching sessions. The session followed adult learning principles and included group discussions, games and reflections. We evaluated the impact of the sessions using in-depth interviews, retrospective post-then-preself- assessment and a pre-announced written test. Results: With traditional statistics teaching methodology, students perceived it as a standalone subject and were not interested in statistics. Students who underwent the sessions commented that the sessions were enjoyable, interesting, and participatory and more than %90 of them felt they were engaged throughout the session. They also narrated various instances where they could apply the biostatistics learning. In the post-then-pre-assessment median post-session scores for all the objectives were significantly higher (p <0.050. Conclusion: Use of interactive, participatory sessions for teaching biostatistics to medical undergraduates resulted in a
Tveden-Nyborg, Svend; Boelt, Birte; Misfeldt, Morten
For many years the Danish seed industry has been at the forefront with high quality seed production, but in a rapidly changing global market innovation is a key factor for the future of Danish seed production - one important element to innovation is transfer of knowledge. In a new Ph.D. project s...... preferred future knowledge innovation method in the Danish seed industry. The three workshops will be recorded by video and subsequently hermeneutically analysed to determine relevant boundary objects and commonalities between the participating communities of practice.......For many years the Danish seed industry has been at the forefront with high quality seed production, but in a rapidly changing global market innovation is a key factor for the future of Danish seed production - one important element to innovation is transfer of knowledge. In a new Ph.D. project...... seed scientists from Aarhus University will work together with seed growers and seed company consultants in designing a collaborative knowledge platform to optimise the diffusion of innovation between them. The aim of the Ph.D. project is to look at the processes within the three communities of...
This master’s thesis explores participatory culture’s social logic and its manifestations in social media. It employs the case study method to examine participatory culture’s patterns of interaction through the experiences of participants in Mobile Monday, a global community sharing common professional interests in mobile communications. It provides an historical perspective on the technology and concepts used in social media, and applies a theoretical framework based on the premise of partic...
Mirela PUSCASU; Radu SILAGHI
Participatory management and leadership can enhance an organization's effectiveness and capacity by the fact that the only asset a manager has are the people. If people show loyalty, and are willing to work at full capacity and to make extra efforts, if they trust their leaders and feel safe, then the results and efficiency will be increased. The more one can delegate the decision-making and responsibilities, the more loyalty and trust one will have from the employees.
Proper Karin I; Anema Johannes R; Driessen Maurice T; Bongers Paulien M; Beek Allard
Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP) are a major public health problem with considerable costs for individuals, companies and society. Therefore, prevention is imperative. The Stay@Work study investigates the (cost-)effectiveness of Participatory Ergonomics (PE) to prevent LBP and NP among workers. Methods In a randomised controlled trial (RCT), a total of 5,759 workers working at 36 departments of four companies is expected to participate in the study at baseline. The d...
Use of Participatory Systems Dynamics Modelling to Generate User-Friendly Decision Support Systems for the Design of Management Policies for Complex Human-Environmental Systems: A Case Study from the Varied Socio-environmental Landscape of Guatemala
Malard, J. J.; Baig, A. I.; Carrera, J.; Mellini, L.; Pineda, P.; Monterroso, O.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Adamowski, J. F.; Halbe, J.; Monardes, H.; Gálvez, J.
The design of effective management policies for socioenvironmental systems requires the development of comprehensive, yet sufficiently simple, decision support systems (DSS) for policy makers. Guatemala is a particularly complex case, combining an enormous diversity of climates, geographies, and agroecosystems within a very small geographical scale. Although food insecurity levels are very high, indicating a generally inadequate management of the varied agroecosystems of the country, different regions have shown vastly different trends in food insecurity over the past decade, including between regions with similar geophysical and climatic characteristics and/or governmental programmes (e.g., agricultural support). These observations suggest two important points: firstly, that not merely environmental conditions but rather socio-environmental interactions play a crucial role in the successful management of human-environmental systems, and, secondly, that differences in the geophysical and climatic environments between the diverse regions significantly impact the success or failure of policies. This research uses participatory systems dynamic modelling (SDM) to build a DSS that allows local decision-makers to (1) determine the impact of current and potential policies on agroecosystem management and food security, and (2) design sustainable and resilient policies for the future. The use of participatory SDM offers several benefits, including the active involvement of the end recipients in the development of the model, greatly increasing its acceptability; the integration of physical (e.g., precipitation, crop yield) and social components in one model; adequacy for modelling long-term trends in response to particular policy decisions; and the inclusion of local stakeholder knowledge on system structure and trends through the participatory process. Preliminary results suggest that there is a set of common variables explaining the generally high levels of food insecurity
Wells, Kenneth B; Tang, Jennifer; Lizaola, Elizabeth; Jones, Felica; Brown, Arleen; Stayton, Alix; Williams, Malcolm; Chandra, Anita; Eisenman, David; Fogleman, Stella; Plough, Alonzo
Community resilience (CR) is a priority for preparedness, but few models exist. A steering council used community-partnered participatory research to support workgroups in developing CR action plans and hosted forums for input to design a pilot demonstration of implementing CR versus enhanced individual preparedness toolkits. Qualitative data describe how stakeholders viewed CR, how toolkits were developed, and demonstration design evolution. Stakeholders viewed community engagement as facilitating partnerships to implement CR programs when appropriately supported by policy and CR resources. Community engagement exercises clarified motivations and informed action plans (e.g., including vulnerable populations). Community input identified barriers (e.g., trust in government) and CR-building strategies. A CR toolkit and demonstration comparing its implementation with individual preparedness were codeveloped. Community-partnered participatory research was a useful framework to plan a CR initiative through knowledge exchange. PMID:23678916
This book, published as part of Routledge’s Studies in Human Geography, is useful well beyond this discipline, as it provides a welcome review of Participatory Action Research (PAR). In three major sections, beginning and ending with ‘Reflections’ that bracket the ‘Action’ section, this collection provides a timely overview of the current status of this methodology, as well as many useful examples of applying PAR as a research process.
Lilja, Nina K.; Bellon, Mauricio R.
Through a survey of scientists from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) in 2004, this study assessed the extent to which participatory methods had been used by the center, how they were perceived by the scientists, and how participatory research could be applied more effectively by CIMMYT and partners. Results for 19 CIMMYT projects suggest among other things that participatory approaches at the center were largely “functional”—that is, aimed at improving the efficie...
Full Text Available Participatory Epidemiology (PE was applied on the Maasai rangeland of northern Tanzania to understand pastoralist’s perceptions of the clinical and epidemiological features of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP. The study was conducted during the period of April 2008 and caprine disease event was directed during the period of July 2006 to June 2007. Participatory methods such as Focus Group Discussion (FGD, proportional piling and matrix scoring were used to characterize pastoralist perceived clinical signs and risk factors for CCPP. The estimated mean incidence and case mortality rate of CCPP was 31.6 and 61.4%, respectively. Matrix scoring showed moderate to good agreement between informant groups on the clinical signs and risk factors. It was concluded that PE complimented with local knowledge could generally be used to generate disease information at low cost and therefore assist the design of feasible disease surveillance systems and control programmes at local and national level.
Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik
Building performance can be expressed by different indicators as primary energy use, environmental load and/or the indoor environmental quality and a building performance simulation can provide the decision maker with a quantitative measure of the extent to which an integrated design solution...... satisfies the design requirements and objectives. In the design of sustainable Buildings it is beneficial to identify the most important design parameters in order to develop more efficiently alternative design solutions or reach optimized design solutions. A sensitivity analysis makes it possible to...... identify the most important parameters in relation to building performance and to focus design and optimization of sustainable buildings on these fewer, but most important parameters. The sensitivity analyses will typically be performed at a reasonably early stage of the building design process, where it...
In a number of recent research projects, computer models have been included in participatory procedures to assess global environmental change. The intention was to support knowledge production and to help the involved non-scientists to develop a deeper understanding of the interactions between natural and social systems. This paper analyses the experiences made in three projects with the use of computer models from a participatory and a risk management perspective. Our cross-cutting analysis of the objectives, the employed project designs and moderation schemes and the observed learning processes in participatory processes with model use shows that models play a mixed role in informing participants and stimulating discussions. However, no deeper reflection on values and belief systems could be achieved. In terms of the risk management phases, computer models serve best the purposes of problem definition and option assessment within participatory integrated assessment (PIA) processes
Tovar, M. A.; Rutledge, G. W.; Lenert, L. A.; Fagan, L. M.
The lack of user acceptance for many medical decision-support systems should force medical software developers to rethink strategies for user interaction with decision-support programs. Participatory design is an emerging method for the development for computer applications that emphasizes user involvement in both the design and implementation phases. We have applied participatory design to the development of a user interface for VentPlan, an application that assists physicians in the managem...
This book has six chapters, which are about Flowrian of SIPAC qualification system including internet CAD system and remote server service, logic circuit on design and qualification of device such as gate circuit, multiplex and decoder, order logic circuit with D type flip-flop design and qualification and Rom and RAM's design and qualification, finite state machine such as odd checker, sequence detector, test clock generator and traffic light controller, design and qualification about data path, design of application circuit. It has two appendixes on install and the way to use SIPAC qualification system and remote service for SIPAC qualification system.
Taillandier, Patrick; Chu, Thanh-Quang
International audience Since the end of the seventies, the utilisation of multi-agents simulations has spread out. A typical use of these simulations concerns the modelling of human behaviour. In this application case, a key point to ensure the simulation realism is the definition of the agent behaviour. Unfortunately, designing such behaviour is often complex. In order to help the definition of such behaviour, we propose an approach based on the participatory paradigm. In our approach, a ...
The CANDU 3 is an advanced, smaller (450 MWe), standardized version of the CANDU now being designed for service later in the decade and beyond. The design of this evolutionary nuclear power plant has been carefully planned and organized to gain maximum benefits from new technologies and from world experience to date in designing, building, commissioning and operating nuclear power stations. The good performance record of existing CANDU reactors makes consideration of operating experience from these plants a particularly vital component of the design process. Since the completion of the first four CANDU 6 stations in the early 1980s, and with the continuing evolution of the multi-unit CANDU station designs since then, AECL CANDU has devised several processes to ensure that such feedback is made available to designers. An important step was made in 1986 when a task force was set up to review and process ideas arising from the commissioning and early operation of the CANDU 6 reactors which were, by that time, operating successfully in Argentina and Korea, as well as the Canadian provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick. The task force issued a comprehensive report which, although aimed at the design of an improved CANDU 6 station, was made available to the CANDU 3 team. By that time also, the Institute of Power Operations (INPO) in the U.S., of which AECL is a Supplier Participant member, was starting to publish Good Practices and Guidelines related to the review and the use of operating experiences. In addition, details of significant events were being made available via the INPO SEE-IN (Significant Event Evaluation and Information Network) Program, and subsequently the CANNET network of the CANDU Owners' Group (COG). Systematic review was thus possible by designers of operations reports, significant event reports, and related documents in a continuing program of design improvement. Another method of incorporating operations feedback is to involve experienced utility
Robert Fabac; Josip Stepanić
Modern organizations are exposed to diverse external environment influences. Currently accepted concepts of organizational design take into account structure, its interaction with strategy, processes, people, etc. Organization design and planning aims to align this key organizational design variables. At the higher conceptual level, however, completely satisfactory formulation for this alignment doesn’t exist. We develop an approach originating from the application of concepts of theoretical ...
McGhie-Richmond, Donna; Sung, Andrew N.
Universal Design for Learning is a framework for developing inclusive instructional lesson plans. The effects of introducing Universal Design for Learning Principles and Guidelines in a university teacher education program with pre-service and practicing teachers were explored in a mixed methods approach. The results indicate that the study…
Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila
Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.
Full Text Available By collecting data via sensors embedded personal smart devices, sensing participants play a key role in participatory sensor networks. Using information provided by reputable sensing participants ensures the reliability of participatory sensing data. Setting a threshold for the reputation, and those whose reputations are bigger than this value are regarded as reputable. The bigger the threshold value is, the more reliable the extracted reputable sensing participant is. However, if the threshold value is too big, only very limited participatory sensing data can be involved. This may cause unexpected bias in information collection. Existing works did not consider the relationship between the reliability of extracted reputable sensing participants and the ratio of usable participatory sensing data. In this work, we propose a criterion for optimized reputable sensing participant extraction in participatory sensor networks. This is achieved based on the mathematical analysis on the ratio of available participatory sensing data and the reliability of extracted reputable sensing participants. Our suggested threshold value for reputable sensing participant extraction is only related to the power of sensing participant’s reputation distribution. It is easy to be applied in real applications. Simulation results tested on real application data further verified the effectiveness of our proposed method.
Full Text Available Modern organizations are exposed to diverse external environment influences. Currently accepted concepts of organizational design take into account structure, its interaction with strategy, processes, people, etc. Organization design and planning aims to align this key organizational design variables. At the higher conceptual level, however, completely satisfactory formulation for this alignment doesn’t exist. We develop an approach originating from the application of concepts of theoretical physics to social systems. Under this approach, the allocation of organizational resources is analyzed in terms of social entropy, social free energy and social temperature. This allows us to formalize the dynamic relationship between organizational design variables. In this paper we relate this model to Galbraith's Star Model and we also suggest improvements in the procedure of the complex analytical method in organizational design.
Khalil, Mohammed K; Elkhider, Ihsan A
Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning outcomes, the science of instruction and instructional design models are used to guide the development of instructional design strategies that elicit appropriate cognitive processes. Here, the major learning theories are discussed and selected examples of instructional design models are explained. The main objective of this article is to present the science of learning and instruction as theoretical evidence for the design and delivery of instructional materials. In addition, this article provides a practical framework for implementing those theories in the classroom and laboratory. PMID:27068989
Nolle, L.; Bland, J. A.
Structural engineering often involves the design of space frames that are required to resist predefined external forces without exhibiting plastic deformation. The weight of the structure and hence the weight of its constituent members has to be as low as possible for economical reasons without violating any of the load constraints. Design spaces are usually vast and the computational costs for analyzing a single design are usually high. Therefore, not every possible design can be evaluated for real-world problems. In this work, a standard structural design problem, the 25-bar problem, has been solved using self-adaptive stepsize search (SASS), a relatively new search heuristic. This algorithm has only one control parameter and therefore overcomes the drawback of modern search heuristics, i.e. the need to first find a set of optimum control parameter settings for the problem at hand. In this work, SASS outperforms simulated-annealing, genetic algorithms, tabu search and ant colony optimization.
Thorp Hansen, Claus; Brønnum, Louise
. This paper is based on practical experience working with theoretical concept frameworks, which have induced new perspectives in a reframing. We will account for the concept design process and why a reframing is called for when working with user research, leading to a proposal for new dimensions to the......This paper addresses the difficulties seen when working within the user driven innovation [UDI] paradigm. We examine some of the circumstances that often make it difficult to work with user insights in concept design. UDI has become a recognized design approach, but has not yet accommodated a...... design practice explicitly considering the type of user insights this approach implies. For that reason UDI has yet to prove itself and its potential effect; a study of Danish initiative “program for user driven innovation” has shown little effect in this regard. However it has shown that radical new...
Surendra, Nanda C.; Denton, James W.
Baseball's "Moneyball" theory states that the baseball market undervalues some attributes (and players with these attributes) that are key contributors to wins while overvaluing other attributes. Teams who correctly evaluate attributes that contribute to wins have higher winning percentages with relatively low payrolls. We applied the Moneyball…
Raguini, Pepito B.
As the need to minimize medication errors drives many medical facilities to come up with robust solutions to the most common error that affects patient's safety, these hospitals would be wise to put a concerted effort into finding methodologies that can facilitate an optimized medical distribution system. If the hospitals' upper management is looking for an optimization method that is an ideal fit, it is just as important that the right tool be selected for the application at hand. In the present work, we propose the application of Axiomatic Design (AD), which is a process that focuses on the generation and selection of functional requirements to meet the customer needs for product and/or process design. The appeal of the axiomatic approach is to provide both a formal design process and a set of technical coefficients for meeting the customer's needs. Thus, AD offers a strategy for the effective integration of people, design methods, design tools and design data. Therefore, we propose the AD methodology to medical applications with the main objective of allowing nurses the opportunity to provide cost effective delivery of medications to inpatients, thereby improving quality patient care. The AD methodology will be implemented through the use of focused stores, where medications can be readily stored and can be conveniently located near patients, as well as a mobile apparatus that can also store medications and is commonly used by hospitals, the medication cart. Moreover, a robust methodology called the focused store methodology will be introduced and developed for both the uncapacitated and capacitated case studies, which will set up an appropriate AD framework and design problem for a medication distribution case study.
Full Text Available Knowledge is the new strategic imperative of organizations. The ability to manage knowledge is a crucial part of any organizations operational processes. The creation and diffusion of knowledge have become ever more important factors in competitiveness. This paper investigates the Knowledge Management and flow information and in small design firms. It is divided into three main parts. The first part of this paper describes the importance of Knowledge Management for organizations are described together with responsibilities needed to ensure successful Knowledge Management implementations and the Spiral of Organizational Knowledge Creation conception. The second part approaches literature available about process and organizational structure and information flow related to Brazilian design firms. Finally, this paper presents a case study of small design office of Civil Engineering identifying organizational process, verifying the types of communication practices and identifying the types of dynamic process of The Spiral of Organizational Knowledge Creation, KM strategy and dynamic through Knowledge Transfer.
Nuno Ricardo Costa
Full Text Available Refrigeration cycles are used in a large diversity of industrial and domestic (residential and non-residential equipment and their efficiency depend on several variables. To better understanding of how controllable variables impact on a compression refrigeration cycle efficiency, statistically designed experiments were conducted and data were analyzed. A quadratic polynomial model was fitted to Coefficient of Performance and variable settings to maximize cycle efficiency identified. Results give confidence to use the illustrated approach for refrigeration cycle design and operation improvement purposes.
Forest policy decisions are often a source of debate, conflict, and tension in many countries. The debate over forest land-use decisions often hinges on disagreements about societal values related to forest resource use. Disagreements on social value positions are fought out repeatedly at local, regional, national, and international levels at an enormous social cost. Forest policy problems have some inherent characteristics that make them more difficult to deal with. On the one hand, forest policy decisions involve uncertainty, long time scales, and complex natural systems and processes. On the other hand, such decisions encompass social, political, and cultural systems that are evolving in response to forces such as globalization. Until recently, forest policy was heavily influenced by the scientific community and various economic models of optimal resource use. However, growing environmental awareness and acceptance of participatory democracy models in policy formulation have forced the public authorities to introduce new participatory mechanisms to manage forest resources. Most often, the efforts to include the public in policy formulation can be described using the lower rungs of Arnstein’s public participation typology. This paper presents an approach that incorporates stakeholder preferences into forest land-use policy using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). An illustrative case of regional forest-policy formulation in Australia is used to demonstrate the approach. It is contended that applying the AHP in the policy process could considerably enhance the transparency of participatory process and public acceptance of policy decisions.
, relating, cognitive social capital and the justification of knowledge are described as different but interdependent dimensions of transforming knowledge across boundaries in participatory innovation. A multi-level concept of social dynamics of participatory innovation is proposed, and a model that...... perspective on innovation. Then, a similar development in the field of knowledge and knowing is presented, where the perspective changes from a divisional systemthinking towards a more relational view of complementing combinations of knowledge and knowing, recognizing the challenge of boundaries. Further...... approaches towards grasping the social dynamics of participatory innovation....
This paper describes persuasive design methods and compares this to an application currently under development for diabetes mellitus patients. Various elements of persuasion and a categorization of persuasion types are mentioned. Also discussed are principles of how successful persuasion should be d
Shiao, Michael C.; Chamis, Christos C.
A probabilistic design method is described and demonstrated using a smart composite wing. Probabilistic structural design incorporates naturally occurring uncertainties including those in constituent (fiber/matrix) material properties, fabrication variables, structure geometry and control-related parameters. Probabilistic sensitivity factors are computed to identify those parameters that have a great influence on a specific structural reliability. Two performance criteria are used to demonstrate this design methodology. The first criterion requires that the actuated angle at the wing tip be bounded by upper and lower limits at a specified reliability. The second criterion requires that the probability of ply damage due to random impact load be smaller than an assigned value. When the relationship between reliability improvement and the sensitivity factors is assessed, the results show that a reduction in the scatter of the random variable with the largest sensitivity factor (absolute value) provides the lowest failure probability. An increase in the mean of the random variable with a negative sensitivity factor will reduce the failure probability. Therefore, the design can be improved by controlling or selecting distribution parameters associated with random variables. This can be implemented during the manufacturing process to obtain maximum benefit with minimum alterations.
Khalil, Mohammed K.; Elkhider, Ihsan A.
Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning…
What makes us like or dislike certain games? Is there relation between our tastes in games and our personalities and can it be measured? This dissertation examines gamer personalities and game attributes with the help of the Five-Factor Model, also called The Big Five. It treats an experiment on how to apply the Five-Factor Model to games and their players and what it may be used for. By interviewing gamers, recording their favored and unfavored games, letting the gamers take a Big Five perso...
Nuno Ricardo Costa; João Garcia
Refrigeration cycles are used in a large diversity of industrial and domestic (residential and non-residential) equipment and their efficiency depend on several variables. To better understanding of how controllable variables impact on a compression refrigeration cycle efficiency, statistically designed experiments were conducted and data were analyzed. A quadratic polynomial model was fitted to Coefficient of Performance and variable settings to maximize cycle efficiency identified. Results ...
Haijes, Hanneke A; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W
Meaningful child participation in medical research is seen as important. In order to facilitate further development of participatory research, we performed a systematic literature study to describe and assess the available knowledge on participatory methods in pediatric research. A search was executed in five databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Cochrane. After careful screening of relevant papers, finally 24 documents were included in our analysis. Literature on participatory methods in pediatric research appears generally to be descriptive, whereby high-quality evidence is lacking. Overall, five groups of participatory methods for children could be distinguished: observational, verbal, written, visual, and active methods. The choice for one of these methods should be based on the child's age, on social and demographic characteristics, and on the research objectives. To date, these methods are still solely used for obtaining data, yet they are suitable for conducting meaningful participation. This may result in a successful partnership between children and researchers. Researchers conducting participatory research with children can use this systematic review in order to weigh the current knowledge about the participatory methods presented. PMID:26720607
The design of the user interface for a new system requires many decisions to be considered. To develop sensitivity to user needs requires understanding user behavior. The how-to-do-it knowledge is a mixture of task-related and interface-related components. A conscientious analysis of these components, allows the designer to construct a model in terms of goals, operators, methods, and selection (GOMS model) rules that can be advantageously used in the design process and evaluation of a user interface. The emphasis of the present work is on describing the importance and use of a GOMS model as a formal user interface analysis tool in the development of a simplified panel for the control of a nuclear power plant. At Pennsylvania State University, a highly automated control system with a greatly simplified human interface has been proposed to improve power plant safety. Supervisory control is to be conducted with a simplified control panel with the following functions: startup, shutdown, increase power, decrease power, reset, and scram. Initial programming of the operator interface has been initiated within the framework of a U.S. Department of Energy funded university project for intelligent distributed control. A hypothesis to be tested is that this scheme can be also used to estimate mental work load content and predict human performance
Bono, Roser; Arnau, Jaume; Blanca, María J
In this work, an innovative teaching model applied to methodological contents in psychology is presented. The proposed didactic model includes Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), such as CD-ROMs, web sites and Internet. These resources complement class attendance. In the classes the students are informed, guided and oriented so that they are able to obtain information and reorganize it in a coherent way. The aim of this article is to find out the students' learning preferences and estimate the incorporation of ICT, by means of the ETIM (Evaluation of Teaching Innovation Model) questionnaire. The results show that the students are aware of the need to consult other materials and that ICT helps students to understand the subject from various perspectives. In this way, the students become more autonomous in acquiring learning results. PMID:17296099
Lytle, Bradford P.; Walczak, Thomas A.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)
The use of overhead traveling bridge cranes in many varied applications is common practice. In particular, the use of cranes in the nuclear, military, commercial, aerospace, and other industries can involve safety critical situations. Considerations for Human Injury or Casualty, Loss of Assets, Endangering the Environment, or Economic Reduction must be addressed. Traditionally, in order to achieve additional safety in these applications, mechanical systems have been augmented with a variety of devices. These devices assure that a mechanical component failure shall reduce the risk of a catastrophic loss of the correct and/or safe load carrying capability. ASME NOG-1-1998, (Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes, Top Running Bridge, and Multiple Girder), provides design standards for cranes in safety critical areas. Over and above the minimum safety requirements of todays design standards, users struggle with obtaining a higher degree of reliability through more precise functional specifications while attempting to provide "smart" safety systems. Electrical control systems also may be equipped with protective devices similar to the mechanical design features. Demands for improvement of the cranes "control system" is often recognized, but difficult to quantify for this traditionally "mechanically" oriented market. Finite details for each operation must be examined and understood. As an example, load drift (or small motions) at close tolerances can be unacceptable (and considered critical). To meet these high functional demands encoders and other devices are independently added to control systems to provide motion and velocity feedback to the control drive. This paper will examine the implementation of Programmable Electronic Systems (PES). PES is a term this paper will use to describe any control system utilizing any programmable electronic device such as Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), or an Adjustable Frequency Drive (AID) 'smart' programmable
Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus; Lippa, Barbara
Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without...... this support. Participatory budgeting is associated with eParticipation, where much is already known about the kinds of technologies supporting citizen participation and how they are used. This paper identifies (from the existing literature) basic processes which are common to most participatory......, is integrated with a purpose-built internet platform; here we use the analysis to understand how the internet-based technologies are used to support the various participatory budgeting processes. We identify a range of these technologies which are currently used to support different e...
Participatory Budgeting (PB) programs are innovative policymaking processes. Citizens are directly involved in making policy decisions. Forums are held throughout the year so that citizens have the opportunity to allocate resources, prioritize broad social policies, and monitor public spending.
Traditionally system design has been made from a black box/functionality only perspective which forces the developer to concentrate on how the functionality can be decomposed and recomposed into so called components. While this technique is well established and well known it does suffer fromsome drawbacks; namely that the systems produced can often be forced into certain, incompatible architectures, difficult to maintain or reuse and the code itself difficult to debug. Now that ideas such as the OMG's Model Based Architecture (MDA) or Model Based Engineering (MBE) and the ubiquitous modelling language UML are being used (allegedly) and desired we face a number of challenges to existing techniques.
Andrade, Karina de S.; Calle, Jose A.; Gil, Euzebio J. [Geomecanica S/A Tecnologia de Solo Rochas e Materiais, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Sare, Alexandre R. [Geomechanics International Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Soares, Ana Cecilia [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
The Geo-Environmental Mapping is an improvement of the Geological-Geotechnical Mapping used for basic pipeline designs. The main purpose is to assembly the environmental, geotechnical and geological concepts in a methodological tool capable to predict constrains and reduce the pipeline impact to the environment. The Geo-Environmental mapping was built to stress the influence of soil/structure interaction, related to the physical effect that comes from the contact between structures and soil or rock. A Geological-Geotechnical-Environmental strip (chart) was presented to emphasize the pipeline operational constrains and its influence to the environment. The mapping was developed to clearly show the occurrence and properties of geological materials divided into geotechnical domain units (zones). The strips present construction natural properties, such as: excavability, stability of the excavation and soil re-use capability. Also, the environmental constrains were added to the geological-geotechnical mapping. The Geo-Environmental Mapping model helps the planning of the geotechnical and environmental inquiries to be carried out during executive design, the discussion on the types of equipment to be employed during construction and the analysis of the geological risks and environmental impacts to be faced during the built of the pipeline. (author)
Forest management which is more inclusive of the interests of local people has been one of the central foci of forestry globally for the past 25 years. Countries in which there is a strong dependency between people and forests, such as Nepal, have been at the forefront of this more participatory forest management, which is closely associated with devolution of State authority over forests. The participatory management paradigm recognises both the potential of local people and the limits of ce...
Buur, Jacob; Larsen, Henry
In co-design there seems to be a widespread understanding that innovation is a planned, goal-oriented activity that can be propelled forward through well-facilitated events in which company employees collaborate with external parties (users in particular) and the conversations aim at consensus...... about new product and service ideas. Conflict belonged to the 'old days' when participatory design played a part in the struggle between workers and management. Based on the theory of complex responsive processes of relating, we suggest a new way of understanding innovation as the emergence of new...... formats of collaboration for large, complex contingents of stakeholders, where conflicting intentions are encouraged....
Illi, Mikko; Ylirisku, Salu
This paper addresses the challenge of perceiving B2B sales negotiation in a manner that would open up new possibilities for the improvement of the practice. B2B sales agents work under high pressure in developing relevant and appealing proposals when negotiating for a deal with a customer. The key...... problem that will be addressed is the building of understanding of a customer’s current needs and requirements, and then trying to devise an appropriate proposal to match these. The work of the sales agents in B2B sales negotiations is highly complex, as they need to understand both the modular machinery...... the ways in which design sense making artefacts may drive also B2B sales agents’ work....