Quantum Erasure: Quantum Interference Revisited
Walborn, Stephen P.; Cunha, Marcelo O Terra; Pádua, Sebastião; Monken, Carlos H.
2005-01-01
Recent experiments in quantum optics have shed light on the foundations of quantum physics. Quantum erasers - modified quantum interference experiments - show that quantum entanglement is responsible for the complementarity principle.
Jørgensen, Jacob Lykkebo; Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro;
2014-01-01
Destructive quantum interference in single molecule electronics is an intriguing phenomenon; however, distinguishing quantum interference effects from generically low transmission is not trivial. In this paper, we discuss how quantum interference effects in the transmission lead to either low...... suppressed when quantum interference effects dominate. That is, we expand the understanding of propensity rules in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy to molecules with destructive quantum interference....
The quantum anomalous Hall effect
LIU, CHAO-XING; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Qi, Xiao-Liang
2015-01-01
The quantum anomalous Hall effect is defined as a quantized Hall effect realized in a system without external magnetic field. Quantum anomalous Hall effect is a novel manifestation of topological structure in many-electron systems, and may have potential applications in future electronic devices. In recent years, quantum anomalous Hall effect has been proposed theoretically and realized experimentally. In this review article, we provide a systematic overview of the theoretical and experimenta...
Interference of Quantum Market Strategies
Piotrowski, Edward W.; Jan Sladkowski; Jacek Syska
2002-01-01
Recent development in quantum computation and quantum information theory allows to extend the scope of game theory for the quantum world. The paper is devoted to the analysis of interference of quantum strategies in quantum market games.
Entanglement and quantum interference
O'Hara, Paul
2006-01-01
In the history of quantum mechanics, much has been written about the double-slit experiment, and much debate as to its interpretation has ensued. Indeed, to explain the interference patterns for sub-atomic particles, explanations have been given not only in terms of the principle of complementarity and wave-particle duality but also in terms of quantum consciousness and parallel universes. In this paper, the topic will be discussed from the perspective of spin-coupling in the hope of further ...
Quantum Confined Fano Interference
We study the transition from a dense continuum to a sparse quasicontinuum in the Fano problem. Transmission measurements on epitaxial layers of GaAs in a high magnetic field and calculations of the optical absorption show how the Fano interference disappears as quantum confinement discretizes the continuum states. The transition between quasi-one-dimensional and quasi-zero-dimensional systems occurs at length scales which are unusually large for optical experiments. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Quantum interference in polyenes
Tsuji, Yuta; Hoffmann, Roald, E-mail: rh34@cornell.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Baker Laboratory, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Movassagh, Ramis [Department of Mathematics, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA and Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Building E18, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307 (United States); Datta, Supriyo [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, Electrical Engineering Building, 465 Northwestern Ave., West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2035 (United States)
2014-12-14
The explicit form of the zeroth Green's function in the Hückel model, approximated by the negative of the inverse of the Hückel matrix, has direct quantum interference consequences for molecular conductance. We derive a set of rules for transmission between two electrodes attached to a polyene, when the molecule is extended by an even number of carbons at either end (transmission unchanged) or by an odd number of carbons at both ends (transmission turned on or annihilated). These prescriptions for the occurrence of quantum interference lead to an unexpected consequence for switches which realize such extension through electrocyclic reactions: for some specific attachment modes the chemically closed ring will be the ON position of the switch. Normally the signs of the entries of the Green's function matrix are assumed to have no physical significance; however, we show that the signs may have observable consequences. In particular, in the case of multiple probe attachments – if coherence in probe connections can be arranged – in some cases new destructive interference results, while in others one may have constructive interference. One such case may already exist in the literature.
Graphene quantum interference photodetector
Mahbub Alam
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In this work, a graphene quantum interference (QI photodetector was simulated in two regimes of operation. The structure consists of a graphene nanoribbon, Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI, which exhibits a strongly resonant transmission of electrons of specific energies. In the first regime of operation (that of a linear photodetector, low intensity light couples two resonant energy levels, resulting in scattering and differential transmission of current with an external quantum efficiency of up to 5.2%. In the second regime of operation, full current switching is caused by the phase decoherence of the current due to a strong photon flux in one or both of the interferometer arms in the same MZI structure. Graphene QI photodetectors have several distinct advantages: they are of very small size, they do not require p- and n-doped regions, and they exhibit a high external quantum efficiency.
Ghost Interference and Quantum Erasure
Chingangbam, Pravabati; Qureshi, Tabish
2005-01-01
The two-photon ghost interference experiment, generalized to the case of massive particles, is theoretically analyzed. It is argued that the experiment is intimately connected to a double-slit interference experiment where, the which-path information exists. The reason for not observing first order interference behind the double-slit, is clarified.It is shown that the underlying mechanism for the appearance of ghost interference is, the more familiar, quantum erasure.
Modeling double slit interference via anomalous diffusion: independently variable slit widths
Pascasio, Johannes Mesa; Fussy, Siegfried; Schwabl, Herbert; Groessing, Gerhard
2013-01-01
Based on a re-formulation of the classical explanation of quantum mechanical Gaussian dispersion (Groessing et al. 2010) as well as interference of two Gaussians (Groessing et al. 2012), we present a new and more practical way of their simulation. The quantum mechanical "decay of the wave packet" can be described by anomalous sub-quantum diffusion with a specific diffusivity varying in time due to a particle's changing thermal environment. In a simulation of the double-slit experiment with di...
Quantum Interference in Graphene Nanoconstrictions.
Gehring, Pascal; Sadeghi, Hatef; Sangtarash, Sara; Lau, Chit Siong; Liu, Junjie; Ardavan, Arzhang; Warner, Jamie H; Lambert, Colin J; Briggs, G Andrew D; Mol, Jan A
2016-07-13
We report quantum interference effects in the electrical conductance of chemical vapor deposited graphene nanoconstrictions fabricated using feedback controlled electroburning. The observed multimode Fabry-Pérot interferences can be attributed to reflections at potential steps inside the channel. Sharp antiresonance features with a Fano line shape are observed. Theoretical modeling reveals that these Fano resonances are due to localized states inside the constriction, which couple to the delocalized states that also give rise to the Fabry-Pérot interference patterns. This study provides new insight into the interplay between two fundamental forms of quantum interference in graphene nanoconstrictions. PMID:27295198
"Quantum Interference with Slits" Revisited
Rothman, Tony
2010-01-01
Marcella [arXiv:quant-ph/0703126] has presented a straightforward technique employing the Dirac formalism to calculate single- and double-slit interference patterns. He claims that no reference is made to classical optics or scattering theory and that his method therefore provides a purely quantum mechanical description of these experiments. He also presents his calculation as if no approximations are employed. We show that he implicitly makes the same approximations found in classical treatments of interference and that no new physics has been introduced. At the same time, some of the quantum mechanical arguments Marcella gives are, at best, misleading.
"Quantum Interference with Slits" Revisited
Rothman, Tony; Boughn, Stephen
2011-01-01
Marcella has presented a straightforward technique employing the Dirac formalism to calculate single- and double-slit interference patterns. He claims that no reference is made to classical optics or scattering theory and that his method therefore provides a purely quantum mechanical description of these experiments. He also presents his…
Graphene Superconducting Quantum Interference Device
Girit, Çaǧlar; Bouchiat, Vincent; Naaman, Ofer; Zhang, Yuanbo; Crommie, Michael; Zettl, Alex; Siddiqi, Irfan
2010-03-01
Graphene can support Cooper pair transport when contacted with two superconducting electrodes, resulting in the well-known Josephson effect. By depositing aluminum/palladium electrodes in the geometry of a loop onto a single graphene sheet, we fabricate a two junction dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Not only an the supercurrent in this device be increased by moving the electrostatic gate away from the Dirac point, but it can also be modulated periodically by an applied magnetic field---a potentially powerful probe of electronic transport in graphene. We analyze the magnetic field modulation of the critical current with the asymmetric/inductive SQUID model of Fulton and Dynes and discuss the variation of the fitting parameters with gate voltage.
General Quantum Interference Principle and Duality Computer
LONG Gui-Lu
2006-01-01
In this article, we propose a general principle of quantum interference for quantum system, and based on this we propose a new type of computing machine, the duality computer, that may outperform in principle both classical computer and the quantum computer. According to the general principle of quantum interference, the very essence of quantum interference is the interference of thesub-waves of the quantum system itself. A quantum system considered here can be any quantum system: a single microscopic particle, a composite quantum system such as an atom or a molecule, or a loose collection of a few quantum objects such as two independent photons. In the duality computer,the wave of the duality computer is split into several sub-waves and they pass through different routes, where different computing gate operations are performed. These sub-waves are then re-combined to interfere to give the computational results. The quantum computer, however, has only used the particle nature of quantum object. In a duality computer,it may be possible to find a marked item from an unsorted database using only a single query, and all NP-complete problems may have polynomial algorithms. Two proof-of-the-principle designs of the duality computer are presented:the giant molecule scheme and the nonlinear quantum optics scheme. We also propose thought experiment to check the related fundamental issues, the measurement efficiency of a partial wave function.
Collision-induced constructive quantum interference
We theoretically study the collision-induced constructive quantum interference in an open four-level system with the density-matrix approach based on the experimental observation of constructive quantum interference between two transition pathways 3P1/2-5S (or 4D) and 3P3/2-5S (or 4D) via equal-frequency hybrid excitation in the Na2-Na system. The effects of the collision-induced coherent and incoherent decay rates and the ratio of the two transition dipole moments on the interference are analyzed. It is shown that through the incoherent process (collision), the coherence between a widely separated doublet and subsequent constructive quantum interference can be realized. The physical origin of the constructive interference can be seen clearly in the dressed-atom picture. The theoretical results can also be used to qualitatively explain the dependence of quantum interference on the experimental buffer gas pressure and sample temperature
Scaling theory for anomalous semiclassical quantum transport
Quantum transport through devices coupled to electron reservoirs can be described in terms of the full counting statistics (FCS) of charge transfer. Transport observables, such as conductance and shot-noise power are just cumulants of FCS and can be obtained from the sample’s average density of transmission eigenvalues, which in turn can be obtained from a finite element representation of the saddle-point equation of the Keldysh (or supersymmetric) nonlinear sigma model, known as quantum circuit theory. Normal universal metallic behavior in the semiclassical regime is controlled by the presence of a Fabry–Pérot singularity in the average density of transmission eigenvalues. We present general conditions for the suppression of Fabry–Pérot modes in the semiclassical regime in a sample of arbitrary shape, a disordered conductor or a network of ballistic quantum dots, which leads to an anomalous metallic phase. Through a double-scaling limit, we derive a scaling equation for anomalous metallic transport, in the form of a nonlinear differential equation, which generalizes the ballistic-diffusive scaling equation of a normal metal. The two-parameter stationary solution of our scaling equation generalizes Dorokhov’s universal single-parameter distribution of transmission eigenvalues. We provide a simple interpretation of the stationary solution using a thermodynamic analogy with a spin-glass system. As an application, we consider a system formed by a diffusive wire coupled via a barrier to normal-superconductor reservoirs. We observe anomalous reflectionless tunneling, when all perfectly transmitting channels are suppressed, which cannot be explained by the usual mechanism of disorder-induced opening of tunneling channels. (paper)
Scaling theory for anomalous semiclassical quantum transport
Sena-Junior, M. I.; Macêdo, A. M. S.
2016-01-01
Quantum transport through devices coupled to electron reservoirs can be described in terms of the full counting statistics (FCS) of charge transfer. Transport observables, such as conductance and shot-noise power are just cumulants of FCS and can be obtained from the sample's average density of transmission eigenvalues, which in turn can be obtained from a finite element representation of the saddle-point equation of the Keldysh (or supersymmetric) nonlinear sigma model, known as quantum circuit theory. Normal universal metallic behavior in the semiclassical regime is controlled by the presence of a Fabry-Pérot singularity in the average density of transmission eigenvalues. We present general conditions for the suppression of Fabry-Pérot modes in the semiclassical regime in a sample of arbitrary shape, a disordered conductor or a network of ballistic quantum dots, which leads to an anomalous metallic phase. Through a double-scaling limit, we derive a scaling equation for anomalous metallic transport, in the form of a nonlinear differential equation, which generalizes the ballistic-diffusive scaling equation of a normal metal. The two-parameter stationary solution of our scaling equation generalizes Dorokhov's universal single-parameter distribution of transmission eigenvalues. We provide a simple interpretation of the stationary solution using a thermodynamic analogy with a spin-glass system. As an application, we consider a system formed by a diffusive wire coupled via a barrier to normal-superconductor reservoirs. We observe anomalous reflectionless tunneling, when all perfectly transmitting channels are suppressed, which cannot be explained by the usual mechanism of disorder-induced opening of tunneling channels.
Measurement-Based Interference in Quantum Computation
The interference has been measured by the visibility in two-level systems, which, however, does not work for multi-level systems. We generalize a measure of the interference based on decoherence process, consistent with the visibility in qubit systems. By taking cluster states as examples, we show in the one-way quantum computation that the gate fidelity is proportional to the interference of the measured qubit and is inversely proportional to the interference of all register qubits. We also find that the interference increases with the number of the computing steps. So we conjecture that the interference may be the source of the speedup of the one-way quantum computation. (general)
Measurement-Based Interference in Quantum Computation
Xu, You-Yang
2013-09-01
The interference has been measured by the visibility in two-level systems, which, however, does not work for multi-level systems. We generalize a measure of the interference based on decoherence process, consistent with the visibility in qubit systems. By taking cluster states as examples, we show in the one-way quantum computation that the gate fidelity is proportional to the interference of the measured qubit and is inversely proportional to the interference of all register qubits. We also find that the interference increases with the number of the computing steps. So we conjecture that the interference may be the source of the speedup of the one-way quantum computation.
Quantum theory of two-photon interference
Wu, Xiang-Yao; Zhang, Bo-Jun; Liu, Xiao-Jing; LI Hong; Zhang, Si-Qi; Jing WANG; Wu, Yi-Heng; Li, Jing-Wu
2012-01-01
In this paper, we study two-photon interference with the approach of photon quantum theory, with specific attention to the two-photon interference experiment carried out by Milena D'Angelo et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett 87:013602, 2001). We find the theoretical result is accordance with experiment data.
Scattering Induced Quantum Interference of Multiple Quantum Optical States
Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger;
2011-01-01
Using a discrete mode theory for propagation of quantum optical states, we investigate the consequences of multiple scattering on the degree of quadrature entanglement and quantum interference. We report that entangled states can be created by multiple-scattering. We furthermore show that quantum...
Quantum radiation reaction: from interference to incoherence
Dinu, Victor; Ilderton, Anton; Marklund, Mattias; Torgrimsson, Greger
2015-01-01
We investigate quantum radiation reaction in laser-electron interactions across different energy and intensity regimes. Using a fully quantum approach which also accounts exactly for the effect of the strong laser pulse on the electron motion, we identify in particular a regime in which radiation reaction is dominated by quantum interference. We find signatures of quantum radiation reaction in the electron spectra which have no classical analogue and which cannot be captured by the incoherent approximations typically used in the high-intensity regime. These signatures are measurable with presently available laser and accelerator technology.
Metasurface-Enabled Remote Quantum Interference.
Jha, Pankaj K; Ni, Xingjie; Wu, Chihhui; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang
2015-07-10
An anisotropic quantum vacuum (AQV) opens novel pathways for controlling light-matter interaction in quantum optics, condensed matter physics, etc. Here, we theoretically demonstrate a strong AQV over macroscopic distances enabled by a judiciously designed array of subwavelength-scale nanoantennas-a metasurface. We harness the phase-control ability and the polarization-dependent response of the metasurface to achieve strong anisotropy in the decay rate of a quantum emitter located over distances of hundreds of wavelengths. Such an AQV induces quantum interference among radiative decay channels in an atom with orthogonal transitions. Quantum vacuum engineering with metasurfaces holds promise for exploring new paradigms of long-range light-matter interaction for atom optics, solid-state quantum optics, quantum information processing, etc. PMID:26207477
IETS and quantum interference: propensity rules in the presence of an interference feature.
Lykkebo, Jacob; Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro; Solomon, Gemma C
2014-09-28
Destructive quantum interference in single molecule electronics is an intriguing phenomenon; however, distinguishing quantum interference effects from generically low transmission is not trivial. In this paper, we discuss how quantum interference effects in the transmission lead to either low current or a particular line shape in current-voltage curves, depending on the position of the interference feature. Second, we consider how inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy can be used to probe the presence of an interference feature by identifying vibrational modes that are selectively suppressed when quantum interference effects dominate. That is, we expand the understanding of propensity rules in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy to molecules with destructive quantum interference. PMID:25273424
IETS and quantum interference: Propensity rules in the presence of an interference feature
Lykkebo, Jacob; Solomon, Gemma C., E-mail: gsolomon@nano.ku.dk [Nano-Science Center and Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, 2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Gagliardi, Alessio [Technische Universität München, Electrical Engineering and Information Tech., Arcisstr. 21, 80333 München (Germany); Pecchia, Alessandro [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, ISMN, Via Salaria km 29.6, 00017 Monterotondo (Rome) (Italy)
2014-09-28
Destructive quantum interference in single molecule electronics is an intriguing phenomenon; however, distinguishing quantum interference effects from generically low transmission is not trivial. In this paper, we discuss how quantum interference effects in the transmission lead to either low current or a particular line shape in current-voltage curves, depending on the position of the interference feature. Second, we consider how inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy can be used to probe the presence of an interference feature by identifying vibrational modes that are selectively suppressed when quantum interference effects dominate. That is, we expand the understanding of propensity rules in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy to molecules with destructive quantum interference.
IETS and quantum interference: Propensity rules in the presence of an interference feature
Destructive quantum interference in single molecule electronics is an intriguing phenomenon; however, distinguishing quantum interference effects from generically low transmission is not trivial. In this paper, we discuss how quantum interference effects in the transmission lead to either low current or a particular line shape in current-voltage curves, depending on the position of the interference feature. Second, we consider how inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy can be used to probe the presence of an interference feature by identifying vibrational modes that are selectively suppressed when quantum interference effects dominate. That is, we expand the understanding of propensity rules in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy to molecules with destructive quantum interference
Control of exciton transport using quantum interference
Lusk, Mark T.; Stafford, Charles A.; Zimmerman, Jeramy D.; Carr, Lincoln D.
2015-12-01
It is shown that quantum interference can be employed to create an exciton transistor. An applied potential gates the quasiparticle motion and also discriminates between quasiparticles of differing binding energy. When implemented within nanoscale assemblies, such control elements could mediate the flow of energy and information. Quantum interference can also be used to dissociate excitons as an alternative to using heterojunctions. A finite molecular setting is employed to exhibit the underlying discrete, two-particle, mesoscopic analog to Fano antiresonance. Selected entanglement measures are shown to distinguish regimes of behavior which cannot be resolved from population dynamics alone.
Quantum interference vs. quantum chaos in the nuclear shell model
In this paper we study the complexity of the nuclear states in terms of a two body quadupole-quadrupole interaction. Energy distributions and eigenvectors composition exhibit a visible interference pattern which is dependent on the intensity of the interaction. In analogy with optics, the visibility of the interference is related to the purity of the states, therefore, we show that the fluctuations associated with quantum chaos have as their origin the remaining quantum coherence with a visibility magnitude close to 5%
Quantum interference effects for the electronic fluctuations in quantum dots
For the main quantum interference term of coherent electronic transport, we study the effect of temperature, perpendicular and/or parallel magnetic fields, spin-orbit coupling and tunneling rates in both metallic grains and mesoscopic heterostructures. We show that the Zeeman effects determines a crucial way to characterize the quantum interference phenomena of the noise for anisotropic systems (mesoscopic heterostructures), qualitatively distinct from those observed in isotropic structures (metallic grains). (author)
Understanding quantum interference in General Nonlocality
Wanng, Hai-Jhun
2010-01-01
In this paper we attempt to give an understanding of quantum double-slit interference of fermions in the framework of General Nonlocality (GN) [J. Math. Phys. 49, 033513 (2008)] by studying the self-interaction of matter wave. From the metric of the GN, we derive a special formalism to interpret the interference contrast when the self-interaction is perturbative. According to the formalism, the characteristic of interference pattern is in agreement with experiment qualitatively. As examples, we apply the formalism to the cases governed by Schr\\"odinger current and Dirac current respectively, both of which are relevant to topology. The gap between these two cases corresponds to a spin-current effect, which is possible to test in the near future. In addition, a general interference formalism for both perturbative and non-perturbative self-interactions is presented. By analyzing the general formalism we predict that in the nonperturbative limit there is no interference at all.
Neutron Interference Experiments and Quantum Measurement Theory
Namiko, M.; Otake, Y.; Soshi, H.
1987-03-01
Physical and epistemological implications of recent experiments on the neutron interference are discussed from the viewpoint of the Machida-Namiki theory of measurement in quantum mechanics, without resort to discussion on the number-phase uncertainty relation. The same idea is also applied to the neutrino oscillation problem.
Nonclassical Paths in Quantum Interference Experiments
Sawant, Rahul; Samuel, Joseph; Sinha, Aninda; Sinha, Supurna; Sinha, Urbasi
2014-09-01
In a double slit interference experiment, the wave function at the screen with both slits open is not exactly equal to the sum of the wave functions with the slits individually open one at a time. The three scenarios represent three different boundary conditions and as such, the superposition principle should not be applicable. However, most well-known text books in quantum mechanics implicitly and/or explicitly use this assumption that is only approximately true. In our present study, we have used the Feynman path integral formalism to quantify contributions from nonclassical paths in quantum interference experiments that provide a measurable deviation from a naive application of the superposition principle. A direct experimental demonstration for the existence of these nonclassical paths is difficult to present. We find that contributions from such paths can be significant and we propose simple three-slit interference experiments to directly confirm their existence.
Radio VLBI and the quantum interference paradox
Singal, Ashok K
2016-01-01
We address here the question of interference of radio signals from astronomical sources like distant quasars, in a very long baseline interferometer (VLBI), where two (or more) distantly located radio telescopes (apertures), receive simultaneous signal from the sky. In an equivalent optical two-slit experiment, it is generally argued that for the photons involved in the interference pattern on the screen, it is not possible, even in principle, to ascertain which of the two slits a particular photon went through. It is argued that any procedure to ascertain this destroys the interference pattern. But in the case of the modern radio VLBI, it is a routine matter to record the phase and amplitude of the voltage outputs from the two radio antennas on a recording media separately and then do the correlation between the two recorded signals later in an offline manner. Does this not violate the quantum interference principle? We provide a resolution of this problem here.
Quantum Interference of Multiple Beams Induced by Multiple Scattering
Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Mortensen, N. Asger; Lodahl, Peter
2011-01-01
We report on quantum interference induced by the transmission of quantized light through a multiple-scattering medium. We show that entangled states can be created by multiple-scattering and that quantum interference survives disorder averaging.......We report on quantum interference induced by the transmission of quantized light through a multiple-scattering medium. We show that entangled states can be created by multiple-scattering and that quantum interference survives disorder averaging....
Quantum coherence generated by interference-induced state selectiveness
Garreau, Jean Claude
2001-01-01
The relations between quantum coherence and quantum interference are discussed. A general method for generation of quantum coherence through interference-induced state selection is introduced and then applied to `simple' atomic systems under two-photon transitions, with applications in quantum optics and laser cooling.
IETS and quantum interference: propensity rules in the presence of an interference feature
Lykkebo, Jacob; Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro; Gemma C. Solomon
2014-01-01
Destructive quantum interference in single molecule electronics is an intriguing phe- nomenon; however, distinguishing quantum interference effects from generically low transmission is not trivial. In this paper, we discuss how quantum interference ef- fects in the transmission lead to either low current or a particular line shape in current-voltage curves, depending on the position of the interference feature. Sec- ondly, we consider how inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy can be used ...
Strong Correlation of Fluorescence Photons without Quantum Interference
HU Xiang-Ming; WANG Fei
2007-01-01
It has been predicted that a driven three-level V atom can emit strongly correlated fluorescence photons in the presence of quantum interference. Here we examine the effects of quantum interference on the intensity correlation of fluorescence photons emitted from a driven three-level A atom. Unexpectedly, strong correlation occurs without quantum interference. The quantum interference tends to reduce the correlation function to a normal level. The essential difference between these two cases is traced to the different effects of quantum interference on coherent population trapping (CPT). For the V atom, quantum interference and coherent excitation combine to lead to CPT. For the A atom, however, the quantum interference tends to spoil CPT while the coherent excitation induces the effect.
Quantum interference in an electron-hole graphene ring system
Smirnov, D.; Schmidt, H.; Haug, R. J. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstr. 2 30167 Hannover (Germany)
2013-12-04
Quantum interference is observed in a graphene ring system via the Aharonov Bohm effect. As graphene is a gapless semiconductor, this geometry allows to study the unique situation of quantum interference between electrons and holes in addition to the unipolar quantum interference. The period and amplitude of the observed Aharonov-Bohm oscillations are independent of the sign of the applied gate voltage showing the equivalence between unipolar and dipolar interference.
Quantum non-demolition (QND) modulation of quantum interference
Genovese, M.; Novero, C.
1999-01-01
We propose an experiment where quantum interference between two different paths is modulated by means of a QND measurement on one or both the arm of the interferometer. The QND measurement is achieved in a Kerr cell. We illustrate a scheme for the realisation of this experiment and some further developments.
Colloquium: Quantum interference of clusters and molecules
Hornberger, Klaus; Haslinger, Philipp; Nimmrichter, Stefan; Arndt, Markus
2011-01-01
We review recent progress and future prospects of matter wave interferometry with complex organic molecules and inorganic clusters. Three variants of a near-field interference effect, based on diffraction by material nanostructures, at optical phase gratings, and at ionizing laser fields are considered. We discuss the theoretical concepts underlying these experiments and the experimental challenges. This includes optimizing interferometer designs as well as understanding the role of decoherence. The high sensitivity of matter wave interference experiments to external perturbations is demonstrated to be useful for accurately measuring internal properties of delocalized nanoparticles. We conclude by investigating the prospects for probing the quantum superposition principle in the limit of high particle mass and complexity.
Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Magnetic Insulator Heterostructure
Xu, Gang; Jing WANG; FELSER, CLAUDIA; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng
2014-01-01
Based on ab initio calculations, we predict that a monolayer of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 and GdI2 heterostructure is a quantum anomalous Hall insulator with a non-trivial band gap up to 38 meV. The principle behind our prediction is that the band inversion between two topologically trivial ferromagnetic insulators can result in a non-zero Chern number, which offers a better way to realize the quantum anomalous Hall state without random magnetic doping. In addition, a simple effective model is pre...
Tunable graphene dc superconducting quantum interference device.
Girit, Caglar; Bouchiat, V; Naaman, O; Zhang, Y; Crommie, M F; Zettl, A; Siddiqi, I
2009-01-01
Graphene exhibits unique electrical properties on account of its reduced dimensionality and "relativistic" band structure. When contacted with two superconducting electrodes, graphene can support Cooper pair transport, resulting in the well-known Josephson effect. We report here the fabrication and operation of a two junction dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) formed by a single graphene sheet contacted with aluminum/palladium electrodes in the geometry of a loop. The supercurrent in this device can be modulated not only via an electrostatic gate but also by an applied magnetic fielda potentially powerful probe of electronic transport in graphene and an ultrasensitive platform for nanomagnetometry. PMID:19090696
Quantum Interference and Entanglement Induced by Multiple Scattering of Light
Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Mortensen, Asger; Lodahl, Peter
2010-01-01
We report on the effects of quantum interference induced by the transmission of an arbitrary number of optical quantum states through a multiple-scattering medium. We identify the role of quantum interference on the photon correlations and the degree of continuous variable entanglement between two...... output modes. It is shown that quantum interference survives averaging over all ensembles of disorder and manifests itself as increased photon correlations due to photon antibunching. Furthermore, the existence of continuous variable entanglement correlations in a volume speckle pattern is predicted. Our...... results suggest that multiple scattering provides a promising way of coherently interfering many independent quantum states of light of potential use in quantum information processing....
Phase control of light propagation via Fano interference in asymmetric double quantum wells
Yang, Wen-Xing, E-mail: wenxingyang2@126.com [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Lu, Jia-Wei; Zhou, Zhi-Kang; Yang, Long [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Lee, Ray-Kuang [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)
2014-05-28
We investigate the light propagation and dynamical control of a weak pulsed probe field in asymmetric double quantum wells via Fano interference, which is caused by tunneling from the excited subbands to the same continuum. Our results show that the system can produce anomalous and normal dispersion regions with negligible absorption by choosing appropriate coupling strength of the tunneling and the Fano interference. Interesting enough, the dispersion can be switched between normal and anomalous by adjusting the relative phase between the pulsed probe and coherent control fields owing to the existence of the perfectly Fano interference. Thus, the relative phase can be regarded as a switch to manipulate light propagation with subluminal or superluminal. The temporal and spatial dynamics of the pulsed probe field with hyperbolic secant envelope are analyzed.
Phase control of light propagation via Fano interference in asymmetric double quantum wells
We investigate the light propagation and dynamical control of a weak pulsed probe field in asymmetric double quantum wells via Fano interference, which is caused by tunneling from the excited subbands to the same continuum. Our results show that the system can produce anomalous and normal dispersion regions with negligible absorption by choosing appropriate coupling strength of the tunneling and the Fano interference. Interesting enough, the dispersion can be switched between normal and anomalous by adjusting the relative phase between the pulsed probe and coherent control fields owing to the existence of the perfectly Fano interference. Thus, the relative phase can be regarded as a switch to manipulate light propagation with subluminal or superluminal. The temporal and spatial dynamics of the pulsed probe field with hyperbolic secant envelope are analyzed.
Anomalous conductances in an ultracold quantum wire
Kanász-Nagy, Márton; Esslinger, Tilman; Demler, Eugene A
2016-01-01
We analyze the recently measured anomalous transport properties of an ultracold gas through a ballistic constriction [S. Krinner et al., PNAS 201601812 (2016)]. The quantized conductance observed at weak interactions increases several-fold as the gas is made strongly interacting, which cannot be explained by the Landauer theory of single-channel transport. We show that this phenomenon is due to the multichannel Andreev reflections at the edges of the constriction, where the interaction and confinement result in a superconducting state. Andreev processes convert atoms of otherwise reflecting channels into the condensate propagating through the constriction, leading to a significant excess conductance. Furthermore, we find the spin conductance being suppressed by superconductivity; the agreement with experiment provides an additional support for our model.
Fraunhofer regime of operation for superconducting quantum interference filters
Shadrin, A.V.; Constantinian, K.Y.; Ovsyannikov, G.A.;
2008-01-01
Series arrays of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) with incommensurate loop areas, so-called superconducting quantum interference filters (SQIFs), are investigated in the kilohertz and the gigahertz frequency range. In SQIFs made of high-T-c bicrystal junctions the flux...
Interference of probabilities and number field structure of quantum models
Khrennikov, Andrei
2001-01-01
We study the probabilistic consequences of the choice of the basic number field in quantum formalism. We demonstrate that by choosing a number field for a linear space representation of quantum model it is possible to describe various interference phenomena. We analyse interference of probabilistic alternatives induced by real, complex, hyperbolic (Clifford) and p-adic representations.
Ruling Out Multi-Order Interference in Quantum Mechanics
Sinha, Urbasi; Jennewein, Thomas; Laflamme, Raymond; Weihs, Gregor
2010-01-01
Quantum mechanics and gravitation are two pillars of modern physics. Despite their success in describing the physical world around us, they seem to be incompatible theories. There are suggestions that one of these theories must be generalized to achieve unification. For example, Born's rule, one of the axioms of quantum mechanics could be violated. Born's rule predicts that quantum interference, as shown by a double slit diffraction experiment, occurs from pairs of paths. A generalized version of quantum mechanics might allow multi-path, i.e. higher order interferences thus leading to a deviation from the theory. We performed a three slit experiment with photons and bounded the magnitude of three path interference to less than 10-2 of the expected two-path interference, thus ruling out third and higher order interference and providing a bound on the accuracy of Born's rule. Our experiment is consistent with the postulate both in semi-classical and quantum regimes.
Anomalous Thermal Transport in Quantum Wires
Fazio, Rosario; Hekking, F. W. J.; Khmelnitskii, D. E.
1997-01-01
We study thermal transport in a one-dimensional quantum wire, connected to reservoirs. Despite of the absence of electron backscattering, interactions in the wire strongly influence thermal transport. Electrons propagate with unitary transmission through the wire and electric conductance is not affected. Energy, however, is carried by bosonic excitations (plasmons) which suffer from scattering even on scales much larger than the Fermi wavelength. If the electron density varies randomly, plasm...
Interference Visibility as a Witness of Entanglement and Quantum Correlation
Zhang, Lin; Pati, Arun Kumar; Wu, Junde
2014-01-01
In quantum information and communication one looks for the non-classical features like interference and quantum correlations to harness the true power of composite systems. We show how the concept akin to interference is, in fact, intertwined in a quantitative manner to entanglement and quantum correlation. In particular, we prove that the difference in the squared visibility for a density operator before and after a complete measurement, averaged over all unitary evolutions, is directly rela...
General relativistic effects in quantum interference of "clocks"
Zych, Magdalena; Costa, Fabio; Brukner, Časlav
2016-01-01
Quantum mechanics and general relativity have been each successfully tested in numerous experiments. However, the regime where both theories are jointly required to explain physical phenomena remains untested by laboratory experiments, and is also not fully understood by theory. This contribution reviews recent ideas for a new type of experiments: quantum interference of "clocks", which aim to test novel quantum effects that arise from time dilation. "Clock" interference experiments could be realised with atoms or photons in near future laboratory experiments.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetic topological insulators
Jing WANG; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng
2014-01-01
The search for topologically non-trivial states of matter has become an important goal for condensed matter physics. Here, we give a theoretical introduction to the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect based on magnetic topological insulators in two-dimension (2D) and three-dimension (3D). In 2D topological insulators, magnetic order breaks the symmetry between the counter-propagating helical edge states, and as a result, the quantum spin Hall effect can evolve into the QAH effect. In 3D, magn...
General relativistic effects in quantum interference of ''clocks''
Quantum mechanics and general relativity have been extensively and independently confirmed in many experiments. However, all experiments that measured the influence of gravity on quantum systems are still fully consistent with non-relativistic, Newtonian gravity. Here we discuss a novel effect in quantum interference experiments that can probe the interplay between quantum mechanics and general relativity. We consider interference of a ''clock'' - a particle with some evolving degrees of freedom - placed in a superposition of two different gravitational potentials. According to general relativity each amplitude of the superposition will experience a different gravitational time dilation. Due to quantum complementarity the visibility of quantum interference will thus drop to the extent to which the information about the location becomes available from the ''clock''. The clock can be implemented in an internal degree of freedom of a massive particle or in the position of a photon. The proposed experiment would thus provide the first test of quantum mechanics in curved background.
Anomalous spectral lines and relic quantum nonequilibrium
Underwood, Nicolas G
2016-01-01
We describe general features that might be observed in the line spectra of relic cosmological particles should quantum nonequilibrium be preserved in their statistics. According to our arguments, these features would represent a significant departure from those of a conventional origin. Among other features, we find a possible spectral broadening (for incident photons) that is proportional to the energy resolution of the recording telescope (and so could be orders of magnitude larger than any intrinsic broadening). Notably, for a range of possible initial conditions we find the possibility of spectral line `narrowing' whereby a telescope could observe a spectral line which is narrower than it should conventionally be able to resolve. We briefly discuss implications for the indirect search for dark matter.
Quantum interference shifts in laser spectroscopy with elliptical polarization
Amaro, Pedro; Safari, Laleh; Antognini, Aldo; Indelicato, Paul; Pohl, Randolf; Santos, José Paulo
2015-01-01
We investigate the quantum interference shifts between energetically close states, where the state structure is observed by laser spectroscopy. We report a compact and analytical expression that models the quantum interference induced shift for any admixture of circular polarization of the incident laser and angle of observation. An experimental scenario free of quantum interference can thus be predicted with this formula. Although, this study is exemplified here for muonic deuterium, it can be applied to any other laser spectroscopy measurement of $ns-n'p$ frequencies of a nonrelativistic atomic system, via a $ns\\rightarrow n'p \\rightarrow n"s $ scheme.
Quantum interference and manipulation of entanglement in silicon wire waveguide quantum circuits
Integrated quantum photonic waveguide circuits are a promising approach to realizing future photonic quantum technologies. Here, we present an integrated photonic quantum technology platform utilizing the silicon-on-insulator material system, where quantum interference and the manipulation of quantum states of light are demonstrated in components orders of magnitude smaller than previous implementations. Two-photon quantum interference is presented in a multi-mode interference coupler, and the manipulation of entanglement is demonstrated in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, opening the way to an all-silicon photonic quantum technology platform. (paper)
Photon wave functions and quantum interference experiments
Lapaire, G. G.; Sipe, J. E.
2006-01-01
We present a general theory to describe two-photon interference, including a formal description of few photon intereference in terms of single-photon amplitudes. With this formalism, it is possible to describe both frequency entangled and separable two-photon interference in terms of single-photon wave functions. Using this description, we address issues related to the physical interpretation of two-photon interference experiments. We include a discussion on how few-photon interference can be...
Quantum Dualities and Quantum Anomalous Hall Phases with Arbitrary Large Chern Numbers
Chern, Tong
2016-01-01
Quantum duality is a far reaching concept in contemporary theoretical physics. In the present paper, we reveal the quantum dualities in quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) phases through concrete two bands Hamiltonian models. Our models can realize QAH phases with arbitrary large Chern numbers. In real materials these models may be realized by stacked $n$ layer systems of $c_1=1$ QAH insulators. The topological phase transitions that can change the Chern numbers are studied. And we investigate the g...
Daniel Guterding; Jeschke, Harald O.; Roser Valentí
2015-01-01
Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice M...
Asymptotic neutron scattering laws for anomalously diffusing quantum particles.
Kneller, Gerald R
2016-07-28
The paper deals with a model-free approach to the analysis of quasielastic neutron scattering intensities from anomalously diffusing quantum particles. All quantities are inferred from the asymptotic form of their time-dependent mean square displacements which grow ∝t(α), with 0 ≤ α diffusion (α = 0) is here explicitly included. We discuss in particular the intermediate scattering function for long times and the Fourier spectrum of the velocity autocorrelation function for small frequencies. Quantum effects enter in both cases through the general symmetry properties of quantum time correlation functions. It is shown that the fractional diffusion constant can be expressed by a Green-Kubo type relation involving the real part of the velocity autocorrelation function. The theory is exact in the diffusive regime and at moderate momentum transfers. PMID:27475344
Metal-to-insulator switching in quantum anomalous Hall states
Pan, Lei; Kou, Xufeng; Wang, Jing; Fan, Yabin; Choi, Eun Sang; Shao, Qiming; Zhang, Shou Cheng; Wang, Kang Lung
Quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) was recently achieved in magnetic topological insulator films as a form of dissipationless transport without external magnetic field. However, the universal phase diagram of QAHE and its relation with quantum Hall effect (QHE) remain to be investigated. Here, we report the experimental observation of the giant longitudinal resistance peak and zero Hall conductance plateau at the coercive field in the six quintuple-layer (Cr0.12Bi0.26Sb0.62)2 Te3 film, and demonstrate the metal-to-insulator switching between two opposite QAHE plateau states up to 0.3 K. The universal QAHE phase diagram is further confirmed through the angle-dependent measurements. Our results address that the quantum phase transitions in both QAHE and QHE regimes are in the same universality class, yet the microscopic details are different.
Asymptotic neutron scattering laws for anomalously diffusing quantum particles
Kneller, Gerald R.
2016-07-01
The paper deals with a model-free approach to the analysis of quasielastic neutron scattering intensities from anomalously diffusing quantum particles. All quantities are inferred from the asymptotic form of their time-dependent mean square displacements which grow ∝tα, with 0 ≤ α scattering function for long times and the Fourier spectrum of the velocity autocorrelation function for small frequencies. Quantum effects enter in both cases through the general symmetry properties of quantum time correlation functions. It is shown that the fractional diffusion constant can be expressed by a Green-Kubo type relation involving the real part of the velocity autocorrelation function. The theory is exact in the diffusive regime and at moderate momentum transfers.
Interference and inequality in quantum decision theory
The quantum decision theory is examined in its simplest form of two-condition two-choice setting. A set of inequalities to be satisfied by any quantum conditional probability describing the decision process is derived. Experimental data indicating the breakdown of classical explanations are critically examined with quantum theory using the full set of quantum phases.
Interference and inequality in quantum decision theory
Cheon, Taksu, E-mail: taksu.cheon@kochi-tech.ac.j [Laboratory of Physics, Kochi University of Technology, Tosa Yamada, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan); Takahashi, Taiki, E-mail: ttakahashi@lynx.let.hokudai.ac.j [Laboratory of Social Psychology, Department of Behavioral Science, Faculty of Letters, Hokkaido University, N.10, W.7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)
2010-12-01
The quantum decision theory is examined in its simplest form of two-condition two-choice setting. A set of inequalities to be satisfied by any quantum conditional probability describing the decision process is derived. Experimental data indicating the breakdown of classical explanations are critically examined with quantum theory using the full set of quantum phases.
无
2002-01-01
We propose a method of controlling the dc-SQUID(superconductiong quantum interference device)system by changing the gate voltages,which controls the amplitude of the fictitious magnetic fields Bz,and the externally applied current that produces the piercing magnetic flux Φx for the dc-SQUID system,we have also introduced a physical model for the dc-SQUID system.Using this physical model,one can obtain the non-adiabatic geometric phase gate for the single qubit and the non-adiabatic conditional geometric phase gate (controlled NOT gate) for the two qubits.It is shown that when the gate voltage and the externally applied current of the dc-SQUID system satisfies an appropriate constraint condition,the charge state evolution can be controlled exactly on a dynamic phase free path.The non-adiabatic evolution of the charge states is given as well.
Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Hg_1-yMn_yTe Quantum Wells
Liu, Chao-Xing; /Tsinghua U., Beijing /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Qi, Xiao-Liang; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-03-19
The quantum Hall effect is usually observed when the two-dimensional electron gas is subjected to an external magnetic field, so that their quantum states form Landau levels. In this work we predict that a new phenomenon, the quantum anomalous Hall effect, can be realized in Hg{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}Te quantum wells, without the external magnetic field and the associated Landau levels. This effect arises purely from the spin polarization of the Mn atoms, and the quantized Hall conductance is predicted for a range of quantum well thickness and the concentration of the Mn atoms. This effect enables dissipationless charge current in spintronics devices.
Quantum Interference between Transverse Spatial Waveguide Modes
Mohanty, Aseema; Dutt, Avik; Ramelow, Sven; Nussenzveig, Paulo; Lipson, Michal
2016-01-01
Integrated quantum optics has drastically reduced the size of table-top optical experiments to the chip-scale, allowing for demonstrations of large-scale quantum information processing and quantum simulation. However, despite these advances, practical implementations of quantum photonic circuits remain limited because they consist of large networks of waveguide interferometers that path encode information which do not easily scale. Increasing the dimensionality of current quantum systems using higher degrees of freedom such as transverse spatial field distribution, polarization, time, and frequency to encode more information per carrier will enable scalability by simplifying quantum computational architectures, increasing security and noise tolerance in quantum communication channels, and simulating richer quantum phenomena. Here we demonstrate a scalable platform for photonic quantum information processing using waveguide quantum circuit building blocks based on the transverse spatial mode degree of freedom:...
Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O; Valentí, Roser
2016-01-01
Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions. PMID:27185665
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in topological insulator memory
Jalil, Mansoor B. A., E-mail: elembaj@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research A*STAR, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Tan, S. G. [Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research A*STAR, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Siu, Z. B. [Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research A*STAR, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)
2015-05-07
We theoretically investigate the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in a magnetically coupled three-dimensional-topological insulator (3D-TI) system. We apply the generalized spin-orbit coupling Hamiltonian to obtain the Hall conductivity σ{sup xy} of the system. The underlying topology of the QAHE phenomenon is then analyzed to show the quantization of σ{sup xy} and its relation to the Berry phase of the system. Finally, we analyze the feasibility of utilizing σ{sup xy} as a memory read-out in a 3D-TI based memory at finite temperatures, with comparison to known magnetically doped 3D-TIs.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in topological insulator memory
We theoretically investigate the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in a magnetically coupled three-dimensional-topological insulator (3D-TI) system. We apply the generalized spin-orbit coupling Hamiltonian to obtain the Hall conductivity σxy of the system. The underlying topology of the QAHE phenomenon is then analyzed to show the quantization of σxy and its relation to the Berry phase of the system. Finally, we analyze the feasibility of utilizing σxy as a memory read-out in a 3D-TI based memory at finite temperatures, with comparison to known magnetically doped 3D-TIs
Quantum interference of independently generated telecom-band single photons
We report on high-visibility quantum interference of independently generated telecom O-band (1310 nm) single photons using standard single-mode fibers. The experimental data are shown to agree well with the results of simulations using a comprehensive quantum multimode theory without the need for any fitting parameter
Quantum interference of independently generated telecom-band single photons
Patel, Monika [Center for Photonic Communication and Computing, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3112 (United States); Altepeter, Joseph B.; Huang, Yu-Ping; Oza, Neal N. [Center for Photonic Communication and Computing, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3118 (United States); Kumar, Prem [Center for Photonic Communication and Computing, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3112, USA and Center for Photonic Communication and Computing, Department of Electrical Engineering (United States)
2014-12-04
We report on high-visibility quantum interference of independently generated telecom O-band (1310 nm) single photons using standard single-mode fibers. The experimental data are shown to agree well with the results of simulations using a comprehensive quantum multimode theory without the need for any fitting parameter.
Two-particle interference in standard and Bohmian quantum mechanics
Guay, E; Marchildon, L [Departement de physique, Universite du Quebec, Trois-Rivieres, Qc, G9A 5H7 (Canada)
2003-05-23
The compatibility of standard and Bohmian quantum mechanics has recently been challenged in the context of two-particle interference, both from a theoretical and an experimental point of view. We analyse different setups proposed and derive corresponding exact forms for Bohmian equations of motion. The equations are then solved numerically, and shown to reproduce standard quantum-mechanical results.
An Exact Factorization Perspective on Quantum Interferences in Nonadiabatic Dynamics
Curchod, Basile F E; Gross, E K U
2016-01-01
Nonadiabatic quantum interferences emerge whenever nuclear wavefunctions in different electronic states meet and interact in a nonadiabatic region. In this work, we analyze how nonadiabatic quantum interferences translate in the context of the exact factorization of the molecular wavefunction. In particular, we focus our attention on the shape of the time-dependent potential energy surface - the exact surface on which the nuclear dynamics takes place - using an exactly-solvable model to reproduce different conditions for quantum interferences. The time-dependent potential energy surface develops complex features when strong interferences are present, in clear contrast to the observed behavior in simple nonadiabatic crossing cases. Nevertheless, independent classical trajectories propagated on the exact time-dependent potential energy surface reasonably conserve a distribution in configuration space that mimics the one of the exact nuclear probability density.
An exact factorization perspective on quantum interferences in nonadiabatic dynamics.
Curchod, Basile F E; Agostini, Federica; Gross, E K U
2016-07-21
Nonadiabatic quantum interferences emerge whenever nuclear wavefunctions in different electronic states meet and interact in a nonadiabatic region. In this work, we analyze how nonadiabatic quantum interferences translate in the context of the exact factorization of the molecular wavefunction. In particular, we focus our attention on the shape of the time-dependent potential energy surface-the exact surface on which the nuclear dynamics takes place. We use a one-dimensional exactly solvable model to reproduce different conditions for quantum interferences, whose characteristic features already appear in one-dimension. The time-dependent potential energy surface develops complex features when strong interferences are present, in clear contrast to the observed behavior in simple nonadiabatic crossing cases. Nevertheless, independent classical trajectories propagated on the exact time-dependent potential energy surface reasonably conserve a distribution in configuration space that mimics one of the exact nuclear probability densities. PMID:27448870
Anomalous capacitance of quantum well double-barrier diodes
Boric, Olga; Tolmunen, Timo J.; Kollberg, Erik; Frerking, Margaret A.
1992-01-01
The S-parameters of several different quantum well double barrier diodes have been measured. A technique has been developed for measuring whisker contacted diodes with an HP 8510B automatic network analyzer. Special coaxial mounts using K-connectors were designed to enable measurements up to 20 GHz. The voltage-dependent conductance and capacitance were derived from the measured reflection coefficient of each device. The C/V characteristics were observed to exhibit an anomalous increase at voltages corresponding to the negative differential resistance region (NDR). These are the first reported S-parameter measurements in the negative differential resistance region of quantum well double barrier diodes. A theory is presented that explains, in part, the observed results.
Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Hg$_{1-y}$Mn$_{y}$Te Quantum Wells
Liu, Chao-Xing; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng
2008-01-01
The quantum Hall effect is usually observed when the two-dimensional electron gas is subjected to an external magnetic field, so that their quantum states form Landau levels. In this work we predict that a new phenomenon, the quantum anomalous Hall effect, can be realized in Hg$_{1-y}$Mn$_{y}$Te quantum wells, without the external magnetic field and the associated Landau levels. This effect arises purely from the spin polarization of the $Mn$ atoms, and the quantized Hall conductance is predi...
Complementarity in temporal ghost interference and temporal quantum eraser
Cho, Kiyoung; Noh, Jaewoo
2015-06-01
We present a theory for the complementarity in temporal interference and quantum erasure. We consider the case of entangled biphoton where we can get the information of single photon's arrival time without making a disturbing measurement. We find a mathematical equation for the complementary relation for a temporal double slit experiment. We also propose a quantum eraser scheme that will elucidate that the complementarity is originated from the quantum entanglement.
Hydrodynamic view of wave-packet interference: quantum caves.
Chou, Chia-Chun; Sanz, Angel S; Miret-Artés, Salvador; Wyatt, Robert E
2009-06-26
Wave-packet interference is investigated within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism using a hydrodynamic description. Quantum interference leads to the formation of the topological structure of quantum caves in space-time Argand plots. These caves consist of the vortical and stagnation tubes originating from the isosurfaces of the amplitude of the wave function and its first derivative. Complex quantum trajectories display counterclockwise helical wrapping around the stagnation tubes and hyperbolic deflection near the vortical tubes. The string of alternating stagnation and vortical tubes is sufficient to generate divergent trajectories. Moreover, the average wrapping time for trajectories and the rotational rate of the nodal line in the complex plane can be used to define the lifetime for interference features. PMID:19659057
Correlations, quantum entanglement and interference in nanoscopic systems
Several of the most interesting quantum effects can or could be observed in nanoscopic systems. For example, the effect of strong correlations between electrons and of quantum interference can be measured in transport experiments through quantum dots, wires, individual molecules and rings formed by large molecules or arrays of quantum dots. In addition, quantum coherence and entanglement can be clearly observed in quantum corrals. In this paper we present calculations of transport properties through Aharonov–Bohm strongly correlated rings where the characteristic phenomenon of charge–spin separation is clearly observed. Additionally quantum interference effects show up in transport through π-conjugated annulene molecules producing important effects on the conductance for different source–drain configurations, leading to the possibility of an interesting switching effect. Finally, elliptic quantum corrals offer an ideal system to study quantum entanglement due to their focalizing properties. Because of an enhanced interaction between impurities localized at the foci, these systems also show interesting quantum dynamical behaviour and offer a challenging scenario for quantum information experiments
Ruling out multi-order interference in quantum mechanics.
Sinha, Urbasi; Couteau, Christophe; Jennewein, Thomas; Laflamme, Raymond; Weihs, Gregor
2010-07-23
Quantum mechanics and gravitation are two pillars of modern physics. Despite their success in describing the physical world around us, they seem to be incompatible theories. There are suggestions that one of these theories must be generalized to achieve unification. For example, Born's rule--one of the axioms of quantum mechanics--could be violated. Born's rule predicts that quantum interference, as shown by a double-slit diffraction experiment, occurs from pairs of paths. A generalized version of quantum mechanics might allow multipath (i.e., higher-order) interference, thus leading to a deviation from the theory. We performed a three-slit experiment with photons and bounded the magnitude of three-path interference to less than 10(-2) of the expected two-path interference, thus ruling out third- and higher-order interference and providing a bound on the accuracy of Born's rule. Our experiment is consistent with the postulate both in semiclassical and quantum regimes. PMID:20651147
Quantum interference of molecules -- probing the wave nature of matter
Venugopalan, Anu
2012-01-01
The double slit interference experiment has been famously described by Richard Feynman as containing the "only mystery of quantum mechanics". The history of quantum mechanics is intimately linked with the discovery of the dual nature of matter and radiation. While the double slit experiment for light is easily undertsood in terms of its wave nature, the very same experiment for particles like the electron is somewhat more difficult to comprehend. By the 1920s it was firmly established that electrons have a wave nature. However, for a very long time, most discussions pertaining to interference experiments for particles were merely gedanken experiments. It took almost six decades after the establishment of its wave nature to carry out a 'double slit interference' experiment for electrons. This set the stage for interference experiments with larger particles. In the last decade there has been spectacular progress in matter-wave interefernce experiments. Today, molecules with over a hundred atoms can be made to i...
Spying on photons with photons: quantum interference and information
Ataman, Stefan
2016-01-01
The quest to have both which-path knowledge and interference fringes in a double-slit experiment dates back to the inception of quantum mechanics (QM) and to the famous Einstein-Bohr debates. In this paper we propose and discuss an experiment able to spy on one photon's path with another photon. We modify the quantum state inside the interferometer as opposed to the traditional physical modification of the "wave-like" or "particle-like" experimental setup. We are able to show that it is the ability to harvest or not which-path information that finally limits the visibility of the interference pattern and not the "wave-like" or "particle-like" experimental setups. Remarkably, a full "particle-like" experimental setup is able to show interference fringes with 100 % visibility if the quantum state is carefully engineered.
Spying on photons with photons: quantum interference and information
Ataman, Stefan
2016-07-01
The quest to have both which-path knowledge and interference fringes in a double-slit experiment dates back to the inception of quantum mechanics (QM) and to the famous Einstein-Bohr debates. In this paper we propose and discuss an experiment able to spy on one photon's path with another photon. We modify the quantum state inside the interferometer as opposed to the traditional physical modification of the "wave-like" or "particle-like" experimental setup. We are able to show that it is the ability to harvest or not which-path information that finally limits the visibility of the interference pattern and not the "wave-like" or "particle-like" experimental setups. Remarkably, a full "particle-like" experimental setup is able to show interference fringes with 100% visibility if the quantum state is carefully engineered.
Li Yong-Qing; Li Jian; Ma Feng-Cai
2006-01-01
Collisional quantum interference (CQI) on the intramolecular rotational energy transfer is observed in an experiment with a static cell, and the integral interference angles are measured. To obtain more accurate information, an experiment with a molecular beam is carried out, and thereby the relationship between the differential interference angle and the scattering angle is obtained. Based on the first-Born approximation of time-dependent perturbation theory,the theoretical model of CQI is developed in an atom-diatom system in the condition of the molecular beam, with the long-range interaction potential taken into account. The method of measuring correctly the differential interference angle is presented. The tendencies of the differential interference angle changing with the impact parameter and relative velocity are discussed. The theoretical model presented here is important for understanding or performing the experiment in the molecular beam.
Cavity quantum interferences with three-level atoms
Ceban, Victor; Macovei, Mihai A.
2016-05-01
We discuss quantum interference phenomena in a system consisting from a laser driven three-level ladder-type emitter possessing orthogonal transition dipoles and embedded in a leaking optical resonator. The cavity mean-photon number vanishes due to the destructive nature of the interference phenomena. The effect occurs for some particular parameter regimes which were identified. Furthermore, upper bare-state population inversion occurs as well.
Quantum Interference Effects in Electronic Transport through Nanotube Contacts
Buia, Calin; Buldum, Alper; Lu, Jian Ping
2002-01-01
Quantum interference has dramatic effects on electronic transport through nanotube contacts. In optimal configuration the intertube conductance can approach that of a perfect nanotube ($4e^2/h$). The maximum conductance increases rapidly with the contact length up to 10 nm, beyond which it exhibits long wavelength oscillations. This is attributed to the resonant cavity-like interference phenomena in the contact region. For two concentric nanotubes symmetry breaking reduces the maximum intertu...
Nonmonotonic quantum-to-classical transition in multiparticle interference.
Ra, Young-Sik; Tichy, Malte C; Lim, Hyang-Tag; Kwon, Osung; Mintert, Florian; Buchleitner, Andreas; Kim, Yoon-Ho
2013-01-22
Quantum-mechanical wave-particle duality implies that probability distributions for granular detection events exhibit wave-like interference. On the single-particle level, this leads to self-interference--e.g., on transit across a double slit--for photons as well as for large, massive particles, provided that no which-way information is available to any observer, even in principle. When more than one particle enters the game, their specific many-particle quantum features are manifested in correlation functions, provided the particles cannot be distinguished. We are used to believe that interference fades away monotonically with increasing distinguishability--in accord with available experimental evidence on the single- and on the many-particle level. Here, we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that such monotonicity of the quantum-to-classical transition is the exception rather than the rule whenever more than two particles interfere. As the distinguishability of the particles is continuously increased, different numbers of particles effectively interfere, which leads to interference signals that are, in general, nonmonotonic functions of the distinguishability of the particles. This observation opens perspectives for the experimental characterization of many-particle coherence and sheds light on decoherence processes in many-particle systems. PMID:23297196
Observation of quantum interference in molecular charge transport
Guedon, Constant M.; Valkenier, Hennie; Markussen, Troels;
2012-01-01
, phenomena such as giant magnetoresistance(5), Kondo effects(6) and conductance switching(7-11) have been observed in single molecules, and theorists have predicted that it should also be possible to observe quantum interference in molecular conductors(12-18), but until now all the evidence for such...... behaviour has been indirect. Here, we report the observation of destructive quantum interference in charge transport through two-terminal molecular junctions at room temperature. We studied five different rigid p-conjugated molecular wires, all of which form self-assembled monolayers on a gold surface, and...
Anomalous vacuum energy and stability of a quantum liquid.
Trachenko, K; Brazhkin, V V
2016-03-31
We show that the vacuum (zero-point) energy of a low-temperature quantum liquid is a variable property which changes with the state of the system, in notable contrast to the static vacuum energy in solids commonly considered. We further show that this energy is inherently anomalous: it decreases with temperature and gives a negative contribution to a system's heat capacity. This effect operates in an equilibrium and macroscopic system, in marked contrast to small or out-of-equilibrium configurations discussed previously. We find that the negative contribution is over-compensated by the positive term from the excitation of longitudinal fluctuations and demonstrate how the overall positive heat capacity is related to the stability of a condensed phase at the microscopic level. PMID:26909505
Anomalous vacuum energy and stability of a quantum liquid
We show that the vacuum (zero-point) energy of a low-temperature quantum liquid is a variable property which changes with the state of the system, in notable contrast to the static vacuum energy in solids commonly considered. We further show that this energy is inherently anomalous: it decreases with temperature and gives a negative contribution to a system’s heat capacity. This effect operates in an equilibrium and macroscopic system, in marked contrast to small or out-of-equilibrium configurations discussed previously. We find that the negative contribution is over-compensated by the positive term from the excitation of longitudinal fluctuations and demonstrate how the overall positive heat capacity is related to the stability of a condensed phase at the microscopic level. (letter)
Anomalous vacuum energy and stability of a quantum liquid
Trachenko, K
2016-01-01
We show that the vacuum (zero-point) energy of a low-temperature quantum liquid is a variable property which changes with the state of the system, in notable contrast to the static vacuum energy in solids commonly considered. We further show that this energy is inherently anomalous: it decreases with temperature and gives negative contribution to system's heat capacity. This effect operates in an equilibrium and macroscopic system, in marked contrast to small or out-of-equilibrium configurations discussed previously. We find that the negative contribution is over-compensated by the positive term from the excitation of longitudinal fluctuations and demonstrate how the overall positive heat capacity is related to the stability of a condensed phase at the microscopic level.
Unruh effect and macroscopic quantum interference
Steane, Andrew
2015-01-01
We investigate the influence of Unruh radiation on matter-wave interferometry experiments using neutral objects modeled as dielectric spheres. The Unruh effect leads to a loss of coherence through momentum diffusion. This is a fundamental source of decoherence that affects all objects having electromagnetic interactions. However, the effect is not large enough to prevent the observation of interference for objects of any size, even when the path separation is larger than the size of the object. When the acceleration in the interferometer arms is large, inertial tidal forces will disrupt the material integrity of the interfering objects before the Unruh decoherence of the centre of mass motion is sufficient to prevent observable interference.
Quantum interference between resonant and nonresonant photorecombination
Tu, B.; Xiao, J.; Yao, K.; Shen, Y.; Yang, Y.; Lu, D.; Li, W. X.; Qiu, M. L.; Wang, X.; Chen, C. Y.; Fu, Y.; Wei, B.; Zheng, C.; Huang, L. Y.; Zhang, B. H.; Tang, Y. J.; Hutton, R.; Zou, Y.
2016-03-01
In this paper, we present experimental and theoretical studies on the interference between resonant and nonresonant photorecombinations for the main resonances of ground-state He-, Be-, B-, C-, N-, and O-like W ions. Experiments were done using a fast electron energy scanning technique at the upgraded Shanghai electron-beam ion trap. Asymmetric resonances were observed, and their Fano factors, which measure the interference degree, were determined. The calculations were done under the framework of Fano's theory by using the flexible atomic code, in which the relativistic configuration interaction method was employed. Among the nine resonances studied in this work, eight experimental results agree with the calculation within experimental uncertainties. But the experimental result for the resonance of Be-like W ions, through the intermediate state of [(1s2s22p 1 /2) 12 p3 /2] 5 /2, deviates from its corresponding theoretical result by 1.3 times experimental uncertainty.
Interference of quantum states in electronic waveguides with impurities
One investigated into effects of interference of propagating and localized states in quasi-dimensional electric waveguides containing attracting impurities (quantum points) of finite sizes. Matrix of electron scattering is calculated in terms of the Feshbach theory. It is shown that attracting impurities with finite sizes may initiate a series of the Fano asymmetric resonances in waveguide transparency. In this case, due to interference of electronic states, characteristics of resonances may oscillate at variation of impurity parameters. One determined conditions under which the effects of interference of electron waves results in collapse and swing of the Fano resonances
Observation of Quantum Interference between Separated Mechanical Oscillator Wave Packets
Kienzler, D.; Flühmann, C.; Negnevitsky, V.; Lo, H.-Y.; Marinelli, M.; Nadlinger, D.; Home, J. P.
2016-04-01
We directly observe the quantum interference between two well-separated trapped-ion mechanical oscillator wave packets. The superposed state is created from a spin-motion entangled state using a heralded measurement. Wave packet interference is observed through the energy eigenstate populations. We reconstruct the Wigner function of these states by introducing probe Hamiltonians which measure Fock state populations in displaced and squeezed bases. Squeezed-basis measurements with 8 dB squeezing allow the measurement of interference for Δ α =15.6 , corresponding to a distance of 240 nm between the two superposed wave packets.
Colloquium: Quantum interference of clusters and molecules
Hornberger, Klaus; Gerlich, Stefan; Haslinger, Philipp; Nimmrichter, Stefan; Arndt, Markus
2011-01-01
We review recent progress and future prospects of matter wave interferometry with complex organic molecules and inorganic clusters. Three variants of a near-field interference effect, based on diffraction by material nanostructures, at optical phase gratings, and at ionizing laser fields are considered. We discuss the theoretical concepts underlying these experiments and the experimental challenges. This includes optimizing interferometer designs as well as understanding the role of decoheren...
Quantum Interference in Cognition: Structural Aspects of the Brain
Aerts, Diederik
2012-01-01
We identify the presence of typically quantum effects, namely 'superposition' and 'interference', in what happens when human concepts are combined, and provide a quantum model in complex Hilbert space that represents faithfully experimental data measuring the situation of combining concepts. Our model shows how 'interference of concepts' explains the effects of underextension and overextension when two concepts combine to the disjunction of these two concepts. This result supports our earlier hypothesis that human thought has a superposed two-layered structure, one layer consisting of 'classical logical thought' and a superposed layer consisting of 'quantum conceptual thought'. Possible connections with recent findings of a 'grid-structure' for the brain are analyzed, and influences on the mind/brain relation, and consequences on applied disciplines, such as artificial intelligence and quantum computation, are considered.
Quantum Physics A First Encounter Interference, Entanglement, and Reality
Scarani, Valerio
2006-01-01
The essential features of quantum physics, largely debated since its discovery, are presented in this book, through the description (without mathematics) of recent experiments. Putting the accent on physical phenomena, this book clarifies the historical issues (delocalisation, interferences) and reaches out to modern topics (quantum cryptography, non-locality and teleportation); the debate on interpretations is serenely reviewed. - ;Quantum physics is often perceived as a weird and abstract theory, which physicists must use in order to make correct predictions. But many recent experiments have shown that the weirdness of the theory simply mirrors the weirdness of phenomena: it is Nature itself, and not only our description of it, that behaves in an astonishing way. This book selects those, among these typical quantum phenomena, whose rigorous description requires neither the formalism, nor an important. background in physics. The first part of the book deals with the phenomenon of single-particle interference...
Observation of quantum interference between separated mechanical oscillator wavepackets
Kienzler, D; Negnevitsky, V; Lo, H -Y; Marinelli, M; Nadlinger, D; Home, J P
2015-01-01
The ability of matter to be superposed at two different locations while being intrinsically connected by a quantum phase is among the most counterintuitive predictions of quantum physics. While such superpositions have been created for a variety of systems, the in-situ observation of the phase coherence has remained out of reach. Using a heralding measurement on a spin-oscillator entangled state, we project a mechanical trapped-ion oscillator into a superposition of two spatially separated states, a situation analogous to Schr\\"odinger's cat. Quantum interference is clearly observed by extracting the occupations of the energy levels. For larger states, we encounter problems in measuring the energy distribution, which we overcome by performing the analogous measurement in a squeezed Fock basis with each basis element stretched along the separation axis. Using 8 dB of squeezing we observe quantum interference for cat states with phase space separations of $\\Delta \\alpha = 15.6$, corresponding to wavepackets wit...
Quantum interference of molecules -- probing the wave nature of matter
Venugopalan, Anu
2012-01-01
The double slit interference experiment has been famously described by Richard Feynman as containing the "only mystery of quantum mechanics". The history of quantum mechanics is intimately linked with the discovery of the dual nature of matter and radiation. While the double slit experiment for light is easily undertsood in terms of its wave nature, the very same experiment for particles like the electron is somewhat more difficult to comprehend. By the 1920s it was firmly established that el...
Quantum interferences reconstruction with low homodyne detection efficiency
Esposito, Martina; Randi, Francesco [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Titimbo, Kelvin; Zimmermann, Klaus; Benatti, Fabio [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Kourousias, Georgios; Curri, Alessio [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy); Floreanini, Roberto [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Parmigiani, Fulvio [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy); University of Cologne, Institute of Physics II, Cologne (Germany); Fausti, Daniele [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy)
2016-12-15
Optical homodyne tomography consists in reconstructing the quantum state of an optical field from repeated measurements of its amplitude at different field phases (homodyne data). The experimental noise, which unavoidably affects the homodyne data, leads to a detection efficiency η<1. The problem of reconstructing quantum states from noisy homodyne data sets prompted an intense scientific debate about the presence or absence of a lower homodyne efficiency bound (η>0.5) below which quantum features, like quantum interferences, cannot be retrieved. Here, by numerical experiments, we demonstrate that quantum interferences can be effectively reconstructed also for low homodyne detection efficiency. In particular, we address the challenging case of a Schroedinger cat state and test the minimax and adaptive Wigner function reconstruction technique by processing homodyne data distributed according to the chosen state but with an efficiency η>0.5. By numerically reproducing the Schroedinger's cat interference pattern, we give evidence that quantum state reconstruction is actually possible in these conditions, and provide a guideline for handling optical tomography based on homodyne data collected by low efficiency detectors. (orig.)
Quantum interferences reconstruction with low homodyne detection efficiency
Optical homodyne tomography consists in reconstructing the quantum state of an optical field from repeated measurements of its amplitude at different field phases (homodyne data). The experimental noise, which unavoidably affects the homodyne data, leads to a detection efficiency η<1. The problem of reconstructing quantum states from noisy homodyne data sets prompted an intense scientific debate about the presence or absence of a lower homodyne efficiency bound (η>0.5) below which quantum features, like quantum interferences, cannot be retrieved. Here, by numerical experiments, we demonstrate that quantum interferences can be effectively reconstructed also for low homodyne detection efficiency. In particular, we address the challenging case of a Schroedinger cat state and test the minimax and adaptive Wigner function reconstruction technique by processing homodyne data distributed according to the chosen state but with an efficiency η>0.5. By numerically reproducing the Schroedinger's cat interference pattern, we give evidence that quantum state reconstruction is actually possible in these conditions, and provide a guideline for handling optical tomography based on homodyne data collected by low efficiency detectors. (orig.)
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetic topological insulators
Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng
2015-12-01
The search for topologically non-trivial states of matter has become an important goal for condensed matter physics. Here, we give a theoretical introduction to the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect based on magnetic topological insulators in two-dimensions (2D) and three-dimensions (3D). In 2D topological insulators, magnetic order breaks the symmetry between the counter-propagating helical edge states, and as a result, the quantum spin Hall effect can evolve into the QAH effect. In 3D, magnetic order opens up a gap for the topological surface states, and chiral edge state has been predicted to exist on the magnetic domain walls. We present the phase diagram in thin films of a magnetic topological insulator and review the basic mechanism of ferromagnetic order in magnetically doped topological insulators. We also review the recent experimental observation of the QAH effect. We discuss more recent theoretical work on the coexistence of the helical and chiral edge states, multi-channel chiral edge states, the theory of the plateau transition, and the thickness dependence in the QAH effect.
Wang Wei-Li; Miao Gang; Chen Yue-Hui; Tang Dan; Ma Feng-Cai
2008-01-01
Collisional quantum interference (CQI) in the intramolecular rotational energy transfer was observed in experiment by Sha and co-workers.[1] The interference angle, which measuring the degree of the coherence, were measured in the experiment of the static cell. Based on the first Born approximation of time dependent perturbation theory, taking into accounts the anisotropic Lennard-Jones interaction potentials, this paper describes the theoretical model of CQI in intramolecular rotational energy transfer in an atom-diatom collision system. In the model, the differential interference angle for the experiment of the molecular beam is calculated, the changing tendencies of the differential interference angle with the impact parameter and collision partners are obtained. This theoretical model is important for understanding or performing this kind of experiments.
Temperature effects on quantum interference in molecular junctions
Markussen, Troels; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer
2014-01-01
A number of experiments have demonstrated that destructive quantum interference (QI) effects in molecular junctions lead to very low conductances even at room temperature. On the other hand, another recent experiment showed increasing conductance with temperature which was attributed to decoherence...
Quantum versus simulated annealing in wireless interference network optimization
Wang, Chi; Chen, Huo; Jonckheere, Edmond
2016-01-01
Quantum annealing (QA) serves as a specialized optimizer that is able to solve many NP-hard problems and that is believed to have a theoretical advantage over simulated annealing (SA) via quantum tunneling. With the introduction of the D-Wave programmable quantum annealer, a considerable amount of effort has been devoted to detect and quantify quantum speedup. While the debate over speedup remains inconclusive as of now, instead of attempting to show general quantum advantage, here, we focus on a novel real-world application of D-Wave in wireless networking—more specifically, the scheduling of the activation of the air-links for maximum throughput subject to interference avoidance near network nodes. In addition, D-Wave implementation is made error insensitive by a novel Hamiltonian extra penalty weight adjustment that enlarges the gap and substantially reduces the occurrence of interference violations resulting from inevitable spin bias and coupling errors. The major result of this paper is that quantum annealing benefits more than simulated annealing from this gap expansion process, both in terms of ST99 speedup and network queue occupancy. It is the hope that this could become a real-word application niche where potential benefits of quantum annealing could be objectively assessed. PMID:27181056
Quantum versus simulated annealing in wireless interference network optimization
Wang, Chi; Chen, Huo; Jonckheere, Edmond
2016-05-01
Quantum annealing (QA) serves as a specialized optimizer that is able to solve many NP-hard problems and that is believed to have a theoretical advantage over simulated annealing (SA) via quantum tunneling. With the introduction of the D-Wave programmable quantum annealer, a considerable amount of effort has been devoted to detect and quantify quantum speedup. While the debate over speedup remains inconclusive as of now, instead of attempting to show general quantum advantage, here, we focus on a novel real-world application of D-Wave in wireless networking—more specifically, the scheduling of the activation of the air-links for maximum throughput subject to interference avoidance near network nodes. In addition, D-Wave implementation is made error insensitive by a novel Hamiltonian extra penalty weight adjustment that enlarges the gap and substantially reduces the occurrence of interference violations resulting from inevitable spin bias and coupling errors. The major result of this paper is that quantum annealing benefits more than simulated annealing from this gap expansion process, both in terms of ST99 speedup and network queue occupancy. It is the hope that this could become a real-word application niche where potential benefits of quantum annealing could be objectively assessed.
Nonmonotonic quantum-to-classical transition in multiparticle interference
Ra, Young-Sik; Tichy, Malte; Lim, Hyang-Tag;
2013-01-01
Quantum-mechanical wave–particle duality implies that probability distributions for granular detection events exhibit wave-like interference. On the single-particle level, this leads to self-interference—e.g., on transit across a double slit—for photons as well as for large, massive particles......, provided that no which-way information is available to any observer, even in principle. When more than one particle enters the game, their specific many-particle quantum features are manifested in correlation functions, provided the particles cannot be distinguished. We are used to believe that...... interference fades away monotonically with increasing distinguishability—in accord with available experimental evidence on the single- and on the many-particle level. Here, we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that such monotonicity of the quantum-to-classical transition is the exception rather than...
Quantum private query based on single-photon interference
Xu, Sheng-Wei; Sun, Ying; Lin, Song
2016-08-01
Quantum private query (QPQ) has become a research hotspot recently. Specially, the quantum key distribution (QKD)-based QPQ attracts lots of attention because of its practicality. Various such kind of QPQ protocols have been proposed based on different technologies of quantum communications. Single-photon interference is one of such technologies, on which the famous QKD protocol GV95 is just based. In this paper, we propose two QPQ protocols based on single-photon interference. The first one is simpler and easier to realize, and the second one is loss tolerant and flexible, and more practical than the first one. Furthermore, we analyze both the user privacy and the database privacy in the proposed protocols.
Quantum private query based on single-photon interference
Xu, Sheng-Wei; Sun, Ying; Lin, Song
2016-05-01
Quantum private query (QPQ) has become a research hotspot recently. Specially, the quantum key distribution (QKD)-based QPQ attracts lots of attention because of its practicality. Various such kind of QPQ protocols have been proposed based on different technologies of quantum communications. Single-photon interference is one of such technologies, on which the famous QKD protocol GV95 is just based. In this paper, we propose two QPQ protocols based on single-photon interference. The first one is simpler and easier to realize, and the second one is loss tolerant and flexible, and more practical than the first one. Furthermore, we analyze both the user privacy and the database privacy in the proposed protocols.
Perspectives for quantum interference with biomolecules and biomolecular clusters
Geyer, P.; Sezer, U.; Rodewald, J.; Mairhofer, L.; Dörre, N.; Haslinger, P.; Eibenberger, S.; Brand, C.; Arndt, M.
2016-06-01
Modern quantum optics encompasses a wide field of phenomena that are either related to the discrete quantum nature of light, the quantum wave nature of matter or light–matter interactions. We here discuss new perspectives for quantum optics with biological nanoparticles. We focus in particular on the prospects of matter-wave interferometry with amino acids, nucleotides, polypeptides or DNA strands. We motivate the challenge of preparing these objects in a ‘biomimetic’ environment and argue that hydrated molecular beam sources are promising tools for quantum-assisted metrology. The method exploits the high sensitivity of matter-wave interference fringes to dephasing and shifts in the presence of external perturbations to access and determine molecular properties.
Real-time single-molecule imaging of quantum interference.
Juffmann, Thomas; Milic, Adriana; Müllneritsch, Michael; Asenbaum, Peter; Tsukernik, Alexander; Tüxen, Jens; Mayor, Marcel; Cheshnovsky, Ori; Arndt, Markus
2012-05-01
The observation of interference patterns in double-slit experiments with massive particles is generally regarded as the ultimate demonstration of the quantum nature of these objects. Such matter-wave interference has been observed for electrons, neutrons, atoms and molecules and, in contrast to classical physics, quantum interference can be observed when single particles arrive at the detector one by one. The build-up of such patterns in experiments with electrons has been described as the "most beautiful experiment in physics". Here, we show how a combination of nanofabrication and nano-imaging allows us to record the full two-dimensional build-up of quantum interference patterns in real time for phthalocyanine molecules and for derivatives of phthalocyanine molecules, which have masses of 514 AMU and 1,298 AMU respectively. A laser-controlled micro-evaporation source was used to produce a beam of molecules with the required intensity and coherence, and the gratings were machined in 10-nm-thick silicon nitride membranes to reduce the effect of van der Waals forces. Wide-field fluorescence microscopy detected the position of each molecule with an accuracy of 10 nm and revealed the build-up of a deterministic ensemble interference pattern from single molecules that arrived stochastically at the detector. In addition to providing this particularly clear demonstration of wave-particle duality, our approach could also be used to study larger molecules and explore the boundary between quantum and classical physics. PMID:22447163
Electrically tunable spin polarization of chiral edge modes in a quantum anomalous Hall insulator
Zhang, Rui-Xing; Hsu, Hsiu-Chuan; Liu, Chao-Xing
2016-06-01
In the quantum anomalous Hall effect, chiral edge modes are expected to conduct spin polarized current without dissipation and thus hold great promise for future electronics and spintronics with low energy consumption. However, spin polarization of chiral edge modes has never been established in experiments. In this work, we theoretically study spin polarization of chiral edge modes in the quantum anomalous Hall effect, based on both the effective model and more realistic tight-binding model constructed from first-principles calculations. We find that spin polarization can be manipulated by tuning either a local gate voltage or the Fermi energy. We also propose to extract spin information of chiral edge modes by contacting the quantum anomalous Hall insulator to a ferromagnetic lead. The establishment of spin polarization of chiral edge modes, as well as the manipulation and detection in a fully electrical manner, will pave the way to the applications of the quantum anomalous Hall effect in spintronics.
Quantum interference effects in a cavity QED system
We consider the effect of quantum interference on population distribution and photon statistics of a cavity field interacting with dressed states of a strongly driven three-level atom. We analyse three coupling configurations of the cavity field to the driven atom, with the cavity frequency tuned to the outer Rabi sideband, the inner Rabi sideband and the central frequency of the 'singly dressed' three-level atom. The quantum doubly dressed states for each configuration are identified and the population distribution and photon statistics are interpreted in terms of transitions among these dressed states and their populations. We find that the population distribution depends strongly on quantum interference and the cavity damping. For the cavity field tuned to the outer or inner Rabi sidebands the cavity damping induces transitions between the dressed states which are forbidden for the ordinary spontaneous emission. Moreover, we find that in the case of the cavity field coupled to the inner Rabi sideband the population distribution is almost Poissonian with a large average number of photons that can be controlled by quantum interference. This system can be considered as a one-atom dressed-state laser with controlled intensity
Electromagnetically induced grating in asymmetric quantum wells via Fano interference.
Zhou, Fengxue; Qi, Yihong; Sun, Hui; Chen, Dijun; Yang, Jie; Niu, Yueping; Gong, Shangqing
2013-05-20
We propose a scheme for obtaining an electromagnetically induced grating in an asymmetric semiconductor quantum well (QW) structure via Fano interference. In our structure, owing to Fano interference, the diffraction intensity of the grating, especially the first-order diffraction, can be significantly enhanced. The diffraction efficiency of the grating can be controlled efficiently by tuning the control field intensity, the interaction length, the coupling strength of tunneling, etc. This investigation may be used to develop novel photonic devices in semiconductor QW systems. PMID:23736445
Controlling Below-Threshold Nonsequential Double Ionization via Quantum Interference
Maxwell, A S
2015-01-01
We show through simulation that quantum interference in non-sequential double ionization can be used to control the recollision with subsequent ionization (RESI) mechanism. This includes the shape, localization and symmetry of RESI electron-momentum distributions, which may be shifted from a correlated to an anti-correlated distribution or vice versa, far below the direct ionization threshold intensity. As a testing ground, we reproduce recent experimental results by employing specific coherent superpositions of excitation channels. We examine two types of interference, from electron indistinguishability and intra-cycle events, and from different excitation channels.
High-Tc superconductor quantum interference devices
This patent describes a superconductive quantum interferometric device for sensing a characteristic of a magnetic field. It comprises a substrate having a surface, the substrate being selected from the group which consists of strontium titanate, aluminum oxide, sapphire, ZrO2 and mixtures thereof; a coating of MgO on the surface of the substrate; two identical thin-strip films of a high-critical temperature superconductor on the coating, each of the films having a pair of mutually parallel arms in the form of superconductor strips extending toward and aligned with super conductor strips forming corresponding arms of the other thin-strip film, and a crossbar strip connecting the arms of each thin-strip film at right angles to the arms, the high-critical-temperature superconductor being selected from the group which consists of yttrium-barium-calcium-copper-oxides, bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper-oxides, thallium-barium-copper-oxides, thallium-barium-calcium-copper-oxides, barium oxide: potassium oxide: bismuth oxides, and calcium oxide: zinc oxide: iron oxides; and insulating films on the coating between corresponding free ends of the arms thin-strip films, the insulating films being composed of a material selected from the group which consists of silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, magnesium oxide and mixture thereof
Prediction of a quantum anomalous Hall state in Co-decorated silicene
Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.
2014-01-09
Based on first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that Co-decorated silicene can host a quantum anomalous Hall state. The exchange field induced by the Co atoms combined with the strong spin-orbit coupling of the silicene opens a nontrivial band gap at the K point. As compared to other transition metals, Co-decorated silicene is unique in this respect, since usually hybridization and spin-polarization induced in the silicene suppress a quantum anomalous Hall state.
Thickness Dependence of the Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Magnetic Topological Insulator Films.
Feng, Xiao; Feng, Yang; Wang, Jing; Ou, Yunbo; Hao, Zhenqi; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Zuocheng; Zhang, Liguo; Lin, Chaojing; Liao, Jian; Li, Yongqing; Wang, Li-Li; Ji, Shuai-Hua; Chen, Xi; Ma, Xucun; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Wang, Yayu; He, Ke; Xue, Qi-Kun
2016-08-01
The evolution of the quantum anomalous Hall effect with the thickness of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2 Te3 magnetic topological insulator films is studied, revealing how the effect is caused by the interplay of the surface states, band-bending, and ferromagnetic exchange energy. Homogeneity in ferromagnetism is found to be the key to high-temperature quantum anomalous Hall material. PMID:27166762
Particle statistics affects quantum decay and Fano interference.
Crespi, Andrea; Sansoni, Linda; Della Valle, Giuseppe; Ciamei, Alessio; Ramponi, Roberta; Sciarrino, Fabio; Mataloni, Paolo; Longhi, Stefano; Osellame, Roberto
2015-03-01
Quantum mechanical decay, Fano interference, and bound states with energy in the continuum are ubiquitous phenomena in different areas of physics. Here we experimentally demonstrate that particle statistics strongly affects quantum mechanical decay in a multiparticle system. By considering propagation of two-photon states in engineered photonic lattices, we simulate quantum decay of two noninteracting particles in a multilevel Fano-Anderson model. Remarkably, when the system sustains a bound state in the continuum, fractional decay is observed for bosonic particles, but not for fermionic ones. Complete decay in the fermionic case arises because of the Pauli exclusion principle, which forbids the bound state to be occupied by the two fermions. Our experiment indicates that particle statistics can tune many-body quantum decay from fractional to complete. PMID:25793783
Multipartite cluster entangled states for continuous variables via quantum interference
Continuous variable cluster entangled states are a potential resource for universal quantum computation. Here we propose a scalable scheme to prepare a class of multimode cluster entangled states. In terms of graph states, all modes are denoted by the nodes, and the lines connecting the nodes represent the interactions between the connected nodes. Our cluster entangled states correspond to two-colourable graphs, in which the nodes belong to two different families, and the lines connect only the nodes of different families. The physical mechanism is attributed to quantum interference between multiple pathways for wave-mixing parametric interactions in near-resonant systems.
Conductance of quantum interference transistors in parallel and in series
Nikolić, K.; Nikolić, P.; Šordan, R.
1999-07-01
We theoretically study the electronic conductance G and the current-voltage characteristics of two quantum interference transistors in parallel and in series. We use two different definitions of conductance, G ˜ T and G ˜ T / R. Neither can reproduce the classical additivity law in the case of coherent transport due to quantum interference for the elements in series and quasibound states when elements are in parallel. In the case of two transistors in series, we find that the quantity T / R only qualitatively better represents the additivity law, which is probably expected because this model avoids counting the contact resistance twice. However, for the parallel configuration of transistors, the conductance is almost additive for the majority of energies when G ˜ T, except for the single-mode regime. Possible use of these configurations in digital electronics for basic logic functions is discussed.
Quantum Interference Mechanism of Cooperative Optical Phenomena in Extended Media
Valery I Rupasov
2000-01-01
In the quantum process of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), a laser photon propagating in a resonance medium undergoes multifold conversions into a Stokes photon and back. The nontrivial ``cooperative'' behavior of the Stokes component of light transmitted through the medium is proven to be completely determined by the interference of scattering amplitudes in different sub-channels of the Stokes channel, which obviously combines all the sub-channels with an odd number of photon conversions. ...
Huang, Pu; Shi, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Xin-He; Zhong, Hong-Xia; Ding, Yi-Min; Cao, Xiong; Wu, Meng; Lu, Jing
2016-08-01
The physical origin of the observed anomalous photoluminescence (PL) behavior, that is, the large-size graphene quantum dots (GQDs) exhibiting higher PL energy than the small ones and the broadening PL spectra from deep ultraviolet to near-infrared, has been debated for many years. Obviously, it is in conflict with the well-accepted quantum confinement. Here we shed new light on these two notable debates by state-of-the-art first-principles calculations based on many-body perturbation theory. We find that quantum confinement is significant in GQDs with remarkable size-dependent exciton absorption/emission. The edge environment from alkaline to acidic conditions causes a blue shift of the PL peak. Furthermore, carbon vacancies are inclined to assemble at the GQD edge and form the tiny edge microstructures. The bound excitons, localized inside these edge microstructures, determine the anomalous PL behavior (blue and UV emission) of large-size GQDs. The bound excitons confined in the whole GQD lead to the low-energy transition. PMID:27409980
Dressed excitonic states and quantum interference in a three-level quantum dot ladder system
Gerardot, B D; Brunner, D; Dalgarno, P A; Warburton, R J [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Karrai, K [Center for NanoScience and Department fuer Physik der LMU, Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, 80539 Munich (Germany); Badolato, A [Institute of Quantum Electronics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Petroff, P M [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)], E-mail: b.d.gerardot@hw.ac.uk
2009-01-15
We observe dressed states and quantum interference effects in a strongly driven three-level quantum dot ladder system. The effect of a strong coupling field on one dipole transition is measured by a weak probe field on the second dipole transition using differential reflection. When the coupling energy is much larger than both the homogeneous and inhomogeneous linewidths an Autler-Townes splitting is observed. Significant differences are observed when the transitions resonant with the strong and weak fields are swapped, particularly when the coupling energy is nearly equal to the measured linewidth. This result is attributed to quantum interference: destructive or constructive interference with modest visibility is observed depending on the pump/probe geometry. The data demonstrate that coherence of both the bi-exciton and the exciton is maintained in this solid-state system, even under intense illumination, which is crucial for prospects in quantum information processing and nonlinear optical devices.
Spatially resolving valley quantum interference of a donor in silicon
Salfi, J.; Mol, J. A.; Rahman, R.; Klimeck, G.; Simmons, M. Y.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.; Rogge, S.
2014-06-01
Electron and nuclear spins of donor ensembles in isotopically pure silicon experience a vacuum-like environment, giving them extraordinary coherence. However, in contrast to a real vacuum, electrons in silicon occupy quantum superpositions of valleys in momentum space. Addressable single-qubit and two-qubit operations in silicon require that qubits are placed near interfaces, modifying the valley degrees of freedom associated with these quantum superpositions and strongly influencing qubit relaxation and exchange processes. Yet to date, spectroscopic measurements have only probed wavefunctions indirectly, preventing direct experimental access to valley population, donor position and environment. Here we directly probe the probability density of single quantum states of individual subsurface donors, in real space and reciprocal space, using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. We directly observe quantum mechanical valley interference patterns associated with linear superpositions of valleys in the donor ground state. The valley population is found to be within 5% of a bulk donor when 2.85 ± 0.45 nm from the interface, indicating that valley-perturbation-induced enhancement of spin relaxation will be negligible for depths greater than 3 nm. The observed valley interference will render two-qubit exchange gates sensitive to atomic-scale variations in positions of subsurface donors. Moreover, these results will also be of interest for emerging schemes proposing to encode information directly in valley polarization.
Magnetic Topological Insulators and Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect
Kou, Xufeng
The engineering of topological surface states is a key to realize applicable devices based on topological insulators (TIs). Among various proposals, introducing magnetic impurities into TIs has been proven to be an effective way to open a surface gap and integrate additional ferromagnetism with the original topological order. In this Dissertation, we study both the intrinsic electrical and magnetic properties of the magnetic TI thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. By doping transition element Cr into the host tetradymite-type V-VI semiconductors, we achieve robust ferromagnetic order with a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. With additional top-gating capability, we realize the electric-field-controlled ferromagnetism in the magnetic TI systems, and demonstrate such magneto-electric effects can be effectively manipulated, depending on the interplays between the band topology, magnetic exchange coupling, and structural engineering. Most significantly, we report the observation of quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in the Cr-doped (BiSb)2Te3 samples where dissipationless chiral edge conduction is realized in the macroscopic millimeter-size devices without the presence of any external magnetic field, and the stability of the quantized Hall conductance of e2/h is well-maintained as the film thickness varies across the 2D hybridization limit. With additional quantum confinement, we discover the metal-to-insulator switching between two opposite QAHE states, and reveal the universal QAHE phase diagram in the thin magnetic TI samples. In addition to the uniform magnetic TIs, we further investigate the TI/Cr-doped TI bilayer structures prepared by the modulation-doped growth method. By controlling the magnetic interaction profile, we observe the Dirac hole-mediated ferromagnetism and develop an effective way to manipulate its strength. Besides, the giant spin-orbit torque in such magnetic TI-based heterostructures enables us to demonstrate the current
Quantum Walks With Neutral Atoms: Quantum Interference Effects of One and Two Particles
Robens, Carsten; Meschede, Dieter; Alberti, Andrea
2015-01-01
We report on the state of the art of quantum walk experiments with neutral atoms in state-dependent optical lattices. We demonstrate a novel state-dependent transport technique enabling the control of two spin-selective sublattices in a fully independent fashion. This transport technique allowed us to carry out a test of single-particle quantum interference based on the violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality and, more recently, to probe two-particle quantum interference effects with neutral atoms cooled into the motional ground state. These experiments lay the groundwork for the study of discrete-time quantum walks of strongly interacting, indistinguishable particles to demonstrate quantum cellular automata of neutral atoms.
Controlling light pulse in triangular quantum well nanostructure via quantum interference
We study numerically the optical properties of the intersubband transitions in AlGaAs/GaAs triangular quantum well nanostructure. The Schrödinger equation is being solved numerically for this structure using homemade codes. Afterward the refractive index and the absorption coefficient are calculated for general triangular quantum well using the density matrix formalism. The density matrix equations are being solved numerically for calculation of linear susceptibility. The effect of quantum interference between spontaneous emission decays on the refractive index, absorption coefficient and group velocity is studied for purposed triangular quantum well nanostructure. The result shows the linear optical properties and group index can be controlled via quantum interference between spontaneous emission decays
Unconventional superconducting quantum interference in a suspended graphene resonator
Allen, Monica; Nurgaliev, Daniyar; Akhmerov, Anton; Yacoby, Amir
2014-03-01
In a coherent electron cavity, quantum interference of electron waves replaces classical diffusion as a key feature of electronic transport. Here we report novel behavior that emerges by coupling superconducting reservoirs to a Fabry-Perot resonator in bilayer graphene. In this device, a pair of superconducting electrodes is coupled to a suspended graphene membrane and defines a ballistic cavity between the two graphene-electrode interfaces. Tuning the Fermi wavelength in the cavity with a gate electrode moves the system on and off resonance, thus inducing an oscillatory critical current whose period satisfies the Fabry-Perot interference conditions. By varying the magnetic flux through the junction, we explore the rich interplay between superconducting quantum interference and resonant cavity states and demonstrate a non-trivial correspondence between the supercurrent and normal state resistance. To describe our findings, we use a numerical model based on the tight-binding approach and Landauer-Buttiker scattering formalism. These results constitute a departure from the conventional Josephson effect in graphene and motivate exploration of new effects at the intersection of superconductivity and optics-like phenomena.
Giant fifth-order nonlinearity via tunneling induced quantum interference in triple quantum dots
Schemes for giant fifth-order nonlinearity via tunneling in both linear and triangular triple quantum dots are proposed. In both configurations, the real part of the fifth-order nonlinearity can be greatly enhanced, and simultaneously the absorption is suppressed. The analytical expression and the dressed states of the system show that the two tunnelings between the neighboring quantum dots can induce quantum interference, resulting in the giant higher-order nonlinearity. The scheme proposed here may have important applications in quantum information processing at low light level
Quantum interference in an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer
Trenti, A.; Borghi, M.; Mancinelli, M.; Price, H. M.; Fontana, G.; Pavesi, L.
2016-08-01
A re-visitation of the well known free space Mach-Zehnder interferometer is reported here. The coexistence between one-photon and two-photons interference from collinear color entangled photon pairs is investigated. Thisarises from an arbitrarily small unbalance in the arm transmittance. The tuning of such asymmetry is reflected in dramatic changes in the coincidence detection, revealing beatings between one particle and two particle interference patterns. In particular, the role of the losses and of the intrinsic phase imperfectness of the lossy beamsplitter are explored in a single-port excited Mach-Zehnder interferometer. This configuration is especially useful for quantum optics on a chip, where the guiding geometry forces photons to travel in the same spatial mode.
Quantum Interference and Ballistic Transmission in Nanotube Electron Waveguides
The electron transport properties of well-contacted individual single-walled carbon nanotubes are investigated in the ballistic regime. Phase coherent transport and electron interference manifest as conductance fluctuations as a function of Fermi energy. Resonance with standing waves in finite-length tubes and localized states due to imperfections are observed for various Fermi energies. Two units of quantum conductance 2G0=4e2/h are measured for the first time, corresponding to the maximum conductance limit for ballistic transport in two channels of a nanotube
Quantum interference in DNA bases probed by graphene nanoribbons
Jeong, Heejeong; Seul Kim, Han; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Dongho; Hoon Kim, Yong; Huh, Nam
2013-07-01
Based on first-principles nonequilibrium Green's function calculations, we demonstrate quantum interference (QI) effects on the tunneling conductance of deoxyribonucleic acid bases placed between zigzag graphene nanoribbon electrodes. With the analogy of QI in hydrocarbon ring structures, we hypothesize that QI can be well preserved in the π-π coupling between the carbon-based electrode and a single DNA base. We demonstrate indications of QI, such as destructively interfered anti-resonance or Fano-resonance, that affect the variation of tunneling conductance depending on the orientation of a base. We find that guanine, with a 10-fold higher transverse conductance, can be singled out from the other bases.
Quantum interference on graphs controlled by an external electric field
We consider motion of a charged quantum particle on a loop with two external leads which is placed into an electrostatic field. The loop Hamiltonian is chosen in the simplest possible way; in order to join it to the free Hamiltonians describing the leads, we employ a method based on self-adjoint extensions. Under a symmetry requirement, the resulting full Hamiltonian contains four free parameters; each junction is characterized by a pair of them. The system under consideration representes a model of metallic or semiconductor structures tha can be fabricated by presently available technologies. Assuming the ballistic regime for electrons in such a structure, we calculate the resitance dependence on intensity of the external field. The results suggest the possibility of constructing quantum interference transistors whose size and switching voltage would be much smaller than in the presently used microchips
Two-photon quantum interference for an undergraduate lab
Ourjoumtsev, A.; Dheur, M.-C.; Avignon, T.; Jacubowiez, L.
2015-11-01
We present a simple setup allowing undergraduate students to reproduce the Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment during a half-day labwork session and observe the coalescence of two indistinguishable photons merging on a balanced beamsplitter. This two-photon interference effect, fundamentally related to the bosonic character of the photons, is commonly used in the fields of quantum communication and computing to test the indistinguishability of two single-photon wavepackets. The setup makes use of very few optical elements and requires little alignement that can be performed by students themselves. It allows them to gather essential experimental skills related to parametric crystals, fibre optics and single-photon detection, and to transpose abstract concepts of quantum physics to a hands-on experiment in the lab.
Real-time single-molecule imaging of quantum interference
Juffmann, Thomas; Müllneritsch, Michael; Asenbaum, Peter; Tsukernik, Alexander; Tüxen, Jens; Mayor, Marcel; Cheshnovsky, Ori; Arndt, Markus
2014-01-01
The observation of interference patterns in double-slit experiments with massive particles is generally regarded as the ultimate demonstration of the quantum nature of these objects. Such matter-wave interference has been observed for electrons, neutrons, atoms and molecules and it differs from classical wave-physics in that it can even be observed when single particles arrive at the detector one by one. The build-up of such patterns in experiments with electrons has been described as the "most beautiful experiment in physics". Here we show how a combination of nanofabrication and nanoimaging methods allows us to record the full two-dimensional build-up of quantum diffraction patterns in real-time for phthalocyanine molecules PcH2 and their tailored derivatives F24PcH2 with a mass of 1298 amu. A laser-controlled micro-evaporation source was used to produce a beam of molecules with the required intensity and coherence and the gratings were machined in 10 nm thick silicon nitride membranes to reduce the effect ...
Quantum interference in thermoelectric molecular junctions: A toy model perspective
Nozaki, Daijiro; Avdoshenko, Stas M.; Sevinçli, Hâldun; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio
2014-08-01
Quantum interference (QI) phenomena between electronic states in molecular circuits offer a new opportunity to design new types of molecular devices such as molecular sensors, interferometers, and thermoelectric devices. Controlling the QI effect is a key challenge for such applications. For the development of single molecular devices employing QI effects, a systematic study of the relationship between electronic structure and the quantum interference is needed. In order to uncover the essential topological requirements for the appearance of QI effects and the relationship between the QI-affected line shape of the transmission spectra and the electronic structures, we consider a homogeneous toy model where all on-site energies are identical and model four types of molecular junctions due to their topological connectivities. We systematically analyze their transmission spectra, density of states, and thermoelectric properties. Even without the degree of freedom for on-site energies an asymmetric Fano peak could be realized in the homogeneous systems with the cyclic configuration. We also calculate the thermoelectric properties of the model systems with and without fluctuation of on-site energies. Even under the fluctuation of the on-site energies, the finite thermoelectrics are preserved for the Fano resonance, thus cyclic configuration is promising for thermoelectric applications. This result also suggests the possibility to detect the cyclic configuration in the homogeneous systems and the presence of the QI features from thermoelectric measurements.
Cross-conjugation and quantum interference: a general correlation?
Valkenier, Hennie; Guedon, Constant M.; Markussen, Troels; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; van der Molen, Sense J.; Hummelen, Jan C.
2014-01-01
We discuss the relationship between the pi-conjugation pattern, molecular length, and charge transport properties of molecular wires, both from an experimental and a theoretical viewpoint. Specifically, we focus on the role of quantum interference in the conductance properties of cross-conjugated......We discuss the relationship between the pi-conjugation pattern, molecular length, and charge transport properties of molecular wires, both from an experimental and a theoretical viewpoint. Specifically, we focus on the role of quantum interference in the conductance properties of cross......-conjugated molecules. For this, we compare experiments on two series of dithiolated wires. The first set we synthesized consists of three dithiolated oligo(phenylene ethynylene) (OPE) benchmark compounds with increasing length. The second series synthesized comprises three molecules with different pi......-conjugation patterns, but identical lengths, i.e. an anthracene (linear conjugation), an anthraquinone (cross-conjugation), and a dihydroanthracene (broken conjugation) derivative. To benchmark reliable trends, conductance experiments on these series have been performed by various techniques. Here, we compare data...
Quantum interference in thermoelectric molecular junctions: A toy model perspective
Nozaki, Daijiro, E-mail: daijiro.nozaki@gmail.com, E-mail: research@nano.tu-dresden.de [Institute for Materials Science and Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Avdoshenko, Stas M. [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, 100 E. 24th St. A1590, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Sevinçli, Hâldun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Gulbahce Kampusu 35430 Urla, Izmir (Turkey); Cuniberti, Gianaurelio [Institute for Materials Science and Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Dresden Center for Computational Materials Science (DCCMS), TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfAED), TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)
2014-08-21
Quantum interference (QI) phenomena between electronic states in molecular circuits offer a new opportunity to design new types of molecular devices such as molecular sensors, interferometers, and thermoelectric devices. Controlling the QI effect is a key challenge for such applications. For the development of single molecular devices employing QI effects, a systematic study of the relationship between electronic structure and the quantum interference is needed. In order to uncover the essential topological requirements for the appearance of QI effects and the relationship between the QI-affected line shape of the transmission spectra and the electronic structures, we consider a homogeneous toy model where all on-site energies are identical and model four types of molecular junctions due to their topological connectivities. We systematically analyze their transmission spectra, density of states, and thermoelectric properties. Even without the degree of freedom for on-site energies an asymmetric Fano peak could be realized in the homogeneous systems with the cyclic configuration. We also calculate the thermoelectric properties of the model systems with and without fluctuation of on-site energies. Even under the fluctuation of the on-site energies, the finite thermoelectrics are preserved for the Fano resonance, thus cyclic configuration is promising for thermoelectric applications. This result also suggests the possibility to detect the cyclic configuration in the homogeneous systems and the presence of the QI features from thermoelectric measurements.
Quantum interference in thermoelectric molecular junctions: A toy model perspective
Quantum interference (QI) phenomena between electronic states in molecular circuits offer a new opportunity to design new types of molecular devices such as molecular sensors, interferometers, and thermoelectric devices. Controlling the QI effect is a key challenge for such applications. For the development of single molecular devices employing QI effects, a systematic study of the relationship between electronic structure and the quantum interference is needed. In order to uncover the essential topological requirements for the appearance of QI effects and the relationship between the QI-affected line shape of the transmission spectra and the electronic structures, we consider a homogeneous toy model where all on-site energies are identical and model four types of molecular junctions due to their topological connectivities. We systematically analyze their transmission spectra, density of states, and thermoelectric properties. Even without the degree of freedom for on-site energies an asymmetric Fano peak could be realized in the homogeneous systems with the cyclic configuration. We also calculate the thermoelectric properties of the model systems with and without fluctuation of on-site energies. Even under the fluctuation of the on-site energies, the finite thermoelectrics are preserved for the Fano resonance, thus cyclic configuration is promising for thermoelectric applications. This result also suggests the possibility to detect the cyclic configuration in the homogeneous systems and the presence of the QI features from thermoelectric measurements
Trajectory description of the quantum-classical transition for wave packet interference
Chou, Chia-Chun
2016-08-01
The quantum-classical transition for wave packet interference is investigated using a hydrodynamic description. A nonlinear quantum-classical transition equation is obtained by introducing a degree of quantumness ranging from zero to one into the classical time-dependent Schrödinger equation. This equation provides a continuous description for the transition process of physical systems from purely quantum to purely classical regimes. In this study, the transition trajectory formalism is developed to provide a hydrodynamic description for the quantum-classical transition. The flow momentum of transition trajectories is defined by the gradient of the action function in the transition wave function and these trajectories follow the main features of the evolving probability density. Then, the transition trajectory formalism is employed to analyze the quantum-classical transition of wave packet interference. For the collision-like wave packet interference where the propagation velocity is faster than the spreading speed of the wave packet, the interference process remains collision-like for all the degree of quantumness. However, the interference features demonstrated by transition trajectories gradually disappear when the degree of quantumness approaches zero. For the diffraction-like wave packet interference, the interference process changes continuously from a diffraction-like to collision-like case when the degree of quantumness gradually decreases. This study provides an insightful trajectory interpretation for the quantum-classical transition of wave packet interference.
Quantum interference in a Cooper pair splitter device
Csonka, Szabolcs; Fulop, G.; Dominguez, F.; Levy Yeyati, A.; D'Hollosy, S.; Baumgartner, A.; Makk, P.; Schonenberger, C.; Guzenko, V. A.; Madsen, M. H.; Nygard, J.
Cooper pair splitting (CPS) is a process in which the electrons of naturally occurring spin singlet pairs in a superconductor are spatially separated using two quantum dots. In the present work we investigate the evolution of the conductance correlations in an InAs nanowire based CPS device in the presence of an external magnetic field. In our experiments the gate dependence of the signal that depends on both quantum dots continuously evolves from a slightly asymmetric Lorentzian to a strongly asymmetric Fano-type resonance with increasing B field. Our experiments can be understood in a simple 3 site model, which shows that the nonlocal CPS leads to symmetric line shapes, while the local transport processes can exhibit an asymmetric shape due to quantum interference. These findings demonstrate that the electrons from a Cooper pair splitter can propagate coherently after their emission from the superconductor and how a magnetic field can be used to optimize the performance of a CPS device. In addition CPS devices were developed where the nanowire segments between the two dots were removed, nonlocal measurement on such CPS devices will also be presented.
Gu, Yingfei; Wen, Xueda; Cho, Gil Young; Ryu, Shinsei; Qi, Xiao-Liang
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study $(2+1)$-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall states, i.e. band insulators with quantized Hall conductance, using the exact holographic mapping. The exact holographic mapping is an approach to holographic duality which maps the quantum anomalous Hall state to a different state living in $(3+1)$-dimensional hyperbolic space. By studying topological response properties and the entanglement spectrum, we demonstrate that the holographic dual theory of a quantum anomalous Hall state is a $(3+1)$-dimensional topological insulator. The dual description enables a new characterization of topological properties of a system by the quantum entanglement between degrees of freedom at different length scales.
An electro-optic waveform interconnect based on quantum interference
Qin, Li-Guo; Gong, Shang-Qing
2016-01-01
The ability to modulate an optical field via an electric field is regarded as a key function of electro-optic interconnects, which are used in optical communications and information processing systems. One of the main required devices for such interconnects is the electro-optic modulator (EOM). Current EOM based on the electro-optic effect and the electro-absorption effect often is bulky and power inefficient due to the weak electro-optic properties of its constituent materials. Here we propose a new mechanism to produce an arbitrary-waveform EOM based on the quantum interference, in which both the real and imaginary parts of the susceptibility are engineered coherently with the superhigh efficiency. Based on this EOM, a waveform interconnect from the voltage to the modulated optical absorption is realised. We expect that such a new type of electro-optic interconnect will have a broad range of applications including the optical communications and network.
Quantum interference induced by initial system–environment correlations
We investigate the quantum interference induced by a relative phase in the correlated initial state of a system which consists in a two-level atom interacting with a damped mode of the radiation field. We show that the initial relative phase has significant effects on both the evolution of the atomic excited-state population and the information flow between the atom and the reservoir, as quantified by the trace distance. Furthermore, by considering two two-level atoms interacting with a common damped mode of the radiation field, we highlight how initial relative phases can affect the subsequent entanglement dynamics. -- Highlights: ► We study the effect of initial correlations in system–bath excitation transfer. ► We study the information flow from the bath to the system via the trace distance. ► We show how entanglement dynamics can be controlled via initial relative phases.
Josephson phase diffusion in the superconducting quantum interference device ratchet
Spiechowicz, Jakub [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Łuczka, Jerzy, E-mail: jerzy.luczka@us.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Silesian Center for Education and Interdisciplinary Research, University of Silesia, 41-500 Chorzów (Poland)
2015-05-15
We study diffusion of the Josephson phase in the asymmetric superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) subjected to a time-periodic current and pierced by an external magnetic flux. We analyze a relation between phase diffusion and quality of transport characterized by the dc voltage across the SQUID and efficiency of the device. In doing so, we concentrate on the previously reported regime [J. Spiechowicz and J. Łuczka, New J. Phys. 17, 023054 (2015)] for which efficiency of the SQUID attains a global maximum. For long times, the mean-square displacement of the phase is a linear function of time, meaning that diffusion is normal. Its coefficient is small indicating rather regular phase evolution. However, it can be magnified several times by tailoring experimentally accessible parameters like amplitudes of the ac current or external magnetic flux. Finally, we prove that in the deterministic limit this regime is essentially non-chaotic and possesses an unexpected simplicity of attractors.
Miniaturized superconducting quantum interference magnetometers for high sensitivity applications
Granata, C.; Vettoliere, A.; Russo, M.
2007-09-01
A miniaturized niobium based dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer for high magnetic field sensitivity applications has been developed. The sensing coil consists of an integrated square superconducting coil with a length of 3mm, involving a device area much smaller with respect to the standard SQUID magnetometers with a comparable magnetic field sensitivity; so it allows increasing the spatial resolution keeping the magnetic field sensitivity unaltered. Furthermore, a small pickup coil minimizes its antenna gain, reducing the radio frequency interference. At T =4.2K, the sensors have shown smooth and resonance free V-Φ characteristics and an intrinsic white magnetic field noise spectral density as low as 5.8fT /Hz1/2, measured in flux locked loop configuration. The good agreement with the theoretical predictions guarantees the reliability and the controllability of the sensors. Due to their compactness and good characteristic parameters, such sensors are suitable for large multichannel systems used in biomagnetic imaging.
Symmetry-induced quantum interference effects in metalloporphyrin wires.
Ferradás, R; García-Suárez, V M; Ferrer, J
2013-08-14
We calculate the electronic and transport properties of a series of metalloporphyrin molecules sandwiched between gold electrodes using a combination of density functional theory and scattering theory. The impact of strong correlations at the central metallic atom is gauged by comparing our results obtained using conventional DFT and DFT + U approaches. The zero- and finite-bias transport properties may or may not show spin-filtering behavior, depending on the nature of the d state closest to the Fermi energy. The type of d state depends on the metallic atom and gives rise to interference effects that produce different Fano features. The inclusion of the U term opens a gap between the d states and changes the conductance and spin-filtering behavior qualitatively in some of the molecules. We explain the origin of the quantum interference effects found as due to the symmetry-dependent coupling between the d states and other molecular orbitals and propose the use of these systems as nanoscale chemical sensors. We also demonstrate that an adequate treatment of strong correlations is really necessary to correctly describe the transport properties of metalloporphyrins and similar molecular magnets. PMID:23838608
Quantum interference and Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in topological insulators.
Bardarson, Jens H; Moore, Joel E
2013-05-01
Topological insulators (TIs) have an insulating bulk but a metallic surface. In the simplest case, the surface electronic structure of a three-dimensional (3D) TI is described by a single two-dimensional (2D) Dirac cone. A single 2D Dirac fermion cannot be realized in an isolated 2D system with time-reversal symmetry, but rather owes its existence to the topological properties of the 3D bulk wavefunctions. The transport properties of such a surface state are of considerable current interest; they have some similarities with graphene, which also realizes Dirac fermions, but have several unique features in their response to magnetic fields. In this review we give an overview of some of the main quantum transport properties of TI surfaces. We focus on the efforts to use quantum interference phenomena, such as weak anti-localization and the Aharonov-Bohm effect, to verify in a transport experiment the Dirac nature of the surface state and its defining properties. In addition to explaining the basic ideas and predictions of the theory, we provide a survey of recent experimental work. PMID:23552181
Quantum interference and Aharonov–Bohm oscillations in topological insulators
Topological insulators (TIs) have an insulating bulk but a metallic surface. In the simplest case, the surface electronic structure of a three-dimensional (3D) TI is described by a single two-dimensional (2D) Dirac cone. A single 2D Dirac fermion cannot be realized in an isolated 2D system with time-reversal symmetry, but rather owes its existence to the topological properties of the 3D bulk wavefunctions. The transport properties of such a surface state are of considerable current interest; they have some similarities with graphene, which also realizes Dirac fermions, but have several unique features in their response to magnetic fields. In this review we give an overview of some of the main quantum transport properties of TI surfaces. We focus on the efforts to use quantum interference phenomena, such as weak anti-localization and the Aharonov–Bohm effect, to verify in a transport experiment the Dirac nature of the surface state and its defining properties. In addition to explaining the basic ideas and predictions of the theory, we provide a survey of recent experimental work. (review article)
Anomalous Curie response of an impurity in a quantum critical spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet
Höglund, Kaj; Sandvik, Anders
2007-03-01
There is a disagreement concerning the low-temperature (T) magnetic susceptibility χ^zimp˜C/T of a spin-S impurity in a nearly quantum critical antiferromagnetic host. Field-theoretical work [1] predicted an anomalous Curie constant S^2/30 quantum Monte Carlo simulations in order to resolve the controversy. Our main result is for a vacancy in a quantum critical spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a bilayer lattice. In our susceptibility data for the S=1/2 impurity we observe a Curie constant C=0.262(2). Although the value falls outside the predicted range, it should correspond to an anomalous impurity response, as proposed in Ref. [1]. [1] S. Sachdev, C. Buragohain, and M. Vojta, Science 286, 2479 (1999); M. Vojta, C. Buragohain, and S. Sachdev, Phys. Rev. B 61, 15152 (2000). [2] O. P. Sushkov, Phys. Rev. B 62, 12135 (2000). [3] M. Troyer, Prog. Theor. Phys. Supp. 145, 326 (2002).
Phase Interference in a Multi-level Quantum-Dot System
ZHANG Xu-Ming; CHEN Xiao-Shuang; LU Wei
2009-01-01
@@ Considering phase interference, we investigate coherent transport in a quantum dot by using a thermopower. In the single process of the electronic transport through the quantum dot, it is shown that the phase interference between the levels of a quantum dot is like the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The result indicates that the thermopower is very sensitive to phase interference. It is also found that the phase-difference change of the different levels of the quantum dot can determine the shape of the thermopower.
Microscopic particle exhibit wave properties because of wave-particle duality of quantum mechanics, numerous examples of quantum interference effect within matter-wave had been discovered. For the singlet-triplet mixed states in diatom molecule, quantum interference present in two transfer roads. The theoretical model of Quantum Interference is described in an atom-diatom system, based on the first-Born approximation of time dependent perturbation theory, taking into account the anisotropic Len- nard-Jones interaction potentials and 'straight-line' trajectory approximation, the approximation conditions of the CQI model is discussed. (authors)
Dynamic control of coherent pulses via Fano-type interference in asymmetric double quantum wells
We study the temporal and spatial dynamics of two light pulses, a probe and a switch, propagating through an asymmetric double quantum well where tunneling-induced quantum interference may be observed. When such an interference takes place, in the absence of the switch, the quantum well is transparent to the probe which propagates over sufficiently long distances at very small group velocities. In the presence of a relatively strong switch, however, the probe pulse is absorbed due to the quenching of tunneling-induced quantum interference. The probe may be made to vanish even when switch and probe are somewhat delayed with respect to one another. Conversely, our asymmetric double quantum well may be rendered either opaque or transparent to the switch pulse. Such a probe-switch 'reciprocity' can be used to devise a versatile all-optical quantum interference-based solid-state switch for optical communication devices
Anomalous phase shift in a twisted quantum loop
Taira, Hisao [Division of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Shima, Hiroyuki, E-mail: taira@eng.hokudai.ac.j [Department of Applied Mathematics 3, LaCaN, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Barcelona 08034 (Spain)
2010-09-03
The coherent motion of electrons in a twisted quantum ring is considered to explore the effect of torsion inherent to the ring. Internal torsion of the ring composed of helical atomic configuration yields a non-trivial quantum phase shift in the electrons' eigenstates. This torsion-induced phase shift causes novel kinds of persistent current flow and an Aharonov-Bohm-like conductance oscillation. The two phenomena can occur even when no magnetic flux penetrates inside the twisted ring, thus being in complete contrast with the counterparts observed in untwisted rings.
Anomalous phase shift in a twisted quantum loop
The coherent motion of electrons in a twisted quantum ring is considered to explore the effect of torsion inherent to the ring. Internal torsion of the ring composed of helical atomic configuration yields a non-trivial quantum phase shift in the electrons' eigenstates. This torsion-induced phase shift causes novel kinds of persistent current flow and an Aharonov-Bohm-like conductance oscillation. The two phenomena can occur even when no magnetic flux penetrates inside the twisted ring, thus being in complete contrast with the counterparts observed in untwisted rings.
Anomalous temperature dependence of excitation transfer between quantum dots
Král, Karel; Menšík, Miroslav
2015-01-01
Roč. 7, č. 4 (2015), 325-330. ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14011; GA MŠk LH12236; GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : excitation transfer * quantum dots * temperature dependence * electron-phonon interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism
Scaling of anomalous hall effect in amorphous CoFeB Films with accompanying quantum correction
Zhang, Yan
2015-05-08
Scaling of anomalous Hall effect in amorphous CoFeB films with thickness ranging from 2 to 160 nm have been investigated. We have found that the scaling relationship between longitudinal (ρxx) and anomalous Hall (ρAH) resistivity is distinctly different in the Bloch and localization regions. For ultrathin CoFeB films, the sheet resistance (Rxx) and anomalous Hall conductance (GAH) received quantum correction from electron localization showing two different scaling relationships at different temperature regions. In contrast, the thicker films show a metallic conductance, which have only one scaling relationship in the entire temperature range. Furthermore, in the dirty regime of localization regions, an unconventional scaling relationship View the MathML sourceσAH∝σxxα with α=1.99 is found, rather than α=1.60 predicted by the unified theory.
The Study of Quantum Interference in Metallic Photonic Crystals Doped with Four-Level Quantum Dots
Hatef Ali
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this work, the absorption coefficient of a metallic photonic crystal doped with nanoparticles has been obtained using numerical simulation techniques. The effects of quantum interference and the concentration of doped particles on the absorption coefficient of the system have been investigated. The nanoparticles have been considered as semiconductor quantum dots which behave as a four-level quantum system and are driven by a single coherent laser field. The results show that changing the position of the photonic band gap about the resonant energy of the two lower levels directly affects the decay rate, and the system can be switched between transparent and opaque states if the probe laser field is tuned to the resonance frequency. These results provide an application for metallic nanostructures in the fabrication of new optical switches and photonic devices.
Quantum Interference Induced Photon Blockade in a Coupled Single Quantum Dot-Cavity System
Tang, Jing; Xu, Xiulai
2015-01-01
We propose an experimental scheme to implement a strong photon blockade with a single quantum dot coupled to a nanocavity. The photon blockade effect can be tremendously enhanced by driving the cavity and the quantum dot simultaneously with two classical laser fields. This enhancement of photon blockade is ascribed to the quantum interference effect to avoid two-photon excitation of the cavity field. Comparing with Jaynes-Cummings model, the second-order correlation function at zero time delay $g^{(2)}(0)$ in our scheme can be reduced by two orders of magnitude and the system sustains a large intracavity photon number. A red (blue) cavity-light detuning asymmetry for photon quantum statistics with bunching or antibunching characteristics is also observed. The photon blockade effect has a controllable flexibility by tuning the relative phase between the two pumping laser fields and the Rabi coupling strength between the quantum dot and the pumping field. Moreover, the photon blockade scheme based on quantum in...
Chaotic dynamics of periodically driven rf superconducting quantum interference devices
We present numerical investigations of the intrinsic noise in periodically driven, high-frequency, rf superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID's) due to the chaotic time evolution of the flux trapped in the superconducting ring. The amplitude and the frequency of the external sinusoidal magnetic flux are the control parameters of the SQUID dynamics. The present work shows in detail how the well-known quasistationary behavior evolves into chaos at high frequencies. A rich structure of subharmonic and chaotic bands is observed in the parameter space. Both intermittent and period-doubling routes to chaos are found; the latter is always preceded by a broken symmetry, and thus the former is the governing one for small amplitudes. We also discuss the experimental observability and manifestations of multiply periodic and chaotic SQUID response. In particular, the usual staircase dependence of the absorbed hysteresis power on the amplitude of the external flux is shown to be broken in a characteristic way for each main subharmonic. Thus we propose that simple dc measurements can detect important properties of the nonlinear SQUID dynamics
Quantized topological magnetoelectric effect of the zero-plateau quantum anomalous Hall state
Jing WANG; Lian, Biao; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng
2015-01-01
Topological magnetoelectric effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator is a novel phenomenon, where an electric field induces a magnetic field in the same direction, with a universal coefficient of proportionality quantized in units of $e^2/2h$. Here we propose that the topological magnetoelectric effect can be realized in the zero-plateau quantum anomalous Hall state of magnetic topological insulators or ferromagnet-topological insulator heterostructure. The finite-size effect is al...
Layer-dependent quantum cooperation of electron and hole states in the anomalous semimetal WTe2
Das, P. K.; Di Sante, D.; Vobornik, I.; Fujii, J.; Okuda, T; Bruyer, E.; Gyenis, A.; Feldman, B; Tao, J.; Ciancio, R.; Rossi, G.; Ali, M.(National Centre for Particle Physics, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia); Picozzi, S.; Yazdani, A.; G. Panaccione
2016-01-01
The behaviour of electrons and holes in a crystal lattice is a fundamental quantum phenomenon, accounting for a rich variety of material properties. Boosted by the remarkable electronic and physical properties of two-dimensional materials such as graphene and topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides have recently received renewed attention. In this context, the anomalous bulk properties of semimetallic WTe2 have attracted considerable interest. Here we report angle- and spin-r...
Interference of mesoscopic particles: quantum--classical transition
Facchi, P.; Pascazio, S.; Yoneda, T
2005-01-01
We analyze the double slit interference of a mesoscopic particle. We calculate the visibility of the interference pattern, introduce a characteristic temperature that defines the onset to decoherence and scrutinize the conditions that must be satisfied for an interference experiment to be possible.
On the quantum mechanics of consciousness, with application to anomalous phenomena
Theoretical explication of a growing body of empirical data on consciousness-related anomalous phenomena is unlikely to be achieved in terms of known physical processes. Rather, it will first be necessary to formulate the basic role of consciousness in the definition of reality before such anomalous experience can adequately be represented. This paper takes the position that reality is constituted only in the interaction of consciousness with its environment, and therefore that any scheme of conceptual organization developed to represent that reality must reflect the processes of consciousness as well as those of its environment. In this spirit, the concepts and formalisms of elementary quantum mechanics, as originally proposed to explain anomalous atomic-scale physical phenomena, are appropriated via metaphor to represent the general characteristics of consciousness interacting with any environment. More specifically, if consciousness is represented by a quantum mechanical wave function, and its environment by an appropriate potential profile, Schrodinger wave mechanics defines eigenfunctions and eigenvalues that can be associated with the cognitive and emotional experiences of that consciousness in that environment. To articulate this metaphor it is necessary to associate certain aspects of the formalism, such as the coordinate system, the quantum numbers, and even the metric itself, with various impressionistic descriptors of consciousness, such as its intensity, perspective, approach/avoidance attitude, balance between cognitive and emotional activity, and receptive/assertive disposition
From magnetically doped topological insulator to the quantum anomalous Hall effect
He Ke; Ma Xu-Cun; Chen Xi; Lü Li; Wang Ya-Yu; Xue Qi-Kun
2013-01-01
Quantum Hall effect (QHE),as a class of quantum phenomena that occur in macroscopic scale,is one of the most important topics in condensed matter physics.It has long been expected that QHE may occur without Landau levels so that neither extemal magnetic field nor high sample mobility is required for its study and application.Such a QHE free of Landau levels,can appear in topological insulators (TIs) with ferromagnetism as the quantized version of the anomalous Hall effect,i.e.,quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect.Here we review our recent work on experimental realization of the QAH effect in magnetically doped TIs.With molecular beam epitaxy,we prepare thin films of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 TIs with wellcontrolled chemical potential and long-range ferromagnetic order that can survive the insulating phase.In such thin films,we eventually observed the quantization of the Hall resistance at h/e2 at zero field,accompanied by a considerable drop in the longitudinal resistance.Under a strong magnetic field,the longitudinal resistance vanishes,whereas the Hall resistance remains at the quantized value.The realization of the QAH effect provides a foundation for many other novel quantum phenomena predicted in TIs,and opens a route to practical applications of quantum Hall physics in low-power-consumption electronics.
Quantum-ring spin interference device tuned by quantum point contacts
Diago-Cisneros, Leo [Facultad de Física, Universidad de La Habana, C.P.10400, La Habana (Cuba); Mireles, Francisco [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, C.P. 22800 Ensenada, Baja California, México (Mexico)
2013-11-21
We introduce a spin-interference device that comprises a quantum ring (QR) with three embedded quantum point contacts (QPCs) and study theoretically its spin transport properties in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction. Two of the QPCs conform the lead-to-ring junctions while a third one is placed symmetrically in the upper arm of the QR. Using an appropriate scattering model for the QPCs and the S-matrix scattering approach, we analyze the role of the QPCs on the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) and Aharonov-Casher (AC) conductance oscillations of the QR-device. Exact formulas are obtained for the spin-resolved conductances of the QR-device as a function of the confinement of the QPCs and the AB/AC phases. Conditions for the appearance of resonances and anti-resonances in the spin-conductance are derived and discussed. We predict very distinctive variations of the QR-conductance oscillations not seen in previous QR proposals. In particular, we find that the interference pattern in the QR can be manipulated to a large extend by varying electrically the lead-to-ring topological parameters. The latter can be used to modulate the AB and AC phases by applying gate voltage only. We have shown also that the conductance oscillations exhibits a crossover to well-defined resonances as the lateral QPC confinement strength is increased, mapping the eigenenergies of the QR. In addition, unique features of the conductance arise by varying the aperture of the upper-arm QPC and the Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Our results may be of relevance for promising spin-orbitronics devices based on quantum interference mechanisms.
Interference with a quantum dot single-photon source and a laser at telecom wavelength
Felle, M. [Toshiba Research Europe Limited, Cambridge Research Laboratory, 208 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Huwer, J., E-mail: jan.huwer@crl.toshiba.co.uk; Stevenson, R. M.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Ward, M. B.; Shields, A. J. [Toshiba Research Europe Limited, Cambridge Research Laboratory, 208 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Penty, R. V. [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)
2015-09-28
The interference of photons emitted by dissimilar sources is an essential requirement for a wide range of photonic quantum information applications. Many of these applications are in quantum communications and need to operate at standard telecommunication wavelengths to minimize the impact of photon losses and be compatible with existing infrastructure. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the quantum interference of telecom-wavelength photons from an InAs/GaAs quantum dot single-photon source and a laser; an important step towards such applications. The results are in good agreement with a theoretical model, indicating a high degree of indistinguishability for the interfering photons.
Interference with a quantum dot single-photon source and a laser at telecom wavelength
The interference of photons emitted by dissimilar sources is an essential requirement for a wide range of photonic quantum information applications. Many of these applications are in quantum communications and need to operate at standard telecommunication wavelengths to minimize the impact of photon losses and be compatible with existing infrastructure. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the quantum interference of telecom-wavelength photons from an InAs/GaAs quantum dot single-photon source and a laser; an important step towards such applications. The results are in good agreement with a theoretical model, indicating a high degree of indistinguishability for the interfering photons
Zhao, Dongxing; Wu, Jiarui [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gu, Ying, E-mail: ygu@pku.edu.cn; Gong, Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)
2014-09-15
We propose tailoring of the double Fano profiles via plasmon-assisted quantum interference in a hybrid exciton-plasmon system. Tailoring is performed by the interference between two exciton channels interacting with a common localized surface plasmon. Using an applied field of low intensity, the absorption spectrum of the hybrid system reveals a double Fano lineshape with four peaks. For relatively large field intensity, a broad flat window in the absorption spectrum appears which results from the destructive interference between excitons. Because of strong constructive interference, this window vanishes as intensity is further increased. We have designed a nanometer bandpass optical filter for visible light based on tailoring of the optical spectrum. This study provides a platform for quantum interference that may have potential applications in ultracompact tunable quantum devices.
We propose tailoring of the double Fano profiles via plasmon-assisted quantum interference in a hybrid exciton-plasmon system. Tailoring is performed by the interference between two exciton channels interacting with a common localized surface plasmon. Using an applied field of low intensity, the absorption spectrum of the hybrid system reveals a double Fano lineshape with four peaks. For relatively large field intensity, a broad flat window in the absorption spectrum appears which results from the destructive interference between excitons. Because of strong constructive interference, this window vanishes as intensity is further increased. We have designed a nanometer bandpass optical filter for visible light based on tailoring of the optical spectrum. This study provides a platform for quantum interference that may have potential applications in ultracompact tunable quantum devices.
SQUID detected NMR and NQR. Superconducting Quantum Interference Device.
Augustine, M P; TonThat, D M; Clarke, J
1998-03-01
The dc Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) is a sensitive detector of magnetic flux, with a typical flux noise of the order 1 muphi0 Hz(-1/2) at liquid helium temperatures. Here phi0 = h/2e is the flux quantum. In our NMR or NQR spectrometer, a niobium wire coil wrapped around the sample is coupled to a thin film superconducting coil deposited on the SQUID to form a flux transformer. With this untuned input circuit the SQUID measures the flux, rather than the rate of change of flux, and thus retains its high sensitivity down to arbitrarily low frequencies. This feature is exploited in a cw spectrometer that monitors the change in the static magnetization of a sample induced by radio frequency irradiation. Examples of this technique are the detection of NQR in 27Al in sapphire and 11B in boron nitride, and a level crossing technique to enhance the signal of 14N in peptides. Research is now focused on a SQUID-based spectrometer for pulsed NQR and NMR, which has a bandwidth of 0-5 MHz. This spectrometer is used with spin-echo techniques to measure the NQR longitudinal and transverse relaxation times of 14N in NH4ClO4, 63+/-6 ms and 22+/-2 ms, respectively. With the aid of two-frequency pulses to excite the 359 kHz and 714 kHz resonances in ruby simultaneously, it is possible to obtain a two-dimensional NQR spectrum. As a third example, the pulsed spectrometer is used to study NMR spectrum of 129Xe after polariza-tion with optically pumped Rb. The NMR line can be detected at frequencies as low as 200 Hz. At fields below about 2 mT the longitudinal relaxation time saturates at about 2000 s. Two recent experiments in other laboratories have extended these pulsed NMR techniques to higher temperatures and smaller samples. In the first, images were obtained of mineral oil floating on water at room temperature. In the second, a SQUID configured as a thin film gradiometer was used to detect NMR in a 50 microm particle of 195Pt at 6 mT and 4.2 K. PMID:9650797
Programmable two-photon quantum interference in $10^3$ channels in opaque scattering media
Wolterink, Tom A W; Ctistis, Georgios; Vos, Willem L; Boller, Klaus -J; Pinkse, Pepijn W H
2015-01-01
We investigate two-photon quantum interference in an opaque scattering medium that intrinsically supports $10^6$ transmission channels. By adaptive spatial phase-modulation of the incident wavefronts, the photons are directed at targeted speckle spots or output channels. From $10^3$ experimentally available coupled channels, we select two channels and enhance their transmission, to realize the equivalent of a fully programmable $2\\times2$ beam splitter. By sending pairs of single photons from a parametric down-conversion source through the opaque scattering medium, we observe two-photon quantum interference. The programmed beam splitter need not fulfill energy conservation over the two selected output channels and hence could be non-unitary. Consequently, we have the freedom to tune the quantum interference from bunching (Hong-Ou-Mandel-like) to antibunching. Our results establish opaque scattering media as a platform for high-dimensional quantum interference that is notably relevant for boson sampling and ph...
Programmable two-photon quantum interference in 103 channels in opaque scattering media
Wolterink, Tom A. W.; Uppu, Ravitej; Ctistis, Georgios; Vos, Willem L.; Boller, Klaus-J.; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.
2016-05-01
We investigate two-photon quantum interference in an opaque scattering medium that intrinsically supports a large number of transmission channels. By adaptive spatial phase modulation of the incident wave fronts, the photons are directed at targeted speckle spots or output channels. From 103 experimentally available coupled channels, we select two channels and enhance their transmission to realize the equivalent of a fully programmable 2 ×2 beam splitter. By sending pairs of single photons from a parametric down-conversion source through the opaque scattering medium, we observe two-photon quantum interference. The programed beam splitter need not fulfill energy conservation over the two selected output channels and hence could be nonunitary. Consequently, we have the freedom to tune the quantum interference from bunching (Hong-Ou-Mandel-like) to antibunching. Our results establish opaque scattering media as a platform for high-dimensional quantum interference that is notably relevant for boson sampling and physical-key-based authentication.
Microtesla magnetic resonance imaging with a superconducting quantum interference device
McDermott, Robert; Lee, SeungKyun; ten Haken, Bennie; Trabesinger, Andreas H.; Pines, Alexander; Clarke, John
2004-03-15
We have constructed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner based on a dc Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) configured as a second-derivative gradiometer. The magnetic field sensitivity of the detector is independent of frequency; it is therefore possible to obtain high-resolution images by prepolarizing the nuclear spins in a field of 300 mT and detecting the signal at 132 fYT, corresponding to a proton Larmor frequency of 5.6 kHz. The reduction in the measurement field by a factor of 10,000 compared with conventional scanners eliminates inhomogeneous broadening of the nuclear magnetic resonance lines, even in fields with relatively poor homogeneity. The narrow linewidths result in enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution for a fixed strength of the magnetic field gradients used to encode the image. We present two-dimensional images of phantoms and pepper slices, obtained in typical magnetic field gradients of 100 fYT/m, with a spatial resolution of about 1mm. We further demonstrate a slice-selected image of an intact pepper. By varying the time delay between removal of the polarizing field and initiation of the spin echo sequence we acquire T1-weighted contrast images of water phantoms, some of which are doped with a paramagnetic salt; here, T1 is the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time. The techniques presented here could readily be adapted to existing multichannel SQUID systems used for magnetic source imaging of brain signals. Further potential applications include low-cost systems for tumor screening and imaging peripheral regions of the body.
Molecular internal dynamics studied by quantum path interferences in high order harmonic generation
Highlights: ► Electronic trajectories in high order harmonic generation encodes attosecond and femtosecond molecular dynamical information. ► The observation of these quantum paths allows us to follow nuclear motion after ionization. ► Quantum paths interference encodes a signature of superposition of ionization channels. ► Quantum paths interference encodes a signature of transfer of population between channels due to laser coupling. ► Quantum paths interference is a promising technique to resolve ultra-fast dynamical processes after ionization. - Abstract: We investigate how short and long electron trajectory contributions to high harmonic emission and their interferences give access to information about intra-molecular dynamics. In the case of unaligned molecules, we show experimental evidence that the long trajectory contribution is more dependent upon the molecular species than the short one, providing a high sensitivity to cation nuclear dynamics from 100’s of as to a few fs after ionisation. Using theoretical approaches based on the strong field approximation and numerical integration of the time dependent Schrödinger equation, we examine how quantum path interferences encode electronic motion when the molecules are aligned. We show that the interferences are dependent upon which ionisation channels are involved and any superposition between them. In particular, quantum path interferences can encode signatures of electron dynamics if the laser field drives a coupling between the channels. Hence, molecular quantum path interferences are a promising method for attosecond spectroscopy, allowing the resolution of ultra-fast charge migration in molecules after ionisation in a self-referenced manner
Quantum interference and diffraction of parametric down-converted biphotons
Ryosuke Shimizu; Keiichi Edamatsu; Tadashi Itoh
2002-08-01
We present two-photon diffraction and interference experiments utilizing parametric down-converted photon pairs (biphotons) and a transmission grating. The biphoton exhibits a diffraction-interference pattern equivalent to an effective single particle with half wavelength of the constituent photons.
Hwang, Kyusung; Kim, Yong Baek
2016-01-01
We theoretically investigate emergent quantum phases in the thin film geometries of the pyrochore iridates, where a number of exotic quantum ground states are proposed to occur in bulk materials as a result of the interplay between electron correlation and strong spin-orbit coupling. The fate of these bulk phases as well as novel quantum states that may arise only in the thin film platforms, are studied via a theoretical model that allows layer-dependent magnetic structures. It is found that the magnetic order develop in inhomogeneous fashions in the thin film geometries. This leads to a variety of magnetic metal phases with modulated magnetic ordering patterns across different layers. Both the bulk and boundary electronic states in these phases conspire to promote unusual electronic properties. In particular, such phases are akin to the Weyl semimetal phase in the bulk system and they would exhibit an unusually large anomalous Hall effect. PMID:27418293
Hwang, Kyusung; Kim, Yong Baek
2016-01-01
We theoretically investigate emergent quantum phases in the thin film geometries of the pyrochore iridates, where a number of exotic quantum ground states are proposed to occur in bulk materials as a result of the interplay between electron correlation and strong spin-orbit coupling. The fate of these bulk phases as well as novel quantum states that may arise only in the thin film platforms, are studied via a theoretical model that allows layer-dependent magnetic structures. It is found that the magnetic order develop in inhomogeneous fashions in the thin film geometries. This leads to a variety of magnetic metal phases with modulated magnetic ordering patterns across different layers. Both the bulk and boundary electronic states in these phases conspire to promote unusual electronic properties. In particular, such phases are akin to the Weyl semimetal phase in the bulk system and they would exhibit an unusually large anomalous Hall effect. PMID:27418293
Quantum Anatomy of the Classical Interference of n-Photon States in a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer
Ramírez-Cruz, N.; Bastarrachea-Magnani, M. A.; Velázquez, V.
2016-03-01
In this work we present the theory for the quantum interference of states with an arbitrary number of photons in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We express the mathematical description of the interference in an algebraic way. We show the interference pattern of an average of a n photons input state corresponds to the classical interference pattern, which tells us the last comes from a quantum interference statistical average. Then, we propose to use this scheme to study the statistical transition from quantum to classical interference.
Probabilistic Quantum Gates between Remote Atoms through Interference of Optical Frequency Qubits
Duan, L.-M.; Madsen, M. J.; Moehring, D. L.; Maunz, P.; Kohn Jr, R N; Monroe, C.
2006-01-01
We propose a scheme to perform probabilistic quantum gates on remote trapped atom qubits through interference of optical frequency qubits. The method does not require localization of the atoms to the Lamb-Dicke limit, and is not sensitive to interferometer phase instabilities. Such probabilistic gates can be used for scalable quantum computation.
Quantum interference at direct current in ceramics YBa2Cu3O7-x
The Josephson effects and quantum dc interference in superconducting ceramics YBa2Cu3O7-x having the superconducting transition temperature of 93 K are investigated experimentally. It is shown that along with the known quantum interference, observed in multilink samples of high-Tc superconducting ceramics and ac interference, in the superconducting ceramics there exists quantum interference which also occurs in one-coupled samples at direct current, the induction-voltage conversion steepness and the signal-noise ratio in the high-Tc superconducting ceramics at 77 K being commensurate with similar charateristics of classical dc squids operating at 4.2 K. It is found from the temperature dependence of the Josephson current in samples whose sizes are much greater than coherence lengths, that links in the ceramics with percolation paths of current flow refer to the SNS type percolation paths of current flow refer to the SNS type
Quantum interference in heterogeneous superconducting-photonic circuits on a silicon chip.
Schuck, C; Guo, X; Fan, L; Ma, X; Poot, M; Tang, H X
2016-01-01
Quantum information processing holds great promise for communicating and computing data efficiently. However, scaling current photonic implementation approaches to larger system size remains an outstanding challenge for realizing disruptive quantum technology. Two main ingredients of quantum information processors are quantum interference and single-photon detectors. Here we develop a hybrid superconducting-photonic circuit system to show how these elements can be combined in a scalable fashion on a silicon chip. We demonstrate the suitability of this approach for integrated quantum optics by interfering and detecting photon pairs directly on the chip with waveguide-coupled single-photon detectors. Using a directional coupler implemented with silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides, we observe 97% interference visibility when measuring photon statistics with two monolithically integrated superconducting single-photon detectors. The photonic circuit and detector fabrication processes are compatible with standard semiconductor thin-film technology, making it possible to implement more complex and larger scale quantum photonic circuits on silicon chips. PMID:26792424
Quantum interference in heterogeneous superconducting-photonic circuits on a silicon chip
Schuck, C.; Guo, X.; Fan, L.; Ma, X.; Poot, M.; Tang, H. X.
2016-01-01
Quantum information processing holds great promise for communicating and computing data efficiently. However, scaling current photonic implementation approaches to larger system size remains an outstanding challenge for realizing disruptive quantum technology. Two main ingredients of quantum information processors are quantum interference and single-photon detectors. Here we develop a hybrid superconducting-photonic circuit system to show how these elements can be combined in a scalable fashion on a silicon chip. We demonstrate the suitability of this approach for integrated quantum optics by interfering and detecting photon pairs directly on the chip with waveguide-coupled single-photon detectors. Using a directional coupler implemented with silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides, we observe 97% interference visibility when measuring photon statistics with two monolithically integrated superconducting single-photon detectors. The photonic circuit and detector fabrication processes are compatible with standard semiconductor thin-film technology, making it possible to implement more complex and larger scale quantum photonic circuits on silicon chips.
Multi-photon quantum interference in a multi-port integrated photonic device
Metcalf, Benjamin J; Spring, Justin B; Kundys, Dmytro; Broome, Matthew A; Humphreys, Peter; Jin, Xian-Min; Barbieri, Marco; Kolthammer, W Steven; Gates, James C; Smith, Brian J; Langford, Nathan K; Smith, Peter G R; Walmsley, Ian A
2012-01-01
Increasing the complexity of quantum photonic devices is essential for many optical information processing applications to reach a regime beyond what can be classically simulated, and integrated photonics has emerged as a leading platform for achieving this. Here, we demonstrate three-photon quantum operation of an integrated device containing three coupled interferometers, eight spatial modes and many classical and nonclassical interferences. This represents a critical advance over previous complexities and the first on-chip nonclassical interference with more than two photonic inputs. We introduce a new scheme to verify quantum behaviour, using classically characterised device elements and hierarchies of photon correlation functions. We accurately predict the device's quantum behaviour and show operation inconsistent with both classical and bi-separable quantum models. Such methods for verifying multiphoton quantum behaviour are vital for achieving increased circuit complexity. Our experiment paves the way ...
Quantum interference-enhanced deep sub-Doppler cooling of 39 K atoms beyond gray molasses
Nath, Dipankar; Rajalakshmi, G; Unnikrishnan, C S
2013-01-01
We report enhanced sub-Doppler cooling of the bosonic atoms of 39 K facilitated by formation of dark states due to the quantum interference of excitation amplitudes in the Raman configuration for the cooling and repumping lasers tuned around the D1 resonance. The temperature of about 12 {\\mu}K achieved in the two stage D2-D1 molasses is the lowest ever reported for 39 K and spans a very large parameter region where quantum interference persists robustly. We also present results on enhanced radiation heating with sub-natural linewidth (0.1{\\Gamma}) and Fano like profile, following the quantum features of 3-level coherently driven atomic system with complexities associated with optical pumping to dark states and Sisyphus effect in standing wave light fields, over and above the Raman quantum interference.
Quantum interference in the system of Lorentzian and Fano magnetoexciton resonances in GaAs
Using femtosecond four-wave mixing (FWM), we study the coherent dynamics of Lorentzian and Fano magnetoexciton resonances in GaAs. For unperturbed Lorentzian magnetoexcitons, we find that the time-integrated FWM signal decays due to dephasing processes as expected for Lorentzian resonances. The time-integrated FWM signal from a single Fano magnetoexciton resonance, however, decays quasi-instantaneously although the dephasing time of the Fano resonance is much longer than the time resolution of the experiment. This fast decay is the manifestation of destructive quantum interference. Although destructive quantum interference in our system is closely related to the dynamics of Fano resonances, for the simultaneous excitation of Lorentzian and Fano magnetoexciton resonances destructive quantum interference also strongly affects the dynamics of Lorentzian magnetoexcitons due to quantum-mechanical coupling between the two types of resonances
Prediction of Quantum Anomalous Hall Insulator in half-fluorinated GaBi Honeycomb
Chen, Sung-Ping; Huang, Zhi-Quan; Crisostomo, Christian P.; Hsu, Chia-Hsiu; Chuang, Feng-Chuan; Lin, Hsin; Bansil, Arun
2016-08-01
Using first-principles electronic structure calculations, we predict half-fluorinated GaBi honeycomb under tensile strain to harbor a quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) insulator phase. We show that this QAH phase is driven by a single inversion in the band structure at the Γ point. Moreover, we have computed the electronic spectrum of a half-fluorinated GaBi nanoribbon with zigzag edges, which shows that only one edge band crosses the Fermi level within the band gap. Our results suggest that half-fluorination of the GaBi honeycomb under tensile strain could provide a new platform for developing novel spintronics devices based on the QAH effect.
Anomalous Hall effect of heavy holes in Ⅲ-Ⅴ semiconductor quantum wells
Wang Zhi-Gang; Zhang Ping
2007-01-01
The anomalous Hall effect of heavy holes in semiconductor quantum wells is studied in the intrinsic transport regime, where the Berry curvature governs the Hall current properties. Based on the first-order perturbation of wave function the expression of the Hall conductivity the same as that from the semiclassical equation of motion of the Bloch particles is derived. The dependence of Hall conductivity on the system parameters is shown. The amplitude of Hall conductivity is found to be balanced by a competition between the Zeeman splitting and the spin-orbit splitting.
Quantum interference in heterogeneous superconducting-photonic circuits on a silicon chip
Schuck, Carsten; Fan, Linran; Ma, Xiao-Song; Poot, Menno; Tang, Hong X
2015-01-01
Quantum information processing holds great promise for communicating and computing data efficiently. However, scaling current photonic implementation approaches to larger system size remains an outstanding challenge for realizing disruptive quantum technology. Two main ingredients of quantum information processors are quantum interference and single-photon detectors. Here we develop a hybrid superconducting-photonic circuit system to show how these elements can be combined in a scalable fashion on a silicon chip. We demonstrate the suitability of this approach for integrated quantum optics by interfering and detecting photon pairs directly on the chip with waveguide-coupled single-photon detectors. Using a directional coupler implemented with silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides, we observe 97% interference visibility when measuring photon statistics with two monolithically integrated superconducting single photon detectors. The photonic circuit and detector fabrication processes are compatible with standa...
Stochastic limit method and interference in quantum many-particle systems
Aref'eva, I. Ya.; Volovich, I. V.; Kozyrev, S. V.
2015-06-01
We consider the problem of excitation energy transfer in quantum many-particle systems with a dipole interaction. The considered exciton transfer mechanism is based on quantum interference. We show that by a special choice of interaction parameters, an enhancement of the exciton transfer to a sink and suppression of the transfer to alternative sinks can be achieved. The enhancement is proportional to the number of particles in the system. We use the quantum stochastic limit method to describe the dynamics. We indicate possible applications of the proposed mechanism to quantum processes in photosynthesis.
Direct observation of large quantum interference effect in anthraquinone solid-state junctions.
Rabache, Vincent; Chaste, Julien; Petit, Philippe; Della Rocca, Maria Luisa; Martin, Pascal; Lacroix, Jean-Christophe; McCreery, Richard L; Lafarge, Philippe
2013-07-17
Quantum interference in cross-conjugated molecules embedded in solid-state devices was investigated by direct current-voltage and differential conductance transport measurements of anthraquinone (AQ)-based large area planar junctions. A thin film of AQ was grafted covalently on the junction base electrode by diazonium electroreduction, while the counter electrode was directly evaporated on top of the molecular layer. Our technique provides direct evidence of a large quantum interference effect in multiple CMOS compatible planar junctions. The quantum interference is manifested by a pronounced dip in the differential conductance close to zero voltage bias. The experimental signature is well developed at low temperature (4 K), showing a large amplitude dip with a minimum >2 orders of magnitude lower than the conductance at higher bias and is still clearly evident at room temperature. A temperature analysis of the conductance curves revealed that electron-phonon coupling is the principal decoherence mechanism causing large conductance oscillations at low temperature. PMID:23805821
Radio-Frequency Field-Induced Quantum Interference Effects in Cold Atoms
龙全; 周蜀渝; 周善钰; 王育竹
2001-01-01
We propose constructing a quantum interference configuration for cold atoms in a magneto-optical trap by applying a radio frequency field, which coherently couples adjacent Zeeman sublevels, in combination with a repumping laser field. One effect of this interference is that a dip exists in the absorption of the repumping light when the radio frequency is scanned. Our prediction has been indirectly detected through the fluorescence of cold atoms in a preliminary experiment.
Hanbury-Brown and Twiss effect without quantum interference in photon counting regime
Bai, Bin; Chen, Hui; Zheng, Huai bin; Liu, Jian bin; Liu, Rui feng; Wang, Yun long; Xu, Zhuo; Li, Fuli
2016-01-01
Usually HBT effect can be interpreted by classical (intensity fluctuation correlation) and quantum (interference of two-photon probability amplitudes) theories properly at the same time. In this manuscript, we report a deliberately designed experiment in which two chaotic light beams has the same intensity fluctuation but mutual-orthogonal polarizations to each other so there will be no interference of two-photon probability amplitudes. Classical and quantum theory give different predictions on if there should be HBT (photon bunching) effect or not in the experiment. The experiment results are used to test the two different predictions. At the end, both the temporal and spatial HBT effects are observed.
Quantum interference between nuclear excitation by electron capture and radiative recombination
P'alffy, A; Scheid, W; P\\'alffy, Adriana; Harman, Zolt\\'an; Scheid, Werner
2007-01-01
We investigate the quantum interference between the resonant process of nuclear excitation by electron capture (NEEC) followed by the radiative decay of the excited nucleus, and radiative recombination (RR). In order to derive the interference cross section, a Feshbach projection operator formalism is used. The electromagnetic field is considered by means of multipole fields. The nucleus is described by a phenomenological collective model and by making use of experimental data. The Fano profile parameters as well as the interference cross section for electric and magnetic multipole transitions in various heavy ions are presented. We discuss the experimental possibility of discerning NEEC from the RR background.
A parabolic model to control quantum interference in T-shaped molecular junctions.
Nozaki, Daijiro; Sevinçli, Hâldun; Avdoshenko, Stanislav M; Gutierrez, Rafael; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio
2013-09-01
Quantum interference (QI) effects in molecular devices have drawn increasing attention over the past years due to their unique features observed in the conductance spectrum. For the further development of single molecular devices exploiting QI effects, it is of great theoretical and practical interest to develop simple methods controlling the emergence and the positions of QI effects like anti-resonances or Fano line shapes in conductance spectra. In this work, starting from a well-known generic molecular junction with a side group (T-shaped molecule), we propose a simple graphical method to visualize the conditions for the appearance of quantum interference, Fano resonances or anti-resonances, in the conductance spectrum. By introducing a simple graphical representation (parabolic diagram), we can easily visualize the relation between the electronic parameters and the positions of normal resonant peaks and anti-resonant peaks induced by quantum interference in the conductance spectrum. This parabolic model not only can predict the emergence and energetic position of quantum interference from a few electronic parameters but also can enable one to know the coupling between the side group and the main conduction channel from measurements in the case of orthogonal basis. The results obtained within the parabolic model are validated using density-functional based quantum transport calculations in realistic T-shaped molecular junctions. PMID:23558406
Transport through a Strongly Correlated Quantum-Dot with Fano Interference
Wu, B. H.; J. C. Cao; Ahn, Kang-Hun
2005-01-01
We present the transport properties of a strongly correlated quantum dot attached to two leads with a side coupled non-interacting quantum dot. Transport properties are analyzed using the slave boson mean field theory which is reliable in the zero temperature and low bias regime. It is found that the transport properties are determined by the interplay of two fundamental physical phenomena,i.e. the Kondo effects and the Fano interference. The linear conductance will depart from the unitary li...
Anisotropic expansion of the Universe and generation of quantum interference in light propagation
Fanizza, G.; Tedesco, L.
2015-01-01
We investigate the electrodynamic in a Bianchi type I cosmological model. This scenario reveals the possibility that photons, during their traveling, can make quantum interference. This effect is only due to the presence of two different axes of expansion in the cosmic evolution. In other word, it is possible to conclude that a purely metrical - or, equivalently, gravitational - phenomenon gives rise up to a quantum effect that manifests itself in the light propagation.
AlO x /LiF composite protection layer for Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 quantum anomalous Hall films
Ou, Yunbo; Feng, Yang; Feng, Xiao; Hao, Zhenqi; Zhang, Liguo; Liu, Chang; Wang, Yayu; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun
2016-08-01
We have realized robust quantum anomalous Hall samples by protecting Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 topological insulator films with a combination of LiF and AlO x capping layers. The AlO x /LiF composite capping layer well keeps the quantum anomalous Hall states of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 films and effectively prevent them from degradation induced by ambient conditions. The progress is a key step towards the realization of the quantum phenomena in heterostructures and devices based on quantum anomalous Hall system. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11325421).
Non-linear conductivity and quantum interference in disordered metals
Leadbeater, M.; Raimondi, R.; Schwab, P.; Castellani, C.
1999-01-01
We report on a novel non-linear electric field effect in the conductivity of disordered conductors. We find that an electric field gives rise to dephasing in the particle-hole channel, which depresses the interference effects due to disorder and interaction and leads to a non-linear conductivity. This non-linear effect introduces a field dependent temperature scale $T_E$ and provides a microscopic mechanism for electric field scaling at the metal-insulator transition. We also study the magnet...
Exploiting quantum interference in dye sensitized solar cells
Maggio, Emanuele; Solomon, Gemma C.; Troisi, Alessandro
2014-01-01
subunits. A theory for nonadiabatic electron transfer is employed in order to take explicitly into account the contribution from the bridge states mediating the process. If a cross-conjugated fragment is present in the bridge, it is possible to suppress the charge recombination by negative interference of......A strategy to hinder the charge recombination process in dye sensitized solar cells is developed in analogy with similar approaches to modulate charge transport across nanostructures. The system studied is a TiO2 (anatase)-chromophore interface, with an unsaturated carbon bridge connecting the two...
Deterministic event-based simulation of quantum interference
De Raedt, K.; De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.
2004-01-01
We propose and analyse simple deterministic algorithms that can be used to construct machines that have primitive learning capabilities. We demonstrate that locally connected networks of these machines can be used to perform blind classification on an event-by-event basis, without storing the information of the individual events. We also demonstrate that properly designed networks of these machines exhibit behavior that is usually only attributed to quantum systems. We present networks that s...
The Relation between Structure and Quantum Interference in Single Molecule Junctions
Markussen, Troels; Stadler, Robert; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer
2010-01-01
Quantum interference (QI) of electron pathways has recently attracted increased interest as an enabling tool for single-molecule electronic devices. Although various molecular systems have been shown to exhibit QI effects and a number of methods have been proposed for its analysis, simple guideli...... wires....
We examine the absorption of a weak probe beam for a V-type atom with a closely spaced doublet and demonstrate that quantum interference between the two excitation pathways can result in very narrow resonances, transparency, and even gain without population inversion. The origin of these effects is discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Quantum interference with photon pairs using two micro-structured fibres
We demonstrate a quantum interference experiment between two photons coming from non-degenerate pairs created by four-wave mixing in two separated micro-structured fibres. When the two heralded photons are made indistinguishable a 95% visibility is demonstrated
Terahertz spectroscopy on Faraday and Kerr rotations in a quantum anomalous Hall state.
Okada, Ken N; Takahashi, Youtarou; Mogi, Masataka; Yoshimi, Ryutaro; Tsukazaki, Atsushi; Takahashi, Kei S; Ogawa, Naoki; Kawasaki, Masashi; Tokura, Yoshinori
2016-01-01
Electrodynamic responses from three-dimensional topological insulators are characterized by the universal magnetoelectric term constituent of the Lagrangian formalism. The quantized magnetoelectric coupling, which is generally referred to as topological magnetoelectric effect, has been predicted to induce exotic phenomena including the universal low-energy magneto-optical effects. Here we report the experimental indication of the topological magnetoelectric effect, which is exemplified by magneto-optical Faraday and Kerr rotations in the quantum anomalous Hall states of magnetic topological insulator surfaces by terahertz magneto-optics. The universal relation composed of the observed Faraday and Kerr rotation angles but not of any material parameters (for example, dielectric constant and magnetic susceptibility) well exhibits the trajectory towards the fine structure constant in the quantized limit. PMID:27436710
A new method to calculate Berry phase in one-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall insulator
Liao, Yi
2016-08-01
Based on the residue theorem and degenerate perturbation theory, we derive a new, simple and general formula for Berry phase calculation in a two-level system for which the Hamiltonian is a real symmetric matrix. The special torus topology possessed by the first Brillouin zone (1 BZ) of this kind of systems ensures the existence of a nonzero Berry phase. We verify the correctness of our formula on the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. Then the Berry phase of one-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall insulator (1DQAHI) is calculated analytically by applying our method, the result being -π/2 -π/4 sgn (B) [ sgn (Δ - 4 B) + sgn (Δ) ]. Finally, illuminated by this idea, we investigate the Chern number in the two-dimensional case, and find a very simple way to determine the parameter range of the non-trivial Chern number in the phase diagram.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in atomic crystal layers from in-plane magnetization
Ren, Yafei; Zeng, Junjie; Deng, Xinzhou; Yang, Fei; Pan, Hui; Qiao, Zhenhua
2016-08-01
We theoretically demonstrate that with in-plane magnetization, the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) can be realized in two-dimensional atomic crystal layers with preserved inversion symmetry but broken out-of-plane mirror reflection symmetry. By taking the honeycomb lattice system as an example, we find that the low-buckled structure satisfying the symmetry criteria is crucial to induce QAHE. The topologically nontrivial bulk gap carrying a Chern number of C =±1 opens in the vicinity of the saddle points M , where the band dispersion exhibits strong anisotropy. We further show that the QAHE with electrically tunable Chern number can be achieved in Bernal-stacked multilayer systems, and the applied interlayer potential differences can dramatically decrease the critical magnetization to make the QAHE experimentally feasible.
Zhang, Gu-Feng; Li, Yi; Wu, Congjun
2015-03-01
We construct a minimal four-band model for the two-dimensional topological insulators and quantum anomalous Hall insulators based on the px- and py-orbital bands in the honeycomb lattice. The multiorbital structure allows the atomic spin-orbit coupling which lifts the degeneracy between two sets of on-site Kramers doublets jz = +/-3/2 and jz = +/-1/2 . Because of the orbital angular momentum structure of Bloch-wave states at Γ and K (K') points, topological gaps are equal to the atomic spin-orbit coupling strengths, which are much larger than those based on the mechanism of the s - p band inversion.The energy spectra and eigen wave functions are solved analytically based on Clifford algebra. The competition among spin-orbit coupling λ, sublattice asymmetry m, and the Néel exchange field n results in band crossings at Γ and K (K') points, which leads to various topological band structure transitions. The quantum anomalous Hall state is reached under the condition that three gap parameters λ, m, and n satisfy the triangle inequality. Flat bands also naturally arise which allow a local construction of eigenstates. The above mechanism is related to several classes of solid state semiconductor. G.F.Z. and C.W. are supported by the NSF DMR-1410375 and AFOSR FA9550-11-1-0067(YIP). Y.L. thanks the Inamori Fellowship and the support at the Princeton Center for Theoretical Science. C.W. acknowledges financial support from the National Natural Science.
Higher-order interference and single-system postulates characterizing quantum theory
We present a new characterization of quantum theory in terms of simple physical principles that is different from previous ones in two important respects: first, it only refers to properties of single systems without any assumptions on the composition of many systems; and second, it is closer to experiment by having absence of higher-order interference as a postulate, which is currently the subject of experimental investigation. We give three postulates—no higher-order interference, classical decomposability of states, and strong symmetry—and prove that the only non-classical operational probabilistic theories satisfying them are real, complex, and quaternionic quantum theory, together with three-level octonionic quantum theory and ball state spaces of arbitrary dimension. Then we show that adding observability of energy as a fourth postulate yields complex quantum theory as the unique solution, relating the emergence of the complex numbers to the possibility of Hamiltonian dynamics. We also show that there may be interesting non-quantum theories satisfying only the first two of our postulates, which would allow for higher-order interference in experiments while still respecting the contextuality analogue of the local orthogonality principle. (paper)
Anomalous Integer Quantum Hall Effect in the Ballistic Regime with Quantum Point Contacts
Wees, B.J. van; Willems, E.M.M.; Harmans, C.J.P.M.; Beenakker, C.W.J.; Houten, H. van; Williamson, J.G.; Foxon, C.T.; Harris, J.J.
1989-01-01
The Hall conductance of a wide two-dimensional electron gas has been measured in a geometry in which two quantum point contacts form controllable current and voltage probes, separated by less than the transport mean free path. Adjustable barriers in the point contacts allow selective population and
Quantum interference between H + D2 quasiclassical reaction mechanisms
Jambrina, Pablo G.; Herráez-Aguilar, Diego; Aoiz, F. Javier; Sneha, Mahima; Jankunas, Justinas; Zare, Richard N.
2015-08-01
Interferences are genuine quantum phenomena that appear whenever two seemingly distinct classical trajectories lead to the same outcome. They are common in elastic scattering but are seldom observable in chemical reactions. Here we report experimental measurements of the state-to-state angular distribution for the H + D2 reaction using the ‘photoloc’ technique. For products in low rotational and vibrational states, a characteristic oscillation pattern governs backward scattering. The comparison between the experiments, rigorous quantum calculations and classical trajectories on an accurate potential energy surface allows us to trace the origin of that structure to the quantum interference between different quasiclassical mechanisms, a phenomenon analogous to that observed in the double-slit experiment.
Entanglement via tunable Fano-type interference in asymmetric semiconductor quantum wells
Entanglement is realized in asymmetric coupled double quantum wells (DQWs) trapped in a doubly resonant cavity by means of Fano-type interference through a tunneling barrier, which is different from the previous studies on entanglement induced by strong external driven fields in atomic media. We investigate the generation and evolution of entanglement and show that the strength of Fano interference can influence effectively the degree of the entanglement between two cavity modes and the enhanced entanglement can be generated in this DQW system. The present investigation may provide research opportunities in quantum entangled experiments in the DQW solid-state nanostructures and may result in a substantial impact on the technology for entanglement engineering in quantum information processing.
Influence of the quantum interference on the bosonic and fermionic ion-ion collisions
Hong, Woo-Pyo; Jung, Young-Dae
2014-03-01
The quantum interference effects on the bosonic-bosonic (He-4)-(He-4), fermionic-fermionic (He-3)-(He-3), and bosonic-fermionic (He-4)-(He-3) ion-ion collisions are investigated by using the isotope of the He nucleus in dense semiclassical Coulomb systems with the Faxen-Holtzmark method. It is found that the scattering cross section for the fermionic-fermionic ion-ion collision is greater than the bosonic-bosonic and bosonic-fermionic ion collision cross sections. It is also found that the collisional induced quantum interference effect enhances the ion-ion collision cross section in semiclassical Coulomb systems. The variation of the quantum-mechanical effect on the bosonic and fermionic ion-ion collisions is also discussed. This paper is dedicated to the late Prof. P. K. Shukla in memory of exciting and stimulating collaborations on physical processes in semiclassical Coulomb systems.
Entanglement via tunable Fano-type interference in asymmetric semiconductor quantum wells
Hao Xiangying, E-mail: xyhao.321@163.co [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li Jiahua, E-mail: ai_li@126.co [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lv Xinyou; Si Liugang; Yang Xiaoxue [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)
2009-10-12
Entanglement is realized in asymmetric coupled double quantum wells (DQWs) trapped in a doubly resonant cavity by means of Fano-type interference through a tunneling barrier, which is different from the previous studies on entanglement induced by strong external driven fields in atomic media. We investigate the generation and evolution of entanglement and show that the strength of Fano interference can influence effectively the degree of the entanglement between two cavity modes and the enhanced entanglement can be generated in this DQW system. The present investigation may provide research opportunities in quantum entangled experiments in the DQW solid-state nanostructures and may result in a substantial impact on the technology for entanglement engineering in quantum information processing.
Entanglement via tunable Fano-type interference in asymmetric semiconductor quantum wells
Hao, Xiangying; Li, Jiahua; Lv, Xin-You; Si, Liu-Gang; Yang, Xiaoxue
2009-10-01
Entanglement is realized in asymmetric coupled double quantum wells (DQWs) trapped in a doubly resonant cavity by means of Fano-type interference through a tunneling barrier, which is different from the previous studies on entanglement induced by strong external driven fields in atomic media. We investigate the generation and evolution of entanglement and show that the strength of Fano interference can influence effectively the degree of the entanglement between two cavity modes and the enhanced entanglement can be generated in this DQW system. The present investigation may provide research opportunities in quantum entangled experiments in the DQW solid-state nanostructures and may result in a substantial impact on the technology for entanglement engineering in quantum information processing.
Multiple-path Quantum Interference Effects in a Double-Aharonov-Bohm Interferometer
Yang XF
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We investigate quantum interference effects in a double-Aharonov-Bohm (AB interferometer consisting of five quantum dots sandwiched between two metallic electrodes in the case of symmetric dot-electrode couplings by the use of the Green’s function equation of motion method. The analytical expression for the linear conductance at zero temperature is derived to interpret numerical results. A three-peak structure in the linear conductance spectrum may evolve into a double-peak structure, and two Fano dips (zero conductance points may appear in the quantum system when the energy levels of quantum dots in arms are not aligned with one another. The AB oscillation for the magnetic flux threading the double-AB interferometer is also investigated in this paper. Our results show the period of AB oscillation can be converted from 2π to π by controlling the difference of the magnetic fluxes threading the two quantum rings.
Ji, Wei-xiao; Zhang, Chang-wen; Ding, Meng; Zhang, Bao-min; Li, Ping; Li, Feng; Ren, Miao-juan; Wang, Pei-ji; Zhang, Run-wu; Hu, Shu-jun; Yan, Shi-shen
2016-08-01
Bismuth (Bi) has attracted a great deal of attention for its strongest spin–orbit coupling (SOC) strength among main group elements. Although quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state is predicted in half-hydrogenated Bi honeycomb monolayers Bi2H, the experimental results are still missing. Halogen atoms (X = F, Cl and Br) were also frequently used as modifications, but Bi2X films show a frustrating metallic character that masks the QAH effects. Here, first-principle calculations are performed to predict the full-cyanided bismuthene (Bi2(CN)2) as 2D topological insulator supporting quantum spin Hall state with a record large gap up to 1.10 eV, and more importantly, half-cyanogen saturated bismuthene (Bi2(CN)) as a Chern insulator supporting a valley-polarized QAH state, with a Curie temperature to be 164 K, as well as a large gap reaching 0.348 eV which could be further tuned by bi-axial strain and SOC strength. Our findings provide an appropriate and flexible material family candidate for spintronic and valleytronic devices.
Quantum backaction and noise interference in asymmetric two-cavity optomechanical systems
Yanay, Yariv; Sankey, Jack C.; Clerk, Aashish A.
2016-06-01
We study the effect of cavity damping asymmetries on backaction in a "membrane-in-the-middle" optomechanical system, where a mechanical mode modulates the coupling between two photonic modes. We show that when the energy difference between the optical modes dominates (i.e., in the adiabatic limit) this system generically realizes a dissipative optomechanical coupling, with an effective position-dependent photonic damping rate. The resulting quantum noise interference can be used to ground-state cool a mechanical resonator in the unresolved sideband regime. We explicitly demonstrate how quantum noise interference controls linear backaction effects and show that this interference persists even outside the adiabatic limit. For a one-port cavity in the extreme bad cavity limit, the interference allows one to cancel all linear backaction effects. This allows continuous measurements of position-squared, with no stringent constraints on the single-photon optomechanical coupling strength. In contrast, such a complete cancellation is not possible in the good cavity limit. This places strict bounds on the optomechanical coupling required for quantum nondemolition measurements of mechanical energy, even in a one-port device.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in time-reversal-symmetry breaking topological insulators
Chang, Cui-Zu; Li, Mingda
2016-03-01
The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE), the last member of Hall family, was predicted to exhibit quantized Hall conductivity {σyx}=\\frac{{{e}2}}{h} without any external magnetic field. The QAHE shares a similar physical phenomenon with the integer quantum Hall effect (QHE), whereas its physical origin relies on the intrinsic topological inverted band structure and ferromagnetism. Since the QAHE does not require external energy input in the form of magnetic field, it is believed that this effect has unique potential for applications in future electronic devices with low-power consumption. More recently, the QAHE has been experimentally observed in thin films of the time-reversal symmetry breaking ferromagnetic (FM) topological insulators (TI), Cr- and V- doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3. In this topical review, we review the history of TI based QAHE, the route to the experimental observation of the QAHE in the above two systems, the current status of the research of the QAHE, and finally the prospects for future studies.
Anomalous behavior of the energy gap in the one-dimensional quantum XY model.
Okuyama, Manaka; Yamanaka, Yuuki; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Rams, Marek M
2015-11-01
We reexamine the well-studied one-dimensional spin-1/2 XY model to reveal its nontrivial energy spectrum, in particular the energy gap between the ground state and the first excited state. In the case of the isotropic XY model, the XX model, the gap behaves very irregularly as a function of the system size at a second order transition point. This is in stark contrast to the usual power-law decay of the gap and is reminiscent of the similar behavior at the first order phase transition in the infinite-range quantum XY model. The gap also shows nontrivial oscillatory behavior for the phase transitions in the anisotropic model in the incommensurate phase. We observe a close relation between this anomalous behavior of the gap and the correlation functions. These results, those for the isotropic case in particular, are important from the viewpoint of quantum annealing where the efficiency of computation is strongly affected by the size dependence of the energy gap. PMID:26651656
Mogi, M., E-mail: mogi@cmr.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Yoshimi, R.; Yasuda, K.; Kozuka, Y. [Department of Applied Physics and Quantum Phase Electronics Center (QPEC), University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tsukazaki, A. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Takahashi, K. S. [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y. [Department of Applied Physics and Quantum Phase Electronics Center (QPEC), University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan)
2015-11-02
Quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE), which generates dissipation-less edge current without external magnetic field, is observed in magnetic-ion doped topological insulators (TIs) such as Cr- and V-doped (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3}. The QAHE emerges when the Fermi level is inside the magnetically induced gap around the original Dirac point of the TI surface state. Although the size of gap is reported to be about 50 meV, the observable temperature of QAHE has been limited below 300 mK. We attempt magnetic-Cr modulation doping into topological insulator (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} films to increase the observable temperature of QAHE. By introducing the rich-Cr-doped thin (1 nm) layers at the vicinity of both the surfaces based on non-Cr-doped (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} films, we have succeeded in observing the QAHE up to 2 K. The improvement in the observable temperature achieved by this modulation-doping appears to be originating from the suppression of the disorder in the surface state interacting with the rich magnetic moments. Such a superlattice designing of the stabilized QAHE may pave a way to dissipation-less electronics based on the higher-temperature and zero magnetic-field quantum conduction.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE), which generates dissipation-less edge current without external magnetic field, is observed in magnetic-ion doped topological insulators (TIs) such as Cr- and V-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3. The QAHE emerges when the Fermi level is inside the magnetically induced gap around the original Dirac point of the TI surface state. Although the size of gap is reported to be about 50 meV, the observable temperature of QAHE has been limited below 300 mK. We attempt magnetic-Cr modulation doping into topological insulator (Bi,Sb)2Te3 films to increase the observable temperature of QAHE. By introducing the rich-Cr-doped thin (1 nm) layers at the vicinity of both the surfaces based on non-Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 films, we have succeeded in observing the QAHE up to 2 K. The improvement in the observable temperature achieved by this modulation-doping appears to be originating from the suppression of the disorder in the surface state interacting with the rich magnetic moments. Such a superlattice designing of the stabilized QAHE may pave a way to dissipation-less electronics based on the higher-temperature and zero magnetic-field quantum conduction
Lee, H C
1998-01-01
First, we have investigated chiral edges of a quantum Hall liquids at filling factor nu=2. The separation of spin and charge degrees of freedom becomes manifest in the presence of long- range Coulomb interaction. Due to the spin-charge separation the tunneling density of states takes the form D(omega) approx ( -lnl omega l) sup 1 sup / sup 2. Experimentally, the spin-charge separation can be revealed in the temperature and voltage dependence of the tunneling current into Fermi liquid reservoir. Second, the charge and spin correlation functions of partially spin-polarized edge electrons of a quantum Hall bar are studied using effective Hamiltonian and bosonization techniques. In the presence of the Coulomb interaction between the edges with opposite chirality we find a different crossover behavior in spin and charge correlation functions. The crossover of the spin correlation function in the Coulomb dominated regime is characterized by an anomalous exponent, which originates from the finite value of the effect...
We study the energetics and dispersion of anomalous dimers that are induced by the Pauli blocking effect in a quantum Fermi gas of majority atoms near interspecies resonances. Unlike in vacuum, we find that both the sign and magnitude of the dimer masses are tunable via Feshbach resonances. We also investigate the effects of particle-hole fluctuations on the dispersion of dimers and demonstrate that the particle-hole fluctuations near a Fermi surface (with Fermi momentum (ℎ/2π)kF) generally reduce the effective two-body interactions and the binding energy of dimers. Furthermore, in the limit of light minority atoms the particle-hole fluctuations disfavor the formation of dimers with a total momentum (ℎ/2π)kF, because near (ℎ/2π)kF the modes where the dominating particle-hole fluctuations appear are the softest. Our calculation suggests that near broad interspecies resonances when the minority-majority mass ratio mB/mF is smaller than a critical value (estimated to be 0.136), dimers in a finite-momentum channel are energetically favored over dimers in the zero-momentum channel. We apply our theory to quantum gases of 6Li40K, 6Li87Rb, 40K87Rb, and 6Li23Na near broad interspecies resonances, and discuss the limitations of our calculations and implications.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in time-reversal-symmetry breaking topological insulators.
Chang, Cui-Zu; Li, Mingda
2016-03-31
The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE), the last member of Hall family, was predicted to exhibit quantized Hall conductivity σ(yx) = e2/h without any external magnetic field. The QAHE shares a similar physical phenomenon with the integer quantum Hall effect (QHE), whereas its physical origin relies on the intrinsic topological inverted band structure and ferromagnetism. Since the QAHE does not require external energy input in the form of magnetic field, it is believed that this effect has unique potential for applications in future electronic devices with low-power consumption. More recently, the QAHE has been experimentally observed in thin films of the time-reversal symmetry breaking ferromagnetic (FM) topological insulators (TI), Cr- and V- doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3. In this topical review, we review the history of TI based QAHE, the route to the experimental observation of the QAHE in the above two systems, the current status of the research of the QAHE, and finally the prospects for future studies. PMID:26934535
Conte, Elio; Todarello, Orlando; Federici, Antonio; Zbilut, Joseph P
2008-01-01
We introduce the quantum theoretical formulation to determine a posteriori, if existing, the quantum wave functions and to estimate the quantum interference effects of mental states. Such quantum features are actually found in the case of an experiment involving the perception and the cognition in humans. Also some specific psychological variables are introduced and it is obtained that they characterize in a stringent manner the quantum behaviour of mind during such performed experiment.
The optical bistability of a triangular quantum dot molecules embedded inside a unidirectional ring cavity is studied. The type, the threshold and the hysteresis loop of the optical bistability curves can be modified by the tunneling parameters, as well as the probe laser field. The linear and nonlinear susceptibilities of the medium are also studied to interpret the corresponding results. The physical interpretation is that the tunneling can induce the quantum interference, which modifies the linear and the nonlinear response of the medium. As a consequence, the characteristics of the optical bistability are changed. The scheme proposed here can be utilized for optimizing and controlling the optical switching process
Moodera, Jagadeesh
Breaking time reversal symmetry (TRS) in a topological insulator (TI) with ferromagnetic perturbation can lead to many exotic quantum phenomena exhibited by Dirac surface states including the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect and dissipationless quantized Hall transport. The realization of the QAH effect in realistic materials requires ferromagnetic insulating materials and topologically non-trivial electronic band structures. In a TI, the ferromagnetic order and TRS breaking is achievable by conventional way, through doping with a magnetic element, or by ferromagnetic proximity coupling. Our experimental studies by both approaches will be discussed. In doped TI van Vleck ferromagnetism was observed. The proximity induced magnetism at the interface was stable, beyond the expected temperature range. We shall describe in a hard ferromagnetic TI system a robust QAH state and dissipationless edge current flow is achieved,1,2 a major step towards dissipationless electronic applications with no external fields, making such devices more amenable for metrology and spintronics applications. Our study of the gate and temperature dependences of local and nonlocal magnetoresistance, may elucidate the causes of the dissipative edge channels and the need for very low temperature to observe QAH. In close collaboration with: CuiZu Chang,2,3 Ferhat Katmis, 1 . 2 , 3 Peng Wei. 1 , 2 , 3 ; From Nuclear Eng. Dept. MIT, M. Li, J. Li; From Penn State U, W-W. Zhao, D. Y. Kim, C-x. Liu, J. K. Jain, M. H. W. Chan; From Oakridge National Lab, V. Lauter; From Northeastern U., B. A. Assaf, M. E. Jamer, D. Heiman; From Argonne Lab, J. W. Freeland; From Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany), F. S. Nogueira, I. Eremin; From Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (India), B. Satpati. Work supported by NSF Grant DMR-1207469, the ONR Grant N00014-13-1-0301, and the STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials under NSF Grant DMR-1231319.
Engineering two-photon high-dimensional states through quantum interference.
Zhang, Yingwen; Roux, Filippus S; Konrad, Thomas; Agnew, Megan; Leach, Jonathan; Forbes, Andrew
2016-02-01
Many protocols in quantum science, for example, linear optical quantum computing, require access to large-scale entangled quantum states. Such systems can be realized through many-particle qubits, but this approach often suffers from scalability problems. An alternative strategy is to consider a lesser number of particles that exist in high-dimensional states. The spatial modes of light are one such candidate that provides access to high-dimensional quantum states, and thus they increase the storage and processing potential of quantum information systems. We demonstrate the controlled engineering of two-photon high-dimensional states entangled in their orbital angular momentum through Hong-Ou-Mandel interference. We prepare a large range of high-dimensional entangled states and implement precise quantum state filtering. We characterize the full quantum state before and after the filter, and are thus able to determine that only the antisymmetric component of the initial state remains. This work paves the way for high-dimensional processing and communication of multiphoton quantum states, for example, in teleportation beyond qubits. PMID:26933685
Engineering two-photon high-dimensional states through quantum interference
Zhang, Yingwen; Roux, Filippus S.; Konrad, Thomas; Agnew, Megan; Leach, Jonathan; Forbes, Andrew
2016-01-01
Many protocols in quantum science, for example, linear optical quantum computing, require access to large-scale entangled quantum states. Such systems can be realized through many-particle qubits, but this approach often suffers from scalability problems. An alternative strategy is to consider a lesser number of particles that exist in high-dimensional states. The spatial modes of light are one such candidate that provides access to high-dimensional quantum states, and thus they increase the storage and processing potential of quantum information systems. We demonstrate the controlled engineering of two-photon high-dimensional states entangled in their orbital angular momentum through Hong-Ou-Mandel interference. We prepare a large range of high-dimensional entangled states and implement precise quantum state filtering. We characterize the full quantum state before and after the filter, and are thus able to determine that only the antisymmetric component of the initial state remains. This work paves the way for high-dimensional processing and communication of multiphoton quantum states, for example, in teleportation beyond qubits. PMID:26933685
Quantum Interference of Stored Coherent Spin-wave Excitations in a Two-channel Memory
Wang, Hai; Xu, Zhongxiao; Zhao, Xingbo; Zhang, Lijun; Li, Jiahua; Wu, Yuelong; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi; Xiao, Min
2010-01-01
Quantum memories are essential elements in long-distance quantum networks and quantum computation. Significant advances have been achieved in demonstrating relative long-lived single-channel memory at single-photon level in cold atomic media. However, the qubit memory corresponding to store two-channel spin-wave excitations (SWEs) still faces challenges, including the limitations resulting from Larmor procession, fluctuating ambient magnetic field, and manipulation/measurement of the relative phase between the two channels. Here, we demonstrate a two-channel memory scheme in an ideal tripod atomic system, in which the total readout signal exhibits either constructive or destructive interference when the two-channel SWEs are retrieved by two reading beams with a controllable relative phase. Experimental result indicates quantum coherence between the stored SWEs. Based on such phase-sensitive storage/retrieval scheme, measurements of the relative phase between the two SWEs and Rabi oscillation, as well as elimi...
Generation of Mechanical Interference Fringes by Multi-Photon Quantum Measurement
Ringbauer, M; White, A G; Vanner, M R
2016-01-01
The exploration of wave phenomena and quantum properties of massive systems offers an intriguing pathway to study the foundations of physics and to develop a suite of quantum enhanced technologies. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an optomechanical scheme for the preparation of non-Gaussian states of motion of a mechanical resonator using photonic quantum measurements. Our scheme is capable of generating non-classical mechanical states without the need for strong single-photon coupling and independent of initial thermal occupation. We experimentally observe interference fringes in the mechanical position distribution, which for a two-photon measurement show phase super-resolution. Our approach can be readily generalized to generate larger mechanical superposition states using multi-port interferometry. This opens a feasible avenue to explore and exploit quantum phenomena at a macroscopic scale.
The fermion in the gauge invariant formulation of the chiral Schwinger model and its relation to the fermion in the anomalous formulation is studied. A gauge invariant fermion operator is constructed that does not give rise to an asymptotic fermion field. It fits in the scheme prepared by generalized Schwinger models. Singularities in the short-distance limit of the chiral Schwinger model in the anomalous formulation lead to the conclusion that it is not a promising starting point for investigations towards realistic (3+1)-dimensional gauge theories with chiral fermion content. A new anomalous (1+1)-dimensional model is studied, the chiral quantum gravity. It is proven to be consistent if only a limited number of chiral fermions couple. The fermion propagator behaves analogously to the one in the massless Thirring model. A general rule is derived for the change of the fermion operator, which is induced by the breakdown of a gauge symmetry. (orig.)
We propose a simple scheme to realize 1→M economical phase-covariant quantum cloning machine (EPQCM) with superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) qubits. In our scheme, multi-SQUIDs are fixed into a microwave cavity by adiabatic passage for their manipulation. Based on this model, we can realize the EPQCM with high fidelity via adiabatic quantum computation
Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) incorporating thin film nanobridges as weak links have sensitivities approaching that required for single spin detection at 4.2 K. However, due to thermal hysteresis they are difficult to operate at much lower temperatures which hinder their application to many quantum measurements. To overcome this, we have developed nanoscale SQUIDs made from titanium-gold proximity bilayers. We show that their electrical properties are consistent with a theoretical model developed for heat flow in bilayers and demonstrate that they enable magnetic measurements to be made on a sample at system temperatures down to 60 mK
Review of low-noise radio-frequency amplifiers based on superconducting quantum interference device
Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is a sensitive detector of magnetic flux signals. Up to now, the main application of SQUIDs has been measurements of magnetic flux signals in the frequency range from near DC to several MHz. Recently, cryogenic low-noise radio-frequency (RF) amplifiers based on DC SQUID are under development aiming to detect RF signals with sensitivity approaching quantum limit. In this paper, we review the recent progress of cryogenic low-noise RF amplifiers based on SQUID technology.
Beyond Quantum interference and Optical pumping: invoking a Closed-loop phase
Kani, A
2016-01-01
Atomic coherence effects arising from coherent light-atom interaction are conventionally known to be governed by quantum interference and optical pumping mechanisms. However, anisotropic nonlinear response driven by optical field involves another fundamental effect arising from closed-loop multiphoton transitions. This closed-loop phase dictates the tensorial structure of the nonlinear susceptibility as it governs the principal coordinate system in determining, whether the light field will either compete or cooperate with the external magnetic field stimulus. Such a treatment provides deeper understanding of all magneto-optical anisotropic response. The magneto-optical response in all atomic systems is classified using closed-loop phase. The role of quantum interference in obtaining electromagnetically induced transparency or electromagnetically induced absorption in multi-level systems is identified.
Probing electron-phonon excitations in molecular junctions by quantum interference.
Bessis, C; Della Rocca, M L; Barraud, C; Martin, P; Lacroix, J C; Markussen, T; Lafarge, P
2016-01-01
Electron-phonon coupling is a fundamental inelastic interaction in condensed matter and in molecules. Here we probe phonon excitations using quantum interference in electron transport occurring in short chains of anthraquinone based molecular junctions. By studying the dependence of molecular junction's conductance as a function of bias voltage and temperature, we show that inelastic scattering of electrons by phonons can be detected as features in conductance resulting from quenching of quantum interference. Our results are in agreement with density functional theory calculations and are well described by a generic two-site model in the framework of non-equilibrium Green's functions formalism. The importance of the observed inelastic contribution to the current opens up new ways for exploring coherent electron transport through molecular devices. PMID:26864735
Vacuum-Induced Quantum Interference in a Trapped ∧-Configuration Three-Level System
WANG Zheng-Ling; YIN Jian-Ping
2005-01-01
@@ In consideration of quantization of centre-of-mass motion, we derive the second-order solution of the dynamic equation of a ∧-configuration three-level atom confined in an approximately harmonic trap by using the timedependent perturbation theory. It is found that there are a series of dark lines in the second-order probability spectrum with multi-peak structures, which is the result of the quantum interference from the same vacuum mode in the spontaneous decay process of the trapped atom from the upper level to the two nearby lower levels. Our study shows that the second-order spectrum may be modified by the oscillation frequency Ω of the trap and the frequency difference △ between two lower levels of the three-level atom, and the depth of the dark lines from the vacuum-induced quantum interference effect is strongly dependent on the above two parameters (Ω and △).
WANG Wei-Li; SONG Peng; LI Yong-Qing; MIAO Gang; MA Feng-Cai
2006-01-01
Collisional quantum interference (CQI) on rotational energy transfer was observed in Na2 (A1∑u+, v = 8～b3∏ou, v = 14) system in collision with Na [Chem. Phys. Lett. 318 (2000) 107], and the degree of the interference was measured. The integral interference angle was obtained through theoretical calculation. We will research the factors that have effect on collisional quantum interference on rotational energy transfer in Na2(A 1∑u+, v = 8 ～ b3∏0u, v = 14) -Na system. Basing on the time-dependent first order Born approximation, and taking into account the anisotropic Lennard-Jones interaction potentials and "straight-line" trajectory approximation, we obtain the factors that have effect on CQI in Na2-Na system, and obtain the relation between the integral interference angle and rotational quantum number.
Suppression of the critical current of a balanced superconducting quantum interference device
Kemppinen, Antti; Manninen, Antti J.; Möttönen, Mikko; Vartiainen, Juha J.; Peltonen, Joonas T.; Pekola, Jukka P.
2008-01-01
We present an experimental study of the magnetic flux dependence of the critical current of a balanced superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) with three Josephson junctions in parallel. Unlike for ordinary direct current (dc) SQUIDs, the suppression of the critical current does not depend on the exact parameters of the Josephson junctions. The suppression is essentially limited only by the inductances of the SQUID loops. We demonstrate a critical current suppression ratio of high...
DeFeo, M. P.; Bhupathi, P.; K. Yu; Heitmann, T. W.; Song, C.; McDermott, R; Plourde, B. L. T.
2010-01-01
We present measurements of an amplifier based on a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) with submicron Al-AlOx-Al Josephson junctions. The small junction size reduces their self-capacitance and allows for the use of relatively large resistive shunts while maintaining nonhysteretic operation. This leads to an enhancement of the SQUID transfer function compared to SQUIDs with micron-scale junctions. The device layout is modified from that of a conventional SQUID to allow for c...
Amado, M.; Fornieri, A.; Carillo, F.; Biasiol, G; Sorba, L.; Pellegrini, V.; F. Giazotto
2013-01-01
The magneto-electrostatic tailoring of the supercurrent in quantum point contact ballistic Josephson junctions is demonstrated. An etched InAs-based heterostructure is laterally contacted to superconducting niobium leads and the existence of two etched side gates permits, in combination with the application of a perpendicular magnetic field, to modify continuously the magnetic interference pattern by depleting the weak link. For wider junctions the supercurrent presents a Fraunhofer-like inte...
Suppression of interference in quantum Hall Mach-Zehnder geometry by upstream neutral modes
Goldstein, Moshe; Gefen, Yuval
2016-01-01
Mach-Zehnder interferometry has been proposed as a probe for detecting the statistics of anyonic quasiparticles in fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states. Here we focus on interferometers made of multimode edge states with upstream modes. We find that the interference visibility is suppressed due to downstream-upstream mode entanglement; the latter serves as a "which path" detector to the downstream interfering trajectories. Our analysis tackles a concrete realization of filling factor 2/3, but...
刘当婷; 田野; 赵士平; 任育峰; 陈赓华
2015-01-01
We discuss a simple relation between the input and output signals of a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer operating in flux locked mode in a cosine curve approximation. According to this relation, an original fast input signal can be easily retrieved from its distorted output response. This technique can be used in some areas such as sensitive and fast detection of magnetic or metallic grains in medicine and food security checking.