Sample records for animals suckling

  1. D-penicillamine exhibits a higher radioprotective effect in suckling mice than in grown-up animals

    Grown-up and suckling mice were exposed to whole-body 60Co-irradiation of 6-10 Gy. The survival time was significantly increased in suckling animals by 3000 mg per kg body weight D-penicillamine applied intraperitoneally 60 min before irradiation, whereas the same treatment had no significant effect in grown-up animals. (L.E.)

  2. Milk processing quality of suckled/milked goats: effects of milk accumulation interval and milking regime.

    Högberg, M; Dahlborn, K; Hydbring-Sandberg, E; Hartmann, E; Andrén, A


    Milk with a high concentration of fat and casein is required for cheese production, and these components have a major impact for both quality and yield of the curd. Recent observations have shown that suckling can elevate milk fat concentration in goats and our aim was therefore to check the hypothesis that animal welfare and cheese-processing properties of goat milk could be optimised by appropriate management of suckled/milked goats. Twelve Swedish dairy goats were kept together with one kid each in 4 different mixed management-systems (milking combined with partial suckling) in a cross-over design. Two milk accumulation intervals were tested; Short = dams and kids were together for 16 h (T16) and Long = ; dams and kids were together for 8 h (T8 h). In addition, two milking regimes were used; Suckled Before Milking = S and Milked Before Suckling = M. Milk accumulation interval referred to how long dams and kids were separated. The milk yield available for processing (milk offtake), was weighed and analysed from each milking occasion and the suckled milk yield was estimated by a weigh-suckle-weigh method (WSW) in combination with observing the suckling behaviour during the free suckling periods. Milking managements, such as 'suckling before milking (S)', increased milk fat concentration compared to milking before suckling (M) and 'Short accumulation treatments (T16)' gave higher milk fat, casein concentration and individual curd yield (%) compared to the 'Long accumulation treatment (T8)'. The total individual curd yield (g) was the same despite treatment, but the animal welfare was most likely higher in T16 where dams and kids spent more time together. PMID:27056664

  3. Haemolysis and perturbations in the systemic iron metabolism of suckling, copper-deficient mosaic mutant mice - an animal model of Menkes disease.

    Małgorzata Lenartowicz

    Full Text Available The biological interaction between copper and iron is best exemplified by the decreased activity of multicopper ferroxidases under conditions of copper deficiency that limits the availability of iron for erythropoiesis. However, little is known about how copper deficiency affects iron homeostasis through alteration of the activity of other copper-containing proteins, not directly connected with iron metabolism, such as superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1. This antioxidant enzyme scavenges the superoxide anion, a reactive oxygen species contributing to the toxicity of iron via the Fenton reaction. Here, we analyzed changes in the systemic iron metabolism using an animal model of Menkes disease: copper-deficient mosaic mutant mice with dysfunction of the ATP7A copper transporter. We found that the erythrocytes of these mutants are copper-deficient, display decreased SOD1 activity/expression and have cell membrane abnormalities. In consequence, the mosaic mice show evidence of haemolysis accompanied by haptoglobin-dependent elimination of haemoglobin (Hb from the circulation, as well as the induction of haem oxygenase 1 (HO1 in the liver and kidney. Moreover, the hepcidin-ferroportin regulatory axis is strongly affected in mosaic mice. These findings indicate that haemolysis is an additional pathogenic factor in a mouse model of Menkes diseases and provides evidence of a new indirect connection between copper deficiency and iron metabolism.

  4. HACCP for Suckling Piglet Mortality

    Früh, Barbara; Dippel, Sabine; Leeb, Christine


    Deliverables of the COREPIG project are management tools based on the HACCP principle (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points). These tools help farmers (in a farm specific way) to solve and prevent problems with endoparasites, reproduction and farrowing problems, weaning diarrhoea and suckling piglet mortality. They are available as Microsoft Excel® files. We recommend that the tools be used by the farmer together with the farm's advisor or veterinarian. Each tool contains instructions f...

  5. Lactation and suckling behavior in the Iberian lynx.

    Yerga, Javier; Calzada, Javier; Manteca, Xavier; Herrera, Irene; Vargas, Astrid; Rivas, Antonio


    Understanding the behavior of endangered species is crucial to improve the management tools to breed animals in captivity and, thus, to increase the success of ex situ conservation programs. In this study, we monitored suckling behavior of 26 cubs born between 2008 and 2012 at "El Acebuche" Iberian Lynx Breeding Centre. The cubs devoted 251 ± 19.7 min (mean ± SE) to lactation on the day of birth, while mothers spent 426 ± 27 min (mean ± SE) nursing their offspring. The time cubs spent suckling decreased exponentially as they grown, until they were fully weaned at 65 ± 2.6 days. The onset of weaning (first intake of solid food) occurred at 54 ± 1.35 days (mean ± SE). Thus, the strict lactation period occupied most of the overall lactation period. Both suckling and maternal behavior were affected by litter size. In twins and triplets, the competition between siblings caused a decrease in the time spent suckling, in spite of the mothers spending more time nursing their young. Finally, no significant differences were found in time spent suckling between littermates or depending on the sex of the cub. Lactation appeared to play a key role in the nutrition of the Iberian lynx and should therefore be conveniently managed in captive breeding programs of this threatened species. Zoo Biol. 35:216-221, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27038075

  6. 26Al incorporation into the tissues of suckling rats through maternal milk

    Aluminium (Al) is highly neurotoxic and inhibits prenatal and postnatal development of the brain in humans and experimental animals. However, Al incorporation into the brain of sucklings through maternal milk has not yet been well clarified because Al lacks a suitable isotope for radioactive tracer experiments. Using 26Al as a tracer, we measured 26Al incorporation into the brain of suckling rats by accelerator mass spectrometry. Lactating rats were subcutaneously injected with 26AlCl3 from day 1 to day 20 postpartum. Suckling rats were weaned from day 21 postpartum. From day 5 to day 20 postpartum, the 26Al levels measured in the brain, liver, kidneys and bone of suckling rats increased significantly. After weaning, the amounts of 26Al in the liver and kidneys decreased remarkably. However, the 26Al amount in the brain had diminished only slightly up to 140 days after weaning

  7. Introduction of distillate rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat: transfer of polyphenolic compounds to goats' milk and the plasma of suckling goat kids.

    Jordán, Maria José; Moñino, María Inmaculada; Martínez, Cristina; Lafuente, Arturo; Sotomayor, José Antonio


    The effect of the introduction of distilled rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat on the polyphenolic profile of the goats' milk during the physiological stages of gestation and lactation was studied. The inclusion of rosemary leaves into the animal diet modified neither animal productivity (milk yield) nor milk quality. The following components were found in increased concentration (P suckling goat kid, a statistically significant increase (P suckling goat kid. PMID:20608728

  8. Effect of alfaprostol, lasalocid, and once-daily suckling on postpartum interval in Brahman and Brahman crossbred cattle.

    Del Vecchio, R P; Randel, R D; Neuendorff, D A; Peterson, L A


    Brahman cows (n = 49) and primiparous heifers (n = 11), Brahman x Hereford primiparous F1 heifers (n = 86) and Simmental x Brahman primiparous F1 heifers (n = 13) were randomly allotted by breed, age and date of calving to one of eight treatment groups: 1) control; 2) once-daily suckling; 3) lasalocid (200 mg/hd/d); 4) alfaprostol (5 mg intermuscular injections on Days 21 and 32 post partum); 5) lasalocid + once-daily suckling; 6) alfaprostol + once daily suckling; 7) alfaprostol + lasalocid; 8) alfaprostol + lasalocid + once daily suckling. All animals received 2.3 kg/hd/d of a concentrate (6 corn : 1 cottonseed meal) and lasalocid was mixed and fed in the concentrate. Body weights and condition scores were taken on Day 1 post partum and every 28 d thereafter. All animals were maintained with sterile marker bulls with Brahman and Simmental x Brahman cattle artificially inseminated at first estrus. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals starting on Day 21 post partum until estrus and at nine to twelve days post estrus when the ovaries were palpated for corpora lutea. After the first postpartum estrus with a corpora lutea, cows were placed with fertile bulls. Mean serum progesterone concentrations were below 0.5 ng/ml prior to treatment. Calf weight gains to 90 d were not affected by age (P > 0.10) but were lower in the once-daily suckling group (P 0.10). Cows had a shorter postpartum interval (P 0.10) but did increase the cumulative frequency of return to estrus by 90 d post partum (P 0.10). Both once-daily suckling and alfaprostol were effective in increasing the numbers of animals inseminated by 90 d post partum. The once-daily suckling + alfaprostol treatment resulted in the shortest postpartum interval. PMID:16726521

  9. Growth of Cinta Senese piglets as affected by location of the suckled teat

    Martina Bianchi


    Full Text Available The experimental animals were 18 Cinta Senese sows (7 primiparous and 11 multiparous and relative purebred off-  spring. Individual weight of piglets was recorded at birth (or shortly afterwards to the nearest 50 g and subsequently  every 3-5 days up to weaning. At each recording, piglets were ranked in decreasing order according to weight within their  respective litters. The behavior of a subsample of 8 sows and litters was observed during suckling, by recording the  teat–piglet coupling. The sows had 12 functional teats, equally distributed in the two symmetric rows, that were num-  bered as pairs in the antero-posterior direction.  Starting from the third week, piglets of multiparous sows showed a faster growth rate than those of the primiparous ones.  Repeatability of the piglets’ weight during the suckling period was high (r = 0.56 and repeatability of rank was even  higher, but decreased up to weaning. Anterior teats were the most occupied and showed the highest suckling fidelity  (consistency of suckling position. Various statistical analyses about the dependence of piglet weight (or weight rank with-  in litter on teat order indicated the highest milk productivity of the first teats and the lowest of the 5th & 6th teat pairs.

  10. The Suckling Rat as a Model for Immunonutrition Studies in Early Life

    Francisco J. Pérez-Cano


    Full Text Available Diet plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal immune function. Research demonstrates the immunomodulatory properties and mechanisms of particular nutrients; however, these aspects are studied less in early life, when diet may exert an important role in the immune development of the neonate. Besides the limited data from epidemiological and human interventional trials in early life, animal models hold the key to increase the current knowledge about this interaction in this particular period. This paper reports the potential of the suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in early life. In particular, it describes the main changes in the systemic and mucosal immune system development during rat suckling and allows some of these elements to be established as target biomarkers for studying the influence of particular nutrients. Different approaches to evaluate these immune effects, including the manipulation of the maternal diet during gestation and/or lactation or feeding the nutrient directly to the pups, are also described in detail. In summary, this paper provides investigators with useful tools for better designing experimental approaches focused on nutrition in early life for programming and immune development by using the suckling rat as a model.

  11. [Observations of the birth and suckling behavior of goats].

    Sambraus, H H; Wittmann, M


    50 goats of several breeds and crossbreeds as well as their kids were observed. The experiment involved 388 hours of observation over 62 days. The average duration of pregnancy was 151.2 days. In addition to physical characteristics and labored mobility, a tendency toward isolation and characteristic vocalization were noted. The period from onset of birth to the first delivery averaged less than 20 min. Subsequent to delivery the doe arose immediately, followed by the kid in an average of 21 min. Initial suckling by the kids occurred on average 42 min after birth. After an initially high frequency of suckling cycles, the cycle in the following weeks was reduced to 1 to 2 times an hour in the case of a single kid birth, while twins suckled more often. Out of 5,562 observations, only 1% were true cases of suckling from another doe. PMID:2617523

  12. Utilization of milk minerals by Iberian suckling piglets

    Castellano, R; Aguinaga, M. A.; R. Nieto; AGUILERA, J.F.; Haro, A; I. Seiquer


    Little information is available concerning mineral metabolism in suckling piglets. The utilization of milk minerals and the mineral composition of Iberian (IB) suckling piglets were studied in two consecutive experiments at different ambient temperatures (trial 1, 27 ± 2°C; trial 2, 22 ± 2°C). Milk composition and the piglets’ performance were determined weekly over a 34 days lactation period and, at the end, body mineral contents were analyzed and mineral retention and bioavailability were c...

  13. Growth of Cinta Senese piglets as affected by location of the suckled teat

    Martina Bianchi; Anna Acciaioli; Clara Sargentini; Oreste Franci


    The experimental animals were 18 Cinta Senese sows (7 primiparous and 11 multiparous) and relative purebred off-  spring. Individual weight of piglets was recorded at birth (or shortly afterwards) to the nearest 50 g and subsequently  every 3-5 days up to weaning. At each recording, piglets were ranked in decreasing order according to weight within their  respective litters. The behavior of a subsample of 8 sows and litters was observed during suckling, by recording the  t...

  14. Influence of breed, milk diet and slaughter weight on carcass traits of suckling kids from seven Spanish breeds

    Panea Doblado, Begoña; Ripoll García, Guillermo; Horcada Ibáñez, Alberto; Sañudo Astiz, Carlos; Teixeira, Alfredo; Alcalde Aldea, Mª Jesús


    This experiment aimed to describe the influence of production system on the following characteristics from seven Spanish goat breeds: carcass weight, dressing percentage, head weight, viscera weight, kidney fat weight, fatness score, carcass length, leg length, rump perimeter, rump width, kidney fat colour and tissue composition of shoulder. Experiment involved 201 male, single-birth suckling kids from five meat and two dairy breeds. Animals from meat breeds were slaughtered at two targets ca...

  15. Ontogeny of suckling behavior in rats prenatally exposed to alcohol.

    Chen, J S; Driscoll, C D; Riley, E P


    The effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on nipple attachment behavior was studied at a number of ages in rat pups whose mothers consumed liquid diets containing 35% or 0% ethanol-derived calories (EDC) or standard lab chow during pregnancy. In the first experiment, nondeprived pups were tested in groups of three (one from each of the prenatal treatment groups) for nipple attachment to an anesthetized lab chow dam. The second experiment examined the influence of the type of test dam (35% EDC, 0% EDC, or lab chow) on nipple attachment behavior. Finally, experiment three evaluated the possibility that the data from the preceeding experiments were the result of either testing the offspring in triads or alcohol-induced alterations in maternal behavior. Rat pups from all three groups reared by their biological mothers and a group of 35% EDC offspring fostered at birth to lab chow surrogate mothers were tested alone rather than in triads. The data from all three experiments clearly indicated an age-related pattern of nipple attachment behavior; the latency to attach was shortest in 6- to 12-day-old pups and increased rapidly from 13 to 21 days of age. Prenatal exposure to alcohol significantly increased the latency to attach to the nipple and the rank order of attachment at the younger ages (three to nine days of age) but not in the older animals. Also, the prenatal effect of alcohol was independent of the type of dam to which testing was conducted, the social interaction involved in testing triads, or fostering procedures. These results suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure can interfere with the development of normal suckling behavior, which might influence normal growth. PMID:7157191

  16. Effect of creep feeding system on performance of suckling lambs

    Twenty seven newly born Barki Lambs of about 3.84 kg live body weight were randomly divided into three groups of nine lambs each. Their weights were recorded at birth. Lambs in the first group were served as controls and fed on their dam's milk only (milk basis) > The second group was fed on their dam's milk in addition to concentrate feed mixture (CFM) as creep feeding> Group three was fed on their dam's milk; concentrate feed mixture and lactic acid producing bacteria. Concentrate feed mixture was offered daily in the morning for lambs under creep feeding system, started at 7 days from birth. Lambs were kept with their mothers in the same pens. Blood samples were collected at 7.30 and 60 days old from the jugular vein of each animal. Total gain, average daily gain and weaning weight of lambs were higher (P<0.05) in groups II and III than control group. Both groups II and III showed no significant difference in weight gain. The higher values serum total proteins were recorded in groups II and III. Values of serum total proteins were recorded in groups II and III . Values of serum albumin were similar in all different groups. However, group III recorded the highest values of globin. Blood serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) activities were not affected by treatment. It was clearly observed that GPT values were increased with age in all groups. Values for serum glucose were decreased with age until weaning, while serum urea nitrogen was increased with age. The differences among treatments in creatinine concentrations were not significant. Total triiodothyronine (T4) and total thyroxine (T4) concentrations were not significantly different between experimental groups. It is concluded that creep feeding promotes growth in lambs during suckling period and can be successfully used for a short fattening period

  17. Effect of season and stocking density during transport on carcass and meat quality of suckling lambs

    M. Sanchez-Sanchez


    Full Text Available Many factors related to transport to abattoir affects meat quality, but scarce information is available in suckling lambs. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of season and stocking density on carcass and meat quality of suckling lambs during commercial transport to the abattoir. A factorial design (2 × 3 was used: two seasons (winter and summer and three stocking densities (SD; 0.08, 0.12 and 0.20 m2 animal-1. Meat quality variables were measured in the M. longissimus at 24 h post-mortem and after 5 days of refrigerated storage. Lambs transported in summer showed lower liver weight (p<0.001, h* (p<0.05, deoxymyoglobin content (p<0.001, pressed juice (p<0.01, shear force (p<0.001 and firmness (p<0.001, and higher initial pH (p<0.001, L*, b*, C* (p<0.001 and a* (p<0.01, as well as metmyoglobin and oxymyoglobin content (p<0.001, than those transported in winter. The effect of season was dependent on storage time, being colour changes more evident at 24 h than after 5 days of storage, whereas lipid oxidation was only observed in stored meat, which may be explain because the natural antioxidative system decreases with time after slaughter. Scarce effect of SD was found on the carcass and meat quality parameters, thus under our experimental conditions the three SD studied appear to be suitable for suckling lambs transport. However, both carcass and meat quality were within the normal commercial range.

  18. Animals

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  19. An unusual roundworm (roxocara vitulorum) infection in suckling calves

    Holzhauer, M.; Herder, F.L.; Veldhuis-Wolterbeek, E.G.; Hegeman, C.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.


    A 2 months old suckling calf had complaints of diarrhea and roundworms near the perineum. Faecal examination showed the presence of a high number of roundworm eggs of roxocara vitulorum. The calf was a daughter of a Piemontese cow, born on the farm, but with a grandmother imported from France. This

  20. Reproductive response to suckling manipulation in Spanish goats.

    Lawson, J L; Forrest, D W; Shelton, M


    One hundred and fifty-six Spanish does were used to evaluate the effect of suckling manipulation on postpartum breeding. Does were divided into four herds dependent upon their kidding dates (range from October to January) and location. All kids were nursed ad libitum for approximately 30 days following birth. Groups were then subdivided, and does with kids were randomly allotted to one of the following treatment groups: 1) continuous suckling (CS), 2) once-daily suckling (ODS) or 3) early weaning (EW). Nonlactating does (NL) which lost a kid or aborted were also evaluated for rebreeding performance. At least one fertile male equipped with a marking harness was placed with each treatment group for estrus detection. After 30 days, ODS kids were returned to their dams. The proportion of does exhibiting estrus within 60 days postpartum was greater for ODS and EW does compared to CS does (Pkid production was 1.87 kids/doe/year. These results indicate that reducing the suckling stimulus in Spanish does during the breeding season may result in an earlier return to estrus with a greater percentage of does rebreeding within 60 days postpartum. PMID:16725923

  1. Copper absorption from human milk, cow's milk, and infant formulas using a suckling rat model

    Since copper deficiency is known to occur during infancy, it becomes important to assess copper uptake from various infant diets. The authors have investigated the uptake of copper from human milk, cow's milk, cow's milk formulas, cereal/milk formula and soy formula, compensating for the decay of 64Cu and using the suckling rat as a model. Radiocopper was added to the diet in trace amounts. Ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, and gel filtration were used to show that the added 64Cu bound to milk fractions and individual binding compounds in a manner analogous to the distribution of native copper, thus validating the use of extrinsically labeled diets. Labeled diets were intubated into 14-day-old suckling rats. Animals were killed after 6 h and tissues removed and counted. Liver copper uptake was 25% from human milk, 23% from cow's milk formula, 18% from cow's milk, 17% from premature (cow's milk based) infant formula, 17% from cereal/milk formula and 10% from soy formula. These results show that the rat pup model may provide a rapid, inexpensive, and sensitive method to assay bioavailability of copper from infant foods

  2. Halofuginone alleviates acute viral myocarditis in suckling BALB/c mice by inhibiting TGF-β1.

    Sun, Xiao-Hua; Fu, Jia; Sun, Da-Qing


    Viral myocarditis (VMC) is an inflammation of heart muscle in infants and young adolescents. This study explored the function of halofuginone (HF) in Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) -treated suckling mice. HF-treated animal exhibited higher survival rate, lower heart/body weight, and more decreased blood sugar concentration than CVB3 group. HF also reduced the expressions of interleukin(IL)-17 and IL-23 and the numbers of Th17 cells. Moreover, HF downregulated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine levels. The expressions of transforming growth factor(TGF-β1) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B (NF-κB) p65/ tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) proteins were decreased by HF as well. Finally, the overexpression of TGF-β1 counteracted the protection effect of HF in CVB3-treated suckling mice. In summary, our study suggests HF increases the survival of CVB3 suckling mice, reduces the Th17 cells and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and may through downregulation of the TGF-β1-mediated expression of NF-κB p65/TNF-α pathway proteins. These results offer a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of VMC. PMID:27021682

  3. The effects of parturition season and suckling mode on the puerperium of Santa Ines ewes and on the weight gain of lambs

    M.E.F. Oliveira


    Full Text Available Seventy-seven ewes were randomly divided into groups according to parturition season and suckling mode [Rainy season: continuous (n=14 and controlled (n=13; Dry season: continuous (n=25 and controlled (n=25]. The controlled suckling mode, in both seasons, resulted in a decrease in variables, intervals between parturition and first estrus (reduction of 27.11 and 11.46 days for rainy and dry season, respectively; P<0.05 and between parturition and estrus of conception (reduction of 12.81 and 13.58 days, for rainy and dry season, respectively; P<0.05. As to the lambs, the weight gain was higher in animals subjected to controlled suckling in relation to continuous, especially when lambing occurred in the rainy season (17.83±0.56 vs. 13.95±0.52kg for Lambs' weight at 90 days old, respectively; P<0.05. Therefore, it was concluded that controlled suckling management is better indicated for the Amazonian region, since it allows the ewes to have a shorter puerperium period and the lambs exhibit higher weight gain.

  4. Animals



    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  5. Gene expression profiles in rat mesenteric lymph nodes upon supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid during gestation and suckling

    Rivero Montserrat


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet plays a role on the development of the immune system, and polyunsaturated fatty acids can modulate the expression of a variety of genes. Human milk contains conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, a fatty acid that seems to contribute to immune development. Indeed, recent studies carried out in our group in suckling animals have shown that the immune function is enhanced after feeding them with an 80:20 isomer mix composed of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. However, little work has been done on the effects of CLA on gene expression, and even less regarding immune system development in early life. Results The expression profile of mesenteric lymph nodes from animals supplemented with CLA during gestation and suckling through dam's milk (Group A or by oral gavage (Group B, supplemented just during suckling (Group C and control animals (Group D was determined with the aid of the specific GeneChip® Rat Genome 230 2.0 (Affymettrix. Bioinformatics analyses were performed using the GeneSpring GX software package v10.0.2 and lead to the identification of 89 genes differentially expressed in all three dietary approaches. Generation of a biological association network evidenced several genes, such as connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (Timp1, galanin (Gal, synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1, growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (Grb2, actin gamma 2 (Actg2 and smooth muscle alpha actin (Acta2, as highly interconnected nodes of the resulting network. Gene underexpression was confirmed by Real-Time RT-PCR. Conclusions Ctgf, Timp1, Gal and Syt1, among others, are genes modulated by CLA supplementation that may have a role on mucosal immune responses in early life.



    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  7. Endogenous mu opioid systems and suckling in the neonatal rat.

    Petrov, E S; Varlinskaya, E I; Becker, L A; Smotherman, W P


    Localized injections of the mu antagonist CTOP into intracisternal (i.c.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) sites altered the behavior of 1-day-old rat pups during continuous exposure to an artificial nipple. Blockade of mu opioid receptors by i.c. injection decreased oral responsiveness to the nipple, while blockade of receptors by i.c.v. injection of CTOP increased oral responsiveness. The injection of CTOP into the i.c. site produced a transient reduction in body weight gain in pups suckling from their mother, while injection into the i.c.v. site had no effect. When cesarean-delivered pups were tested prior to suckling, injection of CTOP into the i.c. site increased latency of the first nipple attachment and decreased total time attached to a surrogate nipple providing milk. Injection of CTOP into the i.c.v. site decreased latency to the first nipple attachment. The results indicate that there is a caudal population of opioid receptors that is involved in the initiation of suckling behavior and a rostral population that plays a role in decreasing responsiveness at the nipple. PMID:9877428

  8. Gene expression profiles in rat mesenteric lymph nodes upon supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid during gestation and suckling

    Selga, Elisabet; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Franch, Àngels; Ramírez-Santana, Carolina; Rivero, Montserrat; Ciudad, Carlos J.; Castellote, Cristina; Noé, Véronique


    Background Diet plays a role on the development of the immune system, and polyunsaturated fatty acids can modulate the expression of a variety of genes. Human milk contains conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid that seems to contribute to immune development. Indeed, recent studies carried out in our group in suckling animals have shown that the immune function is enhanced after feeding them with an 80:20 isomer mix composed of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. However, little work has been done ...

  9. Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris lectin stimulation increases the number of enterochromaffin cells in the small intestine of suckling piglets

    Zacharko-Siembida Anna


    Full Text Available The quantities and distribution patterns of serotonin-immunoreactive (serotonin-IR enterochromaffin cells (EC were studied immunohistochemically in the small intestine of suckling piglets stimulated with red kidney bean lectin, and in nonstimulated, control animals. The co-expression patterns of serotonin with somatostatin (SOM or corticotropin releasing-factor (CRF were also studied. After the lectin treatment, the increased numbers of EC were noted in the duodenum of experimental animals. Lectin stimulation did not change the proportions of EC in the jejunum and ileum. In the duodenal epithelium of the lectin-stimulated piglets, the vast majority of serotonin-IR EC were distributed at the basis of crypts. After the lectin administration, the proportions of serotonin-IR/SOM-IR EC were statistically similar in all sections of the small intestine. No upregulation of CRF was found in duodenal, jejunal, and ileal EC of lectin-treated animals. The findings demonstrated that red kidney bean lectin increased the serotonin reservoir in the duodenum, and thus may be an effective stimulant of the gut maturation in suckling mammals.

  10. Influence Of Summer Season On Some Biochemical And Hormonal Changes In Crossbred Cows During Suckling Period

    According to the seasonal variations in environmental conditions in post-partum cows, some biochemical and physiological changes which affect the productive efficiency of farm animals may occur. This study was conducted in the bovine farm of Experimental Farms Project of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt, to evaluate some blood biochemical and some hormonal changes during the suckling period in crossbred cows under winter and summer conditions. Alterations in metabolites and metabolic hormones during the first 10 weeks post-partum in both winter and summer during a period of suckling were analyzed on a total of 13 crossbred (Brown Swiss X Balady) cows (winter, n=7; summer, n=6). The blood samples were taken at 2 weeks intervals, 5 times in each season to determine the concentrations and changes in glucose, urea, total cholesterol, total proteins and some hormones including leptin, T4 and progesterone (P4) under winter and summer conditions. The data indicated that total protein (P<0.01), glucose (P<0.05), leptin (P<0.01), total cholesterol (P<0.01), and T4 (P<0.01) had significant seasonal differences between the two calving groups. A positive correlation coefficient was observed between leptin and T4 hormone. From the obtained data, it could be concluded that in summer season, certain biochemical and hormonal levels of calving cows may enhanced but not enough to affect the levels of urea and progesterone. The positive correlation between leptin and T4 may indicate association in the rate of metabolism.

  11. Fate of milk calcium in the gastrointestinal tract of suckling rats

    In the rat, as in many other mammals, the majority of milk Ca is associated with casein micelles. Because luminal proteolysis is immature in the suckling rat, we investigated the hypothesis that milk Ca remains in the macromolecular form as it traverses the stomach and upper small intestine. When intestinal contents of rat pups were examined 1 h after gavage with 45Ca-milk, 98% of the 45Ca was found to be in a soluble form. Surprisingly, chromatography on Sephadex G-10 showed it to have a molecular weight in the range of that of Ca2+. Analysis of gastric contents showed the stomach to be the initial site of release of Ca from the casein micelles. Although only 45% of the 45Ca was in a soluble form in stomach contents, 100% of this soluble 45Ca behaved as Ca2+. Comparison with the fate of 32P from milk confirmed the suggestion that most of the Ca is released as Ca2+. In vitro studies suggested that this release is the result of simple dilution or the combined action of intrinsic milk enzymes and dilution. Because milk Ca appears to enter the small intestine as Ca2+, we presume its mechanism of absorption in suckling animals is the same as that already established using simple salts of Ca. Nevertheless, the slow release from the bound form may be important in establishing the physiological pattern of Ca absorption in the infant. Implications of this for the supplementation of milks for low-birth-weight human infants is discussed

  12. Lipid profile of commercial beef cuts from grazing, suckling calves

    Vargas, Karin


    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to determine the contents of fat, cholesterol and fatty acids of eight beef cuts from unsupplemented, suckling, 7-8 month old male and female calves reared on permanent pastures in the VIIth Region of Chile by small cattle producers. A total of 54 animals with a mean carcass weight of 150 ± 22 kg were slaughtered in a commercial abattoir on three different dates during the month of March, 2008. Five samples of each of eight cuts were collected at random as they exited the abattoir, cooled and packed following industry practices. Beef cuts were selected based on an earlier, unreplicated analysis of 21 common cuts, to represent a wide range of cuts currently available to consumers. Large and significant differences were observed in fat content with a mean of 2.12%, ranging between 4.23% for sirloin strip and 0.68% for butcher’s roast. The cholesterol content did not differ between cuts (mean 44.7 mg/100 mg meat and was unrelated to fat percentage. A stringent discriminant analysis of the fatty acid profiles detected highly significant differences between cuts and correctly classified 37 of the 40 samples. The n6:n3 ratio did not differ between cuts and ranged between 1.9 for sirloin strip and 2.6 for rib roast and silverside’s end. Significant differences between cuts were detected for most fatty acids, and for the atherogenicity index. Nevertheless, the latter only varied between 0.60 and 1.07 for topside and sirloin strip respectively. The results are compared with literature values. Notwithstanding differences between cuts, all beef samples were lean and had lipid profiles compatible with human health as part of a balanced diet.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el contenido de grasa, colesterol y perfil de ácidos grasos de ocho cortes provenientes de terneros lactantes, de 7-8 meses de edad y engordados en prados permanentes de la VII Region de Chile, por productores pequeños. Se

  13. Postnatal changes of plasma amino acids in suckling pigs.

    Flynn, N E; Knabe, D A; Mallick, B K; Wu, G


    Amino acids, ammonia, urea, orotate, and nitrate plus nitrite (stable oxidation products of nitric oxide) were determined in plasma of 1- to 21-d-old suckling pigs. Jugular venous blood samples were obtained from pigs at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 d of age for analysis of plasma amino acids and metabolites by HPLC and enzymatic methods. Plasma concentrations of arginine and its immediate precursors (citrulline and ornithine) decreased (P Plasma concentrations of glutamine declined (P Plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids, threonine, and alanine decreased (P changes (P > 0.05) in plasma concentrations of other amino acids. Plasma concentrations of ammonia increased (P nitric oxide synthesis, our results of the decreased plasma concentrations of arginine and nitrate plus nitrite, as well as the increased plasma ammonia concentration, indicate a hitherto unrecognized deficiency of arginine in 7- to 21-d-old suckling pigs. Arginine is an essential amino acid for piglets and has a great potential to enhance neonatal growth; therefore, further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism responsible for arginine deficiency in sow-reared piglets and to identify hormonal and metabolic means for improving neonatal arginine nutrition and growth. PMID:10985412

  14. Adverse effects of lactational exposure to chlorpyrifos in suckling rats.

    Mansour, S A; Mossa, A H


    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the oxidative damage, biochemical and histopathological alterations in sucking rats whose mothers were exposed to the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). Dams were administered CPF, via oral route. Doses equalled 0.01 mg kg(-1) body weight (b.wt.; acceptable daily intake, ADI), 1.00 mg kg(-1) b.wt. (no observed adverse effects level, NOAEL) and 1.35 mg kg(-1) b.wt. (1/100 lethal dose [LD(50)]) from postnatal day 1 until day 20 after delivery. At two high doses of CPF, the body weight gain and relative liver and kidney weight of suckling pups were significantly decreased. Exposure of the mothers to CPF caused increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) in lactating pups. CPF altered the level of the marker parameters related to the liver and kidneys. Consistent histological changes were found in the liver and kidneys of the subjected pups, especially at the higher doses. The results suggested that the transfer of CPF intoxication through the mother's milk has resulted in oxidative stress and biochemical and histopathological alterations in the suckling pups. The data of this study may be considered as a contribution to the problem of lactational transfer of the relatively less persistent OP pesticides, such as CPF. PMID:20028704

  15. Suckling a protein-restricted rat dam leads to diminished albuminuria in her male offspring in adult life: a longitudinal study

    James Lynwen A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that in male rats, exposure to maternal protein restriction either in utero or whilst suckling can have profound effects on both longevity and kidney telomere lengths. This study monitored albuminuria longitudinally in male rats whose mothers had been protein restricted either during pregnancy or lactation. Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were fed either a 20% ('control' or an 8% protein ('low protein' diet. At two days of age some of the pups were cross-fostered to dams fed the diet that was not given to their biological mothers. At weaning all pups were fed standard chow. Urine samples were collected for the measurement of albumin and creatinine at monthly intervals from two months-of-age. Longitudinal analysis was then performed using repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Overall estimated marginal geometric mean (95 % confidence interval urine albumin to creatinine ratios were: control animals 79.5 (57.2~110.6 g/mol (n = 6 litters, 24 animals in total, those exposed in utero to maternal protein restriction 71.0 (47.4~106.5 (n = 4 litters, 16 animals in total, those exposed to maternal protein restriction whilst suckling 21.2 (14.7~30.4 (n = 5 litters, 20 animals in total (p Conclusion Animals exposed to maternal protein restriction whilst suckling exhibited lower urine albumin excretions during much of adult life. As urine albumin can be nephrotoxic, these rats therefore appeared to be relatively protected against future nephron damage like that previously observed in animals exposed to maternal protein restriction in utero.

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Suilectin? (Phaseolus vulgaris lectins as a zootechnical additive for suckling piglets (performance enhancer

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP


    Full Text Available The active substance of Suilectin™ is a mixture of five phytohaemagglutinin (PHA isoforms. The Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP considers that the haemagglutination activity (measured by haemagglutinating units (HAUs does not reflect the biological activity of the additive in a comprehensive way. The additive is intended only for aqueous suspension in water for drinking or in liquid complementary feed for suckling piglets. The FEEDAP Panel concludes that the additive is safe for suckling piglets when used under the proposed conditions of use of 220 HAU/piglet for three days. The Panel also considers that there are no reasons to expect that the dose of 660 HAU/piglet in a single administration would not be safe. The use of Suilectin in accordance with the conditions of use proposed by the applicant is considered to be of no concern for the health of the consumer. Suilectin is not an irritant to skin or eyes and is not a skin sensitiser. However, considering its physical and toxicological properties, there is a potential hazard by inhalation exposure. Considering that PHAs are immunogenic substances, the additive should be considered to be a respiratory sensitiser. The additive is a natural plant substance and its use will not result in a substantial increase in concentration in the environment. Therefore there are no safety concerns for the environment. The FEEDAP Panel cannot conclude on the efficacy of the additive in suckling piglets.

  17. Impact of iron status on cadmium uptake in suckling piglets

    Low iron status is known to increase the uptake of dietary cadmium in both adolescents and adults and there are indications that cadmium is absorbed from the intestine by the two major iron transporters divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FPN1). In addition, it has been suggested that duodenal metallothionein (MT) may limit the transport of cadmium across the intestinal epithelium. The present investigation was undertaken to examine whether iron status influences cadmium absorption in newborns by applying a model of suckling piglets and the possible roles of duodenal DMT1, FPN1 and MT. An oral cadmium dose (20 μg/kg body weight) was given daily for 6 consecutive days on postnatal days (PNDs) 10-15 to iron-deficient or iron-supplemented piglets. The cadmium dose was chosen to keep the cadmium level at a realistically low but still detectable level, and without inducing any adverse health effects in the piglets. As indicators of cadmium uptake, cadmium levels in blood and kidneys were measured on PND 16 by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cadmium levels in blood were statistically significantly correlated with cadmium levels in kidneys. The cadmium uptake was not higher in iron-deficient suckling piglets; rather, we detected a higher cadmium uptake in the iron-supplemented ones. The expression and localisation of DMT1, FPN1 and MT were not affected by iron status and could therefore not explain the findings. Our results suggest that there are developmental differences in the handling of both iron and cadmium in newborns as compared to adults

  18. Artificial suckling in Martina Franca donkey foals: effect on in vivo performances and carcass composition.

    De Palo, Pasquale; Maggiolino, Aristide; Milella, Paola; Centoducati, Nicola; Papaleo, Alessandro; Tateo, Alessandra


    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest on donkey milk production, on its characteristics, and also on breeding techniques. Donkey milk is characterized by high economic value, although the productive level of jennies is poor. During the milking process, foals are usually separated from their dams, allowing the milk collection in the mammary gland of jennies before milking session. This takes 8 h per day of fastening period for lactating donkey foals. During this period, it could be possible to apply a partial artificial suckling system (artificial suckling during daytime and natural suckling during the night). The aim of the work is the evaluation of the effect of this innovative technique on in vivo performances and on meat production traits of Martina Franca donkey foals. Forty Martina Franca jennies with their foals were used for the trial. After colostrum assumption, 20 foals were partially artificially suckled (AS) during each day, and 20 foals were naturally suckled (NS). From 8.00 to 20.00, both groups were separated from their mothers in order to allow the milking procedures of the jennies. The AS group was in a stall equipped with an automatic calf-suckling machine. For each group, 10 foals were slaughtered at 12 months and 10 foals at 18 months. Artificial suckling system positively affected the growth rate of donkey foals, particularly in the first 6 months from birth, with higher weekly weight gain (P effects were observed on carcass dressing percentage (P > 0.05). Artificial suckling system permitted to extend the time of foal separation from their mothers increasing milk collection time per day, awarding fastening periods in foals. PMID:26510946

  19. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol as a feed additive for chickens for fattening, turkeys, other poultry, pigs, piglets (suckling, calves for rearing, calves for fattening, bovines, ovines, equines, fish and other animal species or categories, based on a dossier submitted by DSM

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP


    Full Text Available The principal physiological role of vitamin D in all vertebrates is in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. The classic clinical deficiency syndrome is rickets. The FEEDAP Panel notes that for turkeys for fattening, equines, bovines, ovines and pigs the maximum content for vitamin D3 in feed does not provide any margin of safety, and that, except for pigs, the maximum content is above the upper safe level, according to National Research Council data when animals were fed a supplemented diet for more than 60 days. No safety concern was identified for the use of vitamin D3 in chickens for fattening and fish. Not withstanding the long history of supplementing compound feed with vitamin D and the absence of publicly reported intolerances, the FEEDAP Panel is not in a position to draw final conclusions on the safety of vitamin D and considers the current maximum contents as temporarily acceptable. Any additional administration of vitamin D3 via water for drinking represents a safety concern. Current nutritional surveys in 14 European countries showed that vitamin D intake is sufficiently below the upper safe limit. The FEEDAP Panel assumes that foodstuffs of animal origin were produced following current production practices, including vitamin D3 supplementation of feed and concludes that the use of vitamin D in animal nutrition at the currently authorised maximum dietary content has not and will not cause the tolerable upper intake level to be exceeded. Vitamin D3 is not an irritant to skin and eyes and is not a skin sensitiser. Inhaled vitamin D3 is highly toxic; exposure to dust is harmful to persons handling the additive. No risk to the environment resulting from the use of vitamin D3 in animal nutrition is expected. The vitamin D3 under application is regarded as an effective dietary source of the vitamin in animal nutrition.

  20. Immunization with cholera toxin B subunit induces high-level protection in the suckling mouse model of cholera.

    Gregory A Price

    Full Text Available Cholera toxin (CT is the primary virulence factor responsible for severe cholera. Vibrio cholerae strains unable to produce CT show severe attenuation of virulence in animals and humans. The pentameric B subunit of CT (CTB contains the immunodominant epitopes recognized by antibodies that neutralize CT. Although CTB is a potent immunogen and a promising protective vaccine antigen in animal models, immunization of humans with detoxified CT failed to protect against cholera. We recently demonstrated however that pups reared from mice immunized intraperitoneally (IP with 3 doses of recombinant CTB were well protected against a highly lethal challenge dose of V. cholerae N16961. The present study investigated how the route and number of immunizations with CTB could influence protective efficacy in the suckling mouse model of cholera. To this end female mice were immunized with CTB intranasally (IN, IP, and subcutaneously (SC. Serum and fecal extracts were analyzed for anti-CTB antibodies by quantitative ELISA, and pups born to immunized mothers were challenged orogastrically with a lethal dose of V. cholerae. Pups from all immunized groups were highly protected from death by 48 hours (64-100% survival. Cox regression showed that percent body weight loss at 24 hours predicted death by 48 hours, but we were unable to validate a specific amount of weight loss as a surrogate marker for protection. Although CTB was highly protective in all regimens, three parenteral immunizations showed trends toward higher survival and less weight loss at 24 hours post infection. These results demonstrate that immunization with CTB by any of several routes and dosing regimens can provide protection against live V. cholerae challenge in the suckling mouse model of cholera. Our data extend the results of previous studies and provide additional support for the inclusion of CTB in the development of a subunit vaccine against V. cholerae.

  1. Cardiovascular, endocrine and behavioural responses to suckling and permanent separation in goats

    Winblad von Walter Louise


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suckling can be a peaceful or vulnerable event for goats and kids, whereas, separation is suggested as stressful. The aim of this study was to investigate physiology and behaviour in these two different situations in dairy goats. Methods Four studies were performed with seven goats kept with their first-born kid in individual boxes. The goats were videotaped and heart rate and arterial blood pressure were recorded every minute by telemetry from parturition until 24 hours after separation. One to two days after parturition, Study 1 was performed with analyses of heart rate and blood pressure around a suckling. In Study 2, performed 3-5 days after parturition, blood sampling was done before, during and after suckling. Study 3 was performed 4-6 days post partum, with blood sampling before and after a permanent goat and kid separation. In addition, vocalisations were recorded after separation. Blood samples were obtained from a jugular vein catheter and analysed for plasma cortisol, β-endorphin, oxytocin, and vasopressin concentrations. Study 4 was performed during the first (N1 and second nights (N2 after parturition and the nights after Study 2 (N3 and 3 (N4. Heart rate, blood pressure and time spent lying down were recorded. Results The kids suckled 2 ± 0.2 times per hour and each suckling bout lasted 43 ± 15 s. In Study 1, heart rate and blood pressure did not change significantly during undisturbed suckling. In Study 2, plasma cortisol (P ≤ 0.05 during suckling and P ≤ 0.01 five minutes after suckling and β-endorphin (P ≤ 0.05 concentrations increased during suckling, but oxytocin and vasopressin concentrations did not change. In Study 3, the goats and kids vocalised intensively during the first 20 minutes after separation, but the physiological variables were not affected. In Study 4, heart rate and arterial blood pressure declined gradually after parturition and were lowest during N4 (P ≤ 0.05 when the goats

  2. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) as a feed additive for chickens for fattening, turkeys, other poultry, pigs, piglets (suckling), calves for rearing, calves for fattening, bovines, ovines, equines, fish and other animal species or categories, based on a dossier submitted by DSM

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)


    The principal physiological role of vitamin D in all vertebrates is in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. The classic clinical deficiency syndrome is rickets. The FEEDAP Panel notes that for turkeys for fattening, equines, bovines, ovines and pigs the maximum content for vitamin D3 in feed does not provide any margin of safety, and that, except for pigs, the maximum content is above the upper safe level, according to National Research Council data when animals were fed a supplemented diet fo...

  3. Suckling mouse model establishment of myocarditis induced by foot-and-mouth disease vi rus%口蹄疫病毒致乳鼠心肌炎的动物模型

    张克山; 何继军; 吴佳俊; 刘永杰; 成伟伟; 尚佑军; 刘湘涛; 才学鹏


    Interactions between FMDV and cardiac cells are multifaceted and complex ,these interactions leads to pro-teins alterations in cardiac cells inevitably .To understand the pathogenesis of myocarditis after FMDV infection in mice ,the suckling mouse model for myocarditis induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was established in this study .Suckling mice within 3 days old was selected to infect by FMDV .Myocarditis caused by FMDV in suckling mice was confirmed with clinical symptom monitor .The observation of Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were performed after samples processing .According to conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods ,prim-ers of VP1 gene was designed ,synthesised and specific FMDV VP1 gene was amplified from the heart muscle of suckling mice . The results indicated that suckling mice appeared low spirit condition ,dyspnea ,and dull reaction within 36 hours after chal-lenge with FMDV .Infiltration of inflammatory cells and dissolution of myocardial fibers were observed with H&E stain and TEM .Special target gene of FMDV was amplified from the heart of infected group .Obvious inflammation in the heart of suck-ling mice caused by FMDV was observed .It's suggested that suckling mouse model for myocarditis induced by FMDV was es-tablished successfully ,which would lay the foundation for researches of myocarditis mechanism in young cloven-hoofed ani-mals .%目的:为建立乳鼠感染FMDV心肌炎的动物模型。方法本研究以3日龄乳鼠为研究对象,经病毒接种,饲养观察,乳鼠心肌 H .E染色,乳鼠心肌透射电镜显微观察和乳鼠心肌FMDV特异性目的基因扩增。结果结果显示接种FM-D V后36 h内乳鼠频临死亡,H .E染色和透射电镜观察可见乳鼠心肌明显炎症细胞浸润,心肌纤维部分溶解,感染组乳鼠心肌中检测到FMDV特有的VP1基因。结论建立了乳鼠感染FMDV心肌炎的动物模型,

  4. A comparative study of fatty acid profiles of fat in commercial Spanish suckling kids and lambs

    Alberto Horcada


    Full Text Available Fatty acid profiles are a major contributor to meat quality in small ruminants. Nevertheless, while fatty acid profiles from suckling lambs have been extensively studied they are virtually unknown in suckling kids. Fatty acid profiles of intramuscular and kidney knob fat depots of suckling kids were compared with fatty acid profiles of lambs with a quality label in the Spanish market. Forty suckling kids from Blanca Celtibérica (BC, Moncaína (Mo, Negra Serrana (NS and Murciano Granadina (MG breeds and 20 Churra male suckling lambs labelled with ‘Lechazo de Castilla y León’ Protected Geographic Indication were slaughtered at commercial live weights (12 kg. In both depots differences in the unsaturated fatty acid profile were observed between breeds. The most pronounced differences were observed between meat goat breeds (BC, Mo and NS and lambs, whilst a greater similarity in the fatty acid profile was observed between kids from dairy goat breeds (MG and lambs. The lowest polyunsaturated fatty acid content was observed in meat goat breeds (approximately 21 to 22% of total fatty acids detected in the intramuscular fat. No significant differences in atherogenic index and desirable fatty acid content (range 68 to 70% of total fatty acids detected were observed. However, a more favourable (lower than 8.07 n-6/n-3 ratio was observed in meat goat breeds. The use of fatty acid profiles from intramuscular and kidney knob fat could be proposed as a tool to differentiate goat kids and lambs. The fact that intramuscular fat from suckling kids and lambs shows appropriate lipid nutritional indices and their low carcass fatness indicate that moderate consumption of suckling kid and lamb meat may contribute to an overall balanced diet for humans.

  5. Linking suckling biomechanics to the development of the palate

    Li, Jingtao; Johnson, Chelsey A.; Smith, Andrew A.; Hunter, Daniel J.; Singh, Gurpreet; Brunski, John B.; Helms, Jill A.


    Skulls are amongst the most informative documents of evolutionary history but a complex geometry, coupled with composite material properties and complicated biomechanics, have made it particularly challenging to identify mechanical principles guiding the skull’s morphogenesis. Despite this challenge, multiple lines of evidence, for example the relationship between masticatory function and the evolution of jaw shape, nonetheless suggest that mechanobiology plays a major role in skull morphogenesis. To begin to tackle this persistent challenge, cellular, molecular and tissue-level analyses of the developing mouse palate were coupled with finite element modeling to demonstrate that patterns of strain created by mammalian-specific oral behaviors produce complementary patterns of chondrogenic gene expression in an initially homogeneous population of cranial neural crest cells. Neural crest cells change from an osteogenic to a chondrogenic fate, leading to the materialization of cartilaginous growth plate-like structures in the palatal midline. These growth plates contribute to lateral expansion of the head but are transient structures; when the strain patterns associated with suckling dissipate at weaning, the growth plates disappear and the palate ossifies. Thus, mechanical cues such as strain appear to co-regulate cell fate specification and ultimately, help drive large-scale morphogenetic changes in head shape.

  6. Tb-160 metabolism in the rat during lactation and suckling

    Terbium metabolism in the rat during lactation and suckling was studied. The study comprised 160 female Wistar rats with 160TbCl3 administered i.v. during various periods of lactation and their offspring. The largest amounts of Tb-160 were found in the liver (2,5% of the administered dose per gram of the organ) and bones (1,1% per gram) of female rats. The peak terbium uptake was found in the milk gland (2,1% of the dose) 2 hours after the i.v. administration. The uptakes in infants increased with age. No significant differences were observed in the specific activity of terbium in the stomach, large and small intestines of infants 1-21 days old. Biological half-lives for the stomach, small and large intestines were 0,60 ± 0,11, 1,89 ± 0,95 and 3,65 ± 0,12 days. 27 refs., 3 tabs. (author)

  7. Interaction of reproduction rhythm, suckling and parity on mating incidence, ovarian dynamics and estrogen secretion in the rabbit doe

    Maria Laura Marongiu


    Full Text Available The effects of suckling and remating interval (11 or 21 d post partum were studied in primiparous (P=25 and multiparous (M=23 hybrid rabbits. In P rabbits, suckling had no signifi- cant effect on mating incidence; however, a higher percentage of females accepted the male on d 11 than on d 21 (P<0.01. In M rabbits, no significant differences in mating performance due to either day, suckling or their interaction were found. A higher proportion of nonsuckled than suckled P rab- bits ovulated (P<0.01. Ovulation incidence was not affected significantly by day of mating, suckling or their interaction in M rabbits. A comparison of the day influence in P and M rabbits on mating incidence showed a greater effect in the P (P<0.05 while the suckling effect on ovulation perform- ance showed an insignificant difference in the two parity groups. Ovulation rate, as assessed by ultrasound, was not influenced significantly by day or suckling in either P or M rabbits. The follicle distribution was marked by fewer large follicles and lower plasma estrogen levels were detected in suckled than in nonsuckled P and M rabbits (P<0.05. Further research is needed to elucidate these phenomena also when AI is performed.

  8. Maternal milk as methylmercury source for suckling mice: neurotoxic effects involved with the cerebellar glutamatergic system.

    Manfroi, C B; Schwalm, F D; Cereser, V; Abreu, F; Oliveira, A; Bizarro, L; Rocha, J B T; Frizzo, M E S; Souza, D O; Farina, M


    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a highly neurotoxic compound and several studies have reported intoxication signs in children whose mothers were exposed to this environmental toxicant. Although it is well established that the in utero exposure to MeHg causes neurological deficits in animals and humans, there is no evidence of the exclusive contribution of lactational exposure to MeHg as a possible cause of neurotoxicity in the offspring. In this study, we investigated the exclusive contribution of MeHg exposure through maternal milk on biochemical parameters related to the glutamatergic homeostasis (glutamate uptake by slices) and to the oxidative stress (total and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups, nonprotein hydroperoxides, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities) in the cerebellum of suckling mice (Swiss albino). The same parameters were also evaluated in the cerebellum of mothers. Our results showed, for the first time, that lactational exposure to MeHg caused a high percent of inhibition (50%) on glutamate uptake by cerebellar slices in pups. Contrarily, this effect was not observed in mothers, which were submitted to a direct oral exposure to MeHg (15 mg/l in drinking water). In addition, behavioral/functional changes were observed in the weaning mice exposed to MeHg. It was observed an increase in the levels of nonprotein hydroperoxides in cerebellum, and this increase was negatively correlated to the glutamate uptake by cerebellar slices. This study indicates that (1) the exposure of lactating mice to MeHg causes inhibition of the glutamate uptake by cerebellar slices in the offspring; (2) this inhibitory effect seems to be related to increased levels of hydroperoxide. PMID:15201443

  9. The Effect of an Attenuated Rabies Virus SRV9 on Suckling Mouse Growth After Intracerebral Inoculation

    Zhuang Ding


    Full Text Available Rabies virus is a kind of virus having strict neurotropic property. Intracerebral inoculation method was commonly used to RV-related research. SRV9 is an attenuated RV vaccine strain. In the present study, we inoculated intracerebrally on suckling mouse with SRV9 strain. The results showed that SRV9 could cause a mortality rate of 100% on suckling mice below 13 day old. The mortality rates of 14-17 day old mice were 68, 33, 33 and 17%, respectively without incidence above 18 day old. Meanwhile, the results showed that the growth of survival suckling mice was inhibited remarkably after intracerebral inoculation SRV9. The 16 day old survival suckling mice were chosen to perform body weight test and the result showed that the weight growth was very slow with 14% less than normal growth rate. However, 2 weeks latter the weight of the mice began to recover gradually but slowly. It was suggested that the intracerebral RV reproduction could take a significant effect on the growth and development of the mice and with RV being eliminated by antibody, the weight of the mice which were inoculated with SRV9 could gradually recover.

  10. Effects of dietary fibre source on microbiota composition in the large intestine of suckling piglets.

    Zhang, Lingli; Mu, Chunlong; He, Xiangyu; Su, Yong; Mao, Shengyong; Zhang, Jing; Smidt, Hauke; Zhu, Weiyun


    This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary fibre sources on the gut microbiota in suckling piglets, and to test the hypothesis that a moderate increase of dietary fibre may affect the gut microbiota during the suckling period. Suckling piglets were fed different fibre-containing diets or a control diet from postnatal day 7 to 22. Digesta samples from cecum, proximal colon and distal colon were used for Pig Intestinal Tract Chip analysis. The data showed that the effects of fibre-containing diet on the gut microbiota differed in the fibre source and gut location. The alfalfa diet increased Clostridium cluster XIVb and Sporobacter termitidis in the cecum compared to the pure cellulose diet. Compared to the control diet, the alfalfa diet also increased Coprococcus eutactus in the distal colon, while the pure cellulose diet decreased Eubacterium pyruvativorans in the cecum. The pure cellulose diet increased Prevotella ruminicola compared to the wheat bran diet. Interestingly, the alfalfa group had the lowest abundance of the potential pathogen Streptococcus suis in the cecum and distal colon. These results indicated that a moderate increase in dietary fibres affected the microbial composition in suckling piglets, and that the alfalfa inclusion produced some beneficial effects on the microbial communities. PMID:27231242

  11. Utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink (Mustela vison) kits

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Hansen, Niels E; Chwalibog, André


    The efficiency of utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink kits from small (n = 3), medium (n = 6) and large litters (n = 9) was investigated by using 36 mink dams and their litters for measurements during lactation weeks 1 through 4. Measurements on each dam and litter were...

  12. Protective effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in experimentally induced enertopathy in non-suckling baby rats

    Štěpánková, Renata; Kofroňová, O.; Kozáková, Hana; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Tlaskalová, Helena

    Praha, 2003, s. 68. [Annual Meeting of Espghan /36./. Praha (CZ), 04.06.2003-07.06.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : egf * non-suckling Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  13. Effect of goat production systems on meat quality and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) content in suckling kids

    Vonghia, G; G. Cappiello; F. Giannico; M.A. Colonna; A. Caputi Jambrenghi


    The effect of goat production systems was evaluated on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in meat obtained from suckling kids. Twenty male Ionica suckling kids fed only on maternal milk were subdivided into two groups of 10 subjects each according to their dams’ feeding treatment: kids in Group I were raised under dams reared by an intensive production system, while those of Group E were raised under dams grazing on pasture. Kids were slaughtered when 45 days old. The g...

  14. Thyroid function in post-weaning rats whose dams were fed a low-protein diet during suckling

    Ramos C.F.


    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the thyroid and pituitary hormone levels in post-weaning rats whose dams were fed a low-protein diet during suckling (21 days. The dams and pups were divided into 2 groups: a control group fed a diet containing 22% protein that supplies the necessary amount of protein for the rat and is the usual content of protein in most commercial rat chow, and a diet group fed a low-protein (8% diet in which the protein was substituted by an isocaloric amount of starch. After weaning all dams and pups received the 22% protein diet. Two hours before sacrifice of pups aged 21, 30 and 60 days, a tracer dose (0.6 µCi of 125I was injected (ip into each animal. Blood and thyroid glands of pups were collected for the determination of serum T4, T3 and TSH and radioiodine uptake. Low protein diet caused a slight decrease in radioiodine uptake at 21 days, and a significant decrease in T3 levels (128 ± 14 vs 74 ± 9 ng/dl, P<0.05, while T4 levels did not change and TSH was increased slightly. At 30 days, T3 and TSH did not change while there was a significant increase in both T4 levels (4.8 ± 0.3 vs 6.1 ± 0.2 µg/dl, P<0.05 and in radioiodine uptake levels (0.34 ± 0.02 vs 0.50 ± 0.03%/mg thyroid, P<0.05. At 60 days serum T3, T4 and TSH levels were normal, but radioiodine uptake was still significantly increased (0.33 ± 0.02 vs 0.41 ± 0.03%/mg thyroid, P<0.05. Thus, it seems that protein malnutrition of the dams during suckling causes hypothyroidism in the pups at 21 days that has a compensatory mechanism increasing thyroid function after refeeding with a 22% protein diet. The radioiodine uptake still remained altered at 60 days, when all the hormonal serum levels returned to the normal values, suggesting a permanent change in the thyroid function

  15. Intestinal lactase (beta-galactosidase) and other glycosidase activities in suckling and adult tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii).

    Walcott, P J; Messer, M


    The activities of various glycosidases in homogenates of the small intestinal mucosa of two adult and 18 suckling tammar wallabies (M. eugenii) aged from 6 to 50 weeks were investigated. Lactase (beta-D-galactosidase), beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, alpha-L-fucosidase and neuraminidase activities were high during the first 34 weeks post partum and then declined to very low levels. Maltase, isomaltase, sucrase and trehalase activities were very low or absent during the first 34 weeks, and then increased. The lactase activity was unusual in being greater in the distal than the middle or proximal thirds of the intestine, and in its low pH optimum (pH 4.6), inhibition by p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate but not by Tris, and lack of cellobiase activity. These properties are those of a lysosomal acid beta-galactosidase rather than of a brush border neutral lactase. The maltase activity had the characteristics of a lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase early in lactation and of a brush border neutral maltase in adult animals. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to changes in dietary carbohydrates during weaning and to the mode of digestion of milk carbohydrates by the pouch young. PMID:6783021

  16. Developmental toxic effects in suckling pups of rats from dams treated with diclofenac

    M. K. Shindala


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess developmental toxic effects in suckling pups of rats from dams treated withdiclofenac (0.5, 2.5, 5, 15, 30, 60 mg/kg, i.m. given once daily for 10 consecutive days (first nursing period. Exposure ofsuckling offspring to diclofinac through the milk caused severe toxic effects in pups which appeared as high mortality rate inpups from dams treated with diclofenac at (15, 30, 60 mg/kg manifested by sharply reduced in the percentage of survival ofthe pups to weaning to (0%. In addition, the pups from dams treated with diclofenac (2.5 mg/kg demonstrated retardation insomatic growth which appearred as significantly decreased body weight rate and index of development accompanied by asignificantly increased in the liver / body weight ratio of pups. In conclusion, the results suggest that diclofenac induceddevelopmental toxic effects in suckling pups of rats exposed to its through the milk.

  17. Developmental toxic effects in suckling pups of rats from dams treated with betamethasone

    M. K. Shindala


    Full Text Available Suckling pups of rats from dams treated with betamethasone 0.3, 0.6, 1.2 mg/kg, i.p. given once daily for 10 consecutive days (first nursing period demonstrated in a dose – dependent manner significant decreased (P<0.05 the percentage of survival of the pups to weaning, body weight, index of development, whereas brain, heart, kindey, lung,liver / body weight ratio significantly increased (P<0.05 as well as delays in physical maturation (ear opening, fur development, tooth eruption, eye opening in the pups. Swimming scores on postnatal day 9, 13, 15, 17, 20 was significantly decreased (P<0.05 in offspring from mothers treated with betamethasone 1.2 mg/kg, i.p. In conclusion, the results suggest that betamethasone induced developmental toxic effects in suckling pups exposed to its through the milk.

  18. The development of suckling behavior of neonatal mice is regulated by birth

    Toda, Tomohisa; Kawasaki, Hiroshi


    Background Although the function of the sensory system rapidly develops soon after birth in newborn pups, little is known about the mechanisms triggering this functional development of the sensory system. Results Here we show that the birth of pups plays an active role in the functional development of the sensory system. We first optimized the experimental procedure for suckling behavior using neonatal mouse pups. Using this procedure, we found that preterm birth selectively accelerated the d...

  19. Influenza infection in suckling mice expands an NKT cell subset that protects against airway hyperreactivity

    Chang, Y.J.; Kim, H. Y.; Albacker, L.A.; Lee, H H; Baumgarth, N; Akira, S; Savage, P. B.; Endo, S.; T. Yamamura; Maaskant, J.; Kitano, N.; A Singh; Bhatt, A; Besra, G S; Elzen, van den, SJ Stef


    Infection with influenza A virus represents a major public health threat worldwide, particularly in patients with asthma. However, immunity induced by influenza A virus may have beneficial effects, particularly in young children, that might protect against the later development of asthma, as suggested by the hygiene hypothesis. Herein, we show that infection of suckling mice with influenza A virus protected the mice as adults against allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR), a cardinal f...

  20. Meat quality of suckling lambs supplemented with contents of crude glycerin in creep feeding

    Ana Carolina Ribeiro Sanquetta de Pellegrin


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of crude glycerin in the supplement provided in creep feeding on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of meat from suckling lambs kept in pasture ryegrass. Thirty two suckling lambs, sixteen male and sixteen female, were distributed into 4 diets with different concentrations of crude glycerin: 0, 10, 20 and 30% crude glycerin, in the replacement of corn, in the isoproteic supplement (18% CP provided daily in amounts equivalent to 2% of body weight. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with each variable data submitted to analysis of variance at 5% significance and the significant results subjected to regression analysis. There was no effect (P>0,05 of contents of crude glycerin on the chemical composition and cholesterol content of lamb meat. On the other hand, there was increased linearly (P>0,05 pH and cooking losses by the use of crude glycerin. No influence (P>0,05 of crude glycerin concentration on the texture profile analysis (TPA, sensorial analysis by triangular test and even when was evaluated attributes color, tenderness and juiciness of lamb meat. Up to 30% of crude glycerin in the supplement provided in creep feeding for suckling lambs grazing ryegrass do not compromise the physical-chemical and sensorial quality of the lamb meat.

  1. Diarréia em leitões lactentes por Clostridium perfringens tipo A em granjas tecnificadas nos estados de Minas Gerais e São Paulo Clostridium perfringens type A diarrhea in suckling piglets in industrial swine farms in the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo

    G.M. Costa


    Full Text Available Diarrhea in suckling piglets caused by Clostridium perfringens type A was diagnosed in industrial (technified swine farms of the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo (Brazil, based on isolation and identification of bacterium by biochemical tests, detection of alpha toxin in animal bioassays, and PCR. This seems to be the first report of clostridial enterotoxaemia in piglets by C. perfringens type A in Brazil and allowed specific procedures to control the disease.

  2. Maternal olfaction differentially modulates oxytocin and prolactin release during suckling in goats.

    Hernandez, Horacio; Serafin, Norma; Terrazas, Angélica M; Marnet, Pierre Guy; Kann, Guy; Delgadillo, José Alberto; Poindron, Pascal


    In postparturient goats, olfactory recognition of the young allows the establishment of a selective bond between the mother and her kids. Once this bond is formed, the mother rejects alien young that attempt to suckle. We tested whether the development of the maternal selective bond in goats modulates prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin (OT) release in response to suckling. On day 37 of lactation, serial blood samples were taken during nursing of the mother's own or alien kid(s) in 10 intact/selective goats and in 10 goats rendered anosmic/nonselective through prepartum peripheral ZnSO(4) irrigation. Spontaneous nursing behavior was also studied weekly from day 7 to 30 of lactation, at which time milk production was measured. Maternal selectivity had no effect on PRL release, in contrast to OT release, which was significantly affected by this factor. Intact mothers released OT only when nursing their own kids, but not with aliens, while anosmic/nonselective dams showed an increase in OT levels regardless of the identity of the kids. In addition to these effects on maternal selectivity, the amplitude of the response of both hormones was lower in anosmic mothers than in intact mothers. Finally, nursing behavior and milk production were not significantly affected by anosmia. We conclude that maternal selective behavior in goats, which relies on the individual olfactory signature of the kid, modulates the OT, but not the PRL, response to suckling. In addition, perception of the smell of the young appears to have a general facilitatory effect, independent of the kid's identity, on the release of both hormones. PMID:12367576

  3. Hepatic adaptation compensates inactivation of intestinal arginine biosynthesis in suckling mice.

    Vincent Marion

    Full Text Available Suckling mammals, including mice, differ from adults in the abundant expression of enzymes that synthesize arginine from citrulline in their enterocytes. To investigate the importance of the small-intestinal arginine synthesis for whole-body arginine production in suckling mice, we floxed exon 13 of the argininosuccinate synthetase (Ass gene, which codes for a key enzyme in arginine biosynthesis, and specifically and completely ablated Ass in enterocytes by crossing Ass (fl and Villin-Cre mice. Unexpectedly, Ass (fl/fl /VilCre (tg/- mice showed no developmental impairments. Amino-acid fluxes across the intestine, liver, and kidneys were calculated after determining the blood flow in the portal vein, and hepatic and renal arteries (86%, 14%, and 33%, respectively, of the transhepatic blood flow in 14-day-old mice. Relative to control mice, citrulline production in the splanchnic region of Ass (fl/fl /VilCre (tg/- mice doubled, while arginine production was abolished. Furthermore, the net production of arginine and most other amino acids in the liver of suckling control mice declined to naught or even changed to consumption in Ass (fl/fl /VilCre (tg/- mice, and had, thus, become remarkably similar to that of post-weaning wild-type mice, which no longer express arginine-biosynthesizing enzymes in their small intestine. The adaptive changes in liver function were accompanied by an increased expression of genes involved in arginine metabolism (Asl, Got1, Gpt2, Glud1, Arg1, and Arg2 and transport (Slc25a13, Slc25a15, and Slc3a2, whereas no such changes were found in the intestine. Our findings suggest that the genetic premature deletion of arginine synthesis in enterocytes causes a premature induction of the post-weaning pattern of amino-acid metabolism in the liver.

  4. Developmental toxic effects in suckling pups of rats from dams treated with diclofenac

    M. K. Shindala; L. E. Shemiss


    The aim of the present study was to assess developmental toxic effects in suckling pups of rats from dams treated withdiclofenac (0.5, 2.5, 5, 15, 30, 60 mg/kg, i.m.) given once daily for 10 consecutive days (first nursing period). Exposure ofsuckling offspring to diclofinac through the milk caused severe toxic effects in pups which appeared as high mortality rate inpups from dams treated with diclofenac at (15, 30, 60 mg/kg) manifested by sharply reduced in the percentage of survival ofthe p...

  5. Use of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) in suckling and weaned pig diets

    Watanasit, S.; Itharat, A.; Ruengrum, S.; Siriwathananukul, Y.


    Four levels of stevia supplementation in the diet of suckling pigs with combination of two feeding methods in weaned pigs were studied. Twenty litters with nine piglets each were allocated to four groups and fed four dietary stevia supplementations (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6%) from 7 days old to 21 days, weanling age. Two male weanlings of average weight of each litter were selected and alloted to one of two feeding methods, one male was fed basal diet 1 continuously while the other was fed by alte...

  6. Blood Sugar Values and Intestine Mucosa Integrity in Suckling Pigs in Relation to their Nutritional Status

    Olga Rada; Horea Sărăndan; Liliana Vasile; Diana Argherie


    The experiment included 106 healthy piglets aged 1-14 days and 38 piglets suffering from diarrhoea, aged 1-7 days. The blood sugar was measured with the help of Accu-chek Go (Roche Diagnostics GMBH, Germany) halfway between two sucklings. Segments with duodenum, jejunum and ileum were harvested from the diarrhoea suffering piglets and coloured HE preparations were examined under a stereoscopic magnifying glass and the microscope. With healthy piglets, the average blood sugar was of 61.55±10.2...

  7. Influence of ewe feeding systems on meat quality of suckling lambs

    V. Scerra


    Full Text Available In recent years interest has grown in the zootechnical exploitation of environmental feeding resources, above all in marginal areas. The survival of these areas is linked to the development of the limited available resources. Of these, natural pastures represent one of the most important, not only because their zootechnical utilisation permits savings in alimentary costs, but above all because it results in better quality dairy and meat products. The aim of this study is to verify if and to what level ewe feeding systems influence the meat quality of suckling lambs.

  8. Intermittent suckling improves post-weaning feed uptake but does not change functional gut characteristics of piglets

    Thymann, Thomas; Gudbergsen, C.; Bresson, Sven;


    Suckling pigs were separated from their dam for 24 h on day 21 (1x24 h fasting, n=10) or day 21 and 24 (2x24 h fasting, n=10). Pigs in the control group (n=10) were not fasted before weaning.......Suckling pigs were separated from their dam for 24 h on day 21 (1x24 h fasting, n=10) or day 21 and 24 (2x24 h fasting, n=10). Pigs in the control group (n=10) were not fasted before weaning....

  9. Effect of non-suckling on the pH of breast milk and its possible relationship with breast cancer

    Malhotra, S. L.


    The pH of breast milk was determined in 10 lactating mothers after interrupting suckling from one of the breasts, alternately for 120 hr during the 1st, 12th and the 16th postpartum weeks. The milk from the unsuckled breasts had a slightly higher pH at all three times, being slightly alkaline as compared with the suckled breasts from which the milk was slightly acidic. There were differences also between the three diurnal feeds, the pH being higher in the last diurnal samples. If this tempora...


    Aleš Pavlík


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows system.

  11. Distribution of lead in lactating mice and suckling offspring with special emphasis on the mammary gland

    The distribution of lead in lactating mice and suckling offspring was studied with whole body autoradiography at 4 and 24 h after a single intravenous injection of 203Pb (50 mmol Pb/kg) to the dams. In the lactating mice on day 14 of lactation, the highest uptake of radioactivity at 4 h after administration was recorded in renal cortex, skeleton and liver. A high uptake was also evident in the mannary gland. At 24 h after administration, the radioactivity had decreased in most organs except in the skeleton. In the suckling pups, exposed to lead only via dams' milk for 24 h, the highest level of radioactivity was present in the intestinal mucosa and a much lower level of radioactivity was present in the skeleton. The mammary glands from mice given three daily intravenous injections of 240 μmol Pb/kg were examined with X-ray microanalysis. At 4 h after the last injection, lead was found associated with casein micelles both inside the alveolar cell and in the milk lumen, indicating that lead is excreted into the milk, bound to casein, via the Golgi secretory system. (orig.)

  12. Effect of pretreatment female lactating rats with albendazole on preventing developmental and neurobehavioral toxicity of enrofloxacin in suckling pups

    M. K. Shindala


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluated the effect of treated female lactating rats with enrofloxacin alone and itsinteraction with albendazole on the occurrence of developmental and neurobehavioral toxicity in suckling pups by usingpercentage of survival of pups to weaning as well as neurobehavioral test (surface righting reflex. The exposure of sucklingpups to enrofloxacin alone through the milk caused sever toxic effects manifested by significant decrease in percentage ofsurvival in pups to weaning to (0% as result from death all pups from dams were treated with enrofloxacin at high dose (480mg/kg, i.m. during the first 5 days of lactation. Whereas, treated lactating female rats with albendazole at (300 mg/kg, orally,1 hour before enrofloxacin (480 mg/kg, i.m. during the first 5 days of lactation protected suckling pups from developmentaltoxic effects of enrofloxacin which mainly appeared as a significant increase in percentage of survival of pups to 100% asresult from survival all suckling pups to weaning, accompanied by preventing the neurobehavioral toxicity of enrofloxacin insuckling pups manifested by highly significant decreased response time to surface righting reflex to (2.64 ± 0.57 minuets inthe postnatal day 3 in compared with pups from dams that treated with enrofloxacin alone which reached to (15.82 ± 0.27minuets. In conclusion, our results suggest that pretreatment of female lactating rats with albendazole protecte suckling pupsfrom developme-ntal and neurobehavioral toxicity of enrofloxacin.

  13. Transplacental passage of 26Al from pregnant rats to fetuses and 26Al transfer through maternal milk to suckling rats

    Aluminium (Al) is toxic to the growth of fetuses and sucklings. However, the incorporation of Al into fetuses and sucklings in the periods of gestation and lactation has not been well clarified because Al lacks a suitable isotope for a tracer experiment. In this study, we used 26Al (a radioisotope of Al with half-life of 716,000 yr) as a tracer, and measured 26Al incorporation into fetuses and sucklings by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To investigate Al incorporation into fetuses through transplacental passage, 26Al (26AlCl3) was subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats on day 15 of gestation. 26Al was also subcutaneoulsy injected into lactating rats from day 1 to day 20 postpartum. By day 20 of gestation, 0.2% of the 26Al injected into a pregnant rat had been transferred to the fetuses, and 26Al was detected in the brain and liver of the fetuses. On day 9 postpartum, high levels of 26Al were demonstrated in the brain, liver, kidneys and blood of suckling rats. It is concluded that 26Al subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats and/or lactating rats is incorporated into their offspring through transplacental passage and/or maternal milk

  14. Roles of outer capsid proteins as determinants of pathogenicity and host range restriction of avian rotaviruses in a suckling mouse model

    We previously demonstrated that a pigeon rotavirus, PO-13, but not turkey strains Ty-3 and Ty-1 and a chicken strain, Ch-1, induced diarrhea in heterologous suckling mice. In this study, it was suggested that these avirulent strains, but not PO-13, were inactivated immediately in gastrointestinal tracts of suckling mice when they were orally inoculated. To determine which viral proteins contribute to the differences between the pathogenicitiy and the inactivation of PO-13 and Ty-3 in suckling mice, six PO-13 x Ty-3 reassortant strains that had the genes of the outer capsid proteins, VP4 and VP7, derived from the opposite strain were prepared and were orally inoculated to suckling mice. A single strain that had both PO-13 VP4 and VP7 with the genetic background of Ty-3 had an intermediate virulence for suckling mice. Three strains with Ty-3 VP7, regardless of the origin of VP4, rapidly disappeared from gastrointestinal tracts of suckling mice. These results indicated that the difference between the pathogenicity of PO-13 and that of Ty-3 was mainly dependent on both their VP4 and VP7. In particular, VP7 was found to be related to the inactivation of Ty-3 in gastrointestinal tracts of suckling mice

  15. Breastfeeding practices: Positioning, attachment (latch-on and effective suckling - A hospital-based study in Libya

    Ram C Goyal


    Full Text Available Purpose/Objective: To assess the correct position, attachment and effective suckling in the breastfeeding of infants as practiced by mothers attending hospitals at Benghazi. Materials and Methods : An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was done at AlJamahiriya and AlFateh Hospital in Benghazi, Libya, from November 2009 to February 2010. One hundred ninety-two mother-neonate units were observed for mother′s and baby′s position, attachment and effective suckling using WHO B-R-E-A-S-T- Feed observation form. Grading of positioning, attachment and suckling was done according to the score of various characteristics. Data thus collected were analyzed using software SPSS 11.5 version. Results: About 15% of the infants were about a week old (early neonatal period and 85% were in the late neonatal period. There was poorer positioning among primipara (24.0% than multipara (8.9-12.5%mothers. Poorer attachment was also more evident among primipara (30.0% compared to multipara (20.9% mothers. Parity was significantly associated with poor position (P = 0.028 and attachment (P = 0.002. Poor attachment was related to cracked nipples and mastitis. Preterm and low birth weight were significantly associated with poor attachment and poor effective suckling. Poor suckling was more (42.8% in the early neonatal period than late neonatal period (32.9%. Conclusions and Recommendations: Young (<20 years and primipara mothers were more in need of support and guidance for appropriate breastfeeding techniques. It is recommended that each mother should be observed for mother′s and infant′s positioning and attachment at the onset of breastfeeding and if needed subsequent counseling should be given on correct positioning and attachment.

  16. Use of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni in suckling and weaned pig diets

    Watanasit, S.


    Full Text Available Four levels of stevia supplementation in the diet of suckling pigs with combination of two feeding methods in weaned pigs were studied. Twenty litters with nine piglets each were allocated to four groups and fed four dietary stevia supplementations (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% from 7 days old to 21 days, weanling age. Two male weanlings of average weight of each litter were selected and alloted to one of two feeding methods, one male was fed basal diet 1 continuously while the other was fed by alternating basal diet 2 and basal diet 1 for 35 days of experiment, according to the split plot in randomized complete block design.The results showed that piglets fed with 0.2 and 0.4% stevia in suckling diets had double daily feed intake compared to those fed 0% stevia in the diet (12.36 vs 5.93 g/d, but this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05. The daily feed intake and average daily gain decreased when suckling pigs were fed with 0.6% stevia in the diet. Continuous or alternating feeding had no effect (P>0.05 on feed intake and growth performance of weaned pigs (aged 21-56 days fed with various levels of stevia supplementation in the diets. However, daily feed intake of weaned pigs fed with 0.4% stevia (748 g/d was significantly (P<0.01 higher than that of pigs fed with 0, 0.2 and 0.6% stevia in the diets (617, 649 and 589 g/d, respectively. Average daily gain followed the same pattern (507 vs 419, 455 and 401 g/d, respectively, P<0.01. Moreover, although feed cost per gain of piglets fed with 0.2 and 0.4% stevia in the diets were higher, the income was higher than those fed with 0% stevia in the diet.

  17. [Inhibitory effect of ortho-aminoazotoluene on diethylnirtosamine hepatocarcinogenesis in suckling mice. Phenomenon and possible mechanism].

    Kaledin, V I; Il'nitskaia, S I; Popova, N A; Baginskaia, N V; Bagdanova, L A; Perepechaeva, M L; Grishanova, A Iu


    The modifying effect of the one compound on carcinogenicity of the other in the combined application is attributed usually to some changes in the carcinogen metabolism, i.e. its activation or inactivation. In this paper, when used separately, diethylnitrosamine (DENA) induced 4-6 times more neoplastic lesions in the liver of suckling mice than ortho-aminoazotoluene (OAT) did. However, after combined treatment with both carcinogens the total number of hepatic lesions was significantly lower than that in mice treated with DENA only. Similar effect was observed when OAT was administered 3 days before or 3 days after DENA injection. The observed protective effect is not mediated at metabolic level, because OAT has no effect on metabolism of DENA in mouse liver. Our findings can be unequivocally explained by the competition of the carcinogens for target protein molecules, presumably transcription factors, participating in hepatocyte differentiation, which differently interact with and are diversely impaired by different compounds. PMID:25707246

  18. Effect of slaughter weight and breed on instrumental and sensory meat quality of suckling kids.

    Ripoll, G; Alcalde, M J; Horcada, A; Campo, M M; Sañudo, C; Teixeira, A; Panea, B


    The effects of breed and slaughter weight on chemical composition, fatty acid groups, texture, and sensory characteristics of meat of 141 suckling male kids from 5 Spanish breeds were studied. There was a decrease in texture and lightness and hue angle with the increase of the slaughter weight. Fatty acid composition was correlated with the intramuscular fat content. All the breeds except MO had values of n-6/n-3 ratio below 4, which is the healthy limit recommended, and a low atherogenic index as well as a low intramuscular fat content. A multivariate analysis discriminated light kid, which had the most tender and juicy meat, from heavy kid which had more intense kid and milk odours. Blanca Andaluza and Pirenaica had most tender and juicy meat. The effect of slaughter weight on meat traits should be considered separately for each breed to find the most appropriate meat according to consumers preferences. PMID:22546814

  19. Influence of ewe feeding systems on carcass quality of suckling lambs

    M.C. Sinatra


    Full Text Available Numerous studies have evidenced significant differences in the carcass and meat quality of grass-fed and concentrate-fed lambs. The main differences regard carcass fatness (Murphy et al., 1994, subcutaneous fat colour (Prache and Theriez, 1999, meat colour (Priolo et al., 2002a and fatty acid composition (Enser et al., 1998. The use of grazing in lamb feeding favours the presence of substances in the meat which are beneficial to human health. Different methods, based on the spectrophotometric properties of fat have been proposed to verify the origin of the product (Priolo et al., 2002b. The objective of the present study is to verify if and to what extent the carcass quality of suckling lambs is affected by ewe feeding systems.

  20. Effect of restricted suckling on the onset of follicular dynamics and body condition score in Brahman cattle raised under tropical conditions.

    Mondragón, Violeta; Galina, Carlos S; Rubio, Ivette; Corro, Manuel; Salmerón, Frida


    With the aim of evaluating the effect of restricted suckling on the onset of follicular dynamics and body condition, multiparous Bos indicus cows were distributed in two groups. One group (RS=36) was subjected to a scheme of restricted suckling starting at 21 days postpartum. Calves were allowed to suckle once per day for a period of two h whilst the control group (C=18) remained with their dams at all times. At calving, body condition score, back fat thickness and body weight had similar values (p>0.05) for both groups. By day 85 postpartum both groups had recorded losses in body weight. The cows in the continuous group formed a greater (p0.05). The number of cows that exhibited estrus after 45 days, was greater (p0.05). A regime of restricted suckling favors the earlier growth of follicles and the prompt restoration of ovarian activity. PMID:26936657

  1. Effects of time of suckling during the solar day on duration of the postpartum anovulatory interval in Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows.

    Gazal, O S; Guzman-Vega, G A; Williams, G L


    Previously published reports have indicated that postpartum anovulatory intervals can be markedly reduced and rebreeding performance enhanced in Bos taurus cows by eliminating nighttime suckling. We sought to confirm this hypothesis by examining the effects of day, nighttime, and ad libitum suckling on suckling behavior of calves, duration of the postpartum anovulatory interval, and pregnancy rates in 45 fall-calving Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows. Beginning on d 9 to 12 postpartum, calves were removed from lactating cows from 0700 to 1900 (Night-Suckled, n = 15) or from 1900 to 0700 (Day-Suckled, n = 15), or remained with their dams continuously (Ad Libitum-Suckled, n = 15). Cows in each group were maintained with fertile Angus bulls from d 10 postpartum until the first normal luteal phase or 100 d postpartum, whichever occurred first. Cows were observed for estrous behavior twice daily, and jugular blood samples were collected twice weekly for the determination of serum progesterone concentration. Mean number of suckling episodes per 24 h was greater (P or = 1 ng/mL (32+/-2.5, 32+/-4.5, and 31+/-1.7 d, respectively), first normal luteal phase (38+/-3.1, 38+/-3.8, and 37+/-2.5 d, respectively), and first estrus (43+/-3.5, 40+/-3.9, and 36+/-1.1 d, respectively) did not differ (P > .05) among the three groups. Similarly, cumulative pregnancy rates within 100 d after calving did not differ (P > .05). These results in Bos indicus x Bos taurus (F1) cattle do not support the previous conclusions in Bos taurus that eliminating nighttime suckling reduces the postpartum anovulatory interval. PMID:10340568

  2. Effect of added Punica granatum peel fruits and Nigella sativa seeds on immunology and performance of suckling buffalo calves

    The use of feed additives is considered as a good source to improve the immunity status of newborn calves instead of chemical products because the residuals of chemical products may have side effects on human health on the long-run. Punica granatum fruits peel (Pg-p) has been shown to possess a significant antioxidant activity also valued for their therapeutic properties and used to remove intestinal tapeworm. On the other hand, seeds of Nigella sativa (NS) are rich in fatty acids (Linoleic and Linolenic acid), essential fatty acids and non-starch polysaccharide. Recently, clinical and animal studies have shown that extract of the NS seeds have many therapeutic effects such as immunomodilative, antibacterial, hypotensive, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Thirty-six suckling buffalo claves (18 males and 18 females) were used in this study with average live body weight 38.44 ± 0.62 kg. The calves were divided into 3 groups, each group allotted to receive one of 3 tested starters throughout 105 d. The starter was offered without additive in the control group (G1), while it was mixed with 2% Pg-p in group (G2) and with 2% Pg-p plus 3% NS in group (G3). Weekly faecal swabs were collected from the experimental animals for bacteriological examination. Immunoglobulins (Ig) and blood metabolites were determined in blood serum. Three sets of digestion trials were carried out using 3 male calves of each group that fed the same tested rations. Milk consumption was not significantly different among groups while, starter and clover hay intake was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in G3 than those in groups G1 and G2. The total weight gain achieved by group G3 was greater than that of G1 and G2 groups by 25.60% and 7.80%, respectively. Blood TP was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in G3 than that in G1. An albumin value was relatively higher in G1 compared with the treated G2 and G3. Meanwhile, blood urea nitrogen was significantly greater in G2 in comparison with G1 and

  3. Aislamiento de Clostridium perfringens tipo D en un ternero lactante afectado con abomasitis ulcerativa Isolation of Clostridium perfringens type D from a suckling calve with ulcerative abomasitis

    R. A ASSIS


    Full Text Available Se describe un brote de abomasitis ulcerativa asociada con infección por Clostridium perfringens tipo D en terneros lactantes. Seis terneros Holstein, de 2 semanas de edad, murieron después de presentar anorexia y apatía. Otros animales del mismo establecimiento habían muerto de la misma forma seis meses antes. A la necropsia el abomaso estaba muy distendido con contenido fluido y oscuro, la mucosa estaba edematosa y presentaba gran cantidad de úlceras milimétricas y habían depósitos de fibrina en la serosa. En el ciego de un animal se observaron extensas areas de infarto. En frotis de la mucosa abomasal se observaron bacilos cortos Gram positivos, no esporulados, aislándose de ella un cultivo rico de C. perfringens tipo D. Es probable que la baja inmunidad de los terneros debido a falta de calostro y estrés alimenticio, haya sido el predisponente para la infección por C. perfringens tipo DAn outbreak of ulcerative abomasitis in suckling calves associated with Clostridium perfrigens type D infection is described. Six twoweek old Holstein calves died after showing loss of appetite and lethargy. Other animals had died in similar circumstances during the previous six months. At necropsy, the abomasum was severely distended with dark fluid and the mucosa was oedematous and covered with many millimetric ulcers, while the serous surface of this organ was covered with fibrin. Several irregular black areas of infarcts were observed in the cecum of one animal. Histologically, the abomasal mucosa showed ulcers and haemorrhage, while the submucosa showed severe oedema and infiltration of neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Short, thick, nonsporulated Gram positive rods were observed on smears of abomasal mucosa. C. perfringens type D was isolated from the abomasal mucosa. Low immunity and stress could have contributed to the pathogenesis of the lesions described

  4. Investigation on genetically modified soybean (RoundUp Ready in goat nutrition: DNA detection in suckling kids

    F. Infascelli


    Full Text Available The presence of plant DNA fragments in blood, kidney, hearth, liver, spleen and muscle tissue from suckling kids was investigated by using PCR approach. Fragments of high copy number chloroplast and low copy soybean lectin genes were found in several samples of kids whose mother were fed diet containing conventional (control or transgenic soybean (treated. Only in treated group, fragments of 35S and CP4 epsps soybean genes were found in several samples.

  5. Live weight and sex effects on carcass and meat quality of "Borrego terrincho-PDO" suckling lambs

    Santos, Virgínia; Silva, Severiano; Mena, Elizabete; Azevedo, Jorge Manuel Teixeira de


    Fifty seven suckling lambs (28 males and 29 females) of the Churra da Terra Quente breed were used to evaluate the effects of live weight and sex on carcass composition and meat quality traits. Lambs were slaughtered at three weight classes ( 11 kg) according to "Borrego Terrincho-PDO" specifications. The left sides of the carcasses were totally dissected. The longissimus thoracis and lumborum muscle was used for meat quality determination. Dressing proportion and carcass...

  6. Pancreatic Lipase-related Protein 2 Is the Major Colipase-Dependent Pancreatic Lipase in Suckling Mice1

    D’Agostino, Dymphna; Lowe, Mark E.


    Suckling mice express colipase before the expression of pancreatic triglyceride lipase. Yet, efficient fat digestion in newborns requires colipase, suggesting that colipase may act as a cofactor for another lipase such as pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (PLRP2). We determined whether PLRP2 or another lipase depends on colipase for maximal activity in newborn mice by analyzing extracts from the pancreas of 4-d-old colipase-deficient and PLRP2-deficient mice. Pancreatic extracts from colipa...

  7. Effect of Suckling Systems on Serum Oxytocin and Cortisol Concentrations and Behavior to a Novel Object in Beef Calves.

    Chen, Siyu; Tanaka, Shigefumi; Ogura, Shin-Ichiro; Roh, Sanggun; Sato, Shusuke


    We investigated differences between effects of natural- and bucket-suckling methods on basal serum oxytocin (OT) and cortisol concentrations, and the effect of OT concentration on affiliative and investigative behavior of calves to a novel object. Ten Japanese Black calves, balanced with birth order, were allocated evenly to natural-suckling (NS) and bucket suckling (BS) groups. Blood samples were collected at the ages of 1 and 2 months (1 week after weaning) calves, and serum OT and cortisol concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzymeimmunoassay tests, respectively. Each calf at the age of 2 months (2 weeks after weaning) was released into an open-field with a calf decoy, and its investigative and affiliative behaviors were recorded for 20 minutes. In 1-month-old calves, the basal serum OT concentration (25.5±4.9 [mean±standard deviation, pg/mL]) of NS was significantly higher than that of BS (16.9±6.7) (p<0.05), whereas the basal cortisol concentration (5.8±2.5 [mean±standard deviation, ng/mL]) of NS was significantly lower than that in BS (10.0±2.8) (p<0.05). Additionally, a negative correlation was noted between serum OT and cortisol concentrations in 1-month-old calves (p = 0.06). Further, the higher serum OT concentration the calves had at 1 month old, the more investigative the calves were at 2 months old but not affiliative in the open-field with a calf decoy. Thus, we concluded that the natural suckling method from a dam elevates the basal serum OT concentration in calves, and high serum OT concentrations induce investigative behavior and attenuate cortisol concentrations. PMID:26580289

  8. Feeding a Diet Enriched in Docosahexaenoic Acid to Lactating Dams Improves the Tolerance Response to Egg Protein in Suckled Pups

    Caroline Richard


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a maternal diet supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA during the suckling period on the development of the immune system and oral tolerance (OT in offspring. Dams were randomized to consume one of two nutritionally adequate diets throughout the suckling period: control (N = 12, 0% DHA or DHA (N = 8, 0.9% DHA diet. At 11 days, pups from each dam were randomly assigned to a mucosal OT challenge: the placebo or the ovalbumin (OVA treatment. At three weeks, plasma immunoglobulins and splenocyte cytokine production ex vivo were measured. OVA-tolerized pups had a lower Th2 (IL-13 response to OVA despite the presence of more activated T cells and memory cells (CD27+, all p < 0.05. Feeding a high DHA diet improved the ability of splenocytes to respond to mitogens toward a skewed Th1 response and led to a higher IL-10 and a lower TGF-β production after stimulation with OVA (all p < 0.05. Untolerized DHA-fed pups had lower plasma concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (p for interaction < 0.05. Overall, feeding a high DHA maternal diet improves the tolerance response in untolerized suckled pups in a direction that is thought to be beneficial for the establishment of OT.

  9. Effects of goat milk or milk replacer diet on meat quality and fat composition of suckling goat kids.

    Bañón, S; Vila, R; Price, A; Ferrandini, E; Garrido, M D


    The effects of a diet with goat milk "GM" or milk replacer "MR" on the meat quality and fat composition of suckling Murciano-Granadina kids were studied. MR consisted of powdered skimmed milk, coconut oil and fat, and cereal products and by-products. Raw meat quality (moisture, protein, lipids, ash, collagen, cholesterol, haem pigments, CIELab colour, pH and water retention capacity), fatty acid "FA" composition and eating quality of cooked meat (odour, flavour and texture) were determined. Diet had only a slight effect on raw meat quality but had a pronounced effect on fatty acid composition and eating quality of cooked meat. MR diet increased the water/protein proportion in the muscle. The saturated/unsaturated FA ratio in GM and MR fat was 0.94 and 2.27, respectively. The major FA in GM and MR fat were C16:0 and C18:1, respectively. Short-chain C4-C12 hardly accumulated in the adipose tissue of suckling kid, increasing the relative percentages of C14-C20. This effect was more pronounced in MR fat, due to the fact that MR contained more short-chain fatty acids than GM. MR diet gave cooked meat a more intense characteristic goat meat odour and flavour, more tenderness and more juiciness than the natural suckling diet. This fact could be related to differences in meat and fat composition. PMID:22061547

  10. Effect of the dam’s feeding regimen on the meat quality of light suckling lambs

    G. Molle


    Full Text Available In order to verify the effect of the introduction of concentrates without GMO risk and at low aflatoxin risk in the diet of grazing milk ewes on the quanti-qualitative production of meat of their milk-fed light lambs, two trials were carried out - in Sicily, on 32 Comisana lambs, slaughtered at 49±4 days (trial 1; and in Sardinia, on 28 Sarda lambs, slaughtered at 31±4 days(trial 2 - comparing the following grazing dams’ feeding regimes: High stocking rate + Organic (barley – tickbean or pea Concentrate (HO; High stocking rate + Conventional (maize-soybean Concentrate (HC; Low stocking rate + Organic Concentrate (LO; Low stocking rate + Conventional Concentrate (LC. Lamb performances, carcass quality, meat colour and lipid content were not modified by dam’s feeding regimen. However, significant differences were observed in the fatty acid (FA composition of the intramuscular fat of the older suckling lambs of trial 1. The main variation concerned n-3 polyunsaturated FAs and conjugated linoleic acids.

  11. Suckling kid breed and slaughter weight discrimination using muscle colour and visible reflectance.

    Ripoll, G; Alcalde, M J; Horcada, A; Panea, B


    Meat colour was evaluated in 141 male suckling kids from five Spanish breeds: Blanca Andaluza (BA), Blanca Celtibérica (BC), Moncaína (MO), Negra Serrana-Castiza (NE) and Pirenaica (PI). Kids were slaughtered at 7.5 and 11.5 kg. pH and colour were measured in the longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle. pH values did not differ significantly among breeds. Lightness tended to decrease and redness to increase as weight increased. BC and NE at light weight and BC and BA at heavy weight were characterized by greater lightness, chroma and hue. At both weights MO and PI were darker and showed lower values for chroma and hue. BA at light weight and NE at heavy weight were characterized by values that were between those of the former groups for all variables. Discriminant analysis based on colour and pH correctly classified 48.9% of the kids into their breed and slaughter weight. PMID:21041040

  12. Fellatio in captive brown bears: evidence of long-term effects of suckling deprivation?

    Sergiel, Agnieszka; Maślak, Robert; Zedrosser, Andreas; Paśko, Łukasz; Garshelis, David L; Reljić, Slaven; Huber, Djuro


    Sexually stimulating behaviors that are not linked to reproduction are rare among non-human (especially non-primate) mammals. Such behaviors may have a function in the hierarchy of social species. In solitary species, such behaviors are more enigmatic, and possibly indicative of something abnormal. Here, we report on a case of two male brown bears, raised in captivity since being orphaned as cubs, which engaged in recurrent fellatio multiple times per day until at least 10 years old. The roles of provider and receiver in the act remained unchanged, and the behavior itself became highly ritualized. The provider always initiated the contact involving vigorous penile sucking that appeared to result in ejaculation. We suggest that the behavior began as a result of early deprivation of maternal suckling, and persisted through life, possibly because it remained satisfying for both individuals. This constitutes the first descriptive report of fellatio in bears, and suggests that some bears may suffer lifelong behavioral consequences from being orphaned at an early age. PMID:24899532

  13. Effects of suckling duration on growth, slaughtering and carcass quality characteristics of Kivircik lambs.

    Ekiz, Bulent; Kocak, Omur; Yalcintan, Hulya; Yilmaz, Alper


    Effects of suckling length (45, 75 and 120 days) and birth type (single and twin) on lamb growth, slaughtering and carcass quality characteristics were investigated using 40 Kivircik lambs. SC-45 and SC-75 lambs were weaned at 45 and 75 days of age, respectively, whilst SC-120 lambs remained with their mothers until the end of the experimental period. Lambs from all studied groups were slaughtered at 120 days of age. Weaning treatment caused a decrease in average daily gain in SC-45 and SC-75 lambs, and therefore, final weight was higher in SC-120 lambs than lambs from weaned groups. SC-120 lambs had higher empty body weight, cold carcass weight, dressing percentage, carcass measurements, carcass fatness (proportions of the kidney knob and channel fat, subcutaneous and intramuscular fat in pelvic limb) and non-carcass fatness (omental and mesenteric fat proportion) than weaned lambs. As a conclusion, the potential losses in meat production due to weaning should be considered before deciding the weaning of lambs at early ages. PMID:26676241

  14. Some effects of partial suckling on milk yield, reproduction and calf growth in crossbred dairy cattle in north east coastal Tanzania

    Two experiments are described where a progeny of Bos taurus x Bos indicus crossbred cows were reared by partial suckling or bucket rearing (Experiment I), and partially suckled calves were weaned at 12 or 24 weeks of age (Experiment II). The results of Experiment I suggest that calf rearing method had no significant effect in the yield of milk extracted from the cows by hand milking although there were effects on the shape of the lactation curve. Cows showed similar patterns of live weight and body condition losses and gains and there were no significant effects on the length of the post partum interval. Suckled calves were lighter at weaning (P <0.01) but there were no differences in live weight between treatments at 52 weeks of age. The main advantage of partial suckling was that the calves took advantage of residual milk which was estimated as 28-29% of the total yield. The results from Experiment II suggest that there were no advantages in terms of milk yield or calf growth by extending the suckling period to 24 weeks. The post partum intervals observed in Experiment II were substantially longer than those in Experiment I, possibly because of greater live weight/body condition losses experienced by cows in the second experiment. (author)

  15. Transfer of 109Cd in the mother's body to the suckling infant mice through the milk and its distribution in their whole bodies

    To point out the transfer of injected 109Cd in mothers, body to suckled infant mice through the milk and its distribution in their whole bodies, the following experiments were performed. Pregnant mice received 8μ Ci of 109Cd by intravenous injection 7 days before parturition. After the delivery, the suckled infant mice were killed and fixed by momentary freezing in the refrigerated room of -15 deg C every day from 1 to 5 days and 10 days after the births. 109Cd was found in the intestines of the suckled infant mice from 1 to 5 days after the births, but no trace of 109Cd was confirmed there 10 days after the births. Mother mice had been given the same dose of 109Cd shortly after the parturition, and gave suck to her infants. The suckled infants were killed and fixed 7 and 10 days after the births by the same method. All specimens were investigated by whole body autoradiography. 109Cd was observed in the gastrointestinal tract of the suckled infant mice 7 and 10 days after the births. No clear evidence was obtained in the experiments to support that 109Cd had been absorbed from the gastrointestinal tracts. However, final conclusion cannot be drawn from these small number of samples, and further work is needed. (Kobatake, H.)

  16. Evaluation of oestrus observation and conception rates in suckling beef cows using whole milk progesterone concentration

    D.C. Lourens


    Full Text Available A 2-sample regime was used to measure whole milk progesterone concentration on the day of oestrus and insemination (Day 0 and 6 days later (Day 6 in a sample of 50 primiparous and 100 multiparous suckling beef cows. Exposure to teaser bulls and observation by cattlemen identified the occurrence of oestrus. Three sets of criteria used to define ovulatory oestrus were compared : a milk progesterone concentration less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 ; b milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6; c milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6, or cow diagnosed pregnant to 1st insemination. Using only a single milk sample on Day 0 (criterion a would have resulted in the positive predictive value of heat detection being estimated at 98.7%. Using a paired measurement (criterion b resulted in a significantly lower estimate of 84.7%. The inclusion of cows that conceived despite not showing a marked rise in milk progesterone concentration (criterion c resulted in a more accurate estimate of 89.3%. Use of a 2-sample regime also allowed calculation of conception rates while eliminating the effect of heat detection errors. In the cows sampled, of those in ovulatory oestrus that were inseminated, 73.1% conceived to the 1st insemination. These results demonstrate that artificial insemination within a limited breeding season can be successful if nutrition is optimal and management is intensive. The use of a 2-sample milk progesterone test may be a valuable tool in investigating heat detection and conception problems in beef herds in which artificial insemination is used.

  17. Supplemental arginine above the requirement during suckling causes obesity and insulin resistance in rats.

    Otani, Lila; Mori, Tomomi; Koyama, Ayaka; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Kato, Hisanori


    Nutrition in early life is important in determining susceptibility to adult obesity, and arginine may promote growth acceleration in infants. We hypothesized that maternal arginine supplementation may promote growth in their pups and contribute to obesity and alteration of the metabolic system in later life. Dams and pups of Wistar rats were given a normal diet (15% protein) as a control (CN) or a normal diet with 2% arginine (ARG). Altered profiles of free amino acids in breast milk were observed in that the concentrations of threonine and glycine were lower in the ARG dams compared with the CN dams. The offspring of the CN and ARG dams were further subdivided into normal-diet (CN-CN and ARG-CN) groups and a high fat-diet groups (CN-HF and ARG-HF). In response to the high fat-diet feeding, the visceral fat deposits were significantly increased in the ARG-HF group (although not compared with the CN-HF group); no difference was observed between the CN-CN and ARG-CN groups. The blood glucose and insulin levels after glucose loading were significantly higher in the ARG-HF group compared with the CN-HF group. The results suggest that the offspring of dams supplemented with arginine during lactation acquired increased susceptibility to a high-fat diet, resulting in visceral obesity and insulin resistance. The lower supply of threonine and glycine to pups may be one of the contributing causes to the programming of lifelong obesity risk in offspring. Our findings also indicated that maternal arginine supplementation during suckling causes obesity and insulin resistance in rats. PMID:27188903

  18. Study on the determinants of suckling mice neurovirulence of dengue 2 virus

    赵卫; 范宝昌; 胡志君; 陈水平; 王鹏程; 苑锡同; 李晓萸; 于曼; 秦鄂德; 杨佩英


    pDVWS501 was a genomic-length cDNA clone of dengue 2 virus, through which infectious virus (MON501) could be rescued. MON501 was neurovirulent in mice, whose E residues 62 and 203 were Lys and Asn, respectively. Two genomic-length cDNA clones (TB62 and TB203) were constructed by pointed mutation of pDVWS501 with OL-PCR, E62 of TB62 and E203 of TB203 were converted to Glu and Asp, respectively. RNA transcripts of pDVWS501, TB62 and TB203 were produced in vitro and electroporated into BHK-21 cells. The cultures were collected after 7 days and used as inoculum to infect C6/36 cells. The existence of rescued dengue viruses in the culture was proved by RT-PCR, and the typical cytopathic effect (CPE) of C6/36 caused by dengue virus emerged after 2-5 days' inoculation. Sequence analysis further confirmed the existence of recovered and recombinant DEN2 viruses, whose 5′ termini had an additional non-virus nucleotides "G", while the 3′ terminal sequences remained the same as natural. The neurovirulence of three viruses was evaluated in 1-day-old mice by the intracerebral route with 105-102 TCID50. Compared with MON501 group, the number of infected mice with the signs of encephalitis in HFT62 and HFT203 groups was less, and the surviving time was longer. The properties of these mutants demonstrated that E62 and E203 are determinants of suckling mice neurovirulence.

  19. Fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissues of organic and conventional Blanca Andaluza suckling kids

    F. De la Vega


    Full Text Available Interest in the preservation of autochthonous breeds such as the Blanca Andaluza goat (meat breed, raised under grazing-based management, has recently increased among Spanish farmers. A study of the possibilities of transformation to organic production needs to analyze the quality of their products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid (FA composition of muscle and adipose tissues of Blanca Andaluza goat kids under organic and conventional grazing–based management system. Twenty-four twin kids (12 males, 12 females were selected from each system. The FA profile was determined in the longissimus thoracis muscle, kidney and pelvic fat. The percentages of C17:0, C17:1, C20:1, C20:4 n-6, C22:2 and several n-3 FAs were higher in organic meat; C12:0, C18:1 trans-11, CLA and C20:5 n-3 were lower in organic meat. The fat depots from the conventional kids showed lower percentages of C12:0, C14:0, C15:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:3 n-3 and atherogenicity index, and higher percentage of C18:0. In the pelvic fat, the conventional kids displayed lower percentages of C16:0, C18:2 n-6 cis, PUFA, n-3 and n-6 FAs, and greater percentages of C18:1 n-9 cis and MUFA. The conventional kids displayed a major n6:n3 ratio in the kidney fat. No gender differences were observed. Significant differences were found only in some FA percentages of muscle and adipose tissues of suckling kids raised in organic and conventional livestock production systems, and due to this reason conventional grazing–based management farms could easily be transformed into organic production.

  20. Type of corn and grinding degree in a concentrate supplied to suckling calves

    Cibele Santos Ferreira


    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the effects of a concentrate consisting of two types of corn: flint and dent, with three different grinding degrees (1, 3 and 5 mm, as a function of intake, performance and digestibility of three crossbred dairy suckling heifers. A randomized block design involving 54 crossbred heifers in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement was used to assess intake and performance patterns. In order to assess digestibility, the experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of 24 crossbred heifers. Weighting and measurements of height at withers and thoracic perimeter were performed. There was no significant interaction between grinding degree and corn type for any of the studied variables. The daily intake of concentrate dry matter was higher for flint corn (243 g/day as compared with dent corn (160 g/day. The grinding degree caused difference in the dry matter, crude protein and ether extract intake, with higher intake when 3 and 5 mm sieves were used in the process. There was no difference regarding average daily gain and increased withers, croup and thoracic perimeter. Likewise, feed conversion did not differ. Regarding dry matter digestibility, there was an effect resulting from the hardness of corn (78.9% for dent, and 84.3% and for flint corn. As for the grinding degree, the highest value of dry matter digestibility was found when using 5 mm sieves (84.2%, whereas the percentage values found for 1 mm and 3 mm mesh sieves were 79.1% and 78.1%, respectively. It is recommended that heifer calves in the early stage of growth be fed flint corn ground through 3 or 5 mm mesh sieves.

  1. Reproductive performance of dairy cows suckled or milked three or six times daily

    During 6 weeks after calving 29 dairy cows were kept in three treatment groups: M3 - milked three times daily, M6 - milked six times daily, and S - milked three times and suckled three times daily. During weeks 7-18 all the cows were milked three times daily. Throughout the experiment a diet of 65% concentrate was fed ad-libitum. Visual observations of sexual behaviour were carried out four times daily. Cows were inseminated commencing 59 days post-partum. Blood was collected three times per week for progesterone, glucose and FFA determinations analysis. Milk production during the first 6 weeks was 35.3, 42.6 and 50.0 kg/day (P<0.01) and during the whole 18 weeks 36.7, 42.5 and 41.7 kg/day (P<0.05) for cows of the M3, M6 and S groups respectively. Dry matter intake during the first six weeks was 16.8, 19.4 and 16.2 kg/day (P<0.05), and body weight loss during this period was 23.3, 31.4 and 59.1 kg (P<0.05) for cows of the M3, M6 and S groups respectively. In groups M3, M6 and S the first ovulation occurred on average 26, 37 and 48 days post-partum (P<0.01), conception rate was 27, 18 and 45% (P<0.01) and pregnancy rate at 150 days post-partum was 80, 33 and 80% (P<0.05) respectively. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  2. Effect of goat production systems on meat quality and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA content in suckling kids

    G. Vonghia


    Full Text Available The effect of goat production systems was evaluated on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in meat obtained from suckling kids. Twenty male Ionica suckling kids fed only on maternal milk were subdivided into two groups of 10 subjects each according to their dams’ feeding treatment: kids in Group I were raised under dams reared by an intensive production system, while those of Group E were raised under dams grazing on pasture. Kids were slaughtered when 45 days old. The goat production system had no effect on kids’ growth rates, slaughtering yield and on the percentages of lean, fat and bone of the lumbar region and pelvic limb cuts. The pH value of the Longissimus lumborum (Ll muscle 45 min after slaughter was higher in Group I (6.73 vs 6.54; P<0.05. Meat colour of Group E kids was lighter (50.63 vs 48.86 and showed greater (P<0.05 yellowness (13.42 vs 11.93 and Chroma values (14.92 vs 13.45. Cooking loss was higher in Group E (31.51 vs 26.98%; P<0.05, but meat tenderness of the Ll muscle was better (peak force of 2.86 vs 3.58 kg/cm2; P<0.05. Meat chemical composition did not differ between the two groups for either raw or cooked samples. On the whole, suckling kids raised under grazing goats showed a higher total CLA concentration in both raw (2.57 vs 2.25% on total fatty acids and cooked meat (1.85 vs 1.44%, although the differences were not significant.

  3. Flux control exerted by overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase over palmitoyl-CoA oxidation and ketogenesis is lower in suckling than in adult rats.

    Krauss, S; Lascelles, C V; Zammit, V A; Quant, P A


    We examined the potential of overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I) to control the hepatic catabolism of palmitoyl-CoA in suckling and adult rats, using a conceptually simplified model of fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. By applying top-down control analysis, we quantified the control exerted by CPT I over total carbon flux from palmitoyl-CoA to ketone bodies and carbon dioxide. Our results show that in both suckling and adult rat, CPT I exerts very significant control over the pathways under investigation. However, under the sets of conditions we studied, less control is exerted by CPT I over total carbon flux in mitochondria isolated from suckling rats than in those isolated from adult rats. Furthermore the flux control coefficient of CPT I changes with malonyl-CoA concentration and ATP turnover rate. PMID:8912677

  4. RNA Interference Targeting VP1 Inhibits Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Replication in BHK-21 Cells and Suckling Mice

    Chen, Weizao; Yan, Weiyao; Du, Qingyun; Fei, Liang; Liu, Mingqiu; Ni, Zheng; Sheng, Zutian; Zheng, Zhaoxin


    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool to silence gene expression posttranscriptionally. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral potential of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which is essential during the life cycle of the virus and plays a key role in virus attachment to susceptible cells. We investigated in vivo the inhibitory effect of VP1-specific siRNAs on FMDV replication in BHK-21 cells and suckling mice, a commonly used small an...

  5. " Animal, trop animal "

    Potestà, Andréa


    Dans la tradition philosophique, on trouve plusieurs définitions de l’homme. La célèbre définition aristotélicienne, zoon logon echon (animal doué du langage ou animal rationnel) fournit le paradigme ainsi que la méthode de toutes les définitions successives. Il s’agit d’ajouter au vivant, à l’animal, quelque chose d’autre, quelque chose de plus, qui permette de le caractériser et le fasse entendre comme différent des bêtes. Cette diversité peut être conçue différemment : en tant qu’élévation...

  6. Identificación de fimbrias de Escherichiacoli enteropatógeno mediante inmunohistoquímica en cerdos lactantes con diarrea Inmunohistochemical identification of enteropathogenic E. coli fimbriae in suckling pigs with diarrhoe

    A.M. CANAL


    aglutination test. The most commonly diagnosed etiological agent in suckling pigs with diarrhea was E. coli (34% alone and 24% associated, followed by Salmonella sp, Rotavirus and Campylobacter sp. IHC identified antigen with the isolation of E. coli, in ten pigs, in one with Salmonella sp and in five without ethiological diagnosis. The most frequent fimbrial antigen found was F41 in eight pigs aged 1 to 35 days, followed by the association F4-F41 in five animals with ages ranging between 15 to 28 days and finally, F4 in three pigs between 8 and 35 days. The results confirm the importance of fimbrial antigens as adhesion factor on enteropathogenic E. coli in the small intestine of suckling pigs, since the effectiveness of inmunohistochemistry for identity the fimbrial antigen in paraffin embedded intestines

  7. Chitosan can stop or postpone the death of the suckling mice challenged with foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Li Dong


    Full Text Available Abstract In the study, a method called "hardening in liquid phase" for preparing chitosan granules with glutaraldehyde as crosslinker and Tween 80 as surfactant and paraffin liquid as dispersant was established. The chitosan granules were light yellow and insoluble in water or oil, but they swelled in acid solution and narrowed in neutral or alkaline solution. Furthermore, some of characteristics of the chitosan granules were revealed. (a Stability: Their shapes were stable at pH 7.0 and pH 8.0 and -30°C~120°C. The shelf life is at least one year in vitro at room temperature. (b Safety: Some experiments of their lethal effect to suckling mice and pathogenicity to mature mice proved the chitosan granules were harmless. (c Antiviral activity: Some suckling mice injected with chitosan granules were still alive or delayed death compared with control group when they challenged with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. Such anti-FMDV capacity could maintain 1 week and was the strongest on the third day.

  8. Artificially suckled I.H.D.H. (Italian Heavy Draught Horse foals: in vivo performances and ethograms

    Pasquale Centoducati


    Full Text Available The research was carried out on 6 “Italian Heavy Draught Horse” orphan foals ar- tificially suckled by an automatic milk feeder. The purpose of the research was to show that artificial weaning does not have a negative effect on a foal’s growth and welfare. The foals were reared in an indoor box, weighed every 3 weeks from day 4 after birth and observed for 24 consecutive hours at the age of 4, 10, 47, 114, 142 and 176 days, to compile an ethogram which includes biorhythms, and social, alimentary and eliminative behavioural patterns. During the study, “daily weight gains” were greater than 1610 g/d; but between 26 and 46 days and after weaning, values were lower than 1230 g/d, and between 172 and 193 days, prior to slaughtering, they were of 1090 g/d. Age had a significant (P<0.001 on almost all the ethological parameters considered, above all for the time spent lying down above all for the time spent lying down and the licking structures (P<0.01, and for the drinking bouts (P<0.05. The period of adaptation to artificial feeding certainly lasted at least two weeks. These results suggest that the technique of artificial suckling can be applied to horses without negative effects on growth and welfare, any subjects showed abnormal behaviour.

  9. Amazing Animals

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad


    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  10. Use of hormonal determination by radioimmunoassay to monitor post-partum ovarian activity in Surti buffalo in relation to suckling effect

    The present investigation was undertaken to monitor the ovarian activity by estimating ovarian hormones (estradiol- 17β and progesterone) during post-partum period (from calving to first heat post-partum) in relation to suckling stimulus which is known for delaying first post partum estrus. Two groups of buffalo were studied and the results are presented

  11. Characterization by culture-dependent and culture-1 independent methods of the 2 bacterial population of suckling-lamb packaged in different atmospheres

    Oses, S.M.; Diez, A.M.; Melero, B.; Luning, P.A.; Jaime, I.; Rovira, J.


    This study offers insight into the dynamics of bacterial populations in fresh cuts of suckling lamb under four different atmospheric conditions: air (A), and three Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) environments, 15%O2/30%CO2/55%N2 (C, commercial), 70%O2/30%CO2 (O), and 15%O2/85%CO2 (H) for 18 days

  12. Feeding Value of Corn Gluten Meal as a Source of Protein in Creep Feeding Diets of Suckling Lambs

    Forty-two newly born lambs were randomly divided into three similar groups, their weights were recorded at birth then each two weeks. Lambs in the groups were left to suckle their mothers, in addition to one of the experimental diets (as creep feeding), which found in Table (1). First group (Gl) fed diet contains 13% soybean meal (SBM) and served as a control diet, second group (G2) fed diet contains 6.5% SBM and 6.5% corn gluten meal (CGM), and third group (G3) fed diet contains 13% CGM. The concentrate feed mixture was offered daily started at 7th days of age until weaning. Blood samples were taken at 7, 40 and 80 days of age. The results showed that averages daily body weight gain and weaning weight of lambs were higher significantly with G2 than G3 then Gl. In addition, male lambs had higher weaning weight and average daily weight gain than female lambs in the three groups. The highest means of serum total proteins, albumin and globulin recorded with G2 followed by G3 then Gl o Means of serum glucose significantly decrease with age. Blood serum aspartate amino -transferase (AST) and alanine amino - transferase (ALT) creatinine concentration and T3 level were not affected by treatments. Serum triglyceride and serum cholesterol levels were higher recorded for Gl and G2 than G3. It is concluded that adding corn gluten meal to creep feeding diets improves growth of suckling lambs without any side effects on physiological body function of lambs

  13. Transfer and distribution of accumulated (/sup 14/C)polychlorinated biphenyls from maternal to fetal and suckling rats

    Takagi, Y.; Aburada, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Kitaura, T.


    (/sup 14/C)polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs (KC-600)) were administered orally to female rats at the dose of 10 mg/kg in olive oil once a week for five weeks. Four weeks after the last administration of (/sup 14/C)PCBs, they were mated with untreated males. The distribution of total /sup 14/C was examined in maternal and offspring tissues. The average amount of PCB accumulated in dams was 44.2% of the dose two weeks after the last administration. The average amount transferred from dam to fetus was 0.003% accumulated in the dam. In the fetus, the highest concentration was found in the fetal placenta followed by the liver, heart, skin, muscle, blood, lung, and brain. The PCBs level in fetal blood was the same as in maternal blood. The average concentration of PCBs in milk was 1.84 ppm. The amount transferred to sucklings increased gradually to about 5% of the maternal PCBs. In suckling rats, PCBs were distributed at the highest concentration in adipose tissues and at intermediate concentrations in the skin, adrenal gland, and liver. The liver to body weight ratio of offspring was significantly increased on the 11th and 25th days after birth. The nursing rats had lower PCBs concentrations compared with the pregnant and virgin rats. The organ concentrations of PCBs in dam and offspring were about ten times as high as those found after treatment with Kanechlor-400. These results may suggest that PCBs with higher chlorine content remained in tissues for a longer period of time.

  14. Maternal transfer of the cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) via milk to suckling offspring.

    Andersson, Marie; Karlsson, Oskar; Bergström, Ulrika; Brittebo, Eva B; Brandt, Ingvar


    The cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been implicated in the etiology of neurodegenerative disease and proposed to be biomagnified in terrestrial and aquatic food chains. We have previously shown that the neonatal period in rats, which in humans corresponds to the last trimester of pregnancy and the first few years of age, is a particularly sensitive period for exposure to BMAA. The present study aimed to examine the secretion of (14)C-labeled L- and D-BMAA into milk in lactating mice and the subsequent transfer of BMAA into the developing brain. The results suggest that secretion into milk is an important elimination pathway of BMAA in lactating mothers and an efficient exposure route predominantly for L-BMAA but also for D-BMAA in suckling mice. Following secretion of [(14)C]L-BMAA into milk, the levels of [(14)C]L-BMAA in the brains of the suckling neonatal mice significantly exceeded the levels in the maternal brains. In vitro studies using the mouse mammary epithelial HC11 cell line confirmed a more efficient influx and efflux of L-BMAA than of D-BMAA in cells, suggesting enantiomer-selective transport. Competition experiments with other amino acids and a low sodium dependency of the influx suggests that the amino acid transporters LAT1 and LAT2 are involved in the transport of L-BMAA into milk. Given the persistent neurodevelopmental toxicity following injection of L-BMAA to neonatal rodent pups, the current results highlight the need to determine whether BMAA is enriched mother's and cow's milk. PMID:24194910

  15. Feeding probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus (MTCC 5897) fermented milk to suckling mothers alleviates ovalbumin-induced allergic sensitisation in mice offspring.

    Saliganti, Vamshi; Kapila, Rajeev; Sharma, Rohit; Kapila, Suman


    The neonatal period is often polarised to T helper (Th2) response at the time of birth, predisposing offspring to allergic disorders. Passive immunity through the mother's milk is critical for immune system development of newborns. Probiotics have been proposed to harmonise Th1/Th2 imbalance in allergic conditions in adults. In the present study, the anti-allergic effects of feeding probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus-fermented milk (PFM) either to dams during the suckling period or to their offspring after weaning individually or else in successive periods against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergy in newborns was analysed. After allergen sensitisation, physical symptoms of allergy, gut immune response, humoral immune response and cell-mediated response through interleukins were detected. Consumption of PFM by mothers and offspring showed a reduction (P<0·01) in physical allergic symptoms in newborns with an increase (P<0·01) in the numbers of goblet and IgA+ cells in the small intestine. Similarly, considerable (P<0·001) decreases in OVA-specific antibodies (IgE, IgG, IgG1) and ratios of IgE/IgG2a and IgG1/IgG2a in the sera of newborn mice were recorded. A decrease in IL-4 and an increase in interferon-γ levels further confirmed the shift from Th2 to Th1 pathway in PFM-fed mice. It is logical to conclude that the timing of PFM intervention in alleviating allergic symptoms is critical, which was found to be most effective when mothers were fed during the suckling period. PMID:26330132

  16. Low prevalence of porcine circovirus type 2 infections in farrowing sows and corresponding pre-suckling piglets in southern German pig farms.

    Eddicks, M; Koeppen, M; Willi, S; Fux, R; Reese, S; Sutter, G; Stadler, J; Ritzmann, M


    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the assumed causative agent of a number of different diseases summarized as porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). The virus is shed via different se- and excretions of PCV2 infected pigs. Transmission of the virus occurs horizontally and vertically either by oronasal or diaplacental infection. Recent research emphasizes the importance of diaplacental PCV2 infection or the infection in early stages of the piglet's life attributable to excretion of PCV2 by the dams within the suckling period. To estimate the prevalence of intrauterine PCV2 infections under field conditions in Bavaria the PCV2 status of farrowing sows (n=198) and corresponding pre-suckling piglets (n=590) of 20 piglet producing farms was examined. PCV2 viral load and anti-PCV2 antibodies in the serum of the sows and piglets were examined at time of farrowing or before colostrum intake, respectively. PCV2 excretion of the sows via saliva, feces and urine was examined additionally. PCV2 specific antibodies in the serum of the sows were detectable on 11 farms with a mean in herd seroprevalence of 35.5% in these farms. Only 0.65% of all samples collected from 198 sows were positive for PCV2 DNA (serum: 1%; feces: 0.5%; saliva: 0.5%; urine: 0.6%). PCV2 DNA was detectable in sample material from seronegative sows as well as from seropositive sows. In none of the pre-suckling serum samples of the piglets IgG antibodies against PCV2 or PCV2 DNA were present. No correlation between the antibody- and viremia status of the sows and the PCV2 excretion was detectable. In contrast to reports about a high prevalence of viremic pre-suckling piglets in the suckling period in North America, the results of the present study reveal that diaplacental infection with PCV2 is comparatively rare in Southern Germany and infection of piglets within the suckling period seems to be more likely. PMID:27066711

  17. Animal Farm



    This essayfirst introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  18. Animal Bites

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  19. Animal Bites

    ... and complications from bites Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate your cats, ferrets, and dogs against rabies Spay or neuter ...

  20. Animal Farm



    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  1. Animal ethics

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter


    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possibl...

  2. Quadruped Animation

    Skrba, Ljiljana; Reveret, Lionel; Hétroy, Franck; Cani, Marie-Paule; O'Sullivan, Carol


    Films like Shrek, Madagascar, The Chronicles of Narnia and Charlotte's web all have something in common: realistic quadruped animations. While the animation of animals has been popular for a long time, the technical challenges associated with creating highly realistic, computer generated creatures have been receiving increasing attention recently. The entertainment, education and medical industries have increased the demand for simulation of realistic animals in the computer graphics area. In...

  3. Thin Animals

    Johnston, D.


    Lattice animals provide a discretized model for the theta transition displayed by branched polymers in solvent. Exact graph enumeration studies have given some indications that the phase diagram of such lattice animals may contain two collapsed phases as well as an extended phase. This has not been confirmed by studies using other means. We use the exact correspondence between the q --> 1 limit of an extended Potts model and lattice animals to investigate the phase diagram of lattice animals ...

  4. Animal Deliberation

    Driessen, C.P.G.


    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  5. Animal models

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew


    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  6. 浅谈乳鼠在儿童药药理毒理学研究中的应用%Application of suckling mice in pediatric pharmacological and toxicological studies

    朴成玉; 于敏; 刘永武; 刘树民


    Research on laboratory animals is an important issue in biomedicine.Children are a special drug-using population.The selection of suitable experimental animals is a key issue to ensure the scientific quality of research for pediatric drugs.Based on the review of a large number of literature, the authors summarized the application of suckling mice in the pharmacological research and toxicological evaluation of pediatric drugs for the treatment of common diseases in children.We also summarized the existing problems in pediatric toxicology and proposed solutions for providing a reference of test animal application in pediatric drug research.%实验动物是医学生物学研究的重要手段,儿童是特殊的用药人群,故儿童药实验研究中选择合适的实验动物进行药理毒理学研究是保证新药研究科学性的关键问题。作者通过查阅大量文献,总结乳鼠在儿童常见疾病及其治疗药物药理学研究和毒理学评价中的应用情况,归纳乳鼠在药理毒理学研究中存在的问题,提出解决方法,为儿童药研发中受试动物的应用提供参考。

  7. An observational study on the prevalence and impact of Isospora suis in suckling piglets in southwestern Ontario, and risk factors for shedding oocysts

    Aliaga-Leyton, Andrea; Webster, Emma; Friendship, Robert; Dewey, Cate; Vilaça, Kevin; Peregrine, Andrew S.


    An observational study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Isospora suis oocysts in fecal samples from suckling piglets in Ontario, and to evaluate the relationship between the presence of I. suis oocysts and diarrhea. Fifty farms and 709 litters of piglets were included in the study. Oocysts were detected on 70% of farms, with 187 litters infected. A litter of pigs that was positive for oocysts was significantly more likely to exhibit diarrhea than a litter that was negative [odds r...

  8. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  9. Animal research

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter


    in science (as in any other human use that is not also in the animals’ best interest). These views are not compatible, and since all three views in more or less pure form are found in modern Western societies, use of animals for research is bound to cause controversy. However, there may be room for some kind......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...

  10. The Suckling Rat as a Model for Immunonutrition Studies in Early Life

    Francisco J. Pérez-Cano; Àngels Franch; Cristina Castellote; Margarida Castell


    Diet plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal immune function. Research demonstrates the immunomodulatory properties and mechanisms of particular nutrients; however, these aspects are studied less in early life, when diet may exert an important role in the immune development of the neonate. Besides the limited data from epidemiological and human interventional trials in early life, animal models hold the key to increase the current knowledge about this interaction in this particular period...

  11. [Transgenic animals and animal welfare

    Reinhardt, Christoph


    Under the pressure of a public vote in Switzerland (7 June 1998) on an initiative to ban the production, use and patenting of transgenic animals, their value for biomedical research and development is intensely debated. In addition, the Swiss legislation has adopted (1992) a constitutional obligation to "take into account the dignity of creatures". The term "dignity of creatures", however, can be interpreted in anthropocentric or biocentric ways. The government has now formulated the legal implications of this term for transgenic animals and plants in various laws including the animal and environmental protection laws. This paper gives arguments for a fair evaluation of trangenic animals from an animal welfare point of view where not only the costs of animal suffering must be considered but also the probability of potential benefit for man. A self-confident research community should allow such an evaluation procedure even in view of an outcome which could ban many uses of transgenic animals PMID:11208266

  12. Animal Shelter


    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  13. Animal ethics

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter


    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  14. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    Staczek, J.


    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovir...

  15. ANIMAL code

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  16. Kindergarten Animation

    Hinshaw, Craig


    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  17. Animal learning.

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A


    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  18. Effect of undernutrition and hormone treatments on the absorption of proteins in suckling rat intestine

    The absorption of 125I-labeled BSA and gamma-globulin was significantly (P less than 0.01) elevated in UN pups compared to the controls. Administration of pharmacological doses of cortisone, thyroxine, and insulin markedly (P less than 0.001) reduced the absorption of BSA and gamma-globulin in UN pups. There was no significant difference in the binding of 125I-labeled BSA and gamma-globulin to microvillus membrane in the control and experimental animals. However, the degradation of labeled BSA and gamma-globulin by luminal content was considerably higher (55-70%) in controls compared to UN pups. This suggested that observed increase in the absorption of proteins in nutritionally deprived pups was unrelated to their binding to the microvillus surface but presumably it is a consequence of reduced luminal degradation together with delayed maturational development as suggested by the pattern of brush border enzymes in the UN intestinal tissue

  19. Wild Animals



    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  20. Animal performance

    Abaye, A. O. (Azenegashe Ozzie); Rotz, Jonathan Daniel; Scaglia Alonso, Guillermo, 1963-; Fike, John Herschel; Smith, Ray Lee, 1962-


    Any forage crop that stretches the grazing season by providing additional feed in early spring, mid-summer, and late fall will provide the livestock producer with lower feed costs and boost animal performance.

  1. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción


    , indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...

  2. Groundwater animals

    Maurice, Louise; Bloomfield, John; Robertson, Anne; Allen, Debbie


    Groundwater animals are adapted to live in environments with no light and limited nutrients, They can provide insights into fundamental questions of evolution, ecology and biodiversity. They also have an important role to play in informing the reconstruction of past changes in geomorphology and climate, and can be used for characterising aquifers. The BGS is undertaking a systematic survey of selected areas and lithologies in the UK where groundwater animals have not been inves...

  3. Production and composition of Iberian sow's milk and use of milk nutrients by the suckling Iberian piglet.

    Aguinaga, M A; Gómez-Carballar, F; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F


    Sixteen purebred Iberian (IB) sows were used in two consecutive trials to determine the efficiency of conversion of sow's milk into piglet body weight (BW) gain and the relationship between milk protein and body protein retention and between milk energy yield and body energy retention in the nursing IB piglet. In each trial, four sows were selected in order to evaluate their milk production, litter growth and nutrient balance measurements, together with four additional sows for milk sampling. Litter size was equalized to six piglets. Daily milk yield (MY) was determined weekly by the weigh-suckle-weigh technique over a 34-day lactation period. Piglets were weighed individually at birth and then weekly from day 5 of lactation. Milk samples were collected on days 5, 12, 19, 26 and 34 post partum. The comparative slaughter procedure was used to determine piglet nutrient and energy retention. One piglet from each litter was slaughtered at birth and four on the morning of day 35. Total MY was on average 5.175 ± 0.157 kg/day. The average chemical composition (g/kg) of the milk was 179 ± 4 dry matter, 53.4 ± 1.0 CP, 58.5 ± 3.8 fat, 10.4 ± 0.3 ash and 56.9 ± 2.3 lactose. Milk gross energy (GE) was 4.626 ± 0.145 MJ/kg. Milk intake per piglet tended to increase in trial 2 (832 v. 893 g/day; P = 0.066). Piglet BW gain contained (g/kg) 172.1 ± 1.3 protein, 151.5 ± 3.5 fat, 41.4 ± 0.6 ash and 635 ± 3 water and 10.127 ± 0.126 MJ GE/kg. Throughout the 34-day nursing period, the piglets grew at an average rate of 168 ± 3 g/day. The ratio of daily piglet BW gain to daily MY was 0.195 ± 0.002 g/g and the gain per MJ milk GE intake was 41.9 ± 0.5 g/MJ. The overall efficiency of protein accretion (g CP gain/g CP milk intake) was low and declined in trial 2 (0.619 v. 0.571; P = 0.016). Nutrient and energy deposition between birth and weaning were 27.4 ± 0.5 g/day protein, 24.2 ± 0.8 g/day fat and 1615 ± 40 kJ/day energy. Piglet energy requirements for maintenance were

  4. Probiotics association in the suckling and nursery in piglets challenged with Salmonella typhimurium

    Esther Ramalho Afonso


    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the probiotics association in 144 piglets from birth to 62 days old. In lactation, the design was completely randomized with two treatments, CTL, 1 mL of distilled water and ProbA, 5g in 15 ml of distilled water, both orally, and in the nursery in randomized block design, with 2x3 factorial arrangement of treatments, ProbA ProbB: 30g/ton of ProbB in the ration; CTL ProbB: 30g/ton of ProbB in the ration; ProbA ProbA, CTL CTL; ProbA CHA (challenged; CTL CHA. At 35 days of age the animal of the nursery were inoculated with Salmonella typhimurium orally. There was no effect of the parameters evaluated during the maternity. In nursery, the feed conversion was favorable to the ProbA. In the evaluation of fecal score, the challenged group had more diarrhea and increased elimination of S. typhimurium. Results showed the positive action of probiotics when applied at birth by the direct influence on the formation of the intestinal microbiota.


    Ales Pavlik


    Full Text Available In this study, effect of environmental condition changes during gazing period on energy metabolism parameters was investigated. Totally 40 Aberdeen Angus cows were selected for observation. Calving all of cows was situated into March. The feeding ration for the animals was comprised by pasture during the grazing period and corn silage, hay and granulated distiller’s grains during the winter period. At average age 9 days before calving, and subsequently 10, 81, 151, 189 and 273 days after calving, blood was sampled and analysed for glucose and NEFA (non-esterified fatty acid concentrations on KONELAB T20xt automatic analyser (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Finland and currently available commercial kits (Biovendor-Laboratorni medicina, Czech Republic. A rapid increase (p < 0.05 of glucose concentration was detected in blood plasma of cows in period before calving to 81 days post partum. Average value of glucose concentration at 273 days postpartum was significant (p < 0.05 lower comparing to day 189. The highest concentrations of NEFA in blood plasma of cows were found at 10 day postpartum. After that, during the persisted higher temperature period the NEFA concentration decreased significantly (p < 0.01 till 189 days postpartum. At the end of monitored period concentration of NEFA in blood plasma significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Changes of hot and cold season during the grazing period probably according to forage quality and had significant effects on blood plasma NEFA and glucose concentrations.

  6. Changes in lymphocyte populations in suckling piglets during primary infections with Isospora suis.

    Worliczek, H L; Buggelsheim, M; Alexandrowicz, R; Witter, K; Schmidt, P; Gerner, W; Saalmüller, A; Joachim, A


    Isospora suis, a common intestinal parasite of piglets, causes neonatal porcine coccidiosis, which results in reduced and uneven weaning weights and economic losses in pig production. Nevertheless, there are no detailed studies available on the immune response to I. suis. The aim of this study was to carry out phenotypical characterization of lymphocytes during primary infections on day 3 after birth. Infected and noninfected piglets were investigated between days 7 and 16 after birth. Lymphocytes from the blood, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (flow cytometry) and of the jejunal mucosa (immunohistochemistry) were analysed. A decrease in T cells, especially with the phenotype of resting T-helper cells, T-cell receptor-gammadelta-T cells, and regulatory T cells in the blood, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes was noticeable. An increase in cells with the phenotype of natural killer cells in the spleen of infected animals was found, and the subset of TcR-gammadelta-T cells was strongly increased in the gut mucosa. Our findings suggest an accelerated migration of those cells into the gut. This study provides a strong indication for the involvement of adaptive and innate immune response mechanisms in the primary immune response to I. suis, especially of TcR-gammadelta-T cells as a linkage between innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:20398223

  7. Short duration of neutralizing antibody titers after pre-exposure rabies vaccination with suckling mouse brain vaccine

    C.R. Zanetti


    Full Text Available The human anti-rabies pre-exposure treatment currently used in Brazil, employing a 1-ml dose of suckling mouse brain vaccine (SMBV administered on days 0, 2, 4 and 28, was compared to an alternative treatment with two 1 ml-doses on day 0, and one 1 ml-dose injected on days 7 and 21. The latter induced higher virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA titers on day 21. Both Brazilian rabies vaccines produced with PV or CVS rabies virus strains were tested. Two additional volunteer vaccinee groups, receiving the pre-exposure and the abbreviated post-exposure schedules recommended by the WHO using cell-culture vaccine (CCV produced with PM rabies virus strain, were included as reference. The VNA were measured against both PV and CVS strains on days 21, 42 and 180 by the cell-culture neutralization microtest. The PV-SMBV elicited higher seroconversion rates and VNA by day 21 than the CVS-SMBV. Both, however, failed to induce a long-term immunity, since VNA titers were <0.5 IU/ml on day 180, regardless of the schedule used. Cell-culture vaccine always elicited very high VNA on all days of collection. When serum samples from people receiving mouse brain tissue were titrated against the PV and CVS strains, the VNA obtained were similar, regardless of the vaccinal strain and the virus used in the neutralization test. These results contrast with those obtained with sera from people receiving PM-CCV, whose VNA were significantly higher when tested against the CVS strain.

  8. Dietary arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid regulate liver fatty acid desaturase (FADS) alternative transcript expression in suckling piglets.

    Wijendran, Vasuki; Downs, Ian; Srigley, Cynthia Tyburczy; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Park, Woo Jung; Blank, Bryant S; Zimmer, J Paul; Butt, C M; Salem, Norman; Brenna, J Thomas


    Molecular regulation of fatty acid desaturase (Fads) gene expression by dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during early post-natal period, when the demand for long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) is very high, has not been well defined. The objective of the current study was to determine regulation of liver Fads1, Fads2 and Fads3 classical (CS) and alternative transcripts (AT) expression by dietary ARA and DHA, within the physiological range present in human breast milk, in suckling piglets. Piglets were fed one of six milk replacer formula diets (formula-reared groups, FR) with varying ARA and DHA content from days 3-28 of age. The ARA/DHA levels of the six formula diets were as follows (% total fatty acid, FA/FA): (A1) 0.1/1.0; (A2) 0.53/1.0; (A3-D3) 0.69/1.0; (A4) 1.1/1.0; (D2) 0.67/0.62; and (D1) 0.66/0.33. The control maternal-reared (MR) group remained with the dam. Fads1 expression was not significantly different between FR and MR groups. Fads2 expression was down-regulated significantly in diets with 1:1 ratio of ARA:DHA, compared to MR. Fads2 AT1 expression was highly correlated to Fads2 expression. Fads3 AT7 was the only Fads3 transcript sensitive to dietary LC-PUFA intake and was up-regulated in the formula diets with lowest ARA and DHA contents compared to MR. Thus, the present study provides evidence that the proportion of dietary ARA:DHA is a significant determinant of Fads2 expression and LC-PUFA metabolism during the early postnatal period. Further, the data suggest that Fads3 AT7 may have functional significance when dietary supply of ARA and DHA are low during early development. PMID:24075244

  9. Impacts of birth weight on plasma, liver and skeletal muscle neutral amino acid profiles and intestinal amino acid transporters in suckling Huanjiang mini-piglets.

    Huansheng Yang

    Full Text Available Genetic selection strategies towards increased prolificacy have resulted in more and more increased littler size and incidences of impaired fetal development. Low birth weight (LBW piglets, with long-term alterations in structure, physiology and metabolism, have lower survival rates and poor growth performance. The aim of the study was to compare the plasma, liver and skeletal muscle contents of neutral amino acids (NAA and the intestinal expression of NAA transporters between LBW and high birth weight (HBW suckling Huanjiang mini-piglets. Forty piglets with either LBW or HBW (20 piglets per group were sampled on day 0, 7, 14 and 21 of age to give 5 observations per day per group. The contents of NAA in plasma, liver and skeletal muscle were measured, and jejunal expression of transporters for NAA, including Slc6a19 (B(0AT1 and Slc1a5 (ASCT2, were determined by real-time RT-PCR and Western Blot, respectively. Results showed that the suckling piglets with LBW had higher contents of Thr, Ser, Gly, Ala, Val, Met, Ile, Leu, Tyr, Phe and Pro in liver, and Gly in skeletal muscle, whereas lower contents of Met, Ser and Ala in plasma when compared with the HBW littermates. Consistent with the content differences in plasma NAA, the jejunal expression profiles of both Slc6a19 (B(0AT1 and Slc1a5 (ASCT2 in the LBW piglets were lower in compared with the HBW littermates during the early suckling period. These findings suggested that intestinal dysfunction in the LBW piglets may be one of the reasons in altered physiology and metabolism states of other organs, which result in lower survival and growth rate.

  10. Biotecnologia animal

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho; Millor Fernandes do Rosário; Erika Cristina Jorge


    A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candi...

  11. Animated symbols

    Frølunde, Lisbeth


    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  12. Animal house

    Turka, Laurence A.


    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  13. Transgenic Animals.

    Jaenisch, Rudolf


    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  14. Animated Symbols

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  15. Biotecnologia animal

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho


    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows


    PIZA Adriana Souza de Toledo


    Full Text Available An indirect ELISA for determination of post-vaccination rabies antibody was applied. Purified rabies virus was used as antigen to coat plates, and staphylococcal protein A linked with horseradish peroxidase was used for detecting IgG antibody in human sera. Sera from humans, vaccinated with cell-culture vaccine or suckling-mouse-brain vaccine, were examined. ELISA results were compared to those obtained from the virus neutralization test. The mean and standard deviation of OD were determined for 126 negative sera (pre-vaccination and for 73 sera from vaccinated persons showing antibody titers lower than 0.5 IU/ml. Results were defined as ELISA -positive, -negative or -doubtful. Establishment of a doubtful region reduced the number of sera otherwise classified as positive (false-positive sera. In this way, the sensitivity, specificity and agreement values were respectively 87.5%, 92.4% and 88.5%. No significant differences were observed in these values when the group vaccinated with cell-culture vaccine and the group vaccinated with suckling-mouse-brain vaccine were compared. It was shown that much of the disagreement between the values obtained by neutralization test and ELISA occurred in sera obtained at the beginning of the immunization process, and was probably due to the presence of IgM in the serum samples, detected only by the former test. This ELISA method can be used as a screening test in rabies laboratories regardless of the kind of vaccine used for immunization.

  17. Animal facilities

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  18. [Dangerous animals].

    Hasle, Gunnar


    As travellers seek ever more exotic destinations they are more likely to encounter dangerous animals. Compared to risks such as AIDS, traffic accidents and malaria, the risk is not so great; many travellers are, however, concerned about this and those who give pre-travel vaccines and advice should know something about it. This article is mainly based on medical and zoological textbooks. Venomous stings and bites may be prevented by adequate clothing and by keeping safe distance to the animals. Listening to those who live in the area is of course important. Travellers should not carry antisera with them, but antisera should be available at local hospitals. It should be borne in mind that plant eaters cause just as many deaths as large predators. In some cases it is necessary to carry a sufficiently powerful firearm. PMID:12555616

  19. Animal Locomotion

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron


    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  20. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  1. The Effects of Maternal Natural (RRR Alpha-Tocopherol Acetate) or Synthetic (All-Rac Alpha-Tocopherol Acetate) Vitamin E Supplementation on Suckling Calf Performance, Colostrum IgG, and Immune Function

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of maternally supplemented natural- or synthetic-source vitamin E on suckling calf performance and immune response. In a two-year study, 152 two- and three-year old spring-calving Angus-cross beef cows were blocked by age, BW, and BCS into on...

  2. Animal Testing

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  3. Animated war

    Frølunde, Lisbeth


    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  4. Animal Intuitions.

    Kaebnick, Gregory E


    As described by Lori Gruen in the Perspective column at the back of this issue, federally supported biomedical research conducted on chimpanzees has now come to an end in the United States, although the wind-down has taken longer than expected. The process began with a 2011 Institute of Medicine report that set up several stringent criteria that sharply limited biomedical research. The National Institutes of Health accepted the recommendations and formed a committee to determine how best to implement them. The immediate question raised by this transition was whether the IOM restrictions should be extended in some form to other nonhuman primates-and beyond them to other kinds of animals. In the lead article in this issue, Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller consider the status of other nonhuman primates. PMID:27417859

  5. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    March, B. E.


    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  6. Identification of differentially expressed genes in sexed pig embryos during post-hatching development in primiparous sows exposed to differing intermittent suckling and breeding strategies.

    Tsoi, Stephen; Blanes, Milena; Chen, Tai Yuan; Langendijk, Pieter; Athorn, Rebecca; Foxcroft, George; Dyck, Michael


    The aim of commercial pig breeding programs is to maximize the number of pigs produced per sow per year. Given that sows exhibit an estrus during lactation is a potential means of increasing productivity of a pig breeding herd without reducing in lactation length, conventionally, weaning of piglets at a relatively young age is often related to post-weaning piglet performance which compromises piglet welfare. Therefore, intermittent suckling (IS) is a management technique in which lactating sows are separated from their piglets for a fixed period of the days and allowing sows to continue nursing piglets while exhibiting estrus and being breed during lactation, thereby promoting both piglet well-being and sow reproductive performance [1]. For this study, primiparous sows (PP) were exposed to 28 day (D28) lactation with intermittent suckling (IS) during the final week prior to weaning. The sows detected to be in estrus during lactation were either bred at this first estrus (FE) during lactation (IS21FE), or were "skipped" and bred at their second estrus which occurred after final weaning at D28 (IS21SE). Despite the benefits of IS, the effects of the maternal physiology related to breeding during lactation on embryonic transcriptome are largely unknown. Recent advances in the ability to assess embryonic gene expression in both sexes have made these analyses possible. Here, we describe the experimental procedures of two color microarray analyses and annotation of differentially expressed (DE) genes in detail corresponding to data deposited at NCBI in the Gene Expression Omnibus under accession number GSE53576 and GSE73020 for day 9 embryos (D9E) and day 30 embryos (D30E) respectively. Although only a few DE genes were discovered between IS21FE and IS21SE in both sexes from D9E or D30E, the raw data are still valuable for future use to understand the gene expression profiling from two different developmental stages. PMID:27331000

  7. Animated nature

    Animated nature is educational-training project pronounced by the Slovak Environmental Agency (SAZP) in cooperation with Field Studies Council form Great Britain and financial support of Darwin Initiative and Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, s.p. In the present time this is ultimate and the most successful children's project aimed on mapping and protection of biodiversity in Europe. Activity in project is spare-time and therefore is voluntary. The interest territory is a natural as well as cultural landscape in vicinity of a school or other organisation, habitation and so on. In the project work schoolchildren at the age from 10 till 15 years. Leaders of work-groups are student of secondary schools and universities, teachers, professional workers of state and non-governmental organisation and parents. In one group works approximately 10 children. Each group which has send to SAZP result of biodiversity mapping, cost free obtained data base CD - Detske mapy biodiverzity (Children's maps of biodiversity) and so they were informed about results of all groups frame: within the frame of Slovakia. Results of activities of this project in 2001-2004 and perspectives for 2005-2006 years are discussed

  8. Lead induced behavioral dysfunction: an animal model of hyperactivity

    Silbergeld, E.K.; Goldberg, A.M.


    Although clinically lead poisoning is thought to cause several serious behavioral problems, a causal relationship between lead ingestion and behavioral dysfunction has not been shown. An animal model of lead poisoning was developed in which suckling mice were exposed to lead acetate from birth indirectly through their mothers and then directly after weaning. For the first 60 days, no deaths of offspring occurred due to lead but their growth and development were significantly retarded. Epidemiological evidence exists for the coincidence of lead exposure and hyperactivity syndromes in children. Activity of offspring was measured between 40 and 60 days of age. Treated mice were more than three times as active as agematched controls. Treated and control animals were given drugs used in the treatment and diagnosis of minimal brain dysfunction hyperactivity in children: d- and l-amphetamine, methylphenidate, phenobarbital, and chloral hydrate. Lead-treated hyperactive mice responded paradoxically to all drugs except chloral hydrate: that is, d- and l-amphetamine and methylphenidate suppressed hyperactivity, while phenobarbital increased their levels of motor activity. Chloral hydrate was an effective sedative. Implications of these findings are discussed for the study of the central effects of lead poisoning and for the relationship between lead poisoning and minimal brain dysfunction hyperactivity.

  9. The wild animal as a research animal

    Swart, JAA


    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conserva

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  13. Learning Anime Studio

    Troftgruben, Chad


    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  14. Effect of repeated eCG treatments and ovum pick-up on ovarian response and oocyte recovery during early pregnancy in suckling beef cows.

    Aller, J F; Mucci, N C; Kaiser, G G; Callejas, S S; Alberio, R H


    This study was designed to evaluate in suckling early pregnant beef cows with and without eCG-pre-stimulation: (i) the influence of day gestation (from 40 to 101 days) and the consecutive eCG treatments on the follicular growth induced by means of ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicle ablation (FA; all follicles ≥ 5 mm) and the number and quality oocytes recovered by ovum pick-up (OPU) and (ii) the possible effects of repeated hormonal stimulation and FA/OPU on pregnancy outcome. Twelve suckling early pregnant Angus cows (40 days post fixed-time artificial insemination) were randomly assigned to each of two groups (n=6 group(-1)). Group 1 treatments included: FA (Day 0), eCG (1600 IU; Day 1) and OPU (Day 5). Group 2: as cited Group 1 with no eCG treatment. In both groups, OPU was repeated five times (Days 45, 59, 73, 87 and 101 of gestation). The numbers (mean ± SEM) of class II (5-9 mm; 4.3 ± 0.9) and class III (≥10 mm; 2.5 ± 0.4) follicles visualized per cow per OPU session in eCG-treated cows were greater (P<0.05) than for non-treated cows (0.9 ± 0.1 and 0.9 ± 0.1, respectively). In contrast, the number (mean ± SEM) of class I (<5mm) follicles per cow per OPU session was lower for cows with eCG treatment (2.8 ± 0.4) than for non-treated cows (5.7 ± 0.5). The mean number of aspirated follicles was not significantly different (P<0.05) between eCG-treated cows and non-treated cows at 45 and 59 days of pregnancy. However, the mean number of aspirated follicles was greater (P=0.03) in eCG-treated cows than non-treated cows from 73 day of pregnancy onwards. The numbers (mean ± SEM) of recovered oocytes and viable oocytes/cow/session were greater (P<0.05) for eCG-treated cows (2.2 ± 0.2 and 1.6 ± 0.4, respectively) than for non-treated cows (1.0 ± 0.2 and 0.9 ± 0.2, respectively). No donor pregnancies were lost either during or following OPU procedure. We can conclude that (1) eCG-treated pregnant suckled cows can be a source of oocytes for IVF at

  15. Animal welfare assessment

    Vučinić Marijana; Lazić Ivana


    The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpr...

  16. Effect of type of suckling and polyunsaturated fatty acid use on lamb production. 2. Chemical and fatty acid composition of raw and cooked meat

    Francesco Toteda


    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to examine the chemical and fatty acid composition of raw and cooked meat obtained fromlambs raised under mothers or reared by artificial suckling with acidified milk replacers with or without polyunsaturated fattyacid (PUFA supplementation. Meat samples were taken from twenty Gentile di Puglia male lambs subjected to the followingfeeding treatments: the control group received only maternal milk (MM, n.=6 while two groups were reared by artificial sucklingwith an acidified milk replacer (MR, n.=7 or with an acidified milk replacer supplemented with 10 ml/l of a PUFA enrichedoil (MR+PUFA, n.=7. Lambs were slaughtered at 45 days of age. After 24 hours of refrigeration at 4 °C, the lumbar regionwas dissected from each right half-carcass and split into pieces, one of which was used raw while the other was cooked in aventilated electric oven at 180 °C until an internal temperature of 75 °C was reached. Chemical and fatty acid analysis wereperformed on raw and cooked meat, while only raw meat was assessed for cholesterol. Cooking losses were also evaluated.Meat obtained from MR+PUFA fed lambs contained more fat (Punder mothers increased the total amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA, compared with both the MR group (Pthe MR+PUFA one (Pcomparison with both MR diets. The highest PUFA/SFA ratio of meat was recorded for the MR+PUFA group (0.27, with statisticaldifferences respect to the MR group (0.21; Pmilk produced meat containing more cholesterol than the MR+PUFA group (85.89 vs 76.26 mg/100 g; Pindex of meat was higher following natural rearing in comparison with the MR+PUFA treatment (1.34 vs 1.05;Pand 0.76, respectively; Pparameters evaluated. In conclusion, artificial suckling with acidified milk replacers improves some meat quality features.Supplementation of milk replacers with PUFAs, although in a limited way, may improve the dietetic properties of lamb meat.

  17. Select Synch and Co-Synch protocols using a CIDR yield similar pregnancy rates after a fixed-time insemination in suckled Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows.

    Esterman, Regina D; Alava, Erin N; Austin, Brad R; Hersom, Matthew J; Yelich, Joel V


    Primiparous and multiparous suckled Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows were used to compare a Select Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and timed artificial insemination (AI) protocol (SSC) to a modified CO-Synch + CIDR protocol (COS). Five separate groups of cows were utilized (n = 659) and within a group, cows were allotted to two treatments on the basis of body condition score (BCS) taken 10 days before and days postpartum at CIDR insertion (Day 0). Blood samples were collected on Day -10 and 0 for assessment of circulating concentrations of progesterone to determine estrous cycling status. Cows in both treatments received intramuscular (im) GnRH (100 μg) and a CIDR inserted on Day 0. On Day 7, the SSC treatment had CIDR removed and received im PGF2α (25 mg), whereas COS treatment had CIDR removed and received im PGF2α (25 mg) on Day 7.5. In the SSC treatment, estrus was detected daily at 0700 and 1700 hours for 72 hours after PGF2α administration, and cows were artificially inseminated 8 to 12 hours after a detected estrus. Cows failing to exhibit estrus were subjected to timed-AI and received im GnRH (100 μg) 76 ± 4 hours after PGF2α administration. In the COS treatment, cows received im GnRH (100 μg) and were fixed-time artificially inseminated at 64 ± 4 hours after PGF2α administration. Although group differences (P 0.05) for SSC (49.4%; n = 164 of 332) and COS (47.1%; n = 154 of 327). Estrous cycling status and days postpartum did not (P > 0.05) influence synchronized AI pregnancy rates but BCS did (P < 0.05). Cows with a BCS greater than or equal to 5 had synchronized AI pregnancy rates of 50% compared to 39% for cows with BCS lesser than 5.0. In summary, the modified COS protocol yielded similar synchronized AI pregnancy rates compared to the SSC protocol, and it appears that the modified COS protocol has the potential to be an effective timed-AI protocol in suckled Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows. PMID:26631280

  18. Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation during the Suckling Period on Auditory Neural Conduction in n-3 Fatty Acid-Deficient Rat Pups

    vida rahimi


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Omega 3 fatty acid especially in the form of fish oil, has structural and biological role in the body's various systems especially nervous system. Numerous studies have tried to research about it. Auditory is one of the affected systems. Omega 3 deficiency can have devastating effects on the nervous system and auditory. This study aimed to evaluate neural conduction in n-3 fatty acid-deficient rat pups following the supplementation of fish oil consumption during the suckling period Materials and Methods: In this interventional and experimental study, one sources of omega3 fatty acid (fish oil were fed to rat pups of n-3 PUFA-deficient dams to compare changes in their auditory neural conduction with that of control and n-3 PUFA-deficient groups, using Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR. The parameters of interest were P1, P3, P4 absolute latency, P1-P3, P1-P4 and P3-P4 IPL , P4/P1 amplitude ratio . The rat pups were given oral fish oil, 5 Ml /g weight for 17 days, between the age of 5 and 21 days. Results There were no significant group differences in P1 and P3 absolute latency (p > 0.05. but the result in P4 was significant(P ≤ 0.05 . The n-3 PUFA deficient +vehicle had the most prolonged (the worst P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL compared with control and n-3 PUFA deficient + FO groups. There was no significant difference in P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL between n-3 PUFA deficient + FO and control groups (p > 0.05.There was a significant effect of diet on P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL between groups (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The results of present study showed the effect of omega3 deficiency on auditory neural structure during pregnancy and lactation period. Additionally, we observed the reduced devastating effects on neural conduction in n-3 fatty acid-deficient rat pups following the supplementation of fish oil during the suckling period

  19. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading

    Mameli, M.; Bortolotti, L


    Do non‐human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non‐human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the s...

  20. Animal Protection and Animal 'Rights' in Hungary

    Toth, Zoltan J.


    In Hungary, the first Act on Animal Protection, which aimed at handling and respecting animals as living creatures capable of feelings and suffering and thus deserving and entitled to protection, was adopted in 1998. Based on this, the Act contains several regulations which ensure that animals are protected against all possible kinds of avoidable physical or mental harm. Furthermore, it prohibits and imposes sanctions for any treatment that causes animals unnecessary suffering. The present st...

  1. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Tal, H


    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

  2. [Mutagenic activation and carcinogenicity of aminoazo dyes of ortho-aminoazotoluene and 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene in experiments on suckling mice].

    Kaledin, V I; Il'nitskaia, S I; Ovchinnikova, L P; Popova, N A; Bogdanova, L A; Morozkova, T S


    It is found that after administration of 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3'-Me-DAB,) which was hepatocarcinogenic to rats, in suckling mice, the number of neoplastic lesions in the liver of mice was 3 times higher than after analogous administration of equimolar dose of ortho-aminoazotoluene (OAT)). However, in the Ames test (TA-98 strain of Salmonella typhimurium) with activation by hepatic enzymes (S-9 fraction) of both intact and Aroclor-1254-induced mice and rats OAT contributed by an order of magnitude to revertant colonies compared to 3'-Me-DAB. In vivo inhibition of sulfotransferase activity, the enzyme which catalyzes the final stage of the mutagenic activation of aminoazo dyes, had no effect on carcinogenicity of 3'-Me-DAB but more than 4 times elevated that of OAT. It was concluded that the mechanism of carcinogenic action of aminoazo dyes studied is not genotoxic and that the carcinogenic potential of OAT is lost in the process of mutagenic activation. PMID:25715596

  3. Failure to demonstrate morphologically the presence of colostral or milk cells in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract of the suckling neonatal mouse

    The possibility that intact cells may migrate from ingested colostrum and milk into the gut wall of the nursing neonate has been tested directly by means of radioautographic techniques. [3H]Thymidine was continuously infused into female mice throughtout the last 6 days of their pregnancy. Upon delivery, their fully [3H]thymidine-labelled litters were removed and given to nurse from unlabelled surrogate mothers whose own litters were borne simultaneously. These unlabelled litters were similarly removed immediately upon birth and given to the [3H]thymidine-infused mothers to nurse. Infants labelled during gestation and mothers labelled during pregnancy continued to receive thrice-daily injections of isotope for 1-14 days and 1-18 h, respectively, after delivery. The stomach and adjacent portion of small intestine were removed from unlabelled infants nursing from labelled surrogate mothers at intervals of 1-18 h after beginning to suckle, the same tissues were removed from labelled infants nursing from unlabelled surrogate mothers and similarly prepared for radioautography. The results indicate that transepithelial migration of intact cells of the colostrum and milk does not appear to be the method by which immunological functions are adoptively transferred to the nursing neonatal mouse. (Auth.)




    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to relieve the impact of chromium hexavalent ions on the resistance of erythrocyte membrane in female rats at sexual maturity but exposed “in utero”or during the suckling or pre-puberty period. Concrete objectives were to establish the effect of 25 ppm (E1 group, 50 ppm (E2 groupt and 75 ppm (E3 group chromium doses on haemoglobin (Hb and erythrocyte membrane resistance (R.O. (in terms of haemolysis degree in NaCl hypotonic solutions. The consequence of Cr(VI exposure was the high significant decrease (p<0,01 of Hb in all E groups compared to control (C (E1/C:-24.66%; E2/C: - 37.36%; E3/C: - 42.67%, under physiologic limits in E2 and E3 groups and at the lowest physiologic limit in E1. Maxim R.O. was equal in all groups and in physiologic limits. Minim R.O. decreased to 0.7% NaCl in E1 and to 0.8% NaCl in E2 and E3. It was asserted the increase of haemolyse degree in direct relation with the dose. Increasing the chromium intake level a haemolytic effect was induced.

  5. Prolonged oral treatment with two monoesters of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid for depleting inorganic mercury retention in suckling rats

    Two monoesters of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), monoisoamyl meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinate (Mi-ADMS) and mono-n-hexyl meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinate (Mn-HDMS) were compared to DMSA in their efficiency to mobilize 203Hg in mercury-laden suckling rats. Seven-day-old pups were given 203Hg (18.5 kBq) with a dose of 0.5 mg Hg/kg/day as HgCl2 for five days. Seven days after the beginning of Hg loading a ten-day oral treatment with DMSA, Mi-ADMS, or Mn-HDMS was administered at a dose of 0.25 mmol/kg/day. At the end of experiment, radioactivity was measured in the whole body, liver, both kidneys, and brain. Monoesters of DMSA were superior to DMSA in decreasing body and organ Hg retention. The highest reduction in comparison to controls in groups treated with DMSA, Mi-ADMS, or Mn-HDMS occurred in the kidneys (48%, 97%, and 96%), followed by reduction in the liver (24%, 84%, and 83%), and in the brain (8%, 23%, respectively). For both, Mi-ADMS and Mn-HDMS, the reductions in the whole body and organs were significantly greater than in controls or DMSA-treated rats. No difference between the efficiency of the two DMSA-monoesters was found. (au) 20 refs

  6. Growth rate, health and welfare in a dairy herd with natural suckling until 6–8 weeks of age: a case report

    Mejdell Cecilie


    Full Text Available Abstract Over a period of two years, growth rate and health were measured for dairy calves allowed to suckle their mothers up to 6–8 weeks of age. Thirty-one calves were weighted weekly, and the mean daily growth rate was 1.2 ± 0.03 kg from birth up to 13 weeks of age. Illness in calves and young stock was not observed. In the cows, the mean incidences of ketosis, displaced abomasum, puerperal paresis, mastitis, teat injury and retained placenta were 0, 0, 8, 22, 1 and 1%, respectively, during a 6-year period. The mean daily gain of 56 growing bulls was 1.4 kg when slaughtered at 15 months of age, which is higher than the mean daily gain of 0.95 kg in the population. Probiotics, hormones and vaccines were not used, and antibiotics were only used for treating illness. The present study indicates many advantages and few problems when dairy calves are penned together with the cows and allowed natural feeding up to 6–8 weeks of age. This production system was easy to manage, preferred by the farmer, and may satisfy the public concern regarding the practice of immediate separation of cow and calf in commercial milk production.

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Full Text Available ... 08 Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) French ...

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Full Text Available ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  12. Animation Trends in Education

    Lirong Xiao


    In the paper, we give a survey of animation content in education. At present, there is an extensive literature addressing the impact of animation in education and psychology fields. However, in animation field, although some software companies have developed their individual production toolboxes or platforms for animation content in education, there is lack of relevant research from the perspective of animation techniques. This paper first gives a survey of current animation content in educat...

  13. Seeing the animal

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna;


    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  14. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Patricia V.Turner


    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.

  15. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    Ping Sun


    In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified ani...

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  17. Physics for Animation Artists

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.


    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  18. Ian Ingram: Next Animals


    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  19. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Takashi Maoka


    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  20. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Yusuf Ergun


    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  1. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Yusuf Ergun


    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  2. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Takashi Maoka


    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  3. [Studies of necrotizing enteritis of suckling piglets (Clostridium perfringens type C enterotoxemia) in industrialized sow breeding units. 4. Epizootiology].

    Köhler, B; Zabke, J; Sondermann, R; Pulst, H; Rummler, H J


    Necrotising enteritis had been the cause of death of 4.9 per cent in 5,177 nursed piglets, which was established by pathological examination. The number of piglets, in that context, which had come from industrialised sow breeding units was equivalent to 92 per cent. The nursed piglet held the third position, next to smaller ruminants (19.4 per cent) and fowl (6.0 per cent), with regard to the occurrence of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxemia or necrotising enteritis in 112,218 animals which were pathologically examined after death. Necrotising enteritis so far has been rare in the GDR. No regional accumulation has been observed. Several outbreaks on industrialised sow breeding units actually remained stationary. The occurrence of the disease may be favoured by a number of factors which are conducive to accumulation of Clostridium perfringens Type C in a given stock. Group keeping of pregnant sows, simultaneous farrowing of larger groups of sows, group treatment of nursed piglets, using neomycin, chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline, and other antibiotics to which Clostridium perfringens is primarily resistant or has acquired resistance in the course of time are some of those contributive factors. Transmission of Clostridium perfringens Type C through feedstuff is possible, though it would lead to a real outbreak only by high intensity of the contamination, and it played a minor role in proliferation of the disease. 3479 Clostridium perfringens strains were isolated from 9,481 animals, both clinically intact and after death, with 30 species being included. Type classification revealed 2454 strains of Type A (70 per cent), 204 of Type D (5.88 per cent), 164 of Type C (four per cent), and 48 of Type B (1.34 per cent). There were 688 atoxic strains (17 per cent). Swine is the major carrier of Clostridium perfringens Type C, with 87 per cent of all Clostridium perfringens Type C strains having been isolated from swine. Swine was followed by fowl (four per cent), sheep

  4. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    Ping Sun


    Full Text Available In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified animal images are intelligently used by George Orwell to represent the people, so all the characters are animals in appearance, but humans in nature. Starting from the animal images and then the conceptual metaphors, readers can perceive a fresh understanding of this classical book. In this novel, three conceptual metaphors are identified and the special findings can be illustrated as the following: Firstly, the whole story of the animals represents the history and politics of the Soviet Union. Secondly, the pigs symbolize the authorities of the society. Thirdly, the names of the characters in the novel reveal their identities.

  5. Postpartum interval to estrus and patterns of LH and progesterone in first-calf suckled beef cows exposed to mature bulls.

    Custer, E E; Berardinelli, J G; Short, R E; Wehrman, M; Adair, R


    Two trials were conducted in which Angus x Hereford first-calf cows were assigned randomly at calving to one of two treatments: exposure to mature penile-blocked bulls (BE) or isolation from bulls (NE). In Trial 1 (BE, n = 38; NE, n = 37), cow to bull ratio increased from 12:1 to 19:1 over a 14-d period; in Trial 2 (BE, n = 25; NE, n = 24), this ratio was maintained at 13:1. In both trials, blood samples were collected weekly for progesterone and ovaries and uteri of cows were examined rectally. Cows were observed for estrus twice daily (am:pm) beginning 10 d after calving. In Trial 2, intensive blood sampling for LH began 10 d after calving (eight cows per treatment) and continued at weekly intervals until estrus or the end of the trial. Postpartum weight change, condition score change and time to uterine involution did not differ (P greater than .10) between treatments in either trial. Interval to estrus was shorter (P less than .05) for BE cows than for NE cows in both trials. A greater proportion (P less than .05) of BE cows exhibited estrus by 60 and 90 d after calving and showed an increase in progesterone before first estrus. Mean and baseline LH concentrations and amplitude, frequency and duration of LH pulses were not altered (P greater than .10) by bull exposure. In conclusion, exposing first-calf suckled beef cows to bulls after calving hastened resumption of estrous cycles. Bull exposure did not alter patterns of LH concentrations but did increase proportions of cows that showed increased progesterone before first estrus. PMID:2365649

  6. Effect of sequence of insemination after simultaneous thawing of multiple semen straws on conception rate to timed AI in suckled multiparous Nelore cows.

    Oliveira, L Z; Arruda, R P; de Andrade, A F C; Santos, R M; Beletti, M E; Peres, R F G; Martins, J P N; de Lima, V F M Hossepian


    The objective was to determine the effect of sequence of insemination after simultaneous thawing of multiple 0.5 mL semen straws on conception rate in suckled multiparous Nelore cows. The effect of this thawing procedure on in vitro sperm characteristics was also evaluated. All cows (N = 944) received the same timed AI protocol. Ten straws (0.5 mL) of frozen semen from the same batch were simultaneously thawed at 36 °C, for a minimum of 30 sec. One straw per cow was used for timed AI. Frozen semen from three Angus bulls was used. Timed AI records included sequence of insemination (first to tenth) and time of semen removal from thawing bath. For laboratory analyses, the same semen batches used in the field experiment were evaluated. Ten frozen straws from the same batch were thawed simultaneously in a thawing unit identical to that used in the field experiment. The following sperm characteristics were analyzed: sperm motility parameters, sperm thermal resistance, plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity, lipid peroxidation, chromatin structure, and sperm morphometry. Based on logistic regression, there were no significant effects of breeding group, body condition score, AI technician, and sire on conception rate, but there was an interaction between sire and straw group (P = 0.002). Semen from only one bull had decreased (P < 0.05) field fertility for the group of straws associated with the longest interval from thawing to AI. However, the results of the laboratory experiment were unable to explain the findings of the field experiment. Sperm width:length ratio of morphometric analysis was the single sperm characteristic with a significant interaction between sire and straw group (P = 0.02). It was concluded that sequence of insemination after simultaneous thawing of 10 semen straws can differently affect conception rates at timed AI, depending on the sire used. Nevertheless, the effects of this thawing environment on in vitro sperm characteristics, remain to be

  7. Extending the duration of treatment with progesterone and equine chorionic gonadotropin improves fertility in suckled beef cows with low body condition score subjected to timed artificial insemination.

    Bilbao, M G; Massara, N; Ramos, S; Zapata, L O; Farcey, M F; Pesoa, J; Turic, E; Vázquez, M I; Bartolome, J A


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an extended progesterone treatment on follicular development and fertility in postpartum, suckled beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI). In experiment 1, cows (n = 24) with body condition score (BCS) ≥4.5 received either a 2-g progesterone intravaginal device on Day -23 or a 0.558-g progesterone intravaginal device on Day -9. Then, all cows received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate on Day -9; removal of the device, 1-mg estradiol cypionate, and PGF2α on Day -2; and TAI on Day 0. Metabolic status was assessed between Days -9 and -2. Ovarian structures and plasma progesterone were determined weekly from Day -23 to -9, daily from Day -9 to 0, and weekly until Day 28. In experiment 2, cows (n = 302) with BCS ≥4.5 received identical treatment to cows in experiment 1, but on Day -2, cows received 400 IU of two different commercial preparations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). Ovarian structures were determined on Days -23 and -9 on a subset of cows (n = 40). Pregnancy was determined 39 days after TAI. In experiment 3, multiparous cows (n = 244) with BCS AI. In experiment 3, extended progesterone treatment combined with eCG increased the size of the dominant follicle (P = 0.01). Both extended progesterone treatment (P = 0.02) and eCG (P = 0.03) increased pregnancy per AI. In conclusion, an extended progesterone treatment stimulated follicular growth postpartum and improved fertility only in cows with low BCS. PMID:26944539

  8. Cross-Reactivity of Porcine Immunoglobulin A Antibodies with Fecal Immunoglobulins of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) and Other Animal Species

    Seo, Sang won; Yoo, Sung J.; Sunwoo, Sunyoung; Hyun, Bang hun


    Fecal samples obtained from wild boar habitats are useful for the surveillance of diseases in wild boar populations; however, it is difficult to determine the species of origin of feces collected in natural habitats. In this study, a fecal IgA ELISA was evaluated as a method for identifying the porcine species from fecal samples. Both domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) showed significantly higher levels of fecal IgA than other animal species. Additionally, age dependent changes in the level of Ig A in wild boars and domestic pigs were identified; Titers of Ig A were highest in suckling period and lowest in weanling period. PMID:27340389

  9. Biological half-life of xenobiotic bromide in the rat is dependent on sodium intake and varies with the metabolic activity of the animals

    In the present study, we extended the applicability of our experimentally proved hypothesis. In the rats situated in very different physiological states, as regards their metabolic activity, we investigated variations in the biological half-life of bromide (as a substitute for sodium) with the aid of in vivo whole-body counting of the animals, administered simultaneously with the radionuclides 82Br and 24Na, by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The excretion rates of bromide were measured in animals situated in different physiological states. The shortest biological half-life of bromide/sodium ions (44 h) was determined in lactating dams and the longest (269 h) in breast-fed pups. The measured values demonstrate that lactating dams obviously waste sodium, due to their large food intake, whereas sucklings apparently conserve sodium, because of its relatively low concentration in breast milk. (author)

  10. Consumption of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus (MTCC: 5897) containing fermented milk plays a key role in development of the immune system in newborn mice during the suckling-weaning transition.

    Saliganti, Vamshi; Kapila, Rajeev; Kapila, Suman


    Early infancy, the period when offspring rely not only on their own immunity to combat food-borne antigens but also acquire immunity through maternal sources (via transplacental routes and breast milk), is critical for immune system development Hence the present study was designed to evaluate the effect on offspring of administration of probiotic-containing fermented milk (PFM) either to mothers during the suckling period or to their offspring after weaning either separately or sequentially. PFM-fed mice showed enhanced leukocyte functionality in offspring as evidenced by significantly (P immune systems; this effect appears to be more pronounced when mothers are fed with it. PMID:26589556


    Tim Ingold


    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  12. Morris Animal Foundation

    ... the transmission of serious illnesses. Read more » Morris Animal Foundation Receives $750,000 Grant for Cancer Studies. ... Give Partners Become a Partner Meet Our Partners Animal Lovers Our Work Ways to Give Pet Health ...

  13. "Name" that Animal

    Laird, Shirley


    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  14. Animals in Education.

    Rowan, Andrew N.


    Summarizes viewpoints on the use of animals in science experiments in the biology classroom, including those of teachers, education researchers, biomedical scientists, science education administrators, and animal welfare advocates. (Author/CS)

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  16. 哺乳仔猪腹泻发生时间和程度的品种间差异及对增重的影响%Variations between breeds of suckling piglets in diarrhea occurrence time and degree and effect on weight gain

    王希彪; 李建敏; 许愿; 韩小飞; 狄生伟; 崔世全


    文章通过分析民猪和长白猪哺乳仔猪的腹泻始发时间、腹泻程度、腹泻复发率及不同阶段平均日增重,比较民猪和长白仔猪腹泻发生状况差异及其对仔猪生长的影响。结果表明,除第2周龄外,民猪仔猪腹泻率、腹泻频率、腹泻指数都极显著低于长白仔猪(P<0.01);民猪仔猪在第2周龄腹泻始发率62.68%,其他周龄腹泻始发率低于或极显著低于长白仔猪(P<0.01);民猪腹泻仔猪多次复发率极显著低于长白仔猪(P<0.01);两品种中、重度腹泻仔猪断奶重及腹泻高峰周内平均日增重均极显著低于健康仔猪(P<0.01)。结果表明,民猪仔猪较长白仔猪抗腹泻能力强。%To compare the difference diarrhea status and its effects on piglet growth performance between Min pig and Landrace suckling piglets. The diarrhea starting time, diarrhea degree, diarrhea recurrence rate and average daily gain in different periods were analyzed in the two pig breeds. The results showed that the diarrhea rate, diarrhea frequency and diarrhea index of Min pig suckling piglets were significantly lower than Landrace suckling piglets(P<0.01)except the second week. The diarrhea originating rate of Min pig suckling piglets was 62.68%in the second week , while it was lower or significantly lower than Landrace suckling piglets in other weeks(P<0.01). The diarrhea repeated relapse rate of Min pig suckling piglets was significantly lower than Landrace piglets(P<0.01). The weaning weight and average daily gain in diarrhea peak week of moderate, severe diarrhea piglets were significantly lower than health piglets in the two pig breeds(P<0.01). The results showed that the ability resistance diarrhea of Min pig suckling piglets was stronger than Landrace suckling piglets.

  17. Interaction between animal personality and animal cognition

    Claudio CARERE, Charles LOCURTO


    The study of animal personality has attracted considerable attention, as it has revealed a number of similarities in personality between humans and several nonhuman species. At the same time the adaptive value and evolutionary maintenance of different personalities are the subject of debate. Since Pavlov’s work on dogs, students of comparative cognition have been aware that animals display vast individual differences on cognitive tasks, and that these differences may not be entirely accounted...

  18. Generic Face Animation

    Cerda, Mauricio; Valenzuela, Renato; Hitschfeld-Kahler, Nancy; Terissi, Lucas; Gomez, Juan C.


    International audience In computer vision, the animation of objects has attracted a lot attention, specially the animations of 3D face models. The animation of face models requires in general to manually adapt each generic movement (open/close mouth) to each specific head geometry. In this work we propose a technique for the animation of any face model avoiding most of the manual intervention. In order to achieve this we assume that: (1) faces, despite obvious differences are quite similar...

  19. Imaging of Awake Animals

    Wilkinson, Thomas


    The 3Rs of reduction, refinement and replacement are the guiding principles of animal research and embedded in national and international legislation regulating the use of animals in scientific procedures. Awake imaging by MRI of rodents can offer a reduction by increasing the quality of scientific data through longitudinal imaging using less animals by avoiding a serial sacrifice design and refinement through reducing the stressful effects animals are exposed to, in comparison to existing mo...

  20. Biopolitics: Animals, meat, food

    Janović Nikola


    The general idea of this text is to reflect biopolitical constitution of the society and its implications related to the issues of animal welfare. Since animal in biopolitical formation is technically reduced to an object - commodity for contentment of the industry and of the people needs - critical public advisories are calling from moral, ethical and legal standpoint for attention to the fact that is necessary to protect animals from the unnecessary exploitation. It is obvious that animal p...

  1. Bioethics in animal experimentation

    Popa V.I.; Lascar I.; Valcu M.; Sebe Ioana Teona; Caraban B.; Margina Arina Cristiana


    Animal experiments are used on a large scale worldwide in order to develop or to refine new medicines, medicinal products or surgical procedures. It is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer, this is why animal experimentation causes serious moral problems.

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Full Text Available ... Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  3. Animal Models for imaging

    Croft, Barbara Y.


    Animal models can be used in the study of disease. This chapter discusses imaging animal models to elucidate the process of human disease. The mouse is used as the primary model. Though this choice simplifies many research choices, it necessitates compromises for in vivo imaging. In the future, we can expect improvements in both animal models and imaging techniques.

  4. I like animals



    @@ Animals are our friends.We should protect them and we mustn't hurtthem. Do you like animals?My answer is"yes".Maybe you may ask me why.I will tell you they are very lovely.I like many animals,such as pandas,monkeys and elephants.

  5. Industralization of Animal Agriculture

    Oya S. Erdogdu; David Hennessy


    The economic concerns and the technological developments increased control over nature and nurture in the animal agriculture. That changed the seasonality pattern of the supply side and lead to structural change in the animal agriculture together with the demand side factors. In this study we focused on the supply side factors and document the ‘industralization’ of the animal agricultural production.

  6. Bioethics in animal experimentation

    Popa V.I.


    Full Text Available Animal experiments are used on a large scale worldwide in order to develop or to refine new medicines, medicinal products or surgical procedures. It is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer, this is why animal experimentation causes serious moral problems.

  7. Animal models of dementia

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter


    are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who......This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  8. High-affinity glutamate transporter and glutamine synthetase content in longissimus dorsi and adipose tissues of growing Angus steers differs among suckling, weanling, backgrounding, and finishing production stages.

    Matthews, J C; Huang, J; Rentfrow, G


    Skeletal muscle and adipose tissues play important roles in maintaining whole-body Glu and N homeostasis by the uptake of Glu and release of Gln. To test the hypothesis that expression of high-affinity Glu transporters (GLAST1, EAAT4, EAAC1, GLT-1) and glutamine synthetase (GS) would increase in longissimus dorsi and adipose tissue of newborn Angus steers randomly assigned ( = 6) to develop through suckling (S; 32 d) and/or weanling (W; 184 d), backgrounding (B; 248 d), and finishing (F; 423 d) production stages. Carcass quality was determined at slaughter to verify shifts in adipose and lean deposition with development. Expression of mRNA (RT-PCR/Southern) and relative protein abundance (Western analysis) were determined in tissue homogenates isolated from longissimus dorsi, and kidney and subcutaneous adipose. The effect of production stage or tissue type on carcass and protein abundance was assessed by 1-way ANOVA using the GLM procedure of SAS, and Fisher's protected LSD procedure was used to separate data means. Neither GLAST1 nor EAAT4 mRNA or protein was detected. EAAC1, GLT-1, and GS mRNA were identified in all tissues, but GLT-1 and GS protein were not detected in kidney or subcutaneous adipose, and GS protein was not detected in longissimus dorsi. The EAAC1 content of subcutaneous ( = 0.06) and kidney ( = 0.02) adipose was 2 times greater in B and F than W steers, whereas GS was 5 times greater ( F). For longissimus dorsi, EAAC1 ( W > B = F, S = W > B = F, respectively). Within F steers, EAAC1 and GLT-1 mRNA was expressed by subcutaneous, kidney, omental, mesenchymal, and intramuscular adipose tissues, whereas GS mRNA was expressed by all except for intramuscular. Only EAAC1 protein was detected in any adipose tissue, with EAAC1 content being 104% and 112% greater ( 0.45) from omental or mesenchymal adipose. These data demonstrate (1) longissimus dorsi and adipose tissues of steers developing through typical production stages have different capacities for

  9. Sistemas de inseminação artificial em dois dias com observação de estro ou em tempo fixo para vacas de corte amamentando Artificial insemination systems within two days of estrus detection or at fixed time for suckled beef cows

    Lucas Carvalho Siqueira


    , estrus detection was carried out twice a day during 48h and the animals were inseminated 12h after detection. Cows which were not detected in estrus received 100mg of GnRH IM and were inseminated 16 to 18h later. In EB group, cows were injected IM with 1mg of EB on day 8 and were inseminated on day 9 without estrus detection. The pregnancy rate was higher (P<0.01 in the BioRep group (54.7% than in the EB group (33.3%. In suckled cows, two days of estrus detection associated to fixed-time insemination using GnRH to induce ovulation allowed the attainment of higher pregnancies rates than exclusively TAI using EB.

  10. Small Animal Retinal Imaging

    Choi, WooJhon; Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    Developing and validating new techniques and methods for small animal imaging is an important research area because there are many small animal models of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma [1-6]. Because the retina is a multilayered structure with distinct abnormalities occurring in different intraretinal layers at different stages of disease progression, there is a need for imaging techniques that enable visualization of these layers individually at different time points. Although postmortem histology and ultrastructural analysis can be performed for investigating microscopic changes in the retina in small animal models, this requires sacrificing animals, which makes repeated assessment of the same animal at different time points impossible and increases the number of animals required. Furthermore, some retinal processes such as neurovascular coupling cannot be fully characterized postmortem.

  11. Animals as disgust elicitors

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua


    This paper attempts to explain how and why nonhuman animals elicit disgust in human beings. I argue that animals elicit disgust in two ways. One is by triggering disease–protection mechanisms, and the other is by eliciting mortality salience, or thoughts of death. I discuss how these two types...... of disgust operate and defend their conceptual and theoretical coherence against common objections. I also outline an explanatory challenge for disgust researchers. Both types of disgust indicate that a wide variety of animals produce aversive and avoidant reactions in human beings. This seems somewhat odd......, given the prominence of animals in human lives. The challenge, then, is explaining how humans cope with the presence of animals. I propose, as a hypothesis for further exploration, that we cope with animals, and our disgust responses to them, by attributing mental states that mark them as inferior...

  12. Animal models of asthma

    Bates, Jason H.T.; Rincon, Mercedes; Irvin, Charles G.


    Studies in animal models form the basis for much of our current understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma, and are central to the preclinical development of drug therapies. No animal model completely recapitulates all features of the human disease, however. Research has focused primarily on ways to generate allergic inflammation by sensitizing and challenging animals with a variety of foreign proteins, leading to an increased understanding of the immunological factors that mediate the in...

  13. Animal Violence Demystified

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta


    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (char...

  14. Animal Model of Dermatophytosis

    Tsuyoshi Shimamura; Nobuo Kubota; Kazutoshi Shibuya


    Dermatophytosis is superficial fungal infection caused by dermatophytes that invade the keratinized tissue of humans and animals. Lesions from dermatophytosis exhibit an inflammatory reaction induced to eliminate the invading fungi by using the host’s normal immune function. Many scientists have attempted to establish an experimental animal model to elucidate the pathogenesis of human dermatophytosis and evaluate drug efficacy. However, current animal models have several issues. In the presen...


    Sonja Jovanovac


    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  16. Are ticks venomous animals?

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; James J Valdés


    Introduction As an ecological adaptation venoms have evolved independently in several species of Metazoa. As haematophagous arthropods ticks are mainly considered as ectoparasites due to directly feeding on the skin of animal hosts. Ticks are of major importance since they serve as vectors for several diseases affecting humans and livestock animals. Ticks are rarely considered as venomous animals despite that tick saliva contains several protein families present in venomous taxa and that many...

  17. The representative animal

    Harrison, J. M.


    The anthropocentric approach to the study of animal behavior uses representative nonhuman animals to understand human behavior. This approach raises problems concerning the comparison of the behavior of two different species. The datum of behavior analysis is the behavior of humans and representative animal phenotypes. The behavioral phenotype is the product of the ontogeny and phylogeny of each species, and this requires that contributions of genotype as well as behavioral history to experim...

  18. Animal Production in Turkey

    SARICA, Şenay; Ulutaş, Zafer; ŞAHİN, Aziz


    Animal sector in Turkey has changed considerably in the last few years. Although the most significant advancements have occurred in the poultry sector, the cattle and small ruminants sector could not achieve similar improvements. Reasons of the depression in the cattle and small ruminants sector are the lack of breeding animal materials and high quality feed sources, insufficient disease control, disorganized and small size of the animal farms, lack of infrastructure, poor education levels of...

  19. Thinking with animals


    they also enlist them to symbolize, dramatize, and illuminate aspects of humans' experience and fantasy. Humans merge with animals in stories, films, philosophical speculations, and scientific treatises. In their performance on many stages and in different ways, animals move us to think." "Essays in the book investigate the changing patterns of anthropomorphism across different time periods and settings, as well as their transformative effects, both figuratively and literally, upon animals, h...

  20. 3D Animation Essentials

    Beane, Andy


    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  1. The dying animal.

    Pierce, Jessica


    The study of animal death is poised to blossom into an exciting new interdisciplinary field-and one with profound relevance for bioethics. Areas of interest include the biology and evolution of death-related behavior in nonhuman animals, as well as human social, psychological, cultural, and moral attitudes toward and practices related to animal death. In this paper, I offer a brief overview of what we know about death-related behavior in animals. I will then sketch some of the bioethical implications of this emerging field of research. PMID:24092402

  2. Animal-free toxicology

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E


    assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure......-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data....

  3. Diagnosis of animal allergy.

    Patterson, R


    The aims of the diagnostic evaluation are to establish the presence and severity of disease and the importance of animal exposure as the etiology of the disease. The evaluation of the importance of animals may be part of a general allergy evaluation or specifically directed toward an animal in certain cases, such as occupational exposure. The diagnostic techniques are medical history, physical examination, allergy skin tests or in vitro tests for IgE antibody and correlation of improvement in symptoms with animal avoidance. PMID:3477684

  4. Political Communication with Animals

    Meijer, E


    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue Donaldson and Will Kymlicka present in Zoopolis (2011). I will argue their political theory is an important step forward in the debate about animal rights, because it proposes to see animals as po...

  5. Animals in the Classroom

    Roy, Ken


    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ...

  7. Companion Animals. [Information Packet.

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

  8. Political Communication with Animals

    E. Meijer


    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Full Text Available ... Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) ... FEAR Act Site Map Transparency Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  10. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…